WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously gained knowledge

  1. Gaining knowledge from previously unexplained spectra-application of the PTM-Explorer software to detect PTM in HUPO BPP MS/MS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamrad, Daniel C; Körting, Gerhard; Schäfer, Heike; Stephan, Christian; Thiele, Herbert; Apweiler, Rolf; Meyer, Helmut E; Marcus, Katrin; Blüggel, Martin

    2006-09-01

    A novel software tool named PTM-Explorer has been applied to LC-MS/MS datasets acquired within the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) Brain Proteome Project (BPP). PTM-Explorer enables automatic identification of peptide MS/MS spectra that were not explained in typical sequence database searches. The main focus was detection of PTMs, but PTM-Explorer detects also unspecific peptide cleavage, mass measurement errors, experimental modifications, amino acid substitutions, transpeptidation products and unknown mass shifts. To avoid a combinatorial problem the search is restricted to a set of selected protein sequences, which stem from previous protein identifications using a common sequence database search. Prior to application to the HUPO BPP data, PTM-Explorer was evaluated on excellently manually characterized and evaluated LC-MS/MS data sets from Alpha-A-Crystallin gel spots obtained from mouse eye lens. Besides various PTMs including phosphorylation, a wealth of experimental modifications and unspecific cleavage products were successfully detected, completing the primary structure information of the measured proteins. Our results indicate that a large amount of MS/MS spectra that currently remain unidentified in standard database searches contain valuable information that can only be elucidated using suitable software tools.

  2. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  3. Training Children in Pedestrian Safety: Distinguishing Gains in Knowledge from Gains in Safe Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schwebel, David C.; McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children’s street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associ...

  4. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  5. Steps toward Gaining Knowledge of World Music Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This article presents steps toward gaining knowledge of world music pedagogy for K-12 general music educators. The majority of the article details steps that invite engagement within everyday contexts with accessible resources within local and online communities. The steps demonstrate ways general music teachers can diversify and self-direct their…

  6. Health Literacy Predicts Cardiac Knowledge Gains in Cardiac Rehabilitation Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Colleen C.; Rawson, Katherine; Hughes, Joel W.; Waechter, Donna; Rosneck, James

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Health literacy is increasingly recognised as a potentially important patient characteristic related to patient education efforts. We evaluated whether health literacy would predict gains in knowledge after completion of patient education in cardiac rehabilitation. Method: This was a re-post observational analysis study design based on…

  7. Correlates of pregnant women's gestational weight gain knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Jane Catherine; Ball, Kylie; Campbell, Karen Jane; Crawford, David Andrew; Wilkinson, Shelley Ann

    2017-06-01

    to investigate correlates of pregnant women's gestational weight gain (GWG) knowledge commensurate with GWG guidelines. cross sectional quantitative study. an Australian tertiary level maternity hospital. pregnant women (n=1032) following their first antenatal visit. survey to assess GWG knowledge and a range of potential correlates of knowledge including socio-economic characteristics, pregnancy characteristics (parity, gestation, pre-pregnancy BMI) and GWG information procurement and GWG attitudinal variables. participants (n=366; 35.4% response) averaged 32.5 years of age with 33% speaking a language other than English. One third of women reported GWG knowledge consistent with guidelines. Women overweight prior to pregnancy were less likely to underestimate appropriate GWG (RRR 0.23, 95% CI=0.09-0.59). Conversely, women in the overweight (RRR 8.80, 95% CI=4.02-19.25) and obese (RRR 19.62, 95% CI=8.03-48.00) categories were more likely to overestimate GWG recommendations, while tertiary educated women were less likely to overestimate GWG (RRR 0.28, 95% CI=0.10-0.79). No associations were found between GWG knowledge and pregnancy, GWG information source or attitudinal variables. the findings highlight women's lack of GWG knowledge and the role of pre-pregnancy body mass index and women's education as correlates of GWG knowledge. Women susceptible to poor GWG knowledge should be a priority target for individual and community-based education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear Physics in High School: what are the previous knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, F. de O.

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear physics is a branch of physics that about a century occupies an important space in the theoretical, experimental and scientific fields. Currently, its relevance in application is concentrated in several areas such as energy production, diagnostic processes and medical treatment and nuclear bombs, high destructive power. Whereas, according to legal regulations, the teaching of physics must make the student competent in the understanding of the world and assuming the perspective of Paulo Freire (2011) that education is not done on the subject, but together with him, in dialogue with his point of departure, his prior knowledge, we established the general objective of raising students prior knowledge of the third year of high School at Nair Ferreira Neves school, in São Sebastião-SP, about nuclear physics. We concluded that the school has not fulfilled its role in relation to nuclear physics, because students have information from other means of information and these knowledge are stereotyped and mistaken, damaging the world's reading and exercising full citizenship.

  9. How architecture students gain and apply knowledge of sustainable architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth; Holder, Anna

    2016-01-01

    understandings of how architects synthesise different types of knowledge while designing, raising questions about the ‘match’ between educational experiences and subsequent behaviours in practice. Taking an example from Denmark, we outline the approach of Aarhus School of Architecture, where sustainability...... teaching is partially integrated within the design studio courses. We compare the institution’s philosophy for sustainability with pedagogical approaches as practiced within the school. An empirical study was made of 2nd year architecture student experiences of a one-month introduction course to ‘Reuse...... to be supported in gaining different types of knowledge (ie. propositional, experiential, applied) through different modes of learning. There are gaps to be bridged in education in order for the sustainability agenda to be fully integrated in architectural practice....

  10. Does the patients′ educational level and previous counseling affect their medication knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik M Alkatheri

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The education level of the patient and previous counseling are positively linked to medication knowledge. Knowledge of the medications′ side effects proved to be the most difficult task for the participants in this study, requiring the highest level of education, and was improved by previous counseling.

  11. IT Management: How IT managers gain IT knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Jes; Tambo, Torben; Koch, Christian

    2010-01-01

    It is not a secret that, IT management has become more and more and integrated part of almost all organizations. IT managers posses an enormous amount of knowledge within both organizational knowledge and general IT knowledge. This article investigates how IT managers keep themselves updated...... on IT knowledge in general and looks into how much time IT managers spend on weekly basis searching the net for new or problem solving IT knowledge. The theory used in this paper is used to investigate the current role of IT managers and what issues they are facing. Furthermore a research is conducted where 7...... IT managers in medium sized and large Danish companies are interviewed to add further focus on the role of the IT manager and to focus on how they keep themselves updated. Beside finding substantial need for more research, IT managers - generalists or specialists - only have limited knowledge resources...

  12. Can improving teachers' knowledge of mathematics lead to gains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is wellknown that the majority of South African learners achieve extremely poorly in Mathematics. Many claim that one of the causes of this poor attainment is teachers' weak knowledge of mathematics, and propose that improving teachers' mathematical knowledge would improve learner attainment. However, the ...

  13. Knowledge gain and behavioral change in citizen-science programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca C; Gray, Steven A; Howe, David V; Brooks, Wesley R; Ehrenfeld, Joan G

    2011-12-01

    Citizen-science programs are often touted as useful for advancing conservation literacy, scientific knowledge, and increasing scientific-reasoning skills among the public. Guidelines for collaboration among scientists and the public are lacking and the extent to which these citizen-science initiatives change behavior is relatively unstudied. Over two years, we studied 82 participants in a three-day program that included education about non-native invasive plants and collection of data on the occurrence of those plants. Volunteers were given background knowledge about invasive plant ecology and trained on a specific protocol for collecting invasive plant data. They then collected data and later gathered as a group to analyze data and discuss responsible environmental behavior with respect to invasive plants. We tested whether participants without experience in plant identification and with little knowledge of invasive plants increased their knowledge of invasive species ecology, participation increased knowledge of scientific methods, and participation affected behavior. Knowledge of invasive plants increased on average 24%, but participation was insufficient to increase understanding of how scientific research is conducted. Participants reported increased ability to recognize invasive plants and increased awareness of effects of invasive plants on the environment, but this translated into little change in behavior regarding invasive plants. Potential conflicts between scientific goals, educational goals, and the motivation of participants must be considered during program design. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Knowledge Gained from Good Agricultural Practices Courses for Iowa Growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda; Domoto, Paul; Wilson, Lester

    2015-01-01

    Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) educational courses provide produce growers with the fundamental information for producing and processing safe produce. To determine the effectiveness of the current 7-hour GAP course provided in Iowa, growers were surveyed before and 7-14 days after the course to determine changes in knowledge and opinions.…

  15. Can improving teachers' knowledge of mathematics lead to gains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10218122

    2015-08-05

    Aug 5, 2015 ... Wits School of Education, Faculty of Humanities, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa ... and Science Study (TIMSS), Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Southern Africa .... (2012) report the effects of a study in which middle ... existing knowledge of the mathematics at hand.

  16. Navigation and Comprehension of Digital Expository Texts: Hypertext Structure, Previous Domain Knowledge, and Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, Debora I.; Barreyro, Juan P.; Saux, Gastón; Irrazábal, Natalia C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In contemporary information societies, reading digital text has become pervasive. One of the most distinctive features of digital texts is their internal connections via hyperlinks, resulting in non-linear hypertexts. Hypertext structure and previous knowledge affect navigation and comprehension of digital expository texts. From the…

  17. A Study of the Competency of Third Year Medical Students to Interpret Biochemically Based Clinical Scenarios Using Knowledge and Skills Gained in Year 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Veena Bhaskar S.; Nagaiah, Bhaskar Hebbani; Sengodan, Bharathi

    2016-01-01

    Medical students build clinical knowledge on the grounds of previously obtained basic knowledge. The study aimed to evaluate the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained during year 1 and 2 of undergraduate medical training. Study was conducted on year 3 MBBS…

  18. Customer Knowledge Management Application in Gaining Organization's Competitive Advantage in Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Aghamirian, Bahman; Dorri, Behrouz; Aghamirian, Babak

    2015-01-01

    In modern organizations, knowledge is the fundamental basis of competition. In the new context, two major factors determine the future survival or success of organizations: electronic commerce and the knowledge from customers. Thus, the goals of the research were figured out, and investigating the relationship and application of customer's knowledge management in gaining competitive advantages of organizations in E-commerce and also the 8 followings factors were investigated: knowledge from c...

  19. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  20. Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes according to surgery to conception interval and gestational weight gain in women with previous gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laage Stentebjerg, Louise; Andersen, Lise Lotte Torvin; Renault, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare perinatal and pregnancy outcomes including adherence to the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) recommendations for gestational weight gain (GWG) in pregnant women with conception <18 months (early group) compared to ≥18 months following gastric bypass (late group). METHODS: Retro...

  1. Analysing the Role of Business Intelligence, Knowledge Sharing and Organisational Innovation on Gaining Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidizadeh, Rosa; Salehzadeh, Reza; Chitsaz Esfahani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to study the role of business intelligence, knowledge sharing and organisational innovation on gaining competitive advantage. Design/Methodology/Approach: The statistical population of the study was the managers and the specialists of some export companies of which 213 persons participated in this research. Path analysis…

  2. Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes according to surgery to conception interval and gestational weight gain in women with previous gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentebjerg, Louise Laage; Andersen, Lise Lotte Torvin; Renault, Kristina; Støving, René Klinkby; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2017-05-01

    To compare perinatal and pregnancy outcomes including adherence to the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) recommendations for gestational weight gain (GWG) in pregnant women with conception surgery. Women in the late group had a significantly higher risk of requiring CS or receiving intravenous iron supplementation compared to the early group (57% versus 30%, p = 0.03 and 29% versus 7%, p = 0.02, respectively). Early conception was not significantly associated with insufficient GWG, preterm delivery or birthweight. Among 54 women with information on GWG, only 13 (24%) had an appropriate GWG. The majority of pregnant women with gastric bypass did not fulfill guidelines for GWG; however, this study could not support the recommendation to postpone pregnancy.

  3. Predicting United States Medical Licensure Examination Step 2 clinical knowledge scores from previous academic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro KA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kristina A Monteiro, Paul George, Richard Dollase, Luba Dumenco Office of Medical Education, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: The use of multiple academic indicators to identify students at risk of experiencing difficulty completing licensure requirements provides an opportunity to increase support services prior to high-stakes licensure examinations, including the United States Medical Licensure Examination (USMLE Step 2 clinical knowledge (CK. Step 2 CK is becoming increasingly important in decision-making by residency directors because of increasing undergraduate medical enrollment and limited available residency vacancies. We created and validated a regression equation to predict students’ Step 2 CK scores from previous academic indicators to identify students at risk, with sufficient time to intervene with additional support services as necessary. Data from three cohorts of students (N=218 with preclinical mean course exam score, National Board of Medical Examination subject examinations, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK between 2011 and 2013 were used in analyses. The authors created models capable of predicting Step 2 CK scores from academic indicators to identify at-risk students. In model 1, preclinical mean course exam score and Step 1 score accounted for 56% of the variance in Step 2 CK score. The second series of models included mean preclinical course exam score, Step 1 score, and scores on three NBME subject exams, and accounted for 67%–69% of the variance in Step 2 CK score. The authors validated the findings on the most recent cohort of graduating students (N=89 and predicted Step 2 CK score within a mean of four points (SD=8. The authors suggest using the first model as a needs assessment to gauge the level of future support required after completion of preclinical course requirements, and rescreening after three of six clerkships to identify students who might benefit from

  4. Do Gains in Secondary Teachers’ Content Knowledge Provide an ASSET to Student Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Travis

    2015-01-01

    During the Summer of 2013, a group of East Texas middle and high school science teachers attended the first year of the Astronomy Summer School of East Texas (ASSET), a two-week NASA funded workshop. This workshop focused on providing area teachers with a rigorous two-week experience loaded with interactive content lessons combined with hands-on activities, all relating to the universal laws of astronomy as well as solar system concepts.The effectiveness of this workshop was gauged in part through a series of content surveys given to each participating educator at the beginning and end of the workshop. Similar content surveys were also administered to each teacher's students as pre/post-content surveys in an effort to determine the extent to which teacher gains were transferred into student gains, as well as to judge the effectiveness of the teachers' lessons in conveying these concepts to the students.Overall, students performed best on concepts where teachers exhibited the highest gains in their learning and focused most of their emphasis. A question-by-question analysis, though, suggests that a broad analysis paints an incomplete picture of student learning. We will present an item analysis of student gains by topic along with a comparison of content coverage and teacher gains. Looking beyond these numbers will present results that demonstrate that giving secondary teachers professional development opportunities to increase content knowledge, and tools to present such knowledge to their students, can improve student learning and performance, but is dependent on teacher confidence and level of coverage.This project is supported by the NASA Science Mission Directorate Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science (EPOESS), which is part of the Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES), Grant Number NNX12AH11G.

  5. A Study on Knowledge Gain and Retention when Using Multimedia Learning Materials of Different Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Gligora Marković

    2015-07-01

    The results of an experimental study that involves low-quality and high-quality MLMs for two different topics and their effects on knowledge gain and retention of the polytechnic school students are presented. For the purpose of the research the LORI assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of MLMs. The analysis of research data shows that MLMs developed according to the principles of multimedia learning and principles for reducing cognitive load were perceived as being of higher quality than those that were not developed using multimedia principles. Furthermore, the students’ usage of high-quality MLMs during treatment resulted in better knowledge acquisition and retention indicated by significantly higher scores in the three knowledge assessments.

  6. Trainees' Perceived Knowledge Gain Unrelated to the Training Domain: The Joint Action of Impression Management and Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaburu, Dan S.; Huang, Jason L.; Hutchins, Holly M.; Gardner, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Trainees' knowledge gains represent an important outcome in human resource development. In this research, we tested a model examining the joint influence of social desirability (impression management, self-deception) and motives (need for power, need for approval) on trainees' self-reported knowledge gain. We conducted a study with…

  7. From Comparison Between Scientists to Gaining Cultural Scientific Knowledge. Leonardo and Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Igal

    2016-03-01

    Physics textbooks often present items of disciplinary knowledge in a sequential order of topics of the theory under instruction. Such presentation is usually univocal, that is, isolated from alternative claims and contributions regarding the subject matter in the pertinent scientific discourse. We argue that comparing and contrasting the contributions of scientists addressing similar or the same subject could not only enrich the picture of scientific enterprise, but also possess a special appealing power promoting genuine understanding of the concept considered. This approach draws on the historical tradition from Plutarch in distant past and Koyré in the recent history and philosophy of science. It gains a new support in the discipline-culture structuring of the physics curriculum, seeking cultural content knowledge (CCK) of the subject matter. Here, we address two prominent individuals of Italian Renaissance, Leonardo and Galileo, in their dealing with issues relevant for introductory science courses. Although both figures addressed similar subjects of scientific content, their products were essentially different. Considering this difference is educationally valuable, illustrating the meaning of what students presently learn in the content knowledge of mechanics, optics and astronomy, as well as the nature of science and scientific knowledge.

  8. Assessing gains in teacher knowledge and confidence in a long-duration climate literacy initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, D. B.; Kendall, L.; Yelton, S.

    2013-12-01

    Climate Literacy: Integrating Modeling & Technology Experiences (CLIMATE) in NC Classrooms, an interdisciplinary, global climate change program for NC high school science teachers is administered by UNC Chapel Hill's Institute for the Environment (IE) with funding from NASA's Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) Program. Currently in its third year, this year-long program serves 24 teaching fellows annually and combines hands-on climate science investigations with experiential learning in fragile ecosystem environments to achieve the following program goals: increased teacher knowledge of climate change science and predicted impacts; increased teacher knowledge of modeling and technology resources, with an emphasis on those provided by NASA; and increased teacher confidence in using technology to address climate change education. A mixed-methods evaluation approach that includes external evaluation is providing quantitative and qualitative data about the extent to which program goals are being achieved. With regard to increases in teacher knowledge, teachers often self-report an increase in knowledge as a result of a program activity; this session will describe our strategies for assessing actual gains in teacher knowledge which include pre- and post-collaborative concept mapping and pre- and post-open response questionnaires. For each evaluation approach utilized, the process of analyzing these qualitative data will be discussed and results shared. For example, a collaborative concept mapping activity for assessment of learning as a result of the summer institute was utilized to assess gains in content knowledge. Working in small groups, teachers were asked to identify key vocabulary terms and show their relationship to one another via a concept map to answer these questions: What is global climate change? What is/are the: evidence? mechanisms? causes? consequences? Concept maps were constructed at the beginning (pre) and again at the end (post) of the Summer

  9. Anatomical knowledge gain through a clay-modeling exercise compared to live and video observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G M; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N; Bergman, Esther M; Donders, Rogier A R T; Vorstenbosch, Marc A T M

    2014-01-01

    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments, the learning effects of clay modeling were compared to either live observations (Experiment I) or video observations (Experiment II) of the clay-modeling exercise. The effects of learning were measured with multiple choice questions, extended matching questions, and recognition of structures on illustrations of cross-sections. Analysis of covariance with pretest scores as the covariate was used to elaborate the results. Experiment I showed a significantly higher post-test score for the observers, whereas Experiment II showed a significantly higher post-test score for the clay modelers. This study shows that (1) students who perform clay-modeling exercises show less gain in anatomical knowledge than students who attentively observe the same exercise being carried out and (2) performing a clay-modeling exercise is better in anatomical knowledge gain compared to the study of a video of the recorded exercise. The most important learning effect seems to be the engagement in the exercise, focusing attention and stimulating time on task. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Verbal Final Exam in Introductory Biology Yields Gains in Student Content Knowledge and Longitudinal Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckie, Douglas B.; Rivkin, Aaron M.; Aubry, Jacob R.; Marengo, Benjamin J.; Creech, Leah R.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2013-01-01

    We studied gains in student learning over eight semesters in which an introductory biology course curriculum was changed to include optional verbal final exams (VFs). Students could opt to demonstrate their mastery of course material via structured oral exams with the professor. In a quantitative assessment of cell biology content knowledge, students who passed the VF outscored their peers on the medical assessment test (MAT), an exam built with 40 Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) questions (66.4% [n = 160] and 62% [n = 285], respectively; p students performed better on MCAT questions in all topic categories tested; the greatest gain occurred on the topic of cellular respiration. Because the VF focused on a conceptually parallel topic, photosynthesis, there may have been authentic knowledge transfer. In longitudinal tracking studies, passing the VF also correlated with higher performance in a range of upper-level science courses, with greatest significance in physiology, biochemistry, and organic chemistry. Participation had a wide range but not equal representation in academic standing, gender, and ethnicity. Yet students nearly unanimously (92%) valued the option. Our findings suggest oral exams at the introductory level may allow instructors to assess and aid students striving to achieve higher-level learning. PMID:24006399

  11. Geothermal projects funded under the NER 300 programme - current state of development and knowledge gained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Introduction The NER 300 programme, managed by the European Commission is one of the largest funding programmes for innovative low-carbon energy demonstration projects. NER 300 is so called because it is funded from the sale of 300 million emission allowances from the new entrants' reserve (NER) set up for the third phase of the EU emissions trading system (ETS). The programme aims to successfully demonstrate environmentally safe carbon capture and storage (CCS) and innovative renewable energy (RES) technologies on a commercial scale with a view to scaling up production of low-carbon technologies in the EU. Consequently, it supports a wide range of CCS and RES technologies (bioenergy, concentrated solar power, photovoltaics, geothermal, wind, ocean, hydropower, and smart grids). Funded projects and the role of geothermal projects for the programme In total, about EUR 2.1 billion have been awarded through the programme's 2 calls for proposals (the first awarded in December 2012, the second in July 2014). The programme has awarded around EUR 70 million funding to 3 geothermal projects in Hungary, Croatia and France. The Croatian geothermal project will enter into operation during 2017 the Hungarian in 2018, and the French in 2020. Knowledge Sharing Knowledge sharing requirements are built into the legal basis of the programme as a critical tool to lower risks in bridging the transition to large-scale production of innovative renewable energy and CCS deployment. Projects have to submit annually to the European Commission relevant knowledge gained during that year in the implementation of their project. The relevant knowledge is aggregated and disseminated by the European Commission to industry, research, government, NGO and other interest groups and associations in order to provide a better understanding of the practical challenges that arise in the important step of scaling up technologies and operating them at commercial scale. The knowledge sharing of the NER 300

  12. Researches on nuclear wastes. Knowledge gained and perspectives at the 2006 date line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. The responsibility of these researches is given to the French atomic energy commission (CEA) and to the national agency for radioactive wastes (ANDRA) who have to coordinate their works with other research organizations and industrialists. The aim of this colloquium is to make a status of the scientific knowledge gained before the implementation of the public and parliamentary debates on nuclear wastes management. This document gathers the presentations (slides) given at the colloquium and dealing with: separation/transmutation, storage and conditioning of waste packages; geologic disposal, the inter-disciplinary PACE program of the CNRS; synthesis of the researches evaluation process; general principles for a sustainable management of radioactive wastes; technical experience implemented by industrialists since 15 years; point of view of the nuclear safety authority; international context of nuclear waste management and related researches; a sociological enlightening: researches advance as seen by the public. (J.S.)

  13. The Effect of Previous Co-Worker Experience on the Survival of Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of previous co-worker experience on the survival of knowledge intensive start-ups. For the empirical analysis I use the Danish Integrated Database of Labor Market Research (IDA). This longitudinal employer-employee database allows me to identify co-worker...... experience among all members of the firm. In addition, I will make a distinction between ordinary start-ups and entrepreneurial spin-offs. The results show that previous co-worker experience has a positive effect on new firm survival. This effect appears to be valid predominantly for ordinary start-ups than...

  14. Women's Reflections on Formal Sex Education and the Advantage of Gaining Informal Sexual Knowledge through a Feminist Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nichole

    2016-01-01

    By recognising the limitations of formal sex education, young people are able to seek out alternative material, gaining informal sexual knowledge through their own means and through a wide variety of sources. This paper derives from part of a larger study centred on feminism and heterosexuality in practice which features 17 feminist-identified…

  15. Knowledge gained from analyzing mercury speciation data monitored in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Cheng, I.; Gay, D. A.; Xu, X.; Wu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation summarizes knowledge gained in several recent studies through analysis and application of mercury (Hg) speciation data monitored in North America. Annual Hg dry deposition to vegetated surfaces in the rural or remote environment in North America was dominated by leaf uptake of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), contrary to what was commonly assumed in earlier studies which frequently omitted GEM dry deposition as an important process (Zhang et al., EST, 2016). Dry deposition exceeded wet deposition by a large margin in all of the seasons except in the summer at the majority of the sites. Based on the gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) concentrations predicted from measured Hg wet deposition using a scavenging ratio method, multi-year average GOM concentrations collected using Tekran speciation instrument were likely biased low by a factor of 2 at about half of the studied sites (Cheng and Zhang, EST, 2017). A decline in the number of source regions impacting ambient GEM and GOM was found from 2005-2014 at an eastern U.S. site through concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis (Cheng et al., JAS, 2017). Source contributions decreased by up to 20% for GEM, greater than 60% for GOM, and 20-60% for PBM in 2011-2014 than in 2006-2008, largely due to power plant Hg emission reductions since 2009. A study comparing Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) receptor methods identified similar sources impacting Kejimkujik National Park, Canada, including combustion, industrial sulfur, photochemistry and re-emissions, and oceanic sea-salt emissions. Improving the quality of the Hg data used in receptor methods by imputation did not improve the PMF results, but reducing the fraction of below detection limit data was effective (Xu et al., ACP, 2017). PCA results using reactive mercury (RM=GOM+PBM) or excluding low GOM values were similar to those using the original data. Source contributions from CWT analysis were more

  16. Assessing the Previous Economic Knowledge of Beginning Students in Germany: Implications for Teaching Economics in Basic Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Carstensen, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Study-related prior knowledge plays a decisive role in business and economics degree courses. Prior knowledge has a significant influence on knowledge acquisition in higher education, and teachers need information on it to plan their introductory courses accordingly. Very few studies have been conducted of first-year students' prior economic…

  17. Determinants of knowledge gain in evidence-based medicine short courses: an international assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Klaus; Kunz, Regina; Wegscheider, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health care professionals worldwide attend courses and workshops to learn evidence-based medicine (EBM), but evidence regarding the impact of these educational interventions is conflicting and of low methodologic quality and lacks generalizability. Furthermore, little is known about...... determinants of success. We sought to measure the effect of EBM short courses and workshops on knowledge and to identify course and learner characteristics associated with knowledge acquisition. Methods: Health care professionals with varying expertise in EBM participated in an international, multicentre...... before–after study. The intervention consisted of short courses and workshops on EBM offered in diverse settings, formats and intensities. The primary outcome measure was the score on the Berlin Questionnaire, a validated instrument measuring EBM knowledge that the participants completed before and after...

  18. Role of Human Knowledge and Communication on Operational Benefits Gained from Six Sigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. García-Alcaraz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Six Sigma (SS is a production philosophy focused on human experiences and knowledge, aimed to minimize defects of products and services. The appropriate implementation of SS requires an education process, reliable data analysis, efficient didactic material, statistical techniques and human knowledge to improve communication and operational benefits. In this article, we present a structural equation model integrating those aspects as latent variables and relating them with ten hypotheses. Data for hypothesis validation were gathered among 301 manufacturing companies, and assessed using partial least squares (PLS to estimate direct, indirect, and total effects. As results, we found that access to reliable information, trusted analysis and knowledgeable management are crucial for SS implementation at the problem definition stage. Likewise, to execute and control SS projects, it is important to be trained in statistical techniques through clear didactic materials.

  19. Use of Interactive Electronic Audience Response Tools (Clickers) to Evaluate Knowledge Gained in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Patrick; Loy, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effectively measuring short-term impact, particularly a change in knowledge resulting from Extension programming, can prove to be challenging. Clicker-based technology, when used properly, is one alternative that may allow educators to better evaluate this aspect of the logic model. While the potential interface between clicker technology and…

  20. From Comparison between Scientists to Gaining Cultural Scientific Knowledge: Leonardo and Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Igal

    2016-01-01

    Physics textbooks often present items of disciplinary knowledge in a sequential order of topics of the theory under instruction. Such presentation is usually univocal, that is, isolated from alternative claims and contributions regarding the subject matter in the pertinent scientific discourse. We argue that comparing and contrasting the…

  1. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation and agricultural crops: knowledge gain and knowledge gap after 40 years of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo; Edited by Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this chapter was to summarize the advances made over last 40+ years, as reported in various chapters of this book, in understanding, modeling, and mapping terrestrial vegetation using hyperspectral remote sensing (or imaging spectroscopy) using sensors that are ground-based, truck-mounted, airborne, and spaceborne. As we have seen in various chapters of this book and synthesized in this chapter, the advances made include: (a) significantly improved characterization and modeling of a wide array of biophysical and biochemical properties of vegetation, (b) ability to discriminate plant species and vegetation types with high degree of accuracies (c) reducing uncertainties in determining net primary productivity or carbon assessments from terrestrial vegetation, (d) improved crop productivity and water productivity models, (b), (e) ability to access stress resulting from causes such as management practices, pests and disease, water deficit or excess; , and (f) establishing more sensitive wavebands and indices to detect plant water\\moisture content. The advent of spaceborne hyperspectral sensors (e.g., NASA’s Hyperion, ESA’s PROBA, and upcoming NASA’s HyspIRI) and numerous methods and techniques espoused in this book to overcome Hughes phenomenon or data redundancy when handling large volumes of hyperspectral data have generated tremendous interest in advancing our hyperspectral applications knowledge base over larger spatial extent such as region, nation, continent, and globe.

  2. Gaining the Long View: Reforming Organization and Empowering Knowledge Workers to Improve Strategy and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    core strengths to maintain a competitive advantage in their established field while exploring new opportunities and adopting strategies to overcome...Living in the Futures: How Scenario Planning Changed Corporate Strategy ,” Harvard Business Review (May 01, 2013): 119-127. The authors explain that the...EMPOWERING KNOWLEDGE WORKERS TO IMPROVE STRATEGY AND INTELLIGENCE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Mr

  3. 4-H & FFA Livestock Projects: Life Skills Gained and Knowledge Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyle N. Holmgren

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Junior Livestock shows are one of the most popular 4-H and FFA projects in Utah. Thousands of youth participate in these shows from every county in Utah. County extension agents and FFA advisors spend much time with livestock committees, leaders, parents, and youth engaged in livestock shows. Can public funds spent on salaries be justified for county 4-H extension agents and FFA advisors who work with junior livestock shows? To help answer this question, 413 youth involved in livestock shows in Utah were surveyed in 2001. Youth were asked to share skills learned from their livestock projects. Value statements along with specific content skills were measured in the survey. The results indicate that from their 4-H and FFA projects, youth learned to accept responsibility, follow instructions, gain self-confidence, follow instructions, “do the right thing” as well as a variety of other values and content skills.

  4. The assessment of knowledge and learning in competence spaces: The gain-loss model for dependent skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Pasquale; Stefanutti, Luca; de Chiusole, Debora; Robusto, Egidio

    2017-11-01

    The gain-loss model (GaLoM) is a formal model for assessing knowledge and learning. In its original formulation, the GaLoM assumes independence among the skills. Such an assumption is not reasonable in several domains, in which some preliminary knowledge is the foundation for other knowledge. This paper presents an extension of the GaLoM to the case in which the skills are not independent, and the dependence relation among them is described by a well-graded competence space. The probability of mastering skill s at the pretest is conditional on the presence of all skills on which s depends. The probabilities of gaining or losing skill s when moving from pretest to posttest are conditional on the mastery of s at the pretest, and on the presence at the posttest of all skills on which s depends. Two formulations of the model are presented, in which the learning path is allowed to change from pretest to posttest or not. A simulation study shows that models based on the true competence space obtain a better fit than models based on false competence spaces, and are also characterized by a higher assessment accuracy. An empirical application shows that models based on pedagogically sound assumptions about the dependencies among the skills obtain a better fit than models assuming independence among the skills. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. How to gain additional knowledge in the situation when university degrees (no longer guarantee suitable employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darka Podmenik

    2011-03-01

    The article deals with two issues related to the above­mentioned findings: – what to do to alleviate the consequences of the factors pushing the young to the margins of the society, emphasizing the need for investment in (additional education and establishment of social networks; and, – whether the young who have acquired the highest levels of education (the group that loses most knowledge if doomed to an unsuitable career could improve their ability to make a successful education­ career transition by investing more in human and social capital.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ASSESSMENT MODEL AND METHOD TOWARD THE SCIENCE LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT BY CONTROLLING THE STUDENTS? PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE OF MATHEMATICS.

    OpenAIRE

    Adam rumbalifar; I. g. n. Agung; Burhanuddin tola.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to study the influence of the assessment model and method toward the science learning achievement by controlling the students? previous knowledge of mathematics. This study was conducted at SMP East Seram district with the population of 295 students. This study applied a quasi-experimental method with 2 X 2 factorial design using the ANCOVA model. The findings after controlling the students\\' previous knowledge of mathematics show that the science learning achievement of th...

  7. Improvement of Self-regulated Learning in Mathematics through a Hypermedia Application: Differences based on Academic Performance and Previous Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueli, Marisol; Rodríguez, Celestino; Areces, Débora; García, Trinidad; González-Castro, Paloma

    2017-12-04

    Self-regulation on behalf of the student is crucial in learning Mathematics through hypermedia applications and is an even greater challenge in these IT environments. Two aims are formulated. First, to analyze the effectiveness of a hypermedia tool in improving perceived knowledge of self-regulatory strategies and the perceived usage of the planning, executing and assessment strategy on behalf of students with low, medium and high levels of academic performance. Second, to analyze the effectiveness of the hypermedia tool in improving perceived usage of the strategy for planning, monitoring and evaluating on behalf of students with a perceived knowledge (low, medium and high). Participants were 624 students (aged 10-13), classified into a treatment group (TG; 391) and a comparative group (CG; 233). They completed a questionnaire on perceived knowledge (Perceived Knowledge of Self-Regulatory Strategies) and another one on perceived usage of the strategy for planning, performing and evaluating (Inventory of Self-regulatory Learning Processes). Univariate covariance analyses (ANCOVAs) and Student-t tests were used. ANCOVA results were not statistically significant. However, the linear contrast indicated a significant improvement in perceived knowledge of strategies among the TG with low, medium and high academic performance (p ≤ .001). Results are discussed in the light of past and future research.

  8. How to gain additional knowledge in the situation when university degrees (no longer guarantee suitable employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Krajnc

    2011-06-01

    , Institute for Andragology in Amsterdam, Andragogy Department of Charles University in Prague, etc.. This guaranteed international quality of the programme. My one-year post-doctoral specialization at the Institute in Toronto (1971 gave a final turn to the preparations of andragogy teaching. Professional and scientific literature augmented. An- dragogy gained a place in the national research programme. Simultaneously, a number of research studies were conducted within transnational research programmes, run by UNESCO, ICAE (International Council for Adult Education and EU. In recent years, the study of andragogy underwent a new reform to meet higher education objectives as formulated by the Bologna Declaration.

  9. Emotionalization in Science Communication: The Impact of Narratives and Visual Representations on Knowledge Gain and Risk Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Flemming

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The communication of scientific information plays an increasingly important role for scientists and scientific institutions. This is especially true of institutions in the field of biodiversity and conservation research, since the transfer of research results to the public is a prerequisite for decision-making, and the success of conservation measures often depends on public acceptance or active contribution. To have the desired impact, science communication in the context of human–wildlife interactions must enable recipients to (1 gain valid knowledge, (2 form an attitude toward the subject matter, and (3 develop an adequate understanding of the risks and dangers associated with human–wildlife interactions, which are usually overestimated by the general public. Using the topic of foxes in urban habitats, we investigated the role of emotionalization in science communication. In a laboratory experiment with 127 university students (91 females, we manipulated textual and visual features in an information brochure about foxes and examined their impact on people’s knowledge gain, attitude development, and modified risk perception. In particular, we compared a narrative presentation to a non-narrative list of facts and examined the use of photographs of young foxes. We found a positive development in all of the outcome variables from the pre- to the posttest (more knowledge, more positive attitude, lower risk perception. We also found an interaction effect of text type and visualization on knowledge gain that highlighted the importance of the fit between text type and visualization. In contrast to our expectations, we did not find any differential effects of specific treatments on attitude development. Finally, we found a main effect of text type on modified risk perception, indicating less reduction of risk perception with a narrative article than with a fact list. We discuss our findings with respect to the role of emotionalization in science

  10. Locating previously unknown patterns in data-mining results: a dual data- and knowledge-mining method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knaus William A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data mining can be utilized to automate analysis of substantial amounts of data produced in many organizations. However, data mining produces large numbers of rules and patterns, many of which are not useful. Existing methods for pruning uninteresting patterns have only begun to automate the knowledge acquisition step (which is required for subjective measures of interestingness, hence leaving a serious bottleneck. In this paper we propose a method for automatically acquiring knowledge to shorten the pattern list by locating the novel and interesting ones. Methods The dual-mining method is based on automatically comparing the strength of patterns mined from a database with the strength of equivalent patterns mined from a relevant knowledgebase. When these two estimates of pattern strength do not match, a high "surprise score" is assigned to the pattern, identifying the pattern as potentially interesting. The surprise score captures the degree of novelty or interestingness of the mined pattern. In addition, we show how to compute p values for each surprise score, thus filtering out noise and attaching statistical significance. Results We have implemented the dual-mining method using scripts written in Perl and R. We applied the method to a large patient database and a biomedical literature citation knowledgebase. The system estimated association scores for 50,000 patterns, composed of disease entities and lab results, by querying the database and the knowledgebase. It then computed the surprise scores by comparing the pairs of association scores. Finally, the system estimated statistical significance of the scores. Conclusion The dual-mining method eliminates more than 90% of patterns with strong associations, thus identifying them as uninteresting. We found that the pruning of patterns using the surprise score matched the biomedical evidence in the 100 cases that were examined by hand. The method automates the acquisition of

  11. Teaching differential diagnosis in primary care using an inverted classroom approach: student satisfaction and gain in skills and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösner, Stefan; Pickert, Julia; Stibane, Tina

    2015-04-01

    Differential diagnosis is a crucial skill for primary care physicians. General practice plays an increasing important role in undergraduate medical education. Via general practice, students may be presented with an overview of the whole spectrum of differential diagnosis in regard to common symptoms encountered in primary care. This project evaluated the impact of a blended learning program (using the inverted classroom approach) on student satisfaction and development of skills and knowledge. An elective seminar in differential diagnosis in primary care, which utilized an inverted classroom design, was offered to students. Evaluation followed a mixed methods design: participants completed a pre- and post-test, a questionnaire, and a focus group discussion. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and answers were grouped according to different themes. Test results were analysed using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Participants (n = 17) rated the course concept very positively. Especially the inverted classroom approach was appreciated by all students, as it allowed for more time during the seminar to concentrate on interactive and practice based learning. Students (n = 16) showed a post-test significant overall gain in skills and knowledge of 33%. This study showed a positive effect of the inverted classroom approach on students' satisfaction and skills and knowledge. Further research is necessary in order to explore the potentials of this approach, especially the impact on development of clinical skills.

  12. Gender, Previous Knowledge, Personality Traits and Subject-Specific Motivation as Predictors of Students' Math Grade in Upper-Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peklaj, Cirila; Podlesek, Anja; Pecjak, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between gender, previous knowledge, different personality traits, subject-specific motivational dimensions and students' math grade in secondary school. A total of 386 first-year students (142 boys and 244 girls) from secondary schools in Slovenia (mean age was 15.7 years) participated in the…

  13. Do 2nd and 3rd Grade Teachers' Linguistic Knowledge and Instructional Practices Predict Spelling Gains in Weaker Spellers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliatte, Alison; Ehri, Linnea C.

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between 2nd and 3rd grade teachers' linguistic knowledge and spelling instructional practices and their students' spelling gains from fall to spring was examined. Second grade (N = 16) and 3rd grade (N = 16) teachers were administered an instructional practices survey and a linguistic knowledge test. Total scores on the two…

  14. Phosphate, phytate and phytases in plants: from fundamental knowledge gained in Arabidopsis to potential biotechnological applications in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, David; Bouain, Nadia; Rouached, Aida; Prom-U-Thai, Chanakan; Hanin, Moez; Pandey, Ajay K; Rouached, Hatem

    2017-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. In plants, P is taken up from the rhizosphere by the roots mainly as inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is required in large and sufficient quantities to maximize crop yields. In today's agricultural society, crop yield is mostly ensured by the excessive use of Pi fertilizers, a costly practice neither eco-friendly or sustainable. Therefore, generating plants with improved P use efficiency (PUE) is of major interest. Among the various strategies employed to date, attempts to engineer genetically modified crops with improved capacity to utilize phytate (PA), the largest soil P form and unfortunately not taken up by plants, remains a key challenge. To meet these challenges, we need a better understanding of the mechanisms regulating Pi sensing, signaling, transport and storage in plants. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on these aspects, which are mainly gained from investigations conducted in Arabidopsis thaliana, and we extended it to those available on an economically important crop, wheat. Strategies to enhance the PA use, through the use of bacterial or fungal phytases and other attempts of reducing seed PA levels, are also discussed. We critically review these data in terms of their potential for use as a technology for genetic manipulation of PUE in wheat, which would be both economically and environmentally beneficial.

  15. Waking Up from Four Decades' Long Dream of Valorizing Agro-Food Byproducts: Toward Practical Applications of the Gained Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2018-03-28

    The late 1970s was the onset of literature about the first research outputs on alternatives to create added-value to agro-food byproducts focused on the reduction of the dependency on raw materials and, simultaneously, helping to reduce the environmental impacts of the agricultural activities. This trend, increased over the years and during the past decade, has been boosted by the growing concern of the socio-economic impact of wastes from agro-food activities, however, with little success of the proposed applications. Throughout four decades an array of studies have emerged, aimed to gain evidence on the relevance of innovation in the agro-food industry, as well as to overcome this situation. To our knowledge, only a few cases, summarized in the present perspective, represent the main alternatives currently available for the valorization of agro-food byproducts, with indications of some constraints that need to be addressed, in the coming years, to obtain a real profit from these products.

  16. Worry vs. knowledge about treatment-associated hypoglycaemia and weight gain in type 2 diabetic patients on metformin and/or sulphonylurea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Knop, Filip K

    2012-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia and body weight gain are side effects of certain glucose-lowering drugs, e.g. sulphonylurea (SU) compounds. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often treated with multiple oral antidiabetic drugs complicating patient insight into drug safety and side effects. We aimed to elucidate...... the extent of patient worry about hypoglycaemia and body weight gain contra their knowledge about these two phenomena being actual side effects of SU....

  17. The Effects of Embedded Question Type and Locus of Control on Processing Depth, Knowledge Gain, and Attitude Change in a Computer-Based Interactive Video Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Michael W.

    1997-01-01

    The differential effectiveness of two types of adjunct embedded questions in facilitating deep processing, increased knowledge gain, and increased positive attitude change was examined in this two-session laboratory study. In session one, subjects completed a measure of locus of control (LOC) orientation, as well as measures of pretest knowledge and attitudes regarding drinking. Two weeks later, stratified assignment was used to place 33 subjects (ages 12 to 15...

  18. The effects of human interest and conflict news frames on the dynamics of political knowledge gains: evidence from a cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jebril, N.; de Vreese, C.H.; van Dalen, A.; Albaek, E.

    2013-01-01

    A well-functioning democracy needs the news media to provide information to its citizens. It is therefore essential to understand what kinds of news contents contribute to gains in citizens' political knowledge and for whom this takes place. Extant research is divergent on this matter, especially

  19. Validating the Learning Cycle Models of Business Simulation Games via Student Perceived Gains in Skills and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu-Hui; Yeh, C. Rosa; Hung, Kung Chin

    2015-01-01

    Several theoretical models have been constructed to determine the effects of buisness simulation games (BSGs) on learning performance. Although these models agree on the concept of learning-cycle effect, no empirical evidence supports the claim that the use of learning cycle activities with BSGs produces an effect on incremental gains in knowledge…

  20. Educational Advantage - E-learning helps companies capture the knowledge of retiring employees and gain competitive edge

    CERN Multimedia

    Tischelle, G

    2003-01-01

    NASA has discovered that 60% of aerospace workers will reach retirement age over the next few years so needed to find a way to capture knowledge from exiting workers and make it available to remaining and future staff (1 page).

  1. Use of knowledge and experience gained from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident to establish the technical basis for strategic off-site response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Kaname; Saito, Kimiaki; Iijima, Kazuki; McKinley, Ian; Hardie, Susan

    2015-03-01

    This report provides a concise overview of knowledge and experience gained from the activities for environmental remediation after the Fukushima Daiichi (1F) accident. It is specifically tailored for international use, to establish or refine the technical basis for strategic, off-site response to nuclear incidents. It reflects JAEA's key role in the research associated with both remediation of contaminated areas and also the natural contamination migration processes in non-remediated areas, in collaboration with other Japanese and international organisations and research institutes. Environmental monitoring and mapping to define boundary conditions in terms of the distribution of radioactivity and resultant doses, guides the resultant response. Radiation protection considerations set constraints, with approaches developed to estimate doses to different critical groups and set appropriate dose reduction targets. Decontamination activities, with special emphasis on associated waste management, provide experience in evaluation of the effectiveness of decontamination and the pros and cons of different approaches / technologies. The assessment of the natural behaviour of contaminant radionuclides and their mobility in the environment is now focused almost entirely on radiocaesium. Here, the impact of natural mobility in terms of self-cleaning / re-concentration in cleaned areas is discussed, along with possible actions to modify such transport or manage potential areas of radiocaesium accumulation. Many of the conditions in Fukushima are similar to those following past contamination events in other countries, where natural self-cleaning alone has allowed recovery to such an extent that the original incident is now largely forgotten. Decontamination efforts in Japan will certainly accelerate this process. On-going remediation work is based on a good technical understanding of the movement of radiocaesium in the environment and this understanding is being translated into

  2. Qualitative and Quantitative Research: A Review of the Why and the How to Gain Knowledge About the Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Plata Caviedes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main source of difficulties we find in social sciences to accumulate knowledge comes from fusioning the question of what to research with the question of how to solve research questions. It is argued that the escape from this trap is only possible when the phenomenon under study is located in its spatial and temporal context. Using comparison it is feasible to identify what is common between a variety of situations and its study with methods such that the difference between qualitative and qualitative is irrelevant. Through this frame, the task of knowledge accumulation about the social world will become clearer

  3. Students' Attitudes toward Science as Predictors of Gains on Student Content Knowledge: Benefits of an After-School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Alana D.; Zientek, Linda R.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Gregory L.; Moreno, Nancy P.

    2015-01-01

    High-quality after-school programs devoted to science have the potential to enhance students' science knowledge and attitudes, which may impact their decisions about pursuing science-related careers. Because of the unique nature of these informal learning environments, an understanding of the relationships among aspects of students' content…

  4. How to gain a better knowledge of the hazards of low doses of ionizing radiation to the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, L.

    1990-01-01

    The author shows that the approach chosen up to the present for obtaining knowledge of the hazards emanating from low-dose irradiation with ionizing radiation still relies exclusively on the metaphysical way, and that there is need for adding to this the way of scientific, basic research work. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. St. Jude Cancer Education for Children Program: The Impact of a Teacher-Led Intervention on Student Knowledge Gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Katherine; Li, Zhenghong; Quintana, Yuri; Van Kirk Villalobos, Aubrey; Klosky, James L

    2017-12-01

    In 2006, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (Memphis, Tennessee) began developing a school-based outreach program known as the St. Jude Cancer Education for Children Program (SJCECP). The aim of this program is to teach Memphis-area children about cells, cancer, and healthy habits that can prevent the development of cancer in adulthood. Initial plans for delivery of the program was for St. Jude staff to present the program at local schools. This plan for disseminating instruction was not feasible due to the limited availability of St. Jude staff. As a next step, during the 2012-2014 academic years, we conducted a study entitled SJCECP2, utilizing the SJCECP curriculum, with the objective of evaluating the impact of the educational intervention on knowledge acquisition and retention among fourth-grade students participating in a modified, teacher-led version of the program. Eighteen teachers and 426 students from 10 local schools in the greater Memphis area participated in the program evaluation. This study used a single-group, pre-test/post-test design to determine the impact of the SJCECP intervention on changes in knowledge scores among fourth-grade students. Testing was on cells, cancer, and healthy living. The mean scores increased from 6.45 to 8.12, 5.99 to 7.65, and 5.92 to 7.96 on cell, cancer, and health behaviors units, respectively (all p values <.001). Preliminary evidence suggests that the SJCECP2 intervention is a useful tool for teachers to improve student knowledge of knowledge of cells, cancer, and healthy living concepts at the fourth-grade level.

  6. Using Videogame Apps to Assess Gains in Adolescents’ Substance Use Knowledge: New Opportunities for Evaluating Intervention Exposure and Content Mastery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Videogame interventions are becoming increasingly popular as a means to engage people in behavioral interventions; however, strategies for examining data from such interventions have not been developed. Objective The objective of this study was to describe how a technology-based intervention can yield meaningful, objective evidence of intervention exposure within a behavioral intervention. This study demonstrates the analysis of automatic log files, created by software from a videogame intervention, that catalog game play and, as proof of concept, the association of these data with changes in substance use knowledge as documented with standardized assessments. Methods We analyzed 3- and 6-month follow-up data from 166 participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating a videogame intervention, PlayForward: Elm City Stories (PlayForward). PlayForward is a videogame developed as a risk reduction and prevention program targeting HIV risk behaviors (substance use and sex) in young minority adolescents. Log files were analyzed to extract the total amount of time spent playing the videogame intervention and the total number of game levels completed and beaten by each player. Results Completing and beating more of the game levels, and not total game play time, was related to higher substance use knowledge scores at the 3- (P=.001) and 6-month (P=.001) follow-ups. Conclusions Our findings highlight the potential contributions a videogame intervention can make to the study of health behavior change. Specifically, the use of objective data collected during game play can address challenges in traditional human-delivered behavioral interventions. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01666496; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01666496 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6cV9fxsOg) PMID:26510775

  7. Using Videogame Apps to Assess Gains in Adolescents' Substance Use Knowledge: New Opportunities for Evaluating Intervention Exposure and Content Mastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Erika; Fiellin, Lynn E; Fakhouri, Tamer; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Duncan, Lindsay R

    2015-10-28

    Videogame interventions are becoming increasingly popular as a means to engage people in behavioral interventions; however, strategies for examining data from such interventions have not been developed. The objective of this study was to describe how a technology-based intervention can yield meaningful, objective evidence of intervention exposure within a behavioral intervention. This study demonstrates the analysis of automatic log files, created by software from a videogame intervention, that catalog game play and, as proof of concept, the association of these data with changes in substance use knowledge as documented with standardized assessments. We analyzed 3- and 6-month follow-up data from 166 participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating a videogame intervention, PlayForward: Elm City Stories (PlayForward). PlayForward is a videogame developed as a risk reduction and prevention program targeting HIV risk behaviors (substance use and sex) in young minority adolescents. Log files were analyzed to extract the total amount of time spent playing the videogame intervention and the total number of game levels completed and beaten by each player. Completing and beating more of the game levels, and not total game play time, was related to higher substance use knowledge scores at the 3- (P=.001) and 6-month (P=.001) follow-ups. Our findings highlight the potential contributions a videogame intervention can make to the study of health behavior change. Specifically, the use of objective data collected during game play can address challenges in traditional human-delivered behavioral interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01666496; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01666496 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6cV9fxsOg).

  8. Variation in behavioral engagement during an active learning activity leads to differential knowledge gains in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDage, Lara D; Tornello, Samantha L; Vallejera, Jennilyn M; Baker, Emily E; Yan, Yue; Chowdhury, Anik

    2018-03-01

    There are many pedagogical techniques used by educators in higher education; however, some techniques and activities have been shown to be more beneficial to student learning than others. Research has demonstrated that active learning and learning in which students cognitively engage with the material in a multitude of ways result in better understanding and retention. The aim of the present study was to determine which of three pedagogical techniques led to improvement in learning and retention in undergraduate college students. Subjects partook in one of three different types of pedagogical engagement: hands-on learning with a model, observing someone else manipulate the model, and traditional lecture-based presentation. Students were then asked to take an online quiz that tested their knowledge of the new material, both immediately after learning the material and 2 wk later. Students who engaged in direct manipulation of the model scored higher on the assessment immediately after learning the material compared with the other two groups. However, there were no differences among the three groups when assessed after a 2-wk retention interval. Thus active learning techniques that involve direct interaction with the material can lead to learning benefits; however, how these techniques benefit long-term retention of the information is equivocal.

  9. Development and Preliminary Validation of a Comprehensive Questionnaire to Assess Women’s Knowledge and Perception of the Current Weight Gain Guidelines during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Ockenden

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate an electronic questionnaire, the Electronic Maternal Health Survey (EMat Health Survey, related to women’s knowledge and perceptions of the current gestational weight gain guidelines (GWG, as well as pregnancy-related health behaviours. Constructs addressed within the questionnaire include self-efficacy, locus of control, perceived barriers, and facilitators of physical activity and diet, outcome expectations, social environment and health practices. Content validity was examined using an expert panel (n = 7 and pilot testing items in a small sample (n = 5 of pregnant women and recent mothers (target population. Test re-test reliability was assessed among a sample (n = 71 of the target population. Reliability scores were calculated for all constructs (r and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC, those with a score of >0.5 were considered acceptable. The content validity of the questionnaire reflects the degree to which all relevant components of excessive GWG risk in women are included. Strong test-retest reliability was found in the current study, indicating that responses to the questionnaire were reliable in this population. The EMat Health Survey adds to the growing body of literature on maternal health and gestational weight gain by providing the first comprehensive questionnaire that can be self-administered and remotely accessed. The questionnaire can be completed in 15–25 min and collects useful data on various social determinants of health and GWG as well as associated health behaviours. This online tool may assist researchers by providing them with a platform to collect useful information in developing and tailoring interventions to better support women in achieving recommended weight gain targets in pregnancy.

  10. Contribution to the knowledge of Stenochironomus Kieffer (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Brazil: seven new species and description of females and immatures of some previously known species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Galileu P S; Hamada, Neusa; Mendes, Humberto F

    2016-05-30

    Twenty two species of Stenochironomus Kieffer are known from Brazil, 19 of which occur in the Amazon region. In order to increase knowledge of the taxonomy of this genus in the Amazon region, collections were carried out in streams located in Presidente Figueiredo, Manaus and Itacoatiara municipalities, Amazonas State. Leaves and wood mined by Stenochironomus larvae were collected and transported to the laboratory where they were kept until adult emergence. Seven new species were found, one of which is described in the immature stages and as adults of both sexes (S. amazonicus sp. n.), one as immatures and adult male (S. liviae sp. n.), four as male and pupa (S. bare sp. n., S. figueiredoensis sp. n., S. gracilis sp. nov. and S. manauara sp. n.) and one only as male (S. suzanae sp. n.). Additionally, the female, pupa and larva of S. impendens Borkent, pupa and larva of S. jubatus Borkent, female and pupa of S. zonarius Borkent and female of S. palliaculeatus Borkent were described.

  11. Researches on nuclear wastes. Knowledge gained and perspectives at the 2006 date line; Recherches sur les dechets nucleaires acquis et perspectives a l'echeance 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. The responsibility of these researches is given to the French atomic energy commission (CEA) and to the national agency for radioactive wastes (ANDRA) who have to coordinate their works with other research organizations and industrialists. The aim of this colloquium is to make a status of the scientific knowledge gained before the implementation of the public and parliamentary debates on nuclear wastes management. This document gathers the presentations (slides) given at the colloquium and dealing with: separation/transmutation, storage and conditioning of waste packages; geologic disposal, the inter-disciplinary PACE program of the CNRS; synthesis of the researches evaluation process; general principles for a sustainable management of radioactive wastes; technical experience implemented by industrialists since 15 years; point of view of the nuclear safety authority; international context of nuclear waste management and related researches; a sociological enlightening: researches advance as seen by the public. (J.S.)

  12. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...

  13. Personal networks: a tool for gaining insight into the transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyrolean (Austrian) migrants in Australia, Brazil and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselmair, Ruth; Pirker, Heidemarie; Kuhn, Elisabeth; Vogl, Christian R

    2014-01-07

    Investigations into knowledge about food and medicinal plants in a certain geographic area or within a specific group are an important element of ethnobotanical research. This knowledge is context specific and dynamic due to changing ecological, social and economic circumstances. Migration processes affect food habits and the knowledge and use of medicinal plants as a result of adaptations that have to be made to new surroundings and changing environments. This study analyses and compares the different dynamics in the transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyrolean migrants in Australia, Brazil and Peru. A social network approach was used to collect data on personal networks of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyroleans who have migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru and their descendants. A statistical analysis of the personal network maps and a qualitative analysis of the narratives were combined to provide insight into the process of transmitting knowledge about food and medicinal plants. 56 personal networks were identified in all (food: 30; medicinal plants: 26) across all the field sites studied here. In both sets of networks, the main source of knowledge is individual people (food: 71%; medicinal plants: 68%). The other sources mentioned are print and audiovisual media, organisations and institutions. Personal networks of food knowledge are larger than personal networks of medicinal plant knowledge in all areas of investigation. Relatives play a major role as transmitters of knowledge in both domains. Human sources, especially relatives, play an important role in knowledge transmission in both domains. Reference was made to other sources as well, such as books, television, the internet, schools and restaurants. By taking a personal network approach, this study reveals the mode of transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants within a migrational context.

  14. Personal networks: a tool for gaining insight into the transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyrolean (Austrian) migrants in Australia, Brazil and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Investigations into knowledge about food and medicinal plants in a certain geographic area or within a specific group are an important element of ethnobotanical research. This knowledge is context specific and dynamic due to changing ecological, social and economic circumstances. Migration processes affect food habits and the knowledge and use of medicinal plants as a result of adaptations that have to be made to new surroundings and changing environments. This study analyses and compares the different dynamics in the transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyrolean migrants in Australia, Brazil and Peru. Methods A social network approach was used to collect data on personal networks of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyroleans who have migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru and their descendants. A statistical analysis of the personal network maps and a qualitative analysis of the narratives were combined to provide insight into the process of transmitting knowledge about food and medicinal plants. Results 56 personal networks were identified in all (food: 30; medicinal plants: 26) across all the field sites studied here. In both sets of networks, the main source of knowledge is individual people (food: 71%; medicinal plants: 68%). The other sources mentioned are print and audiovisual media, organisations and institutions. Personal networks of food knowledge are larger than personal networks of medicinal plant knowledge in all areas of investigation. Relatives play a major role as transmitters of knowledge in both domains. Conclusions Human sources, especially relatives, play an important role in knowledge transmission in both domains. Reference was made to other sources as well, such as books, television, the internet, schools and restaurants. By taking a personal network approach, this study reveals the mode of transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants within a migrational context. PMID:24398225

  15. Emotion Processes in Knowledge Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, Gregory J.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a number of insights have been gained into the cognitive processes that explain how individuals overcome misconceptions and revise their previously acquired incorrect knowledge. The current study complements this line of research by investigating the moment-by-moment emotion processes that occur during knowledge revision using a…

  16. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  17. Pre-Service Teachers' Opinions about the Course on Scientific Research Methods and the Levels of Knowledge and Skills They Gained in This Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Cemal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the pre-service teachers taking the Scientific Research Methods course attained basic research knowledge and skills. In addition, the impact of the process, which is followed while implementing the course, on the students' anxiety and attitude during the course is examined. Moreover, the study…

  18. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    Based on the readings of articles related to Astronomy Education published in Brazil, it was noticed a lack of research on previous knowledge of students about the physical characteristics of stars, a fact that motivated us to develop this study. Previous knowledge of 125 students (approximated 15 years old) constituted the study sample; data was collected through written questionnaires (Appendix A) for analysis. From the content analysis of these responses it was possible to achieve some inferences as, for example, many students have some difficult to develop an explanatory model on the functioning of a star; there are few who say that the stars have a certain length of existence; some students have said that stars have tips; few recognize that a star is formed by a mass of gas; some previous knowledge come from purely visual aspects; furthermore, some students do not have the habit of observing nature in detail. We see this research as a reference in which science teachers can recognize the importance of previous knowledge for practice teaching and acquire resources for planning their lessons. De la lectura de artículos relacionados con la Educación en Astronomía publicados en el Brasil, se encuentra una falta de investigaciones acerca del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes sobre las características físicas de las estrellas, hecho que nos motivó a desarrollar este estudio. Los datos analizados se obtuvieron al aplicar un cuestionario a 125 estudiantes de secundaria, para posteriormente realizar un análisis de contenido, tal cuestionario se presenta en el Anexo A. Al realizar el análisis de contenido de las respuestas obtenidas, fue posible hacer algunas inferencias, como por ejemplo; muchos estudiantes tienen dificultades para desarrollar un modelo explicativo acerca del funcionamiento de una estrella; pocos estudiantes dicen que las estrellas tienen un cierto tiempo de vida; algunos estudiantes imaginan que las estrellas tienen puntas; pocos

  19. Conhecimento, atitude e prática sobre métodos anticoncepcionais entre adolescentes gestantes Knowledge, attitudes, and practices on previous use of contraceptive methods among pregnant teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Alves Vieira Belo

    2004-08-01

    describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to previous contraceptive methods used among pregnant teenagers as well as to outline some sociodemographic characteristics and sexual practices. METHODS: An observational study associated to the KAP (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey was carried out in 156 pregnant teenagers aged 19 years or more. A structured questionnaire was applied before their first prenatal visit from October 1999 to August 2000. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed using Pearson's and Yates' chi-square test and logistic regression. RESULTS: The adolescents had an average age of 16.1 years and most were in their first pregnancy (78.8%. Average age of menarche was 12.2 years and their first sexual intercourse was at the age of 14.5 years. Condoms (99.4% and oral contraceptives (98% were the most common contraceptive methods known. Of all, 67.3% were not using any contraceptive method before getting pregnant. The main reason reported for not using any contraceptive method was wanting to get pregnant (24.5%. The older ones who reported having religious beliefs and had a higher socioeconomic status had better knowledge on contraceptive methods. Teenagers who had had previous pregnancies reported more often use of contraceptive methods before getting pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: The pregnant teenagers showed to have adequate knowledge of contraceptive methods and agreed to use them throughout their teenage years. Religion, age group, and socioeconomic status were directly related to their knowledge on contraceptive methods, and multiple pregnancies brought more awareness on that. Of all, 54% had used any contraceptive on first sexual intercourse but their use decreased over time and shortly after their first intercourse the studied teenagers got pregnant.

  20. Transferring Knowledge Gained From a Field Experience in Tierra del Fuego, the Uttermost Part of the Earth, to Central Texas Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiston, C.; Dovzak, N.; Anderson, S.; Perry, E.; Ellins, K.; Tingle, D.; Knettel, P.; Redding, S.; Odle, K.

    2005-12-01

    administrators, and the direct connection to the classroom provided by the inclusion of some students in the field program. Immersing teachers in a dynamic scientific research environment should be an essential component of professional development if we are to inspire the scientists of tomorrow and promote science education reform. Such experiences expand teachers' knowledge base, boost confidence and provide insight into the collaborative, cross-disciplinary nature of science. Many of our colleagues, as well as friends and parents in the Boerne community, were surprised that high school teachers could do this, and they wanted to know how they could become involved in the future. It is sometimes said: Those that can do; those that can't, teach. By getting high school students and teachers involved with ongoing field studies, this perspective can be altered. The new paradigm: I Can, I Have, I Teach! Public school district leaders (i.e., superintendents and curriculum directors) should be cognizant of, and encouraged to support teacher participation in, similar experiential programs.

  1. Previous ISD Program Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    report. The detail required for such a review would be unwieldy and would comsume inordinate amounts of time. The result of the document review will...attempts have been made at writing specific behavioral objectives (SBOs). These, however, have proven to be inadequate in that they are not stated in... behavioral terms (e.g., "will understand," "will have a knowledge of," etc.). C. Development of CRO/CRTs? In nearly all cases, ISD teams are just

  2. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  3. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Should I Gain Weight? KidsHealth / For Teens / Should I Gain Weight? ... something about it. Why Do People Want to Gain Weight? Some of the reasons people give for ...

  4. Leadership in the tug of war between what is desired, what is possible, and what is allowed - knowledge and ideas gained from 25 years of senior management experience in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, H P

    2014-12-01

    A decisive factor in the difference between the success and failure of the development of practices and hospitals is the quality and number of suitable staff members, together with their motivation to devote their skills to the particular organization. Senior management is not required or paid to paint dramatic pictures of current and future problems, but to achieve success within given framework conditions (e. g. health funding, local circumstances, suitability of senior staff). Success must be measurable and verifiable within the dimensions of medical quality, service quality and economic viability - but also regarding staff loyalty and staff recruitment. This paper is intended to encourage critical reflection on structures and roles in the organization of hospitals and practices on the basis of knowledge and ideas gained from 25 years of senior management experience. The content of this article will apply only in part or not at all for a number of successful hospitals and practices. The aim of this paper is to increase that proportion. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  6. Conhecimentos maternos sobre amamentação entre puérperas inscritas em programa de pré-natal Breastfeeding knowledge among post-partum women previously enrolled in a prenatal program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilza Sandre-Pereira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer o nível de informação sobre amamentação entre as mulheres que participam do programa de pré-natal na Maternidade-Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A amostra totalizou 135 puérperas que responderam a questionário estruturado, contendo perguntas objetivas sobre aspectos práticos e teóricos do aleitamento materno. Os resultados mostraram que as mulheres iniciaram o pré-natal, em média, com 16 semanas de gravidez e realizaram cerca de oito consultas. Dentre elas, 53,3% afirmaram ter recebido informações sobre aleitamento materno durante o acompanhamento pré-natal e a informação mais lembrada por 22,2% foi a de amamentar até os seis meses de vida do bebê. Quanto ao momento ideal para a primeira mamada, 50,4% consideraram ser logo após o parto e 47,4% apontaram o leite materno como benéfico para proteger o bebê contra doenças. Embora as mães tenham conhecimentos básicos sobre aleitamento materno, questões como o momento ideal para a primeira mamada, a importância do colostro e aspectos nutricionais relacionados à nutriz ainda precisam ser melhor esclarecidos durante o pré-natal e no período pós-parto imediato.The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge of breastfeeding issues among post-partum women who had participated in a prenatal program at the Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ Maternity Teaching Hospital. The sample totaled 135 post-partum women who answered a structured questionnaire with objective questions about practical and theoretical aspects of breastfeeding. The women had begun prenatal care at the 16th week of gestation on average, with an average of 8 medical consultations. Some 53.3% stated having received information about breastfeeding during prenatal care, and 22.2% stated that the information they remembered the best was that they should breastfeed for the first 6 months. Regarding the best moment for the first feeding, 50

  7. Designing Proficiency Tests to Accredit Previous Knowledge in American and British Literature in a Bilingual Education Program (Diseño de exámenes de suficiencia para acreditar el conocimiento previo en literatura americana y británica en un programa de educación bilingüe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Chica, César Julio; D'Costa Martínez, Catalina; Franco Jácome, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    This article aims at identifying the kind of American and British literature tests that can be designed to allow students who enter a bilingual education program at a private university in Colombia to have their previous knowledge in these two subjects accredited through a proficiency test. Students' needs, opinions, beliefs, existing commercial…

  8. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  9. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  10. Acting to gain information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  11. Gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Peaceman, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal care providers are advised to evaluate maternal weight at each regularly scheduled prenatal visit, monitor progress toward meeting weight gain goals, and provide individualized counseling if significant deviations from a woman's goals occur. Today, nearly 50% of women exceed their weight gain goals with overweight and obese women having the highest prevalence of excessive weight gain. Risks of inadequate weight gain include low birthweight and failure to initiate breast-feeding whereas the risks of excessive weight gain include cesarean deliveries and postpartum weight retention for the mother and large-for-gestational-age infants, macrosomia, and childhood overweight or obesity for the offspring. Prenatal care providers have many resources and tools to incorporate weight and other health behavior counseling into routine prenatal practices. Because many women are motivated to improve health behaviors, pregnancy is often considered the optimal time to intervene for issues related to eating habits and physical activity to prevent excessive weight gain. Gestational weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials report that diet or exercise interventions during pregnancy can help reduce excessive weight gain. However, health behavior interventions for gestational weight gain have not significantly improved other maternal and neonatal outcomes and have limited effectiveness in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating realized genetic gains from tree improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair

    1993-01-01

    Tree improvement has become an essential part of the management of forest lands for wood production, and predicting yields and realized gains from forests planted with genetically-improved trees will become increasingly important. This paper discusses concepts of tree improvement and genetic gain important to growth and yield modeling, and reviews previous studies of...

  13. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015;37:46. Blumenthal SR, et al. An electronic health records study of long-term weight gain following antidepressant ... your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy ...

  14. Weight gain - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes Hormone changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive thyroid, or low thyroid (hypothyroidism) Polycystic ovary syndrome Menopause Pregnancy Bloating, or swelling ...

  15. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  16. Parental Strategies for Knowledge of Adolescents’ Friends: Distinct from Monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A.; Duke, Michael R.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2012-01-01

    Parental monitoring is defined as a set of behaviors used to gain knowledge about an adolescent’s whereabouts, friends and associates, and activities. However, can knowledge of adolescents’ whereabouts/activities, and friends all be attained through the same strategies? Or do they require their own strategies? This study used qualitative interviews with 173 parents of older adolescents from 100 families. Emergent themes described strategies by which parents gain information about their adolescents’ friends and the substance use of those friends. The strategies included direct interaction with the friend, gaining information from the teen, using second-hand sources, and making assumptions. Some of these strategies were consistent with previous research, while others raise new questions and provide interesting new directions to pursue. Primarily, additional consideration needs to be given to assessments of parental monitoring that include strategies for gaining knowledge of adolescents’ friends and their substance use. PMID:23209361

  17. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  18. Photomultiplier gain stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Baud, P.; Sautiez, B.

    1958-07-01

    By the control and adjustment of magnetic deflection applied to the electron beam of a photomultiplier it has proved possible to flatten the gain curve, forming plateaux at levels dependent upon the voltage at intake. It should be possible to add this simple device to most photomultipliers on the market today. (author) [fr

  19. Learn and gain

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Alami, Suhair Eyad Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Initiating the slogan ""love it, live it"", Learn and Gain includes eight short stories, chosen to illustrate various modes of narration, as well as to provoke reflection and discussion on a range of issues. All texts utilized here illustrate how great writers can, with their insight and gift for words, help us to see the world we live in, in new probing and exciting ways. What characterises the book, the author believes, is the integration of the skills of literary competence, communicative c...

  20. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  1. Gains from quota trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Levring; Bogetoft, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We provide a framework for evaluating potential effects of introducing tradable quotas to a sector. The effects depend on the economies of scale and scope of the production technology, and on firms' ability and willingness to learn best practice methods (catching up) and to change their input...... and output composition (mix). To illustrate our approach, data from the Danish fishery are used to calculate the potential gains from introducing individually transferable fishing quotas. Data envelopment analysis is used to model the production technology. We find that pure reallocation is as important...

  2. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  3. Intrinsic gain modulation and adaptive neural coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Hong

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, the computation of a neural system can be reduced to a receptive field, or a set of linear filters, and a thresholding function, or gain curve, which determines the firing probability; this is known as a linear/nonlinear model. In some forms of sensory adaptation, these linear filters and gain curve adjust very rapidly to changes in the variance of a randomly varying driving input. An apparently similar but previously unrelated issue is the observation of gain control by background noise in cortical neurons: the slope of the firing rate versus current (f-I curve changes with the variance of background random input. Here, we show a direct correspondence between these two observations by relating variance-dependent changes in the gain of f-I curves to characteristics of the changing empirical linear/nonlinear model obtained by sampling. In the case that the underlying system is fixed, we derive relationships relating the change of the gain with respect to both mean and variance with the receptive fields derived from reverse correlation on a white noise stimulus. Using two conductance-based model neurons that display distinct gain modulation properties through a simple change in parameters, we show that coding properties of both these models quantitatively satisfy the predicted relationships. Our results describe how both variance-dependent gain modulation and adaptive neural computation result from intrinsic nonlinearity.

  4. Could Reward-disturbances caused by antipsychotic medication lead to weight gain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Nørbak-Emig, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The reward system is known to be central to the regulation of appetite. Further, disturbances of the brain reward system are suggested to play an important role in the development of central psychopathological symptoms in schizophrenia. Antipsychotic medication partly acts by modulating...... the reward system and most antipsychotics cause some degree of weight gain. Recently, a relation between weight gain caused by one week of olanzapine treatment and change in reward signalling was found in healthy volunteers1. To our knowledge there are no previous studies examining how the effect...... of antipsychotic treatment on the reward system relate to weight gain in patients. METHODS 50 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls were included in the study at baseline. 38 patients and 31 healthy controls were re-examined after six weeks where patients were...

  5. Functional and Biomechanical Effects of the Edge-to-Edge Repair in the Setting of Mitral Regurgitation: Consolidated Knowledge and Novel Tools to Gain Insight into Its Percutaneous Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturla, Francesco; Redaelli, Alberto; Puppini, Giovanni; Onorati, Francesco; Faggian, Giuseppe; Votta, Emiliano

    2015-06-01

    Mitral regurgitation is the most prevalent heart valve disease in the western population. When severe, it requires surgical treatment, repair being the preferred option. The edge-to-edge repair technique treats mitral regurgitation by suturing the leaflets together and creating a double-orifice valve. Due to its relative simplicity and versatility, it has become progressively more widespread. Recently, its percutaneous version has become feasible, and has raised interest thanks to the positive results of the Mitraclip(®) device. Edge-to-edge features and evolution have stimulated debate and multidisciplinary research by both clinicians and engineers. After providing an overview of representative studies in the field, here we propose a novel computational approach to the most recent percutaneous evolution of the edge-to-edge technique. Image-based structural finite element models of three mitral valves affected by posterior prolapse were derived from cine-cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The models accounted for the patient-specific 3D geometry of the valve, including leaflet compound curvature pattern, patient-specific motion of annulus and papillary muscles, and hyperelastic and anisotropic mechanical properties of tissues. The biomechanics of the three valves throughout the entire cardiac cycle was simulated before and after Mitraclip(®) implantation, assessing the biomechanical impact of the procedure. For all three simulated MVs, Mitraclip(®) implantation significantly improved systolic leaflets coaptation, without inducing major alterations in systolic peak stresses. Diastolic orifice area was decreased, by up to 58.9%, and leaflets diastolic stresses became comparable, although lower, to systolic ones. Despite established knowledge on the edge-to-edge surgical repair, latest technological advances make its percutanoues implementation a challenging field of research. The modeling approach herein proposed may be expanded to analyze clinical scenarios that

  6. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  7. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  8. Leading Gainful Employment Metric Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kristina; MacPherson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will address the importance of intercampus involvement in reporting of gainful employment student-level data that will be used in the calculation of gainful employment metrics by the U.S. Department of Education. The authors will discuss why building relationships within the institution is critical for effective gainful employment…

  9. Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung im Medizinstudium: Querschnittstudie zu Präferenzen, Haltungen und Vorkenntnissen von Studierenden [Prevention and health promotion in undergraduate medical education: Preferences, attitudes and previous knowledge of medical students - a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: The interdisciplinary topic "prevention and health promotion" (Q10 was introduced into the medical training in Germany by the new medical licensing regulations in 2004. For the conception of an effective curriculum, it is helpful to know student preferences concerning teaching-formats, attitudes and self-estimated previous knowledge. Little is known concerning student perception of “prevention and health promotion” in Germany. Thus, this explorative cross-sectional study aims to provide a first step for closing this gap.Methods: Medical students (n=220 in the fifth academic year were asked to fill in a standardized questionnaire prior to the Q10 curriculum. Questions focused on preferences for teaching and testing formats and self-estimated previous knowledge as well as on rating the importance of prevention topics and health risks. The questions were multiple choice, five-point Likert scales and open-ended questions. Results: A total of 94 students filled questionnaires (42% response rate. Prevention and health promotion was rated as “important” or “very important” for their “own medical professionalism” by 68% of students. Ratings showed preferences for self-directed teaching and learning strategies, including case-based learning, and 78% wished for predominantly oral examinations. The self-estimated knowledge about prevention and health promotion is rated as “rather poor”. The most favored training aim was “decision making within the physician-patient-relationship”. Regarding medical health consultation, students frequently estimate “lifestyle factors” and “psychological disease” as being "very important". Conclusion: Students’ self-estimated poor previous knowledge of prevention and health promotion creates special challenges for curriculum development. High ratings of relevance assigned to prevention-related topics point to a motivational potential which should be utilized through

  10. Hypertext or Textbook: Effects on Motivation and Gain in Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradty, Cathérine; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    Computers are considered innovative in classrooms, raising expectations of increased cognitive learning outcomes or motivation with effects on Deeper Learning (DL). The "new medium", however, may cause cognitive overloads. Combined with gender-related variations in ability, self-efficacy or self-confidence, computers may even diminish…

  11. Attitude shifts and knowledge gains: Evaluating men who have sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in South Africa experience discrimination from healthcare workers (HCWs), impeding health service access. Objectives: To evaluate the outcomes of an MSM sensitisation training programme for HCWs implemented in the Western Cape province (South Africa). Methods: A ...

  12. Emotions at play : gaining emotional knowledge using a video game

    OpenAIRE

    Bohné, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    The use of video games for teaching children different subjects is commonly believed to be a good  approach. In  general  has  learning  theme  for  these  games  focused  on  traditionally subject, such as math or biology. Important as they can be for education, other softer aspects can also be considered important for the children and education. One such aspect is emotions and the role it has on a social level. However, it is not much research showing how to use emotions  in  a  learning  g...

  13. Attitude shifts and knowledge gains: Evaluating men who have sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-31

    Mar 31, 2017 ... Trainees completed self-administered pre- and post-training questionnaires assessing changes .... analysis followed a grounded theory approach based upon the ... with subsequent elaboration and verification stages.

  14. Food-Based Science Curriculum Yields Gains in Nutrition Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Hovland, Jana; Showers, Carissa; Díaz, Sebastián; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Students may be receiving less than an average of 4?hours of nutrition instruction per year. Integrating nutrition with other subject areas such as science may increase exposure to nutrition education, while supporting existing academics. Methods: During the 2009-2010 school year, researchers implemented the Food, Math, and Science…

  15. Operational gain : measuring the capture of genetic gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of operational gain is more than the weighted average of the genetic quality of planted hectares, and encompasses tree breeding efficiencies, propagation efficiencies, matching of species and genotype to site, plant use efficiency and early measures of stand density and growth. To test the operational gain ...

  16. DNA gains at 8q23.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Veiga, Luciana Caricati; Bérgamo, Nádia Aparecida; dos Reis, Patrícia Pintor

    2003-01-01

    Gains or amplifications involving chromosome arm 8q are one of the most recurrent chromosomal alterations in head and neck tumors. To characterize previously reported gains, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the sequences BAC RP1179E1 and 8-centromere PMJ 128 as probes....

  17. High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alison; Zhang, Gengsheng

    2006-01-01

    NAVSYS High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver (HAGR) uses a digital beam-steering antenna array to enable up to eight GPS satellites to be tracked, each with up to 10 dBi of additional antenna gain over a conventional receiver solution...

  18. What's Past Is Prologue: Relations between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, and few have investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at…

  19. Weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain in outpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances A; Boden, Joseph M; Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Bulik, Cynthia M; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    The present study sought to replicate the finding of Wildes and Marcus, Behav Res Ther, 50, 266-274, 2012 that higher levels of weight suppression at pretreatment predict greater total weight gain, faster rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms amongst patients admitted with anorexia nervosa. Participants were 56 women with anorexia nervosa diagnosed by using strict or lenient weight criteria, who were participating in a randomized controlled psychotherapy trial (McIntosh et al., Am J Psychiatry, 162, 741-747, 2005). Thirty-five women completed outpatient treatment and post-treatment assessment. Weight suppression was the discrepancy between highest lifetime weight at adult height and weight at pretreatment assessment. Outcome variables were total weight gain, rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment [assessed using the Eating Disorders Examination (Fairburn et al., Binge-Eating: Nature, Assessment and Treatment. New York: Guilford, 1993)]. Weight suppression was positively associated with total weight gain and rate of weight gain over treatment. Regression models showed that this association could not be explained by covariates (age at onset of anorexia nervosa and treatment modality). Weight suppression was not significantly associated with bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment, regardless of whether bulimic symptoms were examined as continuous or dichotomous variables. The present study reinforces the previous finding that weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain amongst patients being treated for anorexia nervosa. Methodological issues may explain the failure of the present study to find that weight suppression predicts bulimic symptoms. Weight suppression at pretreatment for anorexia nervosa should be assessed routinely and may inform treatment planning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Social knowledge and signals in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Thore J; Sheehan, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Primates are notable for having a rich and detailed understanding of their social environment and there has been great interest in the evolution and function of social knowledge in primates. Indeed, primates have been shown to have impressive understandings of not only other group members but also the complex relationships among them. To be useful, however, social knowledge requires memories from previous encounters and observations about individual traits that are stable. Here, we argue that social systems or traits that make social knowledge more costly or less accurate will favor signals that either supplement or replace social knowledge. Thus, the relationship between signals and social knowledge can be complementary or antagonistic depending on the type of signal. Our goal in this review is to elucidate the relationships between signals and social knowledge in primates. We categorize signals into three types, each with different relationships to social knowledge. (1) Identity signals directly facilitate social knowledge, (2) current-state signals supplement information gained through social knowledge, and (3) badges of status replace social knowledge. Primates rely extensively on identity information, but it remains to be determined to what extent this is based on receiver perception of individual variation or senders using identity signals. Primates frequently utilize current-state signals including signals of intent to augment their interactions with familiar individuals. Badges of status are rare in primates, and the cases where they are used point to a functional and evolutionary trade-off between badges of status and social knowledge. However, the nature of this relationship needs further exploration. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Progress in high gain inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingwen

    2001-01-01

    The author reviews the progress in laboratory high gain inertial confinement fusion (ICF), including ICF capsule physics, high-energy-density science, inertial fusion energy, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and its design of ignition targets and the peta watt laser breakthrough. High power laser, particle beam, and pulsed power facilities around the world have established the new laboratory field of high-energy- density plasma physics and have furthered development of inertial fusion. New capabilities such as those provided by high-brightness peta watt lasers have enabled the study of matter feasible in conditions previously unachievable on earth. Science and technology developed in inertial fusion research have found near-term commercial use and have enabled steady progress toward the goal of fusion ignition and high gain in the laboratory, and have opened up new fields of study for the 21 st century

  2. The tourism knowledge system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tribe, John; Liburd, Janne J.

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual study addresses the significant need for every mature field of knowledge to understand itself. It builds upon previous studies of the epistemology and ontology of tourism by critiquing, synthesising, discarding, re-ordering and adding material. Its contribution is an original...... reconceptualisation of the structure, systems, processes and outcomes that define the field of tourism. These are explained by the creation of a model and detailed analysis that examines knowledge space, the knowledge force-field, knowledge networks, four key domains in knowledge creation and their interrelationships....... Finally the model is used to examine some of the key challenges and consequences that the knowledge system reveals for tourism and its research....

  3. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  4. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoran Li

    Full Text Available Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4 were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6 that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1. First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  5. Developmental Gains in Visuospatial Memory Predict Gains in Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning. PMID:23936154

  6. Speech production gains following constraint-induced movement therapy in children with hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kristen M; Reidy, Teressa Garcia; Boyle, Mary; Naber, Erin; Carney, Joan; Pidcock, Frank S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in speech skills of children who have hemiparesis and speech impairment after participation in a constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) program. While case studies have reported collateral speech gains following CIMT, the effect of CIMT on speech production has not previously been directly investigated to the knowledge of these investigators. Eighteen children with hemiparesis and co-occurring speech impairment participated in a 21-day clinical CIMT program. The Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (GFTA-2) was used to assess children's articulation of speech sounds before and after the intervention. Changes in percent of consonants correct (PCC) on the GFTA-2 were used as a measure of change in speech production. Children made significant gains in PCC following CIMT. Gains were similar in children with left and right-sided hemiparesis, and across age groups. This study reports significant collateral gains in speech production following CIMT and suggests benefits of CIMT may also spread to speech motor domains.

  7. Quantifying the mechanisms of domain gain in animal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljan, Marija; Frankish, Adam; Bateman, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Protein domains are protein regions that are shared among different proteins and are frequently functionally and structurally independent from the rest of the protein. Novel domain combinations have a major role in evolutionary innovation. However, the relative contributions of the different molecular mechanisms that underlie domain gains in animals are still unknown. By using animal gene phylogenies we were able to identify a set of high confidence domain gain events and by looking at their coding DNA investigate the causative mechanisms. Here we show that the major mechanism for gains of new domains in metazoan proteins is likely to be gene fusion through joining of exons from adjacent genes, possibly mediated by non-allelic homologous recombination. Retroposition and insertion of exons into ancestral introns through intronic recombination are, in contrast to previous expectations, only minor contributors to domain gains and have accounted for less than 1% and 10% of high confidence domain gain events, respectively. Additionally, exonization of previously non-coding regions appears to be an important mechanism for addition of disordered segments to proteins. We observe that gene duplication has preceded domain gain in at least 80% of the gain events. The interplay of gene duplication and domain gain demonstrates an important mechanism for fast neofunctionalization of genes.

  8. Knowledge creation in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanian, Zahra Marzieh; Ahanchian, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Suleiman; Hossein Gholizadeh, Rezvan; Karimi-Moonaghi, Hossein

    2014-09-28

    In today's society, knowledge is recognized as a valuable social asset and the educational system is in search of a new strategy that allows them to construct their knowledge and experience. The purpose of this study was to explore the process of knowledge creation in nursing education. In the present study, the grounded theory approach was used. This method provides a comprehensive approach to collecting, organizing, and analyzing data. Data were obtained through 17 semi-structured interviews with nursing faculties and nursing students. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was conducted. Based on the method of Strauss and Corbin, the data were analyzed using fragmented, deep, and constant-comparative methods. The main categories included striving for growth and reduction of ambiguity, use of knowledge resources, dynamism of mind and social factors, converting knowledge, and creating knowledge. Knowledge was converted through mind processes, individual and group reflection, praxis and research, and resulted in the creation of nursing knowledge. Discrete nursing knowledge is gained through disconformity research in order to gain more individual advantages. The consequence of this analysis was gaining new knowledge. Knowledge management must be included in the mission and strategic planning of nursing education, and it should be planned through operational planning in order to create applicable knowledge.

  9. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, and the development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulated knowledge...

  10. Maternal obesity (Class I-III), gestational weight gain and maternal leptin levels during and after pregnancy : a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Carlhäll, Sara; Bladh, Marie; Brynhildsen, Jan; Claesson, Ing-Marie; Josefsson, Ann; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Thorsell, Annika; Blomberg, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity is accompanied by maternal and fetal complications during and after pregnancy. The risks seem to increase with degree of obesity. Leptin has been suggested to play a role in the development of obesity related complications. Whether maternal leptin levels differ between obese and morbidly obese women, during and after pregnancy, have to our knowledge not been previously described. Neither has the association between maternal leptin levels and gestational weight gain...

  11. Brillouin gain enhancement in nano-scale photonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Jouybari, Soodabeh

    2018-05-01

    The enhancement of stimulated Brillouin scattering in nano-scale waveguides has a great contribution in the improvement of the photonic devices technology. The key factors in Brillouin gain are the electrostriction force and radiation pressure generated by optical waves in the waveguide. In this article, we have proposed a new scheme of nano-scale waveguide in which the Brillouin gain is considerably improved compared to the previously-reported schemes. The role of radiation pressure in the Brillouin gain was much higher than the role of the electrostriction force. The Brillouin gain strongly depends on the structural parameters of the waveguide and the maximum value of 12127 W-1 m-1 is obtained for the Brillouin gain.

  12. Developmental Gains in Visuospatial Memory Predict Gains in Mathematics Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusiv...

  13. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  14. Charge Gain, Voltage Gain, and Node Capacitance of the SAPHIRA Detector Pixel by Pixel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana, Izabella M.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Baker, Ian M.; Jacobson, Shane M.; Goebel, Sean B.

    2018-01-01

    The University of Hawai`i Institute for Astronomy has partnered with Leonardo (formerly Selex) in the development of HgCdTe linear mode avalanche photodiode (L-APD) SAPHIRA detectors. The SAPHIRA (Selex Avalanche Photodiode High-speed Infra-Red Array) is ideally suited for photon-starved astronomical observations, particularly near infrared (NIR) adaptive optics (AO) wave-front sensing. I have measured the stability, and linearity with current, of a 1.7-um (10% spectral bandpass) infrared light emitting diode (IR LED) used to illuminate the SAPHIRA and have then utilized this source to determine the charge gain (in e-/ADU), voltage gain (in uV/ADU), and node capacitance (in fF) for each pixel of the 320x256@24um SAPHIRA. These have previously only been averages over some sub-array. Determined from the ratio of the temporal averaged signal level to variance under constant 1.7-um LED illumination, I present the charge gain pixel-by-pixel in a 64x64 sub-array at the center of the active area of the SAPHIRA (analyzed separately as four 32x32 sub-arrays) to be about 1.6 e-/ADU (σ=0.5 e-/ADU). Additionally, the standard technique of varying the pixel reset voltage (PRV) in 10 mV increments and recording output frames for the same 64x64 subarray found the voltage gain per pixel to be about 11.7 uV/ADU (σ=0.2 uV/ADU). Finally, node capacitance was found to be approximately 23 fF (σ=6 fF) utilizing the aforementioned charge and voltage gain measurements. I further discuss the linearity measurements of the 1.7-um LED used in the charge gain characterization procedure.

  15. Variety Gains and the Extensive Margin of Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Mohler, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    Findings from the literature suggest that previous estimates of the variety gains from trade are too small because of the imprecise measurement of the imported variety set under the Armington assumption. In this contribution, I use results from the literature on multi-product firms to obtain variety gain estimates that account for the entry and exit of firms as well as for product turnover within firms and find that welfare gains increase by a factor of 2.5 compared to the baseline Armington ...

  16. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  17. Previous experiences shape adaptive mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W.; Bleay, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Existing models of mate choice assume that individuals have perfect knowledge of their own ability to attract a mate and can adjust their preferences accordingly. However, real animals will typically be uncertain of their own attractiveness. A potentially useful source of information on this is the

  18. Predicting the gain from deliquification measures for European wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nennie, E.D.; Boer, J.P. de; Schiferli, W.

    2014-01-01

    Various Dutch operators have identified a need for increased application of deliquification measures in their North Sea wells. To help meet this need a Joint Industry Project (JIP) was set up to identify knowledge and experience gained in the United States on gas well deliquification and transfer

  19. Competence with fractions predicts gains in mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Drew H; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara; Geary, David C

    2012-11-01

    Competence with fractions predicts later mathematics achievement, but the codevelopmental pattern between fractions knowledge and mathematics achievement is not well understood. We assessed this codevelopment through examination of the cross-lagged relation between a measure of conceptual knowledge of fractions and mathematics achievement in sixth and seventh grades (N=212). The cross-lagged effects indicated that performance on the sixth grade fractions concepts measure predicted 1-year gains in mathematics achievement (ß=.14, pmathematics achievement did not predict gains on the fractions concepts measure (ß=.03, p>.50). In a follow-up assessment, we demonstrated that measures of fluency with computational fractions significantly predicted seventh grade mathematics achievement above and beyond the influence of fluency in computational whole number arithmetic, performance on number fluency and number line tasks, central executive span, and intelligence. Results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that competence with fractions underlies, in part, subsequent gains in mathematics achievement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Knowledge Retrieval Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    AbstractPrevious discussions of knowledge transfer within multinational corporations tended tofocus on the process as an isolated phenomenon and on the factors that impede the process.Less attention has been given to how the individual knowledge worker retrieves or identifies,and then decodes kno...

  1. Optomechanical transistor with mechanical gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Z.; Tian, Lin; Li, Yong

    2018-04-01

    We study an optomechanical transistor, where an input field can be transferred and amplified unidirectionally in a cyclic three-mode optomechanical system. In this system, the mechanical resonator is coupled simultaneously to two cavity modes. We show that it only requires a finite mechanical gain to achieve the nonreciprocal amplification. Here the nonreciprocity is caused by the phase difference between the linearized optomechanical couplings that breaks the time-reversal symmetry of this system. The amplification arises from the mechanical gain, which provides an effective phonon bath that pumps the mechanical mode coherently. This effect is analogous to the stimulated emission of atoms, where the probe field can be amplified when its frequency is in resonance with that of the anti-Stokes transition. We show that by choosing optimal parameters, this optomechanical transistor can reach perfect unidirectionality accompanied with strong amplification. In addition, the presence of the mechanical gain can result in ultralong delay in the phase of the probe field, which provides an alternative to controlling light transport in optomechanical systems.

  2. School Principals' Sources of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Arland Early

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what sources of professional knowledge are available to principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district. Qualitative research methods were applied to gain an understanding of what sources of knowledge are used by school principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district and the barriers they face…

  3. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  4. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  5. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  6. GAIN Technology Workshops Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braase, Lori Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    National and global demand for nuclear energy is increasing and United States (U.S.) global leadership is eroding. There is a sense of urgency with respect to the deployment of the innovative nuclear energy technologies. The Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) initiative is based on the simultaneous achievement of three strategic goals. The first is maintaining global technology leadership within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The second is enabling global industrial leadership for nuclear vendors and suppliers. The third is focused on utility optimization of nuclear energy within the clean energy portfolio. An effective public-private partnership is required to achieve these goals. DOEs recognizes the recent sense of urgency new developers and investors have in getting their concepts to market. They know that time to market for nuclear technology takes too long and the facilities needed to conduct the necessary research, development and demonstration (RD&D) activities are very expensive to develop and maintain. Early technologies, in the lower technology readiness levels (TRL) need materials testing, analysis, modeling, code development, etc., most of which currently exists in the DOE national laboratory system. However, mature technologies typically need large component testing and demonstration facilities, which are expensive and long-lead efforts. By understanding the needs of advanced nuclear technology developers, GAIN will connect DOE national laboratory capabilities (e.g., facilities, expertise, materials, and data) with industry RD&D needs. In addition, GAIN is working with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to streamline processes and increase understanding of the licensing requirements for advanced reactors.

  7. GAIN Technology Workshops Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braase, Lori Ann

    2016-01-01

    National and global demand for nuclear energy is increasing and United States (U.S.) global leadership is eroding. There is a sense of urgency with respect to the deployment of the innovative nuclear energy technologies. The Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) initiative is based on the simultaneous achievement of three strategic goals. The first is maintaining global technology leadership within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The second is enabling global industrial leadership for nuclear vendors and suppliers. The third is focused on utility optimization of nuclear energy within the clean energy portfolio. An effective public-private partnership is required to achieve these goals. DOEs recognizes the recent sense of urgency new developers and investors have in getting their concepts to market. They know that time to market for nuclear technology takes too long and the facilities needed to conduct the necessary research, development and demonstration (RD&D) activities are very expensive to develop and maintain. Early technologies, in the lower technology readiness levels (TRL) need materials testing, analysis, modeling, code development, etc., most of which currently exists in the DOE national laboratory system. However, mature technologies typically need large component testing and demonstration facilities, which are expensive and long-lead efforts. By understanding the needs of advanced nuclear technology developers, GAIN will connect DOE national laboratory capabilities (e.g., facilities, expertise, materials, and data) with industry RD&D needs. In addition, GAIN is working with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to streamline processes and increase understanding of the licensing requirements for advanced reactors.

  8. Commutated automatic gain control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  9. [Fast food promotes weight gain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne V

    2007-05-07

    The total amounts of fat in a fast food menu consisting of French fries and fried Chicken Nuggets from McDonald's and KFC, respectively, bought in 35 different countries vary from 41 to 71 gram. In most countries the menu contained unacceptably high amounts of industrially-produced trans fat which contributes to an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes. The quality of the ingredients in fast food ought to be better and the size of the portions smaller and less energy-dense so that frequent fast food meals do not increase the risk of obesity and diseases among customers.

  10. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co...

  11. Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual…

  12. Examination of Routine Use of Prenatal Weight Gain Charts as a Communication Tool for Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Marijo; Sidebottom, Abbey C; McCool, Brigitte R

    2017-10-01

    Objectives In 2009 the IOM revised prenatal weight gain guidelines. The primary purpose of this pilot study was to assess if provider education and use of prenatal weight gain charts to track weight gain and counsel patients was associated with better patient and provider knowledge and communication about the guidelines. Methods A prospective non-randomized study conducted in four OB practices (two control, two intervention). Data sources included provider surveys (n = 16 intervention, 21 control), patient surveys (n = 332), and medical records. Intervention clinics received provider education on the IOM guidelines and used patient education materials and prenatal weight gain charts to track weight gain and as a counseling tool. Comparison clinics received no education and did not use the charts or patient education information. Results More patients at intervention clinics (92.3%) reported that a provider gave them advice about weight gain, compared to patients from comparison clinics (66.4%) (p gain (83.1 vs. 64.3%, p = 0.007). Intervention clinic patients were more likely to have knowledge of the guidelines indicated by 72.3% reporting a target weight gain amount within the guidelines versus 50.4% of comparison patients (p gain charts resulted in higher patient reported communication about weight gain from their provider, higher patient satisfaction with those discussions, and better knowledge of the appropriate target weight gain goals.

  13. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause weight gain? Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes. Weight gain can occur as a side effect of some ... and metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL). The average weight gain is about 2.6 pounds (about 1.2 ...

  14. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chris J; Van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus-J

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  15. Managing Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Niall

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a perspective on what knowledge is, why knowledge is important, and how we might encourage good knowledge behaviours. A knowledge management framework is described, and although the framework is project management-centric the basic principles are transferrable to other contexts. From a strategic perspective, knowledge can be considered an asset that has the potential to provide a competitive advantage provided that it has intrinsic value, it is not easily accessible by ...

  16. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  17. Estimating the potential gains from mergers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Wang, Dexiang

    2005-01-01

    We introduce simple production economic models to estimate the potential gains from mergers. We decompose the gains into technical ef¿ciency, size (scale) and harmony (mix) gains, and we discuss alternative ways to capture these gains. We propose to approximate the production processes using...... the non-parametric. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach, and we use the resulting operational approach to estimate the potential gains from merging agricultural extension of¿ces in Denmark....

  18. Creating illusions of knowledge: learning errors that contradict prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K; Barber, Sarah J; Rajaram, Suparna; Ornstein, Peter A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2013-02-01

    Most people know that the Pacific is the largest ocean on Earth and that Edison invented the light bulb. Our question is whether this knowledge is stable, or if people will incorporate errors into their knowledge bases, even if they have the correct knowledge stored in memory. To test this, we asked participants general-knowledge questions 2 weeks before they read stories that contained errors (e.g., "Franklin invented the light bulb"). On a later general-knowledge test, participants reproduced story errors despite previously answering the questions correctly. This misinformation effect was found even for questions that were answered correctly on the initial test with the highest level of confidence. Furthermore, prior knowledge offered no protection against errors entering the knowledge base; the misinformation effect was equivalent for previously known and unknown facts. Errors can enter the knowledge base even when learners have the knowledge necessary to catch the errors. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  20. Heritability of gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elina Scheers; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2015-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a complex trait involving intrauterine environmental, maternal environmental, and genetic factors. However, the extent to which these factors contribute to the total variation in GWG is unclear. We therefore examined the genetic and environmental influences...... on the variation in GWG in the first and second pregnancy in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin mother-pairs. Further, we explored if any co-variance existed between factors influencing the variation in GWG of the mothers’ first and second pregnancies. By using Swedish nationwide record-linkage data, we...... identified 694 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their first pregnancy and 465 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their second pregnancy during 1982–2010. For a subanalysis, 143 twin mother-pairs had complete data on two consecutive pregnancies during the study period. We used structural equation...

  1. Unidirectional high gain brake stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, David J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a unidirectional high gain brake arrangement that includes in combination a shaft mounted for rotation within a housing. The shaft is rotatable in either direction. A brake is selectively releasably coupled to the housing and to the shaft. The brake has a first member. An intermittent motion device is respectively coupled through the first member to the housing and through a one-way clutch to the shaft. The brake also has a second member that is mechanically coupled to the first brake member and to the housing. The intermittent motion device causes the brake to be activated by movement imparted to the first brake member after a preset number of revolutions of the shaft in one direction. The brake is released by rotation of the shaft in an opposite direction whereby torque transmitted through the one-way clutch to the first brake member is removed.

  2. Boesmanland gains from nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, I.

    1984-01-01

    It is being claimed that the geobotany of the Boesmanland will gain from the use of the farm Vaalputs for radioactive waste disposal from the Koeberg nuclear power station. Only 1 km 2 of the 10 000 ha that was bought for the purpose will be used for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and 2 m 3 to 3 m 3 per year will be used for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes. The rest of the area, Nucor plans to develop as a nature reserve, restoring the natural botany and ecology. Before Vaalputs was selected as site for radioactive waste disposal, a regional analysis was done. According to this there is more or less 500 people staying within a radius of 25km from the farm. Geological surveys showed no mineral deposits of economic value. During the past 100 million years the area was also free from seismic activity

  3. Knowledge acquisition for temporal abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A; Musen, M A; Shahar, Y

    1996-01-01

    Temporal abstraction is the task of detecting relevant patterns in data over time. The knowledge-based temporal-abstraction method uses knowledge about a clinical domain's contexts, external events, and parameters to create meaningful interval-based abstractions from raw time-stamped clinical data. In this paper, we describe the acquisition and maintenance of domain-specific temporal-abstraction knowledge. Using the PROTEGE-II framework, we have designed a graphical tool for acquiring temporal knowledge directly from expert physicians, maintaining the knowledge in a sharable form, and converting the knowledge into a suitable format for use by an appropriate problem-solving method. In initial tests, the tool offered significant gains in our ability to rapidly acquire temporal knowledge and to use that knowledge to perform automated temporal reasoning.

  4. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...... and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....

  5. Knowledge Valorisation: A Route of Knowledge That Ends In Surplus Value (An Example of The Netherlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladchenko, Myroslava

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons of the success of the Netherlands in knowledge valorisation: what are the actors that participate in knowledge valorisation process and what are their functions; what is the route of knowledge in valorisation; what "surplus value" does knowledge gain in the valorisation…

  6. The Status Quo of Ontology Learning from Unstructured Knowledge Sources for Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuermann , Andreas; Obermann , Jens

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In the global race for competitive advantage Knowledge Management gains increasing importance for companies. The purposeful and systematic creation, maintenance, and transfer of unstructured knowledge sources demands for advanced Information Technology. Ontologies constitute a basic ingredient of Knowledge Management; thus, ontology learning from unstructured knowledge sources is of particular interest since it bears the potential to bring significant advantages for Kn...

  7. Gain attenuation of gated framing camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shali; Liu Shenye; Cao Zhurong; Li Hang; Zhang Haiying; Yuan Zheng; Wang Liwei

    2009-01-01

    The theoretic model of framing camera's gain attenuation is analyzed. The exponential attenuation curve of the gain along the pulse propagation time is simulated. An experiment to measure the coefficient of gain attenuation based on the gain attenuation theory is designed. Experiment result shows that the gain follows an exponential attenuation rule with a quotient of 0.0249 nm -1 , the attenuation coefficient of the pulse is 0.00356 mm -1 . The loss of the pulse propagation along the MCP stripline is the leading reason of gain attenuation. But in the figure of a single stripline, the gain dose not follow the rule of exponential attenuation completely, instead, there is a gain increase at the stripline bottom. That is caused by the reflection of the pulse. The reflectance is about 24.2%. Combining the experiment and theory, which design of the stripline MCP can improved the gain attenuation. (authors)

  8. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  9. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  10. Life after unsuccessful IVF treatment in an assisted reproduction unit: a qualitative analysis of gains through loss among Chinese persons in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geok Ling; Hui Choi, W H; Chan, Celia H Y; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ng, Ernest H Y

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies examining experiences of infertility focused mainly on the aspect of loss but neglected the possible gains realized through surviving the experience of infertility. The success rate of IVF remains relatively low, and we used the strengths perspective to examine adjustment after unsuccessful treatment. This study aims to provide an in-depth description of the gains perceived by Chinese men and women and how they re-constructed their lives after unsuccessful IVF treatment. Four couples and another six women who experienced unsuccessful IVF treatment were recruited from an assisted reproduction clinic. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, using a grounded theory constructivist approach. Of the 10 women and 4 men interviewed, 9 remained childless, 3 had adopted a child and 2 had conceived naturally. They reported gains on a personal level, interpersonal level and transpersonal level through surviving the experience of infertility. All, regardless of the eventual outcome, reported at least one form of personal gain: in personality or knowledge gain. Interpersonal gains were perceived in relationships with their spouses, children, parents, friends, colleagues and fellow IVF service users. More than half of them reported spiritual growth and a change in identity through integrating their experiences and offering help to others. Despite the small sample size, this study makes a significant contribution by suggesting that while negative feelings provoked by the failure to conceive should be acknowledged, people in this situation should also be enabled to consolidate their negative experiences of IVF constructively, helping them to move on with their lives.

  11. Information Gain Based Dimensionality Selection for Classifying Text Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2013-06-01

    Selecting the optimal dimensions for various knowledge extraction applications is an essential component of data mining. Dimensionality selection techniques are utilized in classification applications to increase the classification accuracy and reduce the computational complexity. In text classification, where the dimensionality of the dataset is extremely high, dimensionality selection is even more important. This paper presents a novel, genetic algorithm based methodology, for dimensionality selection in text mining applications that utilizes information gain. The presented methodology uses information gain of each dimension to change the mutation probability of chromosomes dynamically. Since the information gain is calculated a priori, the computational complexity is not affected. The presented method was tested on a specific text classification problem and compared with conventional genetic algorithm based dimensionality selection. The results show an improvement of 3% in the true positives and 1.6% in the true negatives over conventional dimensionality selection methods.

  12. Review of High Gain FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintake, Tsumoru

    2007-01-01

    For understanding on basic radiation mechanism of the high-gain FEL based on SASE, the author presents electron-crystal interpretation of FEL radiation. In the electron-crystal, electrons are localized at regularly spaced multi-layers, which represents micro-bunching, whose spacing is equal to the radiation wavelength, and the multi-layers are perpendicular to beam axis, thus, diffracted wave creates Bragg's spots in forward and backward directions. Due to the Doppler's effect, frequency of the back-scattered wave is up-converted, generates forwardly focused X-ray. The Bragg's effect contributes focusing the X-ray beam into a spot, thus peak power becomes extremely higher by factor of typically 107. This is the FEL radiation. As well known, the total numbers of scattered photons in Bragg's spots is equal to the total elastic scattering photons from the atoms contained in the crystal. Therefore, total power in the FEL laser is same as the spontaneous radiation power from the undulator for the same beam parameter. The FEL radiation phenomenon is simple interference effect. In today's presentations, we use the laser pointer, and we frequently experience difficulty in pointing precisely or steadily in one place on the screen, since the laser spot is very small and does not spread. Exactly same to this, X-ray FEL is a highly focused beam, and pointing stability dominates productivity of experiment, thus we need special care on beam stability from linear accelerator

  13. Flipped classrooms and student learning: not just surface gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Sarah; Attardi, Stefanie M; Faden, Lisa; Goldszmidt, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The flipped classroom is a relatively new approach to undergraduate teaching in science. This approach repurposes class time to focus on application and discussion; the acquisition of basic concepts and principles is done on the students' own time before class. While current flipped classroom research has focused on student preferences and comparative learning outcomes, there remains a lack of understanding regarding its impact on students' approaches to learning. Focusing on a new flipped classroom-based course for basic medical sciences students, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate students' adjustments to the flipped classroom, their time on task compared with traditional lectures, and their deep and active learning strategies. Students in this course worked through interactive online learning modules before in-class sessions. Class time focused on knowledge application of online learning module content through active learning methods. Students completed surveys and optional prequiz questions throughout the term to provide data regarding their learning approaches. Our results showed that the majority of students completed their prework in one sitting just before class. Students reported performing less multitasking behavior in the flipped classroom compared with lecture-based courses. Students valued opportunities for peer-peer and peer-instructor interactions and also valued having multiple modes of assessment. Overall, this work suggests that there is the potential for greater educational gains from the flipped classroom than the modest improvements in grades previously demonstrated in the literature; in this implementation of the flipped classroom, students reported that they developed independent learning strategies, spent more time on task, and engaged in deep and active learning. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  14. Knowledge Management and Global Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The paper looked at knowledge management and global information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge management knowledge…

  15. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  16. Protecting knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira

    2018-01-01

    Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....

  17. The Impact of Kangaroo Care on Premature Infant Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evereklian, Melvina; Posmontier, Bobbie

    Preterm births occur among 11.4% of all live infant births. Without steady weight gain, premature infants may experience lengthy hospitalizations, neurodevelopmental deficits and hospital readmissions, which can increase the financial burden on the health care system and their families. The total U.S. health-related costs linked to preterm infant deliveries are estimated at $4.33 billion. Kangaroo care is a feasible practice that can improve preterm infant weight gain. However, this intervention is utilized less often throughout the U.S. due to numerous barriers including a lack of consistent protocols, inadequate knowledge, and decreased level of confidence in demonstrating the proper kangarooing technique. An integrative review was conducted to evaluate the impact of kangaroo care on premature infant weight gain in order to educate nurses about its efficacy among preterm infants. A literature search was conducted using CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, ClinicalKey and Google Scholar. Large volume searches were restricted using appropriate filters and limiters. Most of the evaluated studies determined that weight gain was greater among the kangarooing premature infants. Kangaroo care is a low-tech low-cost modality that can facilitate improved preterm infant weight gain even in low-resource settings. Despite its current efficacy, kangaroo care is not widely utilized due to several barriers including an absence of standardized protocols and a lack of knowledge about its benefits. Kangaroo care can become a widespread formalized practice after nurses and parents learn about the technique and its numerous benefits for premature infants, including its association with improved weight gain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of revised IOM weight gain guidelines on perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Donna R; Wall, Terry C; Guild, Camelia; Caughey, Aaron B

    2011-03-01

    We sought to examine perinatal outcomes in women with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) comparing those whose weight gain met 2009 IOM guidelines to women meeting 1990 IOM guidelines. This is a retrospective cohort study utilizing birth records linked to hospital discharge data for all term, singleton infants born to overweight, Missouri residents (2000-2006) with a BMI of 25 kg/m(2). We excluded congenital anomalies, mothers with diabetes, hypertension, or previous cesarean delivery. Fourteen thousand nine hundred fifty-five women gained 25-35 lbs (1990 guidelines); 1.6% delivered low birth weight (LBW) infants and 1.1% delivered macrosomic infants. Eight thousand three hundred fifty women gained 15-25 lbs (2009 guidelines); 3.4% delivered LBW infants and 0.6% delivered macrosomic infants. Women who gained 15-25 lbs were 1.99 (95% CI 1.67, 2.38) times more likely to have a LBW infant and 0.59 (95% CI 0.40, 0.76) times less likely to deliver a macrosomic infant. Limiting weight gain in women with a BMI of 25 kg/m(2), per the 2009 guidelines, increases the risk of LBW deliveries and decreases the risk of macrosomia but does not reduce associated adverse perinatal outcomes. Further studies should explore the optimal weight gain to reduce these outcomes.

  19. Knowledge management systems in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørning, Kristian

    which has the strategy of working with knowledge in the form of "best practices" meant to boost performance. The thesis explores the situation that workers are in, since they are meant to share and develop "best practices" knowledge in a portal based Knowledge Management System (KMS). The study...... indentifies a set of problems that prevents knowledge sharing from taking place to the degree to which management was specifically aiming. It was explored whether these problems could, to some degree, be mitigated by employing persuasive design, which is a new stance towards design where the aim...... is to directly seek to change the user's behavior, i.e., persuading more knowledge sharing. The main contribution is an indication of an anomaly with regards to the strategic approach towards knowledge management, where knowledge sharing is seen as an effort by which companies can gain a competitive advantage...

  20. Gain scheduling using the Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1999-01-01

    Gain scheduling controllers are considered in this paper. The gain scheduling problem where the scheduling parameter vector cannot be measured directly, but needs to be estimated is considered. An estimation of the scheduling vector has been derived by using the Youla parameterization. The use...... in connection with H_inf gain scheduling controllers....

  1. Determination of the STIS CCD Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Allyssa; Monroe, TalaWanda; Lockwood, Sean

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes the analysis and absolute gain results of the STIS Cycle 23 special calibration program 14424 that was designed to measure the gain of amplifiers A, C and D at nominal gain settings of 1 and 4 e-/DN. We used the mean-variance technique and the results indicate a mean-variance technique.

  2. What’s Past is Prologue: Relations Between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 AERA. Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, and few have investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multisite longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts ...

  3. Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kiran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study covers the knowledge management (KM in institutions of higher technical education (IHTEs from the perspective of thought leaders and junior academia to identify whether there is a difference of opinion regarding KM strategies, including knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, knowledge dissemination, and KM-based framework for research and curriculum development (CD. Data have been collected through structured questionnaire from 141 respondents covering 30 higher educational institutions in India, including national- and state-level institutions—Designations of the targeted respondents in the IHTEs have been categorized into (a senior academia, that is, professors, heads, and associate professors occupying senior management positions, considered to be the institute overseers and thought leaders of KM and (b junior academia consisting of assistant professors and lecturers who are using and also contributing to the KM system. ANOVA has been used to see whether there is a significant difference of opinion among the two groups of knowledge users. The results of the study highlight a significant difference among the two groups regarding knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, and knowledge dissemination. But, there is a consensus regarding KM-based framework for research and CD.

  4. Predicting university performance in psychology: the role of previous performance and discipline-specific knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Betts, LR; Elder, TJ; Hartley, J; Blurton, A

    2008-01-01

    Recent initiatives to enhance retention and widen participation ensure it is crucial to understand the factors that predict students' performance during their undergraduate degree. The present research used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to test three separate models that examined the extent to which British Psychology students' A-level entry qualifications predicted: (1) their performance in years 1-3 of their Psychology degree, and (2) their overall degree performance. Students' overall...

  5. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  6. KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

  7. Knowledge brokering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish...... HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. Research limitations/implications – By not engaging...... in strong tie collaborations a knowledge brokering organization can reduce the risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. The risks and opportunities of knowledge spill-over furthermore rely on the nature of the technology involved and to what extent technological boundaries are crossed. Practical implications...

  8. Sharing knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)

  9. Empowered to gain a new foothold in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonÿ, Charlotte; Dreyer, Pia; Pedersen, Birthe D.

    2015-01-01

    carefully guided through a difficult time and supported to continue in healthy everyday lives. They were given hope which enabled them to find themselves a new foothold in life with respect to their own sense of well-being. This guidance and a sense of hopefulness were provided by heart specialists and more...... that patients achieve improvement in quality of life when participating in CR. However, knowledge of how patients are supported during CR is sparse. Moreover, knowledge of what participating in CR means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack is lacking. In-depth knowledge in this area is crucial in order......-phased interpretation. It was found that patients were supported to gain renewed balance in their lives during CR. Three themes were identified: (1) receiving a helpful but limited caring hand, (2) being supported to find new values in life, and (3) developing responsibility for the remaining time. The patients were...

  10. Analyzing and modeling interdisciplinary product development a framework for the analysis of knowledge characteristics and design support

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Frank Neumann focuses on establishing a theoretical basis that allows a description of the interplay between individual and collective processes in product development. For this purpose, he introduces the integrated descriptive model of knowledge creation as the first constituent of his research framework. As a second part of the research framework, an analysis and modeling method is proposed that captures the various knowledge conversion activities described by the integrated descriptive model of knowledge creation. Subsequently, this research framework is applied to the analysis of knowledge characteristics of mechatronic product development (MPD). Finally, the results gained from the previous steps are used within a design support system that aims at federating the information and knowledge resources contained in the models published in the various development activities of MPD. Contents Descriptive Model of Knowledge Creation in Interdisciplinary Product Development Research Framework for the Analysis of ...

  11. Influences of finite gain bandwidth on pulse propagation in parabolic fiber amplifiers with distributed gain profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jia-Sheng; Li Pan; Chen Xiao-Dong; Feng Su-Juan; Mao Qing-He

    2012-01-01

    The evolutions of the pulses propagating in decreasing and increasing gain distributed fiber amplifiers with finite gain bandwidths are investigated by simulations with the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The results show that the parabolic pulse propagations in both the decreasing and the increasing gain amplifiers are restricted by the finite gain bandwidth. For a given input pulse, by choosing a small initial gain coefficient and gain variation rate, the whole gain for the pulse amplification limited by the gain bandwidth may be higher, which is helpful for the enhancement of the output linearly chirped pulse energy. Compared to the decreasing gain distributed fiber amplifier, the increasing gain distributed amplifier may be more conducive to suppress the pulse spectral broadening and increase the critical amplifier length for achieving a larger output linearly chirped pulse energy

  12. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can be utilized for space heating. Problems with overheating in the summer period must be solved with overhang or moveable solar shading devices. Two...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  13. Knowledge And Knowledge Management As A Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bratić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern business environment with high turbulence and complexity, an organization’s force to create and sustain competitive advantage lies in what it knows not what it owns. Establishment of a knowledge management in organization will ensure sustainable competitive advantage because the intellectual capital has become the primary bases of core competencies and the key to superior performance. The transition from industrial to knowledge society, effective use of knowledge is one of the deciding factors in the struggle for competitiveness because it will ensure the rationality, efficiency and flexibility in operations, and only through the realization of those graphics company can gain a competitive advantage on the market.

  14. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  15. Small signal gain measurements in a small scale HF overtone laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, C.F.; Hewett, K.B.; Manke, G.C. II; Hager, G.D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States); Crowell, P.G. [Northrup Grumman Information Technology, Science and Technology Operating Unit, Advanced Technology Division, P.O. Box 9377, Albuquerque, NM 87119-9377 (United States); Truman, C.R. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The overtone gain medium of a small-scale HF overtone laser was probed using a sub-Doppler tunable diode laser. Two-dimensional spatially resolved small signal gain and temperature maps were generated for several ro-vibrational transitions in the HF (v=2{yields}v=0) overtone band. Our results compare well with previous measurements of the overtone gain in a similar HF laser device. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  17. Viewer knowledge: application of exposure-based layperson knowledge in genre-specific animation production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.; Saakes, D.

    2015-01-01

    Laypeople are increasingly motivated to participate in design processes, but what knowledge do they actually possess that enables such participation? Some studies show that laypeople have gained detailed product knowledge from exposure. This knowledge can be applied to accurately recognize product

  18. Viewer knowledge : Application of exposure-based layperson knowledge in genre-specific animation production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.T.; Tan, E.; Saakes, D.

    2015-01-01

    Laypeople are increasingly motivated to participate in design processes, but what knowledge do they actually possess that enables such participation? Some studies show that laypeople have gained detailed product knowledge from exposure. This knowledge can be applied to accurately recognize product

  19. Knowledge Blogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able...... to change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically offer, give rise to a set of new implications as regards the mediation of expert knowledge to the target...

  20. Conventionalized knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis...... identified linguistic and social conventions for handing over clinical knowledge; in particular, differences were identified between non-interactional and interactional handovers. The interactional handovers were relatively more substantial but did also bring forth obvious signs of uncertainty regarding...... exact clinical situations. Handing over caused a silencing of the least powerful nurses' voices, generated uncertainty, and promoted knowledge about the patients' clinical situation that was not necessarily precise or up-to-date....

  1. Knowledge and Continuous Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Harry; Caffyn, S.; Corso, M.

    1999-01-01

    proposes a model to describe and explain how companies can gain a substantive competitive advantage by extending their innovation efforts to other phases of the product life cycle and by facilitating knowledge transfer and learning both within the company and with other partner organisations. The model......Competition today is forcing companies to increase their effectiveness through exploiting synergy and learning in product innovation. Literature, however, is still mainly focused on how product development projects, seen largely as isolated efforts, should be organised and managed. This article...

  2. Lean approach in knowledge work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kropsu-Vehkapera

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Knowledge work productivity is a key area of improvement for many organisations. Lean approach is a sustainable way to achieve operational excellence and can be applied in many areas. The purpose of this novel study is to examine the potential of using lean approach for improving knowledge work practices. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review has been carried out to study how lean approach is realised in knowledge work. The research is conceptual in nature and draws upon earlier research findings. Findings: This study shows that lean studies’ in knowledge work is an emerging research area. This study documents the methods and practices implemented in knowledge work to date, and presents a knowledge work continuum, which is an essential framework for effective lean approach deployment and to frame future research focus in knowledge work productivity. Research limitations/implications: This study structures the concept of knowledge work and outlines a concrete concept derived from earlier literature. The study summarises the literature on lean in knowledge work and highlights, which methods are used. More research is needed to understand how lean can be implemented in complex knowledge work environment and not only on the repetitive knowledge work. The limitations of this research are due to the limited availability of previous research. Practical implications: To analyse the nature of knowledge work, we implicate the areas where lean methods especially apply to improving knowledge work productivity. When applying lean in knowledge work context the focus should be using the people better and improving information flow. Originality/value: This study focuses on adapting lean methods into a knowledge work context and summarises earlier research done in this field. The study discusses the potential to improve knowledge work productivity by implementing lean methods and presents a unique knowledge work continuum to

  3. Placing knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.

    ; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by this tension between universality and particularity in academic knowledge production, this paper presents...... preliminary findings from a project that study internationalisation of higher education as an agent in the interrelated processes of place-making and knowledge-making. The project is based on three case-studies. In this paper, focus is on PhD students’ change of research environment. This is used as a case......Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world...

  4. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  5. Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald Nielsen, Bo; Nicolajsen, Katrine

    For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model.......For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model....

  6. Knowledge Fascism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight......Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight...

  7. Weight gain following treatment of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, J; Daykin, J; Holder, R; Sheppard, M C; Franklyn, J A

    2001-08-01

    Patients frequently express concern that treating hyperthyroidism will lead to excessive weight gain. This study aimed to determine the extent of, and risk factors for, weight gain in an unselected group of hyperthyroid patients. We investigated 162 consecutive hyperthyroid patients followed for at least 6 months. Height, weight, clinical features, biochemistry and management were recorded at each clinic visit. Documented weight gain was 5.42 +/- 0.46 kg (mean +/- SE) and increase in BMI was 8.49 +/- 0.71%, over a mean 24.2 +/- 1.6 months. Pre-existing obesity, Graves' disease causing hyperthyroidism, weight loss before presentation and length of follow-up each independently predicted weight gain. Patients treated with thionamides or radioiodine gained a similar amount of weight (thionamides, n = 87, 5.16 +/- 0.63 kg vs. radioiodine, n = 62, 4.75 +/- 0.57 kg, P = 0.645), but patients who underwent thyroidectomy (n = 13) gained more weight (10.27 +/- 2.56 kg vs. others, P = 0.007). Development of hypothyroidism (even transiently) was associated with weight gain (never hypothyroid, n = 102, 4.57 +/- 0.52 kg, transiently hypothyroid, n = 29, 5.37 +/- 0.85 kg, on T4, n = 31, 8.06 +/- 1.42 kg, P = 0.014). This difference remained after correcting for length of follow-up. In the whole cohort, weight increased by 3.95 +/- 0.40 kg at 1 year (n = 144) to 9.91 +/- 1.62 kg after 4 years (n = 27) (P = 0.008), representing a mean weight gain of 3.66 +/- 0.44 kg/year. We have demonstrated marked weight gain after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Pre-existing obesity, a diagnosis of Graves' disease and prior weight loss independently predicted weight gain and weight continued to rise with time. Patients who became hypothyroid, despite T4 replacement, gained most weight.

  8. The Association of Antidepressant Medication and Body Weight Gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ranjbar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature and discover which antidepressants are responsible for weight gain and then to discuss the areas with lack of adequate knowledge. Method: An electronic search was conducted through Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ScienceDirect. Forty nine empirical researches were identified and reviewed. Results: Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mirtazapine have been associated with more weight gain induction in clinical studies, but not in animal-based studies. All TCAs have been reported to cause weight gain except protriptyline. MAOIs have been associated with weight gain. In SSRI group, citalopram and ecitalopram induce weight, yet mixed results exist for paroxetine and fluoxetine. Researches unanimously reported weight loss effect for bupropion. Some studies suggest contributing factors in the relationship of antidepressants with body weight changes including age, gender, base-line weights and treatment duration. Various results of different treatment durations have been reported in some cases but there are not continuous time-dependent studies for the influences of antidepressants on body weight changes. Conclusion: More studies are required to discover underlying mechanisms and the time-dependent effects of antidepressants on body weight changes.

  9. Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.

    1971-01-01

    Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....

  10. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tristan Brooks [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics; Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  11. Nonunity gain minimal-disturbance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Mišta, L.; Fiurášek, J.

    2007-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimal nonunity gain Gaussian scheme for partial measurement of an unknown coherent state that causes minimal disturbance of the state. The information gain and the state disturbance are quantified by the noise added to the measurement outcomes...

  12. Efficiency gains, bounds, and risk in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarisoy, Cisil

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The first chapter analyzes efficiency gains in the estimation of expected returns based on asset pricing models and examines the economic implications of such gains in portfolio allocation exercises. The second chapter provides nonparametric efficiency bounds

  13. School Quality and Learning Gains in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2009-01-01

    I use unusually detailed data on schools, teachers and classrooms to explain student achievement growth in rural Guatemala. Several variables that have received little attention in previous studies--including the number of school days, teacher content knowledge and pedagogical methods--are robust predictors of achievement. A series of…

  14. Gain control mechanisms in spinal motoneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael David Johnson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Motoneurons provide the only conduit for motor commands to reach muscles. For many years, motoneurons were in fact considered to be little more than passive wires. Systematic studies in the past 25 years however have clearly demonstrated that the intrinsic electrical properties of motoneurons are under strong neuromodulatory control via multiple sources. The discovery of potent neuromodulation from the brainstem and its ability to change the gain of motoneurons shows that the passive view of the motor output stage is no longer tenable. A mechanism for gain control at the motor output stage makes good functional sense considering our capability of generating an enormous range of forces, from very delicate (e.g. putting in a contact lens to highly forceful (emergency reactions. Just as sensory systems need gain control to deal with a wide dynamic range of inputs, so to might motor output need gain control to deal with the wide dynamic range of the normal movement repertoire. Two problems emerge from the potential use of the brainstem monoaminergic projection to motoneurons for gain control. First, the projection is highly diffuse anatomically, so that independent control of the gains of different motor pools is not feasible. In fact, the system is so diffuse that gain for all the motor pools in a limb likely increases in concert. Second, if there is a system that increases gain, probably a system to reduce gain is also needed. In this review, we summarize recent studies that show local inhibitory circuits within the spinal cord, especially reciprocal and recurrent inhibition, have the potential to solve both of these problems as well as constitute another source of gain modulation.

  15. Uncovering tacit knowledge: a pilot study to broaden the concept of knowledge in knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita R; Bickford, Julia J; Edwards, Nancy; Dobbins, Maureen J; Meyer, Mechthild

    2011-08-18

    All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews), legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation

  16. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    cited in the review may have important clinical applications, because they outline the range of problems and possible solutions in the performance of the HTx in recipients previously operated on open heart. This knowledge can facilitate the decision making process with regard to the opportunities and risks of the implementation of HTx. Given the uniqueness of each of the recipient and the donor, it is required to make a personalized approach to the question of the possible risks and to the preventive measures to reduce those risks in any given clinical situation. 

  17. Social web and knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Kroetz, Markus; Schaffert, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge Management is the study and practice of representing, communicating, organizing, and applying knowledge in organizations. Moreover, being used by organizations, it is inherently social. The Web, as a medium, enables new forms of communications and interactions and requires new ways...... to represent knowledge assets. It is therefore obvious that the Web will influence and change Knowledge Management, but it is very unclear what the impact of these changes will be. This chapter raises questions and discusses visions in the area that connects the Social Web and Knowledge Management – an area...... of research that is only just emerging. The World Wide Web conference 2008 in Beijing hosted a workshop on that question, bringing together researchers and practitioners to gain first insights toward answering questions of that area....

  18. Characteristics of eye-position gain field populations determine geometry of visual space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney R Lehky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated differences in eye-position spatial maps for anterior inferotemporal cortex (AIT in the ventral stream and lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP in the dorsal stream, based on population decoding of gaze angle modulations of neural visual responses (i.e., eye-position gain fields. Here we explore the basis of such spatial encoding differences through modeling of gain field characteristics. We created a population of model neurons, each having a different eye-position gain field. This population was used to reconstruct eye-position visual space using multidimensional scaling. As gain field shapes have never been well established experimentally, we examined different functions, including planar, sigmoidal, elliptical, hyperbolic, and mixtures of those functions. All functions successfully recovered positions, indicating weak constraints on allowable gain field shapes. We then used a genetic algorithm to modify the characteristics of model gain field populations until the recovered spatial maps closely matched those derived from monkey neurophysiological data in AIT and LIP. The primary differences found between model AIT and LIP gain fields were that AIT gain fields were more foveally dominated. That is, gain fields in AIT operated on smaller spatial scales and smaller dispersions than in LIP. Thus we show that the geometry of eye-position visual space depends on the population characteristics of gain fields, and that differences in gain field characteristics for different cortical areas may underlie differences in the representation of space.

  19. Perceptions of low-income African-American mothers about excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Sharon J; Henry, Tasmia Q; Klotz, Alicia A; Foster, Gary D; Whitaker, Robert C

    2012-12-01

    A rising number of low-income African-American mothers gain more weight in pregnancy than is recommended, placing them at risk for poor maternal and fetal health outcomes. Little is known about the perceptions of mothers in this population that may influence excessive gestational weight gain. In 2010-2011, we conducted 4 focus groups with 31 low-income, pregnant African-Americans in Philadelphia. Two readers independently coded the focus group transcripts to identify recurrent themes. We identified 9 themes around perceptions that encouraged or discouraged high gestational weight gain. Mothers attributed high weight gain to eating more in pregnancy, which was the result of being hungrier and the belief that consuming more calories while pregnant was essential for babies' health. Family members, especially participants own mothers, strongly reinforced the need to "eat for two" to make a healthy baby. Mothers and their families recognized the link between poor fetal outcomes and low weight gains but not higher gains, and thus, most had a greater pre-occupation with too little food intake and weight gain rather than too much. Having physical symptoms from overeating and weight retention after previous pregnancies were factors that discouraged higher gains. Overall, low-income African-American mothers had more perceptions encouraging high gestational weight gain than discouraging it. Interventions to prevent excessive weight gain need to be sensitive to these perceptions. Messages that link guideline recommended weight gain to optimal infant outcomes and mothers' physical symptoms may be most effective for weight control.

  20. Tacit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alexander Muir

    2017-04-01

    Information that is not made explicit is nonetheless embedded in most of our standard procedures. In its simplest form, embedded information may take the form of prior knowledge held by the researcher and presumed to be agreed to by consumers of the research product. More interesting are the settings in which the prior information is held unconsciously by both researcher and reader, or when the very form of an "effective procedure" incorporates its creator's (unspoken) understanding of a problem. While it may not be productive to exhaustively detail the embedded or tacit knowledge that manifests itself in creative scientific work, at least at the beginning, we may want to routinize methods for extracting and documenting the ways of thinking that make "experts" expert. We should not back away from both expecting and respecting the tacit knowledge the pervades our work and the work of others.

  1. Optimal weight gain in triplet pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert C; Erfani, Hadi; Shamshirsaz, Amir A; Spiel, Melissa; Ravangard, Sam F; Shaman, Majid; Allaf, M Baraa; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A; Haeri, Sina

    2017-08-01

    To identify appropriate weight gain in triplet gestations, which may aid in reducing the risk of perinatal morbidity within this high-risk cohort. This retrospective cohort study evaluated all non-anomalous triplet pregnancies between 23 and 40 weeks' gestation resulting in live births at five tertiary-care medical centers between 1991 and 2011. Subjects were divided by pre-pregnancy BMI into underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese groups, and then stratified by low (gain (≥1.5 lbs/week). Primary outcomes included spontaneous preterm birth and preeclampsia. We included 116 mothers and 348 corresponding neonates for final analysis. The incidence of preeclampsia and preterm delivery less than 32 weeks' gestation was 37% and 41%, respectively. The incidence of preeclampsia increased with weight gain per week, but was not statistically different from subjects who gained less weight. We found no statistical correlation between weight gain per week and preterm delivery. We found no association between preeclampsia or preterm delivery and increasing weight gain in triplet pregnancies. The association with increased risk for preeclampsia was predominantly due to BMI effect. Based on the current study, recommendations for optimal weight gain in mothers with triplet gestations could not be defined.

  2. Personality type influence the gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franik, Grzegorz; Lipka, Nela; Kopyto, Katarzyna; Kopocińska, Joanna; Owczarek, Aleksander; Sikora, Jerzy; Madej, Paweł; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Pregnancy is frequently followed by the development of obesity. Aside from psychological factors, hormonal changes influence weight gain in pregnant women. We attempted to assess the potential association between personality type and the extent of gestational weight gain. The study group involved 773 women after term delivery (age 26.3 ± 3.9 years, body mass before pregnancy 61.2 ± 11.1 kg). Weight gain during pregnancy was calculated by using self-reported body mass prior to and during the 38th week of pregnancy. Personality type was assessed using the Polish version of the Framingham Type A Behavior Patterns Questionnaire (adapted by Juczynski). Two hundred forty-six (31.8%) study subjects represented type A personalities, 272 (35.2%) type B and 255 (33.0%) an indirect type. Gestational weight gain was related to the behavior patterns questionnaire score and age. In women gain was higher than in women with type B behavior of the same age. In women >30, the gestational weight gain was larger for type B personalities. Type A personality and increased urgency in younger pregnant women increases the risk of developing obesity during pregnancy in women below 30 years old. A higher level of competitiveness demonstrates a risk factor of excessive weight gain during pregnancy regardless of age.

  3. Controlling gain one photon at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gregory W; Rieke, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is a salient property of sensory processing. All adaptational or gain control mechanisms face the challenge of obtaining a reliable estimate of the property of the input to be adapted to and obtaining this estimate sufficiently rapidly to be useful. Here, we explore how the primate retina balances the need to change gain rapidly and reliably when photons arrive rarely at individual rod photoreceptors. We find that the weakest backgrounds that decrease the gain of the retinal output signals are similar to those that increase human behavioral threshold, and identify a novel site of gain control in the retinal circuitry. Thus, surprisingly, the gain of retinal signals begins to decrease essentially as soon as background lights are detectable; under these conditions, gain control does not rely on a highly averaged estimate of the photon count, but instead signals from individual photon absorptions trigger changes in gain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00467.001 PMID:23682314

  4. Practical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas....... Furthermore, and still with reference to truth, utility, and goodness, it is claimed that unification of skills and Bildung should include the ability to deal with complexity. A second-order complexity challenges the search for adequacy between; a) the complexity of knowledge-creation; and b) the complexity...

  5. Point Information Gain and Multidimensional Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rychtáriková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the point information gain (PIG and derived quantities, i.e., point information gain entropy (PIE and point information gain entropy density (PIED, for the case of the Rényi entropy and simulate the behavior of PIG for typical distributions. We also use these methods for the analysis of multidimensional datasets. We demonstrate the main properties of PIE/PIED spectra for the real data with the examples of several images and discuss further possible utilizations in other fields of data processing.

  6. TCAD simulation of Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ranjeet; Jain, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Ranjan, Kirti

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, detailed simulation using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool, Silvaco for non-irradiated and irradiated LGAD (Low Gain Avalanche Detector) devices has been carried out. The effects of different design parameters and proton irradiation on LGAD operation are discussed in detail. An already published effective two trap bulk damage model is used to simulate the radiation damage without implementing any acceptor removal term. The TCAD simulation for irradiated LGAD devices produce decreasing gain with increasing fluence, similar to the measurement results. The space charge density and electric field distribution are used to illustrate the possible reasons for the degradation of gain of the irradiated LGAD devices.

  7. TCAD simulation of Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalal, Ranjeet; Jain, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh, E-mail: ashutosh.bhardwaj@cern.ch; Ranjan, Kirti

    2016-11-11

    In the present work, detailed simulation using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool, Silvaco for non-irradiated and irradiated LGAD (Low Gain Avalanche Detector) devices has been carried out. The effects of different design parameters and proton irradiation on LGAD operation are discussed in detail. An already published effective two trap bulk damage model is used to simulate the radiation damage without implementing any acceptor removal term. The TCAD simulation for irradiated LGAD devices produce decreasing gain with increasing fluence, similar to the measurement results. The space charge density and electric field distribution are used to illustrate the possible reasons for the degradation of gain of the irradiated LGAD devices.

  8. TCAD simulation of Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalal, Ranjeet; Jain, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Ranjan, Kirti

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, detailed simulation using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool, Silvaco for non-irradiated and irradiated LGAD (Low Gain Avalanche Detector) devices has been carried out. The effects of different design parameters and proton irradiation on LGAD operation are discussed in detail. An already published effective two trap bulk damage model is used to simulate the radiation damage without implementing any acceptor removal term. The TCAD simulation for irradiated LGAD devices produce decreasing gain with increasing fluence, similar to the measurement results. The space charge density and electric field distribution are used to illustrate the possible reasons for the degradation of gain of the irradiated LGAD devices.

  9. Active rc filter permits easy trade-off of amplifier gain and sensitivity to gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Shaffer, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Passive RC network was designed with zeros of transmission in the right half of the complex frequency plane in the feedback loop of a simple negative-gain amplifier. The proper positioning provides any desired trade-off between amplifier gain and sensitivity to amplifier gain.

  10. MOS current gain cells with electronically variable gain and constant bandwidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Seevinck, Evert

    1989-01-01

    Two MOS current gain cells are proposed that provide linear amplification of currents supplied by several linear MOS V-I converters. The gain is electronically variable by a voltage or a current and can be made insensitive to temperature and IC processing. The gain cells have a constant

  11. Detective quantum efficiency gains compared with speed gains for hypersensitized astronomical plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    It is reasonable to assume that gains in detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are far better criteria for assessing the performance of hypersensitizing techniques than gains in speed. It is shown here that gains in speed can be misleading, for some methods of hypersensitization give plates of increased speed but reduced detective quantum efficiency. (author)

  12. Knowledge Shared is Power: Utilizing Knowledge Management Activities to Replicate Lean Sigma Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis C. Chen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean Sigma programs produce localized gains within corporations. The knowledge generated by these local successes should be manipulated by the organization, so that the gains can be replicated, and savings multiplied across the organization. However, why does knowledge often fail to be successfully manipulated within an organization? This paper discusses a case study analysis in knowledge manipulation activities of a multi- national consumer products company through the lens of the Knowledge Management (KM Ontology. We then identify and document common obstacles, and offer potential solutions.

  13. Knowledge brokering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    -organizational search strategy that spans technological boundaries and involves the formation and search among weak ties. The findings show how knowledge brokering is influenced by the make-up of the technology involved, the technological distance between the two parties and why weak ties are less likely to collaborate...

  14. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...... referred to as ‘silent knowledge’....

  15. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  16. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  17. Optical properties of nanowire metamaterials with gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isidio de Lima, Joaquim Junior; Adam, Jost; Rego, Davi

    2016-01-01

    The transmittance, reflectance and absorption of a nanowire metamaterial with optical gain are numerically simulated and investigated. It is assumed that the metamaterial is represented by aligned silver nanowires embedded into a semiconductor matrix, made of either silicon or gallium phosphide....... The gain in the matrix is modeled by adding a negative imaginary part to the dielectric function of the semiconductor. It is found that the optical coefficients of the metamaterial depend on the gain magnitude in a non-trivial way: they can both increase and decrease with gain depending on the lattice...... constant of the metamaterial. This peculiar behavior is explained by the field redistribution between the lossy metal nanowires and the amplifying matrix material. These findings are significant for a proper design of nanowire metamaterials with low optical losses for diverse applications....

  18. Active Microwave Metamaterials Incorporating Ideal Gain Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of active devices/media such as transistors for microwave and gain media for optics may be very attractive for enabling desired low loss and broadband metamaterials. Such metamaterials can even have gain which may very well lead to new and exciting physical phenomena. We investigate microwave composite right/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TL incorporating ideal gain devices such as constant negative resistance. With realistic lumped element values, we have shown that the negative phase constant of this kind of transmission lines is maintained (i.e., left-handedness kept while gain can be obtained (negative attenuation constant of transmission line simultaneously. Possible implementation and challenging issues of the proposed active CRLH-TL are also discussed.

  19. Transient optical gain in germanium quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sangam; Lange, Christoph; Koester, Niko S.; Schaefer, Martin; Kira, Mackillo; Koch, Stephan W. [Faculty of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany); Chrastina, Daniel; Isella, Giovanni; Kaenel, Hans von [CNISM, Como (Italy); L-NESS, Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano, Como (Italy); Sigg, Hans [Laboratory for Micro and Nanotecnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    One of today's most-sought goals in semiconductor technology is the monolithic integration of microelectronics and photonics on Si. Optical gain is, in general, not expected for Si and Ge or its alloys due to the indirect nature of the band gap in this material system. Here, we show that Ge/SiGe QWs show transient optical gain and may thus be used as an optically-pumped amplifier at room temperature. Further, the nonequilibrium effects which govern the relaxation dynamics of the optically injected carrier distributions in this material were observed and analyzed using a microscopic many-body theory. Strong non-equilibrium gain was obtained on a sub-100 fs time scale. Long-lived gain arising from {gamma}-point transitions is overcompensated by a process bearing the character of free carrier absorption.

  20. Knowledge as an Asset and Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2014-01-01

    The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.

  1. Renyi information gain on quantum key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Howard E

    2007-01-01

    The concept of maximum Renyi information gain from quantum key is important in eavesdropping and security analyses of quantum key distribution. It is particularly useful in the design optimization of eavesdropping probes. The present work reviews the quantitative measure of Renyi information gain, its optimization, and application to the design of eavesdropping probes in which single-photon probe states become optimally entangled with the signal states on their way between the legitimate transmitter and receiver

  2. Enhanced Gain in Photonic Crystal Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Semenova, Elizaveta; Hansen, Per Lunnemann

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum well photonic crystal amplifiers. A strong gain enhancement is observed with the increase of the group refractive index, due to light slow-down. The slow light enhancement is shown in a amplified spontaneous emission....... These results are promising for short and efficient semiconductor optical amplifiers. This effect will also benefit other devices, such as mode locked lasers....

  3. The modulation of neural gain facilitates a transition between functional segregation and integration in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, James M; Aburn, Matthew J; Breakspear, Michael; Poldrack, Russell A

    2018-01-29

    Cognitive function relies on a dynamic, context-sensitive balance between functional integration and segregation in the brain. Previous work has proposed that this balance is mediated by global fluctuations in neural gain by projections from ascending neuromodulatory nuclei. To test this hypothesis in silico, we studied the effects of neural gain on network dynamics in a model of large-scale neuronal dynamics. We found that increases in neural gain directed the network through an abrupt dynamical transition, leading to an integrated network topology that was maximal in frontoparietal 'rich club' regions. This gain-mediated transition was also associated with increased topological complexity, as well as increased variability in time-resolved topological structure, further highlighting the potential computational benefits of the gain-mediated network transition. These results support the hypothesis that neural gain modulation has the computational capacity to mediate the balance between integration and segregation in the brain. © 2018, Shine et al.

  4. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  5. Central gain control in tinnitus and hyperacusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Auerbach

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders.

  6. Potential gains from hospital mergers in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Troels; Bogetoft, Peter; Pedersen, Kjeld Moeller

    2010-12-01

    The Danish hospital sector faces a major rebuilding program to centralize activity in fewer and larger hospitals. We aim to conduct an efficiency analysis of hospitals and to estimate the potential cost savings from the planned hospital mergers. We use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate a cost frontier. Based on this analysis, we calculate an efficiency score for each hospital and estimate the potential gains from the proposed mergers by comparing individual efficiencies with the efficiency of the combined hospitals. Furthermore, we apply a decomposition algorithm to split merger gains into technical efficiency, size (scale) and harmony (mix) gains. The motivation for this decomposition is that some of the apparent merger gains may actually be available with less than a full-scale merger, e.g., by sharing best practices and reallocating certain resources and tasks. Our results suggest that many hospitals are technically inefficient, and the expected "best practice" hospitals are quite efficient. Also, some mergers do not seem to lower costs. This finding indicates that some merged hospitals become too large and therefore experience diseconomies of scale. Other mergers lead to considerable cost reductions; we find potential gains resulting from learning better practices and the exploitation of economies of scope. To ensure robustness, we conduct a sensitivity analysis using two alternative returns-to-scale assumptions and two alternative estimation approaches. We consistently find potential gains from improving the technical efficiency and the exploitation of economies of scope from mergers.

  7. Can LENR Energy Gains Exceed 1000?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David J.

    2011-03-01

    Energy gain is defined as the energy realized from reactions divided by the energy required to produce those reactions. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) have already been measured to significantly exceed the energy gain of 10 projected from ITER,possibly 15 years from now. Electrochemical experiments using the Pd-D system have shown energy gains exceeding 10. Gas phase experiments with the Ni-H system were reported to yield energy gains of over 100. Neither of these reports has been adequately verified or reproduced. However, the question in the title still deserves consideration. If, as thought by many, it is possible to trigger nuclear reactions that yield MeV energies with chemical energies of the order of eV, then the most optimistic expectation is that LENR gains could approach one million. Hence, the very tentative answer to the question above is yes. However, if LENR could be initiated with some energy cost, and then continue to ``burn,'' very high energy gains might be realized. Consider a match and a pile of dry logs. The phenomenon termed ``heat after death'' will be examined to see if it might be the initial evidence for nuclear ``burning.''

  8. Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

  9. Sharing experience and knowledge with wearable computers

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Marcus; Drugge, Mikael; Parnes, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Wearable computer have mostly been looked on when used in isolation. But the wearable computer with Internet connection is a good tool for communication and for sharing knowledge and experience with other people. The unobtrusiveness of this type of equipment makes it easy to communicate at most type of locations and contexts. The wearable computer makes it easy to be a mediator of other people knowledge and becoming a knowledgeable user. This paper describes the experience gained from testing...

  10. Organizational structure features supporting knowledge management processes

    OpenAIRE

    Claver-Cortés, Enrique; Zaragoza Sáez, Patrocinio del Carmen; Pertusa-Ortega, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The idea that knowledge management can be a potential source of competitive advantage has gained strength in the last few years. However, a number of business actions are needed to generate an appropriate environment and infrastructure for knowledge creation, transfer and application. Among these actions there stands out the design of an organizational structure, the link of which with knowledge management is the main concern here. More specifically, the present paper has as its aim...

  11. Does basal metabolic rate predict weight gain?12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthanont, Pimjai; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some previous studies have indicated that a low basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an independent predictor of future weight gain, but low rates of follow-up and highly select populations may limit the ability to generalize the results. Objective: We assessed whether adults with a low BMR gain more weight than do adults with a high BMR who are living in a typical Western environment. Design: We extracted BMR, body-composition, demographic, and laboratory data from electronic databases of 757 volunteers who were participating in our research protocols at the Mayo Clinic between 1995 and 2012. Research study volunteers were always weight stable, had no acute illnesses and no confounding medication use, and were nonsmokers. The top and bottom 15th percentiles of BMR, adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, age, and sex, were identified. Follow-up electronic medical record system data were available for 163 subjects, which allowed us to determine their subsequent weight changes for ≥3 y (mean: ∼9.7 y). Results: By definition, the BMR was different in the high-BMR group (2001 ± 317 kcal/d; n = 86) than in the low-BMR group (1510 ± 222 kcal/d; n = 77), but they were comparable with respect to age, body mass index, FFM, and fat mass. Rates of weight gain were not greater in the bottom BMR group (0.3 ± 1.0 kg/y) than in the top BMR group (0.5 ± 1.5 kg/y) (P = 0.17). Conclusion: Adults with low BMRs did not gain more weight than did adults with high BMRs, implying that habitual differences in food intake or activity counterbalance variations in BMR as a risk factor for weight gain in a typical Western population. PMID:27581474

  12. Optical gain and gain suppression of quantum-well lasers with valence band mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.; Chuang, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of valence band mixing on the nonlinear gains of quantum-well lasers are studied theoretically. The authors' analysis is based on the multiband effective-mass theory and the density matrix formalism with intraband relaxation taken into account. The gain and the gain-suppression coefficient of a quantum-well laser are calculated from the complex optical susceptibility obtained by the density matrix formulation with the theoretical dipole moments obtained from the multiband effective-mass theory. The calculated gain spectrum shows that there are remarkable differences (both in peak amplitude and spectral shape) between our model with valence band mixing and the conventional parabolic band model. The shape of the gain spectrum calculated by the authors' model becomes more symmetric due to intraband relaxation together with nonparabolic energy dispersions and is closer to the experimental observations when compared with the conventional method using the parabolic band model and the multiband effective-mass calculation without intraband relaxation. Both give quite asymmetric gain spectra. Optical intensity in the GaAs active region is estimated by solving rate equations for the stationary states with nonlinear gain suppression. The authors calculate the mode gain for the resonant mode including the gain suppression, which results in spectral hole burning of the gain spectrum

  13. Seagrass blue carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Mexico: Stocks, losses from anthropogenic disturbance, and gains through seagrass restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorhaug, Anitra; Poulos, Helen M; López-Portillo, Jorge; Ku, Timothy C W; Berlyn, Graeme P

    2017-12-15

    Seagrasses comprise a substantive North American and Caribbean Sea blue carbon sink. Yet fine-scale estimates of seagrass carbon stocks, fluxes from anthropogenic disturbances, and potential gains in sedimentary carbon from seagrass restoration are lacking for most of the Western Hemisphere. To begin to fill this knowledge gap in the subtropics and tropics, we quantified organic carbon (C org ) stocks, losses, and gains from restorations at 8 previously-disturbed seagrass sites around the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) (n=128 cores). Mean natural seagrass C org stocks were 25.7±6.7MgC org ha -1 around the GoM, while mean C org stocks at adjacent barren sites that had previously hosted seagrass were 17.8MgC org ha -1 . Restored seagrass beds contained a mean of 38.7±13.1MgC org ha -1 . Mean C org losses differed by anthropogenic impact type, but averaged 20.98±7.14MgC org ha -1 . C org gains from seagrass restoration averaged 20.96±8.59Mgha -1 . These results, when combined with the similarity between natural and restored C org content, highlight the potential of seagrass restoration for mitigating seagrass C org losses from prior impact events. Our GoM basin-wide estimates of natural C org totaled ~36.4Tg for the 947,327ha for the USA-GoM. Including Mexico, the total basin contained an estimated 37.2-37.5Tg C org . Regional US-GoM losses totaled 21.69Tg C org . C org losses differed significantly among anthropogenic impacts. Yet, seagrass restoration appears to be an important climate change mitigation strategy that could be implemented elsewhere throughout the tropics and subtropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Home modification to reduce falls at a health district level: Modeling health gain, health inequalities and health costs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson

    Full Text Available There is some evidence that home safety assessment and modification (HSAM is effective in reducing falls in older people. But there are various knowledge gaps, including around cost-effectiveness and also the impacts at a health district-level.A previously established Markov macro-simulation model built for the whole New Zealand (NZ population (Pega et al 2016, Injury Prevention was enhanced and adapted to a health district level. This district was Counties Manukau District Health Board, which hosts 42,000 people aged 65+ years. A health system perspective was taken and a discount rate of 3% was used for both health gain and costs. Intervention effectiveness estimates came from a systematic review, and NZ-specific intervention costs were extracted from a randomized controlled trial. In the 65+ age-group in this health district, the HSAM program was estimated to achieve health gains of 2800 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 547 to 5280. The net health system cost was estimated at NZ$8.44 million (95% UI: $663 to $14.3 million. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was estimated at NZ$5480 suggesting HSAM is cost-effective (95%UI: cost saving to NZ$15,300 [equivalent to US$10,300]. Targeting HSAM only to people age 65+ or 75+ with previous injurious falls was estimated to be particularly cost-effective (ICERs: $700 and $832, respectively with the latter intervention being cost-saving. There was no evidence for differential cost-effectiveness by sex or by ethnicity: Māori (Indigenous population vs non-Māori.This modeling study suggests that a HSAM program could produce considerable health gain and be cost-effective for older people at a health district level. Nevertheless, comparisons may be desirable with other falls prevention interventions such as group exercise programs, which also provide social contact and may prevent various chronic diseases.

  15. CONDITIONS FOR CSR MICROBUNCHING GAIN SUPPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng Ying [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); di Mitri, Simone [Elettra–Sincrotrone Trieste, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy

    2016-05-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport arcs, may result in phase space degradation. On one hand, the CSR can perturb electron transverse motion in dispersive regions along the beamline, causing emittance growth. On the other hand, the CSR effect on the longitudinal beam dynamics could result in microbunching gain enhancement. For transport arcs, several schemes have been proposed* to suppress the CSR-induced emittance growth. Similarly, several scenarios have been introduced** to suppress CSR-induced microbunching gain, which however mostly aim for linac-based machines. In this paper we try to provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching gain along a transport arc, analogous to*. Several example lattices are presented, with the relevant microbunching analyses carried out by our semi-analytical Vlasov solver***. The simulation results show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. We expect this analysis can shed light on lattice design approach that could suppress the CSR-induced microbunching gain.

  16. High-gain capsule design for the HIDIF project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honrubia, J.J.; Cerrada, J.A.; Gomez, R.

    2000-01-01

    A high-gain capsule has been designed for the HIDIF project. The goal has been to relax the accelerator requirements by using a radiation pulse with lower peak temperature (220 eV) than previous designs (260 eV). The ablator material is beryllium doped with a very low concentration (0.2 atom %) of copper. The capsule absorbs 1.3 MJ and yields, approximately, 450 MJ in I-D simulations. The effect of the opacity of the ablator on capsule performance has been studied in detail. (authors)

  17. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...... for usage in KIWI system (Sections 3). This document is intended for technological partners to understand how for example the software development concepts can be applied to a semantic wiki framework....

  18. Energy knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shove, E. [Lancaster Univ., Centre for the Study of Environmental Change (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    James Thurber`s grandmother `lived the latter years of her life in the horrible suspicion that electricity was dripping invisibly all over the house`. The idea that electricity might leak from empty light sockets is both bizarre and at the same time strangely plausible. Delivered in a variety of forms, gas, electricity, oil, coal, wood etc.; energy permits countless services and is embodied in almost everything we find around us. Both everywhere, and nowhere, it remains a mysterious if not magical feature of everyday life. So the image of leaking light sockets is appealing not just because it is a quaintly ridiculous idea conjured up by a confused old lady but because it precisely articulates lingering uncertainty about the intangible qualities of this most pervasive resource. Taking the invisibility of energy as a point of departure, this paper explores the different kind of knowledge we have of energy use. Although the technologies of domestic energy measurement are familiar enough, we know what a meter looks like and we all get energy bills, it still requires an act of faith to believe in the `reality` of energy consumption. Those who have learned the official languages of energy efficiency have access to richer vocabularies of revealing terminology and can talk more confidently in terms of kilowatts, U values and the rest. But how do these different knowledge relate, and how do different ways of knowing energy influence perceptions of the possibilities and problems of energy conservation? In exploring these issues, the paper re-examines theories of energy and knowledge implicit in energy policy and energy related research. (au) 22 refs.

  19. Econmic Growth and Productive Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gürak

    2003-01-01

    The relations between the riches of nations and the riches of Productive Knowledge (Technology) gains increasing acknowledgment among economists. Classical economists had assumed that the key to progress was the accumulation of homogenous capital goods. But, as P. Romer, among others, claims we cannot grow rich by accumulating more of the same capital goods. So the Classical growth theory falls short of expectations. Capitalism’s inherent feature is “destructive creation”, said Marx. Decades ...

  20. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...... and differences in the disparate theories are discussed through a critical perspective on metaphor, time, space, agency and technology. It is asserted that the process of globalization is leading to a new production of space-time perceptions and practices where localization and globalization is becoming...... increasingly important. National space is being contested and nation states need to perform differently....

  1. Impact of Students’ Class Attendance on Recalling Previously Acquired Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camellia Hemyari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, availability of class material including typed lectures, the professor’s Power Point slides, sound recordings, and even videos made a group of students feel that it is unnecessary to attend the classes. These students usually read and memorize typed lectures within two or three days prior to the exams and usually pass the tests even with low attendance rate. Thus, the question is how effective is this learning system and how long the one-night memorized lessons may last.Methods: A group of medical students (62 out of 106 students, with their class attendance and educational achievements in the Medical Mycology and Parasitology course being recorded since two years ago, was selected and their knowledge about this course was tested by multiple choice questions (MCQ designed based on the previous lectures.Results: Although the mean re-exam score of the students at the end of the externship was lower than the corresponding final score, a significant association was found between the scores of the students in these two exams (r=0.48, P=0.01. Moreover, a significant negative association was predicted between the number of absences and re-exam scores (r=-0.26, P=0.037.Conclusion: As our findings show, the phenomenon of recalling the acquired lessons is preserved for a long period of time and it is associated with the students’ attendance. Many factors including generation effect (by taking notes and cued-recall (via slide picture might play a significant role in the better recalling of the learned information in students with good class attendance.Keywords: STUDENT, MEMORY, LONG-TERM, RECALL, ABSENTEEISM, LEARNING

  2. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    window is made of fiber-reinforced plastic (plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass). This composite material is a weatherproof material with very low thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. These properties make the material very suitable for frame profiles due to lower heat loss...... minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can be utilized for space heating. Problems with overheating in the summer period must be solved with overhang or moveable solar shading devices. Two...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  3. Net energy gain from DT fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1985-01-01

    The net energy which can be gained from an energy raw material by means of a certain conversion system is deduced as the figure-of-merit which adequately characterizes the net energy balance of utilizing an energy source. This potential net energy gain is determined for DT fusion power plants. It is represented as a function of the degree of exploitation of the energy raw material lithium ore and is compared with the net energy which can be gained with LW and FBR power plants by exploiting uranium ore. The comparison clearly demonstrates the net energetic advantage of DT fusion. A sensitivity study shows that this holds even if the energy expenditure for constructing and operating is drastically increased

  4. Capital Gains Taxation and House Price Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuest, Clemens; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen large swings in house prices in many countries. Motivated by housing price variations, proposals for taxing capital gains on housing have repeatedly been put forth. The idea seems to be that such taxes would curb the redistribution occurring between those owning houses...... and those trying to get into the market for owner-occupied housing. Our paper shows that at least in simple settings, a tax on real capital gains on housing will only lead to even bigger price swings and will not be able to redistribute between people appearing on either side of the housing market.......Keywords: capital gains tax, housing market, price fluctuationsJEL-Classification: H23, H24, R 31.Addresses:...

  5. Gain maximization in a probabilistic entanglement protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lorenzo, Antonio; Esteves de Queiroz, Johnny Hebert

    Entanglement is a resource. We can therefore define gain as a monotonic function of entanglement G (E) . If a pair with entanglement E is produced with probability P, the net gain is N = PG (E) - (1 - P) C , where C is the cost of a failed attempt. We study a protocol where a pair of quantum systems is produced in a maximally entangled state ρm with probability Pm, while it is produced in a partially entangled state ρp with the complementary probability 1 -Pm . We mix a fraction w of the partially entangled pairs with the maximally entangled ones, i.e. we take the state to be ρ = (ρm + wUlocρpUloc+) / (1 + w) , where Uloc is an appropriate unitary local operation designed to maximize the entanglement of ρ. This procedure on one hand reduces the entanglement E, and hence the gain, but on the other hand it increases the probability of success to P =Pm + w (1 -Pm) , therefore the net gain N may increase. There may be hence, a priori, an optimal value for w, the fraction of failed attempts that we mix in. We show that, in the hypothesis of a linear gain G (E) = E , even assuming a vanishing cost C -> 0 , the net gain N is increasing with w, therefore the best strategy is to always mix the partially entangled states. Work supported by CNPq, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, proc. 311288/2014-6, and by FAPEMIG, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais, proc. IC-FAPEMIG2016-0269 and PPM-00607-16.

  6. Effect of gain nonlinearity in semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Skovgaard, Ove

    1988-01-01

    Semiconductor lasers are modeled by single-mode rate equations with Langevin noise terms and the influence of nonlinear gain is investigated. For cw operation the probability distribution for the carrier number and the photon number in the laser cavity is obtained. The corresponding (2+1)-dimensi......Semiconductor lasers are modeled by single-mode rate equations with Langevin noise terms and the influence of nonlinear gain is investigated. For cw operation the probability distribution for the carrier number and the photon number in the laser cavity is obtained. The corresponding (2...

  7. Fallible Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério P. de Andrade

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a natureza do conhecimento em um ambiente sócio-econômico caracterizado por incerteza genuína. O ponto de partida é considerar que ambientes incertos tornam o conhecimento falível e contingente. O conhecimento é falível tanto em virtude de interações no espaço que acontecem ao mesmo tempo (complexidade, como devido à passagem do tempo. O artigo enfatiza dois tipos de conhecimento: “knowledge how” e “knowledge that”. O primeiro consiste em um tipo de conhecimento acerca do modo como fazemos algo e o segundo em um tipo de conhecimento acerca do porque fazemos algo. Uma forma que os agentes encontram para lidar com a condição de conhecimento falível é recorrer a convenções (Keynes e regras (Hayek. Convenções e regras são uma espécie de reservatório de uma forma de conhecimento social e intersubjetiva que os agentes podem adquirir, armazenar e comunicar uns com os outros. Elas fornecem em parte a informação necessária para o desempenho de suas atividades cotidianas.

  8. Education-based disparities in knowledge of novel health risks: The case of knowledge gaps in HIV risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Orom, Heather; Waters, Erika A; McKillip, Megan; Hay, Jennifer L

    2018-05-01

    Risk perception is a key determinant of preventive health behaviour, but when asked, some individuals indicate they do not know their health risk. Low education is associated with both lack of knowledge about health risk and with the persistence and exacerbation of gaps in knowledge about health issues. This study uses the context of an emerging infectious disease threat to explore the hypothesis that the education-don't know risk relation results from differences in knowledge about the health issue of interest. Specifically, we examine whether patterns of change over time follow theoretical predictions that disparities in risk knowledge would increase over time in less educated sectors of the population (knowledge gap hypothesis). Secondary analysis of population-representative behavioural surveillance survey. We analysed data from the 1993 to 2000 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys, which measured education and perceived HIV/AIDS risk in a population sample collected separately in each survey year; don't know responses were coded. In each year, individuals with higher education were less likely to respond don't know. The absolute prevalence of don't know responding dropped over time; nonetheless, there was an increase over time in the magnitude of the pattern of lower education being associated with greater don't know responding. We found support for the knowledge gap hypothesis. Over time, populations with greater education gained more knowledge about their HIV risk than populations with lower education. Results highlight the need to carefully consider health communication strategies to reach and address those individuals with low education and health knowledge. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? A meaningful potion of the population answers 'don't know' when asked to report their risk for health problems, indicating a lack of risk perception in the domain. Previous studies have shown that level of education is

  9. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding major immobility complications among bedridden patients: A prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhou, Xinmei; Cao, Jing; Li, Zheng; Wan, Xia; Li, Jiaqian; Jiao, Jing; Liu, Ge; Liu, Ying; Li, Fangfang; Song, Baoyun; Jin, Jingfen; Liu, Yilan; Wen, Xianxiu; Cheng, Shouzhen; Wu, Xinjuan

    2018-05-01

    To gain insight into nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding major immobility complications (pressure ulcers, pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis and urinary tract infections) and explore the correlation of nurses' knowledge and attitudes with the incidence of these complications. Immobility complications have adverse consequences, and effective management requires appropriate knowledge, attitudes and skills. Evidence about nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding immobility complications is lacking. Cross-sectional study. A total of 3,903 nurses and 21,333 bedridden patients from 25 hospitals in China were surveyed. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding major immobility complications were assessed using researcher-developed questionnaires. The content validity, reliability and internal consistency of the questionnaires were validated through expert review and a pilot study. The incidence of major immobility complications among bedridden patients from selected wards was surveyed by trained investigators. Correlations between knowledge, attitudes and the incidence of major immobility complications were evaluated with multilevel regression models. Mean knowledge scores were 64.07% for pressure ulcers, 72.92% for deep vein thrombosis, 76.54% for pneumonia and 83.30% for urinary tract infections. Mean attitude scores for these complications were 86.25%, 84.31%, 85.00% and 84.53%, respectively. Knowledge and attitude scores were significantly higher among nurses with older age, longer employment duration, higher education level, previous training experience and those working in tertiary hospitals or critical care units. Nurses' knowledge about pressure ulcers was negatively related to the incidence of pressure ulcers, and attitude towards pneumonia was negatively correlated with the incidence of pneumonia. Clinical nurses have relatively positive attitudes but inadequate knowledge regarding major immobility complications. Improved knowledge and attitudes regarding

  10. Knowledge repositories in knowledge cities: institutions, conventions and knowledge subnetworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, P.; Choi, C.J.; Chen, Shu; Eldomiaty, T.I.; Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Suggests another dimension of research in, and application of, knowledge management. This theoretical paper adopts a conceptual, multi-disciplinary approach. First, knowledge can be stored and transmitted via institutions. Second, knowledge "subnetworks" or smaller groupings within larger

  11. Radiation Resistance and Gain of Homogeneous Ring Quasi-Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H. L.

    1954-01-01

    In a previous paper homogeneous ring quasi-arrays of tangential or radial dipoles were introduced, i.e. systems of dipoles arranged equidistantly along a circle, the dipoles being oriented in tangential or radial directions and carrying currents with the same amplitude, but with a phase that incr......In a previous paper homogeneous ring quasi-arrays of tangential or radial dipoles were introduced, i.e. systems of dipoles arranged equidistantly along a circle, the dipoles being oriented in tangential or radial directions and carrying currents with the same amplitude, but with a phase...... that increases uniformly along the circle. Such quasi-arrays are azimuthally omnidirectional, and the radiated field will be mainly horizontally polarized and concentrated around the plane of the circle. In this paper expressions are obtained for the radiation resistance and the gain of homogeneous ring quasi...

  12. Sudden Gains during Therapy of Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schultz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive-behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967…

  13. Causes and Consequences of Interdialytic weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, Karin J. R.; Kuipers, Johanna; Westerhuis, Ralf; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Higher interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) is associated with higher predialysis blood pressure and increased mortality. IDWG is also increasingly being recognized as an indicator of nutritional status. We studied in detail the associations of various patient factors and nutritional

  14. The Biology of Intron Gain and Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeffares, Daniel C; Mourier, Tobias; Penny, David

    2006-01-01

    Intron density in eukaryote genomes varies by more than three orders of magnitude, so there must have been extensive intron gain and/or intron loss during evolution. A favored and partial explanation for this range of intron densities has been that introns have accumulated stochastically in large...... on introns depending on the biology of the organism and the gene involved....

  15. Visually induced gains in pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cecilie; Højlund, Andreas; Bærentsen, Klaus B.

    2018-01-01

    Perception is fundamentally a multisensory experience. The principle of inverse effectiveness (PoIE) states how the multisensory gain is maximal when responses to the unisensory constituents of the stimuli are weak. It is one of the basic principles underlying multisensory processing of spatiotem...

  16. Refixation saccades with normal gain values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsager, Leise Elisabeth Hviid; Faber, Christian Emil; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass

    2017-01-01

    -ocular reflex. However, this partial deficit is in conflict with the current way of interpreting vHIT results in which the vestibular function is classified as either normal or pathological based only on the gain value. Refixation saccades, which are evident signs of vestibulopathy, are not considered...

  17. Gains and losses in nonadditive expected utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakesh, S.; Wakker, P.P.; Machina, M.J.; Munier, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides a simple approach for deriving cumulative prospect theory. The key axiom is a cumulative dominance axiom which requires that a prospect be judged more attractive if in it greater gains are more likely and greater losses are less likely. In the presence of this cumulative

  18. Leaving home for college and gaining independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Clark, W.A.V.

    2002-01-01

    As more and more young US adults attend college it has become an increasingly important filter in the process of becoming an independent household. Now for a large number of young adults living in the USA, living away at college is a first step in the process of gaining residential and economic

  19. Beyond Multiplexing Gain in Large MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Müller, Ralf R.; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    growth (multiplexing gain). Even when the channel entries are i.i.d. the deviation from the linear growth is significant. We also find an additive property of the deviation for a concatenated MIMO system. Finally, we quantify the deviation of the large SNR capacity from the exact capacity and find...

  20. Maternal Weight Gain Biosocial Characteristics And Perinatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Maternal weight gain in pregnancy can offer a good means of assessing the well being of the pregnant mother and by inference, her baby. The cross – sectional prospective study was carried out carried out between November 1996 and December 1997, in Jos University Teaching hospital to assess the influence ...

  1. Measured stimulated Raman gain in methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopert, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    This report is about the stimulated Raman effect in methane due to the nu 1 vibration. For various gas pressures between 150 torr and 30 atm, the Raman lineshape function was both experimentally measured and synthesized using a computer model. The stimulated Raman gain was measured by sending a pump laser beam provided by an argon-ion laser and a weak probe beam provided by a tunable dye laser through a cell of methane gas. The stimulated Raman effect caused some of the energy from the pump beam to be transferred to the probe beam. The intensity of the pump beam was low so the gain of the probe beam was on the order of parts per million. A two detector arrangement and a differential amplifier system that had a feedback loop to balance the detectors was constructed to measure the small gains. A detailed description of this detection system that was able to measure gains as small as 0.2 parts per million is provided

  2. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    The study explores what factors influence the reduction of managers' perceivedknowledge gaps in the context of the environments of foreign markets. Potentialdeterminants are derived from traditional internationalization theory as well asorganizational learning theory, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building onthese literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primarydata of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggeststhat the factors that pertain to the absorptive capacity concept - capabilities ofrecognizing......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words...

  3. Knowledge as an Asset and Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.

  4. Fast reactor knowledge preservation system: Taxonomy and basic requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA has taken the initiative to coordinate efforts of Member States in the preservation of knowledge in the area of fast reactors. In the framework of this initiative, the IAEA intends to create an international database compiling information from different Member States on fast reactors through a web portal. Other activities related to this initiative are being designed to accumulate and exchange information on the fast reactor area, to facilitate access to this information by users in different countries and to assist Member States in preserving the experience gained in their countries. The purpose of this publication is to develop a taxonomy of the Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation System (FRKPS) that will facilitate the preservation of the world's fast reactor knowledge base, to identify basic requirements of this taxonomy on the basis of the experience gained in the fast reactor area, as well as results of previous IAEA activities on fast reactor knowledge preservation. The need for such taxonomy arises from the fact that during the past 15 years there has been stagnation in the development of fast reactors in the industrialized countries that were involved, earlier, in intensive development of this area. All studies on fast reactors have been stopped in countries such as Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States of America and the only work being carried out is related to the decommissioning of fast reactors. Many specialists who were involved in the studies and development work in this area in these countries have already retired or are close to retirement. In countries such as France, Japan and the Russian Federation that are still actively pursuing the evolution of fast reactor technology, the situation is aggravated by the lack of young scientists and engineers moving into this branch of nuclear power

  5. Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable agricultural ... about previously disadvantaged land users involved in communal farming systems ... of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on ...

  6. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  7. Polygenic Risk, Appetite Traits, and Weight Gain in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Belsky, Daniel; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Wardle, Jane; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2018-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic risks for obesity. These genetic risks influence development of obesity partly by accelerating weight gain in childhood. Research is needed to identify mechanisms to inform intervention. Cross-sectional studies suggest appetite traits as a candidate mechanism. Longitudinal studies are needed to test whether appetite traits mediate genetic influences on children’s weight gain. OBJECTIVE To test whether genetic risk for obesity predicts accelerated weight gain in middle childhood (ages 4–8 years) and whether genetic association with accelerated weight gain is mediated by appetite traits. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort at the Trondheim Early Secure Study, Trondheim, Norway, enrolled at age 4 years during 2007 to 2008, with follow-ups at ages 6 and 8 years. Participants were sampled from all children born in 2003 or 2004 who attended regular community health checkups for 4-year-olds (97.2%attendance; 82.0%consent rate, n = 2475). Nine hundred ninety-five children participated at age 4 years, 795 at age 6 years, and 699 at age 8 years. Analyses included 652 children with genotype, adiposity, and appetite data. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcomes were body mass index and body-fat phenotypes measured from anthropometry (ages 4, 6, and 8 years) and bioelectrical impedance (ages 6 and 8 years). Genetic risk for obesity was measured using a genetic risk score composed of 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms previously discovered in genome-wide association studies of adult body mass index. Appetite traits were measured at age 6 years with the Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire. RESULTS Of the 652 genotyped child participants, 323 (49.5%) were female, 58 (8.9%) were overweight, and 1 (0.2%) was obese. Children at higher genetic risk for obesity had higher baseline body mass index and fat mass compared with lower genetic risk peers, and they gained

  8. Specific Previous Experience Affects Perception of Harmony and Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was…

  9. Age differences in suggestibility to contradictions of demonstrated knowledge: the influence of prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umanath, Sharda

    2016-11-01

    People maintain intact general knowledge into very old age and use it to support remembering. Interestingly, when older and younger adults encounter errors that contradict general knowledge, older adults suffer fewer memorial consequences: Older adults use fewer recently-encountered errors as answers for later knowledge questions. Why do older adults show this reduced suggestibility, and what role does their intact knowledge play? In three experiments, I examined suggestibility following exposure to errors in fictional stories that contradict general knowledge. Older adults consistently demonstrated more prior knowledge than younger adults but also gained access to even more across time. Additionally, they did not show a reduction in new learning from the stories, indicating lesser involvement of episodic memory failures. Critically, when knowledge was stably accessible, older adults relied more heavily on that knowledge compared to younger adults, resulting in reduced suggestibility. Implications for the broader role of knowledge in aging are discussed.

  10. Method and system for edge cladding of laser gain media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Caird, John Allyn; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene

    2014-03-25

    A gain medium operable to amplify light at a gain wavelength and having reduced transverse ASE includes an input surface and an output surface opposing the input surface. The gain medium also includes a central region including gain material and extending between the input surface and the output surface along a longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The gain medium further includes an edge cladding region surrounding the central region and extending between the input surface and the output surface along the longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The edge cladding region includes the gain material and a dopant operable to absorb light at the gain wavelength.

  11. Tax Planning by Mutual Funds: Evidence From Changes in the Capital Gains Tax Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Feng; Kraft, Arthur; Weiss, Ira

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether mutual funds engage in tax planning by testing how they respond to changes in the capital gains tax rates. While previous evidence suggests that individual investors time capital gains realizations, mutual fund managers may not tax plan like individuals because fund managers have incentives to consider the tax liability of both current and potential investors. Our analysis spans over 44 years and six major tax changes, allowing us to examine the effects of both tax rate...

  12. When gains loom larger than losses: reversed loss aversion for small amounts of money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinck, Fieke; Van Dijk, Eric; Van Beest, Ilja; Mersmann, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Previous research has generally shown that people are loss averse; that is, they weigh losses more heavily than gains. In a series of three experiments, we found that for small outcomes, this pattern is reversed, and gains loom larger than losses. We explain this reversal on the basis of (a) the hedonic principle, which states that individuals are motivated to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain, and (b) the assumption that small losses are more easily discounted cognitively than large losses are.

  13. Personalizing knowledge delivery services: a conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Ann; Chelleppa, Ramnath K.; Cooper, Lynne P.; Hars, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Consistent with the call of the Minnesota Symposium for new theory in knowledge management, we offer a new conceptualization of Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) as a portfolio of personalized knowledge delivery services. Borrowing from research on online consumer behavior, we describe the challenges imposed by personalized knowledge delivery services, and suggest design parameters that can help to overcome these challenges. We develop our design constructs through a set of hypotheses and discuss the research implications of our new conceptualization. Finally, we describe practical implications suggested by our conceptualization - practical suggestions that we hope to gain some experience with as part of an ongoing action research project at our partner organization.

  14. Non-Linear Effects in Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purica, Ionut

    2007-04-01

    The generation of technological knowledge is paramount to our present development; the production of technological knowledge is governed by the same Cobb Douglas type model, with the means of research and the intelligence level replacing capital, respectively labor. We are exploring the basic behavior of present days' economies that are producing technological knowledge, along with the `usual' industrial production and determine a basic behavior that turns out to be a `Henon attractor'. Measures are introduced for the gain of technological knowledge and for the information of technological sequences that are based respectively on the underlying multi-valued modal logic of the technological research and on nonlinear thermodynamic considerations.

  15. Dynamic excitatory and inhibitory gain modulation can produce flexible, robust and optimal decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritwik K Niyogi

    Full Text Available Behavioural and neurophysiological studies in primates have increasingly shown the involvement of urgency signals during the temporal integration of sensory evidence in perceptual decision-making. Neuronal correlates of such signals have been found in the parietal cortex, and in separate studies, demonstrated attention-induced gain modulation of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Although previous computational models of decision-making have incorporated gain modulation, their abstract forms do not permit an understanding of the contribution of inhibitory gain modulation. Thus, the effects of co-modulating both excitatory and inhibitory neuronal gains on decision-making dynamics and behavioural performance remain unclear. In this work, we incorporate time-dependent co-modulation of the gains of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons into our previous biologically based decision circuit model. We base our computational study in the context of two classic motion-discrimination tasks performed in animals. Our model shows that by simultaneously increasing the gains of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons, a variety of the observed dynamic neuronal firing activities can be replicated. In particular, the model can exhibit winner-take-all decision-making behaviour with higher firing rates and within a significantly more robust model parameter range. It also exhibits short-tailed reaction time distributions even when operating near a dynamical bifurcation point. The model further shows that neuronal gain modulation can compensate for weaker recurrent excitation in a decision neural circuit, and support decision formation and storage. Higher neuronal gain is also suggested in the more cognitively demanding reaction time than in the fixed delay version of the task. Using the exact temporal delays from the animal experiments, fast recruitment of gain co-modulation is shown to maximize reward rate, with a timescale that is surprisingly near the

  16. Human capital gains associated with robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty in children compared to open pyeloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, James W; Kim, Steve S; Dorey, Frederick; De Filippo, Roger E; Chang, Andy Y; Hardy, Brian E; Koh, Chester J

    2011-10-01

    Robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty is an emerging, minimally invasive alternative to open pyeloplasty in children for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. The procedure is associated with smaller incisions and shorter hospital stays. To our knowledge previous outcome analyses have not included human capital calculations, especially regarding loss of parental workdays. We compared perioperative factors in patients who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic and open pyeloplasty at a single institution, especially in regard to human capital changes, in an institutional cost analysis. A total of 44 patients 2 years old or older from a single institution underwent robotic assisted (37) or open (7) pyeloplasty from 2008 to 2010. We retrospectively reviewed the charts to collect demographic and perioperative data. The human capital approach was used to calculate parental productivity losses. Patients who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty had a significantly shorter average hospital length of stay (1.6 vs 2.8 days, p human capital gains, eg decreased lost parental wages, and lower hospitalization expenses. Future comparative outcome analyses in children should include financial factors such as human capital loss, which can be especially important for families with young children. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  18. Cooperation among medical specialists : "pain" or "gain"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, Antoinette Marie-Rose Renée

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates the cooperation among medical specialists in multidisciplinary teams as well as its antecedents and consequences. During meetings, medical specialists combine their knowledge and expertise, discuss the health problems of patients, weigh possible treatment options and decide

  19. A model to obtain an optimum erbium desity for gain increasing in EDFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Arzi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available   In this paper, we suggest a novel model, based on input pump power and wave guidestructure, to calculate the Er-density profile in Erbium doped fiber amplifiers. This optimization is carried out for both SMF and DSF fibers. These optimized profiles have a Gaussian-like shape. Using the SMF optimized Er-density profile, high gain enhancement is obtained in a relatively short length of fibers. On the other hand, the DSF optimized profile shows small changes in the gain, which agrees with the previously report on other method of gain enhancement. This model is applicable to all active waveguides and any other dopant as well .

  20. Science parks as knowledge organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    gained agrowing importance in the new economy. If we shift focus to organizationtheory discussions on new knowledge and innovation has specialized in relationto the process of creation, managing, organizing, sharing, transferring etc. ofknowledge. The evaluation of science parks has to relate......Recent studies of the impact of science parks have questioned traditionalassumption about the effect of the parks on innovation and economic growth.Most studies tend to measure the effect by rather traditional measures, revenue,survival of new firms, without taking into account, that knowledge has...... to the changed role ofknowledge in the creation of economic growth. With the help of the concept ofthe ba from Nonanka, the article discuss if or how traditional organized scienceparks can become central actors in the new knowledge production or has to beviewed as an outdated institution from the industrial...

  1. The knowledge society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Greco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, global investments in R&D have increased by 7% on the previous year and have reached an absolute historical peak, exceeding for the first time the threshold of 1,100 billion dollars (calculated in the hypothesis of a purchasing power parity between the currencies. The world invests in scientific research and technological development 2.1% of the wealth it produces. At the same time, there has been an increase in the exchange of high added-knowledge value goods and high tech represents now the most dynamic sector of the world economy.

  2. Quality of Teaching Mathematics and Learning Achievement Gains: Evidence from Primary Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngware, Moses W.; Ciera, James; Musyoka, Peter K.; Oketch, Moses

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of quality mathematics teaching to student achievement gains. Quality of mathematics teaching is assessed through teacher demonstration of the five strands of mathematical proficiency, the level of cognitive task demands, and teacher mathematical knowledge. Data is based on 1907 grade 6 students who sat for the…

  3. Analyzing Conceptual Gains in Introductory Calculus with Interactively-Engaged Teaching Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship between an instructional style called Interactive-Engagement (IE) and gains on a measure of conceptual knowledge called the Calculus Concept Inventory (CCI). The data comes from two semesters of introductory calculus courses (Fall 2010 and Spring 2011), consisting of a total of 482 students from the…

  4. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joi...... in a large cross-section of countries. Our results suggest that whereas more aid means less corruption, natural resource rents is positively correlated with corruption, although both relationships are non-linear......Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint...

  5. The Gains from Improved Market Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar; Ejrnæs, Mette

    faster, violations of the law of one price become smaller and hence less persistent. There were also significant gains from improved market efficiency but that improvement took place after the information ‘regime’ shifted from pre-telegraphic communication to a regime with swift transmission...... of information in an era which developed a sophisticated commercial press and telegraphic communication. Improved market efficiency probably stimulated trade more than falling transport costs......This paper looks at the gains from improved market efficiency in long-distance grain trade in the second half of the 19th century when violations of the law of one price were reduced due to improved information transmission. Two markets, a major export centre, Chicago, and a major importer...

  6. Contrast Gain Control Model Fits Masking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We studied the fit of a contrast gain control model to data of Foley (JOSA 1994), consisting of thresholds for a Gabor patch masked by gratings of various orientations, or by compounds of two orientations. Our general model includes models of Foley and Teo & Heeger (IEEE 1994). Our specific model used a bank of Gabor filters with octave bandwidths at 8 orientations. Excitatory and inhibitory nonlinearities were power functions with exponents of 2.4 and 2. Inhibitory pooling was broad in orientation, but narrow in spatial frequency and space. Minkowski pooling used an exponent of 4. All of the data for observer KMF were well fit by the model. We have developed a contrast gain control model that fits masking data. Unlike Foley's, our model accepts images as inputs. Unlike Teo & Heeger's, our model did not require multiple channels for different dynamic ranges.

  7. The gain from improved market efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Persson, Karl Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    demand as well as excess supply, which triggered off the tâtonnement process. Over time, adjustments to equilibrium, as measured by the half-life of a shock, became faster and violations of the law of one price become smaller. There were significant gains from improved market efficiency, which took place......This article looks at the gains from improved market efficiency in long-distance grain trade in the second half of the nineteenth century, when violations of the law of one price were reduced due to improved information transmission. Two markets, a major export centre, Chicago, and a major importer......, Liverpool, are analysed. We show that the law of one price equilibrium was an ‘attractor equilibrium'. The implication is that prices converged to that equilibrium in a tâtonnement process. Because of asymmetrically timed information between markets separated by long distances there were periods of excess...

  8. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-10-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  9. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  10. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-07-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  11. Feedback Loop Gains and Feedback Behavior (1996)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Christian Erik

    2012-01-01

    Linking feedback loops and system behavior is part of the foundation of system dynamics, yet the lack of formal tools has so far prevented a systematic application of the concept, except for very simple systems. Having such tools at their disposal would be a great help to analysts in understanding...... large, complicated simulation models. The paper applies tools from graph theory formally linking individual feedback loop strengths to the system eigenvalues. The significance of a link or a loop gain and an eigenvalue can be expressed in the eigenvalue elasticity, i.e., the relative change...... of an eigenvalue resulting from a relative change in the gain. The elasticities of individual links and loops may be found through simple matrix operations on the linearized system. Even though the number of feedback loops can grow rapidly with system size, reaching astronomical proportions even for modest systems...

  12. Brain Gain am Beispiel Österreich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschbacher Christine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BrainGain is a common trend within the last ten years in Europe and all-over the world. Managers, key players and scientists are allowed to choose wherever they want to work in the world. As there is a lack of qualified individuals for companies and universities, BrainGain has become a necessity, and mostly – the higher educated individuals are moving away according to a better offer elsewhere in the world. Therefore, a lot of expats are moving around with their families. Many times, the lack of integration at the current place, country or city, is the critical success factor for staying or leaving. Furthermore, if the family does not feel happy in the current location, then the manager or scientist will move away or return home and the investment will be lost.

  13. Water on fire: Gains from electricity trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, N.H. von der; Sandsbraaten, L.

    1997-01-01

    In light of the ongoing liberalization of electricity trade in the Nordic countries, and perhaps in Northern Europe, we argue that gains from electricity trade may be different from those traditionally associated with comparative advantages and economics of scale. In particular, we consider gains arising from the exploitation of technological complementaries between hydro and thermal systems. Our theoretical framework highlights essential features of the two systems and allows for an analysis of effects of trade. We study three trading regimes, which may arise either endogenously or because of trade regulations: day-night power exchange, seasonal energy banking and unbalanced trade. The analysis suggests that gradual trade liberalization may be costly. 13 refs, 7 figs

  14. Structured, Gain-Scheduled Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher

    2013-01-01

    Improvements in cost-effectiveness and reliability of wind turbines is a constant in the industry. This requires new knowledge and systematic methods for analyzing and designing the interaction of structural dynamics, aerodynamics, and controllers. This thesis presents novel methods and theoretical....... Robustness and fault-tolerance capabilities are also important properties, which should be considered in the design process. Novel gain-scheduling and robust control methods that adapt to variations in the operational conditions of the wind turbine are proposed under the linear parameter-varying (LPV...... intuitive and physical specifications for vibration control, such as minimum damping and decay rate of aeroelastic modes. Moreover, the number of weighting functions and consequently the order of the final controller is reduced. Inspired by this application, theoretical control developments are presented...

  15. Knowledge, expectations, and inductive reasoning within conceptual hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D; Hayes, Brett; Lawson, Christopher; Moloney, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Previous research (e.g. Cognition 64 (1997) 73) suggests that the privileged level for inductive inference in a folk biological conceptual hierarchy does not correspond to the "basic" level (i.e. the level at which concepts are both informative and distinct). To further explore inductive inference within conceptual hierarchies, we examine relations between knowledge of concepts at different hierarchical levels, expectations about conceptual coherence, and inductive inference. In Experiments 1 and 2, 5- and 8-year-olds and adults listed features of living kind (Experiments 1 and 2) and artifact (Experiment 2) concepts at different hierarchical levels (e.g. plant, tree, oak, desert oak), and also rated the strength of generalizations to the same concepts. For living kinds, the level that showed a relative advantage on these two tasks differed; the greatest increase in features listed tended to occur at the life-form level (e.g. tree), whereas the greatest increase in inductive strength tended to occur at the folk-generic level (e.g. oak). Knowledge and induction also showed different developmental trajectories. For artifact concepts, the levels at which the greatest gains in knowledge and induction occurred were more varied, and corresponded more closely across tasks. In Experiment 3, adults reported beliefs about within-category similarity for concepts at different levels of animal, plant and artifact hierarchies, and rated inductive strength as before. For living kind concepts, expectations about category coherence predicted patterns of inductions; knowledge did not. For artifact concepts, both knowledge and expectations predicted patterns of induction. Results suggest that beliefs about conceptual coherence play an important role in guiding inductive inference, that this role may be largely independent of specific knowledge of concepts, and that such beliefs are especially important in reasoning about living kinds.

  16. Gaining the Edge: Connecting with the Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Cleaver’s and Partridge’s) entered Americans’ living rooms nightly. The Osmond’s and Beatles captivated music of the Boomer’s youth. Powerful...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY GAINING THE EDGE: CONNECTING WITH THE MILLENNIALS by Kay A. Smith, Lt Col, USAF A Research Report Submitted to... the Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements 1 December 2008 DISCLAIMER The views expressed in this academic research

  17. ROMANIA'S EU ACCESSION. GAINS AND LOSSES (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available EU accession has brought, as expected, many changes in economic, social and cultural domains. An important chapter is the trade dynamics and how this dynamic has been modified over time by changes in the legal status of Romania's relations with certain trading partners. In this paper we present data on trade with countries with which Romania has concluded trade agreements before accession. Data presentation and analysis continues in "Romania's EU accession. Gains and losses (II".

  18. A therapeutic gain model for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigg, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    When treating with continuous irradiation the potential therapeutic gain or loss depends on several treatment, normal tissue and tumour variables. There are similarities between equations defining tissue effects with fractionated treatment and brachytherapy. The former is sensitive to dose per fraction (and incomplete repair for short intervals between treatments) and the later is sensitive to dose rate and continuous repair factors. Because of these similarities, for typical tumours and normal tissues, dose per fraction and dose rates generally work in similar directions. As the dose per fraction or dose rate increases the therapeutic gain falls. With continuous irradiation the dose rates effects are determined by Beta cell kill and hence the absolute value of Beta . Minimal sensitivity occurs at very low and very high dose rates. The magnitude of cell kill also depends on the Continuous Repair Factor (g) which is a function of the treatment time and the Repair Half Time (in hours) of the tissues (Repair Half Time T 1/2Ln(2)/h, when h the Repair Constant). An interactive optimising model has been written to predict the therapeutic gain or loss as the parameter values are varied. This model includes the tumour and normal tissue parameters alpha and beta Gy (or individual values), their Repair Half Times, dose rates and overall treatment time. The model is based on the Linear-Quadratic equation and the Total Effect (TE) method of Thames and Hendry although the Extrapolated Response Dose (ERD) method of Barendsen produces the same results. The model is written so that the gain or loss may be seen when treatment is always to normal tissue tolerance doses. The magnitude of the therapeutic loss as the dose rate increases and its sensitivity to changes in normal tissue and tumour parameter values is clearly demonstrated

  19. Insights gained through probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchler, M.J.; Burns, N.L.; Liparulo, N.J.; Mink, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The insights gained through a comparison of seven probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) studies (Italian PUN, Sizewell B, Ringhals 2, Millstone 3, Zion 1 and 2, Oconee 3, and Seabrook) included insights regarding the adequacy of the PRA technology utilized in the studies and the potential areas for improvement and insights regarding the adequacy of plant designs and how PRA has been utilized to enhance the design and operation of nuclear power plants

  20. Capital gains taxation under different tax regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Sureth, Caren; Langeleh, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of different systems of current income and capital gains taxation on investor's decision to either carry out an investment in corporate shares or to invest funds alternatively on the capital market. Three basic tax systems are analyzed, a classical corporate tax system with double taxation of profits on corporate and personal level, a shareholder relief system, that reduces double taxation completely. It can be shown that general analytical solutions for ...

  1. How Subsidiaries Gain Power in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudambi, Ram; Pedersen, Torben; Andersson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    in multinational firms. Data collected from 2107 foreign-owned subsidiaries in seven European countries is used to test the hypotheses. The results indicate that mutual dependence and dependence imbalance provide strong explanations for subsidiary power. Furthermore, subsidiary power over strategic decisions...... in the MNC is gained through functional power, notably the possession of technological, rather than business-related, power or by the possession of both as they reinforce each other in strengthening the subsidiary's strategic power in the MNC network...

  2. Knowledge management: another management fad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard J. Ponzi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is a subject of a growth body of literature. While capturing the interest of practitioners and scholars in the mid-1990s, knowledge management remains a broadly defined concept with faddish characteristics. Based on annual counts of article retrieved from Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, and ABI Inform referring to three previous recognized management fad, this paper introduces empirical evidence that proposes that a typical management movement generally reveals itself as a fad in approximately five years. In applying this approach and assumption to the case of knowledge management, the findings suggest that knowledge management is at least living longer than typical fads and perhaps is in the process of establishing itself as a new aspect of management. To further the understanding of knowledge management's development, its interdisciplinary activity and breadth are reported and briefly discussed.

  3. Combining Stocks and Flows of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambos, Tina C.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    While previous research has mostly focused on either knowledge stocks or knowledge flows, our study is among the first to integrate these perspectives in order to shed light on the complementarity effects of different types of knowledge stocks and flows in the multinational corporation (MNC...... of complementarity create benefits for these units, but that the effects from intra-functional combinations of knowledge stocks and flows are significantly stronger than from cross-functional combinations....

  4. Weight gain in children on oxcarbazepine monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoufi, Anastasia; Vartzelis, George; Tsentidis, Charalambos; Attilakos, Achilleas; Koemtzidou, Evangelia; Kossiva, Lydia; Katsarou, Eustathia; Soldatou, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    Studies of the effect of oxcarbazepine (OXC) on body growth of children with epilepsy are rare and their results are controversial. To the contrary, many studies have shown significant weight gain following valproate (VPA) treatment. To prospectively evaluate the effect of OXC monotherapy on growth patterns of children with epilepsy and compare it with the effect of VPA monotherapy. Fifty-nine otherwise healthy children, aged 3.7-15.9 years, with primary generalized, partial or partial with secondary generalization seizure disorder, were included in the study. Twenty six children were placed on OXC and thirty three on VPA monotherapy. Body weight (BW), height and body mass index (BMI) as well as their standard deviation scores (SDS), were evaluated prior to as well as 8 months post initiation of OXC or VPA therapy. Eight months post OXC-treatment, BW, SDS-BW, BMI and SDS-BMI increased significantly. The increase was similar to that observed in the VPA group. An additional 15.4% of children in the OXC group and 21.2% in the VPA group became overweight or obese. The effect of both OXC and VPA therapy on linear growth did not reach statistical significance. Similarly to VPA, OXC monotherapy resulted in a significant weight gain in children with epilepsy. Careful monitoring for excess weight gain along with counseling on adapting a healthy lifestyle should be offered to children on OXC therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Subtractive, divisive and non-monotonic gain control in feedforward nets linearized by noise and delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, Jorge F; Payeur, Alexandre; Selin, Erik; Maler, Leonard; Longtin, André

    2014-01-01

    The control of input-to-output mappings, or gain control, is one of the main strategies used by neural networks for the processing and gating of information. Using a spiking neural network model, we studied the gain control induced by a form of inhibitory feedforward circuitry-also known as "open-loop feedback"-, which has been experimentally observed in a cerebellum-like structure in weakly electric fish. We found, both analytically and numerically, that this network displays three different regimes of gain control: subtractive, divisive, and non-monotonic. Subtractive gain control was obtained when noise is very low in the network. Also, it was possible to change from divisive to non-monotonic gain control by simply modulating the strength of the feedforward inhibition, which may be achieved via long-term synaptic plasticity. The particular case of divisive gain control has been previously observed in vivo in weakly electric fish. These gain control regimes were robust to the presence of temporal delays in the inhibitory feedforward pathway, which were found to linearize the input-to-output mappings (or f-I curves) via a novel variability-increasing mechanism. Our findings highlight the feedforward-induced gain control analyzed here as a highly versatile mechanism of information gating in the brain.

  6. Subtractive, divisive and non-monotonic gain control in feedforward nets linearized by noise and delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F Mejias

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The control of input-to-output mappings, or gain control, is one of the main strategies used by neural networks for the processing and gating of information. Using a spiking neural network model, we studied the gain control induced by a form of inhibitory feedforward circuitry — also known as ’open-loop feedback’ —, which has been experimentally observed in a cerebellum-like structure in weakly electric fish. We found, both analytically and numerically, that this network displays three different regimes of gain control: subtractive, divisive, and non-monotonic. Subtractive gain control was obtained when noise is very low in the network. Also, it was possible to change from divisive to non-monotonic gain control by simply modulating the strength of the feedforward inhibition, which may be achieved via long-term synaptic plasticity. The particular case of divisive gain control has been previously observed in vivo in weakly electric fish. These gain control regimes were robust to the presence of temporal delays in the inhibitory feedforward pathway, which were found to linearize the input-to-output mappings (or f-I curves via a novel variability-increasing mechanism. Our findings highlight the feedforward-induced gain control analyzed here as a highly versatile mechanism of information gating in the brain.

  7. 09 Mampholo & Botha - Impact of previously disadvantaged l…

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    factors have positive and negative impact on sustainable agriculture and development. ... indigenous knowledge, lack of input, capital, marketing, information and land ..... The availability of market opportunities remains the external elements.

  8. Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, G; Cohn, T; Remington, G

    2007-01-24

    Weight gain is common for people with schizophrenia and this has serious implications for health and well being. To determine the effects of both pharmacological (excluding medication switching) and non pharmacological strategies for reducing or preventing weight gain in people with schizophrenia. We searched key databases and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's trials register (April 2006), reference sections within relevant papers, hand searched key journals, and contacted the first author of each relevant study and other experts to collect further information. We included all clinical randomised controlled trials comparing any pharmacological or non pharmacological intervention for weight gain (diet and exercise counselling) with standard care or other treatments for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from studies. As weight is a continuous outcome measurement, weighted mean differences (WMD) of the change from baseline were calculated. The primary outcome measure was weight loss. Twenty-three randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. Five trials assessed a cognitive/behavioural intervention and eighteen assessed a pharmacological adjunct. In terms of prevention, two cognitive/behavioural trials showed significant treatment effect (mean weight change) at end of treatment (n=104, 2 RCTs, WMD -3.38 kg CI -4.2 to -2.0). Pharmacological adjunct treatments were significant with a modest prevention of weight gain (n=274, 6 RCTs, WMD - 1.16 kg CI -1.9 to -0.4). In terms of treatments for weight loss, we found significantly greater weight reduction in the cognitive behavioural intervention group (n=129, 3 RCTs, WMD -1.69 kg CI -2.8 to -0.6) compared with standard care. Modest weight loss can be achieved with selective pharmacological and non pharmacological interventions. However, interpretation is limited by the small number of studies, small sample size

  9. Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Guy; Cohn, Tony; Remington, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Background Weight gain is common for people with schizophrenia and this has serious implications for health and well being. Objectives To determine the effects of both pharmacological (excluding medication switching) and non pharmacological strategies for reducing or preventing weight gain in people with schizophrenia. Search methods We searched key databases and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s trials register (April 2006), reference sections within relevant papers, hand searched key journals, and contacted the first author of each relevant study and other experts to collect further information. Selection criteria We included all clinical randomised controlled trials comparing any pharmacological or non pharmacological intervention for weight gain (diet and exercise counselling) with standard care or other treatments for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from studies. As weight is a continuous outcome measurement, weighted mean differences (WMD) of the change from baseline were calculated. The primary outcome measure was weight loss. Main results Twenty-three randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. Five trials assessed a cognitive/behavioural intervention and eighteen assessed a pharmacological adjunct. In terms of prevention, two cognitive/behavioural trials showed significant treatment effect (mean weight change) at end of treatment (n=104, 2 RCTs, WMD −3.38 kg CI −4.2 to −2.0). Pharmacological adjunct treatments were significant with a modest prevention of weight gain (n=274, 6 RCTs, WMD − 1.16 kg CI −1.9 to −0.4). In terms of treatments for weight loss, we found significantly greater weight reduction in the cognitive behavioural intervention group (n=129, 3 RCTs, WMD −1.69 kg CI −2.8 to −0.6) compared with standard care. Authors’ conclusions Modest weight loss can be achieved with selective

  10. Knowledge Management: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Morrow, Noreen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses issues related to knowledge management and organizational knowledge. Highlights include types of knowledge; the knowledge economy; intellectual capital; knowledge and learning organizations; knowledge management strategies and processes; organizational culture; the role of technology; measuring knowledge; and the role of the information…

  11. Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

    OpenAIRE

    S. Schulze

    2010-01-01

    The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basi...

  12. Toddler's Paralysis: An Acute Case of Leg Stiffening in a Previously Healthy 2-Year-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahne, Kimberly Renee; Tay, Ee Tein

    2018-05-14

    Vegetarian and vegan diets are gaining popularity in the United States. Although appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including vegan diets, are healthful and nutritionally adequate and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, not all families are aware of the nutritional supplements that may be required for their children. We describe a case of a 2-year-old previously healthy child consuming a vegan diet who presented to the pediatric emergency department with an acute inability to move her legs. Ionized calcium was found to be 0.89 mmol/L, and symptoms completely resolved within 2 hours of calcium gluconate infusion.

  13. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  14. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act and...

  15. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  16. Knowledge is power: how conceptual knowledge transforms visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jessica A; Olson, Ingrid R

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we synthesize the existing literature demonstrating the dynamic interplay between conceptual knowledge and visual perceptual processing. We consider two theoretical frameworks that demonstrate interactions between processes and brain areas traditionally considered perceptual or conceptual. Specifically, we discuss categorical perception, in which visual objects are represented according to category membership, and highlight studies showing that category knowledge can penetrate early stages of visual analysis. We next discuss the embodied account of conceptual knowledge, which holds that concepts are instantiated in the same neural regions required for specific types of perception and action, and discuss the limitations of this framework. We additionally consider studies showing that gaining abstract semantic knowledge about objects and faces leads to behavioral and electrophysiological changes that are indicative of more efficient stimulus processing. Finally, we consider the role that perceiver goals and motivation may play in shaping the interaction between conceptual and perceptual processing. We hope to demonstrate how pervasive such interactions between motivation, conceptual knowledge, and perceptual processing are in our understanding of the visual environment, and to demonstrate the need for future research aimed at understanding how such interactions arise in the brain.

  17. Knowledge Sharing in Knowledge-Intensive Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Akshey; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study of the knowledge-sharing difficulties experienced by three departments in a knowledge-intensive firm. The case organization is a global consulting firm that has been on the forefront of knowledge management and has won several knowledge management related international accla...

  18. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  19. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  20. Neutron gain for converging guide tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildner, D.F.R.

    1982-01-01

    The method of acceptance diagrams is used to obtain analytical expressions for the neutron gain of a one-dimensional converging guide tube. It is found that the results are more easily expressed by analyzing the acceptance diagram at the exit of the funnel. The results are compared with those for the straight guide. When both guides have the same dimensions at the guide exit, the converging guide has higher transmitted intensity but with greater divergence of the beam. This analytical method is useful to assess the performance of a converging guide, though numerical computations may be required for detailed analysis of a guide system. (orig.)

  1. Design for logistics to gain competitive advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Biskoptsø, Rogvi

    2015-01-01

    . Considering logistical requirements in design of a product which is heavy and bulky and involves significant logistics costs enabled to firm to gain competitiveness. The exercise underscored the importance of understanding logistical requirements, freight costs and dimensional constraints early in the design...... phase which is usually neglected by start-up firms focused on the engineering driven innovativeness of the products. The processes developed along with guidelines facilitate future use which can help such firms to proactively consider logistics requirements at the design stage....

  2. Gasoline sales post minimal gain in 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-22

    Despite the continuing emphasis on conservation and the growing trend to smaller sized automobiles, sales of motor gasoline across Canada posted a gain of 0.4% in 1986. Figures are included in this survey for Canadian motor gasoline sales categorized by province, type of gasoline, and months of 1985 and 1986. Sales of refiners' diesel fuel oil are also categorized by province and by months of 1985 and 1986. Motor gasoline disposition for 1983-1986 is categorized into retail pump sales, road and urban transport, agriculture, public administration, and commercial and other institutional markets. Also included are figures for refiners' propane sales for 1983-1986 by province.

  3. Perspectives used for gaining approval of budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks-Joiner, G L

    1990-01-01

    Nurse executives think about problems using a certain perspective which may influence decisions on budgetary matters. The nurse executives' perspective used in decision-making may influence which budget proposals are developed and approved. A study was performed to determine the perspective used by nurse executives in decision-making on supplementary budget item proposals and whether perspective use influenced approval. Findings showed that use of the system view or dual-domain perspective in a proposal may enhance nurse executives' changes of gaining approval.

  4. An Extended Model of Knowledge Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvalics, Laszlo Z.; Dalal, Nikunj

    In current times, we are seeing the emergence of a new paradigm to describe, understand, and analyze the expanding "knowledge domain". This overarching framework - called knowledge governance - draws from and builds upon knowledge management and may be seen as a kind of meta-layer of knowledge management. The emerging knowledge governance approach deals with issues that lie at the intersection of organization and knowledge processes. Knowledge governance has two main interpretation levels in the literature: the company- (micro-) and the national (macro-) level. We propose a three-layer model instead of the previous two-layer version, adding a layer of "global" knowledge governance. Analyzing and separating the main issues in this way, we can re-formulate the focus of knowledge governance research and practice in all layers.

  5. Temporal Convergence for Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillip Martin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Time and knowledge have tended to be conceptualised in conventional knowledge management systems as either ‘timeless’ recordings of procedures, or time-stamped records of past events and states. The concept of temporal convergence was previously developed to help apply knowledge-management theory to complex military processes such as commander’s intent, shared situation awareness, and self-synchronisation. This paper clarifies the concept and introduces several others in forming a framework to assist discussion and exploration of the types of knowledge required for complex endeavours, such as warfighting, characterised by opposition and uncertainty. The approach is grounded in a pragmatist philosophy and constructivist epistemology. Argument proceeds along mathematical lines from a basis that the types of knowledge most valuable to goal-directed agents in uncertain environments can be modelled as directed graph topologies. The framework is shown to be useful in describing and reasoning about the knowledge requirements and prerequisites for distributed decision-making through the sharing of situational knowledge and common intentions, with practical application to the planning and execution of operations. To the designers of knowledge management systems seeking to address this space, it presents a challenge that cannot be addressed merely by construction, storage, search and retrieval of documents and records pertaining to the past.

  6. Knowledge Management in Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strba, M.

    2007-01-01

    Rebirth of and return to nuclear energy conditioned by an increasing worldwide energy consumption and decreasing fuel sources such as crude oil, gas and oil has aroused the question how to maintain nuclear knowledge obtained by previous generations and at the same time to deliver it to their successors in as complete form as possible. (author)

  7. INFORMATION SYSTEM QUALITY CONTROL KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikolaevich Babeshko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the educational system is associated with the need to control the quality of educational services. Quality control knowledge is an important part of the scientific process. The penetration of computers into all areas of activities changing approaches and technologies that previously they were used.

  8. Competition policy spurs economy-wide gains

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    tive markets is more likely to empower the poor, a thesis the UNCTAD .... PHONE: 613-236-6163. FAX: 613-567-7748. EMAIL: ggp@idrc.ca. WEB: www.idrc.ca/ ... leading institutions in the generation and application of new knowledge to meet.

  9. Tacit knowledge of caring and embodied selfhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Pia C; Naglie, Gary

    2009-07-01

    The tacit knowledge paradigm is gaining recognition as an important source of knowledge that informs clinical decision-making. It is, however, limited by an exclusive focus on knowledge acquired through clinical practice, and a consequent neglect of the primordial and socio-cultural significance of embodied selfhood, precisely what provides the foundational structure of tacit knowledge of caring and facilitates its manifestation. Drawing on findings from a qualitative study of 43 dementia care practitioners in Ontario, Canada that utilised research-based drama and focus group methodology, we argue that embodied selfhood is fundamental to tacit knowledge of caring. Results are analysed drawing upon the theoretical precepts of embodied selfhood that are rooted in Merleau-Ponty's (1962) reconceptualisation of perception and Bourdieu's (1977, 1990) notion of habitus. We conclude with a call for further exploration of the body as a site of the production of tacit knowledge.

  10. Late health effects of radiation. Knowledge gained through 60 years experience in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Shunichi

    2005-01-01

    The proceedings begin with Preface by World Health Organization (WHO) and Message from Nagasaki University, and contain the topics of Health studies on atomic bomb survivors, WHO programs on radiation and health, Round-table discussion, and Special articles. The first topic involves the Radiation effects studies of RERF (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, the Japanese-US research organization focused on the study of health effects of radiation in survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki), Activities at the atomic bomb survivors health care commission, Late health effects of atomic bomb survivors, Late medical effects of atomic bombs still persisting after over sixty years, Solid cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors/ preliminary data from a second follow-up, and Multiple primary cancers in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The second; Key radiation projects at the WHO, The role of the WHO in strengthening capacity of the member states for preparedness and response to radiation emergencies, and Diagnostic imaging in a global perspective. A moderator and 8 discussants concerned with topics above give their issues in the third topic. Special articles describe about Historical role of L. S. Taylor in American radiation safety and protection, and Responsibility beyond 60 years. (T.I.)

  11. Guiding dengue vaccine development using knowledge gained from the success of the yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huabin; Lee, Min; Jin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Flaviviruses comprise approximately 70 closely related RNA viruses. These include several mosquito-borne pathogens, such as yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue virus (DENV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which can cause significant human diseases and thus are of great medical importance. Vaccines against both YFV and JEV have been used successfully in humans for decades; however, the development of a DENV vaccine has encountered considerable obstacles. Here, we review the protective immune responses elicited by the vaccine against YFV to provide some insights into the development of a protective DENV vaccine.

  12. Losing the Lake: Simulations to Promote Gains in Student Knowledge and Interest about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, E. Michael; Owens, Marissa C.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Rehmat, Abeera P.; Cordova, Jacqueline R.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Harris, Fred C., Jr.; Dascalu, Sergiu M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change literacy plays a key role in promoting sound political decisions and promoting sustainable consumption patterns. Based on evidence suggesting that student understanding and interest in climate change is best accomplished through studying local effects, we developed a simulation/game exploring the impact of climate change on the…

  13. Anatomical Knowledge Gain through a Clay-Modeling Exercise Compared to Live and Video Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N.; Bergman, Esther M.; Donders, Rogier A. R. T.; Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments,…

  14. Deploying a knowledge management system for well construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Stephen; Soffried, Klaus; Sousa, Tadeu V. de; Tatro, Matt [Landmark Graphics, Houston, TX (United States); Rocha, Luiz A. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The overall E and P workforce is rapidly aging since companies have been recruiting fewer and fewer new hires. Should such trends continue, we could lose more than half of our current knowledge workers over the next five to seven years as J. W. Gibson pointed out in his article in World Energy. One obvious remedy is to start recruiting more staff, but as older people retire and younger people enter the company, the workforce will become increasingly dominated by inexperienced professionals. Without implementation of an effective knowledge management system, the industry will likely incur costly mistakes in the future. This paper will highlight an advanced software-based solution being designed to successfully offset this continuous drain of intellectual capital to achieve 'Excellence in Drilling'. The solutions concept includes the deployment of an advanced, user-friendly workflow management system within a web-based portal environment to support both well planning and operations. The system provides capabilities for remote access to databases, data input forms, software applications, best practices, lessons learned, technical references, and experts, all within the context of user configurable workflow maps. The integrated system will enable asset teams to work more effectively together and become 'learning organizations' by taking full advantage of the knowledge gained on previous wells during the design of new wells. (author)

  15. [Status and related factors for gestational weight gain of Chinese pregnant women during 2010-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Y; Duan, Y F; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Pang, X H; Yin, S A; Yang, Z Y; Lai, J Q

    2018-01-06

    Objective: To examine the status and related factors for gestational weight gain of Chinese pregnant women at different trimesters in 2010-2012. Methods: Participants were from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012. Using a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method, we recruited 2 805 singleton pregnant women with gestational age 13 weeks or more from 31 provinces of China. A standard questionnaire was used to collect general information and pre-pregnancy weight; body weight and height of pregnant women were measured using a unified weighing scale and stadiometer, dietary intake during the previous year was collected using a food frequency questionnaire. A multiple logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with appropriate gestational weight gain. Results: Among 2 805 pregnant women, 1 441 were in the second (13-27 weeks) and 1 364 in the third trimesters (≥28 weeks) . In the 2(nd) trimester, 229 cases (15.9%), 440 cases (30.5%) and 772 cases (53.6%) were insufficient gestational weight gain, appropriate gestational weight gain and excessive gestational weight gain respectively. So were 256 cases (18.8%), 474 cases (34.8%), 634 cases (46.5%) in the 3(rd) trimester respectively. In the multivariate unconditional logistic model, less fruit intake was associated with insufficient weight gain for women in the 2(nd) trimester ( OR (95% CI ): 1.58 (1.06-2.34)). Pregnant women with Han ethnicity who live in the small/medium city had lower risk of insufficient weight gain in the 3(rd) trimester ( OR (95% CI ): 0.58 (0.34-0.98)). Those pregnant women with physical activity gain ( OR (95% CI ): 1.33 (1.02-1.73)). Conclusion: The prevalence of appropriate gestational weight gain was low in China. Our study suggests that pregnant weight gain is associated with fruit intake, types of residential area and physical activity.

  16. IQ Gains in Argentina between 1964 and 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James R.; Rossi-Case, Lilia

    2012-01-01

    The literature on IQ gains in Latin America is sparse. We estimate gains on Raven's Progressive Matrices in the city of La Plata (Argentina) between 1964 and 1998. The gains are robust at the top of the curve as well as at the bottom. Therefore, they are contrary to the hypothesis that nutrition played a major role in recent Argentine IQ gains.…

  17. The Role of Leadership: The Challenge of Knowledge Management and Learning in Knowledge-Intensive Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Machuca, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge and learning are important driving forces for business success and competitiveness, especially in the knowledge-intensive organizations (KIO's) whose core business is to create and sell knowledge (e.g. education, R&D units, and consultancy organizations, among others). Previous works suggested one of the Critical Success Factor (CSF)…

  18. Brain Gain am Beispiel Österreich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Christine; Gejguš, Mirko; Sablik, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    BrainGain is a common trend within the last ten years in Europe and all-over the world. Managers, key players and scientists are allowed to choose wherever they want to work in the world. As there is a lack of qualified individuals for companies and universities, BrainGain has become a necessity, and mostly - the higher educated individuals are moving away according to a better offer elsewhere in the world. Therefore, a lot of expats are moving around with their families. Many times, the lack of integration at the current place, country or city, is the critical success factor for staying or leaving. Furthermore, if the family does not feel happy in the current location, then the manager or scientist will move away or return home and the investment will be lost. Moreover, many students have received a good education in a state university, however afterwards they have not secured a satisfactory job in the country where they have studied, therefore they are moving away to utilise their know-how. Measures to retain the know-how include a common placement and a welcome-culture in the country, and also exchanges on an international level.

  19. Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

    1999-01-01

    There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities

  20. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly vari...

  1. The search for knowledge and the avoidance of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waska, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In the psychoanalytic setting, patients can develop a strong reaction to the therapeutic opportunity to gain new knowledge about themselves. This reaction to knowledge is manifested in the patient by walling it off, splitting it off, or attacking it and erasing it from one's internal experience. The avoidance of knowledge can be the result of various phantasy states that bring on defensive postures. Knowledge can be experienced as a persecutory threat to be avoided and defended against. Knowledge can also elicit depressive concerns of loss and separation. Issues of dependence and autonomy can be equated with knowledge and therefore learning must be warded off. As a result of any or all of these internal threats, the ego can instigate a moratorium on thinking and creativity, a shutdown on feeling, thinking, and learning. As will be shown in the case material, wanting to know can be offset by a greater defensive need to not know. Through projective identification cycles, knowledge is placed into the analyst and experienced as dangerous, unobtainable, or a gift one deserves to be given rather than earned. The patient in the case example demonstrates a more paranoid experience of knowledge and a more paranoid avoidance of learning and change. When paranoid phantasies drive the patient to destroy object-relational links between self and analyst, the transference becomes colored with the phantasy of knowledge being equal to dangerous dependence that leads to destruction of either self or object. Therefore, curiosity and learning are to be avoided. Change is no longer a safe option. Psychic change can only occur when past and current knowledge are allowed to be part of the ego's selfobject world. In other words, Psychic change is possible when the ego is less restrictive and open to new selfobject experience. Therefore, the ego must tolerate conflicted feelings and thoughts about the self and others for knowledge to be allowable and accessible. This is the core struggle

  2. Predictive Variable Gain Iterative Learning Control for PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A predictive variable gain strategy in iterative learning control (ILC is introduced. Predictive variable gain iterative learning control is constructed to improve the performance of trajectory tracking. A scheme based on predictive variable gain iterative learning control for eliminating undesirable vibrations of PMSM system is proposed. The basic idea is that undesirable vibrations of PMSM system are eliminated from two aspects of iterative domain and time domain. The predictive method is utilized to determine the learning gain in the ILC algorithm. Compression mapping principle is used to prove the convergence of the algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the predictive variable gain is superior to constant gain and other variable gains.

  3. Analysis of Relationship between Knowledge Management and Customer Relationship Management with Customer Knowledge Management (Case Study At Azaran Valve Co.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sayyed Mohsen Allameh; Arash Shahin; Babak Tabanifar

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge management (KM) and customer relationship management (CRM) are both emphasized on the allocation of resources to business supportive activities in order to gain competitive advantages.. Merging the two concepts of knowledge management and customer relationship management in customer knowledge management (CKM) model can promote the benefits of employing each of them and reduce the risk of implementation failure. This study sought to analyze the relationship between knowledge manageme...

  4. The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-07-01

    The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and body weight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. What impedes knowledge sharing in culturally diverse organizations: Asking ethnographic questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Madsen, Mona Toft

    Ideas of linking cultural diversity and knowledge resources have recently gained momentum. However, only little research has empirically addressed the issues of knowledge sharing in diverse organizations. This explorative article is based on an ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish organization...

  6. An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control with high gain step accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaofeng; Ye Tianchun; Mo Taishan; Ma Chengyan

    2012-01-01

    An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control (AGC) with high gain step accuracy for the GNSS receiver is presented. The amplitude of an AGC is configurable in order to cooperate with baseband chips to achieve interference suppression and be compatible with different full range ADCs. And what's more, the gain-boosting technology is introduced and the circuit is improved to increase the step accuracy. A zero, which is composed by the source feedback resistance and the source capacity, is introduced to compensate for the pole. The AGC is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The AGC shows a 62 dB gain control range by 1 dB each step with a gain error of less than 0.2 dB. The AGC provides 3 dB bandwidth larger than 80 MHz and the overall power consumption is less than 1.8 mA, and the die area is 800 × 300 μm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Utilizing wideband AMC structures for high-gain inkjet-printed antennas on lossy paper substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Cook, Benjamin Stassen

    2013-01-01

    Significant gain and bandwidth improvement of inkjet-printed antennas with integrated artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) is achieved by utilizing wideband ground-backed frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) to overcome the high losses of organic substrates such as paper. A microstrip-fed monopole mounted on an artificial magnetic conductor is demonstrated to improve the gain by 5 dB over previous works and exhibit much wider impedance bandwidth while maintaining a thin antenna profile and a 20% electrical size reduction. The effect of AMC bandwidth on substrate losses and the gain reduction caused by finite AMC array effects are investigated in an effort to produce high-gain, miniaturized, low-cost wearable and structure mount antennas. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. ON SOME IDEAS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF IDENTIFICATION AND RECORDING GAINS/LOSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaan Alver

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of paper is to analyze the definitions and recording process of revenues and gains. The authors of current paper have worked out some suggestions for improving the reporting process taking into account the definitions of income, revenue, gains, losses and profit. Analyzing the inconsistency in two pairs of opposite terms (Profit and Loss and Gain and Loss the authors came to conclusion that the amount named gain/loss in disposal of property, plant and equipment is rather correction or adjustment of previous miscalculation of depreciation expense due to the formula. To make aforementioned adjustments and show them separately a Contra depreciation expense account or Depreciation adjunct account is recommended.

  9. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed

  10. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  11. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  12. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study ... Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2010) > ... Results: Past experience on antenatal care service utilization did not come out as a predictor for ...

  13. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Metformin and berberine prevent olanzapine-induced weight gain in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueshan Hu

    Full Text Available Olanzapine is a first line medication for the treatment of schizophrenia, but it is also one of the atypical antipsychotics carrying the highest risk of weight gain. Metformin was reported to produce significant attenuation of antipsychotic-induced weight gain in patients, while the study of preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain in an animal model is absent. Berberine, an herbal alkaloid, was shown in our previous studies to prevent fat accumulation in vitro and in vivo. Utilizing a well-replicated rat model of olanzapine-induced weight gain, here we demonstrated that two weeks of metformin or berberine treatment significantly prevented the olanzapine-induced weight gain and white fat accumulation. Neither metformin nor berberine treatment demonstrated a significant inhibition of olanzapine-increased food intake. But interestingly, a significant loss of brown adipose tissue caused by olanzapine treatment was prevented by the addition of metformin or berberine. Our gene expression analysis also demonstrated that the weight gain prevention efficacy of metformin or berberine treatment was associated with changes in the expression of multiple key genes controlling energy expenditure. This study not only demonstrates a significant preventive efficacy of metformin and berberine treatment on olanzapine-induced weight gain in rats, but also suggests a potential mechanism of action for preventing olanzapine-reduced energy expenditure.

  15. Capital Gains Taxation and Tax Avoidance: New Evidence from Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Alan J. Auerbach; Leonard E. Burman; Jonathan Siegel

    1998-01-01

    Previous theoretical analyses of the capital gains tax have suggested that investors have considerable opportunity to avoid the tax. Yet, past empirical work has found relatively little evidence of such activity. Using a previously unavailable panel data set with a very large sample of high-income individuals, this paper aims to bring the theory and evidence closer together by examining the behavior of individual taxpayers over time. Though confirming past findings that avoidance of tax on re...

  16. A previous hamstring injury affects kicking mechanics in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navandar, Archit; Veiga, Santiago; Torres, Gonzalo; Chorro, David; Navarro, Enrique

    2018-01-10

    Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22.15 ± 4.50 years) performed 5 kicks each with their preferred and non-preferred limb at a target 7m away, which were recorded with a three-dimensional motion capture system. Kinematic and kinetic variables were extracted for the backswing, leg cocking, leg acceleration and follow through phases. A shorter backswing (20.20 ± 3.49% vs 25.64 ± 4.57%), and differences in knee flexion angle (58 ± 10o vs 72 ± 14o) and hip flexion velocity (8 ± 0rad/s vs 10 ± 2rad/s) were observed in previously injured, non-preferred limb kicks for females. A lower peak hip linear velocity (3.50 ± 0.84m/s vs 4.10 ± 0.45m/s) was observed in previously injured, preferred limb kicks of females. These differences occurred in the backswing and leg-cocking phases where the hamstring muscles were the most active. A variation in the functioning of the hamstring muscles and that of the gluteus maximus and iliopsoas in the case of a previous injury could account for the differences observed in the kicking pattern. Therefore, the effects of a previous hamstring injury must be considered while designing rehabilitation programs to re-educate kicking movement.

  17. Autonomous Exploration Using an Information Gain Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    efficiency and accuracy in exploring and mapping an unknown environment when compared against a nearest- frontier approach. Results from real-world...system performed at a more efficient and accurate level than the baseline proximity frontier selection method. The system can be extended to a number...required to navigate environments with little or no prior knowledge in an efficient manner. We investigate an approach to such exploration that selects

  18. Nuclear Knowledge Innovations Assimilation: The Impact of Organizational Knowledge Frames and Triple Helix Dynamics of Knowledge Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M. D.; Sultana, T.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Previous research did not investigate the impact of the TH dynamics of knowledge innovations on the nuclear knowledge innovations adoption/assimilation in the organizational context. Hence, the recommendation of R&D policy reformulation seems too broad. These gaps are the prime motivators for the research. In the organizational context, we posit that TH dynamics of knowledge base innovation serves as complements to managers’ knowledge frames related to a technology innovation. We examine interactions between three knowledge frames—integration frame, opportunism frame, and policy knowledge frame, and two TH dynamics of knowledge innovations—bilateral TH dynamics of knowledge innovations and trilateral TH dynamics of knowledge innovations, and their relationship with the assimilation of nuclear knowledge innovations. We aim to research on the issues of the dynamics of knowledge base of innovations involving TH collaborations (university, industry and government) in Bangladesh as a new build nuclear project. As a result, we can find out the impact of TH collaborations on organizational nuclear knowledge innovations management as well as core institutional problems of the knowledge base of innovation systems in terms of R&D policy. Finally, findings identify lack in production of nuclear knowledge innovations and concrete recommendation of R&D policy reformulation. (author

  19. Women and Knowledge in Early Christianity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the divine but they also debate women’s access to and capacity of gaining knowledge. Combining rhetorical analysis with social historical approaches, the contributions in this book cover a wide array of source materials, drawing special attention to the so-called Gnostic texts. The fourteen essays, written......Women and knowledge are interconnected in several ways in late ancient and early Christian discourses, not least because wisdom (Sophia) and spiritual knowledge (Gnosis) were frequently personified as female entities. Ancient texts deal with idealized women and use feminine imagery to describe...

  20. Short-Term Study Abroad: Perspectives on Speaking Gains and Language Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that study abroad has a positive effect on second language (L2) learning outcomes for students who spend at least a semester abroad. It is unclear, however, whether a short-term experience also has a measurable impact on L2 development. The present study examines the relationship between speaking proficiency gains made…

  1. Relationship between pre-weaning gain, age at puberty, and reproductive tract development in Angus heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef heifers should initiate reproductive cycles by 12 mo of age to insure multiple estrous cycles before the start of the breeding season to maximize fertility. Previous research indicated that pre-weaning gain positively influenced the onset of puberty and antral follicle numbers. Therefore, the...

  2. Reward-driven modulation of adaptive control: How prospective monetary gains interact with unpredictable control demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marien, Hans; Aarts, Henk; Custers, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    Shifting attention is an effortful control process and incurs a cost on the cognitive system. Previous research suggests that rewards, such as monetary gains, will selectively enhance the ability to shift attention when this demand for control is explicitly cued. Here, we hypothesized that

  3. Maximizing Lumen Gain With Directional Atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Gregory A; Winscott, John G

    2016-08-01

    To describe the use of a low-pressure balloon inflation (LPBI) technique to delineate intraluminal plaque and guide directional atherectomy in order to maximize lumen gain and achieve procedure success. The technique is illustrated in a 77-year-old man with claudication who underwent superficial femoral artery revascularization using a HawkOne directional atherectomy catheter. A standard angioplasty balloon was inflated to 1 to 2 atm during live fluoroscopy to create a 3-dimensional "lumenogram" of the target lesion. Directional atherectomy was performed only where plaque impinged on the balloon at a specific fluoroscopic orientation. The results of the LPBI technique were corroborated with multimodality diagnostic imaging, including digital subtraction angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and intra-arterial pressure measurements. With the LPBI technique, directional atherectomy can routinely achieve <10% residual stenosis, as illustrated in this case, thereby broadly supporting a no-stent approach to lower extremity endovascular revascularization. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Rfq With An Increased Energy Gain

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, Valery

    2004-01-01

    The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linacs are widely used in the initial part of ion accelerators. For industrial and medical applications, the size of RFQ linac as well as the construction and operation costs are important. Therefore, there is a interest to design a compact RFQ linac. In this paper, RFQ linac is studied with the aim of increasing the energy gain. Parameters of a conventional RFQ linac are usually chosen to ensure beam acceleration and stability, providing the autophasing and strong quadrupole focusing in the longitudinal and transverse directions simultaneously. As results, the accelerating efficiency of RFQ is limited by the transverse defocusing effect, and its value is below of a maximum value, which can be provided by RFQ electrodes. To facilitate these limitations, the well-known idea of alternating phase focusing (APF) is utilized. The APF effects boost transverse focusing, allowing to increase an accelerating efficiency, electrode voltage and decreasing average value of the synchron...

  5. Pressure Gain Combustion for Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    downstream of a large  diesel  engine, they tested three turbine geometries the best experienced  a drop in efficiency of 10%.   A few people have  looked...Society of Mechanical Engineers Turbo Expo 1995 [3] Heffer, J., 2010, Integration of Pressure Gain Combustion with Gas Turbines, Ph.D. Thesis...investigated  an  axial  turbocharger  designed  for  use  downstream  of  a  large  diesel   engine,  they  tested  three  turbine geometries the best

  6. High Gain Antenna Calibration on Three Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the alignment calibration of spacecraft High Gain Antennas (HGAs) for three missions. For two of the missions (the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Solar Dynamics Observatory) the calibration was performed on orbit. For the third mission (the Global Precipitation Measurement core satellite) ground simulation of the calibration was performed in a calibration feasibility study. These three satellites provide a range of calibration situations-Lunar orbit transmitting to a ground antenna for LRO, geosynchronous orbit transmitting to a ground antenna fer SDO, and low Earth orbit transmitting to TDRS satellites for GPM The calibration results depend strongly on the quality and quantity of calibration data. With insufficient data the calibration Junction may give erroneous solutions. Manual intervention in the calibration allowed reliable parameters to be generated for all three missions.

  7. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  8. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  9. VIIRS day-night band gain and offset determination and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, J.; Florio, C.; Moyer, D.; Rausch, K.; De Luccia, F. J.

    2012-09-01

    On October 28th, 2011, the Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) was launched on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft. The instrument has 22 spectral bands: 14 reflective solar bands (RSB), 7 thermal emissive bands (TEB), and a Day Night Band (DNB). The DNB is a panchromatic, solar reflective band that provides visible through near infrared (IR) imagery of earth scenes with radiances spanning 7 orders of magnitude. In order to function over this large dynamic range, the DNB employs a focal plane array (FPA) consisting of three gain stages: the low gain stage (LGS), the medium gain stage (MGS), and the high gain stage (HGS). The final product generated from a DNB raw data record (RDR) is a radiance sensor data record (SDR). Generation of the SDR requires accurate knowledge of the dark offsets and gain coefficients for each DNB stage. These are measured on-orbit and stored in lookup tables (LUT) that are used during ground processing. This paper will discuss the details of the offset and gain measurement, data analysis methodologies, the operational LUT update process, and results to date including a first look at trending of these parameters over the early life of the instrument.

  10. Tacit knowledge emergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines tacit knowledge emergence. Tacit knowledge is 'knowledge that we have without knowing we have it and that once we know we have it, it becomes harder to know how we know what we know'. We learn by doing. Knowledge is not a thing; it is a process. It cites examples of tacit knowledge transfer failures. Failure in organization could be attributed to lack of explicit scientific and engineering knowledge, lack of research or improperly implemented knowledge

  11. Knowledge Management as Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the case of product development for insights into the potential role of knowledge management. Current literature on knowledge management entertains the notion that knowledge management is a specific set of practices - separate enough to allow specialization of responsibility....... By common standard, the proclaimed responsibility of knowledge management is shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action in an organization. The significance of the practices of knowledge management is the intention of shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action....

  12. Knowledge management: organizing nursing care knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane A; Willson, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Almost everything we do in nursing is based on our knowledge. In 1984, Benner (From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley; 1984) described nursing knowledge as the culmination of practical experience and evidence from research, which over time becomes the "know-how" of clinical experience. This "know-how" knowledge asset is dynamic and initially develops in the novice critical care nurse, expands within competent and proficient nurses, and is actualized in the expert intensive care nurse. Collectively, practical "know-how" and investigational (evidence-based) knowledge culminate into the "knowledge of caring" that defines the profession of nursing. The purpose of this article is to examine the concept of knowledge management as a framework for identifying, organizing, analyzing, and translating nursing knowledge into daily practice. Knowledge management is described in a model case and implemented in a nursing research project.

  13. Technical Knowledge Creation: Enabling Tacit Knowledge Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Chaudhuri, Atanu

    2018-01-01

    The paper investigates knowledge creation in nascent technical industries, a somewhat neglected empirical setting concerning knowledge creation. Frameworks on organizational learning and knowledge creation assume that knowledge creation depends on language creation and neglect the benefits involved...... by allowing elements of new product and process ideas to mature in a tacit form, whereas cognitive neuroscience data suggests that technical knowledge creation is largely nonlinguistic. The four case studies point to excessive reliance on group discussion, a need for more trial and error and that field tests...... and prototypes generate new learnings that save time and lowers subsequent risks. Technical knowledge creation in nascent high tech industries requires opportunities to work with and further develop knowledge in its tacit form. The paper refines frameworks on organizational learning and knowledge creation...

  14. Learning to walk with an adaptive gain proportional myoelectric controller for a robotic ankle exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Jeffrey R; Jacobs, Daniel A; Ferris, Daniel P; Remy, C David

    2015-11-04

    Robotic ankle exoskeletons can provide assistance to users and reduce metabolic power during walking. Our research group has investigated the use of proportional myoelectric control for controlling robotic ankle exoskeletons. Previously, these controllers have relied on a constant gain to map user's muscle activity to actuation control signals. A constant gain may act as a constraint on the user, so we designed a controller that dynamically adapts the gain to the user's myoelectric amplitude. We hypothesized that an adaptive gain proportional myoelectric controller would reduce metabolic energy expenditure compared to walking with the ankle exoskeleton unpowered because users could choose their preferred control gain. We tested eight healthy subjects walking with the adaptive gain proportional myoelectric controller with bilateral ankle exoskeletons. The adaptive gain was updated each stride such that on average the user's peak muscle activity was mapped to maximal power output of the exoskeleton. All subjects participated in three identical training sessions where they walked on a treadmill for 50 minutes (30 minutes of which the exoskeleton was powered) at 1.2 ms(-1). We calculated and analyzed metabolic energy consumption, muscle recruitment, inverse kinematics, inverse dynamics, and exoskeleton mechanics. Using our controller, subjects achieved a metabolic reduction similar to that seen in previous work in about a third of the training time. The resulting controller gain was lower than that seen in previous work (β=1.50±0.14 versus a constant β=2). The adapted gain allowed users more total ankle joint power than that of unassisted walking, increasing ankle power in exchange for a decrease in hip power. Our findings indicate that humans prefer to walk with greater ankle mechanical power output than their unassisted gait when provided with an ankle exoskeleton using an adaptive controller. This suggests that robotic assistance from an exoskeleton can allow

  15. Stress effects on framed decisions: there are differences for gains and losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan ePabst

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that acute stress can lead to riskier decision making. Yet, the underlying mechanisms of the stress effects on decisions under risk remain poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of decision-making processes and potential strategy application under stress, we investigated decision making in pure gain and loss domains with unequal expected values across alternatives. We conducted an experimental study with a 2 × 2 design (stress vs. no stress and gain domain vs. loss domain. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST was utilized to induce acute stress. Controls performed the placebo-TSST. To validate the stress response we measured salivary cortisol and alpha amylase concentrations. We used a modified version of the Game of Dice Task (GDT to assess decision-making performance in a gain and a loss domain. Results showed that non-stressed participants of the gain domain decided less risky compared to those of the loss domain. This behavior is in accordance with previous studies and indicates the stability of the framing effect in even more complex tasks with changing expected values across alternatives. Stress did not alter risk taking behavior in the gain domain. Yet, in the loss domain stressed participants decided less risky compared to controls. Additionally, the data support earlier findings of longer reaction times in loss compared to gain domains due to higher cognitive effort for loss-framed decisions. It is discussed that stress may lead to reduced amygdala activation, which has been found to reduce riskier decisions in a loss domain. With respect to earlier results of riskier decisions in tasks that unite both gain and loss domains, it is discussed whether stress leads to a stronger evaluation of high gains and a neglect of losses.

  16. Stress effects on framed decisions: there are differences for gains and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Stephan; Brand, Matthias; Wolf, Oliver T

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that acute stress can lead to riskier decision making. Yet, the underlying mechanisms of the stress effects on decisions under risk remain poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of decision-making processes and potential strategy application under stress, we investigated decision making in pure gain and loss domains with unequal expected values (EVs) across alternatives. We conducted an experimental study with a 2 × 2 design (stress vs. no stress and gain domain vs. loss domain). The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was utilized to induce acute stress. Controls performed the placebo-TSST (p-TSST). To validate the stress response we measured salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase concentrations. We used a modified version of the Game of Dice Task (GDT) to assess decision-making performance in a gain and a loss domain. Results showed that non-stressed participants made less risky decisions in the gain domain compared to those of the loss domain. This behavior is in accordance with previous studies and indicates the stability of the framing effect in even more complex tasks with changing EVs across alternatives. Stress did not alter risk taking behavior in the gain domain. Yet, in the loss domain stressed participants made less risky decisions compared to controls. Additionally, the data support earlier findings of longer reaction times in loss compared to gain domains due to higher cognitive effort for loss-framed decisions. It is discussed that stress may lead to reduced amygdala activation, which has been found to reduce riskier decisions in a loss domain. With respect to earlier results of riskier decisions in tasks that unite both gain and loss domains, it is discussed whether stress leads to a stronger evaluation of high gains and a neglect of losses.

  17. Erlotinib-induced rash spares previously irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, Irene M.; Vonk, Ernest J.A.; Koster, Mariska E.Y.; Houwing, Ronald H.

    2011-01-01

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor prescribed to patients with locally advanced or metastasized non-small cell lung carcinoma after failure of at least one earlier chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 75% of the patients treated with erlotinib develop acneiform skin rashes. A patient treated with erlotinib 3 months after finishing concomitant treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is presented. Unexpectedly, the part of the skin that had been included in his previously radiotherapy field was completely spared from the erlotinib-induced acneiform skin rash. The exact mechanism of erlotinib-induced rash sparing in previously irradiated skin is unclear. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be explored further, because the number of patients being treated with a combination of both therapeutic modalities is increasing. The therapeutic effect of erlotinib in the area of the previously irradiated lesion should be assessed. (orig.)

  18. Reasoning with Previous Decisions: Beyond the Doctrine of Precedent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in different jurisdictions use previous judicial decisions in their argument, we need to move beyond the concept of precedent to a wider notion, which would embrace practices and theories in legal systems outside the Common law tradition. This article presents the concept of ‘reasoning with previous decisions...... law method’, but they are no less rational and intellectually sophisticated. The reason for the rather conceited attitude of some comparatists is in the dominance of the common law paradigm of precedent and the accompanying ‘case law method’. If we want to understand how courts and lawyers......’ as such an alternative and develops its basic models. The article first points out several shortcomings inherent in limiting the inquiry into reasoning with previous decisions by the common law paradigm (1). On the basis of numerous examples provided in section (1), I will present two basic models of reasoning...

  19. [Prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Basto-Abreu, Ana; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Zárate-Rojas, Emiliano; Villalpando, Salvador; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh

    2018-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 with previous national surveys and to describe treatment and its complications. Mexico's national surveys Ensa 2000, Ensanut 2006, 2012 and 2016 were used. For 2016, logistic regression models and measures of central tendency and dispersion were obtained. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 was 9.4%. The increase of 2.2% relative to 2012 was not significant and only observed in patients older than 60 years. While preventive measures have increased, the access to medical treatment and lifestyle has not changed. The treatment has been modified, with an increase in insulin and decrease in hypoglycaemic agents. Population aging, lack of screening actions and the increase in diabetes complications will lead to an increase on the burden of disease. Policy measures targeting primary and secondary prevention of diabetes are crucial.

  20. Knowledge Management, Codification and Tacit Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method: The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who…

  1. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile non-invasive imaging modality that serves a broad spectrum of indications in clinical cardiology and has proven evidence. Most of the numerous applications are appropriate in patients with previous cardiovascular surgery in the same manner as in non-surgical subjects. However, some specifics have to be considered. This review article is intended to provide information about the application of CMR in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery. In particular, the two main scenarios, i.e. following coronary artery bypass surgery and following heart valve surgery, are highlighted. Furthermore, several pictorial descriptions of other potential indications for CMR after cardiovascular surgery are given.

  2. Unconventional modes in lasers with spatially varying gain and loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Li; Tuereci, H. E.; Chong, Y. D.; Stone, A. D.; Rotter, S.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a class of lasing modes created by a spatially inhomogeneous gain profile. These lasing modes are ''extra modes,'' in addition to, and very different from, conventional lasing modes, which arise from the passive cavity resonances. These new modes do not have high intensity across the entire gain region, but instead are localized at the gain boundary and throughout the gain-free region. They are surface modes, originating from the transmission resonances of the gain-free region. Using an S-matrix description we connect these surface modes to the lasing modes in PT-symmetric (balanced gain-loss) cavities.

  3. Wheat Response to a Soil Previously Irrigated with Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Sardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted aimed at assessing the response of rainfed, lysimeter-grown wheat to various levels of soil salinity, in terms of dry mass production, inorganic and organic components, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SS activity. One additional scope was the assessment of soil ability to recover from applied salts by means of winter precipitations. The results confirmed the relatively high salt tolerance of wheat, as demonstrated by the mechanisms enacted by plants to contrast salinity at root and leaf level. Some insight was gained in the relationships between salinity and the various inorganic and organic components, as well as with SPS and SS activity. It was demonstrated that in a year with precipitations well below the average values (305 mm vs 500 the leaching action of rain was sufficient to eliminate salts accumulated during summer irrigation with saline water.

  4. Wheat Response to a Soil Previously Irrigated with Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Russo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted aimed at assessing the response of rainfed, lysimeter-grown wheat to various levels of soil salinity, in terms of dry mass production, inorganic and organic components, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SS activity. One additional scope was the assessment of soil ability to recover from applied salts by means of winter precipitations. The results confirmed the relatively high salt tolerance of wheat, as demonstrated by the mechanisms enacted by plants to contrast salinity at root and leaf level. Some insight was gained in the relationships between salinity and the various inorganic and organic components, as well as with SPS and SS activity. It was demonstrated that in a year with precipitations well below the average values (305 mm vs 500 the leaching action of rain was sufficient to eliminate salts accumulated during summer irrigation with saline water.

  5. What's Past is Prologue: Relations Between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tyler W; Duncan, Greg J; Siegler, Robert S; Davis-Kean, Pamela E

    2014-10-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, nor have they investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multi-site longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of pre-kindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement.

  6. What’s Past is Prologue: Relations Between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, nor have they investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multi-site longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of pre-kindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement. PMID:26806961

  7. State of Academic Knowledge on Toxicity and Biological Fate of Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelley, Jennifer L.; Daar, Abdallah S.; Saner, Marc A.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), an important class of emerging nanomaterial, are widely anticipated to find application in many consumer and clinical products in the near future. Premarket regulatory scrutiny is, thus, an issue gaining considerable attention. Previous review papers have focused primarily on the toxicity of QDs. From the point of view of product regulation, however, parameters that determine exposure (e.g., dosage, transformation, transportation, and persistence) are just as important as inherent toxicity. We have structured our review paper according to regulatory risk assessment practices, in order to improve the utility of existing knowledge in a regulatory context. Herein, we summarize the state of academic knowledge on QDs pertaining not only to toxicity, but also their physicochemical properties, and their biological and environmental fate. We conclude this review with recommendations on how to tailor future research efforts to address the specific needs of regulators. PMID:19684286

  8. Understanding Intra-Class Knowledge Inside CNN

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Donglai; Zhou, Bolei; Torrabla, Antonio; Freeman, William

    2015-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has been successful in image recognition tasks, and recent works shed lights on how CNN separates different classes with the learned inter-class knowledge through visualization. In this work, we instead visualize the intra-class knowledge inside CNN to better understand how an object class is represented in the fully-connected layers. To invert the intra-class knowledge into more interpretable images, we propose a non-parametric patch prior upon previous CNN...

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation

  10. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  11. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  12. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged ..... I am still riding the cloud … I hope it lasts. .... as a way of creating a climate and culture in schools where individuals are willing to explore.

  13. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...

  14. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  15. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  16. Investigation of previously derived Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    New Hyades polarimetry and field star photometry have been obtained to check the Hyades reddening, which was found to be nonzero in a previous paper. The new Hyades polarimetry implies essentially zero reddening; this is also true of polarimetry published by Behr (which was incorrectly interpreted in the previous paper). Four photometric techniques which are presumed to be insensitive to blanketing are used to compare the Hyades to nearby field stars; these four techniques also yield essentially zero reddening. When all of these results are combined with others which the author has previously published and a simultaneous solution for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings is made, the results are E (B-V) =3 +- 2 (sigma) mmag, -1 +- 3 (sigma) mmag, and 46 +- 6 (sigma) mmag, respectively. No support for a nonzero Hyades reddening is offered by the new results. When the newly obtained reddenings for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 are compared with results from techniques given by Crawford and by users of the David Dunlap Observatory photometric system, no differences between the new and other reddenings are found which are larger than about 2 sigma. The author had previously found that the M67 main-sequence stars have about the same blanketing as that of Coma and less blanketing than the Hyades; this conclusion is essentially unchanged by the revised reddenings

  17. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  18. 18 CFR 154.302 - Previously submitted material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously submitted material. 154.302 Section 154.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... concurrently with the rate change filing. There must be furnished to the Director, Office of Energy Market...

  19. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  20. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  1. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  2. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Charles J.; Smith, Matthew R.; de Bono, Johann S.; Molina, Arturo; Logothetis, Christopher J.; de Souza, Paul; Fizazi, Karim; Mainwaring, Paul; Piulats, Josep M.; Ng, Siobhan; Carles, Joan; Mulders, Peter F. A.; Basch, Ethan; Small, Eric J.; Saad, Fred; Schrijvers, Dirk; van Poppel, Hendrik; Mukherjee, Som D.; Suttmann, Henrik; Gerritsen, Winald R.; Flaig, Thomas W.; George, Daniel J.; Yu, Evan Y.; Efstathiou, Eleni; Pantuck, Allan; Winquist, Eric; Higano, Celestia S.; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Park, Youn; Kheoh, Thian; Griffin, Thomas; Scher, Howard I.; Rathkopf, Dana E.; Boyce, A.; Costello, A.; Davis, I.; Ganju, V.; Horvath, L.; Lynch, R.; Marx, G.; Parnis, F.; Shapiro, J.; Singhal, N.; Slancar, M.; van Hazel, G.; Wong, S.; Yip, D.; Carpentier, P.; Luyten, D.; de Reijke, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned

  3. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  4. Knowledge-enabled Customer Relationship Management: integrating customer relationship management and knowledge management concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Gebert, Henning; Geib, Malte; Kolbe, Lutz; Brenner, Walter

    2003-01-01

    The concepts of customer relationship management (CRM) and knowledge management (KM) both focus on allocating resources to supportive business activities in order to gain competitive advantages. CRM focuses on managing the relationship between a company and its current and prospective customer base as a key to success, while KM recognizes the knowledge available to a company as a major success factor.From a business process manager's perspective both the CRM and KM approaches promise a positi...

  5. Long- and short-term retention of traditional instruction vs. previously tested tactual vs. innovative tactual resources on the achievement and attitudes of second-grade students in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sherese A.

    This researcher investigated the long- and short-term retention of information using traditional instruction versus previously tested tactual resources versus innovative tactual resources on the achievement and attitudes of second-grade students in science. The processing of new and difficult knowledge has challenged many young children who tend to be kinesthetic or tactual learners. In compliance with the National Science Education Standards, students should be actively engaged in their own learning. Therefore, to boost student achievement in science, the use of tactual materials was implemented. The sample included 67 second-grade students drawn from three heterogeneously grouped classes in a low socio-economic neighborhood. It consisted of 30 females and 37 males of which 97 percent were African American, 2 percent were Hispanic, and 1 percent Other. Students were unaware of their diagnosed learning-style preference(s) during the instruction and assessment phases of the study. Therefore, students' knowledge of their learning-style preferences could not have had any impact on their achievement or attitudes. A counterbalanced research design was employed. During the first session, Group 1 was taught with previously tested tactual resources (Electroboards, Flip Chutes, Fact Wheels, and Fact Fans), and Group 3 was taught traditionally. During the second session of instruction, Group 1 received instruction with innovative tactual resources, Group 2 received traditional instruction, Group 3 received instruction with previously tested tactual resources. During the final session of instruction, Group 1 received traditional instruction, Group 2 received instruction with previously tested tactual resources, and Group 3 received instruction with innovative tactual resources. The results indicated that the use of tactual materials, regardless of whether they were previously tested or innovative, produced higher achievement gains and more positive attitudes than traditional

  6. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  7. An FDTD algorithm for simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, A. A.

    2014-05-02

    Simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media such as semiconductors and solid-state lasers using the finite difference time-domain FDTD technique is a tedious process, as many variables need to be evaluated in the same instant of time. The algorithm has to take care of the laser dynamic gain, rate equations, anisotropy and dispersion. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge, we present the first algorithm that solves this problem. The algorithm is based on separating calculations into independent layers and hence solving each problem in a layer of calculations. The anisotropic gain medium is presented and tested using a one-dimensional set-up. The algorithm is then used for the analysis of a two-dimensional problem.

  8. An FDTD algorithm for simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, A. A.; San Roman Alerigi, Damian; Ooi, Boon S.; Alsunaidi, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media such as semiconductors and solid-state lasers using the finite difference time-domain FDTD technique is a tedious process, as many variables need to be evaluated in the same instant of time. The algorithm has to take care of the laser dynamic gain, rate equations, anisotropy and dispersion. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge, we present the first algorithm that solves this problem. The algorithm is based on separating calculations into independent layers and hence solving each problem in a layer of calculations. The anisotropic gain medium is presented and tested using a one-dimensional set-up. The algorithm is then used for the analysis of a two-dimensional problem.

  9. Milky Way Past Was More Turbulent Than Previously Known

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Results of 1001 observing nights shed new light on our Galaxy [1] Summary A team of astronomers from Denmark, Switzerland and Sweden [2] has achieved a major breakthrough in our understanding of the Milky Way, the galaxy in which we live. After more than 1,000 nights of observations spread over 15 years, they have determined the spatial motions of more than 14,000 solar-like stars residing in the neighbourhood of the Sun. For the first time, the changing dynamics of the Milky Way since its birth can now be studied in detail and with a stellar sample sufficiently large to allow a sound analysis. The astronomers find that our home galaxy has led a much more turbulent and chaotic life than previously assumed. PR Photo 10a/04: Distribution on the sky of the observed stars. PR Photo 10b/04: Stars in the solar neigbourhood and the Milky Way galaxy (artist's view). PR Video Clip 04/04: The motions of the observed stars during the past 250 million years. Unknown history Home is the place we know best. But not so in the Milky Way - the galaxy in which we live. Our knowledge of our nearest stellar neighbours has long been seriously incomplete and - worse - skewed by prejudice concerning their behaviour. Stars were generally selected for observation because they were thought to be "interesting" in some sense, not because they were typical. This has resulted in a biased view of the evolution of our Galaxy. The Milky Way started out just after the Big Bang as one or more diffuse blobs of gas of almost pure hydrogen and helium. With time, it assembled into the flattened spiral galaxy which we inhabit today. Meanwhile, generation after generation of stars were formed, including our Sun some 4,700 million years ago. But how did all this really happen? Was it a rapid process? Was it violent or calm? When were all the heavier elements formed? How did the Milky Way change its composition and shape with time? Answers to these and many other questions are 'hot' topics for the

  10. Kinetics of strength gain of biocidal cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodin Aleksandr Ivanovich

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion becomes the determinative durability factor of buildings and constructions. Damages of construction materials caused by bacteria, filamentous fungi, actinomycetes constitute a serious danger to the constructions of a building or a structure and to the health of people. Biodeteriorations are typical both in old and new constructions. A great quantity of destruction factors of industrial and residential buildings under the influence of microorganisms was established in practice. Providing products and constructions based on concretes fungicidal and bactericidal properties is an important direction of modern construction material science. The most efficient way to solve this task is creation of biocidal cements. The article presents the results of experimental studies of kinetic dependences of strength gain by biocidal cements by physico-mechanical and physico-chemical analysis methods. The identical velocity character of initial hydration of the developed compositions of biocidal cements is set, as well as a more calm behavior of hardening processes at later terms. It has been established that the compositions of biocidal cements modified by sodium sulfate and sodium fluoride possess the greatest strength.

  11. Gaining public acceptance for Temelin NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Miroslav

    1995-01-01

    , this gave the CEZ utility the opportunity to communicate efficiently with the public about nuclear energy and Temelin in the way Western European and American utilities do. CEZ became a recognized partner and was in a position to begin gaining (or losing) credit. How to gain public credit ( experience of 1993-1994): by always telling the truth, of course. We resumed discussions with representatives of towns and villages around Temelin, who initially were against the completion of the plant. We began to meet regularly every two months. They asked questions and we answered them. Their attitude changed: they were no more resolutely against but demanded supervision of the construction and securing absolute safety. We have adopted rules that prevent appreciable financial help to be given to the communes before the power plant is put in operation. There was another aspect that had to be confirmed, namely, that the Czech Republic really needs electricity from Temelin and that Temelin is the cheapest option in the new political and economic environment. Public opinion as a whole continued to support nuclear power but the voices of opponents, among whom were important persons such as the prime minister in the first Czech post-revolution government, were gaining in strength. Communities in the surroundings of Temelin formed an association against completion of the plant and began to exert pressure on the government to put a stop to the construction. The public was kept informed about nuclear power, the Information center at the plant was active, but it was vital that the government should support the construction and say its clear and unambiguous 'yes'. The utility on its own could not affect the state of affairs. In March 1993, the Czech government discussed the completion of Temelin and gave its nearly unanimous consent. So, for the first time since 1989, the CEZ utility got into a position which the majority of utilities operating nuclear power plants worldwide enjoys. In

  12. Medical Gains of Chondroitin Sulfate Upon Fucosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of alternating N-acetyl galactosamine and glucuronic acid units within disaccharide building blocks. CS is a key functional component in proteoglycans of cartilaginous tissues. Owing to its numerous biological roles, CS is widely explored in the pharmaceutical market as nutraceutical ingredient commonly utilized against arthritis, osteoarthrosis, and sometimes osteoporosis. Tissues like shark cartilage and bovine trachea are common sources of CS. Nonetheless, a new CS type has been introduced and investigated in the last few decades in what regards its medical potentials. It is named fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS). This less common CS type is isolated exclusively from the body wall of sea cucumbers. The presence of fucosyl branching units in the holothurian FucCS gives to this unique GAG, therapeutic properties in various pathophysiological systems which are inexistent in the common CS explored in the market. Examples of these systems are coagulation, thrombosis, hemodialysis, atherosclerosis, cellular growth, angiogenesis, fibrosis, tumor growth, inflammation, viral and protozoan infections, hyperglycemia, diabetes-related pathological events and tissue damage. This report aims at describing the medical benefits gained upon fucosylation of CS. Clinical prospects of these medical benefits are also discussed herein.

  13. Progress toward high-gain laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.

    1988-01-01

    A 1985-1986 Review of the US inertial confinement fusion program by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that five more years might be required to obtain enough data to determine the future course of the program. Since then, data from the Nova laser and from the Halite/Centurion program have resolved most of the outstanding problems identified by the NAS review. In particular, we now believe that we can produce a sufficiently uniform target; that we can keep the energy content in hot electrons and high-energy photons low enough (/approximately/1--10% of drive energy, depending on target design) and achieve enough pulse-shaping accuracy (/approximately/10%, with a dynamic range of 100:1) to keep the fuel on a near-Fermi-degenerate adiabat; that we can produce an /approximately/100-Mbar pressure pulse of sufficient uniformity (/approximately/1%), and can we control hydrodynamic instabilities so that the mix of the pusher into the hot spot is low enough to permit marginal ignition. These results are sufficiently encouraging that the US Department of Energy is planning to complete a 10-MJ laboratory microfusion facility to demonstrate high-gain ICF in the laboratory within a decade. 22 refs., 1 fig

  14. Exploring Teachers' Knowledge of Classroom Management and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayebo, Abraham; Assuah, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the results of a study that sought to determine teacher conceptions of classroom management and control. The study explored classroom management knowledge of participants, and how the knowledge was gained. It also investigated the extent to which participants held various conceptions, including rule-based, dominance…

  15. Dealing with Conflicts on Knowledge in Tutorial Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Matti; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Nieminen, Juha; Pyorala, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to gain understanding of different types of conflicts on knowledge in the discussions of problem-based learning tutorial groups, and how such conflicts are dealt with. We examined first-year medical and dental students' (N = 33) conflicts on knowledge in four videotaped reporting phase tutorials. A coding scheme was…

  16. Opening the black box: knowledge creation in data teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubers, Mireille Desirée; Poortman, Cindy Louise; Schildkamp, Kim; Pieters, Julius Marie; Handelzalts, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – In this study, Nonaka and Takeuchi’s socialization, externalization, combination and internalization (SECI) model of knowledge creation is used to gain insight into the process of knowledge creation in data teams. These teams are composed of school leaders and teachers, who work together

  17. The Impact of Leadership Social Power on Knowledge Management Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovetta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is said to be the actionable human quality gained from the capacity to derive mental insight from facts that have been placed in context, analyzed, and synthesized using references of past experience, mental comparison, and consideration of consequences. Knowledge, therefore, provides the key to understanding the world around us.…

  18. Conceptualizing a Framework for Advanced Placement Statistics Teaching Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Brenna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to sketch a conceptualization of a framework for Advanced Placement (AP) Statistics Teaching Knowledge. Recent research continues to problematize the lack of knowledge and preparation among secondary level statistics teachers. The College Board's AP Statistics course continues to grow and gain popularity, but is a…

  19. Exploring Knowledge Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahoney, Joseph T

    Knowledge governance is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management. In particular, it represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management, and theories of the firm. Knowledge governance considers how de...

  20. From Knowledge to Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmar, Ulf; Møller, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, focus has been on the utilisation of research-based knowledge and evidence in social work policy and practice in order to make it more effective. A part of this process has been the launch of knowledge portals to make use of knowledge from research. In this article, we investigate...... how knowledge portals about vulnerable children and youth present knowledge and evidence, and how they try to work as ?knowledge brokers? or intermediaries of evidence. We argue that knowledge portals are not merely channels for dissemination of knowledge. Knowledge portals could be considered as part...... of a greater process of bringing knowledge to action, encompassing the social and organisational contexts of research utilisation. The article concludes by stating that knowledge portals have the potential to be effective instruments in knowledge-to-action processes. The two main challenges, however...

  1. Reflections of distraction in memory: transfer of previous distraction improves recall in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ruthann C; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting words. When the memory task was indirect in its use of distraction (Study 1), only older adults showed transfer, with better recall of previously distracting compared with new words, which increased their recall to match that of younger adults. However, younger adults showed transfer when cued about the relevance of previous distraction both before studying the words (Study 2) and before recalling the words (Study 3) in the memory test. Results suggest that both younger and older adults encode distraction, but younger adults require explicit cueing to use their knowledge of distraction. In contrast, older adults transfer knowledge of distraction in both explicitly cued and indirect memory tasks. Results are discussed in terms of age differences in inhibition and source-constrained retrieval.

  2. History of Smoking and Postcessation Weight Gain among Weight Loss Surgery Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michele D.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Wisinski, Meghan S.C.; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking cessation often results in weight gain. Although smoking cessation frequently is recommended to patients presenting for weight loss surgery (WLS), the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain among WLS candidates is poorly understood. Thus, we sought to document the history and prevalence of smoking and smoking-related weight gain among WLS candidates. Subjects (N = 67) presenting for bariatric surgery provided demographic information, were interviewed about smoking, and weighed and measured prior to operation. Sixty-seven percent of patients reported a lifetime history of smoking, and 26.9% were current smokers. Among lifetime smokers who had attempted to quit, the average maximum amount of weight gained following smoking cessation was 28.1 pounds, but there was wide variability in postcessation weight gain. These data suggest that smoking among candidates for bariatric surgery is prevalent, and that previous cessation attempts were associated with considerable weight gain. Because patients often receive recommendations to quit smoking and lose weight prior to surgery, additional information on the impact of presurgical smoking cessation on long-tem weight control in this population is needed. PMID:17408868

  3. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.

    with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge......An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...

  4. Annual measurements of gain and loss in aboveground carbon density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, A.; Walker, W. S.; Carvalho, L.; Farina, M.; Sulla-menashe, D. J.; Houghton, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forests hold large stores of carbon, but their net carbon balance is uncertain. Land use and land-cover change (LULCC) are believed to release between 0.81 and 1.14 PgC yr-1, while intact native forests are thought to be a net carbon sink of approximately the same magnitude. Reducing the uncertainty of these estimates is not only fundamental to the advancement of carbon cycle science but is also of increasing relevance to national and international policies designed to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (e.g., REDD+). Contemporary approaches to estimating the net carbon balance of tropical forests rely on changes in forest area between two periods, typically derived from satellite data, together with information on average biomass density. These approaches tend to capture losses in biomass due to deforestation (i.e., wholesale stand removals) but are limited in their sensitivity to forest degradation (e.g., selective logging or single-tree removals), which can account for additional biomass losses on the order of 47-75% of deforestation. Furthermore, while satellite-based estimates of forest area loss have been used successfully to estimate associated carbon losses, few such analyses have endeavored to determine the rate of carbon sequestration in growing forests. Here we use 12 years (2003-2014) of pantropical satellite data to quantify net annual changes in the aboveground carbon density of woody vegetation (MgC ha-1yr-1), providing direct, measurement-based evidence that the world's tropical forests are a net carbon source of 425.2 ± 92.0 Tg C yr-1. This net release of carbon consists of losses of 861.7 ± 80.2 Tg C yr-1 and gains of -436.5 ± 31.0 Tg C yr-1 . Gains result from forest growth; losses result from reductions in forest area due to deforestation and from reductions in biomass density within standing forests (degradation), with the latter accounting for 68.9% of overall losses. Our findings advance previous research

  5. Ricardian Productivity Differences and the Gains from Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei A. Levchenko; Jing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role of sectoral heterogeneity in determining the gains from trade. We first show analytically that in the presence of sectoral Ricardian comparative advantage, a one- sector sufficient statistic formula that uses total trade volumes as a share of total absorption systematically understates the true gains from trade. Greater relative sectoral productivity differences lead to larger disparities between the gains implied by the one-sector formula and the true gains. Usi...

  6. Assessment of learning gains in a flipped biochemistry classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of learning gains did differ and indicates a higher level of satisfaction with the flipped lecture format. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. Knowledge about knowledge[Technology innovation in petroleum industry]; Kunnskap om kunnskap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramm, Hans Henrik

    2006-07-01

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  8. Assumptions to the model of managing knowledge workers in modern organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igielski Michał

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the twenty-first century are faster, suddenly appear, not always desirable for the smooth functioning of the company. This is the domain of globalization, in which new events - opportunities or threats, forcing the company all the time to act. More and more things depend on the intangible assets of the undertaking, its strategic potential. Certain types of work require more knowledge, experience and independent thinking, and custom than others. Therefore in this article the author has taken up the subject of knowledge workers in contemporary organizations. The aim of the study is to attempt to create assumptions about the knowledge management model in these organizations, based on literature analysis and empirical research. In this regard, the author describes the contemporary conditions of employee management and the skills and competences of knowledge workers. In addition, he conducted research (2016 in 100 medium enterprises in the province of Pomerania, using a tool in the form of a questionnaire and an interview. Already at the beginning of the analysis of the data collected, it turned out that for all employers it should be important to discern differences in the creation of a new category of managers who have knowledge useful for the functioning of the company. Moreover, with the experience gained in a similar research process previously carried out in companies from the Baltic Sea Region, the author knew about the positive influence of these people on creating new solutions or improving the quality of already existing products or services.

  9. [Fatal amnioinfusion with previous choriocarcinoma in a parturient woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrgović, Z; Bukovic, D; Mrcela, M; Hrgović, I; Siebzehnrübl, E; Karelovic, D

    2004-04-01

    The case of 36-year-old tercipare is described who developed choriocharcinoma in a previous pregnancy. During the first term labour the patient developed cardiac arrest, so reanimation and sectio cesarea was performed. A male new-born was delivered in good condition, but even after intensive therapy and reanimation occurred death of parturient woman with picture of disseminate intravascular coagulopathia (DIK). On autopsy and on histology there was no sign of malignant disease, so it was not possible to connect previous choricarcinoma with amniotic fluid embolism. Maybe was place of choriocarcinoma "locus minoris resistentiae" which later resulted with failure in placentation what was hard to prove. On autopsy we found embolia of lung with a microthrombosis of terminal circulation with punctiformis bleeding in mucous, what stands for DIK.

  10. Challenging previous conceptions of vegetarianism and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisak, B; Peterson, R D; Tantleff-Dunn, S; Molnar, J M

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand upon previous research that has examined the potential association between vegetarianism and disordered eating. Limitations of previous research studies are addressed, including possible low reliability of measures of eating pathology within vegetarian samples, use of only a few dietary restraint measures, and a paucity of research examining potential differences in body image and food choice motives of vegetarians versus nonvegetarians. Two hundred and fifty-six college students completed a number of measures of eating pathology and body image, and a food choice motives questionnaire. Interestingly, no significant differences were found between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in measures of eating pathology or body image. However, significant differences in food choice motives were found. Implications for both researchers and clinicians are discussed.

  11. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  12. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  13. Antenna Gain Impact on UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Franek, Ondrej; Byskov, Claus

    2018-01-01

    Antenna gain impact on UWB wind turbine blade deflection sensing is studied in this paper. Simulations are applied with a 4.5-meter blade tip. The antennas with high gain (HG) and low gain (LG) in free space are simulated inside a blade. It is interesting to find that tip antennas with HG and LG...

  14. Assessment of Learning Gains in a Flipped Biochemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of…

  15. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. The manufactured home heat loss/heat gain shall be determined by methods outlined in...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1247-3 - Treatment of capital gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... portion of the excess capital gains were designated. The amount so includible by the partnership shall be... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Treatment of capital gains. 1.1247-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1247-3 Treatment of...

  17. Gain tuning and fidelity in continuous-variable quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.; Furusawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2002-01-01

    The fidelity of continuous-variable teleportation can be optimized by changing the gain in the modulation of the output field. We discuss the gain dependence of fidelity for coherent, vacuum, and one-photon inputs and propose optimal gain tuning strategies for corresponding input selections

  18. 26 CFR 1.737-1 - Recognition of precontribution gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recognition of precontribution gain. 1.737-1... gain. (a) Determination of gain—(1) In general. A partner that receives a distribution of property (other than money) must recognize gain under section 737 and this section in an amount equal to the...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section... gain. Information necessary to calculate the home cooling load shall be provided as specified in this part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this section shall meet the minimum heat loss...

  20. Stimulated Raman gain scattering in thin planar dielectric waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanger, Johannes S.; Otto, Cornelis; Greve, Jan

    1995-01-01

    The stimulated Raman gain effect in planar dielectric waveguides is analyzed for the study of thin layers. Calculations show high gain factors and predict the possibility of detecting monolayers. Compared with those for methods based on ref lection, the gain can be 4 orders of magnitude higher for a

  1. Fundamental Limitations to Gain Enhancement in Periodic Media and Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, Jure; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Wang, Fengwen

    2012-01-01

    A common strategy to compensate for losses in optical nanostructures is to add gain material in the system. By exploiting slow-light effects it is expected that the gain may be enhanced beyond its bulk value. Here we show that this route cannot be followed uncritically: inclusion of gain inevitably...

  2. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  3. Analysis of previous screening examinations for patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Young Ho; Hwang, Ki Tae; Ryu, Dae Sik; Kwak, Jin Ho; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to improve the quality of subsequent screening by reviewing the previous screening of breast cancer patients. Twenty-four breast cancer patients who underwent previous screening were enrolled. All 24 took mammograms and 15 patients also took sonograms. We reviewed the screening retrospectively according to the BI-RADS criteria and we categorized the results into false negative, true negative, true positive and occult cancers. We also categorized the causes of false negative cancers into misperception, misinterpretation and technical factors and then we analyzed the attributing factors. Review of the previous screening revealed 66.7% (16/24) false negative, 25.0% (6/24) true negative, and 8.3% (2/24) true positive cancers. False negative cancers were caused by the mammogram in 56.3% (9/16) and by the sonogram in 43.7% (7/16). For the false negative cases, all of misperception were related with mammograms and this was attributed to dense breast, a lesion located at the edge of glandular tissue or the image, and findings seen on one view only. Almost all misinterpretations were related with sonograms and attributed to loose application of the final assessment. To improve the quality of breast screening, it is essential to overcome the main causes of false negative examinations, including misperception and misinterpretation. We need systematic education and strict application of final assessment categories of BI-RADS. For effective communication among physicians, it is also necessary to properly educate them about BI-RADS

  4. Parental anxiety associated with Kawasaki disease in previously healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Nita; Clarizia, Nadia A; McCrindle, Brian W; Boydell, Katherine M; Obadia, Maya; Manlhiot, Cedric; Dillenburg, Rejane; Yeung, Rae S M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the lived experience of parents of children diagnosed with Kawasaki disease (KD) and to identify factors associated with increased levels of parental anxiety. Three focus groups were conducted including 25 parents of 17 patients with KD, seven (41%) of whom had coronary artery complications. A conceptual model was developed to depict parental experiences and illustrate the key issues related to heightened anxiety. Themes identified included anxiety related to the child's sudden illness and delay in obtaining a correct diagnosis because of the lack of health care providers' awareness and knowledge regarding KD. Parents were frustrated by the lack of information available in lay language and the limited scientific knowledge regarding the long-term consequences of the disease. Parents also reported positive transformations and different perspective toward challenges in life. However, the parents of children with coronary artery complications expressed persistent anxiety even years after the acute phase of the illness due to the uncertainty of the long-term prognosis. There remains a critical need for richly textured research data on the perspective and experience of families of children with KD. Copyright 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Adam C; Patterson, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the "common demands" hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements.

  6. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Oei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames. Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the action videogames because the action videogames and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-action videogames to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in action videogames, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking, rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision. In non-action videogames, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g, Tetris. In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning. Thus, the common demands hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in action videogames, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements.

  7. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the “common demands” hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements. PMID:24782722

  8. Dissociation in decision bias mechanism between probabilistic information and previous decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKaneko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Target detection performance is known to be influenced by events in the previous trials. It has not been clear, however, whether this bias effect is due to the previous sensory stimulus, motor response, or decision. Also it remains open whether or not the previous trial effect emerges via the same mechanism as the effect of knowledge about the target probability. In the present study, we asked normal human subjects to make a decision about the presence or absence of a visual target. We presented a pre-cue indicating the target probability before the stimulus, and also a decision-response mapping cue after the stimulus so as to tease apart the effect of decision from that of motor response. We found that the target detection performance was significantly affected by the probability cue in the current trial and also by the decision in the previous trial. While the information about the target probability modulated the decision criteria, the previous decision modulated the sensitivity to target-relevant sensory signals (d-prime. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we also found that activation in the left intraparietal sulcus was decreased when the probability cue indicated a high probability of the target. By contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus was increased when the subjects made a target-present decision in the previous trial, but this change was observed specifically when the target was present in the current trial. Activation in these regions was associated with individual-difference in the decision computation parameters. We argue that the previous decision biases the target detection performance by modulating the processing of target-selective information, and this mechanism is distinct from modulation of decision criteria due to expectation of a target.

  9. Dissociation in decision bias mechanism between probabilistic information and previous decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Katsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Target detection performance is known to be influenced by events in the previous trials. It has not been clear, however, whether this bias effect is due to the previous sensory stimulus, motor response, or decision. Also it remains open whether or not the previous trial effect emerges via the same mechanism as the effect of knowledge about the target probability. In the present study, we asked normal human subjects to make a decision about the presence or absence of a visual target. We presented a pre-cue indicating the target probability before the stimulus, and also a decision-response mapping cue after the stimulus so as to tease apart the effect of decision from that of motor response. We found that the target detection performance was significantly affected by the probability cue in the current trial and also by the decision in the previous trial. While the information about the target probability modulated the decision criteria, the previous decision modulated the sensitivity to target-relevant sensory signals (d-prime). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we also found that activation in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) was decreased when the probability cue indicated a high probability of the target. By contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was increased when the subjects made a target-present decision in the previous trial, but this change was observed specifically when the target was present in the current trial. Activation in these regions was associated with individual-difference in the decision computation parameters. We argue that the previous decision biases the target detection performance by modulating the processing of target-selective information, and this mechanism is distinct from modulation of decision criteria due to expectation of a target. PMID:25999844

  10. Loss restlessness and gain calmness: durable effects of losses and gains on choice switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechiam, Eldad; Zahavi, Gal; Arditi, Eli

    2015-08-01

    While the traditional conceptualization of the effect of losses focuses on bias in the subjective weight of losses compared with respective gains, some accounts suggest more global task-related effects of losses. Based on a recent attentional theory, we predicted a positive after-effect of losses on choice switching in later tasks. In two experimental studies, we found increased choice switching rates in tasks with losses compared to tasks with no losses. Additionally, this heightened shifting behavior was maintained in subsequent tasks that do not include losses, a phenomenon we refer to as "loss restlessness." Conversely, gains were found to have an opposite "calming" effect on choice switching. Surprisingly, the loss restlessness phenomenon was observed following an all-losses payoff regime but not after a task with symmetric mixed gains and losses. This suggests that the unresolved mental account following an all-losses regime increases search behavior. Potential implications to macro level phenomena, such as the leverage effect, are discussed.

  11. Combining Stocks and Flows of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambos, Tina C.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Pedersen, Torben

    In the area of knowledge management and knowledge governance, previous research has mostly focused on either knowledge stocks or knowledge flows of firms or organizational units. Contrary to this work, our study is among the first to integrate these two perspectives in order to shed light...... on the complementarity effects of different types of knowledge stocks and flows in the multinational corporation (MNC). We investigate intra-functional as well as cross-functional complementarity effects from the perspective of the knowledge recipient. We test the impact of stocks on flows on the benefit that is created...... for MNC units. Based on a comprehensive sample of 324 relationships between MNC units we find that both types of complementarity create benefits for these units, but that the effects from intra-functional combinations of knowledge stocks and flows are significantly stronger than from cross...

  12. Role of 5-HT2C receptor gene variants in antipsychotic-induced weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandl EJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tessa JM Wallace, Clement C Zai, Eva J Brandl, Daniel J MüllerNeurogenetics Section, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of antipsychotic medication that can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and non-compliance in patients. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms have been studied for association with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in an attempt to find genetic predictors of this side effect. An ability to predict this side effect could lead to personalized treatment plans for predisposed individuals, which could significantly decrease the prevalence and severity of weight gain. Variations in the serotonin receptor 2c gene (HTR2C have emerged as promising candidates for prediction of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Specifically, the well-studied -759C/T promoter polymorphism has been associated with weight gain in diverse populations, although some studies have reported no association. This discrepancy is likely due to heterogeneity in study design with respect to ethnicity, treatment duration, and other variables. Notably, the association between HTR2C and antipsychotic-induced weight gain appears strongest in short-term studies on patients with limited or no previous antipsychotic treatment. Other, less extensively studied promoter polymorphisms (-697C/G, -997G/A, and -1165A/G have also emerged as potential predictors of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Conversely, the well-studied intronic polymorphism Cys23Ser does not appear to be associated. With further research on both HTR2C and other genetic and environmental predictors of antipsychotic-induced weight gain, a predictive test could one day be created to screen patients and provide preventative or alternative treatment for those who are predisposed to this serious side effect.Keywords: HTR2C, pharmacogenomics, promoter polymorphism

  13. Metaphors for Knowledge in Knowledge Intensive Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    We live in a knowledge society. This fact places certain demands on education, cooperation, knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer, knowledge workers, knowledge communication and on management. However it also places demands on our perception of knowledge. Theory would suggest a number of different....... The dataset of the dissertation consists of six conversations of six creative startups. In addition one case from a large Danish food production company was studied. All seven groups were taken through the same process. First they built three buildings in toy bricks of the brand LEGO Serious Play...... cognitive process rather than a number of individual processes. The dissertation is a compilation of four contributions in addition to an introductory part on theory and methodology and a concluding part. The four contributions are: 1. A book chapter for Handbook of Language and Metaphor to be published...

  14. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...... that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local....../global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation....

  15. The Misfits in Knowledge Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Harder; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2015-01-01

    The workplace is changing rapidly and knowledge work is conducted increasingly in settings that are global, digital, flat and networked. The epicenter of value-creation are the individuals and their interactions. Unified Communication and Collaboration Technology (UC&C) supports individual...... interactions, collaboration and knowledge creation. The use of this technology is growing globally. In a previous study, we found that UC&C in collocated and distributed settings, produced misfits and fits between situated enacted practice-use of UC&C and the experienced productivity. We respond to the KITA...... of the lens in this specific setting. To further improve and enrich, we pose questions, aiming at contributing to the communication of valuable insights informing the design and use of future ITKAs in knowledge work....

  16. Designing Smart Knowledge Building Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Murillo Montes de Oca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge building communities (KBCs are environments where learning is continually occurring as a social process, and the collective knowledge base is gradually being expanded upon. Knowledge accessible to all members is produced in collaborative discourse, along with the development and the use of conceptual artifacts. This theoretical contribution discusses the possibilities to foster and design KBCs in a “smart” manner so that they can be connected to formal learning. Firstly, the paper identifies the characteristics of “smartness” for the context of KBCs: participants (individuals and groups, collaboration and convergence, as well as technology that may provide enabling and monitoring tools. Secondly, tools are suggested to foster and monitor the development and the use of collaborative discourse and conceptual artifacts. Thirdly, recommendations for the design of smart KBCs are provided. Finally, a research agenda is proposed based on the previous discussions.

  17. Reciprocity, culture and human cooperation: previous insights and a new cross-cultural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt

    2009-03-27

    Understanding the proximate and ultimate sources of human cooperation is a fundamental issue in all behavioural sciences. In this paper, we review the experimental evidence on how people solve cooperation problems. Existing studies show without doubt that direct and indirect reciprocity are important determinants of successful cooperation. We also discuss the insights from a large literature on the role of peer punishment in sustaining cooperation. The experiments demonstrate that many people are 'strong reciprocators' who are willing to cooperate and punish others even if there are no gains from future cooperation or any other reputational gains. We document this in new one-shot experiments, which we conducted in four cities in Russia and Switzerland. Our cross-cultural approach allows us furthermore to investigate how the cultural background influences strong reciprocity. Our results show that culture has a strong influence on positive and in especially strong negative reciprocity. In particular, we find large cross-cultural differences in 'antisocial punishment' of pro-social cooperators. Further cross-cultural research and experiments involving different socio-demographic groups document that the antisocial punishment is much more widespread than previously assumed. Understanding antisocial punishment is an important task for future research because antisocial punishment is a strong inhibitor of cooperation.

  18. Knowledge-Driven Creative Destruction, or Leveraging Knowledge for Competitive Advantage: Strategic Knowledge Arbitrage and Serendipity as Real Options Drivers Triggered by Co-Opetition, Co-Evolution and Co-Specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayannis, Elias G.

    2008-01-01

    In today's globalizing and hypercompetitive marketplace, knowledge and learning are the only capabilities that can provide sustained competitive advantage. "Knowledge" is the content of learning, and a firm gains competitive superiority either by knowing something that its competitors do not know or by having a certain type of knowledge that…

  19. High prevalence of genetic variants previously associated with LQT syndrome in new exome data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Lena; Holst, Anders G; Sadjadieh, Golnaz

    2012-01-01

    To date, hundreds of variants in 13 genes have been associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS). The prevalence of LQTS is estimated to be between 1:2000 and 1:5000. The knowledge of genetic variation in the general population has until recently been limited, but newly published data from NHLBI GO...... variants KCNH2 P347S; SCN5A: S216L, V1951L; and CAV3 T78M in the control population (n=704) revealed prevalences comparable to those of ESP. Thus, we identified a much higher prevalence of previously LQTS-associated variants than expected in exome data from population studies. Great caution regarding...

  20. Knowledge Repository for Fmea Related Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândea, Gabriela Simona; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile; Cândea, Ciprian

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents innovative usage of knowledge system into Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) process using the ontology to represent the knowledge. Knowledge system is built to serve multi-projects work that nowadays are in place in any manufacturing or services provider, and knowledge must be retained and reused at the company level and not only at project level. The system is following the FMEA methodology and the validation of the concept is compliant with the automotive industry standards published by Automotive Industry Action Group, and not only. Collaboration is assured trough web-based GUI that supports multiple users access at any time

  1. Energy gains from lattice-enabled nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The energy gain of a system is defined as the ratio of its output energy divided by the energy provided to operate the system. Most familiar systems have energy gains less than one due to various inefficiencies. By contrast, lattice-enabled nuclear reactions (LENR) offer high energy gains. Theoretical values in excess of 1000 are possible. Energy gains over 100 have already been reported. But, they have not yet been sustained for commercially significant durations. This article summarizes the current status of LENR energy gains. (author)

  2. Synergy optimization and operation management on syndicate complementary knowledge cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kai-Jan

    2014-10-01

    The number of multi enterprises knowledge cooperation has grown steadily, as a result of global innovation competitions. I have conducted research based on optimization and operation studies in this article, and gained the conclusion that synergy management is effective means to break through various management barriers and solve cooperation's chaotic systems. Enterprises must communicate system vision and access complementary knowledge. These are crucial considerations for enterprises to exert their optimization and operation knowledge cooperation synergy to meet global marketing challenges.

  3. Recurrent severe invasive pneumococcal disease in an adult with previously unknown hyposplenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Vibe C; Schejbel, Lone; Hoffmann, Steen

    2015-01-01

    was found. Despite immunization against S. pneumoniae and measurement of what was interpreted as protective levels of serotype-specific IgG antibodies after vaccination, the patient suffered from a third episode of IPD. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with predisposing medical conditions or a history of severe......BACKGROUND: The risk of life-threatening and invasive infections with encapsulated bacteria is increased in patients with hyposplenia or asplenia. We report a case of recurrent invasive pneumococcal meningitis in a woman with previous unknown hyposplenia. She was vaccinated after the first episode...... of meningitis and developed sufficient levels of pneumococcal antibodies. The pneumococcal strains isolated were serotype 7 F and 17 F. To our knowledge, there has been no previously reported case of recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease in a pneumococcal vaccinated adult with hyposplenia and apparently...

  4. Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis presenting as acalculous cholecystitis in a previously well woman.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brewer, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the unusual presentation of a previously very well woman with Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis in the emergency department. History, examination and preliminary laboratory and radiological investigations supported a diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis, for which she was given intravenous broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy. One day following admission, the patient deteriorated and became unresponsive. Subsequent MRI of the brain revealed multiple bihemispheric cerebral emboli and a large, mobile mitral valve thrombus was visualised on her transoesophageal echocardiogram. S agalactiae was cultured from venous blood samples and her antimicrobial cover was adjusted accordingly. Despite her presumed guarded prognosis, this patient made a remarkable recovery. To our knowledge, the association of S agalactiae endocarditis with acalculous cholecystitis has not been previously described.

  5. Australian Pregnant Women’s Awareness of Gestational Weight Gain and Dietary Guidelines: Opportunity for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khlood Bookari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG can negatively impact on maternal and foetal health. Guidelines based on Institute of Medicine (IOM encourage managing GWG by following healthy eating recommendations and increasing physical activity. This study investigated pregnant women’s knowledge of their optimal GWG and recommended dietary approaches for GWG management. Method. English-speaking pregnant women were recruited from five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia and an online link. Prepregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated from self-reported height and prepregnancy weight. Participants identified their recommended GWG. A survey assessed practical dietary knowledge and asked about broad dietary recommendations to prevent excessive GWG. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results. N=326 pregnant women completed the surveys; 49% entered pregnancy overweight (25.2% or obese (23.6%; and knowledge of recommended GWG was lacking. Prepregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (P<0.000. Pregnant women were highly knowledgeable about broad dietary recommendations but had poor knowledge of detailed recommendations. Conclusions. Limited knowledge of IOM’s GWG guidelines and of specific dietary recommendations for pregnancy should be addressed by health care providers and education initiatives to assist the high number of women who enter pregnancy overweight or obese.

  6. Moyamoya disease in a child with previous acute necrotizing encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taik-Kun; Cha, Sang Hoon; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Kim, Baek Hyun; Chung, Hwan Hoon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, 516 Kojan-Dong, Ansan City, Kyungki-Do 425-020 (Korea); Eun, Baik-Lin [Department of Pediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-09-01

    A previously healthy 24-day-old boy presented with a 2-day history of fever and had a convulsion on the day of admission. MRI showed abnormal signal in the thalami, caudate nuclei and central white matter. Acute necrotising encephalopathy was diagnosed, other causes having been excluded after biochemical and haematological analysis of blood, urine and CSF. He recovered, but with spastic quadriparesis. At the age of 28 months, he suffered sudden deterioration of consciousness and motor weakness of his right limbs. MRI was consistent with an acute cerebrovascular accident. Angiography showed bilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis or frank occlusion with numerous lenticulostriate collateral vessels consistent with moyamoya disease. (orig.)

  7. MCNP HPGe detector benchmark with previously validated Cyltran model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, I D; Russ, W R; Bronson, F

    2009-05-01

    An exact copy of the detector model generated for Cyltran was reproduced as an MCNP input file and the detection efficiency was calculated similarly with the methodology used in previous experimental measurements and simulation of a 280 cm(3) HPGe detector. Below 1000 keV the MCNP data correlated to the Cyltran results within 0.5% while above this energy the difference between MCNP and Cyltran increased to about 6% at 4800 keV, depending on the electron cut-off energy.

  8. How Knowledge Influences Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how children's knowledge can be measured/described, knowledge patterns across diverse concepts, interaction of knowledge/learning, and ways children construct more advanced problem-solving rules to replace less adequate ones. Evidence, drawn from studies on children's acquisition of knowledge about balance beams, suggests that knowledge…

  9. Knowledge and Its Enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    As libraries are the physical manifestations of knowledge, some refection about the concept of knowledge would not be unjustified. In modern societies, knowledge plays such a central role that it requires some effort and imagination to understand on what grounds knowledge could be rejected. Karl Popper wrote about the open society and its enemies.…

  10. Motivation by potential gains and losses affects control processes via different mechanisms in the attentional network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Lena M; Walter, Henrik; Steimke, Rosa; Ludwig, Vera U; Gaschler, Robert; Schubert, Torsten; Stelzel, Christine

    2015-05-01

    block analysis revealed greater activity in gain and loss blocks compared to the neutral condition in most of these regions but no differences in the direct comparison of gain and loss blocks. These findings show that potential monetary gain and loss rely on different mechanisms: Gain was more effective in reducing the reaction time compared to potential loss. Brain data indicate that in the gain context attentional control is executed specifically in incongruent trials, whereas the loss context induces an unspecific increase of attentional control. These findings extend previous studies by providing evidence for diverging neural mechanisms for the effects of different types of motivation on attentional control, specifying the underlying activity patterns in task- and stimulus-related regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cernavoda NPP Knowledge Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valache, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents a description of the Knowledge Transfer (KT) process implemented at Cernavoda NPP, its designing and implementation. It is underlined that applying a KT approach should improve the value of existing processes of the organization through: • Identifying business, operational and safety risks due to knowledge gaps, • Transfer of knowledge from the ageing workforce to the peers and/or the organization, • Continually learning from successes and failures of individual or teams, • Convert tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge, • Improving operational and safety performance through creating both new knowledge and better access to existing knowledge. (author

  12. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  13. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  14. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  15. Knowledge base mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwa, M; Furukawa, K; Makinouchi, A; Mizoguchi, T; Mizoguchi, F; Yamasaki, H

    1982-01-01

    One of the principal goals of the Fifth Generation Computer System Project for the coming decade is to develop a methodology for building knowledge information processing systems which will provide people with intelligent agents. The key notion of the fifth generation computer system is knowledge used for problem solving. In this paper the authors describe the plan of Randd on knowledge base mechanisms. A knowledge representation system is to be designed to support knowledge acquisition for the knowledge information processing systems. The system will include a knowledge representation language, a knowledge base editor and a debugger. It is also expected to perform as a kind of meta-inference system. In order to develop the large scale knowledge base systems, a knowledge base mechanism based on the relational model is to be studied in the earlier stage of the project. Distributed problem solving is also one of the main issues of the project. 19 references.

  16. COGMIR: A computer model for knowledge integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.X.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation explores some aspects of knowledge integration, namely, accumulation of scientific knowledge and performing analogical reasoning on the acquired knowledge. Knowledge to be integrated is conveyed by paragraph-like pieces referred to as documents. By incorporating some results from cognitive science, the Deutsch-Kraft model of information retrieval is extended to a model for knowledge engineering, which integrates acquired knowledge and performs intelligent retrieval. The resulting computer model is termed COGMIR, which stands for a COGnitive Model for Intelligent Retrieval. A scheme, named query invoked memory reorganization, is used in COGMIR for knowledge integration. Unlike some other schemes which realize knowledge integration through subjective understanding by representing new knowledge in terms of existing knowledge, the proposed scheme suggests at storage time only recording the possible connection of knowledge acquired from different documents. The actual binding of the knowledge acquired from different documents is deferred to query time. There is only one way to store knowledge and numerous ways to utilize the knowledge. Each document can be represented as a whole as well as its meaning. In addition, since facts are constructed from the documents, document retrieval and fact retrieval are treated in a unified way. When the requested knowledge is not available, query invoked memory reorganization can generate suggestion based on available knowledge through analogical reasoning. This is done by revising the algorithms developed for document retrieval and fact retrieval, and by incorporating Gentner's structure mapping theory. Analogical reasoning is treated as a natural extension of intelligent retrieval, so that two previously separate research areas are combined. A case study is provided. All the components are implemented as list structures similar to relational data-bases.

  17. Gain physics of rf-linac-driven xuv free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, J.C.; McVey, B.D.; Newnam, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    In an rf-linac-driven xuv free-electron laser oscillator, the gain depends on the details of the shape of the electron beam's phase-space distribution, particularly the distribution of electrons in the transverse (to the direction of propagation) position and velocity coordinates. This strong dependence occurs because the gain in this device is inhomogeneously broadened. Our previous theoretical studies have assumed that the transverse phase space distribution is a product of uncorrelated Gaussian functions. In the present work, we shall present the results of a theoretical study of the gain for non-Gaussian phase-space distributions. Such distributions arise either from a better representation of the electron beam from an rf-linac or from an emittance filter applied to the beam after the linac

  18. Resource Loss and Gain, Life Satisfaction, and Health Among Retirees in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa, Gabriela; Jiménez, Irene; Valero, Encarna; Ovejero, Anastasio

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on retirement transition from the Conservation of Resources (COR) perspective to better understand how aged participants' perceptions of retirement losses and gains significantly explain retirement well-being. In this article, the mediation of social support in the losses-well-being relationship is explored. The study was conducted with a two-wave longitudinal design. Participants at T1 were aged Spanish workers (>64 years) and at T2 were retirees, with a final sample of 275, who had retired during the previous 6 months. Findings supported the assertion that losses better explain well-being than gains. In addition, specific losses revealed a higher explaining power of life satisfaction and health complaints depending on their content. Social support mediated between perceived losses and well-being. This study suggests that both perceived losses and gains associated with retirement and social support during retirement should be taken into account when addressing postretirement well-being.

  19. Active mode-locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with short gain recovery time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongrui; Belyanin, Alexey

    2015-02-23

    We investigate the dynamics of actively modulated mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using space- and time-domain simulations of coupled density matrix and Maxwell equations with resonant tunneling current taken into account. We show that it is possible to achieve active mode locking and stable generation of picosecond pulses in high performance QCLs with a vertical laser transition and a short gain recovery time by bias modulation of a short section of a monolithic Fabry-Perot cavity. In fact, active mode locking in QCLs with a short gain recovery time turns out to be more robust to the variation of parameters as compared to previously studied lasers with a long gain recovery time. We investigate the effects of spatial hole burning and phase locking on the laser output.

  20. IKs Gain- and Loss-of-Function In Early-Onset Lone Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Annette Buur; Refsgaard, Lena; Andersen, Martin Nybo

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia. The potassium current IKs is essential for cardiac repolarization. Gain-of-function mutation in KCNQ1, the gene encoding the pore-forming α-subunit of the IKs channel (KV 7.1), was the first ion channel dysfunction...... to be associated with familial AF. We hypothesized that early-onset lone AF is associated with a high prevalence of mutations in KCNQ1. METHODS AND RESULTS: We bidirectionally sequenced the entire coding sequence of KCNQ1 in 209 unrelated patients with early-onset lone AF (...-of-function phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in the IKs channel leading to gain-of-function have previously been described in familial AF, yet this is the first time a loss-of-function mutation in KCNQ1 is associated with early-onset lone AF. These findings suggest that both gain-of function and loss...