Sample records for previously learned concepts

  1. Teaching's Concept of Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Ane; Keiding, Tina

    This paper discusses and exemplifies how teaching’s concept of learning can be understood. The theoretical framework for the construction and discussion of teaching’s concept of learning is found insecond-order systems theory as described by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann (Luhmann, 1995...... both produce and are products of the curricula, and for describing the taught curriculum as an emerging and contingent form in its own right (Keiding & Qvortrup, 2014)....

  2. Learning Design: Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob; Bennett, Sue


    Koper, E. J. R., & Bennet, S. (2008). Learning Design: Concepts. In H. H. Adelsberger, Kinshuk, J. M. Pawlowski & D. Sampson, Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training (2th ed., pp. 135-154). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg 2008: International Handbook on Information Systems

  3. Phonological Concept Learning. (United States)

    Moreton, Elliott; Pater, Joe; Pertsova, Katya


    Linguistic and non-linguistic pattern learning have been studied separately, but we argue for a comparative approach. Analogous inductive problems arise in phonological and visual pattern learning. Evidence from three experiments shows that human learners can solve them in analogous ways, and that human performance in both cases can be captured by the same models. We test GMECCS (Gradual Maximum Entropy with a Conjunctive Constraint Schema), an implementation of the Configural Cue Model (Gluck & Bower, ) in a Maximum Entropy phonotactic-learning framework (Goldwater & Johnson, ; Hayes & Wilson, ) with a single free parameter, against the alternative hypothesis that learners seek featurally simple algebraic rules ("rule-seeking"). We study the full typology of patterns introduced by Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins () ("SHJ"), instantiated as both phonotactic patterns and visual analogs, using unsupervised training. Unlike SHJ, Experiments 1 and 2 found that both phonotactic and visual patterns that depended on fewer features could be more difficult than those that depended on more features, as predicted by GMECCS but not by rule-seeking. GMECCS also correctly predicted performance differences between stimulus subclasses within each pattern. A third experiment tried supervised training (which can facilitate rule-seeking in visual learning) to elicit simple rule-seeking phonotactic learning, but cue-based behavior persisted. We conclude that similar cue-based cognitive processes are available for phonological and visual concept learning, and hence that studying either kind of learning can lead to significant insights about the other. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Pedagogical Basic Concept of Learning


    Göhlich, Michael; Zirfas, Jörg


    The text displays the systematics of a genuinely pedagogical learning concept and is therefore aimed against reduced terms, which accompany the usage of psychological and in recent time neuroscientific learning theories. Pedagogically seen, learning is an experiential-refl ective process of gaining specific knowledge and skills affecting the learner. In this sense four pedagogical dimensions of learning are reconstructed: learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together and lear...

  5. Concept Model on Topological Learning (United States)

    Ae, Tadashi; Kioi, Kazumasa


    We discuss a new model for concept based on topological learning, where the learning process on the neural network is represented by mathematical topology. The topological learning of neural networks is summarized by a quotient of input space and the hierarchical step induces a tree where each node corresponds to a quotient. In general, the concept acquisition is a difficult problem, but the emotion for a subject is represented by providing the questions to a person. Therefore, a kind of concept is captured by such data and the answer sheet can be mapped into a topology consisting of trees. In this paper, we will discuss a way of mapping the emotional concept to a topological learning model.

  6. Intentional learning: A concept analysis. (United States)

    Mollman, Sarah; Candela, Lori


    To use a concept analysis to determine a clear definition of the term "intentional learning" for use in nursing. The term intentional learning has been used for years in educational, business, and even nursing literature. It has been used to denote processes leading to higher order thinking and the ability to use knowledge in new situations; both of which are important skills to develop in nursing students. But the lack of a common, accepted definition of the term makes it difficult for nurse educators to base instruction and learning experiences on or to evaluate its overall effectiveness in educating students for diverse, fast-paced clinical practices. A concept analysis following the eight-step method developed by Walker and Avant (2011). Empirical and descriptive literature.  Five defining attributes were identified: (1) self-efficacy for learning, (2) active, effortful, and engaged learning, (3) mastery of goals where learning is the goal, (4) self-directed learning, and (5) self-regulation of learning. Through this concept analysis, nursing will have a clear definition of intentional learning. This will enable nurse educators to generate, evaluate, and test learning experiences that promote further development of intentional learning in nursing students. Nurses in practice will also be able to evaluate if the stated benefits are demonstrated and how this impacts patient care and outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Phonological Concept Learning (United States)

    Moreton, Elliott; Pater, Joe; Pertsova, Katya


    Linguistic and non-linguistic pattern learning have been studied separately, but we argue for a comparative approach. Analogous inductive problems arise in phonological and visual pattern learning. Evidence from three experiments shows that human learners can solve them in analogous ways, and that human performance in both cases can be captured by…

  8. Can bootstrapping explain concept learning? (United States)

    Beck, Jacob


    Susan Carey's account of Quinean bootstrapping has been heavily criticized. While it purports to explain how important new concepts are learned, many commentators complain that it is unclear just what bootstrapping is supposed to be or how it is supposed to work. Others allege that bootstrapping falls prey to the circularity challenge: it cannot explain how new concepts are learned without presupposing that learners already have those very concepts. Drawing on discussions of concept learning from the philosophical literature, this article develops a detailed interpretation of bootstrapping that can answer the circularity challenge. The key to this interpretation is the recognition of computational constraints, both internal and external to the mind, which can endow empty symbols with new conceptual roles and thus new contents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence. (United States)

    Pashler, Harold; McDaniel, Mark; Rohrer, Doug; Bjork, Robert


    The term "learning styles" refers to the concept that individuals differ in regard to what mode of instruction or study is most effective for them. Proponents of learning-style assessment contend that optimal instruction requires diagnosing individuals' learning style and tailoring instruction accordingly. Assessments of learning style typically ask people to evaluate what sort of information presentation they prefer (e.g., words versus pictures versus speech) and/or what kind of mental activity they find most engaging or congenial (e.g., analysis versus listening), although assessment instruments are extremely diverse. The most common-but not the only-hypothesis about the instructional relevance of learning styles is the meshing hypothesis, according to which instruction is best provided in a format that matches the preferences of the learner (e.g., for a "visual learner," emphasizing visual presentation of information). The learning-styles view has acquired great influence within the education field, and is frequently encountered at levels ranging from kindergarten to graduate school. There is a thriving industry devoted to publishing learning-styles tests and guidebooks for teachers, and many organizations offer professional development workshops for teachers and educators built around the concept of learning styles. The authors of the present review were charged with determining whether these practices are supported by scientific evidence. We concluded that any credible validation of learning-styles-based instruction requires robust documentation of a very particular type of experimental finding with several necessary criteria. First, students must be divided into groups on the basis of their learning styles, and then students from each group must be randomly assigned to receive one of multiple instructional methods. Next, students must then sit for a final test that is the same for all students. Finally, in order to demonstrate that optimal learning requires



    Oka, Naoki; Imanaga, Kumiko


    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of concept map completion tasks on concept learning in the primary schoolchildren. The participants were to insert some of the suitable concepts (concept group) or link labeles (link label group) or both of them (concept/link label group) into the blanks to make up the map wholly. It was revealed that the results of the concept group and the concept/link label group were better than the link label group. These results were discussed in te...

  11. Learning with Retrieval-Based Concept Mapping (United States)

    Blunt, Janell R.; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.


    Students typically create concept maps while they view the material they are trying to learn. In these circumstances, concept mapping serves as an elaborative study activity--students are not required to retrieve the material they are learning. In 2 experiments, we examined the effectiveness of concept mapping when it is used as a retrieval…

  12. A Bayesian concept learning approach to crowdsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viappiani, P.; Zilles, S.; Hamilton, H.J.


    We develop a Bayesian approach to concept learning for crowdsourcing applications. A probabilistic belief over possible concept definitions is maintained and updated according to (noisy) observations from experts, whose behaviors are modeled using discrete types. We propose recommendation...

  13. Corvids Outperform Pigeons and Primates in Learning a Basic Concept. (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Leonard, Kevin; Vernouillet, Alizée; Kelly, Debbie M


    Corvids (birds of the family Corvidae) display intelligent behavior previously ascribed only to primates, but such feats are not directly comparable across species. To make direct species comparisons, we used a same/different task in the laboratory to assess abstract-concept learning in black-billed magpies ( Pica hudsonia). Concept learning was tested with novel pictures after training. Concept learning improved with training-set size, and test accuracy eventually matched training accuracy-full concept learning-with a 128-picture set; this magpie performance was equivalent to that of Clark's nutcrackers (a species of corvid) and monkeys (rhesus, capuchin) and better than that of pigeons. Even with an initial 8-item picture set, both corvid species showed partial concept learning, outperforming both monkeys and pigeons. Similar corvid performance refutes the hypothesis that nutcrackers' prolific cache-location memory accounts for their superior concept learning, because magpies rely less on caching. That corvids with "primitive" neural architectures evolved to equal primates in full concept learning and even to outperform them on the initial 8-item picture test is a testament to the shared (convergent) survival importance of abstract-concept learning.

  14. Group Concept Mapping on Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Drachsler, Hendrik


    Stoyanov, S., & Drachsler, H. (2013, 5 July). Group Concept Mapping on Learning Analytics. Presentation given at Learning Analytics Summer School Institute (LASI) to kickoff the national GCM study on LA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  15. Factors Related to Students' Learning of Biomechanics Concepts (United States)

    Hsieh, ChengTu; Smith, Jeremy D.; Bohne, Michael; Knudson, Duane


    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand a previous study to identify the factors that affect students' learning of biomechanical concepts. Students were recruited from three universities (N = 149) located in the central and western regions of the United States. Data from 142 students completing the Biomechanics Concept Inventory…

  16. Mapping Concepts for Learning and Assessment (United States)

    Daugherty, Jenny L.; Custer, Rodney L.; Dixon, Raymond A.


    Although it is helpful to identify a list of concepts to categorize and communicate the big ideas of engineering, it is important to determine how best to incorporate them into instruction. Concept mapping is a well-established learning and assessment tool that can be used by technology and engineering teachers. Maps can trace levels of…

  17. Context and Concepts in Mobile Learning (United States)

    Jaldemark, Jimmy


    This reflective paper discusses the contextual and situated character of concepts in mobile learning. It aims at challenging current conceptualizations of mobile learning by utilizing ideas from pragmatist and socio-cultural perspectives. This challenge includes a framework that embraces a distinction between interactional and transactional…

  18. A Machine Learning Concept for DTN Routing (United States)

    Dudukovich, Rachel; Hylton, Alan; Papachristou, Christos


    This paper discusses the concept and architecture of a machine learning based router for delay tolerant space networks. The techniques of reinforcement learning and Bayesian learning are used to supplement the routing decisions of the popular Contact Graph Routing algorithm. An introduction to the concepts of Contact Graph Routing, Q-routing and Naive Bayes classification are given. The development of an architecture for a cross-layer feedback framework for DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) protocols is discussed. Finally, initial simulation setup and results are given.

  19. Students’ Conceptions of Constructivist Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie)


    textabstractConstructivism is currently an influential view on learning. It advocates a student-centred perspective: Students are active learners who construct their own understanding (e.g., Slavin, 2006). Different types of constructivism can be distinguished (e.g., Phillips, 1995) that all

  20. Incremental learning of concept drift in nonstationary environments. (United States)

    Elwell, Ryan; Polikar, Robi


    We introduce an ensemble of classifiers-based approach for incremental learning of concept drift, characterized by nonstationary environments (NSEs), where the underlying data distributions change over time. The proposed algorithm, named Learn(++). NSE, learns from consecutive batches of data without making any assumptions on the nature or rate of drift; it can learn from such environments that experience constant or variable rate of drift, addition or deletion of concept classes, as well as cyclical drift. The algorithm learns incrementally, as other members of the Learn(++) family of algorithms, that is, without requiring access to previously seen data. Learn(++). NSE trains one new classifier for each batch of data it receives, and combines these classifiers using a dynamically weighted majority voting. The novelty of the approach is in determining the voting weights, based on each classifier's time-adjusted accuracy on current and past environments. This approach allows the algorithm to recognize, and act accordingly, to the changes in underlying data distributions, as well as to a possible reoccurrence of an earlier distribution. We evaluate the algorithm on several synthetic datasets designed to simulate a variety of nonstationary environments, as well as a real-world weather prediction dataset. Comparisons with several other approaches are also included. Results indicate that Learn(++). NSE can track the changing environments very closely, regardless of the type of concept drift. To allow future use, comparison and benchmarking by interested researchers, we also release our data used in this paper. © 2011 IEEE

  1. Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (United States)

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Armoni, Michal; (Moti) Ben-Ari, Mordechai


    Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two years. Tests were constructed based upon a novel combination of the revised Bloom taxonomy and the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome taxonomy. These instruments were augmented with qualitative tools, such as observations and interviews. The results showed that students could successfully learn important concepts of CS, although there were problems with some concepts such as repeated execution, variables, and concurrency. We believe that these problems can be overcome by modifications to the teaching process that we suggest.

  2. Concept mapping as learning tool in problem-oriented learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürstenau, B.; Kneppers, L.; Sánchez, J.; Cañas, A.J.; Novak, J.D.


    In two studies we investigated whether concept mapping or summary writing is more effective in supporting students’ learning from authentic problems in the field of business. We interpret concept mapping and summary writing as elaboration tools aiming at helping students to understand new

  3. A Concept Transformation Learning Model for Architectural Design Learning Process (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming


    Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…

  4. Meaningful Learning Using Concept Maps as a Learning Strategy (United States)

    Romero, Carmen; Cazorla, Moisés; Buzón, Olga


    This work presents a proposal for the teaching-learning of the concept map technique applied to the Natural Sciences course in the second year of Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO, according to its initials in Spanish). Two sessions have been designed, one of which is an instructor-led session to learn the technique and another is a session in…

  5. Deep Meta-Learning: Learning to Learn in the Concept Space


    Zhou, Fengwei; Wu, Bin; Li, Zhenguo


    Few-shot learning remains challenging for meta-learning that learns a learning algorithm (meta-learner) from many related tasks. In this work, we argue that this is due to the lack of a good representation for meta-learning, and propose deep meta-learning to integrate the representation power of deep learning into meta-learning. The framework is composed of three modules, a concept generator, a meta-learner, and a concept discriminator, which are learned jointly. The concept generator, e.g. a...

  6. The Unfossilization of Concepts in Adult Learning. (United States)

    Lerch, Carol

    College students enrolled in developmental mathematics and elementary algebra courses typically make the same mistakes repeatedly. Moreover, the same mistakes are made every semester, regardless of the students involved. Lev Vygotsky's concept of fossilization, which refers to the phenomenon of learning being lost over time and only behaviors…

  7. Role of Concept Cartoons in Chemistry Learning (United States)

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.


    Cartoons are valuable aids that prompt interest and foster genuine student engagement in the classroom. Cartoons are part of a much larger effort to introduce rare and amusing activities to boost learning and student participation. Concept cartoons are visual tools composed of three or more characters' proposing ideas, discussing or thinking…

  8. Learning drifting concepts with neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, Michael; Schwarze, Holm


    The learning of time-dependent concepts with a neural network is studied analytically and numerically. The linearly separable target rule is represented by an N-vector, whose time dependence is modelled by a random or deterministic drift process. A single-layer network is trained online using

  9. Timely Diagnostic Feedback for Database Concept Learning (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng; Chuang, Yuh-Shy


    To efficiently learn database concepts, this work adopts association rules to provide diagnostic feedback for drawing an Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD). Using association rules and Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) techniques, this work implements a novel Web-based Timely Diagnosis System (WTDS), which provides timely diagnostic feedback…

  10. Learning Computer Science Concepts with Scratch (United States)

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Armoni, Michal; Ben-Ari, Mordechai


    Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two…

  11. E-Learning Concepts in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard; Mathiasen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Christian

    The main aim of the symposium is to investigate, at both a theoretical and practical level, the quality and sustainability of a variety of models and key concepts of how communication and collaborative e-learning communities may be successfully developed, implemented and supported in higher...... education contexts....

  12. Learning concepts of cinenurducation: an integrative review. (United States)

    Oh, Jina; Kang, Jeongae; De Gagne, Jennie C


    Cinenurducation is the use of films in both didactic and clinical nursing education. Although films are already used as instructional aids in nursing education, few studies have been made that demonstrate the learning concepts that can be attributed to this particular teaching strategy. The purpose of this paper is to describe the learning concepts of cinenurducation and its conceptual metaphor based on a review of literature. The databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, ERIC, EBSCO, ProQuest Library Journal, and Scopus databases were searched for articles. Fifteen peer-reviewed articles were selected through title and abstract screening from "films in nursing" related articles found in internationally published articles in English from the past 20 years. Four common concepts emerged that relate to cinenurducation: (a) student-centered, (b) experiential, (c) reflective, and (d) problem-solving learning. Current literature corroborates cinenurducation as an effective teaching strategy with its learning activities in nursing education. Future studies may include instructional guides of sample films that could be practically used in various domains to teach nursing competencies, as well as in the development of evaluation criteria and standards to assess students' learning outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lifelong learning: Established concepts and evolving values. (United States)

    Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir


    To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society's new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society's capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which 'biographicisation' is the seed that will promote innovative strategies.

  14. Concept formation knowledge and experience in unsupervised learning

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Douglas H; Langley, Pat


    Concept Formation: Knowledge and Experience in Unsupervised Learning presents the interdisciplinary interaction between machine learning and cognitive psychology on unsupervised incremental methods. This book focuses on measures of similarity, strategies for robust incremental learning, and the psychological consistency of various approaches.Organized into three parts encompassing 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of inductive concept learning in machine learning and psychology, with emphasis on issues that distinguish concept formation from more prevalent supervised methods and f

  15. Concept Maps for Evaluating Learning of Sustainable Development (United States)

    Shallcross, David C.


    Concept maps are used to assess student and cohort learning of sustainable development. The concept maps of 732 first-year engineering students were individually analyzed to detect patterns of learning and areas that were not well understood. Students were given 20 minutes each to prepare a concept map of at least 20 concepts using paper and pen.…

  16. Construction of concept maps as tool for Biochemistry learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lopes de Menezes


    Full Text Available The use of concept maps on the teaching of sciences has been object of worldwide research with different purposes: to detect the previous knowledge of the students on certain topics or to evaluate learning, among others. Based on Ausubel´s cognitive psychology, concept maps assume that the learning is accomplished by assimilation of new concepts and propositions to the students´ cognitive structure, contributing to establish links between the previous and new knowledge. It is especially interesting on the approach of interdisciplinary issues, as many studied in Biochemistry.The relevance of the use of concept maps on biochemistry learning was evaluated on a thirty-hour undergraduation optional course, with interdisciplinary topics, which are not usually included on introductory Biochemistry courses. The course Biochemistry of Animal Venoms was structured in seven module where the biochemical action mechanisms of the venoms of Crotalus sp (south american rattlesnake, Bothrops sp (jararaca, Loxosceles sp (brown spider, Tityus sp (yellow scorpion, Phoneutria sp (armed spider, Apis mellifera (honey bee and Latrodectus sp (black widowwere discussed. The students worked in small groups and, at each module, there were (1 an oriented study, guided by questions, texts and schemes, supervised by the teachers, (2 the construction of individual concept maps, where the local and systemic effects of the venoms should be predicted by their biochemical composition and (3 the construction of a new map by the group, incorporating the information of the individual maps. The difficulty level of these tasks was gradually increased throughout the course, with lesser time to carry out the tasks, lesser assistance during the oriented study and even lesser information on the venom effects.The course assessment was given by the number, quality and correction of the concepts relationship present in the concept maps, through a questionnaire and by the

  17. Concept mapping enhances learning of biochemistry. (United States)

    Surapaneni, Krishna M; Tekian, Ara


    Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program) to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Participants were first year medical students (n=150) from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India); they were randomly divided into two groups of 75, one group attending the traditional program, the other the innovative program. Student performance was measured using three written knowledge tests (each with a maximum score of 20). The students also evaluated the relevance of the learning process using a 12-item questionnaire. Students in the innovative program using concept mapping outperformed those in the traditional didactic program (means of 7.13-8.28 vs. 12.33-13.93, pbiochemistry to clinical practice, and to enhance their reasoning and learning skills, as well as their deeper understanding for biochemistry.

  18. Analysis of previous perceptual and motor experience in breaststroke kick learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Bettina


    Full Text Available One of the variables that influence motor learning is the learner’s previous experience, which may provide perceptual and motor elements to be transferred to a novel motor skill. For swimming skills, several motor experiences may prove effective. Purpose. The aim was to analyse the influence of previous experience in playing in water, swimming lessons, and music or dance lessons on learning the breaststroke kick. Methods. The study involved 39 Physical Education students possessing basic swimming skills, but not the breaststroke, who performed 400 acquisition trials followed by 50 retention and 50 transfer trials, during which stroke index as well as rhythmic and spatial configuration indices were mapped, and answered a yes/no questionnaire regarding previous experience. Data were analysed by ANOVA (p = 0.05 and the effect size (Cohen’s d ≥0.8 indicating large effect size. Results. The whole sample improved their stroke index and spatial configuration index, but not their rhythmic configuration index. Although differences between groups were not significant, two types of experience showed large practical effects on learning: childhood water playing experience only showed major practically relevant positive effects, and no experience in any of the three fields hampered the learning process. Conclusions. The results point towards diverse impact of previous experience regarding rhythmic activities, swimming lessons, and especially with playing in water during childhood, on learning the breaststroke kick.

  19. How Effective Is Example Generation for Learning Declarative Concepts? (United States)

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John


    Declarative concepts (i.e., key terms and corresponding definitions for abstract concepts) represent foundational knowledge that students learn in many content domains. Thus, investigating techniques to enhance concept learning is of critical importance. Various theoretical accounts support the expectation that example generation will serve this…

  20. Learning from Concept Mapping and Hypertext: An Eye Tracking Study (United States)

    Amadieu, Franck; Salmerón, Ladislao; Cegarra, Julien; Paubel, Pierre-Vincent; Lemarié, Julie; Chevalier, Aline


    This study examined the effects of prior domain knowledge and learning sequences on learning with concept mapping and hypertext. Participants either made a concept map in a first step and then read the hypertext's contents combined with concept mapping (high activating condition), or they read the hypertext's contents first and then made a concept…

  1. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain (United States)

    Savickiene, Izabela


    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  2. Width, Length, and Height Conceptions of Students with Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Güven, N. Dilsad; Argün, Ziya


    Teaching responsive to the needs of students with learning disabilities (LD) can be provided through understanding students' conceptions and their ways of learning. The current research, as a case study based on qualitative design, aimed to investigate the conceptions of students with learning disabilities with regard to the different…

  3. Effects of Variation and Prior Knowledge on Abstract Concept Learning (United States)

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.


    Learning abstract concepts through concrete examples may promote learning at the cost of inhibiting transfer. The present study investigated one approach to solving this problem: systematically varying superficial features of the examples. Participants learned to solve problems involving a mathematical concept by studying either superficially…

  4. Constructing Concept Maps to Encourage Meaningful Learning in Science Classroom (United States)

    Akcay, Hakan


    The purpose of this activity is to demonstrate science teaching and assessing what is learned via using concept maps. Concept mapping is a technique for visually representing the structure of information. Concept mapping allows students to understand the relationships between concepts of science by creating a visual map of the connections. Concept…

  5. Study Sequence Matters for the Inductive Learning of Cognitive Concepts (United States)

    Sana, Faria; Yan, Veronica X.; Kim, Joseph A.


    The sequence in which problems of different concepts are studied during instruction impacts concept learning. For example, several problems of a given concept can be studied together (blocking) or several problems of different concepts can be studied together (interleaving). In the current study, we demonstrate that the 2 sequences impact concept…

  6. Concept of coherence of learning physical optics (United States)

    Colombo, Elisa M.; Jaen, Mirta; de Cudmani, Leonor C.


    The aim of the actual paper is to enhance achievements of the text 'Optica Fisica Basica: estructurada alrededor del concepto de coherencia luminosa' (in English 'Basic Physical Optics centered in the concept of coherence'). We consider that this book is a very worth tool when one has to learn or to teach some fundamental concepts of physical optics. It is well known that the topics of physical optics present not easy understanding for students. Even more they also present some difficulties for the teachers when they have to introduce them to the class. First, we think that different phenomena like diffraction and polarization could be well understood if the starting point is a deep comprehension of the concept of interference of light and, associated with this, the fundamental and nothing intuitive concept of coherence of the light. In the reference text the authors propose the use of expression 'stable interference pattern of no uniform intensity' instead of 'pattern of interference' and 'average pattern of uniform untested' instead of 'lack of interference' to make reference that light always interfere but just under restrictive conditions it can be got temporal and spatial stability of the pattern. Another idea we want to stand out is that the ability to observe a 'stable interference pattern of no uniform intensity' is associated not only with the coherence of the source but also with the dimensions of the experimental system and with the temporal and spatial characteristics of the detector used - human eye, photographic film, etc. The proposal is well support by quantitative relations. With an alternate model: a train of waves with a finite length of coherence, it is possible to get range of validity of models, to decide when a source could be considered a 'point' or 'monochromatic' or 'remote', an 'infinite' wave or a train of waves, etc. Using this concept it is possible to achieve a better understanding of phenomena like the polarization of light. Here, it

  7. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach (United States)

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel


    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  8. The Development of the Conceptions of Learning Management Inventory (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Ming; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire (called the Conceptions of Learning Management [COLM] inventory) to assess students' six categories of learning management (i.e. the learning of management), including learning management as "memorizing," "testing,'" "applying," "gaining higher…

  9. The advantage of errorless learning for the acquisition of new concepts' labels in alcoholics. (United States)

    Pitel, A L; Perruchet, P; Vabret, F; Desgranges, B; Eustache, F; Beaunieux, H


    Previous findings revealed that the acquisition of new semantic concepts' labels was impaired in uncomplicated alcoholic patients. The use of errorless learning may therefore allow them to improve learning performance. However, the flexibility of the new knowledge and the memory processes involved in errorless learning remain unclear. New concepts' labels acquisition was examined in 15 alcoholic patients and 15 control participants in an errorless learning condition compared with 19 alcoholic patients and 19 control subjects in a trial-and-error learning condition. The flexibility of the new information was evaluated using different photographs from those used in the learning sessions but representing the same concepts. All of the participants carried out an additional explicit memory task and an implicit memory task was also performed by subjects in the errorless learning condition. The alcoholic group in the errorless condition differed significantly from the alcoholic group in the trial-and-error condition but did not differ from the two control groups. There was no significant difference between results in the learning test and the flexibility task. Finally, in the alcoholic group, the naming score in the learning test was correlated with the explicit memory score but not with the implicit memory score. Using errorless learning, alcoholics improved their abilities to learn new concepts' labels. Moreover, new knowledge acquired with errorless learning was flexible. The errorless learning advantage may rely on explicit rather than implicit memory processes in these alcohol-dependent patients presenting only mild to moderate deficits of explicit memory capacities.

  10. Concept Mapping Using Cmap Tools to Enhance Meaningful Learning (United States)

    Cañas, Alberto J.; Novak, Joseph D.

    Concept maps are graphical tools that have been used in all facets of education and training for organizing and representing knowledge. When learners build concept maps, meaningful learning is facilitated. Computer-based concept mapping software such as CmapTools have further extended the use of concept mapping and greatly enhanced the potential of the tool, facilitating the implementation of a concept map-centered learning environment. In this chapter, we briefly present concept mapping and its theoretical foundation, and illustrate how it can lead to an improved learning environment when it is combined with CmapTools and the Internet. We present the nationwide “Proyecto Conéctate al Conocimiento” in Panama as an example of how concept mapping, together with technology, can be adopted by hundreds of schools as a means to enhance meaningful learning.

  11. "My math and me": Nursing students' previous experiences in learning mathematics. (United States)

    Røykenes, Kari


    In this paper, 11 narratives about former experiences in learning of mathematics written by nursing students are thematically analyzed. Most students had a positive relationship with the subject in primary school, when they found mathematics fun and were able to master the subject. For some, a change occurred in the transition to lower secondary school. The reasons for this change was found in the subject (increased difficulty), the teachers (movement of teachers, numerous substitute teachers), the class environment and size (many pupils, noise), and the student him- or herself (silent and anonymous pupil). This change was also found in the transition from lower to higher secondary school. By contrast, some students had experienced changes that were positive, and their mathematics teacher was a significant factor in this positive change. The paper emphasizes the importance of previous experiences in learning mathematics to nursing students when learning about drug calculation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Learning Situations in Nursing Education: A Concept Analysis. (United States)

    Shahsavari, Hooman; Zare, Zahra; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Griffiths, Pauline; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba


    The nursing student requires opportunities to learn within authentic contexts so as to enable safe and competent practice. One strategy to facilitate such learning is the creation of learning situations. A lack of studies on the learning situation in nursing and other health care fields has resulted in insufficient knowledge of the characteristics of the learning situation, its antecedents, and consequences. Nurse educators need to have comprehensive and practical knowledge of the definition and characteristics of the learning situation so as to enable their students to achieve enhanced learning outcomes. The aim of this study was to clarify the concept of the learning situation as it relates to the education of nurses and improve understanding of its characteristics, antecedents, and consequences. The Bonis method of concept analysis, as derived from the Rodgers' evolutionary method, provided the framework for analysis. Data collection and analysis were undertaken in two phases: "interdisciplinary" and "intra-disciplinary." The data source was a search of the literature, encompassing nursing and allied health care professions, published from 1975 to 2016. No agreement on the conceptual phenomenon was discovered in the international literature. The concept of a learning situation was used generally in two ways and thus classified into the themes of: "formal/informal learning situation" and "biologic/nonbiologic learning situation." Antecedents to the creation of a learning situation included personal and environmental factors. The characteristics of a learning situation were described in terms of being complex, dynamic, and offering potential and effective learning opportunities. Consequences of the learning situation included enhancement of the students' learning, professionalization, and socialization into the professional role. The nurse educator, when considering the application of the concept of a learning situation in their educational planning, must

  13. Teaching and Learning the Concept of Chemical Bonding (United States)

    Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Taber, Keith S.


    Chemical bonding is one of the key and basic concepts in chemistry. The learning of many of the concepts taught in chemistry, in both secondary schools as well as in the colleges, is dependent upon understanding fundamental ideas related to chemical bonding. Nevertheless, the concept is perceived by teachers, as well as by learners, as difficult,…

  14. Using Concept Mapping in Video-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk VURAL


    Full Text Available Video-based learning has been extensively incorporated to enhance instruction. The advanced communication technology has greatly increased the possibilities and relative value of delivering instructional video content in onlineeducation applications. Simple watching instructional video often results in poor learning outcomes. Therefore, current video-based learning resources are used in combination with other teaching methods. Concept mapping, one of teaching methods, can provide another form of this type of interactivity and may enhance the active learning capacity. The new learning tool, which consisted of video viewer, supporting text, and interactive concept map, was developed to investigate the effect of time spent interacting with the learning tool by creating concept maps relate to student achievement. The study results showed that there was no relationship found between student achievement and time spent interacting with the learning tool

  15. Concept Mapping as a Learning Tool in Occupational Therapy Education. (United States)

    Grice, Kimatha


    This paper describes concept mapping and its use as a teaching and learning tool in an entry level occupational therapy program. In order for students to demonstrate their mastery of the concepts associated with a particular topic or body of knowledge, assignments involving concept maps were developed and used in two courses in an entry level occupational therapy program. Students were then surveyed about their perceptions and attitudes regarding the assignments. Students found the process of creating concept maps valuable to their learning of the content and the majority also enjoyed the process as a learning activity. The use of concept mapping as a way to encourage independent, individualized, and student-centered learning is discussed.

  16. Concept mapping learning strategy to enhance students' mathematical connection ability (United States)

    Hafiz, M.; Kadir, Fatra, Maifalinda


    The concept mapping learning strategy in teaching and learning mathematics has been investigated by numerous researchers. However, there are still less researchers who have scrutinized about the roles of map concept which is connected to the mathematical connection ability. Being well understood on map concept, it may help students to have ability to correlate one concept to other concept in order that the student can solve mathematical problems faced. The objective of this research was to describe the student's mathematical connection ability and to analyze the effect of using concept mapping learning strategy to the students' mathematical connection ability. This research was conducted at senior high school in Jakarta. The method used a quasi-experimental with randomized control group design with the total number was 72 students as the sample. Data obtained through using test in the post-test after giving the treatment. The results of the research are: 1) Students' mathematical connection ability has reached the good enough level category; 2) Students' mathematical connection ability who had taught with concept mapping learning strategy is higher than who had taught with conventional learning strategy. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that concept mapping learning strategycould enhance the students' mathematical connection ability, especially in trigonometry.

  17. Statistical Learning Theory: Models, Concepts, and Results


    von Luxburg, Ulrike; Schoelkopf, Bernhard


    Statistical learning theory provides the theoretical basis for many of today's machine learning algorithms. In this article we attempt to give a gentle, non-technical overview over the key ideas and insights of statistical learning theory. We target at a broad audience, not necessarily machine learning researchers. This paper can serve as a starting point for people who want to get an overview on the field before diving into technical details.

  18. Towards an agential realist concept of learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Helle


    such as acquisition and transfer are rethought and it is argued that intra-activity and ‘leaps’ are characteristic aspects of learning. Reconfigurations are pivotal for this way of thinking about learning and break with the tendency to understand learning as either more of the same or as radical change....

  19. Deep Learning through Concept-Based Inquiry (United States)

    Donham, Jean


    Learning in the library should present opportunities to enrich student learning activities to address concerns of interest and cognitive complexity, but these must be tasks that call for in-depth analysis--not merely gathering facts. Library learning experiences need to demand enough of students to keep them interested and also need to be…

  20. TU-CD-BRD-01: Making Incident Learning Practical and Useful: Challenges and Previous Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzell, G.


    aside for audience members to contribute to the discussion. Learning Objectives: Learn how to promote the use of an incident learning system in a clinic. Learn how to convert “event reporting” into “incident learning”. See examples of practice changes that have come out of learning systems. Learn how the RO-ILS system can be used as a primary internal learning system. Learn how to create succinct, meaningful reports useful to outside readers. Gary Ezzell chairs the AAPM committee overseeing RO-ILS and has received an honorarium from ASTRO for working on the committee reviewing RO-ILS reports. Derek Brown is a director of . Brett Miller has previously received travel expenses and an honorarium from Varian. Phillip Beron has nothing to report

  1. The clinical learning environment in nursing education: a concept analysis. (United States)

    Flott, Elizabeth A; Linden, Lois


    The aim of this study was to report an analysis of the clinical learning environment concept. Nursing students are evaluated in clinical learning environments where skills and knowledge are applied to patient care. These environments affect achievement of learning outcomes, and have an impact on preparation for practice and student satisfaction with the nursing profession. Providing clarity of this concept for nursing education will assist in identifying antecedents, attributes and consequences affecting student transition to practice. The clinical learning environment was investigated using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A literature search was conducted using WorldCat, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases using the keywords clinical learning environment, clinical environment and clinical education. Articles reviewed were written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals between 1995-2014. All data were analysed for recurring themes and terms to determine possible antecedents, attributes and consequences of this concept. The clinical learning environment contains four attribute characteristics affecting student learning experiences. These include: (1) the physical space; (2) psychosocial and interaction factors; (3) the organizational culture and (4) teaching and learning components. These attributes often determine achievement of learning outcomes and student self-confidence. With better understanding of attributes comprising the clinical learning environment, nursing education programmes and healthcare agencies can collaborate to create meaningful clinical experiences and enhance student preparation for the professional nurse role. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Chronic impairments in spatial learning and memory in rats previously exposed to chlorpyrfos or diisopropylfluorophosphate. (United States)

    Terry, A V; Beck, W D; Warner, S; Vandenhuerk, L; Callahan, P M


    The acute toxicity of organophosphates (OPs) has been studied extensively; however, much less attention has been given to the subject of repeated exposures that are not associated with overt signs of toxicity (i.e., subthreshold exposures). The objective of this study was to determine if the protracted spatial learning impairments we have observed previously after repeated subthreshold exposures to the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) or the alkylphosphate OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) persisted for longer periods after exposure. Male Wistar rats (beginning at two months of age) were initially injected subcutaneously with CPF (10.0 or 18.0mg/kg) or DFP (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg) every other day for 30 days. After an extended OP-free washout period (behavioral testing begun 50 days after the last OP exposure), rats previously exposed to CPF, but not DFP, were impaired in a radial arm maze (RAM) win-shift task as well as a delayed non-match to position procedure. Later experiments (i.e., beginning 140 days after the last OP exposure) revealed impairments in the acquisition of a water maze hidden platform task associated with both OPs. However, only rats previously exposed to DFP were impaired in a second phase of testing when the platform location was changed (indicative of deficits of cognitive flexibility). These results indicate, therefore, that repeated, subthreshold exposures to CPF and DFP may lead to chronic deficits in spatial learning and memory (i.e., long after cholinesterase inhibition has abated) and that insecticide and alkylphosphate-based OPs may have differential effects depending on the cognitive domain evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards Concept Understanding relying on Conceptualisation in Constructivist Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad


    This research works within the framework of constructivist learning (based on constructivist epistemology) and examines learning as an activity of construction, and it posits that knowledge acquisition (and learning) are transformative through self-involvement in some subject matter. Thus it leads...... and understandings over their mental structures in the framework of constructivism, and I will clarify my logical [and semantic] conceptions of humans’ concept understandings. This research focuses on philosophy of education and on logics of human learning. It connects with the topics ‘Cognition in Education...

  4. Difficulties of learning probability concepts, the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned and suggestions for solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Sezgin MEMNUN


    Full Text Available Probability holds the first place among the subjects that both teachers and students have difficulty in handling. Although probability has an important role in many professions and a great many decisions we make for our daily lives, the understanding of the probability concepts is not an easy ability to gain for many students. Most of the students develop perception about lots of probability concepts and they have difficulty finding a reason for probability events. Thus, in the present study, the difficulties faced while learning probability concepts and the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned well are investigated, these reasons are tried to be put forward, and some suggestions for solutions regarding these concepts are presented. In this study, cross-hatching model was used. National and international studies on the subject of probability are investigated, the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned were categorized in the light of findings obtained, and the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned and taught are tried to be discovered. The categorization was displayed with Ishikawa diagram. In the diagram, the reasons why these concepts cannot be learned were noted as six categories. These categories were age, the insufficiency of advanced information, the deficiency of argumentation ability, teacher, error in concept, and students’ negative attitudes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rosepda Sebayang


    Full Text Available This study aims: 1 to determine whether the student learning outcomes using discovery learning is better than conventional learning 2 To determine whether the learning outcomes of students who have a high initial concept understanding better then of low initial concept understanding, and 3 to determine the effect of interaction discovery learning and understanding of the initial concept of the learning outcomes of students. The samples in this study was taken by cluster random sampling two classes where class X PIA 3 as a class experiment with applying discovery learning and class X PIA 2 as a control class by applying conventional learning. The instrument used in this study is a test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple-choice comprehension test initial concept description form. The results of research are: 1 learning outcomes of students who were taught with discovery learning is better than the learning outcomes of students who are taught by conventional learning, 2 student learning outcomes with high initial conceptual understanding better than the learning outcomes of students with low initial conceptual understanding, and 3 there was no interaction between discovery learning and understanding of initial concepts for the student learning outcomes.

  6. Threshold Concepts, Systems and Learning for Sustainability (United States)

    Sandri, Orana Jade


    This paper presents a framework for understanding the role that systems theory might play in education for sustainability (EfS). It offers a sketch and critique of Land and Meyer's notion of a "threshold concept", to argue that seeing systems as a threshold concept for sustainability is useful for understanding the processes of…

  7. Introducing Machine Learning Concepts with WEKA. (United States)

    Smith, Tony C; Frank, Eibe


    This chapter presents an introduction to data mining with machine learning. It gives an overview of various types of machine learning, along with some examples. It explains how to download, install, and run the WEKA data mining toolkit on a simple data set, then proceeds to explain how one might approach a bioinformatics problem. Finally, it includes a brief summary of machine learning algorithms for other types of data mining problems, and provides suggestions about where to find additional information.

  8. Meaningful learning: theoretical support for concept-based teaching. (United States)

    Getha-Eby, Teresa J; Beery, Theresa; Xu, Yin; O'Brien, Beth A


    Novice nurses’ inability to transfer classroom knowledge to the bedside has been implicated in adverse patient outcomes, including death. Concept-based teaching is a pedagogy found to improve knowledge transfer. Concept-based teaching emanates from a constructivist paradigm of teaching and learning and can be implemented most effectively when the underlying theory and principles are applied. Ausubel’s theory of meaningful learning and its construct of substantive knowledge integration provides a model to help educators to understand, implement, and evaluate concept-based teaching. Contemporary findings from the fields of cognitive psychology, human development, and neurobiology provide empirical evidence of the relationship between concept-based teaching, meaningful learning, and knowledge transfer. This article describes constructivist principles and meaningful learning as they apply to nursing pedagogy.

  9. Developing user-centered concepts for language learning video games


    Poels, Yorick; Annema, Jan Henk; Zaman, Bieke; Cornillie, Frederik


    This paper will report on an ongoing project which aims to develop video games for language learning through a user-centered and evidence-based approach. Therefore, codesign sessions were held with adolescents between 14 and 16 years old, in order to gain insight into their preferences for educational games for language learning. During these sessions, 11 concepts for video games were developed. We noticed a divide between the concepts for games that were oriented towa...

  10. Students' conceptions of constructivist learning in different programme years and different learning environments. (United States)

    Loyens, Sofie M M; Rikers, Remy M J P; Schmidt, Henk G


    Constructivist views of learning have brought conceptions of learning to attention again. Conceptions are considered important determinants of effective learning. Students can differ in their conceptions depending on their educational experience. The present study investigated students' conceptions of constructivist learning. Do students with greater experience in their academic programme differ in their conceptions of constructivist learning compared to students with less experience? In addition, to what extent are conceptions of constructivist learning different in a conventional, lecture-based curriculum compared to a constructivist, problem-based learning curriculum? Three groups (i.e. first-year, second-year, and third-year students) in two different curricula (i.e. conventional, lecture-based and constructivist, problem-based) were tested. A cross-sectional design was used. Students' conceptions of constructivist activities (i.e. knowledge construction, cooperative learning, self-regulation, use of authentic problems, self-perceived inability to learn, and motivation to learn) were measured by a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). A significant difference in questionnaire's scores between year 1 and year 2 (but not between year 2 and 3) was found with respect to conceptions about knowledge construction, self-regulation, and the use of authentic problems, but not for cooperative learning and motivation to learn. For self-perceived inability, an interaction effect was found. Furthermore, results showed significant differences between both curriculum groups on all dependent measures. Differences in conceptions can be perceived between students who enter a new learning programme (i.e. higher education) and students who already have one year of experience in higher education. Among students with more than one year of educational experience, differences disappear. Furthermore, this study shows that the

  11. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms (United States)

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.


    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  12. Building the Concept of Acceleration - A Proposal for Promoting the Meaningful Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Ledur


    Full Text Available This work aims to present a sequence of activities to help the students concept of acceleration. It was developed with a group of eighth grade elementary school sutdents in a state school of Bom Princípio, RS. The physical quantities of kinematics are presents on the day-a-day but in classroom is perceived that students, in general, have difficulties in developing and understanding of concepts related to that topic. Previous experiences that the student experiences in their daily lives led him to build their own conceptions to explain the phenomena observed, and in school, are faced with the scientifically accepted concepts. These preconceptions are strongly rooted in the cognitive structure of the learner, are not easily replaced and added to the lack of contextualization of content taught, unattractive learning resources and teaching that emphasizes rote learning are factors that contribute to failure of learning. The activities are based on the principles of meaningful learning and focused on active student participation. A pre test for identifying knowledge and preconceptions was applied as well as the post-test assessment of knowledge building. Figures with strobe photographs and video were used as prerequisites for the development of the new concept organizers. Later, the students elaborated and executed projects using resources of shooting and sequential shots to apply the concepts involved in this study. The results observed during the didatical sequence indicate that the occurrence of learning of the concepts of kinematics.

  13. Productive Failure in Learning the Concept of Variance (United States)

    Kapur, Manu


    In a study with ninth-grade mathematics students on learning the concept of variance, students experienced either direct instruction (DI) or productive failure (PF), wherein they were first asked to generate a quantitative index for variance without any guidance before receiving DI on the concept. Whereas DI students relied only on the canonical…

  14. Lifelong Learning: Concept, Policy, Instruments and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin TOPRAK


    Full Text Available European Union has started an education & training initiative under the umbrella of lifelong learning to achieve the 2020 Agenda targets. Th is initiative has nearly half of a century time horizon, and all designed policies and measures have been consolidated under this initiative. Turkish Education authorities have been monitoring this European eff ort closely and made important legal and institutional regulations in recent couple of years. Th is study examines the primary aspects of lifelong learning in detail: conceptual and philosophical background; recognition strategies; the place of formal, non-formal and informal learning in the lifelong learning approach; financing and measurement ways of lifelong learning; and variety of perspectives of international institutions. In addition, education and training strategy of the Europe’s 2020 vision of lifelong learning is also evaluated in detail. Th e human resources vision of the Europe considers education, occupation and economic activities together to allow authorities to plan the future of the European societies. Th e updating mechanisms of this approach are designed both domestically at national and internationally at European levels. It is concluded, in this study, that the lifelong learning policy and implementation of the Europe should be taken as benchmark.

  15. Learning of science concepts within a traditional socio-cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The learning of science concepts within a traditional socio-cultural environment were investigated by looking at: 1) the nature of \\"cognitive border crossing\\" exhibited by the students from the traditional to the scientific worldview, and 2) whether or not three learning theories / hypotheses: border crossing, collaterality, and ...

  16. OCRA, a Mobile Learning Prototype for Understanding Chemistry Concepts (United States)

    Shariman, Tenku Putri Norishah; Talib, Othman


    This research studies the effects of an interactive multimedia mobile learning application on students' understanding of chemistry concepts. The Organic Chemistry Reaction Application (OCRA), a mobile learning prototype with touch screen commands, was applied in this research. Through interactive multimedia techniques, students can create and…

  17. Learning Essential Terms and Concepts in Statistics and Accounting (United States)

    Peters, Pam; Smith, Adam; Middledorp, Jenny; Karpin, Anne; Sin, Samantha; Kilgore, Alan


    This paper describes a terminological approach to the teaching and learning of fundamental concepts in foundation tertiary units in Statistics and Accounting, using an online dictionary-style resource (TermFinder) with customised "termbanks" for each discipline. Designed for independent learning, the termbanks support inquiring students…

  18. The concept of flow in collaborative game-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, W.; Huizenga, J.; Akkerman, S.; ten Dam, G.


    Generally, high-school students have been characterized as bored and disengaged from the learning process. However, certain educational designs promote excitement and engagement. Game-based learning is assumed to be such a design. In this study, the concept of flow is used as a framework to

  19. Applying Andragogical Concepts in Creating a Sustainable Lifelong Learning Society (United States)

    Charungkaittikul, Suwithida; Henschke, John A.


    Today, the world is changing, re-establishing the role of education to have a developed society. This article aims to explore the practical application of Andragogy as a key element for creating a sustainable lifelong learning society, to propose strategies for developing a lifelong learning society using andragogical concepts, to enhance…

  20. The Learning Organization: Concept and Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rigsby, Mike


    .... Only the so-called learning organizations, those that are able to continually transform themselves to better collect, manage, and use knowledge, will be able to thrive and prosper during these times of rapid change...

  1. Grounded understanding of abstract concepts: The case of STEM learning. (United States)

    Hayes, Justin C; Kraemer, David J M


    Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies. In this review of the literature, we examine evidence suggesting that sensorimotor processes strengthen learning associated with the abstract concepts central to STEM pedagogy. After considering how contemporary theories have defined abstraction in the context of semantic knowledge, we propose our own explanation for how body-centered information, as computed in sensorimotor brain regions and visuomotor association cortex, can form a useful foundation upon which to build an understanding of abstract scientific concepts, such as mechanical force. Drawing from theories in cognitive neuroscience, we then explore models elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in grounding intangible concepts, including Hebbian learning, predictive coding, and neuronal recycling. Empirical data on STEM learning through hands-on instruction are considered in light of these neural models. We conclude the review by proposing three distinct ways in which the field of cognitive neuroscience can contribute to STEM learning by bolstering our understanding of how the brain instantiates abstract concepts in an embodied fashion.

  2. What's in a Word? Concept mapping: a graphical tool to reinforce learning of epidemiological concepts. (United States)

    Berglund, Anita


    Epidemiology is founded on central concepts and principles, essential for conducting, reporting and critically assessing epidemiological studies. Definitions of the many concepts used in the field can be found in textbooks and via the Dictionary of Epidemiology. However, central epidemiological concepts are labelled and used in multiple ways, leading to potential misunderstanding when communicating in different fora. The aim here is to describe collaborative concept mapping, and illustrate how it can be used in teaching and learning epidemiology. Concept mapping is a cognitive technique that is widely used in the education of medical and allied health professions as a tool for critical thinking, and to assimilate new knowledge, but it is still under-utilised in epidemiology. A specific concept map is defined by the aim and question in focus; it is thus framed by a context. The concept map is constructed using a set of concepts (nodes) that are linked with arrows or lines (links). Words and phrases (connective terms) are used to explain relationships between the concepts linked. Different domains can be interconnected by linking concepts in different areas (cross-links). The underlying structure of knowledge is often complex, and consequently concept maps can be constructed using different topological features. Here we provide an illustrative example of concept mapping, based on a set of 'basic' concepts introduced in a doctoral course in epidemiology. In summary, concept mapping is a compelling, active learning tool, which can promote shared deeper knowledge of concepts and their complex interconnections, thereby facilitating a better understanding of epidemiological research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  3. Integrating collaborative concept mapping in case based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tifi


    Full Text Available Different significance of collaborative concept mapping and collaborative argumentation in Case Based Learning are discussed and compared in the different perspectives of answering focus questions, of fostering reflective thinking skills and in managing uncertainty in problem solving in a scaffolded environment. Marked differences are pointed out between the way concepts are used in constructing concept maps and the way meanings are adopted in case based learning through guided argumentation activities. Shared concept maps should be given different scopes, as for example a as an advance organizer in preparing a background system of concepts that will undergo transformation while accompanying the inquiry activities on case studies or problems; b together with narratives, to enhance awareness of the situated epistemologies that are being entailed in choosing certain concepts during more complex case studies, and c after-learning construction of a holistic vision of the whole domain by means of the most inclusive concepts, while scaffoldedcollaborative writing of narratives and arguments in describing-treating cases could better serve as a source of situated-inspired tools to create-refine meanings for particular concepts.

  4. Learning concept mappings from instance similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.; Englebienne, G.; Schlobach, S.


    Finding mappings between compatible ontologies is an important but difficult open problem. Instance-based methods for solving this problem have the advantage of focusing on the most active parts of the ontologies and reflect concept semantics as they are actually being used. However such methods

  5. Learning Low-Dimensional Representations of Medical Concepts. (United States)

    Choi, Youngduck; Chiu, Chill Yi-I; Sontag, David


    We show how to learn low-dimensional representations (embeddings) of a wide range of concepts in medicine, including diseases (e.g., ICD9 codes), medications, procedures, and laboratory tests. We expect that these embeddings will be useful across medical informatics for tasks such as cohort selection and patient summarization. These embeddings are learned using a technique called neural language modeling from the natural language processing community. However, rather than learning the embeddings solely from text, we show how to learn the embeddings from claims data, which is widely available both to providers and to payers. We also show that with a simple algorithmic adjustment, it is possible to learn medical concept embeddings in a privacy preserving manner from co-occurrence counts derived from clinical narratives. Finally, we establish a methodological framework, arising from standard medical ontologies such as UMLS, NDF-RT, and CCS, to further investigate the embeddings and precisely characterize their quantitative properties.

  6. Active learning: a step towards automating medical concept extraction. (United States)

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony


    This paper presents an automatic, active learning-based system for the extraction of medical concepts from clinical free-text reports. Specifically, (1) the contribution of active learning in reducing the annotation effort and (2) the robustness of incremental active learning framework across different selection criteria and data sets are determined. The comparative performance of an active learning framework and a fully supervised approach were investigated to study how active learning reduces the annotation effort while achieving the same effectiveness as a supervised approach. Conditional random fields as the supervised method, and least confidence and information density as 2 selection criteria for active learning framework were used. The effect of incremental learning vs standard learning on the robustness of the models within the active learning framework with different selection criteria was also investigated. The following 2 clinical data sets were used for evaluation: the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside/Veteran Affairs (i2b2/VA) 2010 natural language processing challenge and the Shared Annotated Resources/Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (ShARe/CLEF) 2013 eHealth Evaluation Lab. The annotation effort saved by active learning to achieve the same effectiveness as supervised learning is up to 77%, 57%, and 46% of the total number of sequences, tokens, and concepts, respectively. Compared with the random sampling baseline, the saving is at least doubled. Incremental active learning is a promising approach for building effective and robust medical concept extraction models while significantly reducing the burden of manual annotation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiru Rakhman Abidin


    Full Text Available The aims of the study are (1 the concepts of language learning in behaviorism perspective, (2 the relation between language and learning in behaviorism perspective, (3 the influence of behaviorism in language learning. This is a descriptive qualitative study. The results showed that (1 behaviorism theories of languages also give good contribution in language learning process that describes a child can learn language from their environments, (2 behaviorism perspective defines as change of behavior through experience, it means human learn something from their environments, (3 human uses language for communication in the world and he also spreads his culture with his language so  human gets  knowledge of language through learning.

  8. Active learning reduces annotation time for clinical concept extraction. (United States)

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony


    To investigate: (1) the annotation time savings by various active learning query strategies compared to supervised learning and a random sampling baseline, and (2) the benefits of active learning-assisted pre-annotations in accelerating the manual annotation process compared to de novo annotation. There are 73 and 120 discharge summary reports provided by Beth Israel institute in the train and test sets of the concept extraction task in the i2b2/VA 2010 challenge, respectively. The 73 reports were used in user study experiments for manual annotation. First, all sequences within the 73 reports were manually annotated from scratch. Next, active learning models were built to generate pre-annotations for the sequences selected by a query strategy. The annotation/reviewing time per sequence was recorded. The 120 test reports were used to measure the effectiveness of the active learning models. When annotating from scratch, active learning reduced the annotation time up to 35% and 28% compared to a fully supervised approach and a random sampling baseline, respectively. Reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations resulted in 20% further reduction of the annotation time when compared to de novo annotation. The number of concepts that require manual annotation is a good indicator of the annotation time for various active learning approaches as demonstrated by high correlation between time rate and concept annotation rate. Active learning has a key role in reducing the time required to manually annotate domain concepts from clinical free text, either when annotating from scratch or reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analyzing the Effects of Various Concept Mapping Techniques on Learning Achievement under Different Learning Styles (United States)

    Chiou, Chei-Chang; Lee, Li-Tze; Tien, Li-Chu; Wang, Yu-Min


    This study explored the effectiveness of different concept mapping techniques on the learning achievement of senior accounting students and whether achievements attained using various techniques are affected by different learning styles. The techniques are computer-assisted construct-by-self-concept mapping (CACSB), computer-assisted…

  10. Learning Portals: Analyzing Threshold Concept Theory for LIS Education (United States)

    Tucker, Virginia M.; Weedman, Judith; Bruce, Christine S.; Edwards, Sylvia L.


    This paper explores the theoretical framework of threshold concepts and its potential for LIS education. Threshold concepts are key ideas, often troublesome and counterintuitive, that are critical to profound understanding of a domain. Once understood, they allow mastery of significant aspects of the domain, opening up new, previously inaccessible…

  11. Concept-Based Learning in Clinical Experiences: Bringing Theory to Clinical Education for Deep Learning. (United States)

    Nielsen, Ann


    Concept-based learning is used increasingly in nursing education to support the organization, transfer, and retention of knowledge. Concept-based learning activities (CBLAs) have been used in clinical education to explore key aspects of the patient situation and principles of nursing care, without responsibility for total patient care. The nature of best practices in teaching and the resultant learning are not well understood. The purpose of this multiple-case study research was to explore and describe concept-based learning in the context of clinical education in inpatient settings. Four clinical groups (each a case) were observed while they used CBLAs in the clinical setting. Major findings include that concept-based learning fosters deep learning, connection of theory with practice, and clinical judgment. Strategies used to support learning, major teaching-learning foci, and preconditions for concept-based teaching and learning will be described. Concept-based learning is promising to support integration of theory with practice and clinical judgment through application experiences with patients. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(7):365-371.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Brazilian and Nigerian International Students' Conceptions of Learning in Higher Education (United States)

    Ashong, Carol; Commander, Nannette


    The growth of international students compels examination of introspective aspects of learning experiences such as conceptions of learning. Additionally, learning conceptions profoundly impact learning outcomes (Tsai, 2009). To address the lack of research on learning conceptions of students from Africa and South America, this study examines…

  13. Undergraduate students' earth science learning: relationships among conceptions, approaches, and learning self-efficacy in Taiwan (United States)

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen


    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to explore the relationships among undergraduates' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy for learning earth science by adopting the structural equation modeling technique. A total of 268 Taiwanese undergraduates (144 females) participated in this study. Three instruments were modified to assess the students' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy for learning earth science. The results indicated that students' conceptions of learning made a significant contribution to their approaches to learning, which were consequently correlated with their learning self-efficacy. More specifically, students with stronger agreement that learning earth science involves applying the knowledge and skills learned to unknown problems were prone to possess higher confidence in learning earth science. Moreover, students viewing earth science learning as understanding earth science knowledge were more likely to adopt meaningful strategies to learn earth science, and hence expressed a higher sense of self-efficacy. Based on the results, practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  14. A Semantic Representation Of Adult Learners' Developing Conceptions Of Self Realisation Through Learning Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad


    Learning is the reflective activity that enables the learner to draw upon her/his previous experiences and background knowledge to conceptualise, realise, understand and evaluate the present, so as to shape her/his future actions and to construct and develop new knowledge for her(him)self. Learning...... of learners’ developing conceptions of learning. Some categories like 'Meaning Construction', 'Reality Interpretation' and 'Self Awareness (Self Realisation)' could be known as the most excellent and the most transcendental conceptions used by learners. Consequently, I will employ the highlighted concepts...... strongly depends on meetings of awarenesses (or self realisations) which we see as achieved through the experiences that mentors and learners undertake jointly. Self realisation is a type of self organisation process and always organises itself. In fact, self realisation is always going to be continued...

  15. Freed to Learn: Five Fundamental Concepts of Democratic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J. FAHEY


    Full Text Available Children are natural learners each with distinct interests, abilities and rates of cognitive, emotional and social growth. Democratic Education institutionalizes five key concepts to free these natural instincts and individual differences to drive community self-governance and individual self-directed learning within a formal schooling environment. This paper summarizes the five concepts fundamental to Democratic Education and suggests how they can be applied within a school setting.

  16. Virtual learning object and environment: a concept analysis


    Salvador, Pétala Tuani Candido de Oliveira; Bezerril, Manacés dos Santos; Mariz, Camila Maria Santos; Fernandes, Maria Isabel Domingues; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Santos, Viviane Euzébia Pereira


    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the concept of virtual learning object and environment according to Rodgers' evolutionary perspective. Method: Descriptive study with a mixed approach, based on the stages proposed by Rodgers in his concept analysis method. Data collection occurred in August 2015 with the search of dissertations and theses in the Bank of Theses of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel. Quantitative data were analyzed based on simple descriptive sta...

  17. Mikhail Geraskov (1874-1957) Methodological Concepts of Learning Physics.


    Mariyana Ilieva


    Mikhail Geraskov is a distinguished Bulgarian educator from the first half of the twentieth century, who developed the scientific foundations of didactics and methodology of training. His work contributed a lot to the development of the Bulgarian pedagogy. The subject of scientific research is didactical conceptions and methodological conceptions of learning. The aim of the research paper is to presents his ideas about particular methods of teaching Physics for high school. Ger...



    Bagdonaite-Stelmokiene, Ramune; Zydziunaite, Vilma


    The definition of “informal learning” is ambiguous and thus distinguished by the diverse interpretations. The article aims to reveal identical learning dimensions (process, activity, context, interactions and outcomes), which set up different concepts of “informal learning”. The research question refers to the content of dimensions for distinct concepts of “informal learning”. The analysis has disclosed the “informal learning” to be continuum between “self-directed learning”, “self-regulated ...

  19. Investigating Students’ Development of Learning Integer Concept and Integer Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenden Octavarulia Shanty


    Full Text Available This research aimed at investigating students’ development of learning integer concept and integer addition. The investigation was based on analyzing students’ works in solving the given mathematical problems in each instructional activity designed based on Realistic Mathematics Education (RME levels. Design research was chosen to achieve and to contribute in developing a local instruction theory for teaching and learning of integer concept and integer addition. In design research, the Hypothetical Learning Trajectory (HLT plays important role as a design and research instrument. It was designed in the phase of preliminary design and tested to three students of grade six OASIS International School, Ankara – Turkey. The result of the experiments showed that temperature in the thermometer context could stimulate students’ informal knowledge of integer concept. Furthermore, strategies and tools used by the students in comparing and relating two temperatures were gradually be developed into a more formal mathematics. The representation of line inside thermometer which then called the number line could bring the students to the last activity levels, namely rules for adding integer, and became the model for more formal reasoning. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that students’ learning integer concept and integer addition developed through RME levels.Keywords: integer concept, integer addition, Realistic Mathematics Education DOI:

  20. Undergraduate Students' Earth Science Learning: Relationships among Conceptions, Approaches, and Learning Self-Efficacy in Taiwan (United States)

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen


    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to…

  1. On the Concepts of Usability and Reusability of Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel-Angel Sicilia


    Full Text Available “Reusable learning objects” oriented towards increasing their potential reusability are required to satisfy concerns about their granularity and their independence of concrete contexts of use. Such requirements also entail that the definition of learning object “usability,” and the techniques required to carry out their “usability evaluation” must be substantially different from those commonly used to characterize and evaluate the usability of conventional educational applications. In this article, a specific characterization of the concept of learning object usability is discussed, which places emphasis on “reusability,” the key property of learning objects residing in repositories. The concept of learning object reusability is described as the possibility and adequacy for the object to be usable in prospective educational settings, so that usability and reusability are considered two interrelated – and in many cases conflicting – properties of learning objects. Following the proposed characterization of two characteristics or properties of learning objects, a method to evaluate usability of specific learning objects will be presented.

  2. Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching in student-centred medical curricula: the impact of context and personal characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.C.G.; Luijk, S.J. van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Kusurkar, R.A.; Croiset, G.; Scheele, F.


    BACKGROUND: Gibbs and Coffey (2004) have reported that teaching practices are influenced by teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching. In our previous research we found significant differences between teachers' conceptions in two medical schools with student-centred education. Medical school

  3. Per-Sample Multiple Kernel Approach for Visual Concept Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yu Duan


    Full Text Available Learning visual concepts from images is an important yet challenging problem in computer vision and multimedia research areas. Multiple kernel learning (MKL methods have shown great advantages in visual concept learning. As a visual concept often exhibits great appearance variance, a canonical MKL approach may not generate satisfactory results when a uniform kernel combination is applied over the input space. In this paper, we propose a per-sample multiple kernel learning (PS-MKL approach to take into account intraclass diversity for improving discrimination. PS-MKL determines sample-wise kernel weights according to kernel functions and training samples. Kernel weights as well as kernel-based classifiers are jointly learned. For efficient learning, PS-MKL employs a sample selection strategy. Extensive experiments are carried out over three benchmarking datasets of different characteristics including Caltech101, WikipediaMM, and Pascal VOC'07. PS-MKL has achieved encouraging performance, comparable to the state of the art, which has outperformed a canonical MKL.

  4. Per-Sample Multiple Kernel Approach for Visual Concept Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yonghong


    Full Text Available Abstract Learning visual concepts from images is an important yet challenging problem in computer vision and multimedia research areas. Multiple kernel learning (MKL methods have shown great advantages in visual concept learning. As a visual concept often exhibits great appearance variance, a canonical MKL approach may not generate satisfactory results when a uniform kernel combination is applied over the input space. In this paper, we propose a per-sample multiple kernel learning (PS-MKL approach to take into account intraclass diversity for improving discrimination. PS-MKL determines sample-wise kernel weights according to kernel functions and training samples. Kernel weights as well as kernel-based classifiers are jointly learned. For efficient learning, PS-MKL employs a sample selection strategy. Extensive experiments are carried out over three benchmarking datasets of different characteristics including Caltech101, WikipediaMM, and Pascal VOC'07. PS-MKL has achieved encouraging performance, comparable to the state of the art, which has outperformed a canonical MKL.

  5. Powerful Learning Tools for ELLs: Using Native Language, Familiar Examples, and Concept Mapping to Teach English Language Learners (United States)

    Dong, Yu Ren


    This article highlights how English language learners' (ELLs) prior knowledge can be used to help learn science vocabulary. The article explains that the concept of prior knowledge needs to encompass the ELL student's native language, previous science learning, native literacy skills, and native cultural knowledge and life experiences.…

  6. Conception of comics dedicated to optics learning (United States)

    Machemy, Jacques; Bousquet, Bruno


    Optics' teaching is commonly based on the use of lessons including several mathematical tools. For example, ray tracing can be described through matrix algebra, and interference and polarization can be supported by the use of complex numbers. Thus, the numerous mathematical descriptions included in the optics' lessons represent a real difficulty for students having insufficient skills in mathematics. Moreover, despite of very impressive optical effects one can observe in real life, e.g. rainbows, their description in optics' courses is often considered as too academic and boring, and finally not really exciting. In this context, we have invented a new type of comics dedicated to optics' learning. Based on a dialogue between two imaginary characters, one considered as the young student and the other one as the old teacher, we have chosen to reduce the role of mathematics and to mix realistic and unrealistic elements in the drawing to complete the explanations faster. Starting from reflection and refraction, the Snell's laws then allow for describing natural phenomena such as mirage and rainbow as well as technical points such as light propagation into an optical fiber and the measurement of the refraction index. The first volume presented here will be evaluated during the fall semester 2015 in different high schools and at university through a linked survey and the students will also get access to an online version while the following parts are in preparation.

  7. Science Concepts Young Children Learn through Water Play (United States)

    Gross, Carol M.


    Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…

  8. Visual Tracking Utilizing Object Concept from Deep Learning Network (United States)

    Xiao, C.; Yilmaz, A.; Lia, S.


    Despite having achieved good performance, visual tracking is still an open area of research, especially when target undergoes serious appearance changes which are not included in the model. So, in this paper, we replace the appearance model by a concept model which is learned from large-scale datasets using a deep learning network. The concept model is a combination of high-level semantic information that is learned from myriads of objects with various appearances. In our tracking method, we generate the target's concept by combining the learned object concepts from classification task. We also demonstrate that the last convolutional feature map can be used to generate a heat map to highlight the possible location of the given target in new frames. Finally, in the proposed tracking framework, we utilize the target image, the search image cropped from the new frame and their heat maps as input into a localization network to find the final target position. Compared to the other state-of-the-art trackers, the proposed method shows the comparable and at times better performance in real-time.

  9. Using Cognitive Tutor Software in Learning Linear Algebra Word Concept (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Ju


    This paper reports on a study of twelve 10th grade students using Cognitive Tutor, a math software program, to learn linear algebra word concept. The study's purpose was to examine whether students' mathematics performance as it is related to using Cognitive Tutor provided evidence to support Koedlinger's (2002) four instructional principles used…

  10. Postgraduate Conception of Research Methodology: Implications for Learning and Teaching (United States)

    Daniel, Ben; Kumar, Vijay; Omar, Noritah


    This qualitative inquiry investigates postgraduate students' conceptions of research methodology and how it contributes to their learning. It explores factors likely to motivate student choice of research methodology and challenges in understanding research methods. The research was carried out at research-intensive universities in New Zealand and…

  11. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn


    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  12. Incidental Learning of Geospatial Concepts across Grade Levels: Map Overlay (United States)

    Battersby, Sarah E.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Marsh, Meredith J.


    In this paper, the authors evaluate map overlay, a concept central to geospatial thinking, to determine how it is naively and technically understood, as well as to identify when it is leaner innately. The evaluation is supported by results from studies at three grade levels to show the progression of incidentally learned geospatial knowledge as…

  13. Kindergarteners' Concept Development in Science and Literacy Learning through Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (United States)

    Moffit, Char Adelia


    The notion that "real work" is somehow different from authentic and engaging discovery is troublesome. (Passman, 2001, p.196). This qualitative case study examined science concept and literacy learning along with engagement of the students in a Kindergarten class in which science and literacy instruction was integrated through…

  14. Relational Analysis of High School Students' Cognitive Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Conceptions of Learning Biology (United States)

    Sadi, Özlem


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between students' cognitive learning strategies and conceptions of learning biology. The two scales, "Cognitive Learning Strategies" and "Conceptions of Learning Biology", were revised and adapted to biology in order to measure the students' learning strategies and…

  15. Towards concept-based instruction with blended learning in Labatorials (United States)

    Ahrensmeier, Daria; Donev, J. M. K. C.; Hicks, R. B.; Louro, A.; Stafford, R.; Borvayeh, L.; Thompson, R. I.


    The Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary is currently remodeling the small group learning sessions of its large, multi-section first-year physics courses, in order to improve the student learning experience as well as their understanding of fundamental physics concepts. Traditional laboratories and tutorials are being replaced by ``labatorials,'' weekly units that focus on one or two specific concepts closely linked to the content of the lectures. The design of the labatorials will be illustrated with examples, showing the range of various techniques and technologies that are being used to illustrate the physics concepts from various angles: mini-labs, demonstrations, computer simulations, conceptual and calculation problems. We will also discuss an approach that we are developing to assess the effectiveness of the labatorials through pre-and post-tests, which are administered at the start and end of each session.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova


    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic concepts and characteristics of cloud oriented learning environment (COLE of secondary school. It is examined the concept of "cloud oriented learning environment", "mobility training", the requirements for COLE, the goal of creating, the structural components, model deployment, maintenance. Four cloud storages are compared; the subjects and objects of COLE are described; the meaning of spatial and semantic, content and methodical, communication and organizational components are clarified; the benefits and features of cloud computing are defined. It is found that COLE creates conditions for active cooperation, provides mobility of learning process participants, and objects’ virtualization. It is available anywhere and at any time, ensures the development of creativity and innovation, critical thinking, ability to solve problems, to develop communicative, cooperative, life and career skills, to work with data, media, to develop ICT competence either of students and teachers.

  17. Virtual learning object and environment: a concept analysis. (United States)

    Salvador, Pétala Tuani Candido de Oliveira; Bezerril, Manacés Dos Santos; Mariz, Camila Maria Santos; Fernandes, Maria Isabel Domingues; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Santos, Viviane Euzébia Pereira


    To analyze the concept of virtual learning object and environment according to Rodgers' evolutionary perspective. Descriptive study with a mixed approach, based on the stages proposed by Rodgers in his concept analysis method. Data collection occurred in August 2015 with the search of dissertations and theses in the Bank of Theses of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel. Quantitative data were analyzed based on simple descriptive statistics and the concepts through lexicographic analysis with support of the IRAMUTEQ software. The sample was made up of 161 studies. The concept of "virtual learning environment" was presented in 99 (61.5%) studies, whereas the concept of "virtual learning object" was presented in only 15 (9.3%) studies. A virtual learning environment includes several and different types of virtual learning objects in a common pedagogical context. Analisar o conceito de objeto e de ambiente virtual de aprendizagem na perspectiva evolucionária de Rodgers. Estudo descritivo, de abordagem mista, realizado a partir das etapas propostas por Rodgers em seu modelo de análise conceitual. A coleta de dados ocorreu em agosto de 2015 com a busca de dissertações e teses no Banco de Teses e Dissertações da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. Os dados quantitativos foram analisados a partir de estatística descritiva simples e os conceitos pela análise lexicográfica com suporte do IRAMUTEQ. A amostra é constituída de 161 estudos. O conceito de "ambiente virtual de aprendizagem" foi apresentado em 99 (61,5%) estudos, enquanto o de "objeto virtual de aprendizagem" em apenas 15 (9,3%). Concluiu-se que um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem reúne vários e diferentes tipos de objetos virtuais de aprendizagem em um contexto pedagógico comum.

  18. Historical survey of new concepts of lifelong learning during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlić-Božović Jasna Lj.


    Full Text Available Learning and education gradually occupy an important place in human life. Therefore, continuing socio-political and economic changes, rapid scientific and technological development, the expansion of knowledge, formed the phenomenon of the learning society. Its theoretical basis can be found in the concept of learning in the course of a lifetime, example: permanent learning and education in the aging process. On the other hand, the rapid changes taking place in the world, seeking to know the day is increasing. In the center of a thriving economy and a developed society are knowledge and ability, and education and learning become the instrument that. key socio-economic progress. Nevertheless, shorter working hours and longer life expectancy retirement also increases the amount of time available for other activities. In all areas, there are more opportunities for learning outside the school, and qualifications, in the traditional sense of getting out in front of new trends competence and adaptability. Adults who are constantly in the process of aging, the process of continuing education and learning are significantly different quality in relation to children, therefore it is necessary and a different approach to the children, and a different approach to teaching adults in the era of change, due to life and work experience, educational level, psychological and physical characteristics but also because of their social status. This paper will be an attempt, which will show the theoretical analysis of many aspects of learning, types, shapes, possibilities and limits of learning, the basic needs of adults in the aging process, as well as provide answers to the question why a grown man in the aging process learns who the person in the learning process and learning how to function in a process of aging.

  19. Acquisition and Retention of STEM Concepts through Inquiry Based Learning (United States)

    Lombardi, Candice

    This study explores the integration of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) concepts through inquiry based learning. Students are exposed to a constructivist style learning environment where they create understanding for themselves. This way of learning lets students plan and justify their ideas and beliefs while discussing and examining the ideas of their classmates. Students are engaged in solving a scientific problem in a meaningful, inquiry-based manner through hypothesis testing, experimentation, and investigation. This mode of learning introduces students to real life, authentic science experiences within the confines of a typical classroom. The focus of the unit is for the students to create connections and understanding about geography and the globe in order to ultimately identify the exact latitude and longitude of 10 mystery sites. The students learn about latitude and longitude and apply their knowledge through a set of clues to determine where their Mystery Class is located. Journey North provides an internationally accessed game of hide-and-seek called Mystery Class Seasons Challenge. Throughout this challenge, over the course of eleven weeks, students will record, graph, interpret and analysis data and research to ultimate identify the location of ten mystery locations. Students will track seasonal changes in sunlight while investigating, examining and researching clues to find these ten secret sites around the world. My research was done to prove the success of students' ability to learn new mathematics, science, technology and engineering concepts through inquiry based design.

  20. Concept maps and the meaningful learning of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio C. S. Valadares


    Full Text Available The foundations of the Meaningful Learning Theory (MLT were laid by David Ausubel. The MLT was highly valued by the contributions of Joseph Novak and D. B. Gowin. Unlike other learning theories, the MLT has an operational component, since there are some instruments based on it and with the meaningful learning facilitation as aim. These tools were designated graphic organizers by John Trowbridge and James Wandersee (2000, pp. 100-129. One of them is the concept map created by Novak to extract meanings from an amalgam of information, having currently many applications. The other one is the Vee diagram or knowledge Vee, also called epistemological Vee or heuristic Vee. It was created by Gowin, and is an excellent organizer, for example to unpack and make transparent the unclear information from an information source. Both instruments help us in processing and becoming conceptually transparent the information, to facilitate the cognitive process of new meanings construction. In this work, after a brief introduction, it will be developed the epistemological and psychological grounds of MLT, followed by a reference to constructivist learning environments facilitators of the meaningful learning, the characterization of concept maps and exemplification of its use in various applications that have proved to be very effective from the standpoint of meaningful learning.

  1. The MTO concept and organisational learning at Forsmark NPP, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Olle; Rollenhagen, Carl


    The term 'MTO' (Man-Technology-Organisation) has been widely used by Swedish utilities and regulators to describe knowledge and analytical techniques that focus on human and organisational factors and their relationship with nuclear safety. MTO was introduced in Sweden after the TMI accident as a concept similar to the 'Human Factors' (HF) concept developed in the USA. It was the intent that the explicit mention of the three interrelated elements in the concept - Man, Technology and Organisation - would stimulate a comprehensive 'system view' on nuclear safety. This view should go beyond a strict technological perspective to recognise and highlight human and organisational factors as important moderators of risk. In retrospect, the MTO concept has been successful in stimulating a socio-technological view of nuclear safety in Sweden - a general trend supported by international developments. A further step along this path has been taken with the LearnSafe project. (author)

  2. Implementation of Simulation Based-Concept Attainment Method to Increase Interest Learning of Engineering Mechanics Topic (United States)

    Sultan, A. Z.; Hamzah, N.; Rusdi, M.


    The implementation of concept attainment method based on simulation was used to increase student’s interest in the subjects Engineering of Mechanics in second semester of academic year 2016/2017 in Manufacturing Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical PNUP. The result of the implementation of this learning method shows that there is an increase in the students’ learning interest towards the lecture material which is summarized in the form of interactive simulation CDs and teaching materials in the form of printed books and electronic books. From the implementation of achievement method of this simulation based concept, it is noted that the increase of student participation in the presentation and discussion as well as the deposit of individual assignment of significant student. With the implementation of this method of learning the average student participation reached 89%, which before the application of this learning method only reaches an average of 76%. And also with previous learning method, for exam achievement of A-grade under 5% and D-grade above 8%. After the implementation of the new learning method (simulation based-concept attainment method) the achievement of Agrade has reached more than 30% and D-grade below 1%.

  3. Patterns in Student Learning: Relationships Between Learning Strategies, Conceptions of Learning, and Learning Orientations (United States)

    Vermunt, Jan D.; Vermetten, Yvonne J.


    This paper reviews the research conducted in the last decade on patterns in student learning, mostly in higher education. More specifically, the review focuses on a series of studies that have in common (a) the use of the Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS), an instrument aimed at measuring several components of student learning, namely, cognitive…

  4. A Latin Functionalist Dictionary as a Self-Learning Language Device: Previous Experiences to Digitalization (United States)

    Márquez, Manuel; Chaves, Beatriz


    The application of a methodology based on S.C. Dik's Functionalist Grammar linguistic principles, which is addressed to the teaching of Latin to secondary students, has resulted in a quantitative improvement in students' acquisition process of knowledge. To do so, we have used a self-learning tool, an ad hoc dictionary, of which the use in…

  5. Enhancing Collaborative and Meaningful Language Learning Through Concept Mapping (United States)

    Marriott, Rita De Cássia Veiga; Torres, Patrícia Lupion

    This chapter aims to investigate new ways of foreign-language teaching/learning via a study of how concept mapping can help develop a student's reading, writing and oral skills as part of a blended methodology for language teaching known as LAPLI (Laboratorio de Aprendizagem de LInguas: The Language Learning Lab). LAPLI is a student-centred and collaborative methodology which encourages students to challenge their limitations and expand their current knowledge whilst developing their linguistic and interpersonal skills. We explore the theories that underpin LAPLI and detail the 12 activities comprising its programme with specify reference to the use of "concept mapping". An innovative table enabling a formative and summative assessment of the concept maps is formulated. Also presented are some of the qualitative and quantitative results achieved when this methodology was first implemented with a group of pre-service students studying for a degree in English and Portuguese languages at the Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR) in Brazil. The contribution of concept mapping and LAPLI to an under standing of language learning along with a consideration of the difficulties encountered in its implementation with student groups is discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  6. A dynamic learning concept in early years’ education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig


    In early childhood education and care, Nordic social pedagogy approach is challenged by a learning orientation that often results in unproductive ‘either/or’ thinking. Therefore, based on the two approaches and by analysing several dimensions of Froebel’s ideas and prevailing social-historical ac......In early childhood education and care, Nordic social pedagogy approach is challenged by a learning orientation that often results in unproductive ‘either/or’ thinking. Therefore, based on the two approaches and by analysing several dimensions of Froebel’s ideas and prevailing social......-historical activity (play) theory, the author deduces four generally accepted play criteria that form the basis for the construction of a dynamic and play-based learning concept that has the three following cornerstones as focal points: (1) learning happens in activities where the child is an active participant...

  7. A new concept of unsupervised learning: directed self-guided learning in the health professions. (United States)

    Brydges, Ryan; Dubrowski, Adam; Regehr, Glenn


    Among the advantages in using educational technologies in health professions education is the opportunity for trainees to learn on their own time. This flexibility in learning opportunities, however, comes with possible dangers associated with unsupervised learning, such as the potential for developing bad habits and misunderstandings, and for overestimating one's preparedness for practice. This nonsystematic review reflects on the literatures that speak to the advantages of self-guided learning, explores the metacognition literature to understand what trainees do spontaneously when self-guiding their learning, and reexamines the advantages of supervised learning. Those literatures are combined in an effort to reorient our questions when considering the concept of self-guided learning. The authors propose that future research should ask questions that focus on our understanding of trainees' natural propensities while learning in the unsupervised context and on exploring conditions that will maximize the educational benefit of self-guided learning.

  8. Concept mapping and text writing as learning tools in problem-oriented learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürstenau, B.; Kneppers, L.; Dekker, R.; Cañas, A.J.; Novak, J.D.; Vanhaer, J.


    In two studies we investigated whether concept mapping or summary writing better support students while learning from authentic problems in the field of business. We interpret concept mapping and summary writing as elaboration tools aiming at helping students to understand new information, and to

  9. A Latin Functionalist Dictionary as a Self-Learning Language Device: Previous Experiences to Digitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Márquez


    Full Text Available The application of a methodology based on S.C. Dik’s Functionalist Grammar linguistic principles, which is addressed to the teaching of Latin to secondary students, has resulted in a quantitative improvement in students’ acquisition process of knowledge. To do so, we have used a self-learning tool, an ad hoc dictionary, of which the use in different practices has made students understand, at a basic level, the functioning of this language.

  10. Understanding infants' and children's social learning about foods: previous research and new prospects. (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M


    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the development of social cognition: food. We begin by reviewing the available literature on infants' and children's development in the food domain and identify situations in which children evidence both successes and failures in their interactions with foods. We focus specifically on the role that other people play in guiding what children eat and argue that understanding patterns of successes and failures in the food domain requires an appreciation of eating as a social phenomenon. We next propose a series of questions for future research and suggest that examining food selection as a social phenomenon can shed light on mechanisms underlying children's learning from others and provide ideas for promoting healthy social relationships and eating behaviors early in development.

  11. Millennial Students' Preferred Methods for Learning Concepts in Psychiatric Nursing. (United States)

    Garwood, Janet K


    The current longitudinal, descriptive, and correlational study explored which traditional teaching strategies can engage Millennial students and adequately prepare them for the ultimate test of nursing competence: the National Council Licensure Examination. The study comprised a convenience sample of 40 baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in a psychiatric nursing course. The students were exposed to a variety of traditional (e.g., PowerPoint(®)-guided lectures) and nontraditional (e.g., concept maps, group activities) teaching and learning strategies, and rated their effectiveness. The students' scores on the final examination demonstrated that student learning outcomes met or exceeded national benchmarks. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Assessment of Integrated Learning: Suggested Application of Concept Mapping to Prior Learning Assessment Practices (United States)

    Popova-Gonci, Viktoria; Lamb, Monica C.


    Prior learning assessment (PLA) students enter academia with different types of concepts--some of them have been formally accepted and labeled by academia and others are informally formulated by students via independent and/or experiential learning. The critical goal of PLA practices is to assess an intricate combination of prior learning…

  13. Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching in student-centred medical curricula: the impact of context and personal characteristics. (United States)

    Jacobs, Johanna C G; van Luijk, Scheltus J; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda; Scheele, Fedde


    Gibbs and Coffey (2004) have reported that teaching practices are influenced by teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching. In our previous research we found significant differences between teachers' conceptions in two medical schools with student-centred education. Medical school was the most important predictor, next to discipline, gender and teaching experience. Our research questions for the current study are (1) which specific elements of medical school explain the effect of medical school on teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching? How? and (2) which contextual and personal characteristics are related to conceptions of learning and teaching? How? Individual interviews were conducted with 13 teachers of the undergraduate curricula in two medical schools. Previously their conceptions of learning and teaching were assessed with the COLT questionnaire. We investigated the meanings they attached to context and personal characteristics, in relation to their conceptions of learning and teaching. We used a template analysis. Large individual differences existed between teachers. Characteristics mentioned at the medical school and curriculum level were 'curriculum tradition', 'support by educational department' and 'management and finances'. Other contextual characteristics were 'leadership style' at all levels but especially of department chairs, 'affordances and support', 'support and relatedness', and 'students' characteristics'. Personal characteristics were 'agency', 'experience with PBL (as a student or a teacher)','personal development', 'motivation and work engagement'and 'high content expertise'. Several context and personal characteristics associated with teachers' conceptions were identified, enabling a broader view on faculty development with attention for these characteristics, next to teaching skills.

  14. · Concept Learning in the Undergraduate Classroom: A Case Study in Religious Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Jones


    Full Text Available Popularized by the work of Jerome Bruner in the mid-1990’s, the “Concept Attainment Model” is a process of structured inquiry that requires students to make generalizations and draw conclusions from examples (and non-examples of a particular concept toward developing new insights, hypotheses, and associations regarding what they have previously learned (Bruner, 1977. In order to broaden some of the typical assumptions about the manners and conditions in which it can be effectively employed in the undergraduate classroom, this qualitative research study offers an example of the Concept Attainment Model in action in the teaching of traditional just war theory in an undergraduate religion class. Data was collected and analysed according to Spradley’s qualitative research methodologies (Spradley, 1980. Among the most important findings of this study is that in a religion or similar humanities course, the Concept Attainment Model is most likely to find success when highly scaffolded by the instructor.

  15. Effective self-regulated science learning through multimedia-enriched skeleton concept maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maree, Ton; Van Bruggen, Jan; Jochems, Wim


    This study combines work on concept mapping with scripted collaborative learning. Purpose: The objective was to examine the effects of self-regulated science learning through scripting students’ argumentative interactions during collaborative ‘multimedia-enriched skeleton concept mapping’ on

  16. Prospective Teachers. Conceptions about Mathematics and its Teaching and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Augusto Zapata


    Full Text Available Teachers' thinking and their activity in class constitute a means of understanding teaching. The interpretation of this thinking is one of the bases for designing education proposals in centres of initial and continuing teacher education. The work presented describes a study conducted with prospective teachers specializing in Mathematics and Physics in the Education Faculty of the University of Piura, Peru. The objective of the study was to identify their conceptions about mathematics and its teaching and learning.

  17. Understanding students' concepts through guided inquiry learning and free modified inquiry on static fluid material


    Sularso Sularso; Widha Sunarno; Sarwanto Sarwanto


    This study provides information on understanding students' concepts in guided inquiry learning groups and in free modified inquiry learning groups. Understanding of student concept is reviewed on the concept of static fluid case. The number of samples tested were 67 students. The sample is divided into 2 groups of students: the group is given guided inquiry learning and the group given the modified free inquiry learning. Understanding the concept of students is measured through 23 tests of it...

  18. Changing University Students’ Alternative Conceptions of Optics by Active Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalkida Hadžibegović


    Full Text Available Active learning is individual and group participation in effective activities such as in-class observing, writing, experimenting, discussion, solving problems, and talking about to-be-learned topics. Some instructors believe that active learning is impossible, or at least extremely difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions. Nevertheless, the truly impressive implementation results of theSCALE-UP learning environment suggest that such beliefs are false (Beichner et al., 2000. In this study, we present a design of an active learning environment with positive effect on students. The design is based on the following elements: (1 helping students to learn from interactive lecture experiment; (2 guiding students to use justified explanation and prediction after observing and exploring a phenomenon; (3 developing a conceptual question sequencedesigned for use in an interactive lecture with students answering questions in worksheets by writing and drawing; (4 evaluating students’ conceptual change and gains by questions related to light reflection, refraction, and image formation in an exam held a week after the active learning session. Data were collected from 95 science freshmen with different secondary school backgrounds. They participated in geometrical optics classes organized for collecting research results during and after only one active learning session.The results have showed that around 60% of the students changed their initial alternative conceptions of vision and of image formation. It was also found that a large group of university students is likely to be engaged in active learning, shifting from a passive role they usually play during teacher’s lectures.

  19. Learning circumference concepts from the didactical situations theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Sousa Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available The circumference study, as its importance, it is one of the most relevant contents in the Analytical Geometry curriculum. However, the complexity of related concepts to this theme linked to the content fragmentation, it difficulties the students thinking of transforming geometrical problems into equations solution, systems or inequations. Within, in this article we present a partial report of a master research work, of qualitative mode, which aimed to develop and to evaluate an alternative methodology by using musical parody composition to the teaching of Mathematics in trying to contribute to the circumference concepts learning process. For that, we carried out a case study with 36 third year high school students of a public school from the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba. The research work was based and discussed on Brousseau Didactical Situation Theory. It was chosen triangulation technique for the data analyses, collected from interviews, questionnaires and a list of mathematical exercises. We concluded that the parody composition resource allowed the students better understand the concepts of center, ratio, cord and the definition of the general circumference equation, as they were capable to identify the relative positions which a circumference assumes in relation to an equation of a straight line and between two circumferences in the various concepts that differentiated them. Thus, we can state that the musical parody composition as a didactical resource can contribute to the learning of mathematical contents.

  20. Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes according to surgery to conception interval and gestational weight gain in women with previous gastric bypass. (United States)

    Stentebjerg, Louise Laage; Andersen, Lise Lotte Torvin; Renault, Kristina; Støving, René Klinkby; Jensen, Dorte Møller


    To compare perinatal and pregnancy outcomes including adherence to the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) recommendations for gestational weight gain (GWG) in pregnant women with conception surgery. Women in the late group had a significantly higher risk of requiring CS or receiving intravenous iron supplementation compared to the early group (57% versus 30%, p = 0.03 and 29% versus 7%, p = 0.02, respectively). Early conception was not significantly associated with insufficient GWG, preterm delivery or birthweight. Among 54 women with information on GWG, only 13 (24%) had an appropriate GWG. The majority of pregnant women with gastric bypass did not fulfill guidelines for GWG; however, this study could not support the recommendation to postpone pregnancy.

  1. Risk Communication Strategies: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters with a Focus on the Fukushima Radiation Accident. (United States)

    Svendsen, Erik R; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Tondel, Martin


    It has been difficult to both mitigate the health consequences and effectively provide health risk information to the public affected by the Fukushima radiological disaster. Often, there are contrasting public health ethics within these activities which complicate risk communication. Although no risk communication strategy is perfect in such disasters, the ethical principles of risk communication provide good practical guidance. These discussions will be made in the context of similar lessons learned after radiation exposures in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987; the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, Ukraine, in 1986; and the attack at the World Trade Center, New York, USA, in 2001. Neither of the two strategies is perfect nor fatally flawed. Yet, this discussion and lessons from prior events should assist decision makers with navigating difficult risk communication strategies in similar environmental health disasters.

  2. Self-nonself concept for cancer and diseases previously known as "autoimmune" diseases (illegitimate transferases/plasma exchange). (United States)

    Levine, P


    The illegitimate glycosphingolipid antigens of the P blood group system and of the Forssman (Fs) tissue antigen in adenocarcinoma which are foreign to the host suggest the self-nonself concept which applies also to numerous other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, gluomerulonephritis, and idiopathic acute hemolytic anemia. In the presence of the glycosphingolipid antigens such as ABO, P, and Fs, the normal serum of the homozygote recessive precursor contains antibodies for the missing antigen(s). The expected antibody to the Fs antigen was present in about 75% of normal men and women. In cancer sera, the incidence of anti-Fs was decreased to about 35-40%. On testing the normal population anti-Fs was present in 90% of the sera in the youngest group, and this value gradually diminished in the older groups; the incidence of the antibody in the 70-year age group was to about 60%. The rate of loss of anti-Fs with increasing years appears to parallel the gradual loss of anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinin titers. This phenomenon may be associated with the gradual diminution of protein synthesis with aging or the continuous accumulation of soluble immune complexes in the serum, or both. It is suggested that the self-nonself concept is also the basis for the pathogenesis of rhematoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, idiopathic acute hemolytic anemia, and numerous other conditions classified as "autoimmune" diseases. Some of these diseases are induced by viruses or drugs or both. When a virus or drug attaches itself to the membrane of a tissue cell, the self is converted to nonself which, in rheumatoid arthiritis, alters its self Ig to nonself Ig.

  3. An Intelligent Web-Based System for Diagnosing Student Learning Problems Using Concept Maps (United States)

    Acharya, Anal; Sinha, Devadatta


    The aim of this article is to propose a method for development of concept map in web-based environment for identifying concepts a student is deficient in after learning using traditional methods. Direct Hashing and Pruning algorithm was used to construct concept map. Redundancies within the concept map were removed to generate a learning sequence.…

  4. The Effects of a Concept Map-Based Support Tool on Simulation-Based Inquiry Learning (United States)

    Hagemans, Mieke G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton


    Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations, while dynamic color coding of the concepts displayed…

  5. The comparative effect of individually-generated vs. collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on science concept learning (United States)

    Kwon, So Young

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the researcher investigated the comparative effects of individually-generated and collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. Qualitative data were analyzed to explain quantitative findings. One hundred sixty-one students (74 boys and 87 girls) in eight, seventh grade science classes at a middle school in Southeast Texas completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups, the researcher assigned the teacher's classes to one of the three experimental groups. The independent variable, group, consisted of three levels: 40 students in a control group, 59 students trained to individually generate concept maps on computers, and 62 students trained to collaboratively generate concept maps on computers. The dependent variables were science concept learning as demonstrated by comprehension test scores, and quality of concept maps created by students in experimental groups as demonstrated by rubric scores. Students in the experimental groups received concept mapping training and used their newly acquired concept mapping skills to individually or collaboratively construct computer-based concept maps during study time. The control group, the individually-generated concept mapping group, and the collaboratively-generated concept mapping group had equivalent learning experiences for 50 minutes during five days, excepting that students in a control group worked independently without concept mapping activities, students in the individual group worked individually to construct concept maps, and students in the collaborative group worked collaboratively to construct concept maps during their study time. Both collaboratively and individually generated computer-based concept mapping had a positive effect on seventh grade middle school science concept learning but neither strategy was more effective than the other. However

  6. The Effectiveness of Concept Maps in Teaching Physics Concepts Applied to Engineering Education: Experimental Comparison of the Amount of Learning Achieved with and without Concept Maps (United States)

    Martinez, Guadalupe; Perez, Angel Luis; Suero, Maria Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.


    A study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of concept maps in learning physics in engineering degrees. The following research question was posed: What was the difference in learning results from the use of concept maps to study a particular topic in an engineering course? The study design was quasi-experimental and used a post-test as a…

  7. Integrating Concept Mapping into Information Systems Education for Meaningful Learning and Assessment (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yue, Kwok-Bun


    Concept map (CM) is a theoretically sound yet easy to learn tool and can be effectively used to represent knowledge. Even though many disciplines have adopted CM as a teaching and learning tool to improve learning effectiveness, its application in IS curriculum is sparse. Meaningful learning happens when one iteratively integrates new concepts and…

  8. Conceptions, Self-Regulation, and Strategies of Learning Science among Chinese High School Students (United States)

    Li, Mang; Zheng, Chunping; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Zhang, Yun; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    This study explored the structural relationships among secondary school students' conceptions, self-regulation, and strategies of learning science in mainland China. Three questionnaires, namely conceptions of learning science (COLS), self-regulation of learning science (SROLS), and strategies of learning science (SLS) were developed for…

  9. An effective self-assessment based on concept map extraction from test-sheet for personalized learning (United States)

    Liew, Keng-Hou; Lin, Yu-Shih; Chang, Yi-Chun; Chu, Chih-Ping


    Examination is a traditional way to assess learners' learning status, progress and performance after a learning activity. Except the test grade, a test sheet hides some implicit information such as test concepts, their relationships, importance, and prerequisite. The implicit information can be extracted and constructed a concept map for considering (1) the test concepts covered in the same question means these test concepts have strong relationships, and (2) questions in the same test sheet means the test concepts are relative. Concept map has been successfully employed in many researches to help instructors and learners organize relationships among concepts. However, concept map construction depends on experts who need to take effort and time for the organization of the domain knowledge. In addition, the previous researches regarding to automatic concept map construction are limited to consider all learners of a class, which have not considered personalized learning. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes a new approach to automatically extract and construct concept map based on implicit information in a test sheet. Furthermore, the proposed approach also can help learner for self-assessment and self-diagnosis. Finally, an example is given to depict the effectiveness of proposed approach.

  10. Why First Language Learning Is Not Second Language Learning--Wittgenstein's Rejection of St. Augustine's Conception of Learning. (United States)

    Erneling, Christina


    Paper shows that Wittgenstein, in discussing ostensive definition, understanding, and the private language argument, attacks Saint Augustine's notion of learning. Recently, the Augustinian conception has been resurrected in cognitive theories postulating an innate language of thought, making Wittgenstein's claims that this conception of learning…

  11. Prevention of Tetanus Outbreak Following Natural Disaster in Indonesia: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters. (United States)

    Pascapurnama, Dyshelly Nurkartika; Murakami, Aya; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Hattori, Toshio; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Shinichi


    In Indonesia, the Aceh earthquake and tsunami in 2004 killed 127,000 people and caused half a million injuries, while the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006 caused 5,700 deaths and 37,000 injuries. Because disaster-affected areas are vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases and tetanus is one such disease that is preventable, we systematically reviewed the literature related to tetanus outbreaks following previous two natural disasters in Indonesia. Based on our findings, recommendations for proper vaccination and education can be made for future countermeasures. Using specified keywords related to tetanus and disasters, relevant documents were screened from PubMed, the WHO website, and books. Reports offering limited data and those released before 2004 were excluded. In all, 16 publications were reviewed systematically. Results show that 106 cases of tetanus occurred in Aceh, with a case fatality ratio (CFR) of 18.9%; 71 cases occurred in Yogyakarta, with CFR of 36.6%. For both outbreaks, most patients had been wounded during scavenging or evacuation after the disaster occurred. Poor access to health care because of limited transportation or hospital facilities, and low vaccination coverage and lack of awareness of tetanus risk contributed to delayed treatment and case severity. Tetanus outbreaks after disasters are preventable by increasing vaccination coverage, improving wound care treatment, and establishing a regular surveillance system, in addition to good practices of disaster management and supportive care following national guidelines. Furthermore, health education for communities should be provided to raise awareness of tetanus risk reduction.

  12. Astrobiology Learning Progressions: Linking Astrobiology Concepts with the 3D Learning Paradigm of NGSS (United States)

    Scalice, D.; Davis, H. B.; Leach, D.; Chambers, N.


    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) introduce a Framework for teaching and learning with three interconnected "dimensions:" Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI's), Cross-cutting Concepts (CCC's), and Science and Engineering Practices (SEP's). This "3D" Framework outlines progressions of learning from K-12 based on the DCI's, detailing which parts of a concept should be taught at each grade band. We used these discipline-based progressions to synthesize interdisciplinary progressions for core concepts in astrobiology, such as the origins of life, what makes a world habitable, biosignatures, and searching for life on other worlds. The final product is an organizing tool for lesson plans, learning media, and other educational materials in astrobiology, as well as a fundamental resource in astrobiology education that serves both educators and scientists as they plan and carry out their programs for learners.

  13. Learning Achievement and the Efficiency of Learning the Concept of Vector Addition at Three Different Grade Levels (United States)

    Gubrud, Allan R.; Novak, Joseph D.


    Empirical data relate to Bruner's and Ausubel's theories of learning concepts at different age levels. The concept of vector addition was taught to eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The concept was learned and retained by high ability ninth and all tenth grade students. (PS)

  14. Mikhail Geraskov (1874-1957 Methodological Concepts of Learning Physics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyana Ilieva


    Full Text Available Mikhail Geraskov is a distinguished Bulgarian educator from the first half of the twentieth century, who developed the scientific foundations of didactics and methodology of training. His work contributed a lot to the development of the Bulgarian pedagogy. The subject of scientific research is didactical conceptions and methodological conceptions of learning. The aim of the research paper is to presents his ideas about particular methods of teaching Physics for high school. Geraskov assumes direct correlation between didactics and methodology. This paper focuses on his ideas about design, technology and methodological requirements for lessons of Physics. He believes that the appropriate methods are determined by the curriculum, set of educational goals and age characteristics, and capabilities of adolescents. In his methodical recommendations he focuses on teaching methods and forms that provoke students’ activity. Comparative analysis with publications on the issues set for development of the Bulgarian pedagogic science and the actuality in the modern education system.

  15. Improving learning with science and social studies text using computer-based concept maps for students with disabilities. (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen; Falcomata, Terry S; Pfannenstiel, Kathleen; Billingsley, Glenna


    Concept maps have been used to help students with learning disabilities (LD) improve literacy skills and content learning, predominantly in secondary school. However, despite increased access to classroom technology, no previous studies have examined the efficacy of computer-based concept maps to improve learning from informational text for students with LD in elementary school. In this study, we used a concurrent delayed multiple probe design to evaluate the interactive use of computer-based concept maps on content acquisition with science and social studies texts for Hispanic students with LD in Grades 4 and 5. Findings from this study suggest that students improved content knowledge during intervention relative to a traditional instruction baseline condition. Learning outcomes and social validity information are considered to inform recommendations for future research and the feasibility of classroom implementation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Explorers of the Universe: Metacognitive Tools for Learning Science Concepts (United States)

    Alvarez, Marino C.


    Much of school learning consists of rote memorization of facts with little emphasis on meaningful interpretations. Knowledge construction is reduced to factual knowledge production with little regard for critical thinking, problem solving, or clarifying misconceptions. An important role of a middle and secondary teacher when teaching science is to aid students' ability to reflect upon what they know about a given topic and make available strategies that will enhance their understanding of text and science experiments. Developing metacognition, the ability to monitor one's own knowledge about a topic of study and to activate appropriate strategies, enhances students' learning when faced with reading, writing and problem solving situations. Two instructional strategies that can involve students in developing metacognitive awareness are hierarchical concept mapping, and Vee diagrams. Concept maps enable students to organize their ideas and reveal visually these ideas to others. A Vee diagram is a structured visual means of relating the methodological aspects of an activity to its underlying conceptual aspect in ways that aid learners in meaningful understanding of scientific investigations.

  17. Learning through the Soul: Concepts Relating to Learning and Knowledge in the Mayan Cultures of Mexico. (United States)

    King, Linda


    Describes the central concept of Mayan culture, the possession of the soul, or ch'ulel, in the process of forming a knowledgeable person. Soul acquisition is important to becoming the ideal person, and to the educational formation of future generations. Looks at the role language plays in culture as memory, thought formation, and learning process.…

  18. Correlation of Students' Brain Types to Their Conceptions of Learning Science and Approaches to Learning Science (United States)

    Park, Jiyeon; Jeon, Dongryul


    The systemizing and empathizing brain type represent two contrasted students' characteristics. The present study investigated differences in the conceptions and approaches to learning science between the systemizing and empathizing brain type students. The instruments are questionnaires on the systematizing and empathizing, questionnaires on the…

  19. Learning Outcomes as a Key Concept in Policy Documents throughout Policy Changes (United States)

    Prøitz, Tine Sophie


    Learning outcomes can be considered to be a key concept in a changing education policy landscape, enhancing aspects such as benchmarking and competition. Issues relating to concepts of performance have a long history of debate within the field of education. Today, the concept of learning outcomes has become central in education policy development,…

  20. The Power of Examples: Illustrative Examples Enhance Conceptual Learning of Declarative Concepts (United States)

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Thomas, Ruthann C.; Jacoby, Larry L.


    Declarative concepts (i.e., key terms with short definitions of the abstract concepts denoted by those terms) are a common kind of information that students are expected to learn in many domains. A common pedagogical approach for supporting learning of declarative concepts involves presenting students with concrete examples that illustrate how the…

  1. Transformative Learning and Concepts of the Self: Insights from Immigrant and Intercultural Journeys (United States)

    Lange, Elizabeth


    This article examines Canadian immigrant and intercultural learning as an insightful context for examining transformative learning. Theories of intercultural communication are explored, particularly the concept of transculturality and Bhabha's concept of "Third Space". Various concepts of the self are also compared, particularly two…

  2. Testing complex animal cognition: Concept learning, proactive interference, and list memory. (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A


    This article describes an approach for assessing and comparing complex cognition in rhesus monkeys and pigeons by training them in a sequence of synergistic tasks, each yielding a whole function for enhanced comparisons. These species were trained in similar same/different tasks with expanding training sets (8, 16, 32, 64, 128 … 1024 pictures) followed by novel-stimulus transfer eventually resulting in full abstract-concept learning. Concept-learning functions revealed better rhesus transfer throughout and full concept learning at the 128 set, versus pigeons at the 256 set. They were then tested in delayed same/different tasks for proactive interference by inserting occasional tests within trial-unique sessions where the test stimulus matched a previous sample stimulus (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 trials prior). Proactive-interference functions revealed time-based interference for pigeons (1, 10 s delays), but event-based interference for rhesus (no effect of 1, 10, 20 s delays). They were then tested in list-memory tasks by expanding the sample to four samples in trial-unique sessions (minimizing proactive interference). The four-item, list-memory functions revealed strong recency memory at short delays, gradually changing to strong primacy memory at long delays over 30 s for rhesus, and 10 s for pigeons. Other species comparisons and future directions are discussed. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  3. Exploring conceptions of learning and teaching through the creation of flexible learning spaces: the Learning Gateway - a case study


    Weaver, Margaret


    The paper will explore the relationship between the creation of a physical learning space and the changing conceptions of learning and teaching that are being instigated by a building, designed from the outset, with student learning in mind. The Learning Gateway has been created to support students and the development of a new curriculum as St Martin’s reshapes itself in the context of the emerging University for Cumbria. At one level, this use of the “estate” and the “ICT infrastructure” as ...

  4. Learning first-order definable concepts over structures of small degree


    Grohe, Martin; Ritzert, Martin


    We consider a declarative framework for machine learning where concepts and hypotheses are defined by formulas of a logic over some background structure. We show that within this framework, concepts defined by first-order formulas over a background structure of at most polylogarithmic degree can be learned in polylogarithmic time in the "probably approximately correct" learning sense.

  5. The effectiveness of concept mapping and retrieval practice as learning strategies in an undergraduate physiology course. (United States)

    Burdo, Joseph; O'Dwyer, Laura


    Concept mapping and retrieval practice are both educational methods that have separately been reported to provide significant benefits for learning in diverse settings. Concept mapping involves diagramming a hierarchical representation of relationships between distinct pieces of information, whereas retrieval practice involves retrieving information that was previously coded into memory. The relative benefits of these two methods have never been tested against each other in a classroom setting. Our study was designed to investigate whether or not concept mapping or retrieval practice produced a significant learning benefit in an undergraduate physiology course as measured by exam performance and, if so, was the benefit of one method significantly greater than the other. We found that there was a trend toward increased exam scores for the retrieval practice group compared with both the control group and concept mapping group, and that trend achieved statistical significance for one of the four module exams in the course. We also found that women performed statistically better than men on the module exam that contained a substantial amount of material relating to female reproductive physiology. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  6. Using a Learning Cycle to Deepen Chinese Primary Students' Concept Learning of the "Phases of the Moon" (United States)

    Lin, Jing


    This study focuses on the internal conditions of students' concept learning and builds a learning cycle' based on the "phases of the Moon" (MP) to, deepen students' understanding. The learning cycle of MP developed in this study includes three basic learning links, which are: cognitive conflict, abstraction and generalization, and…

  7. Comparative Effects of Computer-Based Concept Maps, Refutational Texts, and Expository Texts on Science Learning (United States)

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Cavagnetto, Andy; Hunsu, Nathaniel J.; Anguiano, Carlos; Lloyd, Joshua


    This study used a between-subjects experimental design to examine the effects of three different computer-based instructional strategies (concept map, refutation text, and expository scientific text) on science learning. Concept maps are node-link diagrams that show concepts as nodes and relationships among the concepts as labeled links.…

  8. Concept Mapping as a Learning Tool for the Employment Relations Degree (United States)

    Martinez-Canas, Ricardo; Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo


    Concept mapping is a technique to represent relationships between concepts that can help students to improve their meaningful learning. Using the cognitive theories proposed by Ausubel (1968), concept maps can help instructors and students to enhance their logical thinking and study skills by revealing connections among concepts that can simplify…

  9. The Application Effect of Learning Model Acquisition Concept Combined with Cooperative Learning STAD to the Learning Achievement, activeness, and Students Responses In Learning Chemistry Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Ridha Ilahi


    Full Text Available Pengaruh Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Pemerolehan Konsep Dipadu Pembelajaran Kooperatif STAD terhadap Prestasi Belajar, Keaktifan, dan Respon Siswa pada Pembelajaran Ikatan Kimia Abstract: This study aims to determine differences: (1 student achievement acquisition make use of the concept of combined learning model STAD cooperative learning and student achievement using model concepts in conventional learning acquisition; (2 active students use learning model acquisition combined the concept of cooperative learning and student activity STAD learning model acquisition using the concept in the conventional learning; (3 The students 'response to the acquisition of the concept of combined learning STAD cooperative learning and students' response to the acquisition of learning concepts in conventional learning. This research uses descriptive research design and quasi-experimental design (quasy experiment design. Learning achievement data were collected using an objective test and reliability coefficient calculated by using SPSS 16 for windows Data recorded in the learning activity of students using observation sheet. Student response data to the learning model was obtained by questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically and descriptive. The results showed: (1 student achievement using learning model acquisition combined the concept of cooperative learning STAD higher compared to student achievement using model concepts in conventional learning acquisition; (2 active students use learning model acquisition combined the concept of cooperative learning STAD higher than students' active learning model acquisition using the concept in the conventional learning; (3 The students 'response to learning acquisition combined the concept of cooperative learning STAD is more positive than the students' response to the acquisition of learning concepts in conventional learning. Key Words: acquisition of concepts, STAD, chemical bonds   Abstrak: Penelitian ini

  10. Motion sensors in mathematics teaching: learning tools for understanding general math concepts? (United States)

    Urban-Woldron, Hildegard


    Incorporating technology tools into the mathematics classroom adds a new dimension to the teaching of mathematics concepts and establishes a whole new approach to mathematics learning. In particular, gathering data in a hands-on and real-time method helps classrooms coming alive. The focus of this paper is on bringing forward important mathematics concepts such as functions and rate of change with the motion detector. Findings from the author's studies suggest that the motion detector can be introduced from a very early age and used to enliven classes at any level. Using real-world data to present the main functions invites an experimental approach to mathematics and encourages students to engage actively in their learning. By emphasizing learning experiences with computer-based motion detectors and aiming to involve students in mathematical representations of real-world phenomena, six learning activities, which were developed in previous research studies, will be presented. Students use motion sensors to collect physical data that are graphed in real time and then manipulate and analyse them. Because data are presented in an immediately understandable graphical form, students are allowed to take an active role in their learning by constructing mathematical knowledge from observation of the physical world. By utilizing a predict-observe-explain format, students learn about slope, determining slope and distance vs. time graphs through motion-filled activities. Furthermore, exploring the meaning of slope, viewed as the rate of change, students acquire competencies for reading, understanding and interpreting kinematics graphs involving a multitude of mathematical representations. Consequently, the students are empowered to efficiently move among tabular, graphical and symbolic representation to analyse patterns and discover the relationships between different representations of motion. In fact, there is a need for further research to explore how mathematics teachers

  11. Self-esteem, academic self-concept, and achievement: how the learning environment moderates the dynamics of self-concept. (United States)

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Köller, Olaf; Baumert, Jürgen


    The authors examine the directionality of effects between global self-esteem, domain-specific academic self-concepts, and academic achievement. Special emphasis is placed on learning environments as potential moderators of the direction of these effects. According to the meritocracy principle presented here, so-called bottom-up effects (i.e., self-esteem is influenced by academic self-concept) are more pronounced in meritocratic learning environments than in ego-protective learning environments. This hypothesis was examined using a three-wave cross-lagged panel design with a large sample of 7th graders from East and West Germany, a total of 5,648 students who were tested shortly after German reunification. Reciprocal effects were found between self-esteem, academic self-concept, and academic achievement. In conformance with the meritocracy principle, support for bottom-up effects was stronger in the meritocratic learning environment. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Recommender System for E-Learning Based on Semantic Relatedness of Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye


    Full Text Available Digital publishing resources contain a lot of useful and authoritative knowledge. It may be necessary to reorganize the resources by concepts and recommend the related concepts for e-learning. A recommender system is presented in this paper based on the semantic relatedness of concepts computed by texts from digital publishing resources. Firstly, concepts are extracted from encyclopedias. Information in digital publishing resources is then reorganized by concepts. Secondly, concept vectors are generated by skip-gram model and semantic relatedness between concepts is measured according to the concept vectors. As a result, the related concepts and associated information can be recommended to users by the semantic relatedness for learning or reading. History data or users’ preferences data are not needed for recommendation in a specific domain. The technique may not be language-specific. The method shows potential usability for e-learning in a specific domain.

  13. Concept selection for phenotypes and diseases using learn to rank. (United States)

    Collier, Nigel; Oellrich, Anika; Groza, Tudor


    Phenotypes form the basis for determining the existence of a disease against the given evidence. Much of this evidence though remains locked away in text - scientific articles, clinical trial reports and electronic patient records (EPR) - where authors use the full expressivity of human language to report their observations. In this paper we exploit a combination of off-the-shelf tools for extracting a machine understandable representation of phenotypes and other related concepts that concern the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. These are tested against a gold standard EPR collection that has been annotated with Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concept identifiers: the ShARE/CLEF 2013 corpus for disorder detection. We evaluate four pipelines as stand-alone systems and then attempt to optimise semantic-type based performance using several learn-to-rank (LTR) approaches - three pairwise and one listwise. We observed that whilst overall Apache cTAKES tended to outperform other stand-alone systems on a strong recall (R = 0.57), precision was low (P = 0.09) leading to low-to-moderate F1 measure (F1 = 0.16). Moreover, there is substantial variation in system performance across semantic types for disorders. For example, the concept Findings (T033) seemed to be very challenging for all systems. Combining systems within LTR improved F1 substantially (F1 = 0.24) particularly for Disease or syndrome (T047) and Anatomical abnormality (T190). Whilst recall is improved markedly, precision remains a challenge (P = 0.15, R = 0.59).

  14. Text conception(s in context of semi-present Distance Learning (DL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Komesu


    Full Text Available By following the example proposed by Corrêa (2011 in the investigation of texts produced by undergraduate and pre-undergraduate students in two different assessment, this work aims to approach “hidden” aspects in the teaching of writing at the university (Street, 2009, to reflections produced in the language field, in particular the ones referred as “socially assumed”, proposed by Voloshinov/Bakhtin (s/d: 1926. It is particularly important to investigate the conception of text in digital context, by means of the study of updated semiotic resources in the production of undergraduate students using a computer with internet access in the process of semi-present Distance Learning (DL. The collected material comprises 29 (twenty nine texts which were produced by students of the semi-present Pedagogy Course from Univesp (Universidade Virtual do Estado de São Paulo – Virtual University from the state of São Paulo, who were studying “Education and Language”, in 2010. This qualitative analysis aims to show that regarding the institution there is a prevalence of structural and procedural aspects for the accomplishment of the proposed activity and, regarding the undergraduate student it is noticed that the production is characterized by a traditional conception of text, mainly recognized by written verbal text, although the proposal prioritized the relation between verbal and non verbal language. Regarding discursive-linguistic studies, it is important to reflect about a text conception that privileges the integration of multiple semiosis by taking into account the socio-historical interlocution character established within utterances of others.

  15. Portuguese primary school children's conceptions about digestion: identification of learning obstacles (United States)

    Silva, Rui Graça; Lima, Nelson; Coquet, Eduarda; Clément, Pierre


    A cross-sectional study of Portuguese primary school pupils' conceptions on digestion and the digestive tract was carried out before and after teaching this topic. Pupils of the prior four school years (5/6 to 9/10 year old) drew what happens to a cookie inside their body. In some cases they also wrote a short text or were interviewed. To identify their level of graphic development, they produced a free-hand drawing. The main conceptual changes in explaining digestion were strongly linked to teaching. Children's previous conceptions were not epistemological obstacles to learning about digestion. The main obstacles were of didactical origin, as images of primary school books do not represent (i) the path of food from the intestine into the blood, (associated to the epistemological obstacle of the permeability of the gut wall); (ii) a clear continuous tract from stomach to anus, which causes a specific confusion at the intestine level.

  16. Attitudes to concept maps as a teaching/learning activity in undergraduate health professional education: influence of preferred learning style. (United States)

    Laight, David W


    Concept maps that integrate and relate concepts in a nonlinear fashion are widely accepted as an educational tool that can underpin meaningful learning in medical education. However, student take-up may be affected by a number of cognitive and non-cognitive influences. In the present study, student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps introduced in Stage 2 conjoint MPharm and BSc Pharmacology lectures were examined in relation to preferred learning styles according to the Felder-Silverman model. There was no statistically significant influence of dichotomous learning style dimension (sensing/intuitive; visual/verbal; active/reflector; sequential/global) on the self-reported utility of such concept maps to learning. However, when strength of preference was analysed within each dimension, moderate/strong verbal learners were found to be significantly less likely to self-report concept maps as useful relative to mild verbal learners. With this important exception, these data now suggest that student attitudes to concept maps are broadly not influenced by preferred learning styles and furthermore highlight the potential of concept maps to address a variety of different learning styles and thereby facilitate 'teaching to all types'. Concept maps could therefore potentially assist motivation, engagement and deep learning in medical and biomedical science education when used as a supplement to more traditional teaching/learning activities.

  17. The Impact of the Flipped Classroom on Mathematics Concept Learning in High School (United States)

    Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chang, Chun-Yen


    The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the flipped classroom learning environment on learner's learning achievement and motivation, as well as to investigate the effects of flipped classrooms on learners with different achievement levels in learning mathematics concepts. The learning achievement and motivation were measured by the…

  18. Improving Student Understanding of Lipids Concepts in a Biochemistry Course Using Test-Enhanced Learning (United States)

    Horn, Savannah; Hernick, Marcy


    Test-enhanced learning has successfully been used as a means to enhance learning and promote knowledge retention in students. We have examined whether this approach could be used in a biochemistry course to enhance student learning about lipids-related concepts. Students were provided access to two optional learning modules with questions related…

  19. Citizenship education in Lebanon: An introduction into students’ concepts and learning experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Akar


    Full Text Available Lebanon continues to use citizenship education as a tool for social cohesion in its post-conflict sectarian society. Recently, teachers from previous studies (Akar, 2006 have raised certain issues concerning the challenges of teaching citizenship in Lebanon’s National and Civic Education classrooms. This initial study in Lebanon explores some of the challenges that students face when learning citizenship within their classroom by investigating their concepts of citizenship in addition to their learning experiences. Thirty-one students from two year-11 classrooms in different schools participated. During a 45-minute class lesson, I administered a survey pack collecting quantitative and qualitative data. This pack included a diamond ranking exercise, open-ended questions and a 15-minute class discussion at the end of class. Evidence showed that these students value active and dynamic behaviours based on humanistic and democratic principles. They also demonstrated a strong sense of national identity with little or no reference to a global one. Finally, the findings showed that traditional methods of learning such as memorization and the paradoxical climate of learning democratic civic behaviours in a society of internal conflicts further challenged their learning experiences.

  20. Mining Concept Maps to Understand University Students' Learning (United States)

    Yoo, Jin Soung; Cho, Moon-Heum


    Concept maps, visual representations of knowledge, are used in an educational context as a way to represent students' knowledge, and identify mental models of students; however there is a limitation of using concept mapping due to its difficulty to evaluate the concept maps. A concept map has a complex structure which is composed of concepts and…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Filatov


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals withthe process of visual concept building based on two unlabeled sources of information (visual and textual. Method. Visual concept-based learning is carried out with image patterns and lexical elements simultaneous conjunction. Concept-based learning consists of two basic stages: early learning acquisition (primary learning and lexical-semantic learning (secondary learning. In early learning acquisition stage the visual concept dictionary is created providing background for the next stage. The lexical-semantic learning makes two sources timeline analysis and extracts features in both information channels. Feature vectors are formed by extraction of separated information units in both channels. Mutual information between two sources describes visual concepts building criteria. Main Results. Visual concept-based learning system has been developed; it uses video data with subtitles. The results of research have shown principal ability of visual concepts building by our system. Practical Relevance.Recommended application area of described system is an object detection, image retrieval and automatic building of visual concept-based data tasks.

  2. Learning Quantum Chemical Model with Learning Media Concept Map and Power Point Viewed from Memory and Creativity Skills Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wahidi


    Full Text Available This research is experimental, using first class learning a quantum model of learning with concept maps media and the second media using real environments by power point presentation. The population is all class XI Science, number 2 grade. The sampling technique is done by purposive random sampling. Data collection techniques to test for cognitive performance and memory capabilities, with a questionnaire for creativity. Hypothesis testing using three-way ANOVA different cells with the help of software Minitab 15.Based on the results of data processing, concluded: (1 there is no influence of the quantum model of learning with media learning concept maps and real environments for learning achievement chemistry, (2 there is a high impact memory ability and low on student achievement, (3 there is no the effect of high and low creativity in student performance, (4 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with memory ability on student achievement, (5 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with creativity of student achievement, (6 there is no interaction memory skills and creativity of student achievement, (7 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments, memory skills, and creativity on student achievement.

  3. Effect of Instructor-Provided Concept Maps and Self-Directed Learning Ability on Students' Online Hypermedia Learning Performance (United States)

    Chou, Pao-Nan


    The purpose of this experimental study was to explore the instructional effectiveness of integrating varied instructor-provided concept maps into an online hypertext learning environment, and the effect of learners' self-directed learning abilities on their learning performance. The research adopted a randomized posttest with two-control-group…

  4. High School Students' Approaches to Learning Physics with Relationship to Epistemic Views on Physics and Conceptions of Learning Physics (United States)

    Chiou, Guo-Li; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Background and purpose: Knowing how students learn physics is a central goal of physics education. The major purpose of this study is to examine the strength of the predictive power of students' epistemic views and conceptions of learning in terms of their approaches to learning in physics. Sample, design and method: A total of 279 Taiwanese high…

  5. An Investigation of Taiwanese High School Students' Science Learning Self-Efficacy in Relation to Their Conceptions of Learning Science (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Background: Past studies have shown significant associations between students' conceptions of learning science and their science learning self-efficacy. However, in most of the studies, students' science learning self-efficacy has often been measured by a singular scale. Purpose: Extending the findings of these studies, the present study adopted a…

  6. Concept mapping as an empowering method to promote learning, thinking, teaching and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Kalervo Åhlberg


    Full Text Available Results and underpinning of over twenty years of research and development program of concept mapping is presented. Different graphical knowledge presentation tools, especially concept mapping and mind mapping, are compared. There are two main dimensions that differentiate graphical knowledge presentation methods: The first dimension is conceptual explicitness: from mere concepts to flexibly named links and clear propositions in concept maps. The second dimension in the classification system I am suggesting is whether there are pictures or not. Åhlbergʼs and his research groupʼs applications and developments of Novakian concept maps are compared to traditional Novakian concept maps. The main innovations include always using arrowheads to show direction of reading the concept map. Centrality of each concept is estimated from number of links to other concepts. In our empirical research over two decades, number of relevant concepts, and number of relevant propositions in studentsʼ concept maps, have been found to be the best indicators and predictors of meaningful learning. This is used in assessment of learning. Improved concept mapping is presented as a tool to analyze texts. The main innovation is numbering the links to show order of reading the concept map and to make it possible to transform concept map back to the original prose text as closely as possible. In Åhlberg and his research groupʼs research, concept mapping has been tested in all main phases of research, teaching and learning.

  7. Relational Analysis of College Chemistry-Major Students' Conceptions of and Approaches to Learning Chemistry (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ting; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between conceptions of learning and approaches to learning in chemistry. Two questionnaires, conceptions of learning chemistry (COLC) and approaches to learning chemistry (ALC), were developed to identify 369 college chemistry-major students' (220 males and 149 females) conceptions of…

  8. Improving Self-Concept and Learning Skills of Marginal Black Students: A Seminar Approach. (United States)

    Parker, Woodroe M.; And Others


    Presents an eight-session seminar designed to increase participants' study skills and to redefine participants' self-concepts from those characterized by feelings of inadequacy and frustration to concepts of selves as competent and capable. Learning strategies, two-way communication, learning styles, note making, test taking, vocational planning,…

  9. Conceptions of Memorizing and Understanding in Learning, and Self-Efficacy Held by University Biology Majors (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    This study aims to explore Taiwanese university students' conceptions of learning biology as memorizing or as understanding, and their self-efficacy. To this end, two questionnaires were utilized to survey 293 Taiwanese university students with biology-related majors. A questionnaire for measuring students' conceptions of memorizing and understanding was validated through an exploratory factor analysis of participants' responses. As for the questionnaire regarding the students' biology learning self-efficacy (BLSE), an exploratory factor analysis revealed a total of four factors including higher-order cognitive skills (BLSE-HC), everyday application (BLSE-EA), science communication (BLSE-SC), and practical works (BLSE-PW). The results of the cluster analysis according to the participants' conceptions of learning biology indicated that students in the two major clusters either viewed learning biology as understanding or possessed mixed-conceptions of memorizing and understanding. The students in the third cluster mainly focused on memorizing in their learning while the students in the fourth cluster showed less agreement with both conceptions of memorizing and understanding. This study further revealed that the conception of learning as understanding was positively associated with the BLSE of university students with biology-related majors. However, the conception of learning as memorizing may foster students' BLSE only when such a notion co-exists with the conception of learning with understanding.

  10. Conceptions and Practices in teaching and learning: implications for the evaluation of teaching quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerihun, Z.; Beishuizen, J.J.; van Os, W


    This study was conducted in two public universities in Ethiopia to assess the impact of conceptions of teaching and learning on the evaluation of teaching quality. Students' and teachers' approaches to teaching and learning and their conceptions of the meaning of teaching have been examined. Results

  11. Developing iPad-Based Physics Simulations That Can Help People Learn Newtonian Physics Concepts (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jin


    The aims of this study are: (1) to develop iPad-based computer simulations called iSimPhysics that can help people learn Newtonian physics concepts; and (2) to assess its educational benefits and pedagogical usefulness. To facilitate learning, iSimPhysics visualizes abstract physics concepts, and allows for conducting a series of computer…

  12. Patterns of Development in Second-Career Teachers' Conceptions of Learning and Teaching (United States)

    Tigchelaar, Anke; Vermunt, Jan D.; Brouwer, Niels


    This study was aimed at deepening our understanding of second-career teachers' conceptions of teaching and learning. Initial conceptions held by 207 candidates entering an alternative teacher education programme were explored using a semi-structured questionnaire covering background characteristics and four themes concerning teaching and learning.…

  13. Three Key Concepts of the Theory of Objectification: Knowledge, Knowing, and Learning (United States)

    Radford, Luis


    In this article I sketch three key concepts of a cultural-historical theory of mathematics teaching and learning--the theory of objectification. The concepts are: knowledge, knowing and learning. The philosophical underpinning of the theory revolves around the work of Georg W. F. Hegel and its further development in the philosophical works of K.…

  14. Changing Conceptions of Teaching: A Four-Year Learning Journey for Student Teachers (United States)

    Cheng, Annie Y. N.; Tang, Sylvia Y. F.; Cheng, May M. H.


    Understanding student teachers' development of conceptions of teaching and learning is critical for teacher educators. Drawing from the findings of a four-year longitudinal study in Hong Kong, this paper examines the trajectories of the student teachers' changing conceptions of teaching and learning approaches throughout their undergraduate…

  15. Conceptions of Effective Teaching and Perceived Use of Computer Technologies in Active Learning Classrooms (United States)

    Gebre, Engida; Saroyan, Alenoush; Aulls, Mark W.


    This paper examined professors' conceptions of effective teaching in the context of a course they were teaching in active learning classrooms and how the conceptions related to the perceived role and use of computers in their teaching. We interviewed 13 professors who were teaching in active learning classrooms in winter 2011 in a large research…

  16. Five teacher profiles in student-centred curricula based on their conceptions of learning and teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.C.; Luijk, S.J. van; Galindo-Garre, F.; Muijtjens, A.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Croiset, G.; Scheele, F.


    BACKGROUND: Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching are partly unconscious. However, they are critical for the delivery of education and affect students' learning outcomes. Lasting changes in teaching behaviour can only be realized if conceptions of teachers have been changed accordingly.

  17. Joining the Pieces: Using Concept Maps for Integrated Learning and Assessment in an Introductory Management Course (United States)

    Connolly, Heather; Spiller, Dorothy


    This paper reports on and evaluates the use of concept mapping as a learning tool in a large first year Management course. The goal was to help students make personal sense of course learning and to build their understanding of links and relationships between key course ideas. Concept mapping was used for three summative assessment pieces,…

  18. Investigating the Interrelationships among Conceptions of, Approaches to, and Self-Efficacy in Learning Science (United States)

    Zheng, Lanqin; Dong, Yan; Huang, Ronghuai; Chang, Chun-Yen; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between primary school students' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy in learning science in Mainland China. A total of 1049 primary school students from Mainland China participated in this study. Three instruments were adapted to measure students' conceptions of learning science,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyntia Vilasboas Calixto


    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the concept of learning in the internationalization studies. Considering the relationship between learning and internationalization had its groundwork at the Uppsala University, we believe its relevant outlining the path from the main publications regarding the Uppsala School as well as the internationalization process model developed by them in order to comprehend the evolution of the concept of learning from this perspective. In addition, owing to the extension of the relationship between learning and internationalization, this paper analyzes some relevant organizational learning studies and their contributions in order to construe the internationalization process development. Therefore, the contribution of this study is the critical review on the concept of learning from the Uppsala School and also indicating contributions of this concept from the latest developments of this idea.

  20. Meta-cognitive online sequential extreme learning machine for imbalanced and concept-drifting data classification. (United States)

    Mirza, Bilal; Lin, Zhiping


    In this paper, a meta-cognitive online sequential extreme learning machine (MOS-ELM) is proposed for class imbalance and concept drift learning. In MOS-ELM, meta-cognition is used to self-regulate the learning by selecting suitable learning strategies for class imbalance and concept drift problems. MOS-ELM is the first sequential learning method to alleviate the imbalance problem for both binary class and multi-class data streams with concept drift. In MOS-ELM, a new adaptive window approach is proposed for concept drift learning. A single output update equation is also proposed which unifies various application specific OS-ELM methods. The performance of MOS-ELM is evaluated under different conditions and compared with methods each specific to some of the conditions. On most of the datasets in comparison, MOS-ELM outperforms the competing methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Which Technique Is Most Effective for Learning Declarative Concepts--Provided Examples, Generated Examples, or Both? (United States)

    Zamary, Amanda; Rawson, Katherine A.


    Students in many courses are commonly expected to learn declarative concepts, which are abstract concepts denoted by key terms with short definitions that can be applied to a variety of scenarios as reported by Rawson et al. ("Educational Psychology Review" 27:483-504, 2015). Given that declarative concepts are common and foundational in…

  2. Changing Concepts in Activity: Descriptive and Design Studies of Consequential Learning in Conceptual Practices (United States)

    Hall, Rogers; Jurow, A. Susan


    Concepts and conceptual change have been studied extensively as phenomena of individual thinking and action, but changing circumstances of social or cultural groups using concepts are treated as external conditions. We describe research on consequential learning in conceptual practices, where concepts include representational infrastructure that…

  3. Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching the Function Concept and Student Learning Outcomes (United States)

    Hatisaru, Vesife; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat


    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential interrelationships between teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) the function concept and their students' learning outcomes of this concept. Data were collected from two teachers teaching in a vocational high school and their students through a function concept test for teachers…

  4. Effects of Concept Mapping Strategy on Learning Performance in Business and Economics Statistics (United States)

    Chiou, Chei-Chang


    A concept map (CM) is a hierarchically arranged, graphic representation of the relationships among concepts. Concept mapping (CMING) is the process of constructing a CM. This paper examines whether a CMING strategy can be useful in helping students to improve their learning performance in a business and economics statistics course. A single…

  5. The Effects of Integrating Computer-Based Concept Mapping for Physics Learning in Junior High School (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Shih, Chang-Ming


    It generally is accepted that concept mapping has a noticeable impact on learning. But literatures show the use of concept mapping is not benefit all learners. The present study explored the effects of incorporating computer-based concept mapping in physics instruction. A total of 61 9th-grade students participated in this study. By using a…

  6. Online Joint Learning of Object Concepts and Language Modelusing Multimodal Hierarchical Dirichlet Process (United States)


    Online Joint Learning of Object Concepts and Language Model using Multimodal Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Tatsuya Aoki, Joe Nishihara,, haptic, and word information, as in this paper. Besides, online learning is another important feature of the proposed framework. Although the...method is based on the MLDA. II. Online joint learning of language model and multimodal concepts A. Overview The most important assumption in this

  7. Teaching Strategies to Promote Concept Learning by Design Challenges (United States)

    Van Breukelen, Dave; Van Meel, Adrianus; De Vries, Marc


    Background: This study is the second study of a design-based research, organised around four studies, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training concerning the design-based learning approach called Learning by Design (LBD). Purpose: LBD uses the context of design challenges to learn, among other things, science.…

  8. Acquiring concepts and features of novel words by two types of learning: direct mapping and inference. (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang


    This study examined the semantic representation of novel words learnt in two conditions: directly mapping a novel word to a concept (Direct mapping: DM) and inferring the concept from provided features (Inferred learning: IF). A condition where no definite concept could be inferred (No basic-level meaning: NM) served as a baseline. The semantic representation of the novel word was assessed via a semantic-relatedness judgment task. In this task, the learned novel word served as a prime, while the corresponding concept, an unlearned feature of the concept, and an unrelated word served as targets. ERP responses to the targets, primed by the novel words in the three learning conditions, were compared. For the corresponding concept, smaller N400s were elicited in the DM and IF conditions than in the NM condition, indicating that the concept could be obtained in both learning conditions. However, for the unlearned feature, the targets in the IF condition produced an N400 effect while in the DM condition elicited an LPC effect relative to the NM learning condition. No ERP difference was observed among the three learning conditions for the unrelated words. The results indicate that conditions of learning affect the semantic representation of novel word, and that the unlearned feature was only activated by the novel word in the IF learning condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Case Study in Master Planning the Learning Landscape Hub Concepts for the University at Buffalo (United States)

    Dugdale, Shirley; Torino, Roger; Felix, Elliot


    This case study describes concepts for three types of learning spaces that grew out of a Learning Landscape planning process. The process was part of a master plan study for the three campuses of the University at Buffalo. It involved research into user needs and aspirations about future pedagogy, development of learning space strategy,…

  10. Students' Understanding of Genetics Concepts: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Learning Approaches (United States)

    Kiliç, Didem; Saglam, Necdet


    Students tend to learn genetics by rote and may not realise the interrelationships in daily life. Because reasoning abilities are necessary to construct relationships between concepts and rote learning impedes the students' sound understanding, it was predicted that having high level of formal reasoning and adopting meaningful learning orientation…

  11. Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks? A Learning Cycle to Explore the Concept of Osmosis (United States)

    Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.


    Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a particular concept. In this article, students learn about "osmosis," or the moving of water into…

  12. Recognizing Disjoint Clinical Concepts in Clinical Text Using Machine Learning-based Methods. (United States)

    Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Wang, Xiaolong; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Jiang, Min; Wang, Jingqi; Xu, Hua


    Clinical concept recognition (CCR) is a fundamental task in clinical natural language processing (NLP) field. Almost all current machine learning-based CCR systems can only recognize clinical concepts of consecutive words (called consecutive clinical concepts, CCCs), but can do nothing about clinical concepts of disjoint words (called disjoint clinical concepts, DCCs), which widely exist in clinical text. In this paper, we proposed two novel types of representations for disjoint clinical concepts, and applied two state-of-the-art machine learning methods to recognizing consecutive and disjoint concepts. Experiments conducted on the 2013 ShARe/CLEF challenge corpus showed that our best system achieved a "strict" F-measure of 0.803 for CCCs, a "strict" F-measure of 0.477 for DCCs, and a "strict" F-measure of 0.783 for all clinical concepts, significantly higher than the baseline systems by 4.2% and 4.1% respectively.

  13. A Virtual Reality avatar interaction (VRai) platform to assess residual executive dysfunction in active military personnel with previous mild traumatic brain injury: proof of concept. (United States)

    Robitaille, Nicolas; Jackson, Philip L; Hébert, Luc J; Mercier, Catherine; Bouyer, Laurent J; Fecteau, Shirley; Richards, Carol L; McFadyen, Bradford J


    This proof of concept study tested the ability of a dual task walking protocol using a recently developed avatar-based virtual reality (VR) platform to detect differences between military personnel post mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and healthy controls. The VR platform coordinated motion capture, an interaction and rendering system, and a projection system to present first (participant-controlled) and third person avatars within the context of a specific military patrol scene. A divided attention task was also added. A healthy control group was compared to a group with previous mTBI (both groups comprised of six military personnel) and a repeated measures ANOVA tested for differences between conditions and groups based on recognition errors, walking speed and fluidity and obstacle clearance. The VR platform was well tolerated by both groups. Walking fluidity was degraded for the control group within the more complex navigational dual tasking involving avatars, and appeared greatest in the dual tasking with the interacting avatar. This navigational behaviour was not seen in the mTBI group. The present findings show proof of concept for using avatars, particularly more interactive avatars, to expose differences in executive functioning when applying context-specific protocols (here for the military). Implications for rehabilitation Virtual reality provides a means to control context-specific factors for assessment and intervention. Adding human interaction and agency through avatars increases the ecologic nature of the virtual environment. Avatars in the present application of the Virtual Reality avatar interaction platform appear to provide a better ability to reveal differences between trained, military personal with and without mTBI.

  14. Learning energy literacy concepts from energy-efficient homes (United States)

    Paige, Frederick Eugene

    The purpose of this study is to understand ways that occupants' and visitors' interaction with energy efficient home design affects Energy Literacy. Using a case study approach including interviews, surveys, and observations, I examined the potential for affordable energy efficient homes in the Greenville South Carolina area to "teach" concepts from an Energy Literacy framework developed by dozens of educational partners and federal agencies that comprise the U.S. Global Change Research Program Partners. I paid particular attention to concepts from the framework that are transferable to energy decisions beyond a home's walls. My research reveals ways that interaction with high efficiency homes can effect understanding of the following Energy Literacy concepts: human use of energy is subject to limits and constraints, conservation is one way to manage energy resources, electricity is generated in multiple ways, social and technological innovations effect the amount of energy used by society, and energy use can be calculated and monitored. Examples from my case studies show how the at-home examples can make lessons on energy more personally relevant, easy to understand, and applicable. Specifically, I found that: • Home occupants learn the limits of energy in relation to the concrete and constricting costs associated with their consumption. • Heating and cooling techniques showcase the limits and constraints on different sources of energy. • Relatable systems make it easier to understand energy's limits and constraints. • Indistinct and distant power utilities allow consumers to overlook the root of electricity sources. • Visible examples of electricity generation systems make it clear that electricity is generated in multiple ways. • Small and interactive may mean inefficient electricity generation, but efficient energy education. • Perceptions of expense and complexity create a disconnect between residential energy consumers and renewable electricity

  15. Changing University Students' Alternative Conceptions of Optics by Active Learning (United States)

    Hadžibegovic, Zalkida; Sliško, Josip


    Active learning is individual and group participation in effective activities such as in-class observing, writing, experimenting, discussion, solving problems, and talking about to-be-learned topics. Some instructors believe that active learning is impossible, or at least extremely difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions. Nevertheless, the…

  16. A Conceptual Framework over Contextual Analysis of Concept Learning within Human-Machine Interplays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad


    ) a well-structured machine concept learning framework. Accordingly, I will, semantically and epistemologically, focus on linking those two frameworks for logical analysis of concept learning in the context of human-machine interrelationships. It will be demonstrated that the proposed framework provides...... a supportive structure over the described contextualisation of ‘relations’ between human beings and machines within concept learning processes.......This research provides a contextual description concerning existential and structural analysis of ‘Relations’ between human beings and machines. Subsequently, it will focus on conceptual and epistemological analysis of (i) my own semantics-based framework [for human meaning construction] and of (ii...

  17. A Systemic View of the Learning and Differentiation of Scientific Concepts: The Case of Electric Current and Voltage Revisited (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Kokkonen, Tommi


    In learning conceptual knowledge in physics, a common problem is the incompleteness of a learning process, where students' personal, often undifferentiated concepts take on more scientific and differentiated form. With regard to such concept learning and differentiation, this study proposes a systemic view in which concepts are considered as…

  18. An updated concept and revised composition for Hamacreadium Linton, 1910 (Opecoelidae: Plagioporinae) clarifies a previously obscured pattern of host-specificity among species. (United States)

    Martin, Storm B; Cutmore, Scott C; Ward, Selina; Cribb, Thomas H


    The present concept of the trematode genus Hamacreadium Linton, 1910 encompasses considerable morphological variability and includes species reported from a broad range of fishes. These include herbivores and planktivores, despite the life-cycle of the type-species, Hamacreadium mutabile Linton, 1910, being known to use fishes as intermediate hosts. Reports of H. mutabile are numerous, spanning the west Atlantic, east Pacific and Indo-west Pacific, whereas other nominal species are infrequently reported and several inadequately described. Following a comprehensive review, a strict revised morphological definition is proposed for the genus. Several nominal species are excluded, but, conversely, finer distinctions are recognised among the species concluded to genuinely belong in the genus. Justified records for species retained in the genus are overwhelmingly from fishes of the families Lutjanidae Gill (snappers) and Lethrinidae Bonaparte (emperors), revealing a previously concealed pattern of host-specificity. For H. mutabile, it is argued that only records from western Atlantic lutjanid fishes should be considered genuine; those from plausible Indo-Pacific fishes most likely represent different species. In addition to H. mutabile, eight species are recognised: Hamacreadium cribbi Bray & Justine, 2016, Hamacreadium hainanense Shen, 1990, Hamacreadium interruptum Nagaty, 1941, Hamacreadium lethrini Yamaguti, 1934, Hamacreadium longivesiculum (Yamaguti, 1952) n. comb., Hamacreadium lutiani (Shen, 1990) n. comb., Hamacreadium morgani Baz,1946 and Hamacreadium phyllorchis (Bilqees, 1976) Cribb, 2005. A key to species of Hamacreadium and comprehensive lists of all host-locality records are included.

  19. Ontology-based concept map learning path reasoning system using SWRL rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.-K.; Lee, C.-I. [National Univ. of Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Computer Science and Information Learning Technology


    Concept maps are graphical representations of knowledge. Concept mapping may reduce students' cognitive load and extend simple memory function. The purpose of this study was on the diagnosis of students' concept map learning abilities and the provision of personally constructive advice dependant on their learning path and progress. Ontology is a useful method with which to represent and store concept map information. Semantic web rule language (SWRL) rules are easy to understand and to use as specific reasoning services. This paper discussed the selection of grade 7 lakes and rivers curriculum for which to devise a concept map learning path reasoning service. The paper defined a concept map e-learning ontology and two SWRL semantic rules, and collected users' concept map learning path data to infer implicit knowledge and to recommend the next learning path for users. It was concluded that the designs devised in this study were feasible and advanced and the ontology kept the domain knowledge preserved. SWRL rules identified an abstraction model for inferred properties. Since they were separate systems, they did not interfere with each other, while ontology or SWRL rules were maintained, ensuring persistent system extensibility and robustness. 15 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  20. Naïve Conceptions About Multimedia Learning:A Study on Primary School Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eColombo


    Full Text Available An interview study, based on specific pictures taken from textbooks used in primary schools, was carried out to investigate illustrators’, teachers’, students’, and common people’s beliefs about the role that illustrations play in facilitating learning. Participants’ responses were internally coherent, indicating a systematic nature of the underlying naïve conceptions. Findings disprove Mayer’s pessimistic claim that laypersons’ conceptions of multimedia learning fail to match experimentally supported principles and theories. On the contrary, interviewees spontaneously came very close to the multimedia learning theory, which states that students learn better from pictures, which fit specific cognitive principles. Implications for school instruction are highlighted.

  1. Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning Science and Self-Efficacy of Learning Science among High School Students (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Chung; Ho, Hsin Ning Jessie; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Lin, Hung-Ming


    This study examined the relationships among Taiwanese high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs, conceptions of learning science, and self-efficacy of learning science. The questionnaire responses gathered from 377 high school students in Taiwan were utilized to elicit such relationships. The analysis of the structural equation model…

  2. Blended Learning in Vocational Education: Teachers' Conceptions of Blended Learning and Their Approaches to Teaching and Design (United States)

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Casey, Grant; Bachfischer, Agnieszka; Goodyear, Peter; Ellis, Robert A.


    This paper presents research exploring teachers' experiences of using blended learning in vocational education. Teachers involved in designing and teaching using blended learning from a major Australian vocational education provider participated in the study. They received open-ended questionnaires asking to describe their conceptions of blended…

  3. Predicting Turkish Preservice Elementary Teachers' Orientations to Teaching Science with Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Conceptions, and Learning Approaches in Science (United States)

    Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan; Topçu, Mustafa Sami


    The present study investigated to what extent Turkish preservice elementary teachers' orientations to teaching science could be explained by their epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and approaches to learning science. The sample included 157 Turkish preservice elementary teachers. The four instruments used in the study were School…

  4. Animated and Static Concept Maps Enhance Learning from Spoken Narration (United States)

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Nesbit, John C.


    An animated concept map represents verbal information in a node-link diagram that changes over time. The goals of the experiment were to evaluate the instructional effects of presenting an animated concept map concurrently with semantically equivalent spoken narration. The study used a 2 x 2 factorial design in which an animation factor (animated…

  5. Weight, Mass, and Gravity: Threshold Concepts in Learning Science (United States)

    Bar, Varda; Brosh, Yaffa; Sneider, Cary


    Threshold concepts are essential ideas about the natural world that present either a barrier or a gateway to a deep understanding of science. Weight, mass, and gravity are threshold concepts that underpin students' abilities to understand important ideas in all fields of science, embodied in the performance expectations in the Next Generation…

  6. Learning mathematics concepts in a traditional socio-culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper argues that each culture has its unique applications of mathematical concepts. It presents this argument by showing how the Great Zimbabwe Monument that was built between the 12th and 14th century applied some geometrical concepts that some secondary school students in Zimbabwe find difficult ...

  7. Teaching Method and Effect on Learning Piagetian Concepts (United States)

    Swiderski, David J.; Amadio, Dean M.


    Instructors of psychology typically use a variety of methods to teach concepts. The present double-blind experiment is intended to determine the effectiveness of popular television clips as exemplars of Piagetian concepts compared to verbal descriptions of the same exemplars among a sample of 86 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory…

  8. A Framework of Active Learning by Concept Mapping (United States)

    Chen, Wang-Kun; Wang, Ping


    This study presents a student-centered teaching model based on concept mapping and problem-solving. The concept map is used as a tool to develop curriculum and evaluate teaching performance. Case-based teaching was implemented on the course of building energy conservation. The results of this study, which include teaching plans, evaluation tools,…

  9. Comparability of Self-Concept among Learning Disabled, Normal, and Gifted Students. (United States)

    Winne, Phillip H.; And Others


    Using 60 fourth- to seventh-grade learning disabled (LD), normal, and gifted students, the comparability of representations of self-concept across groups was analyzed for the Sears and Coopersmith inventories. (Author/SW)

  10. Solving problems to learn concepts, how does it happen? A case for buoyancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Buteler


    Full Text Available Problem solving is a preferred activity teachers choose to help students learn concepts. At the same time, successful problem solving is widely regarded as a very good indicator of conceptual learning. Many studies have provided evidence that problem solving often improves students’ chances of learning concepts. Still, the question remains relatively unexplored as to how this activity is useful to promote concept learning. In this study we explore this question in the setting of three university students solving a problem on hydrostatics, in which the concept of buoyancy is involved. We use coordination class theory to study how these students progress on their conceptual understanding. We were able to describe how this progress is related to contextual traits, as well as to students’ particular epistemic stances. Finally, we discuss some implications for research and for teaching.

  11. “Pick-up Lines”: A Fun Way to Facilitate Learning Microbiological Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz


    Full Text Available Learning microbiology can be made fun by writing funny lines related to microbiology. Students were tasked to create their own pick-up lines and explain these based on their understanding of the basic concepts in microbiology.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Kristiyani


    Full Text Available Montessori Education is widely spread in almost all countries in the world. Even though this school is meant for all kinds of learners including “normal” learners, the Montessori education concepts used in Montessori schools will be very supportive education for children with special needs. Therefore, the schools which adopt Montessori education concepts can facilitate inclusion, especially with the concepts of ‘I can do it myself.’ Inclusive education needs to be carefully prepared and implemented by schools. The movement brings about some challenges for teachers. This paper explores the environment and materials based on Montessori education concepts. The environment and materials are suitable for all types of learners and thus can be an option to be implemented in the inclusive education setting. Teaching materials rooted in Montessori education concepts indeed cater all ages and embrace the needs of all students.

  13. Concept Maps for Teaching, Learning, and Assessment in Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Vodovozov


    Full Text Available The paper describes how to employ the concept mapping technology in engineering education in the field of Electronics. The overall knowledge domain ontology in the field is shown. It is underlined that the concept maps serve as a suitable tool to support instructors in promoting students’ comprehension of the studying material and in improving their understanding of new concepts. Introduction of an original educational thesaurus is proposed. Such a thesaurus helps learners to see what they have acquired from the lessons. It supports them in making connections between new and prior concepts and reinforces knowledge integration by such a promotion. The developed concept maps are regarded as a valuable instrument of many assessment procedures. They represent learners’ knowledge providing informative and reflective feedbacks tailored to learners’ personal styles and requests.

  14. Experimentation of cooperative learning model Numbered Heads Together (NHT) type by concept maps and Teams Games Tournament (TGT) by concept maps in terms of students logical mathematics intellegences (United States)

    Irawan, Adi; Mardiyana; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi


    This research is aimed to find out the effect of learning model towards learning achievement in terms of students’ logical mathematics intelligences. The learning models that were compared were NHT by Concept Maps, TGT by Concept Maps, and Direct Learning model. This research was pseudo experimental by factorial design 3×3. The population of this research was all of the students of class XI Natural Sciences of Senior High School in all regency of Karanganyar in academic year 2016/2017. The conclusions of this research were: 1) the students’ achievements with NHT learning model by Concept Maps were better than students’ achievements with TGT model by Concept Maps and Direct Learning model. The students’ achievements with TGT model by Concept Maps were better than the students’ achievements with Direct Learning model. 2) The students’ achievements that exposed high logical mathematics intelligences were better than students’ medium and low logical mathematics intelligences. The students’ achievements that exposed medium logical mathematics intelligences were better than the students’ low logical mathematics intelligences. 3) Each of student logical mathematics intelligences with NHT learning model by Concept Maps has better achievement than students with TGT learning model by Concept Maps, students with NHT learning model by Concept Maps have better achievement than students with the direct learning model, and the students with TGT by Concept Maps learning model have better achievement than students with Direct Learning model. 4) Each of learning model, students who have logical mathematics intelligences have better achievement then students who have medium logical mathematics intelligences, and students who have medium logical mathematics intelligences have better achievement than students who have low logical mathematics intelligences.

  15. Naïve Conceptions About Multimedia Learning:A Study on Primary School Textbooks


    Barbara eColombo; Alessandro eAntonietti


    An interview study, based on specific pictures taken from textbooks used in primary schools, was carried out to investigate illustrators’, teachers’, students’, and common people’s beliefs about the role that illustrations play in facilitating learning. Participants’ responses were internally coherent, indicating a systematic nature of the underlying naïve conceptions. Findings disprove Mayer’s pessimistic claim that laypersons’ conceptions of multimedia learning fail to match experiment...

  16. Academic self-handicapping: the role of self-concept clarity and students' learning strategies. (United States)

    Thomas, Cathy R; Gadbois, Shannon A


    Self-handicapping is linked to students' personal motivations, classroom goal structure, academic outcomes, global self-esteem and certainty of self-esteem. Academic self-handicapping has yet to be studied with respect to students' consistency in self-description and their description of themselves as learners. This study examined students' self-esteem and self-concept clarity as well as their tendencies to employ deep- or surface-learning approaches and self-regulate while learning in relation to their self-handicapping tendencies and exam performance. Participants were 161 male and female Canadian, first-year university students. Participants completed a series of questionnaires that measured their self-esteem, self-concept clarity, approaches to learning, self-regulation and reflections on performance prior to and following their exam. Self-handicapping was negatively correlated with self-concept clarity, deep learning, self-regulated learning and exam grades, and positively correlated with surface learning and test anxiety. Regression analyses showed that self-concept clarity, self-regulation, surface-learning and test anxiety scores predicted self-handicapping scores. Self-concept clarity, test anxiety scores, academic self-efficacy and self-regulation were predictors of mid-term exam grades. This study showed that students' self-concept clarity and learning strategies are related to their tendencies to self-handicap and their exam performance. The role of students' ways of learning and their self-concept clarity in self-handicapping and academic performance was explored.

  17. Educational Developers' Use of Learning Theories: Conceptions and Practices (United States)

    Kolomitro, Klodiana


    The role of educational developers has transitioned from the periphery to the centre of the higher education landscape as these practitioners are working to build capacity in teaching and learning. Yet, little is understood about educational developers themselves, and in particular, how learning theories inform their practice. In a qualitative…

  18. Mobile English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin


    Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…

  19. Concept Learning by Direct Current Design Challenges in Secondary Education (United States)

    van Breukelen, Dave H. J.; de Vries, Marc J.; Schure, Frank A.


    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training. LBD uses the…

  20. Students' conceptions of learning: using the ASSIST instrument ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine to which extent students pursue deep, strategic or surface apathetic learning approaches within a changing teaching and learning environment with the aim of establishing best practice. The findings seem to suggest that methods of assessment, direction given by lecturers and ...

  1. The concept of learning in cultural-historical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth


    A cultural-historical perspective on learning is presented. The key idea is to conceptualise learning as self-mastery of action, using existing psychological functions. The main part of the chapter provides an overview of Vygotsky’s theory of higher psychological functions, and discusses their im...

  2. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breukelen, D.H.J.; de Vries, M.J.; Schure, Frank A.


    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, that aims to improve student learning,

  3. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Breukelen, D.H.J.; De Vries, M.J.; Schure, F.A.


    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, that aims to improve student learning,

  4. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEd Dave van Breukelen; Prof. Dr. Marc de Vries; MEd Frank Schure


    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), that aims to improve student learning,

  5. Using progressive concept maps as a strategy for teaching and learning in teacher education in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Aparecida Soares Mendonça


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study carried out with Biology teachers under training, and aimed at investigating how concept maps enabled meaningful learning. The work was motivated by the fact that future teachers presented difficulties learning various concepts. In this light, maps can be a valuable instrument for the diagnosis and assessment of learning, enabling better concept learning. Thus, during our pedagogical intervention, we have strived to identify the conceptual evolution of students, through the construction of concept maps before, during and after the study of a proposed theme. The qualitative analysis of the produced maps focused on the processes of teaching, learning and assessment. At this point, the goal was to investigate whether or not students were able to relate the concepts under study, according to the principles of progressive differentiation and integrative reconcilitation. This was done while searching for evidences of meaningful learning.The pedagogical intervention lasted for 45 hours (8 meetings, during which a Zoology topic, concept Elephants was studied at a State university of Brazil. The qualitative analysis of the maps created by the learners has shown, in 58% of the cases, that there was an evolution of the learnersʼ knowledge of the theme. Obtained results suggest that maps have an efficient functional action and help improve the professional profile under formation.

  6. Self-Concept in Student Learning and Motivation Truant : Descriptive-Correlational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlina Harahap


    Full Text Available This research is aimed describ the learning motivation and self-concept of students who truant. This study used a descriptive quantitative method. The research conducted by the students of SMAN 5 Padangsidimpuan in the period of 2015/2016 with the total of the population was 420 students. Amount of research sample was 36 students and had been chosen by using purposive sampling technique. An instrument employed in this study was a Likert-scaled questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using percentage technique and the relationship between the two variables was analyzed by using nonparametric statistic, that is Spearman’s Coefficient of Rank Correlation. Results of this research are just like the following: 1 participants’ level of achievement on self-concept of students who truant is about 69,8%, 2 participants’ level of achievement on learning motivation of students who truant is about 69,2%, and 3 correlation coefficient of self-concept and learning motivation of students who truant is about 0,581. Therefore, it can be concluded that students who truancy have very low self-concept and learning motivation, and there is a significant relationship between self-concept and learning motivation. The implication in guidance counseling services is to create a service program which can increase self-concept and be learning motivation of students who truant

  7. Mediated learning experience and concept maps: a pedagogical tool for achieving meaningful learning in medical physiology students. (United States)

    González, Hilda Leonor; Palencia, Alberto Pardo; Umaña, Luis Alfredo; Galindo, Leonor; Villafrade M, Luz Adriana


    Even though comprehension of human physiology is crucial in the clinical setting, students frequently learn part of this subject using rote memory and then are unable to transfer knowledge to other contexts or to solve clinical problems. This study evaluated the impact of articulating the concept map strategy with the mediated learning experience on meaningful learning during the cardiovascular module of a medical physiology course at Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga. This research was based on the ideas of David Ausubel (meaningful learning), Joseph Novak (concept maps), and Reuven Feuerstein (mediated learning experience). Students were randomly allocated to either an intervention group (mediated learning experience articulated with concept mapping) or a control group (traditional methodology). The intervention group constructed concept maps related to cardiovascular physiology and used them to solve problems related to this subject. The control group attended traditional discussion sessions and problem-solving sessions. All students were evaluated with two types of exams: problem-solving and multiple-choice exams. The intervention group performed significantly better on the problem-solving exams, but the difference was not significant in the multiple-choice exam. It was concluded that intervention promoted meaningful learning that allowed the students to transfer this knowledge to solve problems. The implemented strategy had a greater impact on the students who came into the study with the lowest cognitive competence, possibly because they were empowered by the intervention.

  8. Does Constructivist Approach Applicable through Concept Maps to Achieve Meaningful Learning in Science? (United States)

    Jena, Ananta Kumar


    This study deals with the application of constructivist approach through individual and cooperative modes of spider and hierarchical concept maps to achieve meaningful learning on science concepts (e.g. acids, bases & salts, physical and chemical changes). The main research questions were: Q (1): is there any difference in individual and…

  9. Conceptions of Memorizing and Understanding in Learning, and Self-Efficacy Held by University Biology Majors (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    This study aims to explore Taiwanese university students' conceptions of learning biology as memorizing or as understanding, and their self-efficacy. To this end, two questionnaires were utilized to survey 293 Taiwanese university students with biology-related majors. A questionnaire for measuring students' conceptions of memorizing and…

  10. The Understanding of "Concept Study" in Teachers' Professional Learning: A Lived Experience of Complexity Inquiry (United States)

    Wang, Xiong


    This paper used narrative to present the author's understanding process of "concept study" in teachers' professional learning. The understanding process was advanced by several questions emerging from the preparation of doing "concept study". Thus, the several questions and their solutions became the threads of the narrative.…

  11. Impact of institute and person variables on teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.C.G.; Muijtjens, A.M.; van Luijk, S.J.; van der Vleuten, C.P.; Croiset, G.; Scheele, F.


    Background: Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching are important for faculty development to result in enduring changes in teaching practices. Until now, studies on these conceptions have mostly focused on traditional, lecture-based curricula rather than on small-group student-centred

  12. Best Practices for Learning Video Concept Detectors from Social Media Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.


    Learning video concept detectors from social media sources, such as Flickr images and YouTube videos, has the potential to address a wide variety of concept queries for video search. While the potential has been recognized by many, and progress on the topic has been impressive, we argue that key

  13. Trainee Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching and Learning, Classroom Layout and Exam Design (United States)

    Betoret, Fernando Domenech; Artiga, Amparo Gomez


    The objective of this study centres on identifying and classifying the conceptions of teaching and learning held by future secondary school teachers, and on analysing the relationship between these conceptions and the way classroom space is organized and exams are designed. The test instruments used were applied to a sample of 138 graduates, who…

  14. Concept-Based Arts Integration: Lessons Learned from an Application in Music and Biology (United States)

    Wolkowicz, Terry


    Arts integration has been a mixed blessing, with both the potential for developing deeper understandings amid concerns that it diminishes the integrity and authenticity of learning in the arts. This article describes concept-based arts integration as a model of arts integration where curriculum is designed around shared concepts that connect…

  15. Students' Conceptions on White Light and Implications for Teaching and Learning about Colour (United States)

    Haagen-Schützenhöfer, Claudia


    The quality of learning processes is mainly determined by the extent to which students' conceptions are addressed and thus conceptual change is triggered. Colour phenomena are a topic within initial instruction of optics which is challenging. A physically adequate concept of white light is crucial for being able to grasp the processes underlying…

  16. Integrating Motor-Learning Concepts into Physical Education: Using Guided Discovery to Address NASPE Standard 2 (United States)

    Rukavina, Paul B.; Jeansonne, Jennifer J.


    K-12 students enter physical education with many naive conceptions or misconceptions of how motor skills are acquired. One goal of physical education is to teach concepts that will help students learn and perform motor skills, but many practitioners don't know how to provide experiences that will teach students to apply their knowledge…

  17. Students' Understanding of the Function-Derivative Relationship When Learning Economic Concepts (United States)

    Ariza, Angel; Llinares, Salvador; Valls, Julia


    The aim of this study is to characterise students' understanding of the function-derivative relationship when learning economic concepts. To this end, we use a fuzzy metric (Chang 1968) to identify the development of economic concept understanding that is defined by the function-derivative relationship. The results indicate that the understanding…

  18. Incorporating Learning Motivation and Self-Concept in Mathematical Communicative Ability (United States)

    Rajagukguk, Waminton


    This research is trying to determine of the mathematical concepts, instead by integrating the learning motivation (X[subscript 1]) and self-concept (X[subscript 2]) can contribute to the mathematical communicative ability (Y). The test instruments showed the following results: (1) simple regressive equation Y on X[subscript 1] was Y = 32.891 +…

  19. Concept Mapping in the Humanities to Facilitate Reflection: Externalizing the Relationship between Public and Personal Learning (United States)

    Kandiko, Camille; Hay, David; Weller, Saranne


    This article discusses how mapping techniques were used in university teaching in a humanities subject. The use of concept mapping was expanded as a pedagogical tool, with a focus on reflective learning processes. Data were collected through a longitudinal study of concept mapping in a university-level Classics course. This was used to explore how…

  20. The Motivational Effects of Types of Computer Feedback on Children's Learning and Retention of Relational Concepts. (United States)

    Armour-Thomas, Eleanor; And Others

    The effects of different types of feedback in computer assisted instruction (CAI) on relational concept learning by young children were compared in this study. Subjects were 89 kindergarten students whose primary language was English, and whose performance on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts was within the average range chosen from classes in a…

  1. A Teaching Sequence for Learning the Concept of Chemical Equilibrium in Secondary School Education (United States)

    Ghirardi, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Regis, Alberto; Roletto, Ezio


    A novel didactic sequence is proposed for the teaching of chemical equilibrium. This teaching sequence takes into account the historical and epistemological evolution of the concept, the alternative conceptions and learning difficulties highlighted by teaching science and research in education, and the need to focus on both the students'…

  2. The Impact of Concept Mapping on the Process of Problem-Based Learning (United States)

    Zwaal, Wichard; Otting, Hans


    A concept map is a graphical tool to activate and elaborate on prior knowledge, to support problem solving, promote conceptual thinking and understanding, and to organize and memorize knowledge. The aim of this study is to determine if the use of concept mapping (CM) in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum enhances the PBL process. The paper…

  3. The Effectiveness of Concept Mapping and Retrieval Practice as Learning Strategies in an Undergraduate Physiology Course (United States)

    Burdo, Joseph; O'Dwyer, Laura


    Concept mapping and retrieval practice are both educational methods that have separately been reported to provide significant benefits for learning in diverse settings. Concept mapping involves diagramming a hierarchical representation of relationships between distinct pieces of information, whereas retrieval practice involves retrieving…

  4. Joined up Thinking? Evaluating the Use of Concept-Mapping to Develop Complex System Learning (United States)

    Stewart, Martyn


    In the physical and natural sciences, the complexity of natural systems and their interactions is becoming better understood. With increased emphasis on learning about complex systems, students will be encountering concepts that are dynamic, ill-structured and interconnected. Concept-mapping is a method considered particularly valuable for…

  5. Environmental Connections and Concept Mapping: Implementing a New Learning Technology at Lewis & Clark College (United States)

    Proctor, James D.; Bernstein, Jennifer


    What is environment? The answer to this question is fundamental to how we teach environmental studies and sciences (ESS). We follow recent scholarly literature in approaching environment as connection, not as some category of reality, and consider pedagogical implications via concept mapping, a new learning technology. Concept maps potentially…

  6. Teachers' Self-Concept and Valuing of Learning: Relations with Teaching Approaches and Beliefs about Students (United States)

    Yeung, Alexander S.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Kaur, Gurvinder


    One's self-concept and value perceptions can significantly influence one's behaviours and beliefs. Australian teachers from urban and rural areas of the state of New South Wales were asked to respond to survey items on two predictors (teacher self-concept, valuing of learning) and three outcomes. Confirmatory factor analysis established the five…

  7. Fostering Self-Concept and Interest for Statistics through Specific Learning Environments (United States)

    Sproesser, Ute; Engel, Joachim; Kuntze, Sebastian


    Supporting motivational variables such as self-concept or interest is an important goal of schooling as they relate to learning and achievement. In this study, we investigated whether specific interest and self-concept related to the domains of statistics and mathematics can be fostered through a four-lesson intervention focusing on statistics.…

  8. Study on Correlation of English Pronunciation Self-Concept to English Learning (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Zhang, Shengqi; Li, Yucong; Zhao, Miqiang


    English pronunciation self-concept is formed in the process of pronunciation learning, which refers to the learners' self-conception and assessment of one's English pronunciation proficiency and pronunciation (Gimson, A. C. 1980). This paper reports an investigation on 237 non-English major college students into the relationship between English…

  9. A phenomenographic study of students' conception of learning for a written examination. (United States)

    Edström, Desiree W; Wilhemsson-Macleod, Niklas; Berggren, Michel; Josephson, Anna; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik


    We investigated students' conception of learning for an examination in internal medicine, infectious diseases and dermatology-venereology, in three separate examinations versus a single integrated one. The study was carried out during a curricular change, with one cohort belonging to a new integrated examination and the other to the former non-integrated examination. Forty-eight interviews were carried out among medical undergraduates regarding the role of the examination in the learning process. The interviews were analyzed according to the phenomenographic approach to identify the students' conception of learning. The learning approaches could be categorized in 47 of the 48 students into 4 major groups: application directed, holistic, comprehensive and tactical memorizing learning. The result indicated that comprehensive learning was the most common approach among students following either examination-form; tactical memorizing learning was more prevalent among students following the non-integrated examination and holistic learning was applied more frequently among students following the integrated examination. Nine of the 47 students changed their approaches over time, the majority switching to a comprehensive approach. No significant gender difference was observed. Comprehensive learning was the most common strategy employed and students who changed during the course most often switched to this. However, only a minor change in approach was observed after a switching to an integrated examination, i.e. it takes more than just an integrated examination to change the student's conception of learning.

  10. Test-Enhanced Learning of Natural Concepts: Effects on Recognition Memory, Classification, and Metacognition (United States)

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Coane, Jennifer H.


    Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test…

  11. The Learning Disabled Adolescent: Eriksonian Psychosocial Development, Self-Concept, and Delinquent Behavior. (United States)

    Pickar, Daniel B.; Tori, Christopher D.


    Using a developmental perspective, this study contrasted learning and nonlearning disabled adolescents on three variables: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; self-concept; and delinquent behavior. The results indicated that the learning disabled subjects, due to years of failing, were unable to develop a sense of industry and…

  12. An Innovative Improvement of Engineering Learning System Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Concept (United States)

    Hung, T. C.; Wang, S. K.; Tai, S. W.; Hung, C. T.


    An innovative concept of an electronic learning system has been established in an attempt to achieve a technology that provides engineering students with an instructive and affordable framework for learning engineering-related courses. This system utilizes an existing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package, Active Server Pages programming,…

  13. The effect of a pretest in an interactive, multimodal pretraining system for learning science concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Floor/Floris; Terlouw, C.; Pilot, Albert


    In line with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning by Moreno and Mayer (2007), an interactive, multimodal learning environment was designed for the pretraining of science concepts in the joint area of physics, chemistry, biology, applied mathematics, and computer sciences. In the experimental

  14. Learning sequential control in a Neural Blackboard Architecture for in situ concept reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, Frank; Besold, Tarek R.; Lamb, Luis; Serafini, Luciano; Tabor, Whitney


    Simulations are presented and discussed of learning sequential control in a Neural Blackboard Architecture (NBA) for in situ concept-based reasoning. Sequential control is learned in a reservoir network, consisting of columns with neural circuits. This allows the reservoir to control the dynamics of

  15. Structuring Cooperative Learning for Motivation and Conceptual Change in the Concepts of Mixtures (United States)

    Belge Can, Hatice; Boz, Yezdan


    This study investigates the effect of structuring cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach on grade 9 students' understanding the concepts of mixtures and their motivation, compared with traditional instruction. Among six classes of a high school, two of them were randomly assigned to cooperative learning group where students were…

  16. The Role of Flipped Learning in Managing the Cognitive Load of a Threshold Concept in Physiology (United States)

    Akkaraju, Shylaja


    To help students master challenging, threshold concepts in physiology, I used the flipped learning model in a human anatomy and physiology course with very encouraging results in terms of student motivation, preparedness, engagement, and performance. The flipped learning model was enhanced by pre-training and formative assessments that provided…

  17. How Does Technology-Enabled Active Learning Affect Undergraduate Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism Concepts? (United States)

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Belcher, John


    Educational technology supports meaningful learning and enables the presentation of spatial and dynamic images, which portray relationships among complex concepts. The Technology-Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) Project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) involves media-rich software for simulation and visualization in freshman…

  18. Exploring Students' Conceptions of Science Learning via Drawing: A Cross-Sectional Analysis (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Min; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    This cross-sectional study explored students' conceptions of science learning via drawing analysis. A total of 906 Taiwanese students in 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th grade were asked to use drawing to illustrate how they conceptualise science learning. Students' drawings were analysed using a coding checklist to determine the presence or absence…

  19. Conceptions of learning and approaches to studying among White and ethnic minority students in distance education. (United States)

    Richardson, John T E


    The attainment of White students at UK institutions of higher education tends to be higher than that of students from other ethnic groups, but the causes of this are unclear. This study compared White students and students from other ethnic groups in their conceptions of learning, their approaches to studying, and their academic attainment. A stratified sample of 1,146 White students and 1,146 students from other ethnic groups taking courses by distance learning with the UK Open University. The Mental Models section of the Inventory of Learning Styles and the Revised Approaches to Studying Inventory were administered in a postal survey. The students' questionnaire scores were contaminated by response bias, which varied across different ethnic groups. When adjusted to control for response bias, the scores on the two questionnaires shared 37.2% of their variance and made a significant contribution to predicting the students' attainment. White students were more likely to exhibit a meaning-directed learning pattern, whereas Asian and Black students were more likely to exhibit a reproduction-directed learning pattern. However, the variation in attainment across different ethnic groups remained significant when their questionnaire scores and prior qualifications were taken into account. There is a strong relationship between students' conceptions of learning and their approaches to studying, and variations in conceptions of learning in different ethnic groups give rise to variations in approaches to studying. However, factors other than prior qualifications and conceptions of learning are responsible for variation in attainment across different ethnic groups.

  20. Toward an Integrated Competence-based System Supporting Lifelong Learning and Employability: Concepts, Model, and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Van der Klink, Marcel; Boon, Jo; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob


    Miao, Y., Van der Klink, M., Boon, J., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2009). Toward an Integrated Competence-based System Supporting Lifelong Learning and Employability: Concepts, Model, and Challenges. Presentation at the 8th International Conference Advances in Web Based Learning - ICWL 2009. August,

  1. Exploring the Self-concept of Adults with Mild Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Pestana, Claudio


    This qualitative study aimed to add to the research on the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities and to generate a deeper understanding of their self-perceptions rather than draw generalised quantitative conclusions. Eight adults diagnosed with mild learning disabilities receiving support from a supported living project were…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kruglyk


    Full Text Available A concept of software support of learning programming language and technologies is regarded in the article. Present systems of independent study of subjects, related to programming, are examined. Necessary components of a system of support learning programming languages and technologies, which is oriented on independent study, are considered.

  3. Design and Effects of a Concept Focused Discussion Environment in E-Learning (United States)

    Yilmaz, Erdi Okan; Yurdugul, Halil


    Problem Statement: Within the frame of learning management systems, this study develops a concept focused discussion environment and validates the effectiveness of this environment's use through an experimental study. Purpose of the Study: Online discussion forums, which are commonly used in learning management systems (LMS), can negatively…

  4. Concept Mapping: Does It Promote Meaningful Learning in the Clinical Setting? (United States)

    Adema-Hannes, Rachel; Parzen, Maurine


    Preparing, organizing and planning care for patients is challenging for nursing students as they must learn to link theory to practice. Concept mapping has been suggested as an effective strategy to facilitate meaningful learning and promote critical thinking among nursing students (Baugh & Mellott, 1998; Schuster, 2003). Utilization of concept…

  5. Conceptual Understanding of Acids and Bases Concepts and Motivation to Learn Chemistry (United States)

    Cetin-Dindar, Ayla; Geban, Omer


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5E learning cycle model oriented instruction (LCMI) on 11th-grade students' conceptual understanding of acids and bases concepts and student motivation to learn chemistry. The study, which lasted for 7 weeks, involved two groups: An experimental group (LCMI) and a control group (the…

  6. Naïve conceptions about multimedia learning: a study on primary school textbooks. (United States)

    Colombo, Barbara; Antonietti, Alessandro


    HIGHLIGHTSThis interview study explores beliefs about the instructional role of illustrationsWe compared illustrators', teachers', students' and common people's ideasParticipants' responses were internally coherent and close to multimedia learning theoryWe propose and discuss an integrated multimedia learning model An interview study, based on specific pictures taken from textbooks used in primary schools, was carried out to investigate illustrators', teachers', students', and common people's beliefs about the role that illustrations play in facilitating learning. Participants' responses were internally coherent, indicating a systematic nature of the underlying naïve conceptions. Findings disprove Mayer's pessimistic claim that laypersons' conceptions of multimedia learning fail to match experimentally supported principles and theories. On the contrary, interviewees spontaneously came very close to the multimedia learning theory, which states that students learn better from pictures, which fit specific cognitive principles. Implications for school instruction are highlighted.

  7. Comparison between project-based learning and discovery learning toward students' metacognitive strategies on global warming concept (United States)

    Tumewu, Widya Anjelia; Wulan, Ana Ratna; Sanjaya, Yayan


    The purpose of this study was to know comparing the effectiveness of learning using Project-based learning (PjBL) and Discovery Learning (DL) toward students metacognitive strategies on global warming concept. A quasi-experimental research design with a The Matching-Only Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design was used in this study. The subjects were students of two classes 7th grade of one of junior high school in Bandung City, West Java of 2015/2016 academic year. The study was conducted on two experimental class, that were project-based learning treatment on the experimental class I and discovery learning treatment was done on the experimental class II. The data was collected through questionnaire to know students metacognitive strategies. The statistical analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences in students metacognitive strategies between project-based learning and discovery learning.

  8. Learning concepts, language, and literacy in hybrid linguistic codes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vygotskian ideas on children's cognitive development and its interplay with language in an argument for a linguistically 'stable' pedagogy that prepares learners for the world of written language in which they have to express most of their learning ...

  9. Machine learning concepts in coherent optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Schäffer, Christian G.


    Powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by the machine learning community, are addressed and linked to current problems in coherent optical communication. Bayesian filtering methods are presented and applied for nonlinear dynamic state tracking. © 2014 OSA.......Powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by the machine learning community, are addressed and linked to current problems in coherent optical communication. Bayesian filtering methods are presented and applied for nonlinear dynamic state tracking. © 2014 OSA....

  10. The Effect of Using Concept Maps in Elementary Linear Algebra Course on Students’ Learning (United States)

    Syarifuddin, H.


    This paper presents the results of a classroom action research that was done in Elementary Linear Algebra course at Universitas Negeri Padang. The focus of the research want to see the effect of using concept maps in the course on students’ learning. Data in this study were collected through classroom observation, students’ reflective journal and concept maps that were created by students. The result of the study was the using of concept maps in Elementary Linera Algebra course gave positive effect on students’ learning.

  11. Machine learning methods to predict child posttraumatic stress: a proof of concept study. (United States)

    Saxe, Glenn N; Ma, Sisi; Ren, Jiwen; Aliferis, Constantin


    The care of traumatized children would benefit significantly from accurate predictive models for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), using information available around the time of trauma. Machine Learning (ML) computational methods have yielded strong results in recent applications across many diseases and data types, yet they have not been previously applied to childhood PTSD. Since these methods have not been applied to this complex and debilitating disorder, there is a great deal that remains to be learned about their application. The first step is to prove the concept: Can ML methods - as applied in other fields - produce predictive classification models for childhood PTSD? Additionally, we seek to determine if specific variables can be identified - from the aforementioned predictive classification models - with putative causal relations to PTSD. ML predictive classification methods - with causal discovery feature selection - were applied to a data set of 163 children hospitalized with an injury and PTSD was determined three months after hospital discharge. At the time of hospitalization, 105 risk factor variables were collected spanning a range of biopsychosocial domains. Seven percent of subjects had a high level of PTSD symptoms. A predictive classification model was discovered with significant predictive accuracy. A predictive model constructed based on subsets of potentially causally relevant features achieves similar predictivity compared to the best predictive model constructed with all variables. Causal Discovery feature selection methods identified 58 variables of which 10 were identified as most stable. In this first proof-of-concept application of ML methods to predict childhood Posttraumatic Stress we were able to determine both predictive classification models for childhood PTSD and identify several causal variables. This set of techniques has great potential for enhancing the methodological toolkit in the field and future studies should seek to

  12. Grade Level Differences in High School Students' Conceptions of and Motives for Learning Science (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Students' conceptions of learning science and their relations with motive for learning may vary as the education level increases. This study aimed to compare the quantitative patterns in students' conceptions of learning science (COLS) and motives for learning science (MLS) across grade levels by adopting two survey instruments. A total of 768 high school students were surveyed in Taiwan, including 204 eighth graders, 262 tenth graders, and 302 12th graders. In the current research, memorizing, testing, and calculating and practicing were categorized as reproductive conceptions of learning science, while increase of knowledge, applying, understanding and seeing-in-a-new-way were regarded as constructivist conceptions. The results of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) revealed that conceptions of learning science are more constructivist as education level increases. Both tenth graders and 12th graders endorsed understanding, seeing-in-a-new-way, and the constructivist COLS composite more strongly than the eighth graders did. In addition, the results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis indicated that the positive relations between testing and reproductive COLS were stronger as the grade level increased, while the negative relations between reproductive COLS and deep motive were tighter with the increase in grade level.

  13. Collaborative and Multilingual Approach to Learn Database Topics Using Concept Maps (United States)

    Calvo, Iñaki


    Authors report on a study using the concept mapping technique in computer engineering education for learning theoretical introductory database topics. In addition, the learning of multilingual technical terminology by means of the collaborative drawing of a concept map is also pursued in this experiment. The main characteristics of a study carried out in the database subject at the University of the Basque Country during the 2011/2012 course are described. This study contributes to the field of concept mapping as these kinds of cognitive tools have proved to be valid to support learning in computer engineering education. It contributes to the field of computer engineering education, providing a technique that can be incorporated with several educational purposes within the discipline. Results reveal the potential that a collaborative concept map editor offers to fulfil the above mentioned objectives. PMID:25538957

  14. Test-enhanced learning of natural concepts: effects on recognition memory, classification, and metacognition. (United States)

    Jacoby, Larry L; Wahlheim, Christopher N; Coane, Jennifer H


    Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test trials during training. Metacognitive measures provided results suggesting that participants were aware of the beneficial effects of testing. A new measure of metacognition at the level of categories is introduced and shown to be potentially useful for theory and applied purposes. It is argued that focusing on optimizing the learning of natural concepts encourages the convergence of theorizing about memory, concept learning, and metacognition and holds promise for the development of applications to education. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Interactive Learning Program (ILP)- a concept for life long learning and Capacity Building of Stakeholders in Integrated Flood Management (IFM) (United States)

    Pasche, E.; Manojlovic, N.; Basener, S.; Behzadnia, N.


    In the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approach the key to initialising this transition stage is capacity building of stakeholders. It supports the effective participation of stakeholders within their role by giving the individuals/professionals and institutions required knowledge and skills. Such a process of empowering targeted stakeholder groups should be based on the interactive learning rather than mere delivering of flood related information. It can be achieved by initiating the learning process and developing life-long learning programs in form of blended learning that combines both, supervised online and face-to-face approaches. The learning concept based on the didactic principle of Kolb/Fry, has been used as a basis for development of the Interactive Learning Program (ILP) presented in this paper. Kolb/Fry define learning as a cyclic process dividing it into four steps: concrete experience, reflection & observation, forming abstract concepts, testing of acquainted knowledge in new situations. As the knowledge to understand the complexity of IFM is extensive and required level usually cannot be achieved within the face-to-face phase, additional autodidactic learning module tailored to the individual skills should be included in the learning program. ILP combines both, the face-to-face sessions following the Kolb?s learning cycle including theoretical and practical aspects and autodidactic phase by means of the e-learning platform based on the web dissemination strategy for IFM- Kalypso Inform (Pasche/Kraus/Manojlovic). According to this strategy, the access to the flood related information is enabled through three different modules Tutorial, Knowledge Base and Virtual Trainer enabling interaction with the system. This ILP is generic and can be tailored to requirements of different stakeholder groups depending on their role and level of integration in IFM. The first results, obtained for both public and private

  16. The Cognitive Science of Learning: Concepts and Strategies for the Educator and Learner. (United States)

    Weidman, Joseph; Baker, Keith


    Education is the fundamental process used to develop and maintain the professional skills of physicians. Medical students, residents, and fellows are expected to learn considerable amounts of information as they progress toward board certification. Established practitioners must continue to learn in an effort to remain up-to-date in their clinical realm. Those responsible for educating these populations endeavor to teach in a manner that is effective, efficient, and durable. The study of learning and performance is a subdivision of the field of cognitive science that focuses on how people interpret and process information and how they eventually develop mastery. A deeper understanding of how individuals learn can empower both educators and learners to be more effective in their endeavors. In this article, we review a number of concepts found in the literature on learning and performance. We address both the theoretical principles and the practical applications of each concept. Cognitive load theory, constructivism, and analogical transfer are concepts particularly beneficial to educators. An understanding of goal orientation, metacognition, retrieval, spaced learning, and deliberate practice will primarily benefit the learner. When these concepts are understood and incorporated into education and study, the effectiveness of learning is significantly improved.

  17. Deutungslernen in der Erwachsenenbildung: Grundlinien und Illustrationen zu einem konstruktivistischen Lernbegriff (The Concept of the Learning of Interpretation in Adult Education--Outlines of and Examples for a Constructivist Concept of Learning). (United States)

    Arnold, Rolf


    Develops the concept of the learning of interpretation in contrast to prevailing didactic models of representation. Sketches the didactic and professional-theoretical implications of the concept of learning of interpretive methods. Illustrates these considerations concerning the learning of interpretive methods with empirical examples. (DSK)

  18. Future Time Orientation and Learning Conceptions: Effects on Metacognitive Strategies, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Study Effort and Academic Achievement (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Braojos, Calixto


    During the past decade, research on the constructive learning process has been conducted mainly from two perspectives: student approaches to learning (SAL) and self-regulated learning (SRL). The SAL perspective has highlighted the role of learning conceptions with respect to other topics involved in constructive learning processes, whereas…

  19. Learning and retention of quantum concepts with different teaching methods (United States)

    Deslauriers, Louis; Wieman, Carl


    We measured mastery and retention of conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics in a modern physics course. This was studied for two equivalent cohorts of students taught with different pedagogical approaches using the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey. We measured the impact of pedagogical approach both on the original conceptual learning and on long-term retention. The cohort of students who had a very highly rated traditional lecturer scored 19% lower than the equivalent cohort that was taught using interactive engagement methods. However, the amount of retention was very high for both cohorts, showing only a few percent decrease in scores when retested 6 and 18 months after completion of the course and with no exposure to the material in the interim period. This high level of retention is in striking contrast to the retention measured for more factual learning from university courses and argues for the value of emphasizing conceptual learning.

  20. Compositional Syntactic Placement and Simple Concept Learning in Female Adults. (United States)

    Hart, Russ A.

    A media attribute approach was used in a study which hypothesized that compositional syntactic placement may bridge the processing link between the learner's cognitive capacity and the demands of a simple concept attainment task. Compositional syntactic placement refers to the relative horizontal position of the primary symbol or object within a…

  1. Creative Drama: Enhancing Self-Concepts and Learning. (United States)

    Renard, Sue; Sockol, Kay

    This book presents activities designed to enhance components of a healthy self-concept in elementary school children. The first, second, and third chapters contain building blocks for techniques used in creative drama. The first chapter gives plans which establish group cohesion, teach skills needed for future lessons, and give facilitators…

  2. Can Using Human Examples Facilitate Learning Mendelian Genetics Concepts? (United States)

    Moore, John M.; And Others


    Reports an experimental study of 80 ninth grade biology students randomly assigned to treatment and control groups to determine whether the use of human examples in instructional strategies on Mendelian genetics increases acquisition and retention of genetics concepts. Results indicate that use of human examples in contrast to traditional examples…

  3. Does concept mapping enhance learning outcome of nursing students? (United States)

    Jaafarpour, Molouk; Aazami, Sanaz; Mozafari, Mosayeb


    The aim of this study was to assess the concept mapping as a teaching method in the academic achievement of nursing students. This quasi-experimental study was conducted using a crossover design among two groups of total 64 nursing students. Participants were asked to create concept maps (group A) or were evaluated with the traditional method of quiz (group B) for eight weeks and then take a cumulative test (no. 1). Consequently, subjects used the alternate method for another eight weeks and then take the second cumulative test (no. 2). The results of this study showed that the mean scores for cumulative tests (both no. 1 and no. 2) was higher in the group that engaged in map construction compared to the group that only take the quizzes. In addition, there was a gradual increase in the mean scores of developed map during the eight sessions of intervention. In conclusion, concept mapping has a positive effect on students' academic achievement. These findings could provide valuable evidence for establishing concept mapping as a continuous teaching strategy for nursing students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Theoretical Model for Meaning Construction through Constructivist Concept Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    The central focus of this Ph.D. research is on ‘Logic and Cognition’ and, more specifically, this research covers the quintuple (Logic and Logical Philosophy, Philosophy of Education, Educational Psychology, Cognitive Science, Computer Science). The most significant contributions of this Ph...... of ‘learning’, ‘mentoring’, and ‘knowledge’ within learning and knowledge acquisition systems. Constructivism as an epistemology and as a model of knowing and, respectively as a theoretical model of learning builds up the central framework of this research....

  5. A qualitative study on using concept maps in problem-based learning. (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y


    The visual arts, including concept maps, have been shown to be effective tools for facilitating student learning. However, the use of concept maps in nursing education has been under-explored. The aim of this study was to explore how students develop concept maps and what these concept maps consist of, and their views on the use of concept maps as a learning activity in a PBL class. A qualitative approach consisting of an analysis of the contents of the concept maps and interviews with students. The study was conducted in a school of nursing in a university in Hong Kong. A total of 38 students who attended the morning session (20 students) and afternoon session (18 students) respectively of a nursing problem-based learning class. The students in both the morning and afternoon classes were allocated into four groups (4-5 students per group). Each group was asked to draw two concept maps based on a given scenario, and then to participate in a follow-up interview. Two raters individually assessed the concept maps, and then discussed their views with each other. Among the concept maps that were drawn, four were selected. Their four core features of those maps were: a) the integration of informative and artistic elements; b) the delivery of sensational messages; c) the use of images rather than words; and d) three-dimensional and movable. Both raters were concerned about how informative the presentation was, the composition of the elements, and the ease of comprehension, and appreciated the three-dimensional presentation and effective use of images. From the results of the interview, the pros and cons of using concept maps were discerned. This study demonstrated how concept maps could be implemented in a PBL class to boost the students' creativity and to motivate them to learn. This study suggests the use of concept maps as an initiative to motivate student to learn, participate actively, and nurture their creativity. To conclude, this study explored an alternative way

  6. Using concept mapping to evaluate knowledge structure in problem-based learning. (United States)

    Hung, Chia-Hui; Lin, Chen-Yung


    Many educational programs incorporate problem-based learning (PBL) to promote students' learning; however, the knowledge structure developed in PBL remains unclear. The aim of this study was to use concept mapping to generate an understanding of the use of PBL in the development of knowledge structures. Using a quasi-experimental study design, we employed concept mapping to illustrate the effects of PBL by examining the patterns of concepts and differences in the knowledge structures of students taught with and without a PBL approach. Fifty-two occupational therapy undergraduates were involved in the study and were randomly divided into PBL and control groups. The PBL group was given two case scenarios for small group discussion, while the control group continued with ordinary teaching and learning. Students were asked to make concept maps after being taught about knowledge structure. A descriptive analysis of the morphology of concept maps was conducted in order to compare the integration of the students' knowledge structures, and statistical analyses were done to understand the differences between groups. Three categories of concept maps were identified as follows: isolated, departmental, and integrated. The students in the control group constructed more isolated maps, while the students in the PBL group tended toward integrated mapping. Concept Relationships, Hierarchy Levels, and Cross Linkages in the concept maps were significantly greater in the PBL group; however, examples of concept maps did not differ significantly between the two groups. The data indicated that PBL had a strong effect on the acquisition and integration of knowledge. The important properties of PBL, including situational learning, problem spaces, and small group interactions, can help students to acquire more concepts, achieve an integrated knowledge structure, and enhance clinical reasoning.

  7. Engineering students' conceptions of entrepreneurial learning as part of their education (United States)

    Täks, Marge; Tynjälä, Päivi; Kukemelk, Hasso


    The purpose of this study was to examine what kinds of conceptions of entrepreneurial learning engineering students expressed in an entrepreneurship course integrated in their study programme. The data were collected during an entrepreneurship course in Estonia that was organised for fourth-year engineering students, using video-recorded group interviews (N = 48) and individual in-depth interviews (N = 16). As a result of the phenomenographic analysis, four qualitatively distinctive conceptions of entrepreneurial learning were discerned. Entrepreneurial learning was seen to involve (1) applying entrepreneurial ideas to engineering, (2) understanding entrepreneurial issues in a new way, (3) action-oriented personal development, and (4) self-realising through collective effort. These qualitatively distinct categories differed from each other in four dimensions of variation: nature of learning, response to pedagogy, relation to teamwork, and learning outcomes.

  8. Distributing learning over time: the spacing effect in children's acquisition and generalization of science concepts. (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A; Sandhofer, Catherine M


    The spacing effect describes the robust finding that long-term learning is promoted when learning events are spaced out in time rather than presented in immediate succession. Studies of the spacing effect have focused on memory processes rather than for other types of learning, such as the acquisition and generalization of new concepts. In this study, early elementary school children (5- to 7-year-olds; N = 36) were presented with science lessons on 1 of 3 schedules: massed, clumped, and spaced. The results revealed that spacing lessons out in time resulted in higher generalization performance for both simple and complex concepts. Spaced learning schedules promote several types of learning, strengthening the implications of the spacing effect for educational practices and curriculum. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Development of Problem-Based Learning Oriented Teaching Learning Materials to Facilitate Students’ Mastery of Concept and Critical Thinking Skill (United States)

    Reza, M.; Ibrahim, M.; Rahayu, Y. S.


    This research aims to develop problem-based learning oriented teaching materials to improve students’ mastery of concept and critical thinking skill. Its procedure was divided into two phases; developmental phase and experimental phase. This developmental research used Four-D Model. However, within this research, the process of development would not involve the last stages, which is disseminate. The teaching learning materials which were developed consist of lesson plan, student handbook, student worksheet, achievement test and critical thinking skill test. The experimental phase employs a research design called one group pretest-posttest design. Results show that the validity of the teaching materials which were developed was good and revealed the enhancement of students’ activities with positive response to the teaching learning process. Furthermore, the learning materials improve the students’ mastery of concept and critical thinking skill.

  10. Incremental concept learning with few training examples and hierarchical classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Henri; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Schutte, Klamer; Azzopardi, George; Burghouts, Gertjan J.


    Object recognition and localization are important to automatically interpret video and allow better querying on its content. We propose a method for object localization that learns incrementally and addresses four key aspects. Firstly, we show that for certain applications, recognition is feasible

  11. Teaching Learning Concepts to Graduate Students through Writing (United States)

    Coberly-Holt, Patricia G.; Walton, S. Taylor


    Over a period of four years, the instructor of History and Theory of Adult Education monitored and recorded graduate students' reactions to the experiences of learning through writing assignments that incorporate diverse methods associated with stringent pedagogical and andragogical methods. After experiencing the two divergent teaching styles and…

  12. Stories, Proverbs, and Anecdotes as Scaffolds for Learning Science Concepts (United States)

    Mutonyi, Harriet


    Few research studies in science education have looked at how stories, proverbs, and anecdotes can be used as scaffolds for learning. Stories, proverbs, and anecdotes are cultural tools used in indigenous communities to teach children about their environment. The study draws on Bruner's work and the theory of border crossing to argue that stories,…

  13. Concept Maps as a strategy to asses learning in biochemistry using educational softwares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. P. Azevedo


    Full Text Available This abstract reports  the  use of concept  maps applied  to the evaluation of concepts  learned  through the use of an educational software to study  metabolic  pathways called Diagrama Metabolico Dinamico Virtual  do Ciclo de Krebs (DMDV.  Experience  with the use of this method  was carried  through  with two distinct groups  of students.  The  first  group  was composed  by 24 students (in  2003 who used DMDV during  the  classes (computer room.  The second group was formed by 36 students (in 2004 who could access DMDV software anytime  through  the intranet. The construction of the conceptual map by the student permits  the representation of knowledge, the mental  processes that were absorved and the adaptation during the study,  building new mental schemes that could be related to the concept of reflexioning  abstraction (Piaget, 1995 during  the  process of operation  with  these  concepts.   The evaluation of knowlegde was made by the analysis  of three conceptual  maps constructed by each one of them:   (a  one map  before initiating the  study  with  DMDV,  (b  the  second just  after  the  study and (c the third  one two months  later.  We used the following criteria  for the analysis:  predominance of associative  over classificatory  character; correct concepts  and  relationships; coherence;  number  of relationships;  creativity and  logic.   The  initial  maps  showed  that all  students had  some  previous mental scheme  about  the proposed  concept.    All final  concept maps  showed  an  expansion  of the concepts  as compared  to the initial  maps, something  which can be seen even by a mere glance at the size of graphics.  A purely visual comparison  between the maps indicated  that new elements have been added.   The  associative  character has been shown to predominate as compared  to the  classificatory one.  The

  14. The Context-Specific Conceptions of Learning in Case-Based Accounting Assignments, Students' Characteristics and Performance (United States)

    Moilanen, Sinikka


    The present study contributes to accounting education literature by describing context-specific conceptions of learning related to case assignments, and by exploring the associations between the conceptions of learning, students' characteristics and performance. The data analysed consist of 1320 learning diaries of 336 students, connected with…

  15. The Conceptions of Learning Science by Laboratory among University Science-Major Students: Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Li; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Background: The sophistication of students' conceptions of science learning has been found to be positively related to their approaches to and outcomes for science learning. Little research has been conducted to particularly investigate students' conceptions of science learning by laboratory. Purpose: The purpose of this research, consisting of…

  16. Concept Model For Designing Engaging And Motivating Games For Learning - The Smiley-Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke; Ørngreen, Rikke


    learning in a learning game, 2) study of motivational theories, 3) analysis of theory of play and existing experiences on dissemination of learning in games in fun ways 4) analysis of motivating and engaging game elements, and 5) analysis of similar music learning games. During an iterative design process......, the design manual was used for development of various prototypes of the learning game concept. This happened through action research in collaboration with the users, in participatory design workshops, combined with observation, qualitative interviews, and peer reviews. Through empirical studies and design...... that is believed to be an advantage when using learning games in education. In this paper the Smiley-model is presented (figure 1). The model describes which parameters and elements are important when designing a learning game. The present research is a result of a case-based action research study for designing...

  17. Conceptions of How a Learning or Teaching Curriculum, Workplace Culture and Agency of Individuals Shape Medical Student Learning and Supervisory Practices in the Clinical Workplace (United States)

    Strand, Pia; Edgren, Gudrun; Borna, Petter; Lindgren, Stefan; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Stalmeijer, Renée E.


    The role of workplace supervisors in the clinical education of medical students is currently under debate. However, few studies have addressed how supervisors conceptualize workplace learning and how conceptions relate to current sociocultural workplace learning theory. We explored physician conceptions of: (a) medical student learning in the…

  18. High School Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning, and Self-Efficacy for Learning Biology: A Study of Their Structural Models (United States)

    Sadi, Özlem; Dagyar, Miray


    The current work reveals the data of the study which examines the relationships among epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and self-efficacy for biology learning with the help of the Structural Equation Modeling. Three questionnaires, the Epistemological Beliefs, the Conceptions of Learning Biology and the Self-efficacy for Learning…

  19. The use of concept maps as an indicator of significant learning in Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naíma Soltau Ferrão


    Full Text Available This paper contains reflections and results of a research that aimed to apply and analyze the use of concept maps in Higher Education as an indicator of significant learning concerning derivative as mathematical object with students that finished Differential and Integral Calculus. This is a qualitative approach, situated in the area of mathematics education, based on Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning and on technique of Novak's Concept Mapping. As data acquisition instruments, use of classroom observations, questionnaire, brainstorming and digital conceptual mapping, made by an undergraduate physics course. To analyze we defined four aspects to be observed in the maps constructed by students: (i validity of propositions formed with concepts, (ii hierarchization, (iii cross-links between the propositions, and (vi the presence of applications. The identification of these elements, taken as reference to analyze the maps, allowed the collection of information about how each student has structured and correlated the set of concepts learned on the derivative of a function along their course. Based on the results, we have identified in the digital conceptual maps effective tools to evaluate the students in terms of meaningful learning about specific contents of Differential and Integral Calculus by the hierarchy of concepts, progressive differentiation and integrative reconciliation as defined in the Theory of Meaningful Learning.

  20. Numerical model for learning concepts of streamflow simulation (United States)

    DeLong, L.L.; ,


    Numerical models are useful for demonstrating principles of open-channel flow. Such models can allow experimentation with cause-and-effect relations, testing concepts of physics and numerical techniques. Four PT is a numerical model written primarily as a teaching supplement for a course in one-dimensional stream-flow modeling. Four PT options particularly useful in training include selection of governing equations, boundary-value perturbation, and user-programmable constraint equations. The model can simulate non-trivial concepts such as flow in complex interconnected channel networks, meandering channels with variable effective flow lengths, hydraulic structures defined by unique three-parameter relations, and density-driven flow.The model is coded in FORTRAN 77, and data encapsulation is used extensively to simplify maintenance and modification and to enhance the use of Four PT modules by other programs and programmers.

  1. Influence Learning Model ARIAS and ARIAS Combined Concept maps to Critical Thinking Skills, Cognitive, and Affective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ismail


    Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran ARIAS dan ARIAS Dipadu Peta Konsep terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis, Kognitif, dan Afektif Abstract: The learning model Assurance, Relevance, Interest, Assessment, and Satisfaction (ARIAS combined concept maps can enhance critical thinking skills, cognitive, and affective. The study aims to examine the effect of learning model ARIAS, combined ARIAS concept maps and concept maps on the ability of critical thinking, cognitive, and affective. The research data were collected through the test description and observation sheet. The result showed that the average value of critical thinking skills, cognitive and affective for group learning model combined ARIAS Concept maps very well classified category, class learning ARIAS treatment, and treatment classes Concept maps including both categories. Key Words: influence, ARIAS, concept maps, critical thinking, cognitive, and affective Abstrak: Model pembelajaran Assurance, Relevance, Interest, Assessment, dan Satisfaction (ARIAS  dipadu peta konsep dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis, kognitif, dan afektif. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh model pembelajaran ARIAS, ARIAS dipadu peta konsep, dan peta konsep terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis, kognitif, dan afektif. Data penelitian dikumpulkan melalui tes uraian dan lembar observasi. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa nilai rata-rata kemampuan berpikir kritis, kognitif dan afektif untuk kelompok model pembelajaran ARIAS dipadu Peta Konsep tergolong kategori sangat baik, kelas perlakuan pembelajaran ARIAS, dan kelas perlakuan Peta Konsep termasuk kategori baik. Kata kunci: pengaruh, ARIAS, peta konsep, berpikir kritis, kognitif, afektif

  2. Improvement of Self-regulated Learning in Mathematics through a Hypermedia Application: Differences based on Academic Performance and Previous Knowledge. (United States)

    Cueli, Marisol; Rodríguez, Celestino; Areces, Débora; García, Trinidad; González-Castro, Paloma


    Self-regulation on behalf of the student is crucial in learning Mathematics through hypermedia applications and is an even greater challenge in these IT environments. Two aims are formulated. First, to analyze the effectiveness of a hypermedia tool in improving perceived knowledge of self-regulatory strategies and the perceived usage of the planning, executing and assessment strategy on behalf of students with low, medium and high levels of academic performance. Second, to analyze the effectiveness of the hypermedia tool in improving perceived usage of the strategy for planning, monitoring and evaluating on behalf of students with a perceived knowledge (low, medium and high). Participants were 624 students (aged 10-13), classified into a treatment group (TG; 391) and a comparative group (CG; 233). They completed a questionnaire on perceived knowledge (Perceived Knowledge of Self-Regulatory Strategies) and another one on perceived usage of the strategy for planning, performing and evaluating (Inventory of Self-regulatory Learning Processes). Univariate covariance analyses (ANCOVAs) and Student-t tests were used. ANCOVA results were not statistically significant. However, the linear contrast indicated a significant improvement in perceived knowledge of strategies among the TG with low, medium and high academic performance (p ≤ .001). Results are discussed in the light of past and future research.

  3. Triplex transfer learning: exploiting both shared and distinct concepts for text classification. (United States)

    Zhuang, Fuzhen; Luo, Ping; Du, Changying; He, Qing; Shi, Zhongzhi; Xiong, Hui


    Transfer learning focuses on the learning scenarios when the test data from target domains and the training data from source domains are drawn from similar but different data distributions with respect to the raw features. Along this line, some recent studies revealed that the high-level concepts, such as word clusters, could help model the differences of data distributions, and thus are more appropriate for classification. In other words, these methods assume that all the data domains have the same set of shared concepts, which are used as the bridge for knowledge transfer. However, in addition to these shared concepts, each domain may have its own distinct concepts. In light of this, we systemically analyze the high-level concepts, and propose a general transfer learning framework based on nonnegative matrix trifactorization, which allows to explore both shared and distinct concepts among all the domains simultaneously. Since this model provides more flexibility in fitting the data, it can lead to better classification accuracy. Moreover, we propose to regularize the manifold structure in the target domains to improve the prediction performances. To solve the proposed optimization problem, we also develop an iterative algorithm and theoretically analyze its convergence properties. Finally, extensive experiments show that the proposed model can outperform the baseline methods with a significant margin. In particular, we show that our method works much better for the more challenging tasks when there are distinct concepts in the data.

  4. Frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3)--current concepts and the detection of a previously unknown branch of the Danish FTD-3 family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, S.G.; Braedgaard, H.; Svenstrup, K.


    BACKGROUND: Among patients with onset of dementia below the age of 65 years, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most prevalent cause, secondary only to Alzheimer's disease. Recent advances in understanding the heterogeneous genetic background for different clinical and neuropathological...... discuss recent advances and current concepts in the understanding of CHMP2B-related dementia Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...

  5. The Utility of Concept Maps to Facilitate Higher-Level Learning in a Large Classroom Setting (United States)

    Carr-Lopez, Sian M.; Vyas, Deepti; Patel, Rajul A.; Gnesa, Eric H.


    Objective. To describe the utility of concept mapping in a cardiovascular therapeutics course within a large classroom setting. Design. Students enrolled in a cardiovascular care therapeutics course completed concept maps for each major chronic cardiovascular condition. A grading rubric was used to facilitate peer-assessment of the concept map. Assessment. Students were administered a survey at the end of the course assessing their perceptions on the usefulness of the concept maps during the course and also during APPEs to assess utility beyond the course. Question item analyses were conducted on cumulative final examinations comparing student performance on concept-mapped topics compared to nonconcept-mapped topics. Conclusion. Concept maps help to facilitate meaningful learning within the course and the majority of students utilized them beyond the course. PMID:26056408

  6. The transition to self-regulated learning for first-year dental students: threshold concepts. (United States)

    Bowman, M


    Research shows that when students arrive at university they are often not prepared for independent learning. New students enter a period of transition during their first year, which is often characterised by emotional destabilisation, as they move towards becoming more self-regulating in their new learning environment. In this small-scale qualitative study, data from an in-depth pair interview were triangulated with data from a questionnaire, to explore participants' experiences of self-regulated learning in the first year of a Dental Surgery course. Five threshold concepts relating to learning in transition emerged from the analysis of the data. These concepts were as follows: learning how to learn using a range of self-chosen sources instead of a single textbook, learning how to organise incoming information without guidance, distinguishing between main ideas and detail during revision, coping with a heavy workload, and knowing what to expect from examinations and coursework. Strong emotions (feeling confused, overwhelmed and scared) were associated with negotiating these threshold concepts. However, the study illustrates how the participants adopted new cognitive and metacognitive strategies to become more self-regulating over time. The findings of the study suggest that lecturers, tutors, study advisers and peers all have an important role to play in explicitly guiding first-year students as they grapple with troublesome threshold concepts relating to self-regulated learning. Furthermore, structural changes to the content-heavy, lecture-based curricula often associated with first-year Medical and Dental courses would help ease students' transition to independent learning, which may make an impact on student attainment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Toward meaningful learning in undergraduate medical education using concept maps in a PBL pathophysiology course. (United States)

    Rendas, António B; Fonseca, Marta; Pinto, Patrícia Rosado


    Problem-based learning (PBL) is now an established method in undergraduate medical education that aims to develop reasoning skills based on clinical problems. More recently, the use of concept mapping in medical education aims to improve meaningful learning. At the New University of Lisbon, we have been using PBL as a major educational method in a pathophysiology course. In 2003-2004, we started to use Inspiration, a computer-based concept mapping tool, with a single tutorial PBL group. A total of 36 maps were constructed related to short cases, already used in the PBL course, in which a certain number of key nodes were hidden to allow the students to fill in the gaps. The results obtained appear to indicate that the use of concept maps stimulated meaningful learning within a PBL course.

  8. Measuring student learning using initial and final concept test in an STEM course (United States)

    Kaw, Autar; Yalcin, Ali


    Effective assessment is a cornerstone in measuring student learning in higher education. For a course in Numerical Methods, a concept test was used as an assessment tool to measure student learning and its improvement during the course. The concept test comprised 16 multiple choice questions and was given in the beginning and end of the class for three semesters. Hake's gain index, a measure of learning gains from pre- to post-tests, of 0.36 to 0.41 were recorded. The validity and reliability of the concept test was checked via standard measures such as Cronbach's alpha, content and criterion-related validity, item characteristic curves and difficulty and discrimination indices. The performance of various subgroups such as pre-requisite grades, transfer students, gender and age were also studied.

  9. Fostering Multimedia Learning with Collaborative Concept Mapping: The Effect of Cognitive Aid on Performance and on Collaboration (United States)

    Acuña, Santiago Roger; Aymes, Gabriela López; Medrano, Carlos Sergio López


    This paper analyzes the use of collaborative concept maps in multimedia learning tasks. Specifically, the effect of a cognitive aid (providing students a list of main concepts to generate a concept map) on the performance of collaborative concept mapping and on the level of collaboration in this task is discussed. The study was carried out with 57…

  10. Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems: the Career of a Concept (United States)

    Wenger, Etienne

    The concept of community of practice was not born in the systems theory tradition. It has its roots in attempts to develop accounts of the social nature of human learning inspired by anthropology and social theory (Lave, 1988; Bourdieu, 1977; Giddens, 1984; Foucault, 1980; Vygotsky, 1978). But the concept of community of practice is well aligned with the perspective of systems traditions. A community of practice itself can be viewed as a simple social system. And a complex social system can be viewed as constituted by interrelated communities of practice. In this essay I first explore the systemic nature of the concept at these two levels. Then I use this foundation to look at the applications of the concept, some of its main critiques, and its potential for developing a social discipline of learning.

  11. Use of concept maps to promote electrocardiogram diagnosis learning in undergraduate medical students (United States)

    Dong, Ruimin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Xing, Bangrong; Zou, Zihao; Zheng, Zhenda; Xie, Xujing; Zhu, Jieming; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Hanjian


    Concept mapping is an effective method in teaching and learning, however this strategy has not been evaluated among electrocardiogram (ECG) diagnosis learning. This study explored the use of concept maps to assist ECG study, and sought to analyze whether this method could improve undergraduate students’ ECG interpretation skills. There were 126 undergraduate medical students who were randomly selected and assigned to two groups, group A (n = 63) and group B (n = 63). Group A was taught to use concept maps to learn ECG diagnosis, while group B was taught by traditional methods. After the course, all of the students were assessed by having an ECG diagnostic test. Quantitative data which comprised test score and ECG features completion index was compared by using the unpaired Student’s t-test between the two groups. Further, a feedback questionnaire on concept maps used was also completed by group A, comments were evaluated by a five-point Likert scale. The test scores of ECGs interpretation was 7.36 ± 1.23 in Group A and 6.12 ± 1.39 in Group B. A significant advantage (P = 0.018) of concept maps was observed in ECG interpretation accuracy. No difference in the average ECG features completion index was observed between Group A (66.75 ± 15.35%) and Group B (62.93 ± 13.17%). According qualitative analysis, majority of students accepted concept maps as a helpful tool. Difficult to learn at the beginning and time consuming are the two problems in using this method, nevertheless most of the students indicated to continue using it. Concept maps could be a useful pedagogical tool in enhancing undergraduate medical students’ ECG interpretation skills. Furthermore, students indicated a positive attitude to it, and perceived it as a resource for learning. PMID:26221331

  12. The Impact of Project-Based Learning on Improving Student Learning Outcomes of Sustainability Concepts in Transportation Engineering Courses (United States)

    Fini, Elham H.; Awadallah, Faisal; Parast, Mahour M.; Abu-Lebdeh, Taher


    This paper describes an intervention to enhance students' learning by involving students in brainstorming activities about sustainability concepts and their implications in transportation engineering. The paper discusses the process of incorporating the intervention into a transportation course, as well as the impact of this intervention on…

  13. Conceptions of E-Learning and Professional Development for E-Learning Held by Tertiary Educators in New Zealand (United States)

    Stein, Sarah J.; Shephard, Kerry; Harris, Irene


    The conceptions an individual holds about a phenomenon can influence and determine associated behaviours and perspectives. Consequently, they have a bearing upon how learning about a phenomenon is undertaken and how that phenomenon is experienced and applied in context. A phenomenographic research approach was used to gather the expressed…

  14. Learning, Action and Solutions in Action Learning: Investigation of Facilitation Practice Using the Concept of Living Theories (United States)

    Sanyal, Chandana


    This paper explores the practice of action learning (AL) facilitation in supporting AL set members to address their 'messy' problems through a self-reflexive approach using the concept of 'living theory' [Whitehead, J., and J. McNiff. 2006. "Action Research Living Theory." London: Sage]. The facilitation practice is investigated through…

  15. Students' Conception of Learning Environment and Their Approach to Learning and Its Implication on Quality Education (United States)

    Belaineh, Matheas Shemelis


    Quality of education in higher institutions can be affected by different factors. It partly rests on the learning environment created by teachers and the learning approach students are employing during their learning. The main purpose of this study is to examine the learning environment at Mizan Tepi University from students' perspective and their…

  16. Possible Major Influences of Children Learning Social Studies on Academic Self Concept and Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Kaluge


    Full Text Available This study was aimed at finding the best model to explain pupil academic attainment in learning social studies. The data came from pupils learning Social Studies at grade 3 and 4 of primary schools. The structural equation model contained 2 exogenous constructs–attitudes toward school and locus of control–and 2 endogenous constructs–self-concept and academic achievement. It was confirmed that the academic self-concept and achievement related to each other and both were influenced by attitudes toward school and internal locus of control. The model was fitting differently for different grade.

  17. Arts-based learning: analysis of the concept for nursing education. (United States)

    Rieger, Kendra L; Chernomas, Wanda M


    Teaching and learning strategies are needed to support learner-centered curricula, and prepare nurses who are capable of working in today's challenging health care environments. Although the traditional lecture is still widely used in nursing education, innovative approaches are needed to encourage discussion, debate, and critical reflection, activities that support lifelong learning. Arts-based learning [ABL] is a creative strategy with the potential to engage learners, foster understanding of multiple perspectives, and simultaneously connect cognitive and affective domains of learning. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis is applied to examine the uses of ABL in the literature, define the attributes, distinguish the antecedents and consequences, identify model and other cases, and determine empirical referents of this concept. This analysis is presented to facilitate the conceptual understanding of ABL for use in research and nursing education.

  18. Disability, technology and e-learning: challenging conceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Seale


    Full Text Available In considering the role that technology and e-learning can play in helping students access higher education and an effective learning experience, a large amount of the current research and practice literature focuses almost exclusively on accessibility legislation, guidelines and standards, and the rules contained within them (Abascal et al., 2004; Chisholm & Brewer, 2005; Gunderson & May, 2005; Paolucci, 2004; Reed et al., 2004; Slatin, 2005. One of the major problems of such an approach is that it has drawn higher education practitioners into thinking that their objective is to comply with rules. I argue that it is not (Seale, 2006. The objective should be to address the needs of students. The danger of only focusing on rules is that it can constrain thinking and therefore practice. We need to expand our thinking beyond that of how to comply with rules, towards how to meet the needs of students with disabilities, within the local contexts that students and practitioners are working. In thinking about how to meet the needs of students with disabilities, practitioners will need to develop their own tools. These tools might be user case studies, evaluation methodologies or conceptualizations:

  19. Open Integrated Personal Learning Environment: Towards a New Conception of the ICT-Based Learning Processes (United States)

    Conde, Miguel Ángel; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José; Casany, Marià José; Alier Forment, Marc

    Learning processes are changing related to technological and sociological evolution, taking this in to account, a new learning strategy must be considered. Specifically what is needed is to give an effective step towards the eLearning 2.0 environments consolidation. This must imply the fusion of the advantages of the traditional LMS (Learning Management System) - more formative program control and planning oriented - with the social learning and the flexibility of the web 2.0 educative applications.

  20. Mapping of Students’ Learning Progression Based on Mental Model in Magnetic Induction Concepts (United States)

    Hamid, R.; Pabunga, D. B.


    The progress of student learning in a learning process has not been fully optimally observed by the teacher. The concept being taught is judged only at the end of learning as a product of thinking, and does not assess the mental processes that occur in students’ thinking. Facilitating students’ thinking through new phenomena can reveal students’ variation in thinking as a mental model of a concept, so that students who are assimilative and or accommodative can be identified in achieving their equilibrium of thought as well as an indicator of progressiveness in the students’ thinking stages. This research data is obtained from the written documents and interviews of students who were learned about the concept of magnetic induction through Constructivist Teaching Sequences (CTS) models. The results of this study indicate that facilitating the students’ thinking processes on the concept of magnetic induction contributes to increasing the number of students thinking within the "progressive change" category, and it can be said that the progress of student learning is more progressive after their mental models were facilitated through a new phenomena by teacher.

  1. Argument Based Science Inquiry (ABSI) Learning Model in Voltaic Cell Concept (United States)

    Subarkah, C. Z.; Fadilah, A.; Aisyah, R.


    Voltaic Cell is a sub-concept of electrochemistry that is considered difficult to be comprehended by learners Voltaic Cell is a sub concept of electrochemistry that is considered difficult to be understood by learners so that impacts on student activity in learning process. Therefore the learning model Argument Based Science Inquiry (ABSI) will be applied to the concept of Voltaic cell. This research aims to describe students’ activities during learning process using ABSI model and to analyze students’ competency to solve ABSI-based worksheets (LK) of Voltaic Cell concept. The method used in this research was the “mix-method-quantitative-embedded” method with subjects of the study: 39 second-semester students of Chemistry Education study program. The student activity is quite good during ABSI learning. The students’ ability to complete worksheet (LK) for every average phase is good. In the phase of exploration of post instruction understanding, it is categorized very good, and in the phase of negotiation shape III: comparing science ideas to textbooks or other printed resources merely reach enough category. Thus, the ABSI learning has improved the student levels of activity and students’ competency to solve the ABSI-based worksheet (LK).

  2. Training in robotics: The learning curve and contemporary concepts in training. (United States)

    Bach, Christian; Miernik, Arkadiusz; Schönthaler, Martin


    To define the learning curve of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery for prostatectomy (RALP) and upper tract procedures, and show the differences between the classical approach to training and the new concept of parallel learning. This mini-review is based on the results of a Medline search using the keywords 'da Vinci', 'robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery', 'training', 'teaching' and 'learning curve'. For RALP and robot-assisted upper tract surgery, a learning curve of 8-150 procedures is quoted, with most articles proposing that 30-40 cases are needed to carry out the procedure safely. There is no consensus about which endpoints should be measured. In the traditional proctored training model, the surgeon learns the procedure linearly, following the sequential order of the surgical steps. A more recent approach is to specify the relative difficulty of each step and to train the surgeon simultaneously in several steps of equal difficulty. The entire procedure is only performed after all the steps are mastered in a timely manner. Recently, a 'warm-up' before robotic surgery has been shown to be beneficial for successful surgery in the operating room. There is no clear definition of the duration of the effective learning curve for RALP and robotic upper tract surgery. The concept of stepwise, parallel learning has the potential to accelerate the learning process and to make sure that initial cases are not too long. It can also be assumed that a preoperative 'warm up' could help significantly to improve the progress of the trainee.

  3. Empirical evidence of the effectiveness of concept mapping as a learning intervention for nuclear medicine technology students in a distance learning radiation protection and biology course. (United States)

    Passmore, Gregory G; Owen, Mary Anne; Prabakaran, Krishnan


    Metacognitive learning strategies are based on instructional learning theory, which promotes deep, meaningful learning. Educators in a baccalaureate-level nuclear medicine technology program demonstrated that students enrolled in an online, distance learning section of an introductory radiation protection and radiobiology course performed better when traditional instruction was supplemented with nontraditional metacognitive learning strategies. The metacognitive learning strategy that was used is best known as concept mapping. The concept map, in addition to the standard homework problem assignment and opportunity for question-answer sessions, became the template for misconception identification and remediation interactions between the instructor and the student. The control group relied on traditional homework problems and question-answer sessions alone. Because students in both the "treatment" groups (i.e., students who used concept mapping) and the control group were distance learning students, all personal communications were conducted via e-mail or telephone. The final examination of the course was used to facilitate a quantitative comparison of the performance of students who used concept mapping and the performance of students who did not use concept mapping. The results demonstrated a significantly higher median final examination score for the concept mapping group than for the non-concept mapping group (z = -2.0381, P = 0.0415), with an appropriately large effect size (2.65). Concept mapping is a cognitive learning intervention that effectively enables meaningful learning and is suitable for use in the independent learner-oriented distance learning environments used by some nuclear medicine technology programs.

  4. Exploring spiritual value in earth science concept through learning using chain till unanswered questions (United States)

    Johan, Henny; Suhandi, Andi; Samsudin, Ahmad; Ratna Wulan, Ana


    Now days, the youth's moral decline is an urgent problem in our country. Natural science especially earth and space science learning is potential to insert spirituality value in its learning activities. The aim of this study is to explore concept of planet earth to embed spirituality attitude through earth science learning. Interactive conceptual learning model using chain till unanswered questions (CTUQ) with help visualizations was implemented in this study. 23 pre-service physics teacher in Bengkulu, Indonesia participated in this study. A sixth indicator of spiritual aspect about awareness of divinity were used to identify the shifted of students' spirituality. Quasi experimental research design had been utilized to implement the learning model. The data were collected using a questionnaire in pretest and posttest. Open ended question was given at post-test only. Questionnaire was analyzed quantitative while open ended question was analyzed qualitatively. The results show that after implementation student's spiritual shifted to be more awareness of divinity. Students' response at scale 10 increased been 97.8% from 87.5% of total responses. Based on analysis of open ended question known that the shifted was influenced by spiritual value inserted in concepts, CTUQ, and media visualization used to show unobservable earth phenomenon during learning activities. It can be concluded that earth science concepts can be explored to embed spiritual aspect.

  5. Science Shops - a concept for community based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Hende, Merete


    in other ways besides the direct work with science shop projects. The following ways have been identified: - Science shop staff develop theoretical and methodological courses, where students can learn the competence that can be developed through science shop projects like science communication, academia......-user dialogue etc. - Science shop staff supply case studies based on science shop projects to courses taught by the science shop staff itself and/or by other teachers - Science shop staff participate in the development of and the teaching at courses within topics emerged from problems raised by citizen groups...... - Science shop staff participates in the restructuring of curricula in order to bring in methodological competence from science shop projects....

  6. Design and Development of an Interactive Multimedia Simulation for Augmenting the Teaching and Learning of Programming Concepts (United States)

    Baloyi, Leonah L.; Ojo, Sunday O.; Van Wyk, Etienne A.


    Teaching and learning programming has presented many challenges in institutions of higher learning worldwide. Teaching and learning programming require cognitive reasoning, mainly due to the fundamental reality that the underlying concepts are complex and abstract. As a result, many institutions of higher learning are faced with low success rates…

  7. [Conception and implementation of a novel E-learning module with EbM learning contents in operative dentistry]. (United States)

    Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne; Dreher, Stefanie; Rüttermann, Stefan; Weberschock, Tobias


    Computer-assisted learning (CAL) programs are becoming more widely used in medical and dental training. However, the combination of CAL programs and evidence-based education in dentistry has not been described previously. The aim was to determine the acceptance and user-friendliness of a CAL program combined with evidence-based training. The didactic concept of the module includes the case-oriented, problem-based embedding of a total of 32 EbM learning assignments, which can be completed interactively and self-determinedly in an interdisciplinary context using focus patients with different diseases. The present study was conducted at the Dental School of the Goethe University in Frankfurt/Main. Data on acceptance and user-friendliness were collected from three consecutive cohorts of 114 dental students attending their first clinical semester. They used the "Toothache Walk-in Clinic: FOCUS" CAL, which can be downloaded via the Internet. The instrument consisted of 64 statements. The first part addressed general information about the user. The second part contained 43 specific statements on the CAL program. These included factors A (handling and technical aspects), B (content and functional range), and C (didactics and suitability for education). Possible responses ranged from 0 to 3 (0 = strongly disagree, 3 = strongly agree). All of the 114 questionnaires distributed were returned (response rate 100%). Most users (90.1%) considered the topics of evidence-based dentistry important for their training. They rated the program by using German school grades, and the overall rating was 2.26 (SD = 0.64). Most students (88.6%) considered the program useful for their clinical training in the treatment of patients. The mean scores for the 43 specific items amounted to 1.90 (factor A, SD = 0.63), 1.55 (factor B, SD = 1.93), and 2.23 (factor C, SD = 0.79). The CAL program with dental medicine vignettes and learning elements for evidence-based medicine received a primarily

  8. Pre-Service Physics Teachers’ Concept Mastery and the Challenges of Game Development on Physics Learning (United States)

    Saprudin, S.; Liliasari, L.; Prihatmanto, A. S.


    This study is a survey that aims to describe pre-service physics teachers’ concept mastery at a university in Ternate. Data were collected through test standard instrument for physics which used in the teacher certification program. Data were analyzed by using quantitative descriptive technique. Based on the results of data analysis, it was concluded that generally pre-service physics teachers’ concept mastery can be categorized on low category (25.4%). The map of concept mastery will be used as a reference to developing game design in the physics learning context for pre-service physics teachers.

  9. Conceptions of how a learning or teaching curriculum, workplace culture and agency of individuals shape medical student learning and supervisory practices in the clinical workplace. (United States)

    Strand, Pia; Edgren, Gudrun; Borna, Petter; Lindgren, Stefan; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Stalmeijer, Renée E


    The role of workplace supervisors in the clinical education of medical students is currently under debate. However, few studies have addressed how supervisors conceptualize workplace learning and how conceptions relate to current sociocultural workplace learning theory. We explored physician conceptions of: (a) medical student learning in the clinical workplace and (b) how they contribute to student learning. The methodology included a combination of a qualitative, inductive (conventional) and deductive (directed) content analysis approach. The study triangulated two types of interview data from 4 focus group interviews and 34 individual interviews. A total of 55 physicians participated. Three overarching themes emerged from the data: learning as membership, learning as partnership and learning as ownership. The themes described how physician conceptions of learning and supervision were guided by the notions of learning-as-participation and learning-as-acquisition. The clinical workplace was either conceptualized as a context in which student learning is based on a learning curriculum, continuity of participation and partnerships with supervisors, or as a temporary source of knowledge within a teaching curriculum. The process of learning was shaped through the reciprocity between different factors in the workplace context and the agency of students and supervising physicians. A systems-thinking approach merged with the "co-participation" conceptual framework advocated by Billet proved to be useful for analyzing variations in conceptions. The findings suggest that mapping workplace supervisor conceptions of learning can be a valuable starting point for medical schools and educational developers working with changes in clinical educational and faculty development practices.

  10. Autoconceito e dificuldades de aprendizagem na escrita Self-concept and learning disabilities of writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermino Fernandes Sisto


    Full Text Available O autoconceito vem sendo considerado na literatura como um constructo multidimensional e um dos aspectos afetivo-emocionais relacionados às dificuldades de aprendizagem. Considerando a importância desse constructo, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se haveria diferenças significativas entre níveis de dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita e o autoconceito geral, escolar, social, familiar e pessoal de crianças do ensino fundamental. Utilizou-se uma escala para avaliar a dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita e outra para avaliação do autoconceito. A amostra foi composta por 277 estudantes, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 9 e 10 anos, da 3ª série do ensino fundamental. Os resultados evidenciaram que a dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita está significativamente relacionada com o autoconceito geral e com o escolar, verificando-se que conforme aumenta o nível de dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita diminui o autoconceito.The self-concept as the individual's perception of himself has been considered in the literature as a multidimensional construct and as one of the most influential emotional aspect in learning disabilities. So, the aim of this study was to verify if there were significant differences between the levels of learning disabilities related to writing and general, school, social, family and personal self-concepts. Two scales were used, the first assessing the level of learning disabilities of writing and the other assessing self-concept. The sample was composed by 277 9-10 years old students, of both genders, from the third grade of elementary school. The results showed that the learning disabilities of writing are significantly related with general self-concept and with school self-concept, suggesting that the increase of learning disabilities levels means decrease of general and school self-concepts.

  11. Use of concept mapping as a facilitative tool to promote learning in pharmacology. (United States)

    Qadir, Farida; Zehra, Tabassum; Khan, Imrana


    To assess whether students find concept mapping a useful learning methodology to conceptualize and organize topics studied in CNS module of Pharmacology; and to evaluate whether addition of concept mapping assignment could help to improve examination scores. An analytical study. College of Dentistry, Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan, from March to May 2009. A class of 50 BDS students was recruited for the study. Two randomly selected groups of 12 students each, prepared concept maps in topics from CNS pharmacology which were displayed and discussed during tutorial sessions. The other two groups (n = 25) following the traditional teaching methodology, served as controls. Scores from best choice questions and short essay questions were compared between the investigational and control groups using the student's t-test with significance at p 0.05). However, feedback about concept mapping showed that the technique helped the students to conceptualize difficult topics in CNS pharmacology (86.36%). Concept mapping was particularly beneficial in preparing for exams as it provided a quick overview of the entire subject (68.68%). Students found concept mapping as a useful pedagogical tool which could potentially be used to acquire meaningful learning in Pharmacology as a supplement to traditional teaching techniques. It was not found beneficial in improving examination grades probably because standard examinations and concept mapping measure different cognitive domains.

  12. Frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3)--current concepts and the detection of a previously unknown branch of the Danish FTD-3 family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, S.G.; Braedgaard, H.; Svenstrup, K.


    entities of FTD have involved identification of several new causative genes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report the finding of a truncating mutation in the CHMP2B gene (c.532-1G>C) in a patient with early onset dementia. The patient was previously not known to be related to the single Danish pedigree known...

  13. Machine learning of neural representations of suicide and emotion concepts identifies suicidal youth. (United States)

    Just, Marcel Adam; Pan, Lisa; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; McMakin, Dana; Cha, Christine; Nock, Matthew K; Brent, David


    The clinical assessment of suicidal risk would be significantly complemented by a biologically-based measure that assesses alterations in the neural representations of concepts related to death and life in people who engage in suicidal ideation. This study used machine-learning algorithms (Gaussian Naïve Bayes) to identify such individuals (17 suicidal ideators vs 17 controls) with high (91%) accuracy, based on their altered fMRI neural signatures of death and life-related concepts. The most discriminating concepts were death, cruelty, trouble, carefree, good, and praise . A similar classification accurately (94%) discriminated 9 suicidal ideators who had made a suicide attempt from 8 who had not. Moreover, a major facet of the concept alterations was the evoked emotion, whose neural signature served as an alternative basis for accurate (85%) group classification. The study establishes a biological, neurocognitive basis for altered concept representations in participants with suicidal ideation, which enables highly accurate group membership classification.

  14. An updated review of the concept of eLearning. Tenth anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José GARCÍA-PEÑALVO


    Full Text Available The continuous advances in technology cause innovation-acceptation-consolidationobsolescence flows regarding the knowledge and technology management strategies, both ad hoc and planned, of the corporations and also, in a different scale, of the individuals. Teaching and learning processes are not obviously unaware of this situation. The irruption of Information and Communication Technologies as educational tools mean both a conceptual and a methodological turning point in the way that institutions, educational or not, face training processes and learning management, especially with regard to the concept of distance education, which evolves, in a more or less significant way, when it adopts Internet as media; that is how the eLearning concept rises. However, from the first eLearning experiences, too much settled on the concept of platform or Learning Management System, up to the present times, there have been significant changes, again in both technological and methodological levels. It is important to underline, among others, the influence of social media in the daily habits of users. This way, an increased demand of learning personalization it is shown, as so as a complete connectivity with other peers, an unlimited access to resources and information sources, a complete flexibility in the way, place and time they access, and a natural and necessary coexistence of both formal and informal learning flows. Thus, the “traditional” eLearning platforms, despite their large penetration and consolidation, need to evolve and open themselves to support this rich fan of possibilities demanded by the users, ceasing to be the centre technological attention to become another component into a complex digital ecosystem oriented to the learning and knowledge management, both at institutional and personal levels. It is therefore necessary to make an updated review of the eLearning concept and its definitions that have been provided from the experience and

  15. Incremental concept learning with few training examples and hierarchical classification (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Schutte, Klamer; Azzopardi, George; Burghouts, Gertjan J.


    Object recognition and localization are important to automatically interpret video and allow better querying on its content. We propose a method for object localization that learns incrementally and addresses four key aspects. Firstly, we show that for certain applications, recognition is feasible with only a few training samples. Secondly, we show that novel objects can be added incrementally without retraining existing objects, which is important for fast interaction. Thirdly, we show that an unbalanced number of positive training samples leads to biased classifier scores that can be corrected by modifying weights. Fourthly, we show that the detector performance can deteriorate due to hard-negative mining for similar or closely related classes (e.g., for Barbie and dress, because the doll is wearing a dress). This can be solved by our hierarchical classification. We introduce a new dataset, which we call TOSO, and use it to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for the localization and recognition of multiple objects in images.

  16. Learning physics concepts as a function of colloquial language usage (United States)

    Maier, Steven J.

    Data from two sections of college introductory, algebra-based physics courses (n1 = 139, n2 = 91) were collected using three separate instruments to investigate the relationships between reasoning ability, conceptual gain and colloquial language usage. To obtain a measure of reasoning ability, Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning Ability (TSR) was administered once near mid-term for each sample. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered at the beginning and at the end of the term for pre- and post-test measures. Pre- and post-test data from the Mechanics Language Usage instrument were also collected in conjunction with FCI data collection at the beginning and end of the term. The MLU was developed specifically for this study prior to data collection, and results of a pilot test to establish validity and reliability are reported. T-tests were performed on the data collected to compare the means from each sample. In addition, correlations among the measures were investigated between the samples separately and combined. Results from these investigations served as justification for combining the samples into a single sample of 230 for performing further statistical analyses. The primary objective of this study was to determine if scientific reasoning ability (a function of developmental stage) and conceptual gains in Newtonian mechanics predict students' usages of "force" as measured by the MLU. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate these mediated relationships among TSR and FCI performance as a predictor of MLU performance. Statistically significant correlations and relationships existed among several of the measures, which are discussed at length in the body of the narrative. The findings of this research are that although there exists a discernable relationship between reasoning ability and conceptual change, more work needs to be done to establish improved quantitative measures of the role language usage has in developing understandings

  17. A Course Which Used Programming to Aid Learning Various Mathematical Concepts. (United States)

    Day, Jane M.

    A three unit mathematics course entitled Introduction to Computing evaluated the effectiveness of programing as an aid to learning math concepts and to developing student self-reliance. Sixteen students enrolled in the course at the College of Notre Dame in Belmont, California; one terminal was available, connected to the Stanford Computation…

  18. Improving Operations Management Concept Recollection via the Zarco Experiential Learning Activity (United States)

    Polito, Tony; Kros, John; Watson, Kevin


    In this study, the authors investigated the effect of Zarco, an operations management "mock factory" experiential learning activity, on student recollection of operations management concepts. Using a number of single-factor and multiple-factor analyses of variance, the authors compared the recollection of students treated with the Zarco activity…

  19. Toward an Integrated Competence-based System Supporting Lifelong Learning and Employability: Concepts, Model, and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Van der Klink, Marcel; Boon, Jo; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob


    Miao, Y., Van der Klink, M., Boon, J., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2009). Toward an Integrated Competence-based System Supporting Lifelong Learning and Employability: Concepts, Model, and Challenges. In M. Spaniol, Q. Li, R. Klamma & R. W. H. Lau (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International

  20. Chinese and German Teachers' Conceptions of Play and Learning and Children's Play Behaviour (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chen; Rao, Nirmala


    Commonalities and distinctions in Hong Kong-Chinese and German kindergarten teachers' conceptions of play and learning were examined. Six video clips of play episodes reflecting common play behavior and themes were selected from observations made during free play in two kindergartens in Hong Kong and two in Germany. Ten Chinese and seven German…

  1. When Practice Doesn't Make Perfect: Effects of Task Goals on Learning Computing Concepts (United States)

    Miller, Craig S.; Settle, Amber


    Specifying file references for hypertext links is an elementary competence that nevertheless draws upon core computational thinking concepts such as tree traversal and the distinction between relative and absolute references. In this article we explore the learning effects of different instructional strategies in the context of an introductory…

  2. Inculcating Positive Thinking in the Self-Concept of Children with Learning Difficulties (United States)

    Abed, Mohaned Ghazi


    Inculcating positive thinking can act as a valuable tool in enhancing the overall self-concept of children with learning disabilities. The value of positive psychology is recognized as the basis for recent research conducted in the field of strength development. Positive psychology is centered on the view that individual lives can be improved by…

  3. Teaching-Learning Conceptions and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Test Anxiety (United States)

    Bas, Gökhan


    The current research aimed at examining the mediating role of test anxiety in the relationship between teaching-learning conceptions and academic achievement. The correlation investigation model was adopted in this research. The participants of the research were volunteering teachers (n = 108) and students (n = 526) from five different high…

  4. Hypothesis Generation, Evaluation, and Memory Abilities in Adult Human Concept Learning. (United States)

    Cason, Carolyn L.; And Others

    Studies were made between performance on tests of mental abilities and concept learning tasks; it is pointed out that the researcher is usually confronted with administering large batteries of tests of mental abilities and then analyzing his results with one of the factor analytic techniques. An information process analysis of tests of mental…

  5. Teachers' Conceptions and Their Approaches to Teaching in Virtual Reality and Simulation-Based Learning Environments (United States)

    Keskitalo, Tuulikki


    This research article focuses on virtual reality (VR) and simulation-based training, with a special focus on the pedagogical use of the Virtual Centre of Wellness Campus known as ENVI (Rovaniemi, Finland). In order to clearly understand how teachers perceive teaching and learning in such environments, this research examines the concepts of…

  6. The Collaboration of Cooperative Learning and Conceptual Change: Enhancing the Students' Understanding of Chemical Bonding Concepts (United States)

    Eymur, Gülüzar; Geban, Ömer


    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach instruction on ninth-grade students' understanding in chemical bonding concepts compared to traditional instruction. Seventy-two ninth-grade students from two intact chemistry classes taught by the same teacher in a public high…

  7. EFL teachers' conceptions and attitudes of peer-assisted learning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The purpose of this study was to examine EFL teachers' conceptions and attitudes of peer-assisted learning in English language classes. ... Many of the participant teachers had negative attitudes toward PAL as they had incredulity in the benefits and effectiveness of its newly introduced structure. Based on the ...

  8. Psychological Correlates of School Bullying Victimization: Academic Self-Concept, Learning Motivation and Test Anxiety (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea


    The paper aims at detecting the association between students' bullying victimization at school and some psychological dimensions, referred to academic self-concept (for both Mathematics and Reading), learning motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, commitment to study) and test anxiety. A questionnaire including these measures was…

  9. A Video Lecture and Lab-Based Approach for Learning of Image Processing Concepts (United States)

    Chiu, Chiung-Fang; Lee, Greg C.


    The current practice of traditional in-class lecture for learning computer science (CS) in the high schools of Taiwan is in need of revamping. Teachers instruct on the use of commercial software instead of teaching CS concepts to students. The lack of more suitable teaching materials and limited classroom time are the main reasons for the…

  10. The Temporal Properties of E-Learning: An Exploratory Study of Academics' Conceptions (United States)

    Martins, Jorge; Nunes, Miguel Baptista


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an exploratory study that investigates Portuguese academics' conceptions concerning the temporal properties of e-learning, in the context of traditional Higher Education Institutions. Design/methodology/approach: Grounded Theory methodology was used to systematically analyse data…

  11. Impact of Simulations on the Mental Models of Students in the Online Learning of Science Concepts (United States)

    Laxman, Kumar; Chin, Yap Kueh


    Numerous flash or java applet based simulations have been developed to improve students' comprehension of Science concepts, particularly the more complex or "dry" ones. Simulations have been reported to be effective as instructional aids in scaffolding scientific learning by students since simulations support the explication of implicit…

  12. On Logical Characterisation of Human Concept Learning based on Terminological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad


    and providing a logical background for theorising over the Human Concept Learning Problem (HCLP) in terminological systems are the main contributions of this research. In order to make a linkage between 'Logic' and 'Cognition', Description Logics (DLs) will be employed to provide a logical description...

  13. Open Ends and Means: Inquiry as a Link between Formal Music Concepts and Informal Music Learning (United States)

    Schmidt-Jones, Catherine Anne


    There is currently considerable interest in strengthening the connections between formal music education and informal, self-motivated music practices. Participants in this study were adults who were self-motivated to learn formal music concepts, but had encountered barriers to doing so independently. The study offered them individual online…

  14. Concepts of Access for People with Learning Difficulties: Towards a Shared Understanding (United States)

    Nind, Melanie; Seale, Jane


    This article explores both the process and outcomes of a seminar series on the concept of access for people with learning difficulties. The seminar topics chosen to foster dialogue across professional and disciplinary boundaries included access to information, education, employment, the law, health, leisure, community, past histories and future…

  15. The Effect of Visual Variability on the Learning of Academic Concepts (United States)

    Bourgoyne, Ashley; Alt, Mary


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify effects of variability of visual input on development of conceptual representations of academic concepts for college-age students with normal language (NL) and those with language-learning disabilities (LLD). Method: Students with NL (n = 11) and LLD (n = 11) participated in a computer-based…

  16. Participatory and Anticipatory Stages of Mathematical Concept Learning: Further Empirical and Theoretical Development (United States)

    Simon, Martin A.; Placa, Nicora; Avitzur, Arnon


    Tzur and Simon (2004) postulated 2 stages of development in learning a mathematical concept: participatory and anticipatory. The authors discuss the affordances for research of this stage distinction related to data analysis, task design, and assessment as demonstrated in a 2-year teaching experiment.

  17. Gender Differences in Learning of the Concept of Force, Representational Consistency, and Scientific Reasoning (United States)

    Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni


    This quantitative case study used a pre- and posttest design for exploring the gender differences in secondary school students' (n?=?131, 45 males and 86 females) learning of the force concept when an interactive engagement type of teaching was used. In addition, students' ability to interpret multiple representations (i.e.,…

  18. Between Product Development and Mass Production: Tensions as Triggers for Concept-Level Learning (United States)

    Jalonen, Meri; Ristimäki, Päivi; Toiviainen, Hanna; Pulkkis, Anneli; Lohtander, Mika


    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze learning in organizational transformations by focusing on concept-level tensions faced in two young companies, which were searching for a reorientation of activity with a production network between innovative product development and efficient mass production. Design/methodology/approach: An intervention-based…

  19. How the Concept of Organizational Unlearning Contributes to Studies of Learning Organizations: A Personal Reflection (United States)

    Tsang, Eric W. K.


    Purpose: The first purpose of this short essay is to respond to Howells and Scholderer's (2016) harsh critique that organizational unlearning is a superfluous concept. The second purpose is to establish a relationship between organizational unlearning and the learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: To respond to Howells and…

  20. Supporting Students in Learning with Multiple Representation to Improve Student Mental Models on Atomic Structure Concepts (United States)

    Sunyono; Yuanita, L.; Ibrahim, M.


    The aim of this research is identify the effectiveness of a multiple representation-based learning model, which builds a mental model within the concept of atomic structure. The research sample of 108 students in 3 classes is obtained randomly from among students of Mathematics and Science Education Studies using a stratified random sampling…

  1. Student Perceptions of and Confidence in Self-Care Course Concepts Using Team-based Learning. (United States)

    Frame, Tracy R; Gryka, Rebecca; Kiersma, Mary E; Todt, Abby L; Cailor, Stephanie M; Chen, Aleda M H


    Objective. To evaluate changes in student perceptions of and confidence in self-care concepts after completing a team-based learning (TBL) self-care course. Methods. Team-based learning was used at two universities in first professional year, semester-long self-care courses. Two instruments were created and administered before and after the semester. The instruments were designed to assess changes in student perceptions of self-care using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) domains and confidence in learning self-care concepts using Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to evaluate pre/post changes, and Mann Whitney U tests were used to evaluate university differences. Results. Fifty-three Cedarville University and 58 Manchester University students completed both instruments (100% and 92% response rates, respectively). Student self-care perceptions with TPB decreased significantly on nine of 13 items for Cedarville and decreased for one of 13 items for Manchester. Student confidence in self-care concepts improved significantly on all questions for both universities. Conclusion. Data indicate TBL self-care courses were effective in improving student confidence about self-care concepts. Establishing students' skill sets prior to entering the profession is beneficial because pharmacists will use self-directed learning to expand their knowledge and adapt to problem-solving situations.

  2. Connecting Knowledge Domains : An Approach to Concept Learning in Primary Science and Technology Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koski, M.


    In order to understand our dependency on technology and the possible loss of control that comes with it, it is necessary for people to understand the nature of technology as well as its roots in science. Learning basic science and technology concepts should be a part of primary education since it

  3. The Concept of Magnitude and What It Tells Us about How Struggling Students Learn Fractions (United States)

    Woodward, John


    This commentary summarizes emerging research into fractions instruction for students who are at risk for failure. Each of the three articles emphasizes a measure conception of fractions. Teaching fractions as measurement helps students learn the magnitude of rational numbers. However, measurement is only part of the way that students should…

  4. Online Video Tutorials Increase Learning of Difficult Concepts in an Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Course (United States)

    He, Yi; Swenson, Sandra; Lents, Nathan


    Educational technology has enhanced, even revolutionized, pedagogy in many areas of higher education. This study examines the incorporation of video tutorials as a supplement to learning in an undergraduate analytical chemistry course. The concepts and problems in which students faced difficulty were first identified by assessing students'…

  5. WWC Quick Review of "Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning than Elaborative Studying with Concept Mapping" (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011


    The study examined whether using the retrieval-practice studying technique--in which students alternate between reading a passage and writing memorable information from that passage--improved student learning of a science passage more than the study-once, repeated-study, or concept-mapping techniques. The study found that students using the…

  6. Online testable concept maps: benefits for learning about the pathogenesis of disease. (United States)

    Ho, Veronica; Kumar, Rakesh K; Velan, Gary


    Concept maps have been used to promote meaningful learning and critical thinking. Although these are crucially important in all disciplines, evidence for the benefits of concept mapping for learning in medicine is limited. We performed a randomised crossover study to assess the benefits of online testable concept maps for learning in pathology by volunteer junior medical students. Participants (n = 65) were randomly allocated to either of two groups with equivalent mean prior academic performance, in which they were given access to either online maps or existing online resources for a 2-week block on renal disease. Groups then crossed over for a 2-week block on hepatic disease. Outcomes were assessed using timed online quizzes, which included questions unrelated to topics in the pathogenesis maps as an internal control. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate students' acceptance of the maps. In both blocks, the group with access to pathogenesis maps achieved significantly higher average scores than the control group on quiz questions related to topics covered by the maps (Block 1: p online testable pathogenesis maps are well accepted and can improve learning of concepts in pathology by medical students. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Academic Self-Concept and Learning Strategies: Direction of Effect on Student Academic Achievement (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap


    This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…

  8. Effects of Computer Graphics Types and Epistemological Beliefs on Students' Learning of Mathematical Concepts. (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Hui


    Describes a study that determined the implications of computer graphics types and epistemological beliefs with regard to the design of computer-based mathematical concept learning with elementary school students in Taiwan. Discusses the factor structure of the epistemological belief questionnaire, student performance, and students' attitudes…

  9. Engineering Students' Conceptions of Entrepreneurial Learning as Part of Their Education (United States)

    Täks, Marge; Tynjälä, Päivi; Kukemelk, Hasso


    The purpose of this study was to examine what kinds of conceptions of entrepreneurial learning engineering students expressed in an entrepreneurship course integrated in their study programme. The data were collected during an entrepreneurship course in Estonia that was organised for fourth-year engineering students, using video-recorded group…

  10. Spacing enhances the learning of natural concepts: an investigation of mechanisms, metacognition, and aging. (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; Dunlosky, John; Jacoby, Larry L


    In two experiments, we examined spacing effects on the learning of bird families and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that spacing enhanced learning beyond massed study. These effects were increased by presenting birds in pairs so as to highlight differences among families during study (Experiment 1). Self-allocated study time provided evidence that more attention was paid during spaced than during massed study and resulted in no age differences in learning (Experiment 2). Metacognitive measures revealed sensitivity to the processing advantage of spaced study and to differences in classification difficulty across categories. No difference occurred in monitoring accuracy for young versus older adults. These findings provide evidence for discrimination- and attention-based accounts of the spacing effect in natural concept learning.

  11. Machine learning-based coreference resolution of concepts in clinical documents. (United States)

    Ware, Henry; Mullett, Charles J; Jagannathan, Vasudevan; El-Rawas, Oussama


    Coreference resolution of concepts, although a very active area in the natural language processing community, has not yet been widely applied to clinical documents. Accordingly, the 2011 i2b2 competition focusing on this area is a timely and useful challenge. The objective of this research was to collate coreferent chains of concepts from a corpus of clinical documents. These concepts are in the categories of person, problems, treatments, and tests. A machine learning approach based on graphical models was employed to cluster coreferent concepts. Features selected were divided into domain independent and domain specific sets. Training was done with the i2b2 provided training set of 489 documents with 6949 chains. Testing was done on 322 documents. The learning engine, using the un-weighted average of three different measurement schemes, resulted in an F measure of 0.8423 where no domain specific features were included and 0.8483 where the feature set included both domain independent and domain specific features. Our machine learning approach is a promising solution for recognizing coreferent concepts, which in turn is useful for practical applications such as the assembly of problem and medication lists from clinical documents.

  12. Influence of the didactic contract in learning the concept of function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Esperanza Riscanevo Espitia


    Full Text Available This article is the product of an on-going research project about the influences of the didactic contract in the learning of mathematics, and especially regarding the concept of function. This project emerged from preoccupation with the typical collective failure or low academic performance of students in mathematics class, and from the importance of the concept of function in the compulsory teaching of high school and undergraduate university level. We identified didactic and epistemological learning obstacles with the objective of achieving a clearer evaluation of possible hereditary and non-hereditary intellectual difficulties, based on the study of their genesis and historical evolution, as well as of the conceptions held by teachers who induced the presentation of this concept., this based on the adaptations made by the introduction of didactic objects, which permitted the transposition of this mathematical object of knowledge into a school object of knowledge. Some obstacles were found to be present in the implicit clauses of the didactic contract in the learning of the concept, which manifest themselves in students at the moment of demonstrating what they know about the topic.

  13. Learning Abstract Physical Concepts from Experience: Design and Use of an RC Circuit (United States)

    Parra, Alfredo; Ordenes, Jorge; de la Fuente, Milton


    Science learning for undergraduate students requires grasping a great number of theoretical concepts in a rather short time. In our experience, this is especially difficult when students are required to simultaneously use abstract concepts, mathematical reasoning, and graphical analysis, such as occurs when learning about RC circuits. We present a simple experimental model in this work that allows students to easily design, build, and analyze RC circuits, thus providing an opportunity to test personal ideas, build graphical descriptions, and explore the meaning of the respective mathematical models, ultimately gaining a better grasp of the concepts involved. The result suggests that the simple setup indeed helps untrained students to visualize the essential points of this kind of circuit.

  14. Effects of concept map teaching on students' critical thinking and approach to learning and studying. (United States)

    Chen, Shiah-Lian; Liang, Tienli; Lee, Mei-Li; Liao, I-Chen


    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of concept mapping in developing critical thinking ability and approach to learning and studying. A quasi-experimental study design with a purposive sample was drawn from a group of nursing students enrolled in a medical-surgical nursing course in central Taiwan. Students in the experimental group were taught to use concept mapping in their learning. Students in the control group were taught by means of traditional lectures. After the intervention, the experimental group had better overall critical thinking scores than did the control group, although the difference was not statistically significant. After controlling for the effects of age and the pretest score on critical thinking using analysis of covariance, the experimental group had significantly higher adjusted mean scores on inference and overall critical thinking compared with the control group. Concept mapping is an effective tool for improving students' ability to think critically. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. The influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning: children's understanding of sheet music. (United States)

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio


    Despite increasing interest in teachers' and students' conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning. This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between direct and constructive) influences students' representations regarding sheet music. Sixty students (8-12 years old) from music conservatories: 30 of them took lessons with teachers with a constructive TC and another 30 with teachers shown to have a direct TC. Children were given a musical comprehension task in which they were asked to select and rank the contents they needed to learn. These contents had different levels of processing and complexity: symbolic, analytical, and referential. Three factorial ANOVAs, two-one-way ANOVAs, and four 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to analyse the effects of and the interaction between the independent variables TC and class, both for/on total cards selected, their ranking, and each sub-category (the three processing levels). ANOVAs on the selection and ranking of these contents showed that teachers' conceptions seem to mediate significantly in the way the students understand the music. Students from constructive teachers have more complex and deep understanding of music. They select more elements for learning scores than those from traditional teachers. Teaching conception also influences the way in which children rank those elements. No difference exists between the way 8- and 12-year-olds learn scores. Children's understanding of the scores is more complex than assumed in other studies. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Instance-based concept learning from multiclass DNA microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubitzky Werner


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various statistical and machine learning methods have been successfully applied to the classification of DNA microarray data. Simple instance-based classifiers such as nearest neighbor (NN approaches perform remarkably well in comparison to more complex models, and are currently experiencing a renaissance in the analysis of data sets from biology and biotechnology. While binary classification of microarray data has been extensively investigated, studies involving multiclass data are rare. The question remains open whether there exists a significant difference in performance between NN approaches and more complex multiclass methods. Comparative studies in this field commonly assess different models based on their classification accuracy only; however, this approach lacks the rigor needed to draw reliable conclusions and is inadequate for testing the null hypothesis of equal performance. Comparing novel classification models to existing approaches requires focusing on the significance of differences in performance. Results We investigated the performance of instance-based classifiers, including a NN classifier able to assign a degree of class membership to each sample. This model alleviates a major problem of conventional instance-based learners, namely the lack of confidence values for predictions. The model translates the distances to the nearest neighbors into 'confidence scores'; the higher the confidence score, the closer is the considered instance to a pre-defined class. We applied the models to three real gene expression data sets and compared them with state-of-the-art methods for classifying microarray data of multiple classes, assessing performance using a statistical significance test that took into account the data resampling strategy. Simple NN classifiers performed as well as, or significantly better than, their more intricate competitors. Conclusion Given its highly intuitive underlying principles – simplicity

  17. [Case-based interactive PACS learning: introduction of a new concept for radiological education of students]. (United States)

    Scherer, A; Kröpil, P; Heusch, P; Buchbender, C; Sewerin, P; Blondin, D; Lanzman, R S; Miese, F; Ostendorf, B; Bölke, E; Mödder, U; Antoch, G


    Medical curricula are currently being reformed in order to establish superordinated learning objectives, including, e.g., diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive competences. This requires a shifting from traditional teaching methods towards interactive and case-based teaching concepts. Conceptions, initial experiences and student evaluations of a novel radiological course Co-operative Learning In Clinical Radiology (CLICR) are presented in this article. A novel radiological teaching course (CLICR course), which combines different innovative teaching elements, was established and integrated into the medical curriculum. Radiological case vignettes were created for three clinical teaching modules. By using a PC with PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) access, web-based databases and the CASUS platform, a problem-oriented, case-based and independent way of learning was supported as an adjunct to the well established radiological courses and lectures. Student evaluations of the novel CLICR course and the radiological block course were compared. Student evaluations of the novel CLICR course were significantly better compared to the conventional radiological block course. Of the participating students 52% gave the highest rating for the novel CLICR course concerning the endpoint overall satisfaction as compared to 3% of students for the conventional block course. The innovative interactive concept of the course and the opportunity to use a web-based database were favorably accepted by the students. Of the students 95% rated the novel course concept as a substantial gain for the medical curriculum and 95% also commented that interactive working with the PACS and a web-based database (82%) promoted learning and understanding. Interactive, case-based teaching concepts such as the presented CLICR course are considered by both students and teachers as useful extensions to the radiological course program. These concepts fit well into competence-oriented curricula.

  18. Using whiteboards to support college students' learning of complex physiological concepts. (United States)

    Inouye, Caron Y; Bae, Christine L; Hayes, Kathryn N


    Research underscores the importance of retrieval-based practice and application of knowledge for meaningful learning. However, the didactic lecture format continues to persist in traditional university physiology courses. A strategy called whiteboarding, where students use handheld dry erase boards and work in small groups to actively retrieve, discuss, and apply concepts presented in the lecture, has the potential to address challenges associated with actively engaging students in science courses for greater learning. The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the potential benefits of whiteboarding for increasing students' understanding of animal physiology concepts. Student performance on physiology questions assessing concepts taught using lecture only vs. concepts taught using lecture and whiteboarding were compared within the term that whiteboarding was used, as well as across whiteboard and lecture-only terms taught by the same instructor. Results showed that when whiteboarding was incorporated in the course, student performance on items that assessed concepts corresponding to the whiteboarding activities were significantly higher compared with performance on items that assessed concepts taught through lecture only. These patterns in student performance were found within and across terms. Taken together, findings point to whiteboarding as an effective tool that can be integrated in traditional lecture courses to promote students' understanding of physiology. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Concept Maps for Assessing Change in Learning: A Study of Undergraduate Business Students in First-Year Marketing in China (United States)

    von der Heidt, Tania


    This paper explains the application of concept mapping to help foster a learning-centred approach. It investigates how concept maps are used to measure the change in learning following a two-week intensive undergraduate Marketing Principles course delivered to 162 Chinese students undertaking a Bachelor of Business Administration programme in…

  20. Concept Maps as Instructional Tools for Improving Learning of Phase Transitions in Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (United States)

    Shin, Shin-Shing


    Students attending object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) courses typically encounter difficulties transitioning from requirements analysis to logical design and then to physical design. Concept maps have been widely used in studies of user learning. The study reported here, based on the relationship of concept maps to learning theory and…

  1. Effects of a Computer-Assisted Concept Mapping Learning Strategy on EFL College Students' English Reading Comprehension (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin; Chen, Chiu-Jung; Chang, Yu-Ju


    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of a computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on EFL college learners' English reading comprehension. The research questions were: (1) what was the influence of the computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on different learners' English reading comprehension? (2) did…

  2. Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning Concept in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno State, Nigeria (United States)

    Muhammad, Amin Umar; Bala, Dauda; Ladu, Kolomi Mutah


    This study investigated the Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning concepts in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno state, Nigeria. Five objectives: to determine the effectiveness of demonstration method in learning economics concepts among secondary school students in Borno state, determine the effectiveness…

  3. Validating Proposed Learning Progressions on Force and Motion Using the Force Concept Inventory: Findings from Singapore Secondary Schools (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.


    This study examines the validity of 2 proposed learning progressions on the force concept when tested using items from the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). This is the first study to compare students' performance with respect to learning progressions both for force and motion and for Newton's third law in parallel. It is also among the first studies…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamalia Mahmud


    Full Text Available Students’ understanding of probability concepts have been investigated from various different perspectives. This study was set out to investigate perceived understanding of probability concepts of forty-four students from the STAT131 Understanding Uncertainty and Variation course at the University of Wollongong, NSW. Rasch measurement which is based on a probabilistic model was used to identify concepts that students find easy, moderate and difficult to understand. Data were captured from the e-learning Moodle platform where students provided their responses through an on-line quiz. As illustrated in the Rasch map, 96% of the students could understand about sample space, simple events, mutually exclusive events and tree diagram while 67% of the students found concepts of conditional and independent events rather easy to understand

  5. Results and Implications of a 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Science Concept Learning (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.


    This paper describes the methods and outcomes of a 12-year longitudinal study into the effects of an early intervention program, while reflecting back on changes that have occurred in approaches to research, learning and instruction since the preliminary inception stages of the study in the mid 1960s. We began the study to challenge the prevailing consensus at the time that primary school children were either preoperational or concrete operational in their cognitive development and they could not learn abstract concepts. Our early research, based on Ausubelian theory, suggested otherwise. The paper describes the development and implementation of a Grade 1-2 audio tutorial science instructional sequence, and the subsequent tracing over 12 years, of the children's conceptual understandings in science compared to a matched control group. During the study the concept map was developed as a new tool to trace children's conceptual development. We found that students in the instruction group far outperformed their non-instructed counterparts, and this difference increased as they progressed through middle and high school. The data clearly support the earlier introduction of science instruction on basic science concepts, such as the particulate nature of matter, energy and energy transformations. The data suggest that national curriculum standards for science grossly underestimate the learning capabilities of primary-grade children. The study has helped to lay a foundation for guided instruction using computers and concept mapping that may help both teachers and students become more proficient in understanding science.

  6. On the learning difficulty of visual and auditory modal concepts: Evidence for a single processing system. (United States)

    Vigo, Ronaldo; Doan, Karina-Mikayla C; Doan, Charles A; Pinegar, Shannon


    The logic operators (e.g., "and," "or," "if, then") play a fundamental role in concept formation, syntactic construction, semantic expression, and deductive reasoning. In spite of this very general and basic role, there are relatively few studies in the literature that focus on their conceptual nature. In the current investigation, we examine, for the first time, the learning difficulty experienced by observers in classifying members belonging to these primitive "modal concepts" instantiated with sets of acoustic and visual stimuli. We report results from two categorization experiments that suggest the acquisition of acoustic and visual modal concepts is achieved by the same general cognitive mechanism. Additionally, we attempt to account for these results with two models of concept learning difficulty: the generalized invariance structure theory model (Vigo in Cognition 129(1):138-162, 2013, Mathematical principles of human conceptual behavior, Routledge, New York, 2014) and the generalized context model (Nosofsky in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 10(1):104-114, 1984, J Exp Psychol 115(1):39-57, 1986).

  7. Perceptual learning and feature-based approaches to concepts - a critical discussion. (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard


    A central challenge for any theory of concept learning comes from Fodor's argument against the learning of concepts, which lies at the basis of contemporary computationalist accounts of the mind. Robert Goldstone and his colleagues propose a theory of perceptual learning that attempts to overcome Fodor's challenge. Its main component is the addition of a cognitive device at the interface of perception and conception, which slowly builds "cognitive symbols" out of perceptual stimuli. Two main mechanisms of concept creation are unitization and differentiation. In this paper, I will present and examine their theory, and will show that two problems hinder this reply to Fodor's challenge from being a successful answer to the challenge. To amend the theory, I will argue that one would need to say more about the input systems to unitization and differentiation, and be clearer on the representational format that they are able to operate upon. Until these issues have been addressed, the proposal does not deploy its full potential to threaten a Fodorian position.

  8. Why are children overconfident? Developmental differences in the implementation of accessibility cues when judging concept learning. (United States)

    van Loon, Mariëtte; de Bruin, Anique; Leppink, Jimmie; Roebers, Claudia


    Children are often overconfident when monitoring their learning, which is harmful for effective control and learning. The current study investigated children's (N=167, age range 7-12years) judgments of learning (JOLs) when studying difficult concepts. The main aims were (a) to investigate how JOL accuracy is affected by accessibility cues and (b) to investigate developmental changes in implementing accessibility cues in JOLs. After studying different concepts, children were asked to generate novel sentences and then to make JOLs, select concepts for restudy, and take a final test. Overconfidence for incorrect and incomplete test responses was reduced for older children in comparison with younger children. For older age groups, generating a sentence led to greater overconfidence compared with not being able to generate a sentence, which indicates that older children relied more on accessibility cues when making JOLs. This pattern differed in the youngest age group; younger children were generally overconfident regardless of whether they had generated sentences or not. Overconfidence was disadvantageous for effective control of learning for all age groups. These findings imply that instructions to encourage children to avoid metacognitive illusions need to be adapted to children's developmental stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Influence of Music Learning Cultures on the Construction of Teaching-Learning Conceptions (United States)

    Casas-Mas, Amalia; Pozo, Juan Ignacio; Montero, Ignacio


    Current research in music education tends to put the emphasis on learning processes outside formal academic contexts, both to rethink and to renew academic educational formats. Our aim is to observe and describe three music learning cultures simultaneously, including formal, non-formal and informal settings: Classical, Jazz and Flamenco,…

  10. Learning against the Clock: Examining Learning and Development Concepts in "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button" (United States)

    Koenig, Allison L.; Smith, Amber R.


    Media and popular culture reach broad audiences and have the potential to be an invaluable teaching resource in terms of promoting adult education and learning. Human resource development instructors can use media artifacts (e.g., films, television, novels, and cartoons) as useful methods to demonstrate learning theory and adult development…

  11. Professional Learning in Initial Teacher Education: Vision in the Constructivist Conception of Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Tang, Sylvia Y. F.; Wong, Angel K. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.


    With the constructivist view of learning as a conceptual lens, this paper examines student teachers' professional learning in initial teacher education (ITE). A mixed-method study was conducted with student teachers of a Bachelor of Education Programme in Hong Kong. The quantitative element of the study reveals that student teachers held a…

  12. The Concept of L2 User and the goals of Second Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Juanggo


    Full Text Available It is generally considered that knowing one language is not enough in this era. People need to learn a second language in addition to their mother tongue to meet the demand of today’s life as many of them are becoming a part of multilingual society as well as to face the globalisation. This paper aims to demonstrate the reasons of people learning a second by looking at the several goals they want to achieve in current situation and link it to the second language learning in education context. Subsequently, it also provides some criticism against the majority of English language teachings that set native speaker’s competence as the ultimate goal and highlights the concept of L2 user as a new paradigm and its implication to second language learning.

  13. Making clinical case-based learning in veterinary medicine visible: analysis of collaborative concept-mapping processes and reflections. (United States)

    Khosa, Deep K; Volet, Simone E; Bolton, John R


    The value of collaborative concept mapping in assisting students to develop an understanding of complex concepts across a broad range of basic and applied science subjects is well documented. Less is known about students' learning processes that occur during the construction of a concept map, especially in the context of clinical cases in veterinary medicine. This study investigated the unfolding collaborative learning processes that took place in real-time concept mapping of a clinical case by veterinary medical students and explored students' and their teacher's reflections on the value of this activity. This study had two parts. The first part investigated the cognitive and metacognitive learning processes of two groups of students who displayed divergent learning outcomes in a concept mapping task. Meaningful group differences were found in their level of learning engagement in terms of the extent to which they spent time understanding and co-constructing knowledge along with completing the task at hand. The second part explored students' and their teacher's views on the value of concept mapping as a learning and teaching tool. The students' and their teacher's perceptions revealed congruent and contrasting notions about the usefulness of concept mapping. The relevance of concept mapping to clinical case-based learning in veterinary medicine is discussed, along with directions for future research.

  14. Infant, primary and secondary teachers’ conceptions of learning and teaching and their relation to educational variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Martín


    Full Text Available It has been established that teachers’ conceptions of learning and teaching influence their instructional practices. Several authors maintain that these conceptions are based on certain implicit assumptions that give rise to different theories. Our view is that people have multiple alternative theories which they use depending on the context and the demands of the task. The main purpose of this study was to find out whether such representational plurality exists in teachers’ conceptions and, if it does, whether this plurality can lead to the identification of different representational profiles. We were also interested in studying some of the teaching practice variables that might influence the nature of the representational profiles. Our results, obtained by means of a dilemma questionnaire answered by 1074 teachers from different educational levels and knowledge domains and with different ranges of experience, are consistent with the assumption of representational plurality, as they show that the same teacher may hold different conceptions that set up a conceptions profile. Moreover, the combination of the responses in each profile is not random. Teachers at the more advanced levels and with more teaching experience manifested more traditional conceptions. Furthermore, some knowledge domains were associated with certain conception profiles.

  15. Scoping literature review on the Learning Organisation concept as applied to the health system. (United States)

    Akhnif, E; Macq, J; Idrissi Fakhreddine, M O; Meessen, B


    ᅟ: There is growing interest in the use of the management concept of a 'learning organisation'. The objective of this review is to explore work undertaken towards the application of this concept to the health sector in general and to reach the goal of universal health coverage in particular. Of interest are the exploration of evaluation frameworks and their application in health. We used a scoping literature review based on the York methodology. We conducted an online search using selected keywords on some of the main databases on health science, selected websites and main reference books on learning organisations. We restricted the focus of our search on sources in the English language only. Inclusive and exclusive criteria were applied to arrive at a final list of articles, from which information was extracted and then selected and inserted in a chart. We identified 263 articles and other documents from our search. From these, 50 articles were selected for a full analysis and 27 articles were used for the summary. The majority of the articles concerned hospital settings (15 articles, 55%). Seven articles (25%) were related to the application of the concept to the health centre setting. Four articles discussed the application of the concept to the health system (14%). Most of the applications involved high-income countries (21 articles, 78%), with only one article being related to a low-income country. We found 13 different frameworks that were applied to different health organisations. The scoping review allowed us to assess applications of the learning organisation concept to the health sector to date. Such applications are still rare, but are increasingly being used. There is no uniform framework thus far, but convergence as for the dimensions that matter is increasing. Many methodological questions remain unanswered. We also identified a gap in terms of the use of this concept in low- and middle-income countries and to the health system as a whole.

  16. Getting to evo-devo: concepts and challenges for students learning evolutionary developmental biology. (United States)

    Hiatt, Anna; Davis, Gregory K; Trujillo, Caleb; Terry, Mark; French, Donald P; Price, Rebecca M; Perez, Kathryn E


    To examine how well biology majors have achieved the necessary foundation in evolution, numerous studies have examined how students learn natural selection. However, no studies to date have examined how students learn developmental aspects of evolution (evo-devo). Although evo-devo plays an increasing role in undergraduate biology curricula, we find that instruction often addresses development cursorily, with most of the treatment embedded within instruction on evolution. Based on results of surveys and interviews with students, we suggest that teaching core concepts (CCs) within a framework that integrates supporting concepts (SCs) from both evolutionary and developmental biology can improve evo-devo instruction. We articulate CCs, SCs, and foundational concepts (FCs) that provide an integrative framework to help students master evo-devo concepts and to help educators address specific conceptual difficulties their students have with evo-devo. We then identify the difficulties that undergraduates have with these concepts. Most of these difficulties are of two types: those that are ubiquitous among students in all areas of biology and those that stem from an inadequate understanding of FCs from developmental, cell, and molecular biology.

  17. Development and evaluation of RapTAT: a machine learning system for concept mapping of phrases from medical narratives. (United States)

    Gobbel, Glenn T; Reeves, Ruth; Jayaramaraja, Shrimalini; Giuse, Dario; Speroff, Theodore; Brown, Steven H; Elkin, Peter L; Matheny, Michael E


    Rapid, automated determination of the mapping of free text phrases to pre-defined concepts could assist in the annotation of clinical notes and increase the speed of natural language processing systems. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a token-order-specific naïve Bayes-based machine learning system (RapTAT) to predict associations between phrases and concepts. Performance was assessed using a reference standard generated from 2860 VA discharge summaries containing 567,520 phrases that had been mapped to 12,056 distinct Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) concepts by the MCVS natural language processing system. It was also assessed on the manually annotated, 2010 i2b2 challenge data. Performance was established with regard to precision, recall, and F-measure for each of the concepts within the VA documents using bootstrapping. Within that corpus, concepts identified by MCVS were broadly distributed throughout SNOMED CT, and the token-order-specific language model achieved better performance based on precision, recall, and F-measure (0.95±0.15, 0.96±0.16, and 0.95±0.16, respectively; mean±SD) than the bag-of-words based, naïve Bayes model (0.64±0.45, 0.61±0.46, and 0.60±0.45, respectively) that has previously been used for concept mapping. Precision, recall, and F-measure on the i2b2 test set were 92.9%, 85.9%, and 89.2% respectively, using the token-order-specific model. RapTAT required just 7.2ms to map all phrases within a single discharge summary, and mapping rate did not decrease as the number of processed documents increased. The high performance attained by the tool in terms of both accuracy and speed was encouraging, and the mapping rate should be sufficient to support near-real-time, interactive annotation of medical narratives. These results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly and accurately mapping phrases to a wide range of medical concepts based on a token-order-specific naïve Bayes model and

  18. The Effect of Contextual Teaching and Learning Combined with Peer Tutoring towards Learning Achievement on Human Digestive System Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhah Abadiyah


    Full Text Available This research aims to know the influence of contextual teaching and learning (CTL combined with peer tutoring toward learning achievement on human digestive system concept. This research was conducted at one of State Senior High School in South Tangerang in the academic year of 2016/2017. The research method was quasi experiment with nonequivalent pretest-postest control group design. The sample was taken by simple random sampling. The total of the sampels were 86 students which consisted of 44 students as a controlled group and 42 students as an experimental group. The research instrument was objective test which consisted of 25 multiple choice items of each pretest and posttest. The research also used observation sheets for teacher and students activity. The result of data analysis using t-test on the two groups show that the value of tcount was 2.40 and ttable was 1.99 on significant level α = 0,05, so that tcount > ttable.. This result indicated that there was influence of contextual teaching and learning (CTL combined with peer tutoring toward learning achievement on human digestive system concept.

  19. 'Learning disabilities' as a 'black box': on the different conceptions and constructions of a popular clinical entity in Israel. (United States)

    Katchergin, Ofer


    This article aims to stimulate new thinking about learning disabilities than is customary in local literature. Previous educational and psychological studies concerning learning disabilities regarded them as if they were objective categories with formal definitions and criteria accepted in scholarly literature. Contrary to that, this article explores the various conceptions, constructions, and meanings of learning disabilities that comprise the narrative descriptions and explanations of didactic diagnosticians. For this purpose, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted. There are four sections. Part One lays out the theoretical and methodological background of the sociological and discursive debate about learning disabilities. Part Two explores the various main thematic aspects and narrative strategies that were used by the diagnosticians in their construction of their purportedly 'objective', 'a-historical', 'a-political' experts' narrative. The third part reveals the polyphonic multifaceted nature of the learning disabilities construct. The experts' narrative undermines the objective and homogeneous definitions in the literature by uncovering learning disabilities' heterogeneous meaning repertoire. This repertoire consists, among others, of conceptualizing disability as a 'disease', a 'symptom', a 'genetic defect', a 'disorder', an 'educational difficulty', a 'variance', and even a 'gift'. This part also reveals the experts' narrative reaction strategies to the aforementioned polyphonic spectacle. It is revealed that the interviewees' narrative deconstructs the 'scientific factual nature' of the clinical categories. The fourth part highlights a central paradox in the expert narrative: The tension between the narrative stigmatic-labeling aspects and the destigmatic-'liberating' aspects. The claim is made that this tension can partly explain the current popularity of the LD diagnosis. This article is the third in a series of papers that seeks to contribute to the

  20. Concept Mapping as an Innovative Tool for the Assessment of Learning: An Experimental Experience among Business Management Degree Students (United States)

    Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo; Martinez-Canas, Ricardo


    In the search to improve the quality of education at the university level, the use of concept mapping is becoming an important instructional technique for enhancing the teaching-learning process. This educational tool is based on cognitive theories by making a distinction between learning by rote (memorizing) and learning by meaning, where…

  1. A Group Decision Approach to Developing Concept-Effect Models for Diagnosing Student Learning Problems in Mathematics (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Panjaburee, Patcharin; Triampo, Wannapong; Shih, Bo-Ying


    Diagnosing student learning barriers has been recognized as the most fundamental and important issue for improving the learning achievements of students. In the past decade, several learning diagnosis approaches have been proposed based on the concept-effect relationship (CER) model. However, past studies have shown that the effectiveness of this…

  2. E-Learning Content Design Standards Based on Interactive Digital Concepts Maps in the Light of Meaningful and Constructivist Learning Theory (United States)

    Afify, Mohammed Kamal


    The present study aims to identify standards of interactive digital concepts maps design and their measurement indicators as a tool to develop, organize and administer e-learning content in the light of Meaningful Learning Theory and Constructivist Learning Theory. To achieve the objective of the research, the author prepared a list of E-learning…

  3. The lift-fan powered-lift aircraft concept: Lessons learned (United States)

    Deckert, Wallace H.


    This is one of a series of reports on the lessons learned from past research related to lift-fan aircraft concepts. An extensive review is presented of the many lift-fan aircraft design studies conducted by both government and industry over the past 45 years. Mission applications and design integration including discussions on manifolding hot gas generators, hot gas dusting, and energy transfer control are addressed. Past lift-fan evaluations of the Avrocar are discussed. Lessons learned from these past efforts are identified.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Starichenko


    Full Text Available The research objective is the classification and conventional interpretations of the concepts of «e-learning», «distance learning» and «blended learning»; its interconnection and correlation of the didactic system of modern education. The authors note that the deficiency of general data theories in pedagogical literature, - on the one hand, and active development of learning types essentially complicate framing and contents of modern education didactic system. Methods. The authors give the key feature of the generic difference betweenthe traditional and e-learning on the basis of the analysis and correlation made by various researchers’ viewpoints; the key feature - the information resources’ usage in educational process (i.e. devices for data processing, storage, transmission, and the information is presented in digital format. The authors single out that blended learning means implementation of traditional types and methods of specific educational tasks including the e-learning elements. Distance learning is proposed to be electronic itself; it’s supposed to be the final variation of e-learning.Scientific novelty and practical significance. The presented approach based on the digital resources’ level application permits to determine all-existing higher education learning types; to establish connection and show differences between them. The authors draw the conclusion that recommended approach can be usedfor further methodology development of modeling the specialists’ training variants in higher school. It is specially noted that this very training is considered as the collaboration of teachers and students focused on knowledge acquisition, work methods and communication features that correspond the future profession requirements. A mention should be made that it is necessary to use educational information material supplement and needed electronic devices or equipment.

  5. Structural Modeling for Influence of Mathematics Self-Concept, Motivation to Learn Mathematics and Self-Regulation Learning on Mathematics Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Jafari Koshkouei


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of mathematics self-concept (MSC, motivation to learn mathematics (SMOT and self-regulation learning (SRL on students' mathematics academic achievement. This study is of a descriptive survey type. 300 female students at the first grade of high school (the second period in City Qods, were selected by multiple step cluster sampling method and completed MSC, SMOT and SRL questionnaires. Mathematics academic achievement was measured by mathematics scores in the first semester of 1393-94 education year. Results obtained by data analysis indicated that the primary conceptual model of the research was an appropriate model and possesses good fitness. Therefore, influence of mathematics self-concept, motivation to learn mathematics and self-regulation learning on mathematics academic achievement was confirmed. On the other hand, it was revealed that mathematics self-concept had influence on motivation to learn mathematics, and motivation to learn mathematics had effect on self-regulation learning. Compared to motivation to learn mathematics and self-regulation learning, mathematics self-concept was a stronger predictor for mathematics academic achievement. Detailed analysis of variables' direct effects showed that mathematics self-concept had considerable direct influence on motivation to learn mathematics.

  6. Surface blemish detection from passive imagery using learned fuzzy set concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbuz, S.; Carver, A.; Schalkoff, R.


    An image analysis method for real-time surface blemish detection using passive imagery and fuzzy set concepts is described. The method develops an internal knowledge representation for surface blemish characteristics on the basis of experience, thus facilitating autonomous learning based upon positive and negative exemplars. The method incorporates fuzzy set concepts in the learning subsystem and image segmentation algorithms, thereby mimicking human visual perception. This enables a generic solution for color image segmentation. This method has been applied in the development of ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), designed to inspect DOE warehouse waste storage drums for rust. In this project, the ARIES vision system is used to acquire drum surface images under controlled conditions and subsequently perform visual inspection leading to the classification of the drum as acceptable or suspect

  7. Multimodality and Learning: Exploring Concept Development and Student Engagement in a Physics Classroom (United States)

    Bonner, David

    This teacher research study examined multimodality in relation to teaching and learning of waves in a high school physics class from a sociocultural perspective. Qualitative analysis of classroom multimodal discourse, using ethnographic and grounded theory techniques, was used to explore and document the co-construction of concepts and the grammatical aspects of the modalities in which these concepts were developed. The findings centered on the evolution of form and function of two prevalent modes that emerged--gesturing and diagramming, --and on the evolution of two major thematic patterns across various modes--understanding and measuring wave characteristics, as well as learning about relationships between various wave characteristics from experimental data. The study revealed that students developed conceptual understandings using different modalities that shaped their meaning making and articulation of ideas. Students' conceptions of the grammar (form and function) of a particular mode co-developed with both the concepts and the grammars of other modes. Each mode's meaning was not developed in isolation from each other; instead, the intertwining, transduction, combination, and hybridization of modes offered powerful opportunities for meaning making. As students transduced among modalities, each mode afforded unique meaning-making opportunities that contributed to the class's collective meaning and development of ideas. However, the sequence of students' transduction represented a learned practice developed discursively throughout the unit. Students' engagement in one mode influenced the ways in which students called upon and utilized other modes, and in some cases, modes were combined while retaining their individual grammars (combination), or blended together into new modes with their own grammar (hybridization). The findings of this study suggest several implications for practice. Availability of, and access to, multimodality, modeling the grammars of various

  8. The influence of learning aids on understanding art concepts in elementary school art education


    Erčulj, Anamarija


    The goal of the master’s thesis is to determine the influence of teaching means and materials on both successful learning of different art concepts and the ability to depict motifs by using different art materials. The theoretical part of the master degree describes both the analysis of special teaching means and their adaptation for certain parts of arts and design lessons. The input hypothesis claims that the usage of ICT (such as digital animation, Internet, social networks ...

  9. The use of self-learning modules to facilitate learning of basic science concepts in an integrated medical curriculum. (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Nelson, Loren D; Kibble, Jonathan D


    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41 medical students, 40 students voluntarily completed a questionnaire with open-ended and closed-ended items to evaluate students' attitudes and perspectives on the learning value of SLMs. Closed-ended items were assessed on a five-point Likert scale (5 = high score) and the data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Open-ended questions further evaluated students' perspectives on the effectiveness of SLMs; student responses to open-ended questions were analyzed to identify shared patterns or themes in their experience using SLMs. The results of the midterm examination were also analyzed to compare student performance on items related to SLMs and traditional sessions. Students positively evaluated their experience using the SLMs with an overall mean score of 4.25 (SD ± 0.84). Most students (97%) indicated that the SLMs improved understanding and facilitated learning basic science concepts. SLMs were reported to allow learner control, to help in preparation for subsequent in-class discussion, and to improve understanding and retention. A significant difference in students' performance was observed when comparing SLM-related items with non-SLM items in the midterm examination (P learning of basic sciences.

  10. Conceptions of learning, approaches to studying and personal development in UK higher education. (United States)

    Edmunds, Robert; Richardson, John T E


    Students in higher education are known to vary in their conceptions of learning, their approaches to studying, and the personal development and personal change that result. This study aimed to explore the relationships among these four aspects of students' experience; to examine whether there were variations across academic subjects and across departments in each subject; and to explore whether there were changes from first year to after graduation. Students in the first year and the final year of the undergraduate programmes at 15 departments, five offering each of three subjects: bioscience, business studies, and sociology. Participants completed a questionnaire containing four instruments and were given a similar questionnaire roughly two years later (when the entering students were in their third year, and when the exiting students were in their second year after graduation). The students' conceptions of learning showed a clear relationship with their approaches to studying, but the relationships with their personal development and personal change were much weaker. The students' scores were significantly related to age and gender and showed some significant differences across academic subjects and departments. However, there was little change in their scores over time. Students' approaches to studying are influenced by their conceptions of learning and are relatively consistent across different contexts. In contrast, their reports of personal change and development seem to be determined by their implicit theories on entering higher education.

  11. Sociocultural context as a facilitator of student learning of function concepts in mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Díaz Obando


    Full Text Available In Costa Rica, many secondary students have serious difficulties to establish relationships between mathematics and real-life contexts. They question the utilitarian role of the school mathematics. This fact motivated the research object of this report which evidences the need to overcome methodologies unrelated to students’ reality, toward new didactical options that help students to value mathematics, reasoning and its  applications, connecting it with their socio-cultural context. The research used a case study as a qualitative methodology and the social constructivism as an educational paradigm in which the knowledge is built by the student; as a product of his social interactions. A collection of learning situations was designed, validated, and implemented. It allowed establishing relationships between mathematical concepts and the socio-cultural context of participants. It analyzed the impact of students’socio-cultural context in their mathematics learning of basic concepts of real variable functions, consistent with the Ministry of Education (MEP Official Program.  Among the results, it was found that using students’sociocultural context improved their motivational processes, mathematics sense making, and promoted cooperative social interactions. It was evidenced that contextualized learning situations favored concepts comprehension that allow students to see mathematics as a discipline closely related with their every-day life.

  12. Temporal Dynamics of Task Switching and Abstract-Concept Learning in Pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Alexander Daniel


    Full Text Available The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered.

  13. Comparing deep learning and concept extraction based methods for patient phenotyping from clinical narratives. (United States)

    Gehrmann, Sebastian; Dernoncourt, Franck; Li, Yeran; Carlson, Eric T; Wu, Joy T; Welt, Jonathan; Foote, John; Moseley, Edward T; Grant, David W; Tyler, Patrick D; Celi, Leo A


    In secondary analysis of electronic health records, a crucial task consists in correctly identifying the patient cohort under investigation. In many cases, the most valuable and relevant information for an accurate classification of medical conditions exist only in clinical narratives. Therefore, it is necessary to use natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract and evaluate these narratives. The most commonly used approach to this problem relies on extracting a number of clinician-defined medical concepts from text and using machine learning techniques to identify whether a particular patient has a certain condition. However, recent advances in deep learning and NLP enable models to learn a rich representation of (medical) language. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) for text classification can augment the existing techniques by leveraging the representation of language to learn which phrases in a text are relevant for a given medical condition. In this work, we compare concept extraction based methods with CNNs and other commonly used models in NLP in ten phenotyping tasks using 1,610 discharge summaries from the MIMIC-III database. We show that CNNs outperform concept extraction based methods in almost all of the tasks, with an improvement in F1-score of up to 26 and up to 7 percentage points in area under the ROC curve (AUC). We additionally assess the interpretability of both approaches by presenting and evaluating methods that calculate and extract the most salient phrases for a prediction. The results indicate that CNNs are a valid alternative to existing approaches in patient phenotyping and cohort identification, and should be further investigated. Moreover, the deep learning approach presented in this paper can be used to assist clinicians during chart review or support the extraction of billing codes from text by identifying and highlighting relevant phrases for various medical conditions.

  14. Comparing deep learning and concept extraction based methods for patient phenotyping from clinical narratives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gehrmann

    Full Text Available In secondary analysis of electronic health records, a crucial task consists in correctly identifying the patient cohort under investigation. In many cases, the most valuable and relevant information for an accurate classification of medical conditions exist only in clinical narratives. Therefore, it is necessary to use natural language processing (NLP techniques to extract and evaluate these narratives. The most commonly used approach to this problem relies on extracting a number of clinician-defined medical concepts from text and using machine learning techniques to identify whether a particular patient has a certain condition. However, recent advances in deep learning and NLP enable models to learn a rich representation of (medical language. Convolutional neural networks (CNN for text classification can augment the existing techniques by leveraging the representation of language to learn which phrases in a text are relevant for a given medical condition. In this work, we compare concept extraction based methods with CNNs and other commonly used models in NLP in ten phenotyping tasks using 1,610 discharge summaries from the MIMIC-III database. We show that CNNs outperform concept extraction based methods in almost all of the tasks, with an improvement in F1-score of up to 26 and up to 7 percentage points in area under the ROC curve (AUC. We additionally assess the interpretability of both approaches by presenting and evaluating methods that calculate and extract the most salient phrases for a prediction. The results indicate that CNNs are a valid alternative to existing approaches in patient phenotyping and cohort identification, and should be further investigated. Moreover, the deep learning approach presented in this paper can be used to assist clinicians during chart review or support the extraction of billing codes from text by identifying and highlighting relevant phrases for various medical conditions.

  15. Comparing deep learning and concept extraction based methods for patient phenotyping from clinical narratives (United States)

    Dernoncourt, Franck; Li, Yeran; Carlson, Eric T.; Wu, Joy T.; Welt, Jonathan; Foote, John; Moseley, Edward T.; Grant, David W.; Tyler, Patrick D.; Celi, Leo A.


    In secondary analysis of electronic health records, a crucial task consists in correctly identifying the patient cohort under investigation. In many cases, the most valuable and relevant information for an accurate classification of medical conditions exist only in clinical narratives. Therefore, it is necessary to use natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract and evaluate these narratives. The most commonly used approach to this problem relies on extracting a number of clinician-defined medical concepts from text and using machine learning techniques to identify whether a particular patient has a certain condition. However, recent advances in deep learning and NLP enable models to learn a rich representation of (medical) language. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) for text classification can augment the existing techniques by leveraging the representation of language to learn which phrases in a text are relevant for a given medical condition. In this work, we compare concept extraction based methods with CNNs and other commonly used models in NLP in ten phenotyping tasks using 1,610 discharge summaries from the MIMIC-III database. We show that CNNs outperform concept extraction based methods in almost all of the tasks, with an improvement in F1-score of up to 26 and up to 7 percentage points in area under the ROC curve (AUC). We additionally assess the interpretability of both approaches by presenting and evaluating methods that calculate and extract the most salient phrases for a prediction. The results indicate that CNNs are a valid alternative to existing approaches in patient phenotyping and cohort identification, and should be further investigated. Moreover, the deep learning approach presented in this paper can be used to assist clinicians during chart review or support the extraction of billing codes from text by identifying and highlighting relevant phrases for various medical conditions. PMID:29447188

  16. Applying active learning to assertion classification of concepts in clinical text. (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Mani, Subramani; Xu, Hua


    Supervised machine learning methods for clinical natural language processing (NLP) research require a large number of annotated samples, which are very expensive to build because of the involvement of physicians. Active learning, an approach that actively samples from a large pool, provides an alternative solution. Its major goal in classification is to reduce the annotation effort while maintaining the quality of the predictive model. However, few studies have investigated its uses in clinical NLP. This paper reports an application of active learning to a clinical text classification task: to determine the assertion status of clinical concepts. The annotated corpus for the assertion classification task in the 2010 i2b2/VA Clinical NLP Challenge was used in this study. We implemented several existing and newly developed active learning algorithms and assessed their uses. The outcome is reported in the global ALC score, based on the Area under the average Learning Curve of the AUC (Area Under the Curve) score. Results showed that when the same number of annotated samples was used, active learning strategies could generate better classification models (best ALC-0.7715) than the passive learning method (random sampling) (ALC-0.7411). Moreover, to achieve the same classification performance, active learning strategies required fewer samples than the random sampling method. For example, to achieve an AUC of 0.79, the random sampling method used 32 samples, while our best active learning algorithm required only 12 samples, a reduction of 62.5% in manual annotation effort. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Perception and Effectiveness of Concept Mapping in Learning Epidemiology. (United States)

    Joshi, Urvish; Vyas, Sheetal


    Current programs in medical education technology concentrate mainly upon "how-to-teach." The focus is needed on learner's memory retention too. An innovative strategy like concept mapping might be a way forward. The study was carried out to assess its effectiveness and to know students' perceptions. During community medicine classes, a student-group was sensitized on how to make and use concept maps out of taught contents. At the end of epidemiology exercises sessions, this group was given additional minutes to prepare concept maps, interact, and brainstorm followed by quick QA session. Others were taught same contents in conventional way. Performances of both groups were assessed in one immediate (term-ending) and one distant (preliminary) exam. Feedback was also taken from study group. Study group consistently scored higher in both exams. Difference in scored mean marks was highly significant in term-ending-examination ( P memorizing, confidence-boosting, and understanding subject. Felt need for innovations in conventional teaching-learning (T-L) was palpable. Time has come to start focusing on enhancing students' learning. Performance-enhancing utility of concept maps is proven and should be integrated in regular T-L.

  18. A Test of Learning Concepts: Teaching Business Integration to the Freshman Business Student Learner via Podcasting (United States)

    Muller, Richard; Wergin, Rand


    The research in this paper is designed to discover if the use of supplemental instruction through the use of podcasts enhance learning for students in a business school environment. Specifically, previous experience in an entry level Survey of Business class suggested that topics regarding the integration of the business disciplines have been…

  19. Conceptions About Evaluation of learning in Higher Education: The Case of Nursing Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Bule


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the conceptions about apprenticeship evaluation in higher education and the case of nursing teaching. Methodology: a descriptive and essay study of conceptual analysis based on the theoretical reference. Results: The learning-centered teaching model refers is operationalized by the design of strategies that lead the students to learn, guided by the teachers. This model takes a dynamic perspective, focuses on the principles of the Bologna Declaration and breaks with the traditional model of education, dominant in Europe until the late 1980s. The evaluation of learning in the different pedagogical models results from a set of intentional actions whose centrality shifted from student performance to the processes that lead to certain performances. Emerge the appreciation of the contexts and stimuli that provide environments for learning. The approximately two decades of integration of nursing education in higher education followed the paradigm changes, simultaneously with the process of adaptation and integration that occurred. Conclusion: It should be noted that the evaluation of learning in Nursing (as in other areas is not apprehended by praxis. The inherent conceptual schemes must always be ascertained from the pedagogical models that support the relation of teaching and learning, according to the principles of Bologna.

  20. Solar cost reduction through technical improvements: the concepts of learning and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Flaim, T.


    The concepts of learning and experience are reviewed and their usefulness for predicting the future costs of solar technologies are evaluated. The literature review indicated that the cost estimates for solar energy technologies are typically made assuming a fixed production process, characterized by standard capacity factors, overhead, and labor costs. The learning curve is suggested as a generalization of the costs of potential solar energy systems. The concept of experience is too ambiguous to be useful for cost estimation. There is no logical reason to believe that costs will decline purely as a function of cumulative production, and experience curves do not allow the analyst to identify logical sources of cost reduction directly. The procedures for using learning and aggregated cost curves to estimate the costs of solar technologies are outlined. It is recommended that production histories of analogous products and processes are analyzed and the learning and cost curves for these surrogates are estimated. These curves, if judged applicable, can be used to predict the cost reductions in manufacturing solar energy technologies.

  1. Bootstrapping in a language of thought: a formal model of numerical concept learning. (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Goodman, Noah D


    In acquiring number words, children exhibit a qualitative leap in which they transition from understanding a few number words, to possessing a rich system of interrelated numerical concepts. We present a computational framework for understanding this inductive leap as the consequence of statistical inference over a sufficiently powerful representational system. We provide an implemented model that is powerful enough to learn number word meanings and other related conceptual systems from naturalistic data. The model shows that bootstrapping can be made computationally and philosophically well-founded as a theory of number learning. Our approach demonstrates how learners may combine core cognitive operations to build sophisticated representations during the course of development, and how this process explains observed developmental patterns in number word learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project-based learning approach on learning achievement and creative thinking of higher education students (United States)

    Autapao, Kanyarat; Minwong, Panthul


    Creative thinking was an important learning skill in the 21st Century via learning and innovation to promote students' creative thinking and working with others and to construct innovation. This is one of the important skills that determine the readiness of the participants to step into the complex society. The purposes of this research were 1) to compare the learning achievement of students after using basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project-based learning and 2) to make a comparison students' creative thinking between pretest and posttest. The populations were 29 students in Multimedia Technology program at Thepsatri Rajabhat University in the 2nd semester of the academic year 2016. The experimental instruments were lesson plans of basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project based learning. The data collecting instrument was creative thinking test. The data were analyzed by the arithmetic mean, standard deviation and The Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed-Ranks Test. The results of this research were 1) the learning achievement of students were statistically significance of .01 level and 2) the mean score of student's creativity assessment were statistically significance of .05 level. When considering all of 11 KPIs, showed that respondents' post-test mean scores higher than pre-test. And 5 KPIs were statistically significance of .05 level, consist of Originality, Fluency, Elaboration, Resistance to Premature Closure, and Intrinsic Motivation. It's were statistically significance of .042, .004, .049, .024 and .015 respectively. And 6 KPIs were non-statistically significant, include of Flexibility, Tolerance of Ambiguity, Divergent Thinking, Convergent Thinking, Risk Taking, and Extrinsic Motivation. The findings revealed that the flipped learning and project based learning provided students the freedom to simply learn on their own aptitude. When working together with project

  3. Systematically reviewing the potential of concept mapping technologies to promote self-regulated learning in primary and secondary science education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Matthew Peter; Hartmeyer, Rikke; Bentsen, Peter


    We systematically searched five databases to assess the potential of concept mapping-based technologies to promote self-regulated learning in science education. Our search uncovered 17 relevant studies that investigated seven different types of learning technologies. We performed a narrative...... analysis assessing how each technology affects self-regulated learning through cognitive, metacognitive, and motivation strategies, according to Schraw et al. (2006)'s model. We suggest concept mapping technologies may affect self-regulated learning through enhancing these strategies to varying degrees...

  4. Non-Technical Skills Bingo-a game to facilitate the learning of complex concepts. (United States)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Glavin, Ronnie; Hartvigsen Grønholm Jepsen, Rikke Malene; Krage, Ralf


    Acquiring the concepts of non-technical skills (NTS) beyond a superficial level is a challenge for healthcare professionals and simulation faculty. Current simulation-based approaches to teach NTS are challenged when learners have to master NTS concepts, clinically challenging situations, and simulation as a complex technique. The combination of all three aspects might overwhelm learners. To facilitate the deeper comprehension of NTS concepts, we describe an innovative video-based game, the Non-Technical Skills (NTS) Bingo. Participants get NTS Bingo cards that show five NTS elements each. While observing (non-medical) video clips, they try to find examples for the elements on their cards, typically observable behaviours that match a given element. After the video, participants "defend" their solution in a discussion with the game leader and other players. This discussion and the reflection aim to deepen the processing of the NTS concepts. We provide practical guidance for the conduct of NTS Bingo, including a selection of usable video clips and tips for the facilitated discussion after a clip. We use NTS in anaesthesia as example and provide guidance on how to adapt NTS Bingo to other disciplines. NTS Bingo is based on theoretical considerations on concept learning, which we describe to support the rationale for its conduct.

  5. Structured feedback on students' concept maps: the proverbial path to learning? (United States)

    Joseph, Conran; Conradsson, David; Nilsson Wikmar, Lena; Rowe, Michael


    Good conceptual knowledge is an essential requirement for health professions students, in that they are required to apply concepts learned in the classroom to a variety of different contexts. However, the use of traditional methods of assessment limits the educator's ability to correct students' conceptual knowledge prior to altering the educational context. Concept mapping (CM) is an educational tool for evaluating conceptual knowledge, but little is known about its use in facilitating the development of richer knowledge frameworks. In addition, structured feedback has the potential to develop good conceptual knowledge. The purpose of this study was to use Kinchin's criteria to assess the impact of structured feedback on the graphical complexity of CM's by observing the development of richer knowledge frameworks. Fifty-eight physiotherapy students created CM's targeting the integration of two knowledge domains within a case-based teaching paradigm. Each student received one round of structured feedback that addressed correction, reinforcement, forensic diagnosis, benchmarking, and longitudinal development on their CM's prior to the final submission. The concept maps were categorized according to Kinchin's criteria as either Spoke, Chain or Net representations, and then evaluated against defined traits of meaningful learning. The inter-rater reliability of categorizing CM's was good. Pre-feedback CM's were predominantly Chain structures (57%), with Net structures appearing least often. There was a significant reduction of the basic Spoke- structured CMs (P = 0.002) and a significant increase of Net-structured maps (P evaluation (post-feedback). Changes in structural complexity of CMs appeared to be indicative of broader knowledge frameworks as assessed against the meaningful learning traits. Feedback on CM's seemed to have contributed towards improving conceptual knowledge and correcting naive conceptions of related knowledge. Educators in medical education

  6. Combination of inquiry learning model and computer simulation to improve mastery concept and the correlation with critical thinking skills (CTS) (United States)

    Nugraha, Muhamad Gina; Kaniawati, Ida; Rusdiana, Dadi; Kirana, Kartika Hajar


    Among the purposes of physics learning at high school is to master the physics concepts and cultivate scientific attitude (including critical attitude), develop inductive and deductive reasoning skills. According to Ennis et al., inductive and deductive reasoning skills are part of critical thinking. Based on preliminary studies, both of the competence are lack achieved, it is seen from student learning outcomes is low and learning processes that are not conducive to cultivate critical thinking (teacher-centered learning). One of learning model that predicted can increase mastery concepts and train CTS is inquiry learning model aided computer simulations. In this model, students were given the opportunity to be actively involved in the experiment and also get a good explanation with the computer simulations. From research with randomized control group pretest-posttest design, we found that the inquiry learning model aided computer simulations can significantly improve students' mastery concepts than the conventional (teacher-centered) method. With inquiry learning model aided computer simulations, 20% of students have high CTS, 63.3% were medium and 16.7% were low. CTS greatly contribute to the students' mastery concept with a correlation coefficient of 0.697 and quite contribute to the enhancement mastery concept with a correlation coefficient of 0.603.

  7. Integrated learning of mathematics, science and technology concepts through LEGO/Logo projects (United States)

    Wu, Lina

    This dissertation examined integrated learning in the domains of mathematics, science and technology based on Piaget's constructivism, Papert's constructionism, and project-based approach to education. Ten fifth grade students were involved in a two-month long after school program where they designed and built their own computer-controlled LEGO/Logo projects that required the use of gears, ratios and motion concepts. The design of this study centered on three notions of integrated learning: (1) integration in terms of what educational materials/settings provide, (2) integration in terms of students' use of those materials, and (3) integration in the psychological sense. In terms of the first notion, the results generally showed that the LEGO/Logo environment supported the integrated learning of math, science and technology concepts. Regarding the second notion, the students all completed impressive projects of their own design. They successfully combined gears, motors, and LEGO parts together to create motion and writing control commands to manipulate the motion. But contrary to my initial expectations, their successful designs did not require numerical reasoning about ratios in designing effective gear systems. When they did reason about gear relationships, they worked with "qualitative" ratios, e.g., "a larger driver gear with a smaller driven gear increases the speed." In terms of the third notion of integrated learning, there was evidence in all four case study students of the psychological processes involved in linking mathematical, scientific, and/or technological concepts together to achieve new conceptual units. The students not only made connections between ideas and experiences, but also recognized decisive patterns and relationships in their project work. The students with stronger overall project performances showed more evidence of synthesis than the students with relatively weaker performances did. The findings support the conclusion that all three

  8. Evaluating meaningful learning using concept mapping in dental hygiene education: a pilot study. (United States)

    Canasi, Dina M; Amyot, Cynthia; Tira, Daniel


    Concept mapping, as a teaching strategy, has been shown to promote critical thinking and problem solving in educational settings. Dental clinicians must distinguish between critical and irrelevant characteristics in the delivery of care, thus necessitating reasoning skills to do so. One of the aims of the American Dental Education Association Commission on Change and Innovation (ADEA-CCI) is to identify deficiencies in curriculum which were meant to improve critical thinking and problem solving skills necessary in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 teaching strategies, traditional lecture and lecture supported by concept mapping exercises within collaborative working groups, to determine if there is a beneficial effect on meaningful learning. For this pilot study, the study population consisted of students from 2 geographically separated associate level dental hygiene programs in the southeastern U.S. A quasi-experimental control group pre- and post-test design was used. The degree of meaningful learning achieved by both programs was assessed by comparing pre- and post-test results. Both programs experienced a significant degree of meaningful learning from pre- to post-test. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the programs on the post-test. These results were in direct contrast to research in other disciplines on concept mapping and its effect on promoting meaningful learning. Further investigation into the study's outcome was obtained through a follow-up focus group. In spite of careful attention to methodology in the development of this research project, the focus group illuminated methodological failings that potentially impacted the outcome of the study. Recommendations are underscored for future conduct of educational research of this kind.

  9. Using Expectancy Value Theory as a Framework to Reduce Student Resistance to Active Learning: A Proof of Concept. (United States)

    Cooper, Katelyn M; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E


    There has been a national movement to transition college science courses from passive lectures to active learning environments. Active learning has been shown to be a more effective way for students to learn, yet there is concern that some students are resistant to active learning approaches. Although there is much discussion about student resistance to active learning, few studies have explored this topic. Furthermore, a limited number of studies have applied theoretical frameworks to student engagement in active learning. We propose using a theoretical lens of expectancy value theory to understand student resistance to active learning. In this study, we examined student perceptions of active learning after participating in 40 hours of active learning. We used the principal components of expectancy value theory to probe student experience in active learning: student perceived self-efficacy in active learning, value of active learning, and potential cost of participating in active learning. We found that students showed positive changes in the components of expectancy value theory and reported high levels of engagement in active learning, which provide proof of concept that expectancy value theory can be used to boost student perceptions of active learning and their engagement in active learning classrooms. From these findings, we have built a theoretical framework of expectancy value theory applied to active learning.

  10. The "proactive" model of learning: Integrative framework for model-free and model-based reinforcement learning utilizing the associative learning-based proactive brain concept. (United States)

    Zsuga, Judit; Biro, Klara; Papp, Csaba; Tajti, Gabor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf


    Reinforcement learning (RL) is a powerful concept underlying forms of associative learning governed by the use of a scalar reward signal, with learning taking place if expectations are violated. RL may be assessed using model-based and model-free approaches. Model-based reinforcement learning involves the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The model-free system involves the pedunculopontine-tegmental nucleus (PPTgN), the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the ventral striatum (VS). Based on the functional connectivity of VS, model-free and model based RL systems center on the VS that by integrating model-free signals (received as reward prediction error) and model-based reward related input computes value. Using the concept of reinforcement learning agent we propose that the VS serves as the value function component of the RL agent. Regarding the model utilized for model-based computations we turned to the proactive brain concept, which offers an ubiquitous function for the default network based on its great functional overlap with contextual associative areas. Hence, by means of the default network the brain continuously organizes its environment into context frames enabling the formulation of analogy-based association that are turned into predictions of what to expect. The OFC integrates reward-related information into context frames upon computing reward expectation by compiling stimulus-reward and context-reward information offered by the amygdala and hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore we suggest that the integration of model-based expectations regarding reward into the value signal is further supported by the efferent of the OFC that reach structures canonical for model-free learning (e.g., the PPTgN, VTA, and VS). (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Tugboats and tennis games: Preservice conceptions of teaching and learning revealed through metaphors (United States)

    Gurney, Bruce F.

    Black (1979) writes about the inextricable interrelationships among language, perception, knowledge, experience and metaphor. An extension of this, grounded in Wittgenstein's (1953) notion of the symbolic, experiential basis of first language, is the view that metaphors are windows into this primitive, personal framework. The purpose of this paper is to take an exploratory look at preservice teachers' metaphors of teaching and learning and to examine some components of student teachers' own intuitions in this area. In this study, a questionnaire was administered to one hundred and fifty-one science education students at the beginning of their preservice training on which they were challenged to generate a personal metaphor for teaching and learning. Descriptive elements within the responses were differentiated and applied to the development of a classification scheme. Both the technique and the categorization are seen as useful devices for the identification of common conceptions about the teaching and learning process. The metaphors have been seen to communicate a richness of meaning which convey elements of mood, control, roles, attitudes and beliefs as they apply to teaching and learning and which, it is argued here, are grounded on more deeply rooted symbols than literal language. In the light of constructivist pedagogy, the elicitation of students' preconceptions is seen to be germane to the organization of learning experiences.Received: 27 June 1993; Revised: 2 August 1994;

  12. Student experiences of problem-based learning in pharmacy: conceptions of learning, approaches to learning and the integration of face-to-face and on-line activities. (United States)

    Ellis, Robert A; Goodyear, Peter; Brillant, Martha; Prosser, Michael


    This study investigates fourth-year pharmacy students' experiences of problem-based learning (PBL). It adopts a phenomenographic approach to the evaluation of problem-based learning, to shed light on the ways in which different groups of students conceive of, and approach, PBL. The study focuses on the way students approach solving problem scenarios in class, and using professional pharmacy databases on-line. Qualitative variations in student approaches to solving problem scenarios in both learning situations are identified. These turn out to be associated with qualitatively different conceptions of PBL and also with levels of achievement. Conceptions and approaches that emphasis learning for understanding correlate with attaining higher course marks. The outcomes of the study reinforce arguments that we need to know more about how students interpret the requirements of study in a PBL context if we are to unravel the complex web of influences upon study activities, academic achievement and longer-term professional competence. Such knowledge is crucial to any theoretical model of PBL and has direct practical implications for the design of learning tasks and the induction of students into a PBL environment.

  13. Using concept mapping to measure changes in interdisciplinary learning during high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Reiska


    Full Text Available How, when and what kind of learning takes place are key questions in all educational environments. School graduates are expected to have reached a development level whereby they have, among many fundamental skills, the ability to think critically, to plan their studies and their future, and to integrate knowledge across disciplines. However, it is challenging to develop these skills in schools. Following existing curricula, disciplines are often taught separately and by different teachers, making it difficult for students to connect knowledge studied and learned from one discipline to that of another discipline. The Next Generation Science Standards on teaching and learning natural science in the United States point out important crosscutting concepts in science education (NGSS, 2013. In Estonia, similar trends are leading to an emphasis on the need to further develop scientific literacy skills and interdisciplinary learning in students. The changing environment around us must be reflected in changes in our school system. In this paper, we report on research that intends to answer the questions: (a “How much do Estonian students develop an interdisciplinary understanding of science throughout their high school education?”, and (b “Is their thinking more interdisciplinary after two years of studies in an Estonian high school?” Additionally, we analyzed the results based on the type of school the students attended, and we examined the use concept mapping to assess interdisciplinary learning. This research is part of an overall study that involved students from 44 Estonian high schools taking a science test similar to the three-dimensional Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA test (hereafter called PISA-like multidimensional test as well as constructing concept maps, while in 10th and 12th grade. In this paper, we report on the analysis of the results for 182 of the students, concentrating on the analysis of the concept maps

  14. Scaffolded problem-solving, learning approaches and understanding of concepts in an introductory college physics class (United States)

    Haack, Constance

    This study was an exploration of students' use of scaffolded problems as part of their homework in an introductory calculus-based physics class. The study included consideration of the possible relationship of students' meaningful and rote learning approaches. The sample was comprised of 48 students who had completed all study instruments. Of this number, 23 did homework assignments that included scaffolded problems that had been divided into multiple steps that simplify, highlight, and organize the knowledge associated with the problem solving process. The other 25 students did non-scaffolded homework assignments. The Mechanics Baseline Test, given at the beginning of the study, measured students' prior knowledge of physics concepts. The Learning Approach Questionnaire, also given at the beginning of the study, measured students' meaningful and rote approaches to learning. Student responses to 6 qualitative physics problems and their selection of concepts associated with 4 quantitative physics problems was a gauge of their understanding of physics concepts. These 10 problems were distributed between 2 classroom examinations given during the study. At the end of the study 4 students who had done scaffolded homework problems and 4 students who had done non-scaffolded homework problems participated in think aloud protocols. They verbalized their thoughts as they attempted to solve 2 physics problems. Characterizations of individual problem solving approaches emerged from the think aloud protocols. An analysis of statistical data showed that students who did scaffolded problems attained significantly greater understanding of physics concepts than students who did non-scaffolded assignments. There were no significant differences by learning approaches, and no significant interactions. This indicates that scaffolded homework problems may benefit students regardless of learning orientation. Think aloud protocols revealed patterns of difference between students who had

  15. Concept maps: A tool for knowledge management and synthesis in web-based conversational learning. (United States)

    Joshi, Ankur; Singh, Satendra; Jaswal, Shivani; Badyal, Dinesh Kumar; Singh, Tejinder


    Web-based conversational learning provides an opportunity for shared knowledge base creation through collaboration and collective wisdom extraction. Usually, the amount of generated information in such forums is very huge, multidimensional (in alignment with the desirable preconditions for constructivist knowledge creation), and sometimes, the nature of expected new information may not be anticipated in advance. Thus, concept maps (crafted from constructed data) as "process summary" tools may be a solution to improve critical thinking and learning by making connections between the facts or knowledge shared by the participants during online discussion This exploratory paper begins with the description of this innovation tried on a web-based interacting platform (email list management software), FAIMER-Listserv, and generated qualitative evidence through peer-feedback. This process description is further supported by a theoretical construct which shows how social constructivism (inclusive of autonomy and complexity) affects the conversational learning. The paper rationalizes the use of concept map as mid-summary tool for extracting information and further sense making out of this apparent intricacy.

  16. Academic self-concept, learning motivation, and test anxiety of the underestimated student. (United States)

    Urhahne, Detlef; Chao, Sheng-Han; Florineth, Maria Luise; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela


    BACKGROUND. Teachers' judgments of student performance on a standardized achievement test often result in an overestimation of students' abilities. In the majority of cases, a larger group of overestimated students and a smaller group of underestimated students are formed by these judgments. AIMS. In this research study, the consequences of the underestimation of students' mathematical performance potential were examined. SAMPLE. Two hundred and thirty-five fourth grade students and their fourteen mathematics teachers took part in the investigation. METHOD. Students worked on a standardized mathematics achievement test and completed a self-description questionnaire about motivation and affect. Teachers estimated each individual student's potential with regard to mathematics test performance as well as students' expectancy for success, level of aspiration, academic self-concept, learning motivation, and test anxiety. The differences between teachers' judgments on students' test performance and students' actual performance were used to build groups of underestimated and overestimated students. RESULTS. Underestimated students displayed equal levels of test performance, learning motivation, and level of aspiration in comparison with overestimated students, but had lower expectancy for success, lower academic self-concept, and experienced more test anxiety. Teachers expected that underestimated students would receive lower grades on the next mathematics test, believed that students were satisfied with lower grades, and assumed that the students have weaker learning motivation than their overestimated classmates. CONCLUSION. Teachers' judgment error was not confined to test performance but generalized to motivational and affective traits of the students. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Joint Learning of Representations of Medical Concepts and Words from EHR Data. (United States)

    Bai, Tian; Chanda, Ashis Kumar; Egleston, Brian L; Vucetic, Slobodan


    There has been an increasing interest in learning low-dimensional vector representations of medical concepts from electronic health records (EHRs). While EHRs contain structured data such as diagnostic codes and laboratory tests, they also contain unstructured clinical notes, which provide more nuanced details on a patient's health status. In this work, we propose a method that jointly learns medical concept and word representations. In particular, we focus on capturing the relationship between medical codes and words by using a novel learning scheme for word2vec model. Our method exploits relationships between different parts of EHRs in the same visit and embeds both codes and words in the same continuous vector space. In the end, we are able to derive clusters which reflect distinct disease and treatment patterns. In our experiments, we qualitatively show how our methods of grouping words for given diagnostic codes compares with a topic modeling approach. We also test how well our representations can be used to predict disease patterns of the next visit. The results show that our approach outperforms several common methods.

  18. The Effects of Concept Mapping Learning Strategy on Civil Engineering Students' in English Reading Comprehension


    Rasyidah, Ummi; Mardiansyah, Dedi


    This study extends the knowledge garnered with civil engineering populations by determining the reading comprehension strategies most important to students' success on adult literacy outcome measures and aligning them with previously researched interventions. Concept Mapping should benefit from strategies that teach looking for clues in or generating questions about a text. A pre-experimental design is used. The result showed that post-test is higher than pre-test. It means that there is an i...

  19. Concept Maps Provide a Window onto Preservice Elementary Teachers' Knowledge in the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics (United States)

    Chichekian, Tanya; Shore, Bruce M.


    This collaborative concept-mapping exercise was conducted in a second-year mathematics methods course. Teachers' visual representations of their mathematical content and pedagogical knowledge provided insight into their understanding of how students learn mathematics. We collected 28 preservice student teachers' concept maps and analyzed them by…

  20. Is Case-Based Learning an Effective Teaching Strategy to Challenge Students' Alternative Conceptions regarding Chemical Kinetics? (United States)

    Yalcinkaya, Eylem; Tastan-Kirik, Ozgecan; Boz, Yezdan; Yildiran, Demet


    Background: Case-based learning (CBL) is simply teaching the concept to the students based on the cases. CBL involves a case, which is a scenario based on daily life, and study questions related to the case, which allows students to discuss their ideas. Chemical kinetics is one of the most difficult concepts for students in chemistry. Students…

  1. The Effects of Image-Based Concept Mapping on the Learning Outcomes and Cognitive Processes of Mobile Learners (United States)

    Yen, Jung-Chuan; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, I-Jung


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different teaching strategies (text-based concept mapping vs. image-based concept mapping) on the learning outcomes and cognitive processes of mobile learners. Eighty-six college freshmen enrolled in the "Local Area Network Planning and Implementation" course taught by the first author…

  2. Pilot Study of Flow and Meaningfulness as Psychological Learning Concepts in Patient Education: A Short Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicic, Sara; Nørby, Karina; Bruun Johansen, Clea


    Abstract Background: The aim of this pilot study was to explore patient experiences of meaningfulness and flow related to group based patient education in type 2 diabetes. Meaningfulness and flow are underexposed as psychological learning concepts in patient education, and the ambition...... of this study was to investigate the applicability of these concepts of positive psychological theory in a patient education setting. Methods: This pilot study combines participating observation of group based patient education and 8 qualitative interviews with 4 patients with type 2 diabetes. Meaning...... of importance in relation to life with diabetes. However, patients only reported a few activities and situations that indicated flow states. A sense of meaningfulness occurred when the patients experienced a sense of community and connectedness, which they obtained from being together with the other patients...

  3. A vertical pathway for teaching and learning the concept of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A vertically integrated, research-based approach to teaching the concept of energy in primary, middle and upper secondary schools was designed. In primary school, the energy concept is developed from the idea of a state property of bodies, occurring in four types, which transform from one to another during interactions. In middle school, transformations are analyzed in terms of variations in quantities associated with each energy type in simple experiments. In upper secondary school, the conservation of energy is addressed through the conversion of the different types into internal energy to identify their formal definitions. The learning process is monitored by means of students’ responses to tutorials and pre/post-tests, and interviews.

  4. The use and perceptions of concept mapping as a learning tool by dietetic internship students and preceptors. (United States)

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Taylor, Kimberly A; Erickson, Dawn; Connell, Carol Lawson


    Critical thinking and problem solving skills are currently emphasis areas in the education of allied health professionals. Use of concept maps to teach these skills have been utilized primarily in nursing and medical education, but little has been published about their use in dietetics education. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of concept mapping as a learning tool for nutrition assessment among dietetic interns and its acceptability by internship preceptors. Nineteen dietetic interns and 31 preceptors participated in a quasi-experimental pre-/post-design in which the concept mapping strategy was taught as a replacement for the traditional nutrition care plan. The pre-concept map mean score was significantly lower than the post-concept mean score (28.35 vs. 117.96; p=0.001) based on the Student t-test, thus indicating improved critical thinking skills as evidenced through concept mapping. Overall students' perceptions of concept mapping as a teaching-learning method were more positive than the preceptors' perceptions. In conclusion, internship preceptors and dietetic interns perceived concept mapping as effective in assisting interns to engage in critical thinking, to problem solve, and understand relationships among medical nutrition therapy concepts. However, preceptors had more negative attitudes toward concept mapping than the dietetic interns related to time and effort to complete and evaluate the concept map.

  5. Concept Development and Meaningful Learning among Electrical Engineering Students Engaged in a Problem-Based Laboratory Experience (United States)

    Bledsoe, Karen E.; Flick, Lawrence


    This phenomenographic study documented changes in student-held electrical concepts the development of meaningful learning among students with both low and high prior knowledge within a problem-based learning (PBL) undergraduate electrical engineering course. This paper reports on four subjects: two with high prior knowledge and two with low prior…

  6. Personalised learning: a familiar concept to teachers? And which teachers? - A questionnaire-based survey of 43 secondary school teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorten, Dominique; Renson, Jean-Marie; Westera, Wim; Specht, Marcus


    Verpoorten, D., Renson, J.-M., Westera, W., & Specht, M. (2009). Personalised learning: a familiar concept to teachers? And which teachers? - A questionnaire-based survey of 43 secondary school teachers. In S. Walker, M. Ryan, & R. Teed (Eds.), Proceedings of the e-learning @ Greenwich Conference

  7. Developing Algebra Structure Module and Model of Cooperative Learning Helping Concept Map Media for Improving Proofing Ability (United States)



    This research was purposed to develop module and learning model and instrument of proofing ability in algebra structure through cooperative learning with helping map concept media for students of mathematic major and mathematics education in State University and Private University in North Sumatra province. The subject of this research was the…

  8. [The efficiency of self-regulated learning in the teaching of scientific concepts to health sciences students]. (United States)

    Santelices, Lucía; Williams, Carolina; Soto, Mauricio; Dougnac, Alberto


    In health sciences, the predominant teaching methodology is traditional and emphasizes conveying knowledge. Nonetheless, new abilities must be taught now. This change shifts the prominence from professor to student and incorporates a concept called self-regulated learning, which involves the professor as a mediator and incorporates guidelines that facilitate learning diverse skills. To compare the effects of two teaching methodologies on the learning of key scientific concepts among health science students. Two subgroups of equally complex concepts were randomly chosen to be taught either using traditional or self-regulation methodology. For the self-regulation methodology, two groups were formed. One learned only through self-regulation guidelines and the other learned through classes where the professor was a mediator. One hundred thirty seven freshman students from medicine, physical therapy, and nursing careers participated voluntarily in the study. Self-regulation methodology impacted the learning process of scientific concepts in a positive way and showed significant differences with traditional teaching. The sole use of self-regulation guidelines alone generated similar results, compared to those obtained by students who attended lectures. Self-regulated learning would improve in learning efficiency and would reduce face-to-face class time.

  9. Lost in Travel or a Different Conception? (Mis-)Appropriation of Transformative Learning Theory in the Republic of Korea (United States)

    Kang, Dae Joong; Cho, Sungmin


    Theoretical thought on adult and/or lifelong learning in the Republic of Korea has been largely indebted to Western theoretical frameworks in the past few decades. Academic journal articles and doctoral dissertations dealing with the topic of learning in adulthood flooded with Western, typically North American, theories and concepts. Is it indeed…

  10. Positive Effects of Peer-Led Reflection on Undergraduates' Concept Integration and Synthesis during Service Learning (United States)

    Hudsonm Monika; Hunter, Keith O.


    Service learning that features mutually constructed community-based service can enhance the understanding of a range of concepts (Butin, 2006). However, such service is often seen as "charity" as opposed to a dually constructed experience that is central to real learning (Howard, 2000; Tellis, 2011). This project was designed to…

  11. Investigating Cross-Cultural Variation in Conceptions of Learning and the Use of Self-Regulated Strategies. (United States)

    Purdie, Nola; Pillay, Hitendra; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian


    Examines concepts of learning, motivational orientations, and use of range of learning strategies focusing on high schools students (n=222) in Australia and in Malaysia (n=168). Indicates that Malaysian students obtained higher scores for more motivation strategies than Australian students. Includes references. (CMK)

  12. Ecocultural Factors in Students' Ability to Relate Science Concepts Learned at School and Experienced at Home: Implications for Chemistry Education (United States)

    Oloruntegbe, Kunle Oke; Ikpe, Adakole


    Making connections between science concepts taught in school and real-world phenomena is considered important in engaging students in learning. The present study examines students' abilities to relate their in-school science learning to everyday experiences at home. The sample comprised 200 senior secondary chemistry students drawn from Ondo…

  13. A Critical Review of Concept Mapping Research Literature: Informing Teaching and Learning Practices in GED Preparation Programs (United States)

    Martin, Larry G.; Martin, Fatima A.; Southworth, Erica


    Concept maps (Cmaps) are still underutilized in adult literacy programs and classes. The teaching and learning approaches that have been used historically in adult literacy programs to address the learning needs of these students have not kept pace with the literacy skill demands that have sprung from the increased pace of technological…

  14. Exploring Factors That Promote Online Learning Experiences and Academic Self-Concept of Minority High School Students (United States)

    Kumi-Yeboah, Alex; Dogbey, James; Yuan, Guangji


    The rapid growth of online education at the K-12 level in recent years presents the need to explore issues that influence the academic experiences of students choosing this method of learning. In this study, we examined factors that promote/hinder the learning experiences and academic self-concept of minority students attending an online high…

  15. The Relationships among Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning Science, and Motivation of Learning Science: A Study of Taiwan High School Students (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Ning Jessie; Liang, Jyh-Chong


    This study explores the relationships among Taiwanese high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs (SEBs), conceptions of learning science (COLS), and motivation of learning science. The questionnaire responses from 470 high school students in Taiwan were gathered for analysis to explain these relationships. The structural equation modeling…

  16. Centering the concept of transitional care: a teaching-learning innovation. (United States)

    Mood, Laura C; Neunzert, Caroline; Tadesse, Ruth


    Coordination of care, including the provision of safe and effective transitions, is a core professional standard for nurses. However, as currently designed, prelicensure nursing education prepares nurses to function in discrete settings rather than across settings. A teaching-learning innovation focusing on transitional care was implemented as an educational pilot project with 20 senior-level baccalaureate students in their leadership course. Students in the educational pilot immersed in the subject of transitional care via concept-based learning activities and performance improvement projects. During the course, students were assigned to designated clinical sites representative of a continuum of care. An integrated clinical postconference offered students the opportunity to discover the role of the nurse in transitional care from a systems perspective and facilitated a deeper understanding of the subject that extended beyond the walls of students' discrete clinical sites. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. High-fidelity simulation and legal/ethical concepts: a transformational learning experience. (United States)

    Smith, Katharine V; Witt, Jacki; Klaassen, Joann; Zimmerman, Christine; Cheng, An-Lin


    Students in an undergraduate legal and ethical issues course continually told the authors that they did not have time to study for the course because they were busy studying for their clinical courses. Faculty became concerned that students were failing to realize the value of legal and ethical concepts as applicable to clinical practice. This led the authors to implement a transformational learning experience in which students applied legal and ethical course content in a high-fidelity human simulation (HFHS) scenario. A preliminary evaluation compared the new HFHS experience with in-person and online student groups using the same case. Based on both student and faculty perceptions, the HFHS was identified as the best of the three approaches for providing a transformational learning experience regarding legal and ethical content.

  18. Evaluation of Learning in Oncology of Undergraduate Nursing with the Use of Concept Mapping. (United States)

    Trevisani, Mariane; Cohrs, Cibelli Rizzo; de Lara Soares, Mariângela Abate; Duarte, José Marcio; Mancini, Felipe; Pisa, Ivan Torres; De Domenico, Edvane Birelo Lopes


    This study aims to identify whether the use of concept mapping (CM) strategy assists a student to extend and revise their expertise in oncology and analyze the abilities developed in a student in order to go through theoretical to practical knowledge. This study is descriptive and qualitative, with 20 undergraduate students of the Undergraduate Nursing Course of Paulista School of Nursing of Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil. The critical incident technique and content analysis were used. There were 12 categories represented by facilities, difficulties, and learning applicability in oncology provided by CM strategy during the surgical and clinical nursing discipline. The graphics resource, CMapTools®, and the clinical case data arranged in mapping for resolution generated an active search and exercise of self-learning in oncology. Despite the challenges of the use of CM as a teaching strategy-pedagogical, the results suggested an increase of autonomy and clinical reasoning in nursing practice.

  19. The Examining Effect of Gender Factor on Learning Mathematical Concepts via Instructional Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Fatemi


    Full Text Available Multimedia electronic instructional environments are widely recognized to hold great potential for improving the way that students learn. In these instructional environments, learners are exposed to material in verbal and pictorial forms. Then in present era, instruction in particular teaching mathematics can use for students. In this study, it is used of Geo Gebra software and its effects are studied for students and in particular among the performances of girl and boys. The effects of this software are studied on 54 girl and students. The results of Leven and T-tests are indicated that the use of software and electronic context has positive efficiency on learning mathematical concepts for students. In addition, it is proved that the use of software and electronic context in mathematics education has positive efficiency for boy students rather girl students. Therefore it seems that electronic contents or software can be as tutor for these students and help them in mathematics education.



    Septiana, Dwi; Miarsyah, Mieke; Komala, Ratna


    The low score of students learning outcome on Kingdom  Animalia concept indicate that there must an improvement of students retention. The aim of this study is to know the effect of reciprocal teaching learning model that integrated with mind map and persistence on students retention. The method that used in this research is quasi experiment with 2 x 2 factorial design. The instruments that used in this research are learning outcome test and persistence questionnaire. The subject of this...

  1. Differential-associative processing or example elaboration: Which strategy is best for learning the definitions of related and unrelated concepts? (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda


    Definitions of related concepts (e.g., genotype - phenotype ) are prevalent in introductory classes. Consequently, it is important that educators and students know which strategy(s) work best for learning them. This study showed that a new comparative elaboration strategy, called differential-associative processing, was better for learning definitions of related concepts than was an integrative elaborative strategy, called example elaboration. This outcome occurred even though example elaboration was administered in a naturalistic way (Experiment 1) and students spent more time in the example elaboration condition learning (Experiments 1, 2, 3), and generating pieces of information about the concepts (Experiments 2 and 3). Further, with unrelated concepts ( morpheme-fluid intelligence ), performance was similar regardless if students used differential-associative processing or example elaboration (Experiment 3). Taken as a whole, these results suggest that differential-associative processing is better than example elaboration for learning definitions of related concepts and is as good as example elaboration for learning definitions of unrelated concepts.

  2. Conceptual Elements: A Detailed Framework to Support and Assess Student Learning of Biology Core Concepts. (United States)

    Cary, Tawnya; Branchaw, Janet


    The Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: Call to Action report has inspired and supported a nationwide movement to restructure undergraduate biology curricula to address overarching disciplinary concepts and competencies. The report outlines the concepts and competencies generally but does not provide a detailed framework to guide the development of the learning outcomes, instructional materials, and assessment instruments needed to create a reformed biology curriculum. In this essay, we present a detailed Vision and Change core concept framework that articulates key components that transcend subdisciplines and scales for each overarching biological concept, the Conceptual Elements (CE) Framework. The CE Framework was developed using a grassroots approach of iterative revision and incorporates feedback from more than 60 biologists and undergraduate biology educators from across the United States. The final validation step resulted in strong national consensus, with greater than 92% of responders agreeing that each core concept list was ready for use by the biological sciences community, as determined by scientific accuracy and completeness. In addition, we describe in detail how educators and departments can use the CE Framework to guide and document reformation of individual courses as well as entire curricula. © 2017 T. Cary and J. Branchaw. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  3. [A Study on the Cognitive Learning Effectiveness of Scenario-Based Concept Mapping in a Neurological Nursing Course]. (United States)

    Pan, Hui-Ching; Hsieh, Suh-Ing; Hsu, Li-Ling


    The multiple levels of knowledge related to the neurological system deter many students from pursuing studies on this topic. Thus, in facing complicated and uncertain medical circumstances, nursing students have diffi-culty adjusting and using basic neurological-nursing knowledge and skills. Scenario-based concept-mapping teaching has been shown to promote the integration of complicated data, clarify related concepts, and increase the effectiveness of cognitive learning. To investigate the effect on the neurological-nursing cognition and learning attitude of nursing students of a scenario-based concept-mapping strategy that was integrated into the neurological nursing unit of a medical and surgical nursing course. This quasi-experimental study used experimental and control groups and a pre-test / post-test design. Sopho-more (2nd year) students in a four-year program at a university of science and technology in Taiwan were convenience sampled using cluster randomization that was run under SPSS 17.0. Concept-mapping lessons were used as the intervention for the experimental group. The control group followed traditional lesson plans only. The cognitive learning outcome was measured using the neurological nursing-learning examination. Both concept-mapping and traditional lessons significantly improved post-test neurological nursing learning scores (p concept-mapping strategy and traditional clinical-case lessons into neurological nursing lessons holds the potential to increase post-test scores significantly. Concept mapping helped those in the experimental group adopt views and attitudes toward learning the teaching material that were more positive than those held by their control-group peers. In addition, while 59% of the experimental group and 49% of the control group submitted opinions related to learning attitude in the open-ended questions, positive feedback was greater in the experimental group than in the control group.

  4. Effect of learning disabilities on academic self-concept in children with epilepsy and on their quality of life. (United States)

    Brabcová, Dana; Zárubová, Jana; Kohout, Jiří; Jošt, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel


    Academic self-concept could significantly affect academic achievement and self-confidence in children with epilepsy. However, limited attention has been devoted to determining factors influencing academic self-concept of children with epilepsy. We aimed to analyze potentially significant variables (gender, frequency of seizures, duration of epilepsy, intellectual disability, learning disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) in relation to academic self-concept in children with epilepsy and to additional domains of their quality of life. The study group consisted of 182 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years who completed the SPAS (Student's Perception of Ability Scale) questionnaire determining their academic self-concept and the modified Czech version of the CHEQOL-25 (Health-Related Quality of Life Measure for Children with Epilepsy) questionnaire evaluating their health-related quality of life. Using regression analysis, we identified learning disability as a key predictor for academic-self concept of children with epilepsy. While children with epilepsy and with no learning disability exhibited results comparable to children without epilepsy, participants with epilepsy and some learning disability scored significantly lower in almost all domains of academic self-concept. We moreover found that children with epilepsy and learning disability have significantly lower quality of life in intrapersonal and interpersonal domains. In contrast to children with epilepsy and with no learning disability, these participants have practically no correlation between their quality of life and academic self-concept. Our findings suggest that considerable attention should be paid to children having both epilepsy and learning disability. It should comprise services of specialized counselors and teaching assistants with an appropriate knowledge of epilepsy and ability to empathize with these children as well as educational interventions focused on their teachers

  5. Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-immersive Virtual Environments (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria


    The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop virtual environment (DVE) conditions. Our results show that after the simulation activities, both IVE and DVE groups exhibited a significant shift toward a scientific understanding in their conceptual models and epistemological beliefs about the nature of relative motion, and also a significant improvement on relative motion problem-solving tests. In addition, we analyzed students' performance on one-dimensional and two-dimensional questions in the relative motion problem-solving test separately and found that after training in the simulation, the IVE group performed significantly better than the DVE group on solving two-dimensional relative motion problems. We suggest that egocentric encoding of the scene in IVE (where the learner constitutes a part of a scene they are immersed in), as compared to allocentric encoding on a computer screen in DVE (where the learner is looking at the scene from "outside"), is more beneficial than DVE for studying more complex (two-dimensional) relative motion problems. Overall, our findings suggest that such aspects of virtual realities as immersivity, first-hand experience, and the possibility of changing different frames of reference can facilitate understanding abstract scientific phenomena and help in displacing intuitive misconceptions with more accurate mental models.

  6. Learning abstract visual concepts via probabilistic program induction in a Language of Thought. (United States)

    Overlan, Matthew C; Jacobs, Robert A; Piantadosi, Steven T


    The ability to learn abstract concepts is a powerful component of human cognition. It has been argued that variable binding is the key element enabling this ability, but the computational aspects of variable binding remain poorly understood. Here, we address this shortcoming by formalizing the Hierarchical Language of Thought (HLOT) model of rule learning. Given a set of data items, the model uses Bayesian inference to infer a probability distribution over stochastic programs that implement variable binding. Because the model makes use of symbolic variables as well as Bayesian inference and programs with stochastic primitives, it combines many of the advantages of both symbolic and statistical approaches to cognitive modeling. To evaluate the model, we conducted an experiment in which human subjects viewed training items and then judged which test items belong to the same concept as the training items. We found that the HLOT model provides a close match to human generalization patterns, significantly outperforming two variants of the Generalized Context Model, one variant based on string similarity and the other based on visual similarity using features from a deep convolutional neural network. Additional results suggest that variable binding happens automatically, implying that binding operations do not add complexity to peoples' hypothesized rules. Overall, this work demonstrates that a cognitive model combining symbolic variables with Bayesian inference and stochastic program primitives provides a new perspective for understanding people's patterns of generalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


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    B. C. Rossi


    Full Text Available Besides to equip the students to perform, analyze and interpret laboratoryinvestigations and to demonstrate familiarity with handling and using laboratoryinstrumentation, the laboratory-based practical exercises expect to integratetheoretical concepts and practical skills. This work is a preliminary study toinvestigate the relationship between the concepts learned in the lectures and theconcepts applied in the lab classes. Firstly we compared the students gradesobtained in the exams with their grades in the laboratory exercises reports. Itshows a non-significance correlation (Spearman between the exams and reportsgrades. In a second moment we compared the students grades obtained in a preselectedexam question with the grades obtained in the related laboratory exercisereport. In this case, we could observe a significant correlation between the examsand the reports grades. This preliminary study held with 82 biology studentssuggests that the top scored students in the exams are not necessary the sametop scored students in the laboratory exercises reports, but the students who havethe higher scores in the laboratory exercises reports have also the higher scores inthe questions related to the laboratory exercise asked in the exam. These resultssuggest that the laboratory classes have an important role in the theoreticalconcepts learning.

  8. Designing problem-based curricula: The role of concept mapping in scaffolding learning for the health sciences

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    Susan M. Bridges


    Full Text Available While the utility of concept mapping has been widely reported in primary and secondary educational contexts, its application in the health sciences in higher education has been less frequently noted. Two case studies of the application of concept mapping in undergraduate and postgraduate health sciences are detailed in this paper. The case in undergraduate dental education examines the role of concept mapping in supporting problem-based learning and explores how explicit induction into the principles and practices of CM has add-on benefits to learning in an inquiry-based curriculum. The case in postgraduate medical education describes the utility of concept mapping in an online inquiry-based module design. Specific attention is given to applications of CMapTools™ software to support the implementation of Novakian concept mapping in both inquiry-based curricular contexts.

  9. Jupyter Notebooks as tools for interactive learning of Concepts in Structural Geology and efficient grading of exercises. (United States)

    Niederau, Jan; Wellmann, Florian; Maersch, Jannik; Urai, Janos


    Programming is increasingly recognised an important skill for geoscientists - however, the hurdle to jump into programming for students with little or no experience can be high. We present here teaching concepts on the basis of Jupyter notebooks that combine, in an intuitive way, formatted instruction text with code cells in a single environment. This integration allows for an exposure to programming on several levels: from a complete interactive presentation of content, where students require no or very limited programming experience, to highly complex geoscientific computations. We consider these notebooks therefore as an ideal medium to present computational content to students in the field of geosciences. We show here how we use these notebooks to develop digital documents in Python for undergrad-students, who can then learn about basic concepts in structural geology via self-assessment. Such notebooks comprise concepts such as: stress tensor, strain ellipse, or the mohr circle. Students can interactively change parameters, e.g. by using sliders and immediately see the results. They can further experiment and extend the notebook by writing their own code within the notebook. Jupyter Notebooks for teaching purposes can be provided ready-to-use via online services. That is, students do not need to install additional software on their devices in order to work with the notebooks. We also use Jupyter Notebooks for automatic grading of programming assignments in multiple lectures. An implemented workflow facilitates the generation, distribution of assignments, as well as the final grading. Compared to previous grading methods with a high percentage of repetitive manual grading, the implemented workflow proves to be much more time efficient.

  10. Teaching Plate Tectonic Concepts using GeoMapApp Learning Activities (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; Kluge, S.


    GeoMapApp Learning Activities ( ) can help educators to expose undergraduate students to a range of earth science concepts using high-quality data sets in an easy-to-use map-based interface called GeoMapApp. GeoMapApp Learning Activities require students to interact with and analyse research-quality geoscience data as a means to explore and enhance their understanding of underlying content and concepts. Each activity is freely available through the SERC-Carleton web site and offers step-by-step student instructions and answer sheets. Also provided are annotated educator versions of the worksheets that include teaching tips, additional content and suggestions for further work. The activities can be used "off-the-shelf". Or, since the educator may require flexibility to tailor the activities, the documents are provided in Word format for easy modification. Examples of activities include one on the concept of seafloor spreading that requires students to analyse global seafloor crustal age data to calculate spreading rates in different ocean basins. Another activity has students explore hot spots using radiometric age dating of rocks along the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain. A third focusses upon the interactive use of contours and profiles to help students visualise 3-D topography on 2-D computer screens. A fourth activity provides a study of mass wasting as revealed through geomorphological evidence. The step-by-step instructions and guided inquiry approach reduce the need for teacher intervention whilst boosting the time that students can spend on productive exploration and learning. The activities can be used, for example, in a classroom lab with the educator present and as self-paced assignments in an out-of-class setting. GeoMapApp Learning Activities are funded through the NSF GeoEd program and are aimed at students in the introductory undergraduate, community college and high school levels. The activities are

  11. The Influence of Teachers' Conceptions on Their Students' Learning: Children's Understanding of Sheet Music (United States)

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio


    Background: Despite increasing interest in teachers' and students' conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning. Aims: This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between…

  12. A Research and Study Course for learning the concept of discrete randomvariable using Monte Carlo methods

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    Vicente D. Estruch


    Full Text Available The concept of random variable is a mathematical construct that presents some theoretical complexity. However, learning  this  concept  can  be  facilitated  if  it  is  presented  as  the  end  of  a  sequential  process  of  modeling  of  a  real event. More specifically, to learn the concept of discrete random variable, the Monte Carlo simulation can provide an extremely useful tool because in the process of modeling / simulation one can approach the theoretical concept of random variable, while the random variable is observed \\in action". This paper presents a Research and Study Course  (RSC  based  on  series  of  activities  related  to  random  variables  such  as  training  and  introduction  of  simulation  elements,  then  the  construction  of  the  model  is  presented,  which  is  the  substantial  part  of  the  activity, generating a random variable and its probability function. Starting from a simple situation related to reproduction and  survival  of  the  litter  of  a  rodent,  with  random  components,  step  by  step,  the  model  that  represents  the  real raised situation is built obtaining an \\original" random variable. In the intermediate stages of the construction of the model have a fundamental role the uniform discrete and binomial distributions. The trajectory of these stages allows reinforcing the concept of random variable while exploring the possibilities offered by Monte Carlo methods to  simulate  real  cases  and  the  simplicity  of  implementing  these  methods  by  means  of  the  Matlab© programming language.

  13. Aesthetic concepts, perceptual learning, and linguistic enculturation: considerations from Wittgenstein, language, and music. (United States)

    Croom, Adam M


    Aesthetic non-cognitivists deny that aesthetic statements express genuinely aesthetic beliefs and instead hold that they work primarily to express something non-cognitive, such as attitudes of approval or disapproval, or desire. Non-cognitivists deny that aesthetic statements express aesthetic beliefs because they deny that there are aesthetic features in the world for aesthetic beliefs to represent. Their assumption, shared by scientists and theorists of mind alike, was that language-users possess cognitive mechanisms with which to objectively grasp abstract rules fixed independently of human responses, and that cognizers are thereby capable of grasping rules for the correct application of aesthetic concepts without relying on evaluation or enculturation. However, in this article I use Wittgenstein's rule-following considerations to argue that psychological theories grounded upon this so-called objective model of rule-following fail to adequately account for concept acquisition and mastery. I argue that this is because linguistic enculturation, and the perceptual learning that's often involved, influences and enables the mastery of aesthetic concepts. I argue that part of what's involved in speaking aesthetically is to belong to a cultural practice of making sense of things aesthetically, and that it's within a socio-linguistic community, and that community's practices, that such aesthetic sense can be made intelligible.

  14. The Effect of Web Enhanced Course (WEC and Web Centric Course (WCC towards Student Learning Results on Reproduction System Concept

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    Ryan Ardiansyah


    Full Text Available Based on studies, many schools use e-learning web centric course (WCC as an effort to improve student learning results. But in fact, WCC still has a lot of weaknesses. Therefore, this research was conducted for another e-learning which is based on web enhanced course (WEC to overcome these WCC’s weaknesses. This study aimed to determine the effect of e-learning WCC and WEC for student learning results in grade XI in human reproduction system concept. The research methods used quasy experimental with non-equivalent group pretest posttest design and sample used 2 experimental groups that are WEC and WCC class in one of the high schools in Bandung with 30 students for each group which obtained by purposive sampling. Instruments used are multiple choice questions as the main data, questionnaires and interview guides as secondary data. Based on the result, average posttest for WEC is 81.90 and WCC is 69.96 with the hypothesis test result Zcount =3.89 in the retained area for Ztable =1.96. Based on these results, it can be conclude that there is learning effect of using e-learning WEC with WCC in students learning results in human reproductive system concept and using e-learning WEC can further increase student learning results when compared with WCC

  15. The use of concept mapping and vee heuristics in higher education to promote critical reflection and meaningful learning

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    Jacqueline Vanhear


    Full Text Available Higher Education is currently undergoing relentless change worldwide in order to respond effectively to the aspirations of the 21st century. Consequently, prevalent literature in Higher Education calls for more emphasis on the studentsʼ learning process through increased metacognition and critical reflection. This paper starts off with the assumption that learning takes place through the integration of thinking, feeling and acting. As a result, this paper will present a model of teaching and learning in Higher Education through the integrated use of Vee Heuristics and Concept Mapping. This research will suggest that when using Concept Maps, Vee Heuristics along with an awareness of how students prefer to learn, the students will go through a metacognitive learning process which would eventually lead to critical reflection and meaningful learning. Using University studentsʼ work products, this study traces the effect of a learnerʼs mental operations on the learnerʼs use of Vee Heuristics and Concept Mapping as the learner embeds and retrieves new and scaffolded knowledge. The data collected reveals the powerful effect which this combination of learning tolos yielded on student achievement and transformation.

  16. Group concept mapping: An approach to explore group knowledge organization and collaborative learning in senior medical students. (United States)

    Torre, Dario; Daley, Barbara J; Picho, Katherine; Durning, Steven J


    Group concept mapping may be used as a learning strategy that can potentially foster collaborative learning and assist instructors to assess the development of knowledge organization in medical students. Group concept maps were created by 39 medical students rotating through a fourth year medicine rotation. The group maps were developed based on a clinical vignette. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis of students' evaluations were performed. Evaluations indicated that students enjoyed the collaborative nature of the exercise and the knowledge sharing activities associated with it. Group maps can demonstrate different knowledge organization Discussion: Group concept mapping can be used to explore students' organization and integration of knowledge structures in a collaborative setting. Additional research should focus on how group mapping and learning progresses over time and, whether group mapping can help identify curricular strengths and needs.

  17. Capturing the Integration of Practice-Based Learning with Beliefs, Values, and Attitudes using Modified Concept Mapping. (United States)

    Mcnaughton, Susan; Barrow, Mark; Bagg, Warwick; Frielick, Stanley


    Practice-based learning integrates the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains and is influenced by students' beliefs, values, and attitudes. Concept mapping has been shown to effectively demonstrate students' changing concepts and knowledge structures. This article discusses how concept mapping was modified to capture students' perceptions of the connections between the domains of thinking and knowing, emotions, behavior, attitudes, values, and beliefs and the specific experiences related to these, over a period of eight months of practice-based clinical learning. The findings demonstrate that while some limitations exist, modified concept mapping is a manageable way to gather rich data about students' perceptions of their clinical practice experiences. These findings also highlight the strong integrating influence of beliefs and values on other areas of practice, suggesting that these need to be attended to as part of a student's educational program.

  18. The architecture of Virtual Learning Environments under the conceptions of Bakhtinian studies

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    Adolfo Tanzi Neto


    Full Text Available Grounded on the conceptual framework of Bakhtin's architectonic form, we seek to demonstrate that the dimensions of a genre practiced in a virtual learning environment (VLE are directly related to its design (conception, idealization, and form, that is, to its architectonic form as the design of a VLE, which can foster (new multiliteracies, provide flexibility or not for multisemiotic genre practices in the contemporary world. To achieve this aim, we observed the design of two tools from two distinct VLEs; in one of them we found the influence of traditional school relationships of time and space (and power, generating an architectonic form of the traditional school characterized by its genres and literacies. In the other VLE, considering its architectonic form, we concluded that the design tends to favor the use of different modes of language - textual, graphic, sound, with static and dynamic images with easy communication/interaction in the contemporary technological media.

  19. Geographic Information System Incorporated into Earth Science Classrooms to Enhance Individual Learning Development with Interconnected Concepts (United States)

    Garifo, Mary Anna


    Geographic Information System, GIS, is a powerful tool and when incorporated into Earth Science classrooms, can enhance and empower students' engagement in their learning. Through utilization of GIS, students can process what they are learning in a spatially orientated method, which allows them to make connections among different related concepts. For example, if students are given a map in a GIS software with multiple layers of data on earthquakes, plate technics, and volcanoes then they can manipulate this information to come up with their own patterns. Through allowing students to develop their spatial recognition of where the Earth's plate boundaries are and where earthquakes have occurred, students can see how these two concepts are connected. In a guided but exploratory activity, students would be given multiple different websites that they could explore to research what different type of plates there are while they are working simultaneously with the GIS software. Using a plate technics layer, including data on type of boundary, students can explore and estimate which direction the plates are moving. When they look up convergent boundaries and see that the oceanic plates submerge under continental plates they can see where volcanic chains might be. Once they understand this in a spatial way, students can predict where they think volcanoes could be, based on where convergent boundaries are. When they manipulate the volcanic layer and see abnormalities to what they just learned, it will cause them to have cognitive dissonance, which will force them into seeking further understanding. The concept of a hot spot can then be introduced to resolve the cognitive dissonance and emphasis the idea that plates we live on are moving. Concepts can further be developed through GIS by showing how the strength and frequency of earthquakes are related to the level of activity at the plate boundary. This can be done by manipulating the map layer that represents earthquakes so

  20. A virtual trainer concept for robot-assisted human motor learning in rowing

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    Baumgartner L.


    Full Text Available Keeping the attention level and observing multiple physiological and biomechanical variables at the same time at high precision is very challenging for human trainers. Concurrent augmented feedback, which is suggested to enhance motor learning in complex motor tasks, can also hardly be provided by a human trainer. Thus, in this paper, a concept for a virtual trainer is presented that may overcome the limits of a human trainer. The intended virtual trainer will be implemented in a CAVE providing auditory, visual and haptic cues. As a first application, the virtual trainer will be used in a realistic scenario for sweep rowing. To provide individual feedback to each rower, the virtual trainer quantifies errors and provides concurrent auditory, visual, and haptic feedback. The concurrent feedback will be adapted according to the actual performance, individual maximal rowing velocity, and the athlete’s individual perception.