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Sample records for previously formulated simple

  1. Direct relativistic formulation of constant magnetic and electric field effects in simple atoms. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A previously developed method of obtaining approximate solutions to the Dirac equation for the electron is applied to the problem of constant electric and magnetic effects in simple atoms. This method makes the relativistic formulation of these problems straightforward. In all cases the standard expressions are reproduced, as one would expect, and hence illustrates the simplicity and utility of the method. The Zeeman effect is calculated to order α 2 , α being the usual fine structure constant, and it is seen that only the lowest order solutions are required. That is, one needs only the nonrelativistic solutions. The Stark effect and dipole transition matrix elements are calculated only to zero order in α as it is felt that that is all that is required for comparison with experiment. One concludes that the discrepancies between the theoretical values and experimental values of the oscillator strengths must be explained on the basis of nonrelativistic effects. (author) [fr

  2. A Simple FEM Formulation Applied to Nonlinear Problems of Impact with Thermomechanical Coupling

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    João Paulo de Barros Cavalcante

    Full Text Available Abstract The thermal effects of problems involving deformable structures are essential to describe the behavior of materials in feasible terms. Verifying the transformation of mechanical energy into heat it is possible to predict the modifications of mechanical properties of materials due to its temperature changes. The current paper presents the numerical development of a finite element method suitable for nonlinear structures coupled with thermomechanical behavior; including impact problems. A simple and effective alternative formulation is presented, called FEM positional, to deal with the dynamic nonlinear systems. The developed numerical is based on the minimum potential energy written in terms of nodal positions instead of displacements. The effects of geometrical, material and thermal nonlinearities are considered. The thermodynamically consistent formulation is based on the laws of thermodynamics and the Helmholtz free-energy, used to describe the thermoelastic and the thermoplastic behaviors. The coupled thermomechanical model can result in secondary effects that cause redistributions of internal efforts, depending on the history of deformation and material properties. The numerical results of the proposed formulation are compared with examples found in the literature.

  3. Determination of Some Cephalosporins in Pharmaceutical Formulations by a Simple and Sensitive Spectrofluorimetric Method

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    Ali Abdollahi, Ahad Bavili-Tabrizi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cephalosporins are among the safest and the most effective broad-spectrum bactericidal antimicrobial agents which have been prescribed by the clinician as antibiotics. Thus, the developing of simple, sensitive and rapid analytical methods for their determination can be attractive and desirable. Methods: A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of cefixime, cefalexin and ceftriaxone in pharmaceutical formulations. Proposed method is based on the oxidation of these cephalosporins with cerium (IV to produce cerium (III, and its fluorescence was monitored at 356 ± 3 nm after excitation at 254 ± 3 nm. Results: The variables effecting oxidation of each cephalosporin with cerum (IV were studied and optimized. Under the experimental conditions used, the calibration graphs were linear over the range 0.1-4 µg/mL. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were in the range 0.031-0.054 and 0.102-0.172 µg/mL, respectively. Intra- and inter-day assay precisions, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD, were lower than 5.6 and 6.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed method was applied to the determination of studied cephalosporins in pharmaceutical formulations by good recoveries in the range 91-110%.

  4. Fractures around a previous fixation of proximal femur. A simple solution to a complex problem.

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    Fernando Manuel Bidolegui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of hip fractures in the elderly growth with the increase in life expectancy. Therefore meet with a femur fractured, distal to a previously  implant fixation used in intertrochanteric femur fractures as dynamic hip screw or fixed angle plate, is not an uncommon scenario despite year mortality of hip fracture of 30 to 50%. Given this situation, we used a retrograde intramedullary nail associated with extracting screws percutaneously prior implant. We present 8 cases in patients with an average age of 85.6 years, 5 female and 3 male with a time from the proximal femur fixation to the  new fracture average 3.5 years. Will we track 36 months and we evaluated postoperative mobility and pain getting a consolidation of the fracture in all cases. We found this technique effective; capable of achieving stable fixation without adding morbidity due to the possibility of overlapping two implants decreasing the possibility of potential new interimplantes fracture.

  5. Simple Spectrophotometric Determination of Torsemide in Bulk Drug and in Formulations

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    Marothu Vamsi Krishna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and cost effective spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of torsemide in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the formation of blue colored chromogen when the drug reacts with Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C reagent in alkaline medium. The colored species has an absorption maximum at 760 nm and obeys beer's law in the concentration range 30 – 150 ug mL−1. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of TSM, which is corroborated by the calculated correlation coefficient value of 0.9999 (n=8. The apparent molar absorptivity and sandell sensitivity were 1.896×103 L mol−1 cm−1 and 0.183 μg cm−2, respectively. The slope and intercept of the equation of the regression line are 5.4x10−3 and 1.00×10−4 respectively. The limit of detection was 0.94.The optimum experimental parameters for the reaction have been studied. The validity of the described procedure was assessed. Statistical analysis of the results has been carried out revealing high accuracy and good precision. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of TSM in pharmaceutical formulations.

  6. A Lagrange-based generalised formulation for the equations of motion of simple walking models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Michael; Howard, David; Baker, Richard

    2017-04-11

    Simple 2D models of walking often approximate the human body to multi-link dynamic systems, where body segments are represented by rigid links connected by frictionless hinge joints. Performing forward dynamics on the equations of motion (EOM) of these systems can be used to simulate their movement. However, deriving these equations can be time consuming. Using Lagrangian mechanics, a generalised formulation for the EOM of n-link open-loop chains is derived. This can be used for single support walking models. This has an advantage over Newton-Euler mechanics in that it is independent of coordinate system and prior knowledge of the ground reaction force (GRF) is not required. Alternative strategies, such as optimisation algorithms, can be used to estimate joint activation and simulate motion. The application of Lagrange multipliers, to enforce motion constraints, is used to adapt this general formulation for application to closed-loop chains. This can be used for double support walking models. Finally, inverse dynamics are used to calculate the GRF for these general n-link chains. The necessary constraint forces to maintain a closed-loop chain, calculated from the Lagrange multipliers, are one solution to the indeterminate problem of GRF distribution in double support models. An example of this method's application is given, whereby an optimiser estimates the joint moments by tracking kinematic data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Double simple-harmonic-oscillator formulation of the thermal equilibrium of a fluid interacting with a coherent source of phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defacio, B.; Vannevel, Alan; Brander, O.

    1993-01-01

    A formulation is given for a collection of phonons (sound) in a fluid at a non-zero temperature which uses the simple harmonic oscillator twice; one to give a stochastic thermal 'noise' process and the other which generates a coherent Glauber state of phonons. Simple thermodynamic observables are calculated and the acoustic two point function, 'contrast' is presented. The role of 'coherence' in an equilibrium system is clarified by these results and the simple harmonic oscillator is a key structure in both the formulation and the calculations.

  8. Rapid, Simple, and Sensitive Spectrofluorimetric Method for the Estimation of Ganciclovir in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulations

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    Garima Balwani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate, and affordable spectrofluorimetric method was developed and validated for the estimation of ganciclovir in bulk as well as in marketed formulations. The method was based on measuring the native fluorescence of ganciclovir in 0.2 M hydrochloric acid buffer of pH 1.2 at 374 nm after excitation at 257 nm. The calibration graph was found to be rectilinear in the concentration range of 0.25–2.00 μg mL−1. The limit of quantification and limit of detection were found to be 0.029 μg mL−1 and 0.010 μg mL−1, respectively. The method was fully validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise, and reproducible (relative standard deviation <2% and can be successfully applied for the determination of ganciclovir in its commercial capsules with average percentage recovery of 101.31 ± 0.90.

  9. A simple exposure-time theory for all time-nonlocal transport formulations and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, T. R.; Schreyer, L. G.

    2016-12-01

    Anomalous transport or better put, anomalous non-transport, of solutes or flowing water or suspended colloids or bacteria etc. has been the subject of intense analyses with multiple formulations appearing in scientific literature from hydrology to geomorphology to chemical engineering, to environmental microbiology to mathematical physics. Primary focus has recently been on time-nonlocal mass conservation formulations such as multirate mass transfer, fractional-time advection-dispersion, continuous-time random walks, and dual porosity modeling approaches, that employ a convolution with a memory function to reflect respective conceptual models of delays in transport. These approaches are effective or "proxy" ones that do not always distinguish transport from immobilzation delays, are generally without connection to measurable physicochemical properties, and involve variously fractional calculus, inverse Laplace or Fourier transformations, and/or complex stochastic notions including assumptions of stationarity or ergodicity at the observation scale. Here we show a much simpler approach to time-nonlocal (non-)transport that is free of all these things, and is based on expressing the memory function in terms of a rate of mobilization of immobilized mass that is a function of the continguous time immobilized. Our approach treats mass transfer completely independently from the transport process, and it allows specification of actual immobilization mechanisms or delays. To our surprize we found that for all practical purposes any memory function can be expressed this way, including all of those associated with the multi-rate mass transfer approaches, original powerlaw, different truncated powerlaws, fractional-derivative, etc. More intriguing is the fact that the exposure-time approach can be used to construct heretofore unseen memory functions, e.g., forms that generate oscillating tails of breakthrough curves such as may occur in sediment transport, forms for delay

  10. Simple field assays to check quality of current artemisinin-based antimalarial combination formulations.

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    Jean-Robert Ioset

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria continues to be one of the major public health problems in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Artemisinin derivatives (ARTs; artesunate, artemether, and dihydroartemisinin derived from the herb, Artemisia annua, are the most effective antimalarial drugs available providing rapid cures. The World Health Organisation (WHO has recommended that all antimalarials must be combined with an artemisinin component (artemisinin-based combination therapy; ACT for use as first line treatment against malaria. This class of drugs is now first-line policy in most malaria-endemic countries. Reports of ad hoc surveys from South East Asia show that up to 50% of the artesunate currently sold is counterfeit. Drug quality is rarely assessed in resource poor countries in part due to lack of dedicated laboratory facilities which are expensive to build, equip and maintain. With a view to address this unmet need we developed two novel colour reaction assays that can be used in the field to check the quality of ARTs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our assays utilise thin layer chromatography silica gel sheets and 2, 4 dinitrophenylhydrazine or 4-Benzoylamino-2, 5-dimethoxybenzenediazonium chloride hemi (zinc chloride salt as the reagents showing a pink or blue product respectively only in the presence ARTs. We are able to detect as low as 10% of ARTs in ACTs (WINTHROP--artesunate/amodiaquine, Coartem--artemether/lumefantrine and Duocortexcin--dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine. The assays have been validated extensively by testing eighty readily accessible and widely used drugs in malaria endemic countries. None of the other antimalarial drugs or a range of commonly used excipients, antiretroviral drugs or other frequently used drugs from the WHO essential drugs list such as analgesics or antibiotics are detected with our assays. CONCLUSIONS: Our two independent assays requiring no specialist training are specific, simple to use, rapid, robust, reproducible

  11. Simple field assays to check quality of current artemisinin-based antimalarial combination formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioset, Jean-Robert; Kaur, Harparkash

    2009-09-30

    Malaria continues to be one of the major public health problems in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Artemisinin derivatives (ARTs; artesunate, artemether, and dihydroartemisinin) derived from the herb, Artemisia annua, are the most effective antimalarial drugs available providing rapid cures. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has recommended that all antimalarials must be combined with an artemisinin component (artemisinin-based combination therapy; ACT) for use as first line treatment against malaria. This class of drugs is now first-line policy in most malaria-endemic countries. Reports of ad hoc surveys from South East Asia show that up to 50% of the artesunate currently sold is counterfeit. Drug quality is rarely assessed in resource poor countries in part due to lack of dedicated laboratory facilities which are expensive to build, equip and maintain. With a view to address this unmet need we developed two novel colour reaction assays that can be used in the field to check the quality of ARTs. Our assays utilise thin layer chromatography silica gel sheets and 2, 4 dinitrophenylhydrazine or 4-Benzoylamino-2, 5-dimethoxybenzenediazonium chloride hemi (zinc chloride) salt as the reagents showing a pink or blue product respectively only in the presence ARTs. We are able to detect as low as 10% of ARTs in ACTs (WINTHROP--artesunate/amodiaquine, Coartem--artemether/lumefantrine and Duocortexcin--dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine). The assays have been validated extensively by testing eighty readily accessible and widely used drugs in malaria endemic countries. None of the other antimalarial drugs or a range of commonly used excipients, antiretroviral drugs or other frequently used drugs from the WHO essential drugs list such as analgesics or antibiotics are detected with our assays. Our two independent assays requiring no specialist training are specific, simple to use, rapid, robust, reproducible, inexpensive and, have successfully resulted in detecting two

  12. Can't we just keep it simple? Using thermodynamic limits to formulate simple models and to get robust predictions of the complex Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2016-04-01

    The Earth is, undoubtedly, a vastly complex system that is shaped by a range of processes, from solar radiation to planetary motion, geochemical cycling, biotic and human activity, all interacting across a range of time scales to shape the emergent state of the system. The common approach to deal with modelling parts of or the whole Earth system is to build increasingly more comprehensive models, with higher resolutions, a greater range of processes, and a greater number of interactions being represented. Yet, this also yields increasingly incomprehensible models in which the underlying assumptions in the model parameterizations are obscured. I present an alternative approach to model the complex Earth system that focuses on fundamental physical constraints and that allows for insights from simple, back-of-the-envelope calculations. This approach is based on describing the Earth as a thermodynamic system with dynamics that are driven by energy conversions, and in which its complexity is dealt with by the assumption that the dynamics operate at their thermodynamic limit. It requires us to think of Earth system processes in terms of the energy that they convert, the origin of this energy, the interactions that result from the energy conversion, and how these factors shape the resulting thermodynamic limit. The behavior of the complex Earth system then becomes predictable by relatively simple means, not because we deal with a simple system, but because it is so complex that it is ultimately constrained by fundamental thermodynamic limits that can be derived by comparably simple means. I illustrate this approach with three examples, dealing with the hydrologic sensitivity to global warming, the surface energy balance partitioning on land at the diurnal scale, and the limits to wind power as renewable energy. Each example shows that the approach matches observations or complex climate models very well, highlighting that this approach provides a simple alternative to

  13. The Double-Well Potential in Quantum Mechanics: A Simple, Numerically Exact Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelic, V.; Marsiglio, F.

    2012-01-01

    The double-well potential is arguably one of the most important potentials in quantum mechanics, because the solution contains the notion of a state as a linear superposition of "classical" states, a concept which has become very important in quantum information theory. It is therefore desirable to have solutions to simple double-well potentials…

  14. A simple spectrophotometric method for determination of sodium diclofenac in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, A A; Farajzadeh, M A; Jouyban, A

    2005-10-01

    A new, simple, rapid and accurate spectrophotometric method is proposed for determination of sodium diclofenac (SD) in pharmaceutical preparations based on its reaction with concentrated nitric acid (63% w/v). The reaction product is a yellowish compound with maximum absorbance at 380 nm. The corresponding calibration curve is linear over the range of 1-30 mg l(-1), while the limit of detection is 0.46 mg l(-1).

  15. Development and validation of a simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of methyldopa in both bulk and marketed dosage formulations

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    Paulo Roberto da Silva Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise, sensitive, rapid, specific and economical spectrophotometric method was developed to determine methyldopa (MTD content in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage formulations. The proposed method was based on the formation of a colored product from the nitrosation reaction of MTD with sodium nitrite in an acid medium. The resultant nitroso derivative species reacts further with sodium hydroxide and is converted it into a more stable compound. This yellow nitrosation product exhibited an absorption maximum at 430 nm. Beer's Law was obeyed in a concentration range of 6.37 to 82.81 μg mL-1 MTD with an excellent coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.9998. No interference was observed from common excipients in formulations. The results showed the method to be simple, accurate and readily applied for the determination of MTD in pure form and in pharmaceutical preparations. The analytical results obtained for these products using the proposed method are in agreement with those of the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia procedure at a 95% confidence level.

  16. New, simple and validated UV-spectrophotometric methods for the estimation of gatifloxacin in bulk and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, K; Saha, Ranendra N

    2005-01-01

    New, simple and cost effective UV-spectrophotometric methods were developed for the estimation of gatifloxacin in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. Gatifloxacin was estimated at 286 nm in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and 292 nm in 100 mM hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2). Linearity range was found to be 1-18 mug ml(-1) (regression equation: absorbance=0.0684 x Concentration in microg ml(-1) + 0.0050; r2 = 0.9998) in the phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and 1-14 microg ml(-1) (regression equation: absorbance = 0.0864 x Concentration in microg ml(-1) + 0.0027; r2 = 0.9999) in hydrochloric acid medium (pH 1.2). The apparent molar absorptivity was found to be 2.62 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1) in the phosphate buffer and 3.25 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1) in hydrochloric acid media. In both the proposed methods sandell's sensitivity was found to be about 0.01 microg cm(-2)/0.001A. These methods were tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines and USP. The quantitation limits were found to be 0.312 and 0.3 microg ml(-1) in the phosphate buffer and hydrochloric acid medium, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of gatifloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations (tablets, injection and ophthalmic solution). The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (relative standard deviation <2%), while being simple, cheap and less time consuming and can be suitably applied for the estimation of gatifloxacin in different dosage forms and dissolution studies.

  17. Design of simple UV Spectrophotometric and HPLC methods for assay of artesunate and amodiaquine in fixed dose tablet formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashie, Agatha Dei

    2013-07-01

    Artesunate and Amodiaquine combination is one of the first line drugs for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. To prevent treatment failures and emergence of resistant strains of the Plasmodium parasite, patients are entreated to comply with treatment regimens. Thus fixed dose tablet formulations came as a relieve to patients, ensuring proper compliance as the number of tablets to be taken was reduced. It is therefore important to develop simple methods of assay for these formulations to ensure that quality drugs are available and to prevent resistance to these drugs. This thesis describes Ultraviolet (UV) and High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) methods of assay for Artesunate (AS) and Amodiaduine Hydrochloride (AMQ) in fixed dose tablet formulations. The UV absorption spectroscopy was used to establish a wavelength of maximum absorption and the Beer’s plot generated. At 339nm, Amodiaquine Hydrochloride was assayed accurately in methanol with a high r 2 value of 0.998, an intra and inter day precision of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of 1.52% and 1.86% respectively. The Beer’s plot was obeyed in a concentration range of 3.5 - 24.8(µg/mL). The limit of detection and limit of quantification was 1.23(µg/mL) and 3.73(µg/mL) respectively. However the UV method could not be used to assay AS simultaneously with AMQ. A mobile phase of 60% acetonitrile and 40% of 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid, flow rate of 1ml/min, wavelength of detection of 225nm and a C 18 stationary phase are the parameters for the HPLC method. The r 2 for the HPLC method was 0.996 and 0.995 for Amodiaquine hydrochloride and Artesunate respectively. The intra and inter day precision were 1.07% and 1.42% respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.015%w/v and 0.0465%w/v for Amodiaquine hydrochloride and 0.054%w/v and 0.019%w/v for Artesunate respectively. The concentration ranges were 0.01 - 0.16%w/v for Amodiaquine hydrochloride and 0.01 – 0.2%w/v for

  18. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

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    Lopez-Saura Pedro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC. Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination, 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction, and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052.

  19. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anasagasti-Angulo, Lorenzo; Garcia-Vega, Yanelda; Barcelona-Perez, Silvia; Lopez-Saura, Pedro; Bello-Rivero, Iraldo

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions) are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN) may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC) or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC). Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old) patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination), 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction), and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052

  20. Immunoediting and persistence of antigen-specific immunity in patients who have previously been vaccinated with NY-ESO-1 protein formulated in ISCOMATRIX™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholaou, Theo; Chen, Weisan; Davis, Ian D; Jackson, Heather M; Dimopoulos, Nektaria; Barrow, Catherine; Browning, Judy; Macgregor, Duncan; Williams, David; Hopkins, Wendie; Maraskovsky, Eugene; Venhaus, Ralph; Pan, Linda; Hoffman, Eric W; Old, Lloyd J; Cebon, Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    NY-ESO-1 protein formulated in ISCOMATRIX™ results in CD4+, CD8+ T cell and antibody-mediated immunity. We evaluated persistence of immunity, relapse-free survival and tumour antigen expression upon relapse in patients vaccinated in an earlier trial. Immunity was measured in 28 patients with resected NY-ESO-1-expressing tumours (melanoma 25, breast 3) 252-1,155 days (median = 681) after vaccination. In the earlier vaccination, trial patients received NY-ESO-1 with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant at three protein doses 10 μg, 30 μg or 100 μg (n = 14); 100 μg NY-ESO-1 protein (n = 8) or placebo (n = 6), together with 1 μg of intradermal (ID) NY-ESO-1 protein twice for DTH skin testing. Immune responses assessed in the current study included antibody titres, circulating NY-ESO-1-specific T cells and DTH reactivity 2 days after DTH skin testing with NY-ESO-1 protein (1 μg) or peptides (10 μg). Relapse-free survival was determined for 42 melanoma patients. On relapse NY-ESO-1 and HLA, class I was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 17. Persisting anti-NY-ESO-1 immunity was detected in 10/14 recipients who had previously received vaccine with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant. In contrast, immunity only persisted in 3/14 who received 100 μg un-adjuvanted NY-ESO-1 protein (3/8) or 2 μg DTH protein (0/6) P = 0.02. Hence, persisting NY-ESO-1 immunity was associated with prior adjuvant. Tumour NY-ESO-1 or HLA class I was downregulated in participants who relapsed suggesting immunoediting had occurred. Immunoediting suggests that a signal of anti-tumour activity was observed in high-risk resected melanoma patients vaccinated with NY-ESO-1/ISCOMATRIX™. This was associated with measurable persisting immunity in the majority of vaccinated subjects tested. A prospective randomised trial has been undertaken to confirm these results.

  1. Back to basics: the development of a simple, homogenous, two-component dry-powder inhaler formulation for the delivery of budesonide using miscible vinyl polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttini, F; Colombo, P; Wenger, M P E; Mesquida, P; Marriott, C; Jones, Stuart A

    2008-03-01

    It was hypothesised that formulating a dry-powder inhaler (DPI) using a refined, smooth grade of lactose, without fines and a polymer coated drug microparticle should produce an homogeneous formulation in which aerosolization behaviour could be modified. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop a simple two component polymer coated-budesonide/lactose blend in which the drug microparticle adhesive forces could be optimised by modifying the drug coating in order to improve aerosolization from a DPI. Budesonide microparticles (1.83 +/- 0.03 microm) were coated with the vinyl polymers by adsorption and then spray-dried. The drug was blended with three different types of lactose, checked for uniformity of mixing and loaded into Pulvinal devices. The median volume particle size of all but one of the polymer coated microparticles remained below 4 microm after spray-drying and the content uniformity for all the blends >96%. Coating the budesonide with 0.01% poly(vinyl alcohol) increased the fine particle fraction (FPF) in the next generation impactor (NGI) from 29.1 +/- 0.7% to 52.8 +/- 1.0% and reduced the force of adhesion from 410 +/- 182 to 241 +/- 82 nN with smooth lactose. This illustrates that vinyl polymers could effectively modify adhesive interactions without the need for ternary components such as fines. (Copyright) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of boswellic acids from the market formulations containing Boswellia serrata extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shailesh A; Rathod, Ishwarsinh S; Suhagia, Bhanubhai N; Pandya, Saurabh S; Parmar, Vijay K

    2008-09-01

    A simple, rapid, and reproducible reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method is developed for the estimation of boswellic acids, the active constituents in Boswellia serrata oleo-gum resin. The chromatographic separation is performed using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water (90:10, % v/v) adjusted to pH 4 with glacial acetic acid on a Kromasil 100 C18 analytical column with flow rate of 2.0 mL/min and detection at 260 nm. The elution times are 4.30 and 7.11 min for 11-keto beta-boswellic acid (11-KBA) and 3-acetyl 11-keto beta-boswellic acid (A-11-KBA), respectively. The calibration curve is linear in the 11.66-58.30 microg/mL and 6.50-32.50 microg/mL range for 11-KBA and A-11-KBA, respectively. The limits of detection are 2.33 microg/mL and 1.30 microg/mL for 11-KBA and A-11-KBA, respectively. The mean recoveries are 98.24% to 104.17% and 94.12% to 105.92% for 11-KBA and A-11-KBA, respectively. The inter- and intra-day variation coefficients are less than 5%. The present method is successfully applied for the estimation of boswellic acids from the market formulations containing Boswellia serrata extract.

  3. A simple, selective, and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the analysis of five process-related impurities in atenolol bulk drug and capsule formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ambavaram Vijaya Bhaskar; Yusop, Zulkifli; Jaafar, Jafariah; Bin Aris, Azmi; Abdul Majid, Zaiton

    2017-08-01

    An extremely sensitive and simple gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed and completely validated for the analysis of five process-related impurities, viz., 4-hydroxy-l-phenylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, methyl-4-hydroxyphenylacetate, and 2-[4-{(2RS)-2-hydroxy-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]propoxy}phenyl]acetonitrile, in atenolol. The separation of impurities was accomplished on a BPX-5 column with dimensions of 50 m × 0.25 mm i.d. and 0.25 μm film thickness. The method validation was performed following International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines in which the method was capable to quantitate 4-hydroxy-l-phenylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid at 0.3 ppm, and methyl-4-hydroxyphenylacetate and 2-[4-{(2RS)-2-hydroxy-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]propoxy}phenyl]acetonitrile at 0.35 ppm with respect to 10 mg/mL of atenolol. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.3-10 ppm for 4-hydroxy-l-phenylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 0.35-10 ppm for methyl-4-hydroxyphenylacetate and 2-[4-{(2RS)-2-hydroxy-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]propoxy}phenyl]acetonitrile. The correlation coefficient in each case was found ≥0.998. The repeatability and recovery values were acceptable, and found between 89.38% and 105.60% for all five impurities under optimized operating conditions. The method developed here is simple, selective, and sensitive with apparently better resolution than the reported methods. Hence, the method is a straightforward and good quality control tool for the quantitation of selected impurities at trace concentrations in atenolol. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  5. A simple formulation and solution to the replacement problem: a practical tool to assess the economic cow value, the value of a new pregnancy, and the cost of a pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, V E

    2012-08-01

    This study contributes to the research literature by providing a new formulation for the cow replacement problem, and it also contributes to the Extension deliverables by providing a user-friendly decision support system tool that would more likely be adopted and applied for practical decision making. The cow value, its related values of a new pregnancy and a pregnancy loss, and their associated replacement policies determine profitability in dairy farming. One objective of this study was to present a simple, interactive, dynamic, and robust formulation of the cow value and the replacement problem, including expectancy of the future production of the cow and the genetic gain of the replacement. The proven hypothesis of this study was that all the above requirements could be achieved by using a Markov chain algorithm. The Markov chain model allowed (1) calculation of a forward expected value of a studied cow and its replacement; (2) use of a single model (the Markov chain) to calculate both the replacement policies and the herd statistics; (3) use of a predefined, preestablished farm reproductive replacement policy; (4) inclusion of a farmer's assessment of the expected future performance of a cow; (5) inclusion of a farmer's assessment of genetic gain with a replacement; and (6) use of a simple spreadsheet or an online system to implement the decision support system. Results clearly demonstrated that the decision policies found with the Markov chain model were consistent with more complex dynamic programming models. The final user-friendly decision support tool is available at http://dairymgt.info/ → Tools → The Economic Value of a Dairy Cow. This tool calculates the cow value instantaneously and is highly interactive, dynamic, and robust. When a Wisconsin dairy farm was studied using the model, the solution policy called for replacing nonpregnant cows 11 mo after calving or months in milk (MIM) if in the first lactation and 9 MIM if in later lactations. The

  6. Systematic Equation Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A tutorial giving a very simple introduction to the set-up of the equations used as a model for an electrical/electronic circuit. The aim is to find a method which is as simple and general as possible with respect to implementation in a computer program. The “Modified Nodal Approach”, MNA, and th......, and the “Controlled Source Approach”, CSA, for systematic equation formulation are investigated. It is suggested that the kernel of the P Spice program based on MNA is reprogrammed....

  7. Assessment of strategy formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Englyst, Linda

    2006-01-01

    approaches to strategy assessment, namely the goal-centred, comparative and improvement approaches, as found in the literature. Furthermore, it encompasses three phases of strategy formulation processes: strategic thinking, strategic planning and embedding of strategy. The tool reflects that the different......, but cases and managerial perceptions indicate that the need for accurate and detailed plans might be overrated in the literature, as implementation relies heavily on continuous improvement and empowerment. Concerning embedding, key aspects relate both to the goal-centred and improvement approaches, while...... for strategy formulation processes that ensures high quality in process and outcome. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was conducted to identify success criteria for strategy formulation processes. Then, a simple questionnaire and assessment tool was developed and used to test the validity...

  8. Diagnostic formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuruvilla, K.; Kuruvilla, Anju

    2010-01-01

    Writing a ?Diagnostic Formulation? is a skill expected of candidates in the post-graduate examinations in psychiatry in most universities in India. However there is ambiguity regarding what the term means and how it should be written. This article is an attempt to provide some guidelines on this topic.

  9. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  10. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  11. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  12. Formulation and Characterization of Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate biodegradable chitosan microspheres loaded with famotidine to overcome the poor bioavailability and frequent dose administration of the drug. Methods: Chitosan microspheres were prepared by simple emulsification technique based on glutaraldehyde crosslinking. Various process and formulation ...

  13. Multiple excitation of supports - Part 1. Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeao, A.C.N.R.; Barbosa, H.J.C.

    1980-12-01

    The formulation and the solution of a simple specific problem of support movement are presented. The formulation is extended to the general case of infinitesimal elasticity where the approximated solutions are obtained by the variational formulation with spatial discretization by Finite Element Method. Finally, the present usual numerical techniques for the treatment of the resulting ordinary differential equations system are discused: Direct integration, Modal overlap, Spectral response. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Simple prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Han M, Partin AW. Simple prostatectomy: open and robot-assisted laparoscopic approaches. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  15. Simple unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, W.A.; Zepeda, A.

    1987-08-01

    We present the results obtained from our systematic search of a simple Lie group that unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions in a single truly unified theory. We work with fractionally charged quarks, and allow for particles and antiparticles to belong to the same irreducible representation. We found that models based on SU(6), SU(7), SU(8) and SU(10) are viable candidates for simple unification. (author). 23 refs

  16. Simple Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and international public. The exhibition Simple Interactions. Sound Art from Japan presents works by 9 Japanese artists at the Museum of Contemporary Art Roskilde. The exhibition mixes installations, performances and documentations, all of which examine how simple interactions can create complex systems...... and patterns. Works and performances by the following artists are presented: Yuji DOGANE - Yukio FUJIMOTO - Atsuhiro ITO - Soichiro MIHARA - Atsushi NISHIJIMA - Jio SHIMIZU - Toshiya TSUNODA - Tetsuya UMEDA - Miki YUI The book presents texts by Minoru HATANAKa; Takashi KOJIMA, Rune SØCHTING and the editors...

  17. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  18. IT Supporting Strategy Formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Khosrow-Pour, M.

    2005-01-01

    This overview approaches information and communication technology (ICT) for competitive intelligence from the perspective of strategy formulation. It provides an ICT architecture for supporting the knowledge processes producing relevant knowledge for strategy formulation. To determine what this

  19. Compounded laxative formulations for substituting phenolphthalein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Patrick O Erah

    acid, PEG, and sugar derivatives such as lactose, glucose and sorbitol when granulated with water. Not withstanding these interactions, it was possible to compound simple capsule, tablet and even an effervescent tablet formulations containing sennosides A & B that complied with pharmacopeial specifications. However ...

  20. Aquaculture project formulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Insull, David; Nash, Colin E

    1990-01-01

    .... The first part of the document contains a broad introduction to project formulation, describing the integration of aquaculture projects within development plans, the organization and management...

  1. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  2. Characterisation of 2,4-Dinitroanisole: An Ingredient for Use in Low Sensitivity Melt Cast Formulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davies, Phil J; Provatas, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    ... formulations for use in Insensitive Munitions (IM). This paper provides a baseline characterisation of DNAN and includes the determination of the sensitivity and explosive properties of a simple DNAN-based formulation (ARX-4027...

  3. Prolonged Use Of Cough Formulations And The Health Risk From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine cough formulations denoted by letter codes along with simple syrup B.P., absolute alcohol and sterile distilled water as controls, were investigated for relative antimicrobial activity on some normal flora bacteria by the agar-cup diffusion method. The respective individual single brands of cough formulation with the ...

  4. Audits of radiopharmaceutical formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for auditing radiopharmaceutical formulations is described. To meet FDA guidelines regarding the quality of radiopharmaceuticals, institutional radioactive drug research committees perform audits when such drugs are formulated away from an institutional pharmacy. All principal investigators who formulate drugs outside institutional pharmacies must pass these audits before they can obtain a radiopharmaceutical investigation permit. The audit team meets with the individual who performs the formulation at the site of drug preparation to verify that drug formulations meet identity, strength, quality, and purity standards; are uniform and reproducible; and are sterile and pyrogen free. This team must contain an expert knowledgeable in the preparation of radioactive drugs; a radiopharmacist is the most qualified person for this role. Problems that have been identified by audits include lack of sterility and apyrogenicity testing, formulations that are open to the laboratory environment, failure to use pharmaceutical-grade chemicals, inadequate quality control methods or records, inadequate training of the person preparing the drug, and improper unit dose preparation. Investigational radiopharmaceutical formulations, including nonradiolabeled drugs, must be audited before they are administered to humans. A properly trained pharmacist should be a member of the audit team

  5. Quaternionic formulation of the exact parity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumby, S.P.; Foot, R.; Volkas, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    The exact parity model (EPM) is a simple extension of the standard model which reinstates parity invariance as an unbroken symmetry of nature. The mirror matter sector of the model can interact with ordinary matter through gauge boson mixing, Higgs boson mixing and, if neutrinos are massive, through neutrino mixing. The last effect has experimental support through the observed solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies. In the paper it is shown that the exact parity model can be formulated in a quaternionic framework. This suggests that the idea of mirror matter and exact parity may have profound implications for the mathematical formulation of quantum theory. 13 refs

  6. Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…

  7. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  8. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C

    2005-01-01

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  9. A simple triangular finite element for nonlinear thin shells: statics, dynamics and anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viebahn, Nils; Pimenta, Paulo M.; Schröder, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    This work presents a simple finite element implementation of a geometrically exact and fully nonlinear Kirchhoff-Love shell model. Thus, the kinematics are based on a deformation gradient written in terms of the first- and second-order derivatives of the displacements. The resulting finite element formulation provides C^1-continuity using a penalty approach, which penalizes the kinking at the edges of neighboring elements. This approach enables the application of well-known C^0-continuous interpolations for the displacements, which leads to a simple finite element formulation, where the only unknowns are the nodal displacements. On the basis of polyconvex strain energy functions, the numerical framework for the simulation of isotropic and anisotropic thin shells is presented. A consistent plane stress condition is incorporated at the constitutive level of the model. A triangular finite element, with a quadratic interpolation for the displacements and a one-point integration for the enforcement of the C^1-continuity at the element interfaces leads to a robust shell element. Due to the simple nature of the element, even complex geometries can be meshed easily, which include folded and branched shells. The reliability and flexibility of the element formulation is shown in a couple of numerical examples, including also time dependent boundary value problems. A plane reference configuration is assumed for the shell mid-surface, but initially curved shells can be accomplished if one regards the initial configuration as a stress-free deformed state from the plane position, as done in previous works.

  10. Lubrication in tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jennifer; Wen, Hong; Desai, Divyakant

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical aspects and practical considerations of lubrication in tablet compression are reviewed in this paper. Properties of the materials that are often used as lubricants, such as magnesium stearate, in tablet dosage form are summarized. The manufacturing process factors that may affect tablet lubrication are discussed. As important as the lubricants in tablet formulations are, their presence can cause some changes to the tablet physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, a detailed review is provided on the methodologies used to characterize lubrication process during tablet compression with relevant process analytical technologies. Finally, the Quality-by-Design considerations for tablet formulation and process development in terms of lubrication are discussed.

  11. On Displacement Height, from Classical to Practical Formulation: Stress, Turbulent Transport and Vorticity Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Kelly, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    Displacement height (d) is an important parameter in the simple modelling of wind speed and vertical fluxes above vegetative canopies, such as forests. Here we show that, aside from implicit definition through a (displaced) logarithmic profile, accepted formulations for d do not consistently pred...... height, depending on the character of the forest. We further show how our practical (‘mixing-layer’) form for d matches the new turbulence-based relation, as well as correspondence to previous (stress-based) formulations.......Displacement height (d) is an important parameter in the simple modelling of wind speed and vertical fluxes above vegetative canopies, such as forests. Here we show that, aside from implicit definition through a (displaced) logarithmic profile, accepted formulations for d do not consistently...... predict flow properties above a forest. Turbulent transport can affect the displacement height, and is an integral part of what is called the roughness sublayer. We develop a more general approach for estimation of d, through production of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent transport, and show how...

  12. Microbiological quality of pediatric oral liquid formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josep Cabañas Poy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The oral administration of drugs to the pediatric population involves the extemporaneous preparation of liquid formulations. These formulations have studies on their physicochemical stability, but they often lack microbiological studies. The objective of this study is to check the microbiological quality of five oral liquid formulations prepared with different excipients, which represent five major combinations, in two conditions: kept unopened until the day of the test, and in a multi-dose vial opened daily. The formulations were prepared according to standard operating procedures. Half of each batch was packaged in vials that remained closed until the day of testing, and the other half in a single container which was opened daily. Both the vials and the containers had been previously sterilized. Microbiological tests were performed weekly during the first month of the study, and then every two weeks, until the expiration date. The microbiological quality of oral liquid formulations is determined by the Royal Spanish Pharmacopoeia. The conclusion was that none of the formulations prepared that were packaged in sterilized containers became contaminated, either in unopened vials or in multi-dose containers when they were opened daily

  13. The coevent formulation of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallden, Petros

    2013-01-01

    Understanding quantum theory has been a subject of debate from its birth. Many different formulations and interpretations have been proposed. Here we examine a recent novel formulation, namely the coevents formulation. It is a histories formulation and has as starting point the Feynman path integral and the decoherence functional. The new ontology turns out to be that of a coarse-grained history. We start with a quantum measure defined on the space of histories, and the existence of zero covers rules out single-history as potential reality (the Kochen Specker theorem casted in histories form is a special case of a zero cover). We see that allowing coarse-grained histories as potential realities avoids the previous paradoxes, maintains deductive non-contextual logic (alas non-Boolean) and gives rise to a unique classical domain. Moreover, we can recover the probabilistic predictions of quantum theory with the use of the Cournot's principle. This formulation, being both a realist formulation and based on histories, is well suited conceptually for the purposes of quantum gravity and cosmology.

  14. Crossing simple resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, T.

    1985-08-01

    A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances.

  15. Simple waves in quasilinear hyperbolic systems. Part 1. Theory of simple waves and simple states. Examples of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundland, A.M.; Zelazny, R.

    1983-01-01

    A new method of construction of solutions to nonlinear, nonelliptic systems of partial differential equations and especially nonhomogeneous ones is presented. These equations have been considered from the point of view of integral elements. The connections between the structure of the set of integral elements and the posssibility of a construction of special classes of solutions have been studied. These classes consist of what is called simple waves and k-waves (for homogeneous systems). They provide us with a possibility for a selection of simple integral elements from the set of all integral elements. Analysis has been performed using differential forms and Cartan theory of system in involution. The problem has been reduced to examining Pfaff forms. The Cauchy problem for Pfaff systems has been formulated and solved using the Riemann function. Some remarks concerning the notion of Baecklund transformations for the case of k-waves have been formulated. It is shown that in contrast to simple wave, the simple state has no gradient catastrophy. The presented technique of constructing the solutions in the form of simple states has been illustrated by the examples of Korteweg de Vries and four-dimensional Klein-Gordon, Sine-Gordon and Liouville equations. It has been shown that the known soliton equations are closely connected with the elliptical functions and especially with the P-Weierstrass functions. (author)

  16. Application of UV Imaging in Formulation Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Østergaard, Jesper

    2017-05-01

    Efficient drug delivery is dependent on the drug substance dissolving in the body fluids, being released from dosage forms and transported to the site of action. A fundamental understanding of the interplay between the physicochemical properties of the active compound and pharmaceutical excipients defining formulation behavior after exposure to the aqueous environments and pharmaceutical performance is critical in pharmaceutical development, manufacturing and quality control of drugs. UV imaging has been explored as a tool for qualitative and quantitative characterization of drug dissolution and release with the characteristic feature of providing real-time visualization of the solution phase drug transport in the vicinity of the formulation. Events occurring during drug dissolution and release, such as polymer swelling, drug precipitation/recrystallization, or solvent-mediated phase transitions related to the structural properties of the drug substance or formulation can be monitored. UV imaging is a non-intrusive and simple-to-operate analytical technique which holds potential for providing a mechanistic foundation for formulation development. This review aims to cover applications of UV imaging in the early and late phase pharmaceutical development with a special focus on the relation between structural properties and performance. Potential areas of future advancement and application are also discussed.

  17. Drug delivery and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreutz, Jörg; Boos, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric drug delivery is a major challenge in drug development. Because of the heterogeneous nature of the patient group, ranging from newborns to adolescents, there is a need to use appropriate excipients, drug dosage forms and delivery devices for different age groups. So far, there is a lack of suitable and safe drug formulations for children, especially for the very young and seriously ill patients. The new EU legislation will enforce paediatric clinical trials and drug development. Current advances in paediatric drug delivery include interesting new concepts such as fast-dissolving drug formulations, including orodispersible tablets and oral thin strips (buccal wafers), and multiparticulate dosage forms based on mini-tabletting or pelletization technologies. Parenteral administration is likely to remain the first choice for children in the neonatal period and for emergency cases. Alternative routes of administration include transdermal, pulmonary and nasal drug delivery systems. A few products are already available on the market, but others still need further investigations and clinical proof of concept.

  18. Canonical formulation of IIB D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, K.

    1998-01-01

    We find Wess-Zumino actions for kappa invariant type IIB D-branes in explicit forms. A simple and compact expression is obtained by the use of spinor variables which are defined as power series of differential forms. Using the Wess-Zumino actions we develop the canonical formulation and find the complete set of the constraint equations for generic type IIB Dp-branes. The conserved global supersymmetry charges are determined and the algebra containing the central charges can be obtained explicitly. (orig.)

  19. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  20. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  1. A cohesive finite element formulation for modelling fracture and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    external (or boundary) load and displacement. This phenomenon may be illustrated through some simple systems involving linear and nonlinear springs. To this end, a linear and a nonlinear spring having load versus displacement characteristics, as shown in figures 3a. Cohesive FE formulation for modelling fracture. 569 ...

  2. Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows protective effect against X-radiation in HeLa cells. YUKI TAKAUJI KENSUKE ... with the cellscultured in vitro. The simple bioassay system with human cultured cells would facilitate the understanding of themolecular basis for the beneficial effects of Triphala.

  3. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of formulated tenoxicam transdermal delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taekyung; Kang, Eunyoung; Chun, Inkoo; Gwak, Hyesun

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of developing a new tenoxicam transdermal delivery system (TDS), the pharmacokinetics of tenoxicam from various formulated TDS were evaluated and compared with values following oral administration of tenoxicam and with application of a piroxicam plaster (Trast) marketed in Korea. Based on previous in-vitro study results, a mixture of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME) and propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) (40:60) was used as a vehicle, and caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, oleic acid or linoleic acid (each at 3%) was added as an enhancer. Triethanolamine (5%) was used as a solubilizer, and Duro-Tak 87-2510 as a pressure-sensitive adhesive. Among these fatty acids used for the formulation of tenoxicam TDS, caprylic acid showed the greatest enhancing effect; the area under the plasma concentration-time profile (AUC) decreased in the order of caprylic acid>linoleic acid>or=oleic acid>lauric acid>capric acid. Compared with oral administration, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was significantly lower, and time to reach Cmax (Tmax) delayed with all formulated tenoxicam TDS. All formulated TDS resulted in a lower AUC than with the oral formulation, except for TDS containing caprylic acid, although the difference was statistically significant only with capric acid. The AUC for all the formulated tenoxicam TDS was significantly higher than that of the piroxicam plaster; TDS with caprylic acid increased AUC 8.53-fold compared with the piroxicam plaster. Even though the Tmax of tenoxicam TDS was not significantly different from that of the piroxicam plaster, Cmax was higher; formulations containing caprylic acid and linoleic acid increased Cmax by 7.39- and 8.76-fold, respectively. In conclusion, a formulation containing 1.5 mL DGME-PGML (40:60) with 3% caprylic acid and 5% triethanolamine mixed with 6 g Duro-Tak 87-2510 could be a good candidate for developing a new tenoxicam TDS to maintain a comparable extent of absorption

  5. Simple Indolizidine and Quinolizidine Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    This review of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids (i.e., those in which the parent bicyclic systems are in general not embedded in polycyclic arrays) is an update of the previous coverage in Volume 55 of this series (2001). The present survey covers the literature from mid-1999 to the end of 2013; and in addition to aspects of the isolation, characterization, and biological activity of the alkaloids, much emphasis is placed on their total synthesis. A brief introduction to the topic is followed by an overview of relevant alkaloids from fungal and microbial sources, among them slaframine, cyclizidine, Steptomyces metabolites, and the pantocins. The important iminosugar alkaloids lentiginosine, steviamine, swainsonine, castanospermine, and related hydroxyindolizidines are dealt with in the subsequent section. The fourth and fifth sections cover metabolites from terrestrial plants. Pertinent plant alkaloids bearing alkyl, functionalized alkyl or alkenyl substituents include dendroprimine, anibamine, simple alkaloids belonging to the genera Prosopis, Elaeocarpus, Lycopodium, and Poranthera, and bicyclic alkaloids of the lupin family. Plant alkaloids bearing aryl or heteroaryl substituents include ipalbidine and analogs, secophenanthroindolizidine and secophenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids (among them septicine, julandine, and analogs), ficuseptine, lasubines, and other simple quinolizidines of the Lythraceae, the simple furyl-substituted Nuphar alkaloids, and a mixed quinolizidine-quinazoline alkaloid. The penultimate section of the review deals with the sizable group of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids isolated from, or detected in, ants, mites, and terrestrial amphibians, and includes an overview of the "dietary hypothesis" for the origin of the amphibian metabolites. The final section surveys relevant alkaloids from marine sources, and includes clathryimines and analogs, stellettamides, the clavepictines and pictamine, and bis

  6. A solvatochromatic approach to quantifying formulation effects on dermal permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, R E; Xia, X-R; Vijay, V; Riviere, J E

    2008-01-01

    Dermal risk assessments are most often concerned with the occupational and environmental exposure to a single chemical and then determining solute permeability through in vitro or in vivo experimentation with various animal models and/or computational approaches. Oftentimes, the skin is exposed to more than one chemical that could potentially modulate dermal permeability of the chemical that could cause adverse health effects. The focus of this article is to demonstrate that these formulation effects on dermal permeability can occur with simple solvent formulations or complex industrial formulations and that these effects can be modeled within the context of a linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). This research demonstrated that formulation-specific strength coefficients (r p a b v) predicted (r(2) = 0.75-0.83) changes in the dermal permeability of phenolic compounds when formulated with commercial metal-working fluid (MWF) formulations or 50% ethanol. Further experimentation demonstrated that chemical-induced changes in skin permeability with 50% ethanol are strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.91) to similar changes in an inert membrane-coated fiber (MCF) array system consisting of three chemically diverse membranes. Changes in specific strength coefficients pertaining to changes in hydrogen donating ability (Deltab) and hydrophobicity (Deltav) across membrane systems were identified as important quantitative interactions associated with ethanol mixtures. This solvatochromatic approach along with the use of a MCF array system holds promise for predicting dermal permeability of complex chemical formulations in occupational exposures where performance additives can potentially modulate permeability of potential toxicants.

  7. General time-dependent formulation of quantum scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althorpe, Stuart C.

    2004-01-01

    We derive and explain the key ideas behind a time-dependent formulation of quantum scattering theory, applicable generally to systems with a finite-range scattering potential. The scattering is initiated and probed by plane wave packets, which are localized just outside the range of the potential. The asymptotic limits of conventional scattering theory (initiation in the remote past; detection in the remote future) are not taken. Instead, the differential cross section (DCS) is obtained by projecting the scattered wave packet onto the probe plane wave packets. The projection also yields a time-dependent version of the DCS. Cuts through the wave packet, just as it exits the scattering potential, yield time-dependent and time-independent angular distributions that give a close-up picture of the scattering which complements the DCS. We have previously applied the theory to interpret experimental cross sections of chemical reactions [e.g., S. C. Althorpe, F. Fernandez-Alonso, B. D. Bean, J. D. Ayers, A. E. Pomerantz, R. N. Zare, and E. Wrede, Nature (London) 416, 67 (2002)]. This paper gives the derivation of the theory, and explains its relation to conventional scattering theory. For clarity, the derivation is restricted to spherical-particle scattering, though it may readily be extended to general multichannel systems. We illustrate the theory using a simple application to hard-sphere scattering

  8. THE EFFECT OF MAGNETIC TOPOLOGY ON THERMALLY DRIVEN WIND: TOWARD A GENERAL FORMULATION OF THE BRAKING LAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Réville, Victor; Brun, Allan Sacha; Strugarek, Antoine; Pinto, Rui F.; Matt, Sean P.

    2015-01-01

    Stellar wind is thought to be the main process responsible for the spin down of main-sequence stars. The extraction of angular momentum by a magnetized wind has been studied for decades, leading to several formulations for the resulting torque. However, previous studies generally consider simple dipole or split monopole stellar magnetic topologies. Here we consider, in addition to a dipolar stellar magnetic field, both quadrupolar and octupolar configurations, while also varying the rotation rate and the magnetic field strength. Sixty simulations made with a 2.5D cylindrical and axisymmetric set-up, and computed with the PLUTO code, were used to find torque formulations for each topology. We further succeed to give a unique law that fits the data for every topology by formulating the torque in terms of the amount of open magnetic flux in the wind. We also show that our formulation can be applied to even more realistic magnetic topologies, with examples of the Sun in its minimum and maximum phases as observed at the Wilcox Solar Observatory, and of a young K-star (TYC-0486-4943-1) whose topology has been obtained by Zeeman-Doppler Imaging

  9. A FDM anisotropic formulation for EEG simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, P; Hyttinen, J; Inchingolo, P; Magrofuoco, A; Mininel, S; Vatta, F

    2006-01-01

    Accurate head modeling is required to properly simulate bioelectric phenomena in 3-D as well as to estimate the 3-D bioelectric activity starting from superficial bioelectric measurements and 3-D imaging. Aiming to build an accurate and realistic representation of the volume conductor of the head, also the anisotropy of head tissues should be taken into account. In this paper we describe a new finite-difference method (FDM) formulation which accounts for anisotropy of the various head tissues. Our proposal, being based on FDM, derives the head model directly from patient's specific clinical images. We present here the details of the numerical formulation and the method validation by comparing our numerical proposal and known analytical results using a multi-shell anisotropic head model with skull anisotropy. Furthermore, we analyzed also different numerical grid refinement and EEG source characteristics. The comparison with previously developed FDM methods shows a good performance of the proposed method.

  10. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  11. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  12. Noncanonical Hamiltonian density formulation of hydrodynamics and ideal MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.; Greene, J.M.

    1980-04-01

    A new Hamiltonian density formulation of a perfect fluid with or without a magnetic field is presented. Contrary to previous work the dynamical variables are the physical variables, rho, v, B, and s, which form a noncanonical set. A Poisson bracket which satisfies the Jacobi identity is defined. This formulation is transformed to a Hamiltonian system where the dynamical variables are the spatial Fourier coefficients of the fluid variables

  13. A simple model for binary star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, C.A.; Eggleton, P.P.

    1985-01-01

    A simple model for calculating the evolution of binary stars is presented. Detailed stellar evolution calculations of stars undergoing mass and energy transfer at various rates are reported and used to identify the dominant physical processes which determine the type of evolution. These detailed calculations are used to calibrate the simple model and a comparison of calculations using the detailed stellar evolution equations and the simple model is made. Results of the evolution of a few binary systems are reported and compared with previously published calculations using normal stellar evolution programs. (author)

  14. Simple Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.

  15. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  16. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  17. Droids Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Mazo, Gary

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Droid series smartphone - Droid, Droid X, Droid 2, or Droid 2 Global - and are eager to get the most out of your device, Droids Made Simple is perfect for you. Authors Martin Trautschold, Gary Mazo and Marziah Karch guide you through all of the features, tips, and tricks using their proven combination of clear instructions and detailed visuals. With hundreds of annotated screenshots and step-by-step directions, Droids Made Simple will transform you into a Droid expert, improving your productivity, and most importantly, helping you take advantage of all of the cool features that c

  18. Excel 2010 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Get the most out of Excel 2010 with Excel 2010 Made Simple - learn the key features, understand what's new, and utilize dozens of time-saving tips and tricks to get your job done. Over 500 screen visuals and clear-cut instructions guide you through the features of Excel 2010, from formulas and charts to navigating around a worksheet and understanding Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and macros. Excel 2010 Made Simple takes a practical and highly effective approach to using Excel 2010, showing you the best way to complete your most common spreadsheet tasks. You'll learn how to input, format,

  19. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the lattice: I. Loop formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baumgartner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of supersymmetric field theories on the lattice with (spontaneously broken supersymmetry suffer from a fermion sign problem related to the vanishing of the Witten index. We propose a novel approach which solves this problem in low dimensions by formulating the path integral on the lattice in terms of fermion loops. For N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics the loop formulation becomes particularly simple and in this paper – the first in a series of three – we discuss in detail the reformulation of this model in terms of fermionic and bosonic bonds for various lattice discretisations including one which is Q-exact.

  20. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  1. Working with Simple Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  2. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  3. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  4. Simple cryogenic infrared window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, M.; Hartemink, M.; Godfried, H.P; Godfried, Herman

    1991-01-01

    A simple, cheap technique is reported that allows materials with both large and small thermal expansion coefficients to be mounted as windows in low temperature cryostats while at the same time avoiding thermal stresses. The construction may be thermally cycled many times with no change in its

  5. Structure of simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The results obtained by application to argon and sodium of the two important methods of studying the structure of liquids: scattering of X-rays and neutrons, are presented on one hand. On the other hand the principal models employed for reconstituting the structure of simple liquids are exposed: mathematical models, lattice models and their derived models, experimental models. (author) [fr

  6. Curcumin phytosomal softgel formulation: Development, optimization and physicochemical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allam Ahmed N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a naturally occurring lipophilic molecule can exert multiple and diverse bioactivities. However, its limited aqueous solubility and extensive presystemic metabolism restrict its bioavailability. Curcumin phytosomes were prepared by a simple solvent evaporation method where free flowing powder was obtained in addition to a newly developed semisolid formulation to increase curcumin content in softgels. Phytosomal powder was characterized in terms of drug content and zeta potential. Thirteen different softgel formulations were developed using oils such as Miglyol 812, castor oil and oleic acid, a hydrophilic vehicle such as PEG 400 and bioactive surfactants such as Cremophor EL and KLS P 124. Selected formulations were characterized in terms of curcumin in vitro dissolution. TEM analysis revealed good stability and a spherical, self-closed structure of curcumin phytosomes in complex formulations. Stability studies of chosen formulations prepared using the hydrophilic vehicle revealed a stable curcumin dissolution pattern. In contrast, a dramatic decrease in curcumin dissolution was observed in case of phytosomes formulated in oily vehicles.

  7. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  8. A formulation to encapsulate nootkatone for tick control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behle, Robert W; Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Bharadwaj, Anuja; Stafford, Kirby C

    2011-11-01

    Nootkatone is a component of grapefruit oil that is toxic to the disease-vectoring tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, but unfortunately causes phytotoxicity to treated plants and has a short residual activity due to volatility. We prepared a lignin-encapsulated nootkatone formulation to compare with a previously used emulsifiable formulation for volatility, plant phytotoxicity, and toxicity to unfed nymphs of I. scapularis. Volatility of nootkatone was measured directly by trapping nootkatone vapor in a closed system and indirectly by measuring nootkatone residue on treated filter paper after exposure to simulated sunlight (Xenon). After 24 h in the closed system, traps collected only 15% of the nootkatone applied as the encapsulated formulation compared with 40% applied as the emulsifiable formulation. After a 1-h light exposure, the encapsulated formulation retained 92% of the nootkatone concentration compared with only 26% retained by the emulsifiable formulation. For plant phytotoxicity, cabbage, Brassica oleracea L., leaves treated with the encapsulated formulation expressed less necrosis, retaining greater leaf weight compared with leaves treated with the emusifiable formulation. The nootkatone in the emulsifiable formulation was absorbed by cabbage and oat, Avena sativa L., plants (41 and 60% recovered 2 h after application, respectively), as opposed to 100% recovery from the plants treated with encapsulated nootkatone. Using a treated vial technique, encapsulated nootkatone was significantly more toxic to I. scapularis nymphs (LC50 = 20 ng/cm2) compared with toxicity of the emulsifiable formulation (LC50 = 35 ng/cm2). Thus, the encapsulation of nootkatone improved toxicity for tick control, reduced nootkatone volatility, and reduced plant phytotoxicity.

  9. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  10. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Complexity is simple!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, William; Montero, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    In this note we investigate the role of Lloyd's computational bound in holographic complexity. Our goal is to translate the assumptions behind Lloyd's proof into the bulk language. In particular, we discuss the distinction between orthogonalizing and `simple' gates and argue that these notions are useful for diagnosing holographic complexity. We show that large black holes constructed from series circuits necessarily employ simple gates, and thus do not satisfy Lloyd's assumptions. We also estimate the degree of parallel processing required in this case for elementary gates to orthogonalize. Finally, we show that for small black holes at fixed chemical potential, the orthogonalization condition is satisfied near the phase transition, supporting a possible argument for the Weak Gravity Conjecture first advocated in [1].

  12. Simple shear of deformable square objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagus, Susan H.; Lan, Labao

    2003-12-01

    Finite element models of square objects in a contrasting matrix in simple shear show that the objects deform to a variety of shapes. For a range of viscosity contrasts, we catalogue the changing shapes and orientations of objects in progressive simple shear. At moderate simple shear ( γ=1.5), the shapes are virtually indistinguishable from those in equivalent pure shear models with the same bulk strain ( RS=4), examined in a previous study. In theory, differences would be expected, especially for very stiff objects or at very large strain. In all our simple shear models, relatively competent square objects become asymmetric barrel shapes with concave shortened edges, similar to some types of boudin. Incompetent objects develop shapes surprisingly similar to mica fish described in mylonites.

  13. Modern mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  14. Working with simple machines

    OpenAIRE

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that students can evaluate their usefulness as machines.

  15. The simple complex numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Zalesny, Jaroslaw

    2008-01-01

    A new simple geometrical interpretation of complex numbers is presented. It differs from their usual interpretation as points in the complex plane. From the new point of view the complex numbers are rather operations on vectors than points. Moreover, in this approach the real, imaginary and complex numbers have similar interpretation. They are simply some operations on vectors. The presented interpretation is simpler, more natural, and better adjusted to possible applications in geometry and ...

  16. Information technology made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Information Technology: Made Simple covers the full range of information technology topics, including more traditional subjects such as programming languages, data processing, and systems analysis. The book discusses information revolution, including topics about microchips, information processing operations, analog and digital systems, information processing system, and systems analysis. The text also describes computers, computer hardware, microprocessors, and microcomputers. The peripheral devices connected to the central processing unit; the main types of system software; application soft

  17. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  18. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  19. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  20. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  1. Simple scheme for gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Nomura, Yasunori

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple scheme for constructing models that achieve successful gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. In addition to our previous work [H. Murayama and Y. Nomura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 151803 (2007)] that proposed drastically simplified models using metastable vacua of supersymmetry breaking in vectorlike theories, we show there are many other successful models using various types of supersymmetry-breaking mechanisms that rely on enhanced low-energy U(1) R symmetries. In models where supersymmetry is broken by elementary singlets, one needs to assume U(1) R violating effects are accidentally small, while in models where composite fields break supersymmetry, emergence of approximate low-energy U(1) R symmetries can be understood simply on dimensional grounds. Even though the scheme still requires somewhat small parameters to sufficiently suppress gravity mediation, we discuss their possible origins due to dimensional transmutation. The scheme accommodates a wide range of the gravitino mass to avoid cosmological problems

  2. Stability of an alternative extemporaneous captopril fast-dispersing tablet formulation versus an extemporaneous oral liquid formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Ritesh M; McDermott, Claire; Barlow, James; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2012-11-01

    Administration of medications to pediatric patients is challenging because many drugs are not commercially available in appropriate dosage formulations and/or strengths. Consequently, these drugs are prepared extemporaneously as oral liquid (OL) formulations using marketed tablets or capsules. In many cases, the stability of these extemporaneous preparations, which may affect their tolerability, has not been documented. An alternative extemporaneous solid formulation, such as a fast-dispersing tablet (FDT), may offer enhanced stability as well as dosing flexibility because it may be administered as an orodispersible tablet or as a reconstituted suspension/solution. Although FDTs are available increasingly as patient-friendly oral dosage formulations, and their simple method of manufacture can be applied to extemporaneous formulations, such applications have not been explored to date. The use of extemporaneous captopril OL formulations in hospitals in Ireland was surveyed, and the stability of the most commonly used captopril formulation (reference) was investigated and compared with that of a newly available extemporaneous FDT formulation. The survey was carried out in 120 hospitals in the Republic of Ireland. The 56-day stability of the most commonly used formulation was compared with that of a newly available extemporaneous captopril FDT preparation. The captopril content of the formulations was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Formulations were also monitored for changes in appearance, including color; odor; and pH (OLs only). The survey showed that extemporaneously prepared captopril OLs were extensively used, particularly in specialist children's hospitals. The most commonly used preparation was a xanthan gum-based oral suspension. Analysis of these OL preparations showed the OLs to have been stable up to day 7, but that the captopril concentration decreased to 72% to 84% at day 14 and to 59% to 68% at day 56; this decrease was

  3. Abuse-deterrent Opioid Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Ronald S; Pagán, Olivia H; Cicero, Theodore J

    2017-12-18

    Abuse-deterrent opioid formulations have been suggested as one way to decrease the abuse, addiction, and overdose of orally prescribed opioids. Ten oral opioid formulations have received abuse-deterrent labeling by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Their properties consist of physical and/or chemical means by which the pills resist manipulation and create a barrier to unintended administration, such as chewing, nasal snorting, smoking, and intravenous injection. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of abuse-deterrent technology, the types of premarketing studies required for FDA approval, the pharmacology of the currently approved abuse-deterrent opioid formulations, and the evidence for and against their influence on opioid abuse. We conclude that there is currently insufficient evidence to indicate that the availability of abuse-deterrent opioid formulations has altered the trajectory of opioid overdose and addiction; however, postmarketing studies are in their infancy, and novel deterrent formulations are continually being developed and submitted for marketing approval.

  4. New formulations for tsunami runup estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, U.; Aydin, B.; Ceylan, N.

    2017-12-01

    We evaluate shoreline motion and maximum runup in two folds: One, we use linear shallow water-wave equations over a sloping beach and solve as initial-boundary value problem similar to the nonlinear solution of Aydın and Kanoglu (2017, Pure Appl. Geophys., https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-017-1508-z). Methodology we present here is simple; it involves eigenfunction expansion and, hence, avoids integral transform techniques. We then use several different types of initial wave profiles with and without initial velocity, estimate shoreline properties and confirm classical runup invariance between linear and nonlinear theories. Two, we use the nonlinear shallow water-wave solution of Kanoglu (2004, J. Fluid Mech. 513, 363-372) to estimate maximum runup. Kanoglu (2004) presented a simple integral solution for the nonlinear shallow water-wave equations using the classical Carrier and Greenspan transformation, and further extended shoreline position and velocity to a simpler integral formulation. In addition, Tinti and Tonini (2005, J. Fluid Mech. 535, 33-64) defined initial condition in a very convenient form for near-shore events. We use Tinti and Tonini (2005) type initial condition in Kanoglu's (2004) shoreline integral solution, which leads further simplified estimates for shoreline position and velocity, i.e. algebraic relation. We then use this algebraic runup estimate to investigate effect of earthquake source parameters on maximum runup and present results similar to Sepulveda and Liu (2016, Coast. Eng. 112, 57-68).

  5. Formulations of Amlodipine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Sheraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amlodipine (AD is a calcium channel blocker that is mainly used in the treatment of hypertension and angina. However, latest findings have revealed that its efficacy is not only limited to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases as it has shown to possess antioxidant activity and plays an important role in apoptosis. Therefore, it is also employed in the treatment of cerebrovascular stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, leukemia, breast cancer, and so forth either alone or in combination with other drugs. AD is a photosensitive drug and requires protection from light. A number of workers have tried to formulate various conventional and nonconventional dosage forms of AD. This review highlights all the formulations that have been developed to achieve maximum stability with the desired therapeutic action for the delivery of AD such as fast dissolving tablets, floating tablets, layered tablets, single-pill combinations, capsules, oral and transdermal films, suspensions, emulsions, mucoadhesive microspheres, gels, transdermal patches, and liposomal formulations.

  6. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  7. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  8. Theory of simple liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the theory of ""simple"" liquids. The new second edition has been rearranged and considerably expanded to give a balanced account both of basic theory and of the advances of the past decade. It presents the main ideas of modern liquid state theory in a way that is both pedagogical and self-contained. The book should be accessible to graduate students and research workers, both experimentalists and theorists, who have a good background in elementary mechanics.Key Features* Compares theoretical deductions with experimental r

  9. ASP made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Deane, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    ASP Made Simple provides a brief introduction to ASP for the person who favours self teaching and/or does not have expensive computing facilities to learn on. The book will demonstrate how the principles of ASP can be learned with an ordinary PC running Personal Web Server, MS Access and a general text editor like Notepad.After working through the material readers should be able to:* Write ASP scripts that can display changing information on a web browser* Request records from a remote database or add records to it* Check user names & passwords and take this knowledge forward, either for their

  10. Beyond Simple Headquarters Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    -divisional importance and embeddedness effects are contingent on the overall complexity of the innovation project as signified by the size of the development network. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures and that we need to go beyond simple.......e., an innovation that is important for the firm beyond the divisional boundaries, drives dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. Contrary to expectations, on average, a non-significant effect of cross-divisional embeddedness on dual headquarters involvement is found. Yet, both cross...

  11. Dimensional analysis made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own. (paper)

  12. Data processing made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The

  13. Simple and surgical exodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBowes, Linda J

    2005-07-01

    Preemptive and postoperative pain management is part of patient care when performing extractions. Simple extractions can become complicated when tooth roots are fractured. Adequate lighting,magnification, and surgical techniques are important when per-forming surgical (complicated) extractions. Radiographs should be taken before extractions and also during the procedure to assist with difficult extractions. Adequate flap design and bone removal are necessary when performing surgical extractions. Complications, including ocular trauma, jaw fracture, and soft tissue trauma, are avoided or minimized with proper patient selection and technique.

  14. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  15. Probabilistic simple sticker systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajoo, Mathuri; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2017-04-01

    A model for DNA computing using the recombination behavior of DNA molecules, known as a sticker system, was introduced by by L. Kari, G. Paun, G. Rozenberg, A. Salomaa, and S. Yu in the paper entitled DNA computing, sticker systems and universality from the journal of Acta Informatica vol. 35, pp. 401-420 in the year 1998. A sticker system uses the Watson-Crick complementary feature of DNA molecules: starting from the incomplete double stranded sequences, and iteratively using sticking operations until a complete double stranded sequence is obtained. It is known that sticker systems with finite sets of axioms and sticker rules generate only regular languages. Hence, different types of restrictions have been considered to increase the computational power of sticker systems. Recently, a variant of restricted sticker systems, called probabilistic sticker systems, has been introduced [4]. In this variant, the probabilities are initially associated with the axioms, and the probability of a generated string is computed by multiplying the probabilities of all occurrences of the initial strings in the computation of the string. Strings for the language are selected according to some probabilistic requirements. In this paper, we study fundamental properties of probabilistic simple sticker systems. We prove that the probabilistic enhancement increases the computational power of simple sticker systems.

  16. Hamiltonian formulation of the supermembrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Sezgin, E.; Tanii, Y.

    1987-06-01

    The Hamiltonian formulation of the supermembrane theory in eleven dimensions is given. The covariant split of the first and second class constraints is exhibited, and their Dirac brackets are computed. Gauge conditions are imposed in such a way that the reparametrizations of the membrane with divergence free 2-vectors are unfixed. (author). 10 refs

  17. Curcumin nanodisks: formulation and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Mistuni; Singh, Amareshwar T. K.; Xu, Wenwei; Sulchek, Todd; Gordon, Leo I.; Ryan, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Nanodisks (ND) are nanoscale, disk-shaped phospholipid bilayers whose edge is stabilized by apolipoproteins. In the present study, ND were formulated with the bioactive polyphenol, curcumin, at a 6:1 phospholipid:curcumin molar ratio. Atomic force microscopy revealed that curcumin-ND are particles with diameters

  18. Alternate formulations of classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beil, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The Lorentz--Dirac, Wheeler--Feynman, and Synge formulations of classical electrodynamics are compared with regard to their equations of motion for charged particles and their treatment of radiation. It is found that the less familiar Synge theory offers a viable alternate to the other two, since it is theoretically consistent and predicts results not at variance with experiment

  19. Case Formulation in TADS CBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gregory M.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.

    2005-01-01

    For the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS), a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) manual was developed with the aim of balancing standardization and flexibility. In this article, we describe the manual's case formulation procedures, which served as one major mechanism of flexibility in TADS CBT. We first describe the essential…

  20. Covariant Formulation of Hooke's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gron, O.

    1981-01-01

    Introducing a four-vector strain and a four-force stress, Hooke's law is written as a four-vector equation. This formulation is shown to clarify seemingly paradoxical results in connection with uniformly accelerated motion, and rotational motion with angular acceleration. (Author/JN)

  1. On Hamiltonian formulation of cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This opens up the way to the usual technique of quantization. Elbaz et al [4] have applied this method to the Hamiltonian formulation of FRW cosmological equations. This note presents a generalization of this approach to a variety of cosmologies. A general Schrödinger wave equation has been derived and exact solutions ...

  2. Optimal information transfer in enzymatic networks: A field theoretic formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Himadri S.; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D.

    2017-07-01

    Signaling in enzymatic networks is typically triggered by environmental fluctuations, resulting in a series of stochastic chemical reactions, leading to corruption of the signal by noise. For example, information flow is initiated by binding of extracellular ligands to receptors, which is transmitted through a cascade involving kinase-phosphatase stochastic chemical reactions. For a class of such networks, we develop a general field-theoretic approach to calculate the error in signal transmission as a function of an appropriate control variable. Application of the theory to a simple push-pull network, a module in the kinase-phosphatase cascade, recovers the exact results for error in signal transmission previously obtained using umbral calculus [Hinczewski and Thirumalai, Phys. Rev. X 4, 041017 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevX.4.041017]. We illustrate the generality of the theory by studying the minimal errors in noise reduction in a reaction cascade with two connected push-pull modules. Such a cascade behaves as an effective three-species network with a pseudointermediate. In this case, optimal information transfer, resulting in the smallest square of the error between the input and output, occurs with a time delay, which is given by the inverse of the decay rate of the pseudointermediate. Surprisingly, in these examples the minimum error computed using simulations that take nonlinearities and discrete nature of molecules into account coincides with the predictions of a linear theory. In contrast, there are substantial deviations between simulations and predictions of the linear theory in error in signal propagation in an enzymatic push-pull network for a certain range of parameters. Inclusion of second-order perturbative corrections shows that differences between simulations and theoretical predictions are minimized. Our study establishes that a field theoretic formulation of stochastic biological signaling offers a systematic way to understand error propagation in

  3. Simple relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This monograph details several different methods for constructing simple relation algebras, many of which are new with this book. By drawing these seemingly different methods together, all are shown to be aspects of one general approach, for which several applications are given. These tools for constructing and analyzing relation algebras are of particular interest to mathematicians working in logic, algebraic logic, or universal algebra, but will also appeal to philosophers and theoretical computer scientists working in fields that use mathematics. The book is written with a broad audience in mind and features a careful, pedagogical approach; an appendix contains the requisite background material in relation algebras. Over 400 exercises provide ample opportunities to engage with the material, making this a monograph equally appropriate for use in a special topics course or for independent study. Readers interested in pursuing an extended background study of relation algebras will find a comprehensive treatme...

  4. A Simple Harmonic Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Peter W.; /Stanford U., ITP; Horn, Bart; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Rajendran, Surjeet; /Johns Hopkins U. /Stanford U., ITP; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We explore simple but novel bouncing solutions of general relativity that avoid singularities. These solutions require curvature k = +1, and are supported by a negative cosmological term and matter with -1 < w < -1 = 3. In the case of moderate bounces (where the ratio of the maximal scale factor a{sub +} to the minimal scale factor a{sub -} is {Omicron}(1)), the solutions are shown to be classically stable and cycle through an infinite set of bounces. For more extreme cases with large a{sub +} = a{sub -}, the solutions can still oscillate many times before classical instabilities take them out of the regime of validity of our approximations. In this regime, quantum particle production also leads eventually to a departure from the realm of validity of semiclassical general relativity, likely yielding a singular crunch. We briefly discuss possible applications of these models to realistic cosmology.

  5. SIMPLE LIFE AND RELIGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIRIM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in terms of the economy in which we live is one of the most important phenomenon of the century. This phenomenon present itself as the only determinant of people's lives by entering almost makes itself felt. The mo st obvious objective needs of the economy by triggering motive is to induce people to consume . Consumer culture pervades all aspects of the situation are people . Therefore, these people have the blessing of culture , beauty and value all in the name of w hatever is consumed. This is way out of the siege of moral and religious values we have is to go back again . Referred by local cultural and religious values, based on today increasingly come to the fore and the Muslim way of life appears to be close to th e plain / lean preferred by many people life has been a way of life. Even the simple life , a way of life in the Western world , a conception of life , a philosophy, a movement as it has become widely accepted. Here in determining the Muslim way of life Pr ophet. Prophet (sa lived the kind of life a very important model, sample, and determining which direction is known. Religious values, which is the carrier of the prophets, sent to the society they have always been examples and models. Because every aspect of human life, his life style and the surrounding area has a feature. We also value his life that he has unknowingly and without learning and skills and to understand it is not possible to live our religion . We also our presentation, we mainly of Islam o utlook on life and predicted life - style, including the Prophet of Islam 's (sa simple life to scrutinize and lifestyle issues related to reveal , in short Islam's how life has embraced and the Prophet. Prophet's will try to find answers to questions reg arding how to live.

  6. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  7. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  8. Influence of niacinamide containing formulations on the molecular and biophysical properties of the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, D; Crowther, J M; Matts, P J; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E

    2013-01-30

    Niacinamide-containing moisturisers are known be efficacious in alleviating dry skin conditions and improving stratum corneum (SC) barrier function. However, the mechanisms of action of niacinamide at the molecular level in the SC are still not well understood. Previously, we have reported the development of novel methods to probe SC barrier properties in vivo. The aim of the present study was to characterise changes in Trans Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL), corneocyte surface area and maturity, selected protease activities and SC thickness after repeated application of a simple vehicle containing niacinamide. A commercial formulation was also included as a reference. The left and right mid-volar forearms of 20 healthy volunteers were used as study sites, to which topical formulations were applied twice daily for 28 days. After successive tape-stripping, corneocyte maturity and surface area were assessed. In addition, activity of the desquamatory kallikrein (KLK) protease enzymes KLK5 and KLK7, and tryptase and plasmin (implicated in inflammatory process) were measured using a fluorogenic probe assay. The amount of protein removed and TEWL were also recorded. SC thickness before and after treatment was determined using Confocal Raman Spectroscopy (CRS). Overall (i) corneocyte maturity and surface area decreased with increasing number of tape strips, (ii) activity of both the desquamatory and inflammatory enzymes was highest in the outer layers of the SC and decreased with depth (iii) TEWL increased as more SC layers were removed. Furthermore, areas treated with formulations containing niacinamide were significantly different to pre-treatment baseline and untreated/vehicle-control treated sites, with larger and more mature corneocytes, decreased inflammatory activity, decreased TEWL and increased SC thickness. These data (a) confirm the utility of measures and metrics developed previously for the non-invasive assay of SC barrier function, (b) present an holistic picture

  9. Langevin formulation of quantum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncadelli, M.

    1989-03-01

    We first show that nonrelativistic quantum mechanics formulated at imaginary-(h/2 π) can formally be viewed as the Fokker-Planck description of a frictionless brownian motion, which occurs (in general) in an absorbing medium. We next offer a new formulation of quantum mechanics, which is basically the Langevin treatment of this brownian motion. Explicitly, we derive a noise-average representation for the transition probability W(X'',t''|X',t'), in terms of the solutions to a Langevin equation with a Gaussian white-noise. Upon analytic continuation back to real-(h/2 π),W(X'',t''|X',t') becomes the propagator of the original Schroedinger equation. Our approach allows for a straightforward application to quantum dynamical problems of the mathematical techniques of classical stochastic processes. Moreover, computer simulations of quantum mechanical systems can be carried out by using numerical programs based on the Langevin dynamics. (author). 19 refs, 1 tab

  10. Putative skin-protective formulations in preventing and/or inhibiting experimentally-produced irritant and allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Willard, P; Maibach, H I

    1999-10-01

    The effectiveness of skin protective formulations was evaluated in a previously-described in vivo human model. All formulations failed to inhibit ammonium hydroxide and urea irritation. Only paraffin wax in cetyl alcohol statistically (plauryl sulfate irritation. Paraffin wax in cetyl alcohol was quantitatively the most effective formulation. These results suggest that some formulations may provide protective effects against certain, but not all, irritants or allergens.

  11. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-10-01

    Qualitatively, entropy is simple. What it is, why it is useful in understanding the behavior of macro systems or of molecular systems is easy to state: Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. The conventional q in qrev/T is the energy dispersed to or from a substance or a system. On a molecular basis, entropy increase means that a system changes from having fewer accessible microstates to having a larger number of accessible microstates. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. The foregoing in no way denies the subtlety or the difficulty presented by entropy in thermodynamics—to first-year students or to professionals. However, as an aid to beginners in their quantitative study of thermodynamics, the qualitative conclusions in this article give students the advantage of a clear bird’s-eye view of why entropy increases in a wide variety of basic cases: a substance going from 0 K to T, phase change, gas expansion, mixing of ideal gases or liquids, colligative effects, and the Gibbs equation. See Letter re: this article.

  12. Quasispecies made simple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J J Bull

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Quasispecies are clouds of genotypes that appear in a population at mutation-selection balance. This concept has recently attracted the attention of virologists, because many RNA viruses appear to generate high levels of genetic variation that may enhance the evolution of drug resistance and immune escape. The literature on these important evolutionary processes is, however, quite challenging. Here we use simple models to link mutation-selection balance theory to the most novel property of quasispecies: the error threshold-a mutation rate below which populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation-selection balance and above which the population experiences an error catastrophe, that is, the loss of the favored genotype through frequent deleterious mutations. These models show that a single fitness landscape may contain multiple, hierarchically organized error thresholds and that an error threshold is affected by the extent of back mutation and redundancy in the genotype-to-phenotype map. Importantly, an error threshold is distinct from an extinction threshold, which is the complete loss of the population through lethal mutations. Based on this framework, we argue that the lethal mutagenesis of a viral infection by mutation-inducing drugs is not a true error catastophe, but is an extinction catastrophe.

  13. Effects of kelp Ecklonia maxima inclusion in formulated feed on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of kelp Ecklonia maxima inclusion in formulated feeds on abalone growth and gut bacterial communities has not been previously investigated in South Africa. An eight-month on-farm growth trial was conducted with sub-adult Haliotis midae (~43 mm shell length) fed graded levels of kelp in formulated feeds.

  14. FORMULATION OF ACECLOFENAC SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLET USING HYDROPHILIC NATURAL GUM

    OpenAIRE

    Parasuram Rajam Radhika; Pankaj R. Kharkate; Thangavel Sivakumar

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce production costs, a simple, direct compression sustained release formulation consisting of drug Aceclofenac and by using hydrophilic polymer guar gum and tamarind gum as the release modifier was investigated. No interaction between drug and polymer was confirmed by FTIR, which shows the suitability of all excipients with the drug to formulate the sustained release matrix tablets. Five batches of sustained release matrix tablets of Aceclofenac with both guar gum and tamarind...

  15. Special relativity as a simple geometry problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Rodrigo de; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the 'rest system' are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental effects of standard relativistic kinematics, namely time dilation, length contraction and relativity of simultaneity. Moreover, it also provides an immediate image of other important and more subtle aspects, often passed by in relativity courses, such as the conventionality of simultaneity thesis, possible non-invariance of the one-way speed of light and compatibility between the Lorentz-Poincare and Einstein-Minkowski philosophies. The geometric scheme so constructed constitutes a powerful tool to clearly illustrate both traditional and not-so-traditional aspects of special relativity teaching

  16. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  17. Simple inflationary quintessential model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker geometry, we present a non-geodesically past complete model of our Universe without the big bang singularity at finite cosmic time, describing its evolution starting from its early inflationary era up to the present accelerating phase. We found that a hydrodynamical fluid with nonlinear equation of state could result in such scenario, which after the end of this inflationary stage, suffers a sudden phase transition and enters into the stiff matter dominated era, and the Universe becomes reheated due to a huge amount of particle production. Finally, it asymptotically enters into the de Sitter phase concluding the present accelerated expansion. Using the reconstruction technique, we also show that this background provides an extremely simple inflationary quintessential potential whose inflationary part is given by the well-known 1-dimensional Higgs potential, i.e., a double well inflationary potential, and the quintessential one by an exponential potential that leads to a deflationary regime after this inflation, and it can depict the current cosmic acceleration at late times. Moreover the Higgs potential leads to a power spectrum of the cosmological perturbations which fit well with the latest Planck estimations. Further, we compared our viable potential with some known inflationary quintessential potential, which shows that our quintessential model, that is, the Higgs potential combined with the exponential one, is an improved version of them because it contains an analytic solution that allows us to perform all analytic calculations. Finally, we have shown that the introduction of a nonzero cosmological constant simplifies the potential considerably with an analytic behavior of the background which again permits us to evaluate all the quantities analytically.

  18. Formulation of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensaci Oussama Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two formulations containing culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk. & M.A. Curtis, isolated previously from stems of Euphorbia bupleuroides subsp. luteola (Kralik Maire, were experimentally tested for their aphicid activity against the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. found in Algeria. It was shown that invert emulsions are more effective against aphids, than using aqueous suspensions. This was especially true for formulations containing culture filtrates. The relatively insignificant mortalities obtained by formulations containing conidial suspensions indicated a low infectious potential towards the aphids. The proteolytic activity seemed to be more important than the chitinolytic activity of the fungus against the black bean aphid A. fabae

  19. Audits Made Simple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belangia, David Warren [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-09

    A company just got notified there is a big external audit coming in 3 months. Getting ready for an audit can be challenging, scary, and full of surprises. This Gold Paper describes a typical audit from notification of the intent to audit through disposition of the final report including Best Practices, Opportunities for Improvement (OFI), and issues that must be fixed. Good preparation can improve the chances of success. Ensuring the auditors understand the environment and requirements is paramount to success. It helps the auditors understand that the enterprise really does think that security is important. Understanding and following a structured process ensures a smooth audit process. Ensuring follow-up on OFIs and issues in a structured fashion will also make the next audit easier. It is important to keep in mind that the auditors will use the previous report as a starting point. Now the only worry is the actual audit and subsequent report and how well the company has done.

  20. Formulation and Characterization of Sustained Release Floating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate sustained release gastroretentive microballoons of metformin hydrochloride with the objective of improving its bioavailability. Methods: Microballoons of metformin hydrochloride were formulated by solvent evaporation and diffusion method using varying mixtures of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ...

  1. Una historia muy simple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Mazzini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Voy a contarles una historia muy simple. Probablemente no les parecerá nada espe- cial y no quiero robarles tiempo, así que voy a tratar de hacerlo lo más rápido posible. Me inscribí en psicología porque eso hizo mi mejor amiga. Éramos compañeras desde jardín de infantes y siempre la seguí en todo. En tercer año de facultad conoció a su novio y continuó sus estudios en otro país; por primera vez no podía seguirla. Cuando rendí todos los exámenes, el profesor me preguntó si estaba interesada en hacer mi tesis sobre el perfil psicológico de los participantes de reality shows. Accedí para no tener que pensar en otro tema, aunque no veía mucho la televisión porque me pasaba las noches entre los libros de estudio. Enseguida me di cuenta de que, evidentemente, el profesor había firmado un contrato con la emisora: a él lo empleaban y y yo era la que iba a tener que trabajar, pero no me importaba. La tesis de licenciatura no es más que eso y hay que hacerla. Yo evaluaba los candidatos y elegía a los participantes que vivirían juntos duran- te algunos meses. Como hacían el programa con una licencia extranjera y ya sabían qué le interesaba a la audiencia, yo tenía preparados los rasgos de los perfiles psicológicos que en ese aislamiento colectivo no resultan bien. Tuve que elegir gente variada, pero dentro de la media; nunca nada verdaderamente especial. Cuando me gradué, tuve las noches libres: de pronto tenía mucho más tiempo y podía haber visto el programa, pero ya había terminado. Pero oí que había sido todo un éxito y que sobre todo a los chicos les había encantado el reality y los participantes elegidos.

  2. Perfume formulation: words and chats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellena, Céline

    2008-06-01

    What does it mean to create fragrances with materials from chemistry and/or from nature? How are they used to display their characteristic differences, their own personality? Is it easier to create with synthetic raw materials or with essential oils? This review explains why a perfume formulation corresponds in fact to a conversation, an interplay between synthetic and natural perfumery materials. A synthetic raw material carries a single information, and usually is very linear. Its smell is uniform, clear, and faithful. Natural raw materials, on the contrary, provide a strong, complex and generous image. While a synthetic material can be seen as a single word, a natural one such as rose oil could be compared to chatting: cold, warm, sticky, heavy, transparent, pepper, green, metallic, smooth, watery, fruity... full of information. Yet, if a very small amount of the natural material is used, nothing happens, the fragrance will not change. However, if a large amount is used, the rose oil will swallow up everything else. The fragrance will smell of nothing else except rose! To formulate a perfume is not to create a culinary recipe, with only dosing the ingredients in well-balanced amounts. To formulate rather means to flexibly knit materials together with a lively stitch, meeting or repelling each other, building a pleasant form, which is neither fixed, nor solid, nor rigid. A fragrance has an overall structure, which ranges from a clear sound, made up of stable, unique, and linear items, to a background chat, comfortable and reassuring. But that does, of course, not mean that there is only one way of creating a fragrance!

  3. Formulation of soy oil products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woerfel, John B.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments different formulations of soy oil products such as salad and cooking oils, margarine, shortenings, commercial shortenings, frying shortenings, and fluid shortenings. Hydrogenation and its influence on final products is also included.

    El trabajo presenta diferentes formulaciones a base de aceite de soja tales como aceites para ensalada y cocinado, margarina, grasas sólidas (shortenings, grasas sólidas comerciales, grasas sólidas para frituras y grasas fluidas. Hace también referencia al proceso de hidrogenación y a sus efectos en los productos finales.

  4. What's in a Case Formulation?: Development and Use of a Content Coding Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, Tracy D.; Kendjelic, Edward M.; Lucas, Cynthia P.

    1998-01-01

    A case formulation content coding method is described and applied to the formulation section of 56 intake evaluations randomly selected from an outpatient psychiatric clinic. The coding manual showed good reliability (mean kappa = 0.86) across content and quality categories. Although 95% of the formulations included descriptive infor- mation, only 37% addressed hypothesized predisposing life events accounting for the individual's presenting problems, and 16% included a precipitating stressor. Only 43% inferred a psychological mechanism, 2% inferred a biological mechanism, and 2% mentioned sociocultural factors. Formulations were more descriptive than inferential, more simple than complex, and moderately precise in use of language. In sum, clinicians used the formulation primarily to summarize descriptive information rather than to integrate it into a hypothesis about the causes, precipitants, and maintaining influences of an individual's problems. PMID:9527958

  5. What's in a case formulation? Development and use of a content coding manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, T D; Kendjelic, E M; Lucas, C P

    1998-01-01

    A case formulation content coding method is described and applied to the formulation section of 56 intake evaluations randomly selected from an outpatient psychiatric clinic. The coding manual showed good reliability (mean kappa = 0.86) across content and quality categories. Although 95% of the formulations included descriptive information, only 37% addressed hypothesized predisposing life events accounting for the individual's presenting problems, and 16% included a precipitating stressor. Only 43% inferred a psychological mechanism, 2% inferred a biological mechanism, and 2% mentioned sociocultural factors. Formulations were more descriptive than inferential, more simple than complex, and moderately precise in use of language. In sum, clinicians used the formulation primarily to summarize descriptive information rather than to integrate it into a hypothesis about the causes, precipitants, and maintaining influences of an individual's problems.

  6. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  7. Performance Evaluation of Abrasive Grinding Wheel Formulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a study on the formulation and manufacture of abrasive grinding wheel using locally formulated silicon carbide abrasive grains. Six local raw material substitutes were identified through pilot study and with the initial mix of the identified materials, a systematic search for an optimal formulation of silicon ...

  8. Two Simple Models for Fracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jaren Quinn

    Recent developments in fracking have enable the recovery of oil and gas from tight shale reservoirs. These developments have also made fracking one of the most controversial environmental issues in the United States. Despite the growing controversy surrounding fracking, there is relatively little publicly available research. This dissertation introduces two simple models for fracking that were developed using techniques from non-linear and statistical physics. The first model assumes that the volume of induced fractures must be equal to the volume of injected fluid. For simplicity, these fractures are assumed to form a spherically symmetric damage region around the borehole. The predicted volumes of water necessary to create a damage region with a given radius are in good agreement with reported values. The second model is a modification of invasion percolation which was previously introduced to model water flooding. The reservoir rock is represented by a regular lattice of local traps that contain oil and/or gas separated by rock barriers. The barriers are assumed to be highly heterogeneous and are assigned random strengths. Fluid is injected from a central site and the weakest rock barrier breaks allowing fluid to flow into the adjacent site. The process repeats with the weakest barrier breaking and fluid flowing to an adjacent site each time step. Extensive numerical simulations were carried out to obtain statistical properties of the growing fracture network. The network was found to be fractal with fractal dimensions differing slightly from the accepted values for traditional percolation. Additionally, the network follows Horton-Strahler and Tokunaga branching statistics which have been used to characterize river networks. As with other percolation models, the growth of the network occurs in bursts. These bursts follow a power-law size distribution similar to observed microseismic events. Reservoir stress anisotropy is incorporated into the model by assigning

  9. Matrix formulation of pebble circulation in the pebbed code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gougar, H.D.; Terry, W.K.; Ougouag, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The PEBBED technique provides a foundation for equilibrium fuel cycle analysis and optimization in pebble-bed cores in which the fuel elements are continuously flowing and, if desired, recirculating. In addition to the modern analysis techniques used in or being developed for the code, PEBBED incorporates a novel nuclide-mixing algorithm that allows for sophisticated recirculation patterns using a matrix generated from basic core parameters. Derived from a simple partitioning of the pebble flow, the elements of the recirculation matrix are used to compute the spatially averaged density of each nuclide at the entry plane from the nuclide densities of pebbles emerging from the discharge conus. The order of the recirculation matrix is a function of the flexibility and sophistication of the fuel handling mechanism. This formulation for coupling pebble flow and neutronics enables core design and fuel cycle optimization to be performed by the manipulation of a few key core parameters. The formulation is amenable to modern optimization techniques. (author)

  10. Generalized formulation of free energy and application to photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hwe Ik; Choi, M. Y.

    2018-03-01

    The origin of free energy on the earth is solar radiation. However, the amount of free energy it contains has seldom been investigated, because the free energy concept was believed to be inappropriate for a system of photons. Instead, the origin of free energy has been sought in the process of photosynthesis, imposing a limit of conversion given by the Carnot efficiency. Here we present a general formulation, capable of not only assessing accurately the available amount of free energy in the photon gas but also explaining the primary photosynthetic process more succinctly. In this formulation, the problem of "photosynthetic conversion of the internal energy of photons into the free energy of chlorophyll" is replaced by simple "free energy transduction" between the photons and chlorophyll. An analytic expression for the photosynthetic efficiency is derived and shown to deviate from the Carnot efficiency. Some predictions verifiable possibly by observation are also suggested.

  11. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  12. Simple improvements of a simple solution for inverting resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); P.R.J. van der Laag

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we address some simple improvements of the algorithm of Rouveirol and Puget [1989] for inverting resolution. Their approach is based on automatic change of representation called flattening and unflattening of clauses in a logic program. This enables a simple implementation

  13. Development of novel solid-phase protein formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo Ortiz, Brenda Liz

    profiles and activity during in vitro release. These findings demonstrate that protein particle size is a crucial parameter for protein encapsulation in PLGA devices. Consequently, we developed a simple and effective method to obtain very small protein particles to further improve protein stability in PLGA microspheres. Protein nanoparticles of approximately 200 rim size were obtained by co-lyophilization of HRP with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD), followed by suspension in ethyl acetate and sonication. We proved that protein integrity was maintained after the nanoparticle formulation. Finally, we encapsulated these protein nanospheres in PLGA microspheres by the s/o/w encapsulation method. The results showed that protein activity was improved when the HRP nanoparticle formulation was encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. In addition, we obtained a reduced initial protein release when the protein was encapsulated as nanoparticles and a linear release profile for more than 30 days. Furthermore, protein activity was maintained for prolonged times during release when compared to the lyophilized HRP formulation. Such improvements were attributed to the decrease in protein particle size. In general, these studies made a contribution in the protein-solid state formulation area. We demonstrate that protein dehydration could be done by a simple method and that particle size could be controlled to obtain the desired protein particle size. Moreover, with the nanoparticle formulation we obtained superior protein stability during encapsulation and release from PLGA microspheres. These new approaches will further increase the use of sustained delivery systems in clinical applications.

  14. STOCHASTIC PARAMETRIC VIBRATIONS OF ELASTIC SYSTEMS WITH REGARD TO THEIR PREVIOUS STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorona Y.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduced models of stochastic parametric vibrations of elastic systems with regard to their previous states were constructed on the base of the finite element method, generalized coordinates method, asymptotic method and functional approach. Stochastic stability problem was formulated in the average for the moment functions of the first order phase coordinates. The stability of stochastic parametric vibrations of the single degree of freedom system with regard to its previous states was investigated by the 7-stages 5-order continuous Runge-Kutta method and nested formulas Dormand-Prince.

  15. A continuous time formulation of the Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewin, Leo

    1988-01-01

    A complete continuous time formulation of the Regge calculus is presented by developing the associated continuous time Regge action. It is shown that the time constraint is, by way of the Bianchi identities conserved by the evolution equations. This analysis leads to an explicit first integral for each of the evolution equations. The dynamical equations of the theory are therefore reduced to a set of first-order differential equations. In this formalism the time constraints reduce to a simple sum of the integration constants. This result is unique to the Regge calculus-there does not appear to be a complete set of first integrals available for the vacuum Einstein equations. (author)

  16. Complexometric-spectrophotometric assay of tetracyclines in drug formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, S M; Alzamil, I Z; Alarfaj, N A

    1988-05-01

    An accurate, rapid and very simple spectrophotometric method for the assay of tetracyclines (tetracycline.HCl, chlorotetracycline.HCl, demeclocycline, oxytetracycline.HCl and doxycycline) has been developed. The method is based on the complexation of iron(III) with tetracyclines in 0.001M sulphuric acid. It has been successfully applied to the assay of tetracyclines in drug formulations, and the interferences of excipients have been examined. The results have been statistically compared with those obtained by two standard methods and found to be very satisfactory.

  17. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  18. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.

    2004-01-01

    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  19. Density nonlinearities and a field theory for the dynamics of simple fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Mazenko, Gene F.; Yeo, Joonhyun

    1994-01-01

    We study the role of the Jacobian arising from a constraint enforcing the nonlinear relation: ${\\bf g}=\\rho{\\bf V}$, where $\\rho,\\: {\\bf g}$ and ${\\bf V}$ are the mass density, the momentum density and the local velocity field, respectively, in the field theoretic formulation of the nonlinear fluctuating hydrodynamics of simple fluids. By investigating the Jacobian directly and by developing a field theoretic formulation without the constraint, we find that no changes in dynamics result as co...

  20. A comparison of Fick and Maxwell-Stefan diffusion formulations in PEMFC gas diffusion layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Michael; Wetton, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the mathematical formulations of Fick and Maxwell-Stefan diffusion in the context of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell cathode gas diffusion layers. The simple Fick law with a diagonal diffusion matrix is an approximation of Maxwell-Stefan. Formulations of diffusion combined with mass-averaged Darcy flow are considered for three component gases. For this application, the formulations can be compared computationally in a simple, one dimensional setting. Despite the models' seemingly different structure, it is observed that the predictions of the formulations are very similar on the cathode when air is used as oxidant. The two formulations give quite different results when the Nitrogen in the air oxidant is replaced by helium (this is often done as a diagnostic for fuel cells designs). The two formulations also give quite different results for the anode with a dilute Hydrogen stream. These results give direction to when Maxwell-Stefan diffusion, which is more complicated to implement computationally in many codes, should be used in fuel cell simulations.

  1. Formulation of disperse systems science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tadros, Tharwat F

    2014-01-01

    This book presents comprehensively the science and technology behind the formulation of disperse systems like emulsions, suspensions, foams and others. Starting with a general introduction, the book covers a broad range of topics like the role of different classes of surfactants, stability of disperse systems, formulation of different dispersions, evaluation of formulations and many more. Many examples are included, too. Written by the experienced author and editor Tharwart Tadros, this book is indispensable for every scientist working in the field.

  2. A simple parametric model selection test

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne M. Schennach; Daniel Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    We propose a simple model selection test for choosing among two parametric likelihoods which can be applied in the most general setting without any assumptions on the relation between the candidate models and the true distribution. That is, both, one or neither is allowed to be correctly speci fied or misspeci fied, they may be nested, non-nested, strictly non-nested or overlapping. Unlike in previous testing approaches, no pre-testing is needed, since in each case, the same test statistic to...

  3. Mixed finite-element formulations in piezoelectricity and flexoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling of strain gradient and electric polarization, is inherently a size-dependent phenomenon. The energy storage function for a flexoelectric material depends not only on polarization and strain, but also strain-gradient. Thus, conventional finite-element methods formulated solely on displacement are inadequate to treat flexoelectric solids since gradients raise the order of the governing differential equations. Here, we introduce a computational framework based on a mixed formulation developed previously by one of the present authors and a colleague. This formulation uses displacement and displacement-gradient as separate variables which are constrained in a ‘weighted integral sense’ to enforce their known relation. We derive a variational formulation for boundary-value problems for piezo- and/or flexoelectric solids. We validate this computational framework against available exact solutions. Our new computational method is applied to more complex problems, including a plate with an elliptical hole, stationary cracks, as well as tension and shear of solids with a repeating unit cell. Our results address several issues of theoretical interest, generate predictions of experimental merit and reveal interesting flexoelectric phenomena with potential for application. PMID:27436967

  4. Mixed finite-element formulations in piezoelectricity and flexoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Sheng; Purohit, Prashant K; Aravas, Nikolaos

    2016-06-01

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling of strain gradient and electric polarization, is inherently a size-dependent phenomenon. The energy storage function for a flexoelectric material depends not only on polarization and strain, but also strain-gradient. Thus, conventional finite-element methods formulated solely on displacement are inadequate to treat flexoelectric solids since gradients raise the order of the governing differential equations. Here, we introduce a computational framework based on a mixed formulation developed previously by one of the present authors and a colleague. This formulation uses displacement and displacement-gradient as separate variables which are constrained in a 'weighted integral sense' to enforce their known relation. We derive a variational formulation for boundary-value problems for piezo- and/or flexoelectric solids. We validate this computational framework against available exact solutions. Our new computational method is applied to more complex problems, including a plate with an elliptical hole, stationary cracks, as well as tension and shear of solids with a repeating unit cell. Our results address several issues of theoretical interest, generate predictions of experimental merit and reveal interesting flexoelectric phenomena with potential for application.

  5. Mixed finite-element formulations in piezoelectricity and flexoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Sheng; Purohit, Prashant K.; Aravas, Nikolaos

    2016-06-01

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling of strain gradient and electric polarization, is inherently a size-dependent phenomenon. The energy storage function for a flexoelectric material depends not only on polarization and strain, but also strain-gradient. Thus, conventional finite-element methods formulated solely on displacement are inadequate to treat flexoelectric solids since gradients raise the order of the governing differential equations. Here, we introduce a computational framework based on a mixed formulation developed previously by one of the present authors and a colleague. This formulation uses displacement and displacement-gradient as separate variables which are constrained in a `weighted integral sense' to enforce their known relation. We derive a variational formulation for boundary-value problems for piezo- and/or flexoelectric solids. We validate this computational framework against available exact solutions. Our new computational method is applied to more complex problems, including a plate with an elliptical hole, stationary cracks, as well as tension and shear of solids with a repeating unit cell. Our results address several issues of theoretical interest, generate predictions of experimental merit and reveal interesting flexoelectric phenomena with potential for application.

  6. Spray granulation for drug formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Zhi Hui; Er, Dawn Z L; Chan, Lai Wah; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2011-12-01

    Granulation is a key unit process in the production of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms and involves the agglomeration of fine particles with the aid of a binding agent. Fluidized bed granulation, a classic example of spray granulation, is a technique of particle agglomeration brought about by the spray addition of the binding liquid onto a stationary bed of powder particles that is transformed to a fluid-like state by the passage of air through it. The basic working principles, equipment set-up, advantages and challenges of fluidized bed granulation are introduced in this review. This is followed by an overview of the formulation and process-related variables affecting granulation performance. Technological advances, particularly in the application of process analytical tools, in the field of fluidized bed granulation research are also discussed. Fluidized bed granulation is a popular technique for pharmaceutical production, as it is a highly economical and efficient one-pot process. The research and development of process analytical technologies (PAT) has allowed greater process understanding and control to be achieved, even for the lesser known fluidized bed techniques, such as bottom spray and fluidized hot melt granulation. In view of its consistent mixing, as well as continuous and concurrent wetting and drying occurring throughout processing, fluidized bed granulation shows great potential for continuous production although more research is required to fully implement, validate and integrate the PAT tools in a production line.

  7. Policy formulation of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Akihiro

    1978-01-01

    Since 1970, the new policy formulation for public acceptance of the new consideration on the location of electric power generation has been set and applied. The planning and the enforcement being conducted by local public organizations for the local economic build-up with plant location and also the adjustement of the requirements for fishery are two main specific characters in this new policy. The background of this new public acceptance policy, the history and the actual problems about the compensation for the location of power generation plants are reviewed. One new proposal, being recommended by the Policy and Science Laboratory to MITI in 1977 is explained. This is based on the method of promoting the location of power generation plants by public participation placing the redevelopment of regional societies as its basis. The problems concerning the industrial structures in farm villages, fishing villages and the areas of commerce and industry should be systematized, and explained from the viewpoint of outside impact, the characteristics of local areas and the location problems in this new proposal. Finally, the location process and its effectiveness should be put in order. (Nakai, Y.)

  8. Slag-based saltstone formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Approximately 400 x 10 6 liters of low-level alkaline salt solution will be treated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) prior to disposal in concrete vaults at SRP. Treatment involves removal of CS + and Sr +2 followed by solidification and stabilization of potential contaminants in saltstone, a hydrated ceramic waste form. Chromium, technetium, and nitrate releases from saltstone can be significantly reduced by substituting hydraulic blast furnace slag for portland cement in the formulation designs. Slag-based mixes are also compatible with Class F fly ash used in saltstone as a functional extender to control heat of hydration and reduce permeability. A monolithic waste form is produced by the hydration of the slag and fly ash. Soluble ion release (NO 3 - ) is controlled by the saltstone microstructure. Chromium and technetium are less leachable from slag mixes compared to cement-based waste forms because these species are chemically reduced to a lower valence state by ferrous iron in the slag and precipitated as relatively insoluble phases, such as CR(OH) 3 and TcO 2 . 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Pediatric drug development: formulation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Areeg Anwer; Charoo, Naseem Ahmad; Abdallah, Daud Baraka

    2014-10-01

    Absence of safe, effective and appropriate treatment is one of the main causes of high mortality and morbidity rates among the pediatric group. This review provides an overview of pharmacokinetic differences between pediatric and adult population and their implications in pharmaceutical development. Different pediatric dosage forms, their merits and demerits are discussed. Food and Drug Administration Act of 1997 and the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act 2002 added 6 months patent extension and exclusivity incentives to pharmaceutical companies for evaluation of medicinal products in children. Prescription Drug User Fee Act and Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 made it mandatory for pharmaceutical companies to perform pediatric clinical studies on new drug products. Drug development program should include additional clinical bridge studies to evaluate differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in adult and child populations. Additionally, pharmaceutical development should consider ease of administration, palatability, appropriate excipients, stability and therapeutic equivalency of pediatric dosage forms. Pediatric population is diverse with individual preferences and demand for custom made dosage formulations. Practically it is not feasible to have different pharmaceutical dosage forms for each group. Hence, an appropriate dosage form that can be administered across pediatric population is warranted.

  10. Charge-field formulation of quantum electrodynamics (QEMED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiter, D.

    1980-01-01

    By expressing classical electron theory in terms of 'charge-field' functional structures, it is shown that a finite formulation of the classical electrodynamics of point charges emerges in a simple and elegant fashion. This is used to construct a 'charge-field' quantum electrodynamic theory. It is found that interacting photon states are generated as a secondary manifestation of electron-positron quantization, and do not require the usual 'free' canonical quantization scheme. The possibility is discussed that this approach may lead to a better formulation of quantum electrodynamics in the Heisenberg picture and suggests a crucial experimental test to distinguish this new 'charge-field' quantum electrodynamics 'QEMED' from the standard QED formulation. Specifically QEMED predicts that the 'Einstein principle of separability' should be found to be valid for correlated photon polarization measurements, in which the polarizers are changed more rapidly than a characteristic photon travel time. Such an experiment (Aspect 1976) can distinguish between QEMED and QED in a complete and clear-cut fashion. (U.K.)

  11. Validated HPTLC method of analysis for artemether and its formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayade, Nitin G; Nagarsenker, Mangal S

    2007-02-19

    A simple, sensitive, precise and rapid high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method of analysis for artemether both as a bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulations was developed and validated. The method employed TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (8:2:0.3, v/v/v) as mobile phase. Densitometric analysis of artemether was carried out in the reflectance mode at 565 nm. The system was found to give compact spots for artemether (R(f) value of 0.50+/-0.03). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r(2)=0.9904 in the concentration range 200-1000 ng per spot. The mean value of correlation coefficient, slope and intercept were 0.9904+/-0.011, 7.27+/-0.11 and 166.24+/-56.92, respectively. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, recovery and robustness. The limits of detection and quantitation were 65.91 and 197.74 ng per spot, respectively. The method has been successfully applied in the analysis of lipid based parenteral formulations and marketed oral solid dosage formulation.

  12. SIMPLE MODELS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SIMPLE MODELS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR · COMPLEXITY IN HUMAN AFFAIRS · COMPLEXITY IN STATISTICAL PHYSICS · DISORDER, CRITICALITY and ORDER IN EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEMS · COARSENING PHENOMENA · NONEQUILIBRIUM STEADY STATES · ORDERING INDUCED BY RANDOM DRIVING.

  13. The importance of simple microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzar, S

    2000-08-01

    A case of severe neonatal anaemia, the cause of which was found to be severe fetomaternal haemorrhage is presented. The diagnosis was confirmed by simple microscopic examination of the maternal blood using the technique of acid elution, the Kleihauer-Betke test. In the differential diagnosis of anaemia of a newborn, the diagnosis of fetomaternal haemorrhage must be considered and the simple Kleihauer-Betke test should be performed on the maternal blood as soon as possible.

  14. Effect of clays on the fire-retardant properties of a polyethylenic copolymer containing intumescent formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Simone P S; Estevão, Luciana R M; Nascimento, Regina S V

    2008-04-01

    Organophilic clay particles were added to a standard intumescent formulation and, since the role of clay expansion or intercalation is still a matter of much controversy, several clays with varying degrees of interlayer distances were evaluated. The composites were obtained by blending the nanostructured clay and the intumescent system with a polyethylenic copolymer. The flame-retardant properties of the materials were evaluated by the limiting oxygen index (LOI), the UL-94 rating and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the addition of highly expanded clays to the ammonium polyphosphate and pentaerythritol formulation does not significantly increase the flame retardancy of the mixture, when measured by the LOI and UL-94. However, when clays with smaller basal distances were added to the intumescent formulation, a synergistic effect was observed. In contrast, the simple addition of clays to the copolymer, without the intumescent formulation, did not increase the fire retardance of the materials.

  15. Effect of clays on the fire-retardant properties of a polyethylenic copolymer containing intumescent formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone P S Ribeiro et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophilic clay particles were added to a standard intumescent formulation and, since the role of clay expansion or intercalation is still a matter of much controversy, several clays with varying degrees of interlayer distances were evaluated. The composites were obtained by blending the nanostructured clay and the intumescent system with a polyethylenic copolymer. The flame-retardant properties of the materials were evaluated by the limiting oxygen index (LOI, the UL-94 rating and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results showed that the addition of highly expanded clays to the ammonium polyphosphate and pentaerythritol formulation does not significantly increase the flame retardancy of the mixture, when measured by the LOI and UL-94. However, when clays with smaller basal distances were added to the intumescent formulation, a synergistic effect was observed. In contrast, the simple addition of clays to the copolymer, without the intumescent formulation, did not increase the fire retardance of the materials.

  16. Poroelastic Foams for Simple Fabrication of Complex Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C; An, Xintong; Robinson, Sanlin S; van Meerbeek, Ilse M; O'Brien, Kevin W; Zhao, Huichan; Shepherd, Robert F

    2015-11-04

    Open-celled, elastomeric foams allow the simple design of fully 3D pneumatic soft machines using common forming techniques. This is demonstrated through the fabrication of simple actuators and an entirely soft, functional fluid pump formed in the shape of the human heart. The device pumps at physiologically relevant frequencies and pressures and attains a flow rate higher than all previously reported soft pumps. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Modular invariants from simple currents. An explicit proof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellekens, A.N.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1989-01-01

    In a previous paper an orbifold construction was used to demonstrate that the existence of primary fields with simple fusion rules in a conformal field theory implies the existence of non-diagonal modular invariant partition functions. Here we present a direct and explicit proof of modular invariance, which also covers a few cases that could not be obtained with the orbifold method. We also give a very simple general formula for the modular matrix M. (orig.)

  18. Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2012-06-17

    A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the

  19. Simple machines made simple a teacher resource manual

    CERN Document Server

    Andre, Ralph E St

    1993-01-01

    This book allows you to present scientific principles and simple mechanics through hands-on cooperative learning activities. Using inexpensive materials (e.g., tape, paper clips), students build simple machines-such as levers, pulleys, spring scales, gears, wheels and axles, windmills, and wedges-that demonstrate how things work. Activities have easy-to-locate materials lists, time requirements, and step-by-step directions (usually illustrated) on presentation. Ideas for bulletin boards, learning centers, and computer-assisted instruction are an added bonus.

  20. SimpleETL: ETL Processing by Simple Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Thomsen, Christian; Torp, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    where an organization upon request must delete all data about an individual. Another requirement is when facts are updated retrospectively. In this paper, we present the general framework SimpleETL which is currently used for Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) processing in a company with such requirements....... SimpleETL automatically handles all database interactions such as creating fact tables, dimensions, and foreign keys. The framework also has features for handling version management of facts and implements four different methods for handling deleted facts. The framework enables, e.g., data scientists...

  1. Chemicals-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure for virtual experimentations related to the design of liquid formulated products. All the experiments that need to be performed when designing a liquid formulated product (lotion), such as ingredients selection and testing, solubility tests, property...... measurements, can now be performed through the virtual Product-Process Design laboratory [[1], [2] and [3

  2. Colorimetric analysis of hexachlorophene in topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, W N; Matsui, F; Smith, S J; Wood, R J

    1975-01-01

    The commonly used 4-aminoantipyrine dye formation procedure for hexachlorophene analysis in topical formulations was modified to overcome interference due to other components. Bar soaps and nonemulsion formulations are analyzed directly, employing a chloroform back-extraction stage of the dye prior to quantitation. Hexachlorophene in emulsions and liquid soaps is determined using a TLC separation prior to dye formation.

  3. 40 CFR 152.43 - Alternate formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate formulations. 152.43 Section 152.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Procedures § 152.43 Alternate formulations...

  4. Formulation and characterization of modified release tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation with 35% polymer content exhibited zero order release profile and it released 35% of the drug in first hr, later on, controlled drug release was observed upto the 12th hour. Formulations with PVAc to Na-CMC ratio 20:80 exhibited zero order release pattern at levels of studied concentrations, which suggested that ...

  5. A New Resistance Formulation for Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new resistance formulation for carbon nanotubes is suggested using fractal approach. The new formulation is also valid for other nonmetal conductors including nerve fibers, conductive polymers, and molecular wires. Our theoretical prediction agrees well with experimental observation.

  6. The artificial membrane insert system as predictive tool for formulation performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berben, Philippe; Brouwers, Joachim; Augustijns, Patrick

    2018-02-15

    In view of the increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies for cell- and tissue-free models to implement permeation into formulation testing, this study explored the capability of an artificial membrane insert system (AMI-system) as predictive tool to evaluate the performance of absorption-enabling formulations. Firstly, to explore the usefulness of the AMI-system in supersaturation assessment, permeation was monitored after induction of different degrees of loviride supersaturation. Secondly, to explore the usefulness of the AMI-system in formulation evaluation, a two-stage dissolution test was performed prior to permeation assessment. Different case examples were selected based on the availability of in vivo (intraluminal and systemic) data: (i) a suspension of posaconazole (Noxafil ® ), (ii) a cyclodextrin-based formulation of itraconazole (Sporanox ® ), and (iii) a micronized (Lipanthyl ® ) and nanosized (Lipanthylnano ® ) formulation of fenofibrate. The obtained results demonstrate that the AMI-system is able to capture the impact of loviride supersaturation on permeation. Furthermore, the AMI-system correctly predicted the effects of (i) formulation pH on posaconazole absorption, (ii) dilution on cyclodextrin-based itraconazole absorption, and (iii) food intake on fenofibrate absorption. Based on the applied in vivo/in vitro approach, the AMI-system combined with simple dissolution testing appears to be a time- and cost-effective tool for the early-stage evaluation of absorption-enabling formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Beyond the Shannon-Khinchin formulation: The composability axiom and the universal-group entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempesta, Piergiulio

    2016-02-01

    The notion of entropy is ubiquitous both in natural and social sciences. In the last two decades, a considerable effort has been devoted to the study of new entropic forms, which generalize the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) entropy and could be applicable in thermodynamics, quantum mechanics and information theory. In Khinchin (1957), by extending previous ideas of Shannon (1948) and Shannon and Weaver (1949), Khinchin proposed a characterization of the BG entropy, based on four requirements, nowadays known as the Shannon-Khinchin (SK) axioms. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we show that there exists an intrinsic group-theoretical structure behind the notion of entropy. It comes from the requirement of composability of an entropy with respect to the union of two statistically independent systems, that we propose in an axiomatic formulation. Second, we show that there exists a simple universal family of trace-form entropies. This class contains many well known examples of entropies and infinitely many new ones, a priori multi-parametric. Due to its specific relation with Lazard's universal formal group of algebraic topology, the new general entropy introduced in this work will be called the universal-group entropy. A new example of multi-parametric entropy is explicitly constructed.

  8. Simple computation of reaction–diffusion processes on point clouds

    KAUST Repository

    Macdonald, Colin B.

    2013-05-20

    The study of reaction-diffusion processes is much more complicated on general curved surfaces than on standard Cartesian coordinate spaces. Here we show how to formulate and solve systems of reaction-diffusion equations on surfaces in an extremely simple way, using only the standard Cartesian form of differential operators, and a discrete unorganized point set to represent the surface. Our method decouples surface geometry from the underlying differential operators. As a consequence, it becomes possible to formulate and solve rather general reaction-diffusion equations on general surfaces without having to consider the complexities of differential geometry or sophisticated numerical analysis. To illustrate the generality of the method, computations for surface diffusion, pattern formation, excitable media, and bulk-surface coupling are provided for a variety of complex point cloud surfaces.

  9. A simple stationary semi-analytical wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    We present an idealized simple, but fast, semi-analytical algorithm for computation of stationary wind farm wind fields with a possible potential within a multi-fidelity strategy for wind farm topology optimization. Basically, the model considers wakes as linear perturbations on the ambient non...... rotationally symmetric, and the rotor inflow fields are consistently assumed uniform. Expansion of stationary wake fields is believed to be significantly affected by meandering of wake deficits as e.g. described by the Dynamic Wake Meandering model. In the present context, this effect is approximately...... conditions are imposed), the present formulation of wake expansion is believed to underestimate wake expansion, because the analytical wake formulation dictates the wake expansion to behave as x1/3 with downstream distance, whereas wake expansion as primary controlled by wake meandering develops...

  10. Host extinction dynamics in a simple parasite-host interaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Tzy-Wei; Kuang, Yang

    2005-10-01

    This short article carefully formulate a simple SI model for a parasite-host interaction through the basic birth and death processes analysis. This model reveals and corrects an error in similar models studied recently by various authors. Complete mathematical investigation of this simple model shows that the host extinction dynamics can happen and the outcomes may depend on the initial conditions. We also present biological implications of our findings.

  11. Simple arithmetic: not so simple for highly math anxious individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprute, Lisa; Maloney, Erin A; Beilock, Sian L; Berman, Marc G

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fluency with simple arithmetic, typically achieved in early elementary school, is thought to be one of the building blocks of mathematical competence. Behavioral studies with adults indicate that math anxiety (feelings of tension or apprehension about math) is associated with poor performance on cognitively demanding math problems. However, it remains unclear whether there are fundamental differences in how high and low math anxious individuals approach overlearned simple arithmetic problems that are less reliant on cognitive control. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals. We implemented a partial least squares analysis, a data-driven, multivariate analysis method to measure distributed patterns of whole-brain activity associated with performance. Despite overall high simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals, performance was differentially dependent on the fronto-parietal attentional network as a function of math anxiety. Specifically, low—compared to high—math anxious individuals perform better when they activate this network less—a potential indication of more automatic problem-solving. These findings suggest that low and high math anxious individuals approach even the most fundamental math problems differently. PMID:29140499

  12. Explicit strategy formulations of entrepreneurial firms in a hostile environment: a contingency framework

    OpenAIRE

    Pastwa, Anna; Verwaal, Ernst; Bruining, Hans; Saly, Aart Willem

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of explicit strategy formulation for large firms with various degrees of entrepreneurial orientation. Previous research on explicit strategy formulation of entrepreneurial firms has largely focused on the context of small and medium sized firms or did not sufficiently differentiate between the two. We propose that large entrepreneurial firms deploy different types of routines to identify opportunities and threats, which are more aligned to explicit strategy form...

  13. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA close-quote s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. A geometrically exact beam element based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstmayr, Johannes [Linz Center of Mechatronics GmbH (Austria)], E-mail: Johannes.gerstmayr@jku.at; Matikainen, Marko K., E-mail: marko.matikainen@lut.fi; Mikkola, Aki M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Mechatronics and Virtual Engineering (Finland)], E-mail: aki.mikkola@lut.fi

    2008-11-15

    In this study, Reissner's classical nonlinear rod formulation, as implemented by Simo and Vu-Quoc by means of the large rotation vector approach, is implemented into the framework of the absolute nodal coordinate formulation. The implementation is accomplished in the planar case accounting for coupled axial, bending, and shear deformation. By employing the virtual work of elastic forces similarly to Simo and Vu-Quoc in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, the numerical results of the formulation are identical to those of the large rotation vector formulation. It is noteworthy, however, that the material definition in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation can differ from the material definition used in Reissner's beam formulation. Based on an analytical eigenvalue analysis, it turns out that the high frequencies of cross section deformation modes in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation are only slightly higher than frequencies of common shear modes, which are present in the classical large rotation vector formulation of Simo and Vu-Quoc, as well. Thus, previous claims that the absolute nodal coordinate formulation is inefficient or would lead to ill-conditioned finite element matrices, as compared to classical approaches, could be refuted. In the introduced beam element, locking is prevented by means of reduced integration of certain parts of the elastic forces. Several classical large deformation static and dynamic examples as well as an eigenvalue analysis document the equivalence of classical nonlinear rod theories and the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for the case of appropriate material definitions. The results also agree highly with those computed in commercial finite element codes.

  15. A geometrically exact beam element based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstmayr, Johannes; Matikainen, Marko K.; Mikkola, Aki M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, Reissner's classical nonlinear rod formulation, as implemented by Simo and Vu-Quoc by means of the large rotation vector approach, is implemented into the framework of the absolute nodal coordinate formulation. The implementation is accomplished in the planar case accounting for coupled axial, bending, and shear deformation. By employing the virtual work of elastic forces similarly to Simo and Vu-Quoc in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, the numerical results of the formulation are identical to those of the large rotation vector formulation. It is noteworthy, however, that the material definition in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation can differ from the material definition used in Reissner's beam formulation. Based on an analytical eigenvalue analysis, it turns out that the high frequencies of cross section deformation modes in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation are only slightly higher than frequencies of common shear modes, which are present in the classical large rotation vector formulation of Simo and Vu-Quoc, as well. Thus, previous claims that the absolute nodal coordinate formulation is inefficient or would lead to ill-conditioned finite element matrices, as compared to classical approaches, could be refuted. In the introduced beam element, locking is prevented by means of reduced integration of certain parts of the elastic forces. Several classical large deformation static and dynamic examples as well as an eigenvalue analysis document the equivalence of classical nonlinear rod theories and the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for the case of appropriate material definitions. The results also agree highly with those computed in commercial finite element codes

  16. Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

    OpenAIRE

    S. Schulze

    2010-01-01

    The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basi...

  17. Improved green-light-emitting pyrotechnic formulations based on tris(2,2,2-trinitroethyl)borate and boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapötke, Thomas M; Krumm, Burkhard; Rusan, Magdalena; Sabatini, Jesse J

    2014-08-28

    Green-light-emitting pyrotechnic compositions based on tris(2,2,2-trinitroethyl)borate (TNEB) and boron carbide have been investigated. The best performing formulations were found to be insensitive to various ignition stimuli, and exhibited very high spectral purities and luminosities compared to previously reported green-light-emitting formulations.

  18. Isotretinoin Oil-Based Capsule Formulation Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Ju Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X1, hydrogenated coconut oil (X2, and soybean oil (X3. The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90 min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM. Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X1X2, X1X3, and X2X3 showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X1, X2, and X3. An optimal predicted formulation with Y10 min, Y30 min, Y60 min, and Y90 min release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X1, X2, and X3 of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f2 was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile.

  19. Bioavailability of magnesium from different pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Roswitha; Jahnen, Andrea; Hesse, Albrecht

    2011-04-01

    Magnesium is suggested to reduce intestinal oxalate absorption and to act as an inhibitor of calcium oxalate crystallization in the urine. However, previous studies have shown only minimal increase in urinary magnesium excretion following oral magnesium supplementation, possibly due to its low bioavailability. This study was performed to examine the bioavailability of magnesium from two different pharmaceutical formulations of magnesium oxide (MgO). Thirteen healthy male volunteers (22-31 years) were recruited from university students and staff, and all completed the study. During the baseline phase, subjects collected two 24-h urines while on their usual diet. Throughout the control and test phases, the subjects consumed a standardized diet calculated according to the recommendations. During the test phases, subjects received two magnesium preparations in a cross-over procedure. With each preparation, MgO-capsules and MgO-effervescent tablets, 450 mg magnesium was supplemented. On the control day and the two test days, fractional urine collection was performed and six corresponding blood samples were taken. In the follow-up phase, subjects continued to take the respective preparation while on their usual diet and collected 24-h urines weekly. With standardized conditions, urinary magnesium excretion increased by 40% after ingestion of the effervescent tablets, and by only 20% after intake of the capsules. The results indicate better bioavailability of magnesium from the effervescent tablets than from the capsules. This may be attributed to the fact that the tablets have to be dissolved in water before ingestion so that magnesium becomes ionized, which is an important precondition for absorption.

  20. Formulation of heat absorbing glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Casariego, Pedro

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In the thermal exchanges between buildings and environment, glazing is an element of major importance, for it largely influences the so-called Solar Heat Gain and Thermal Losses. These parameters can be modified by applying different type of coatings onto glass surface or by adding colorant compounds during glass melting. The latter is a cheaper way to control the Solar Heat Gain. The knowledge of the laws governing the interaction between colorant compounds and solar radiation, allows us to define glass formulations achieving specific aesthetic requirements and solar energy absorption. In this paper two examples of application of the modelling of glass colorants spectral absorptance are presented. First is addressed to obtaining a glass with high luminous transmittance and low solar energy transmittance, and the other one to obtaining a glass with neutral colour appearance and minimized solar energy transmittance. Calculation formulas are defined together with photometric properties so-obtained. These type of glasses are particularly suitable to be used as building and automotive glazing, for they retain the mechanical characteristics and possibilities of transformation of standard glass.

    En los intercambios de energía entre un edificio y el medio exterior, el vidrio es el elemento de mayor importancia, por su influencia en la Ganancia de Calor Solar y en las Pérdidas Térmicas. Estos parámetros pueden ser modificados mediante el depósito de capas sobre el vidrio o mediante la adición de compuestos absorbentes de la radiación solar. Esta última vía es la más económica para controlar la Ganancia de Calor Solar. El conocimiento de las leyes que gobiernan la interacción de los diversos colorantes con la radiación solar, permite definir formulaciones de vidrios con características especificas de tipo estético y de absorción energética. En este trabajo se presentan dos ejemplos de aplicación de esta modelización de las

  1. Simple Echoes and Subtle Reverberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeports, David

    2010-01-01

    Reverberation within an enclosed space can be viewed as a superposition of a large number of simple echoes. The echoes that make up the sound of reverberation fall neatly into two categories, relatively loud and sparse early reflections, and relatively soft and dense late reflections. Ways in which readily available music production software can…

  2. Solving Simple Kinetics without Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Pen~a, Lisandro Herna´ndez

    2016-01-01

    The solution of simple kinetic equations is analyzed without referencing any topic from differential equations or integral calculus. Guided by the physical meaning of the rate equation, a systematic procedure is used to generate an approximate solution that converges uniformly to the exact solution in the case of zero, first, and second order…

  3. Simple Machines in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Robert; Laroder, Aris; Tippins, Deborah; Emaz, Meliza; Fox, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    The community can be a powerful context and mini-laboratory for cultivating students' common understandings of science and mathematics. On the island of Panay in the Philippines, the community was the starting place for a group of fifth- and sixth-grade students to explore simple machines in their daily lives. What students learned in the process…

  4. Curious Consequences of Simple Sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 1. Curious Consequences of Simple Sequences. A K Mallik. General Article Volume 12 Issue 1 January 2007 pp ... Author Affiliations. A K Mallik1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India.

  5. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  6. Emergence Issues - not so simple

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetics Supplement: Emergence Issues - not so simple. S Afr Fam Pract 2014. Vol 56 No 2 Supplement 1. Introduction. Emergence from anaesthesia is by definition the process of return to baseline physiological function of all organ systems after cessation of administration of general anaesthesia and is the stage from ...

  7. Model pseudopotential in simple metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, K.N.; Sharma, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    The model potential proposed by Sharma and Srivastava has been used to study the various properties of simple metals. New core radii have also been reported corresponding to three dielectric functions. For most metals, the model potential successfully describes the atomic properties. (author)

  8. The 'simple' general dental anaesthetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient who receives dental treatment under general anaesthesia is usually a child, one with special needs, or one who requires an extensive dental procedure. The term 'simple' general dental anaesthetic is therefore a misnomer. The concept of procedural sedation for dentistry is beyond the scope of this article. It.

  9. HEMATOLOGIC CHANGES FOLLOWING SIMPLE EXODONTIA,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematologic studies were carried out on 90 systemically healthy, young adult males, some of whom underwent a simple exodontic experience. In one...after exodontia . In the 4-hour study significant changes following extraction were noted for white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, hematocrit

  10. Canonical operator formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrafarin, M.

    1992-09-01

    A novel formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is proposed which emphasises the fundamental role played by the Boltzmann constant k in fluctuations. The equivalence of this and the stochastic formulation is demonstrated. The k → 0 limit of this theory yields the classical deterministic description of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The new formulation possesses unique features which bear two important results namely the thermodynamic uncertainty principle and the quantisation of entropy production rate. Such a theory becomes indispensable whenever fluctuations play a significant role. (author). 7 refs

  11. Preformulation and Formulation of Investigational New Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    bilock number) -his annual report contains preformulation and formulation studies on WR249,655.2CL’ C141-6s2CI) , WR238,605, WR171,669’HCI...RMI-S ltr, 31 Jul 1992 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED O0hK ri~t. GUt*Y . 00 Preformulation and Formulation of Investigational New Drugs Annual Progress...63764D99 BB 049 1I. ITLE (InCIu7* SOcurity Cfa.811 fcotIOn) (U) Preformulation and Formulation of Investigational New Drugs 13¶. PERSONAL AUTHORl Lach

  12. A simple model to predict soil moisture: Bridging Event and Continuous Hydrological (BEACH) modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheikh, V.; Visser, S.M.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple two-layer soil water balance model developed to Bridge Event And Continuous Hydrological (BEACH) modelling. BEACH is a spatially distributed daily basis hydrological model formulated to predict the initial condition of soil moisture for event-based soil erosion and

  13. Simple Examples of the Interpretation of Changes in Kinetic and Potential Energy under Galilean Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Edw S.

    2018-01-01

    The compatibility of the Newtonian formulation of mechanical energy and the transformation equations of Galilean relativity is demonstrated for three simple examples of motion treated in most introductory physics courses (free fall, a frictionless inclined plane, and a mass/spring system). Only elementary concepts and mathematics, accessible to…

  14. Hamiltonian formulation for conformal p-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvear, C.; Amorim, R.; Barcelos-Neto, J. (Inst. de Fisica, Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1991-12-26

    We study the hamiltonian formulation for conformal p-branes. The difficulties which could arise from the substitution of velocities in terms of momenta, due to the nonlinearity of the theory, an circumvented. (orig.).

  15. A Hamiltonian formulation for elasticity and thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, G A

    2002-01-01

    A Hamiltonian formulation for elasticity and thermoelasticity is proposed and its relation with the corresponding configurational setting is examined. Firstly, a variational principle, concerning the 'inverse motion' mapping, is formulated and the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are explored. Next, this Lagrangian formulation is used to define the Hamiltonian density function. The equations of Hamilton are derived in a form which is very similar to the one of the corresponding equations in particle mechanics (finite-dimensional case). From the Hamiltonian formulation it follows that the canonical momentum is identified with the pseudomomentum. Furthermore, a meaning for the Poisson bracket is defined and the entailed relations with the canonical variables as well as the balance laws are examined.

  16. Understanding Pesticide Risks: Toxicity and Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Muntz, Helen; Miller, Rhonda; Alston, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about pesticide risks to human health, primary means of pesticide exposure, standardized measures of pesticide toxicity, pesticide signal words and type of pesticide formulations.

  17. Formulation and Characterization of Biodegradable Medicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PEG)-600, tributyl citrate, PEG-200, PEG-300, PEG-400, PEG-4000, triethyl citrate and castor oil. The gum formulations were characterized for the following parameters: texture profile analysis (TPA), biodegradation, in vitro drug release using a ...

  18. Algebraic formulation of higher gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present a purely algebraic formulation of higher gauge theory and gauged sigma models based on the abstract theory of graded commutative algebras and their morphisms. The formulation incorporates naturally Becchi - Rouet -Stora - Tyutin (BRST) symmetry and is also suitable for Alexandrov - Kontsevich - Schwartz-Zaboronsky (AKSZ) type constructions. It is also shown that for a full-fledged Batalin-Vilkovisky formulation including ghost degrees of freedom, higher gauge and gauged sigma model fields must be viewed as internal smooth functions on the shifted tangent bundle of a space-time manifold valued in a shifted L∞-algebroid encoding symmetry. The relationship to other formulations where the L∞-algebroid arises from a higher Lie groupoid by Lie differentiation is highlighted.

  19. Chemical-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper presents a software, the virtual Product-Process Design laboratory (virtual PPD-lab) and the virtual experimental scenarios for design/verification of consumer oriented liquid formulated products where the software can be used. For example, the software can be employed for the design......, the additives and/or their mixtures (formulations). Therefore, the experimental resources can focus on a few candidate product formulations to find the best product. The virtual PPD-lab allows various options for experimentations related to design and/or verification of the product. For example, the selection...... design, model adaptation). All of the above helps to perform virtual experiments by blending chemicals together and observing their predicted behaviour. The paper will highlight the application of the virtual PPD-lab in the design and/or verification of different consumer products (paint formulation...

  20. Concepts and formulations for spatial multibody dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Flores, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This book will be particularly useful to those interested in multibody simulation (MBS) and the formulation for the dynamics of spatial multibody systems. The main types of coordinates that can be used in the formulation of the equations of motion of constrained multibody systems are described. The multibody system, made of interconnected bodies that undergo large displacements and rotations, is fully defined. Readers will discover how Cartesian coordinates and Euler parameters are utilized and are the supporting structure for all methodologies and dynamic analysis, developed within the multibody systems methodologies. The work also covers the constraint equations associated with the basic kinematic joints, as well as those related to the constraints between two vectors. The formulation of multibody systems adopted here uses the generalized coordinates and the Newton-Euler approach to derive the equations of motion. This formulation results in the establishment of a mixed set of differential and algebraic equ...

  1. The Boltzmann equation in the difference formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szoke, Abraham [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brooks III, Eugene D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-06

    First we recall the assumptions that are needed for the validity of the Boltzmann equation and for the validity of the compressible Euler equations. We then present the difference formulation of these equations and make a connection with the time-honored Chapman - Enskog expansion. We discuss the hydrodynamic limit and calculate the thermal conductivity of a monatomic gas, using a simplified approximation for the collision term. Our formulation is more consistent and simpler than the traditional derivation.

  2. Preformulation and Formulation Investigational New Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    AD-A252 024 CONTRACT NO: DAMD17-85-C-5003 TITLE: PREFORMULATION AND FORMULATION INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUGS PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Douglas R. Flanagan... PREFORMULATION AND FOMULATION INVESTIGATIONAL Contract No. NEW DRUGS DAMD17-85-C-5003 6. AUTHOR(S) 0603807A Douglas R. Flanagan, John L. Lach (deceased), and...RA V, 16. PRICE CODE formulation studies , clinical studies 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CtASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20

  3. Note on the ideal frame formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Martin

    2017-09-01

    An implementation of the ideal frame formulation of perturbed Keplerian motion is presented which only requires the integration of a differential system of dimension 7, contrary to the 8 variables traditionally integrated with this approach. The new formulation is based on the integration of a scaled version of the Eulerian set of redundant parameters and slightly improves runtime performance with respect to the 8-dimensional case while retaining comparable accuracy.

  4. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  5. An herbal formulation for hemorrhoids treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dehdari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Hemorrhoids is the most painful rectal disease. Straining and pregnancy seem playing chief roles in the development of hemorrhoids. Symptoms of hemorrhoids may include bleeding, inflammation and pain. Despite current medical efforts, many discomforts of hemorrhoids have not been handled. The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate Itrifal-e muqil (IM tablet to achieve desired pharmaceutical properties. Method: Quality control tests of Allium ampeloperasum L, Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks Engl., Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia bellerica Retz. were performed. Afterwards, different formulations were prepared and their physical properties were evaluated. Subsequently, the formulation was coated and its physicochemical characteristics were assessed. Result: All of the herbs demonstrated good results in quality control tests according to United State Pharmacopeia (USP. Formulation-1 that was completely prepared based on explained manufacturing process of IM in traditional medicine manuscripts did not show suitable pharmaceutical properties. Among different formulations, Formulation-3 that consisted of A. ampeloperasum, C. mukul, P. emblica, T. chebula and T. bellerica, displayed best outcomes through different tests. Conclusion: Modern pharmaceutical approaches can excellently be adapted for IM preparations.

  6. Simple Functions Spreadsheet tool presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grive, Mireia; Domenech, Cristina; Montoya, Vanessa; Garcia, David; Duro, Lara

    2010-09-01

    This document is a guide for users of the Simple Functions Spreadsheet tool. The Simple Functions Spreadsheet tool has been developed by Amphos 21 to determine the solubility limits of some radionuclides and it has been especially designed for Performance Assessment exercises. The development of this tool has been promoted by the necessity expressed by SKB of having a confident and easy-to-handle tool to calculate solubility limits in an agile and relatively fast manner. Its development started in 2005 and since then, it has been improved until the current version. This document describes the accurate and preliminary study following expert criteria that has been used to select the simplified aqueous speciation and solid phase system included in the tool. This report also gives the basic instructions to use this tool and to interpret its results. Finally, this document also reports the different validation tests and sensitivity analyses that have been done during the verification process

  7. Simple Electromagnetic Analysis in Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Martinasek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main principle and methods of simple electromagnetic analysis and thus provides an overview of simple electromagnetic analysis.The introductions chapters describe specific SPA attack used visual inspection of EM traces, template based attack and collision attack.After reading the article, the reader is sufficiently informed of any context of SEMA.Another aim of the article is the practical realization of SEMA which is focused on AES implementation.The visual inspection of EM trace of AES is performed step by step and the result is the determination of secret key Hamming weight.On the resulting EM trace, the Hamming weight of the secret key 1 to 8 was clearly visible.This method allows reduction from the number of possible keys for following brute force attack.

  8. Consistent formulation of the growth process at the kinematic and constitutive level for soft tissues composed of multiple constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, H; Pauli, L; Paulus, A; Kuhl, E; Itskov, M

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the possibilities of modelling the change in volume and change in density of biomaterials. This can be modelled at the constitutive or the kinematic level. This work introduces a consistent formulation at the kinematic and constitutive level for growth processes. Most biomaterials consist of many constituents and can be approximated as being incompressible. These two conditions (many constituents and incompressibility) suggest a straightforward implementation in the context of the finite element (FE) method which could now be validated more easily against histological measurements. Its key characteristic variable is the normalised partial mass change. Using the concept of homeostatic equilibrium, we suggest two complementary growth laws in which the evolution of the normalised partial mass change is governed by an ordinary differential equation in terms of either the Piola-Kirchhoff stress or the Green-Lagrange strain. We combine this approach with the classical incompatibility condition and illustrate its algorithmic implementation within a fully nonlinear FE approach. This approach is first illustrated for a simple uniaxial tension and extension test for pure volume change and pure density change and is validated against previous numerical results. Finally, a physiologically based example of a two-phase model is presented which is a combination of volume and density changes. It can be concluded that the effect of hyper-restoration may be due to the systemic effect of degradation and adaptation of given constituents.

  9. Simple currents versus orbifolds with discrete torsion - a complete classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzer, M.; Schellekens, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    We give a complete classification of all simple current modular invariants, extending previous results for (Z p ) k to arbitrary centers. We obtain a simple explicit formula for the most general case. Using orbifold techniques to this end, we find a one-to-one correspondence between simple current invariants and subgroups of the center with discrete torsions. As a by-product, we prove the conjectured monodromy independence of the total number of such invariants. The orbifold approach works in a straightforward way for symmetries of odd order, but some modifications are required to deal with symmetries of even order. With these modifications the orbifold construction with discrete torsion is complete within the class of simple current invariants. Surprisingly, there are cases where discrete torsion is a necessity rather than a possibility. (orig.)

  10. A simple electron plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.

    2017-01-01

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  11. Simple and Realistic Data Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth Houkjær; Torp, Kristian; Wind, Rico

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a generic, DBMS independent, and highly extensible relational data generation tool. The tool can efficiently generate realistic test data for OLTP, OLAP, and data streaming applications. The tool uses a graph model to direct the data generation. This model makes it very simple...... to generate data even for large database schemas with complex inter- and intra table relationships. The model also makes it possible to generate data with very accurate characteristics....

  12. A simple electron plasma wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, G., E-mail: gert.brodin@physics.umu.se [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-03-18

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  13. Classification of simple current invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    1992-01-01

    We summarize recent work on the classification of modular invariant partition functions that can be obtained with simple currents in theories with a center (Z_p)^k with p prime. New empirical results for other centers are also presented. Our observation that the total number of invariants is monodromy-independent for (Z_p)^k appears to be true in general as well. (Talk presented in the parallel session on string theory of the Lepton-Photon/EPS Conference, Geneva, 1991.)

  14. A simple and efficient electrochemical reductive method for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide typically involves complicated procedures, such as modification of electrodes and preparation of electrolytes, which is often needed in previous reports. In this paper, a simple and efficient electrochemical process is described for the synthesis of high-quality reduced ...

  15. Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers were developed through data mining of 3,803 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) previously published. A total of 144 di- to penta-type SSRs were identified and they were screened for polymorphism between two turnip cultivars, 'Tsuda' and 'Yurugi Akamaru'. Out of 90 EST-SSRs for ...

  16. Polymorphism of the simple sequence repeat (AAC)5 in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites have been widely used as cytogenetic markers in cereals. SSRs could be present in coding and noncoding regions, contributing to genome dynamics and evolution. Previous studies by our research group detected molecular and cytogenetic riboso-.

  17. Simple waves in Hertzian chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, B Edward; Calvo, David

    2012-06-01

    The discrete system of equations for a chain consisting of a large number of spheres interacting via the Hertz force of index 3/2 in strain is examined in the very long wavelength limit, yielding an effective medium description. The resulting continuum second-order equation of motion possesses a subset of simple waves obeying a first-order equation of reduced index 5/4. These simple waves appear not to have examined before. For a given initial strain, the simple wave solution prescribes initial sphere centroid velocities. Together the initial strain and velocities are used in the second-order discrete system. Results for shock wave development compare very well between the second-order discrete system (minus physically valid oscillations) and the reduced first-order equation. A second-order simulation of colliding waves examines the ability of waves to pass through each other, with a phase advance accruing during the collision process. An arbitrary initial condition is shown to evolve toward a universal similarity solution proportional to (x/t)(4). A closed-form solution is given including the complete history of the waveform, shock location, and amplitude.

  18. Development of simple neutron counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, S.; Hirota, K.

    2014-01-01

    Position sensitive neutron detectors are used for neutron scattering, neutron imaging, and neutron radiography. Developments in neutron detectors are mainly focused on spatial resolution and high counting rate in these fields. After the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, many simple radiation counters are now marketed in Japan and are useful for estimating the radiation level. However, no simple, equivalent device exists for neutron measurements. In this work, we have developed simple neutron counters (LiM counter and HeM counter) with the following features. In the LiM counter, a 6 Li glass scintillator is employed as a neutron converter for a large dynamic range. A silicon photon MPPC (multi-pixel photon counter) detector is used separately for photon counting, thus reducing the size of the device. In the HeM counter, a 3 He neutron detector is employed. Both counters employ a pulse-height analysis function for ensuring reliable data and display the pulse-height distribution on a graphical liquid crystal display (G-LCD). The LiM counter can be used for about 6 h using a battery, operating at 264 mA and 5.1 V. (author)

  19. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  20. Interactions between simple radicals and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo-Otero, Rachel; Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Suardiaz, Reynier; Montero, Luis A.; Sander, Wolfram

    2008-01-01

    The interactions of the simple radicals CH 3 , NH 2 , OH, and F with water have been studied by DFT (UB3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p)) and ab initio (RHF-UCCSD(T)/6-311++G(2d,2p)) methods. In this order the number of lone pairs (from zero to three), the electronegativity, and the strength of the X-H bonds increase (X = C, N, and O). The various minima of the radical-water complexes were located using the multiple minima hypersurface (MMH) approach which had previously been proven to be useful for closed-shell molecules. The role of the unpaired electron in hydrogen bonding was investigated using the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. A considerable contribution of the unpaired electron to the complex stabilization was only found for the methyl radical and the fluorine atom, whereas in the aminyl and the hydroxyl radical the role of the unpaired electron is negligible

  1. Efficient quantum pseudorandomness with simple graph states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, Rawad; Ghalbouni, Joe; Dgheim, Joseph; Markham, Damian

    2018-02-01

    Measurement based (MB) quantum computation allows for universal quantum computing by measuring individual qubits prepared in entangled multipartite states, known as graph states. Unless corrected for, the randomness of the measurements leads to the generation of ensembles of random unitaries, where each random unitary is identified with a string of possible measurement results. We show that repeating an MB scheme an efficient number of times, on a simple graph state, with measurements at fixed angles and no feedforward corrections, produces a random unitary ensemble that is an ɛ -approximate t design on n qubits. Unlike previous constructions, the graph is regular and is also a universal resource for measurement based quantum computing, closely related to the brickwork state.

  2. FSM Model of a Simple Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Latkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a simulation model of a simple photovoltaic system intended as a tool for testing the use of finite state machines for simulations representing a long-term operation of renewable energy sources. The mathematical model of the photovoltaic system is described first. Then it is used to build a finite state machine model that calculates a power output of the photovoltaic system for changing values of a solar irradiance and a temperature. Data measured on a real photovoltaic installation are used to verify model’s accuracy through its comparison with a previously created and verified Matlab model. The finite state machine model presented in this paper was created using Ptolemy II software.

  3. Investigating student understanding of simple harmonic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somroob, S.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate students’ understanding and develop instructional material on a topic of simple harmonic motion. Participants were 60 students taking a course on vibrations and wave and 46 students taking a course on Physics 2 and 28 students taking a course on Fundamental Physics 2 on the 2nd semester of an academic year 2016. A 16-question conceptual test and tutorial activities had been developed from previous research findings and evaluated by three physics experts in teaching mechanics before using in a real classroom. Data collection included both qualitative and quantitative methods. Item analysis and whole-test analysis were determined from student responses in the conceptual test. As results, most students had misconceptions about restoring force and they had problems connecting mathematical solutions to real motions, especially phase angle. Moreover, they had problems with interpreting mechanical energy from graphs and diagrams of the motion. These results were used to develop effective instructional materials to enhance student abilities in understanding simple harmonic motion in term of multiple representations.

  4. Training nuclei detection algorithms with simple annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Kost

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generating good training datasets is essential for machine learning-based nuclei detection methods. However, creating exhaustive nuclei contour annotations, to derive optimal training data from, is often infeasible. Methods: We compared different approaches for training nuclei detection methods solely based on nucleus center markers. Such markers contain less accurate information, especially with regard to nuclear boundaries, but can be produced much easier and in greater quantities. The approaches use different automated sample extraction methods to derive image positions and class labels from nucleus center markers. In addition, the approaches use different automated sample selection methods to improve the detection quality of the classification algorithm and reduce the run time of the training process. We evaluated the approaches based on a previously published generic nuclei detection algorithm and a set of Ki-67-stained breast cancer images. Results: A Voronoi tessellation-based sample extraction method produced the best performing training sets. However, subsampling of the extracted training samples was crucial. Even simple class balancing improved the detection quality considerably. The incorporation of active learning led to a further increase in detection quality. Conclusions: With appropriate sample extraction and selection methods, nuclei detection algorithms trained on the basis of simple center marker annotations can produce comparable quality to algorithms trained on conventionally created training sets.

  5. Development of lapachol topical formulation: anti-inflammatory study of a selected formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Ana Amélia M; Sester, Elizângela A; Carvalho, André Luis M; Strattmann, Ruth R; Albuquerque, Miracy M; Wanderley, Almir G; Santana, Davi P

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a topical formulation of lapachol, a compound isolated from various Bignoniaceae species and at evaluating its topical anti-inflammatory activity. The influence of the pharmaceutical form and different types of emulsifiers was evaluated by in-vitro release studies. The formulations showing the highest release rate were selected and assessed trough skin permeation and retention experiments. It was observed that the gel formulation provided significantly higher permeation and retained amount (3.9-fold) of lapachol as compared to the gel-cream formulation. Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activities of the most promising formulation were also evaluated. Lapachol gel reduced the increase in hind-paw volume induced by carrageenan injection and reduced nociception produced by acetic acid (0.8% in water, i.p.) when used topically. These results suggest that topical delivery of lapachol from gel formulations may be an effective medication for both dermal and subdermal injuries.

  6. Economical spectrophotometric method for estimation of zaltoprofen in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aher, Kiran B; Bhavar, Girija B; Joshi, Hemant P; Chaudhari, Sanjay R

    2011-04-01

    A simple, rapid, precise, and economical spectrophotometric method has been developed for quantitative analysis of zaltoprofen (ZLT) in pharmaceutical formulations. A mixture of methanol and water was used as a solvent. Initial stock solution of ZLT was prepared in methanol and subsequent dilution was done in water. The standard solution of ZLT in water showed two absorption maxima, one at 243.5 nm and another at 338.0 nm. The drug obeyed Beer-Lambert's law in the concentration range of 1-40 μg/mL with regression 0.9999 at 243.5 nm and 5-100 μg/mL with regression 0.9999 at 338.0 nm. The overall % recovery was found to be 99.53% and 99.77% at 243.5 nm and 338.0 nm, respectively, which reflect that the method is free from interference of the impurities and other additives used in tablet formulation. Relative standard deviations of absorbance from six measurements were always less than 2%. The results of analysis have been validated as per ICH guidelines. Both the wavelengths can be adopted in routine analysis of ZLT in tablet dosage form.

  7. Lipid Based Formulations of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS Class II Drugs: Strategy, Formulations, Methods and Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoltýsová I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Active ingredients in pharmaceuticals differ by their physico-chemical properties and their bioavailability therefore varies. The most frequently used and most convenient way of administration of medicines is oral, however many drugs are little soluble in water. Thus they are not sufficiently effective and suitable for such administration. For this reason a system of lipid based formulations (LBF was developed. Series of formulations were prepared and tested in water and biorelevant media. On the basis of selection criteria, there were selected formulations with the best emulsification potential, good dispersion in the environment and physical stability. Samples of structurally different drugs included in the Class II of the Biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS were obtained, namely Griseofulvin, Glibenclamide, Carbamazepine, Haloperidol, Itraconazol, Triclosan, Praziquantel and Rifaximin, for testing of maximal saturation in formulations prepared from commercially available excipients. Methods were developed for preparation of formulations, observation of emulsification and its description, determination of maximum solubility of drug samples in the respective formulation and subsequent analysis. Saturation of formulations with drugs showed that formulations 80 % XA and 20 % Xh, 35 % XF and 65 % Xh were best able to dissolve the drugs which supports the hypothesis that it is desirable to identify limited series of formulations which could be generally applied for this purpose.

  8. Norfloxacin and metronidazole topical formulations for effective treatment of bacterial infections and burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Kamal; Malipeddi, Venkata Ramana; Madan, Jyotsna; Gupta, Gaurav; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Awasthi, Rajendra; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; De Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha

    2016-06-01

    Our various previous findings have shown the suitability of norfloxacin in the treatment of bacterial infections and burn wounds in alone as well as in combination with Curcuma longa in various topical (ointments, gels, and creams) and transdermal drug delivery systems. Keeping these facts in consideration, we have made an another attempt to prepare semisolid formulations containing 1% w/w of norfloxacin and metronidazole with different bases like Carbopol, polyethylene glycol, and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose for effective treatment of bacterial infections and burn wounds. The prepared formulations were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, in vitro drug release, antimicrobial activity, and burn wound healing properties. The prepared formulations were compared with Silver Sulfadiazine cream 1%, USP. Antimicrobial activity of norfloxacin semisolid formulations was found to be equally effective against both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in comparison to a marketed formulation of Silver Sulfadiazine 1% cream, USP. Based on the burn wound healing property, the prepared norfloxacin semisolid formulation was found to be in good agreement with marketed Silver Sulfadiazine 1% cream, USP. These findings suggest formulations containing norfloxacin and metronidazole may also prove as an effective alternative for existing remedies in the treatment of bacterial infections and burn wounds.

  9. High-Level Waste Glass Formulation Model Sensitivity Study 2009 Glass Formulation Model Versus 1996 Glass Formulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsher, J.D.; Meinert, F.L.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the differences between two HLW glass formulation models (GFM): The 1996 GFM and 2009 GFM. A glass formulation model is a collection of glass property correlations and associated limits, as well as model validity and solubility constraints; it uses the pretreated HLW feed composition to predict the amount and composition of glass forming additives necessary to produce acceptable HLW glass. The 2009 GFM presented in this report was constructed as a nonlinear optimization calculation based on updated glass property data and solubility limits described in PNNL-18501 (2009). Key mission drivers such as the total mass of HLW glass and waste oxide loading are compared between the two glass formulation models. In addition, a sensitivity study was performed within the 2009 GFM to determine the effect of relaxing various constraints on the predicted mass of the HLW glass.

  10. Antioxidant effects of an ozonized theobroma oil formulation on damaged-inflammatory rat skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Y.; Diaz, M.F.; Hernandez, F.; Gila, D.; Ga, G.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a cosmetic formulation elaborated with ozonized theobroma oil may exert beneficial effects in the restoring of the antioxidant activity on the skin of rats previously irradiated with ultraviolet light. 0.5 g of the formulation was applied on the skin of rats for five days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activity were determined in a homogenate of rat skin. Malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD) and total hydroperoxide (THP) content were determined as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Using these parameters, antioxidant and oxidant activity, redox index and oxidative stress grade were determined. The total antioxidant activity was significantly increased while the redox index, total oxidant activity and oxidative stress grade decreased significantly in damaged rats treated with the formulation. These results show the antioxidant properties of the cosmetic formulation due to the stimulation of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPx, preventing skin injury induced by ultraviolet irradiation. (Author).

  11. A finite element formulation of Euler equations for the solution of steady transonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecer, A.; Akay, H. U.

    1982-01-01

    The main objective of the considered investigation is related to the development of a relaxation scheme for the analysis of inviscid, rotational, transonic flow problems. To formulate the equations of motion for inviscid flows in a fixed coordinate system, an Eulerian type variational principle is required. The derivation of an Eulerian variational principle which is employed in the finite element formulation is discussed. The presented numerical method describes the mathematical formulation and the application of a numerical process for the direct solution of steady Euler equations. The development of the procedure as an extension of existing potential flow formulations provides the applicability of previous procedures, e.g., proper application of the artificial viscosity for supersonic elements, and the accurate modeling of the shock.

  12. What Is a Simple Liquid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond S. Ingebrigtsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to identify the real essence of simplicity of liquids in John Locke’s understanding of the term. Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlations between virial and potential-energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a direct property of the intermolecular potential because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS. This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of the structure and dynamics of several atomic and three molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. The liquids studied are inverse power-law systems (r^{-n} pair potentials with n=18,6,4, Lennard-Jones (LJ models (the standard LJ model, two generalized Kob-Andersen binary LJ mixtures, and the Wahnstrom binary LJ mixture, the Buckingham model, the Dzugutov model, the LJ Gaussian model, the Gaussian core model, the Hansen-McDonald molten salt model, the Lewis-Wahnstrom ortho-terphenyl model, the asymmetric dumbbell model, and the single-point charge water model. The final part of the paper summarizes properties of strongly correlating liquids, emphasizing that these are simpler than liquids in general. Simple liquids, as defined here, may be

  13. What Is a Simple Liquid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond S.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to identify the real essence of simplicity of liquids in John Locke’s understanding of the term. Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlations between virial and potential-energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a direct property of the intermolecular potential because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials) and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS). This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of the structure and dynamics of several atomic and three molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. The liquids studied are inverse power-law systems (r-n pair potentials with n=18,6,4), Lennard-Jones (LJ) models (the standard LJ model, two generalized Kob-Andersen binary LJ mixtures, and the Wahnstrom binary LJ mixture), the Buckingham model, the Dzugutov model, the LJ Gaussian model, the Gaussian core model, the Hansen-McDonald molten salt model, the Lewis-Wahnstrom ortho-terphenyl model, the asymmetric dumbbell model, and the single-point charge water model. The final part of the paper summarizes properties of strongly correlating liquids, emphasizing that these are simpler than liquids in general. Simple liquids, as defined here, may be characterized in three quite

  14. Absorption of levothyroxine when coadministered with various calcium formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamfirescu, Isabelle; Carlson, Harold E

    2011-05-01

    Calcium carbonate is a commonly used dietary supplement and has been shown to interfere with levothyroxine absorption. However, calcium citrate, which is also used for supplementation purposes, has not been studied previously and calcium acetate, which is used to treat hyperphosphatemia in renal failure, has been reported to show little or no interference with levothyroxine absorption in a retrospective pharmacoepidemiologic study. We aimed to compare the effect of these three calcium formulations on levothyroxine absorption. The study was conducted in eight healthy, euthyroid adults. We performed single-dose pharmacokinetic studies in which we measured levothyroxine absorption when given alone or when coadministered with calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, or calcium acetate in doses containing 500 mg elemental calcium. Serum thyroxine was measured at intervals over a 6-hour period after ingestion of the study drugs. Coadministration of each of the three calcium preparations significantly reduced levothyroxine absorption by about 20%-25% compared with levothyroxine given alone. Contrary to a prior report, our data suggest that calcium acetate interferes with levothyroxine absorption in a manner similar to that seen with calcium carbonate and calcium citrate. Although the effect of calcium is modest compared with some other medications previously studied, hypothyroid patients should be cautioned to take their levothyroxine well-separated from all of these calcium formulations.

  15. A unified formulation of the segregated class of algorithms for fluid flow at all speeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moukalled, F.; Darwish, M.

    2000-02-01

    In this article, the segregated SIMPLE algorithm and its variants are reformulated, using a collocated variable approach, to predict fluid flow at all speeds. In the formulation, a unified, compact, and easy-to-understand notation is employed. The SIMPLE, SIMPLER, SIMPLEST, SIMPLEM, SIMPLEC, SIMPLEX, PRIME, and PISO algorithms that are scattered in the literature and appear to a nonversed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) user as being unrelated, are shown to share the same essence in their derivations and to be equally applicable for the simulation of incompressible and compressible flows. Moreover, the philosophies behind these algorithms in addition to their similarities and differences are explained.

  16. Self-Setting Calcium Orthophosphate Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2013-01-01

    In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are bioactive and biodegradable grafting bioceramics in the form of a powder and a liquid. After mixing, both phases form pastes, which set and harden forming either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite or brushite. Since both of them are remarkably biocompartible, bioresorbable and osteoconductive, self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations appear to be promising bioceramics for bone grafting. Furthermore, such formulations possess excellent molding capabilities, easy manipulation and nearly perfect adaptation to the complex shapes of bone defects, followed by gradual bioresorption and new bone formation. In addition, reinforced formulations have been introduced, which might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The discovery of self-setting properties opened up a new era in the medical application of calcium orthophosphates and many commercial trademarks have been introduced as a result. Currently such formulations are widely used as synthetic bone grafts, with several advantages, such as pourability and injectability. Moreover, their low-temperature setting reactions and intrinsic porosity allow loading by drugs, biomolecules and even cells for tissue engineering purposes. In this review, an insight into the self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations, as excellent bioceramics suitable for both dental and bone grafting applications, has been provided. PMID:24956191

  17. Bioequivalence assessment of two formulations of ibuprofen

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Talla, Zeyad

    2011-10-19

    Background: This study assessed the relative bioavailability of two formulations of ibuprofen. The first formulation was Doloraz , produced by Al-Razi Pharmaceutical Company, Amman, Jordan. The second forumulation was Brufen , manufactured by Boots Company, Nottingham, UK. Methods and results: A prestudy validation of ibuprofen demonstrated long-term stability, freeze-thaw stability, precision, and accuracy. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. After overnight fasting, the two formulations (test and reference) of ibuprofen (100 mg ibuprofen/5 mL suspension) were administered as a single dose on two treatment days separated by a one-week washout period. After dosing, serial blood samples were drawn for a period of 14 hours. Serum harvested from the blood samples was analyzed for the presence of ibuprofen by high-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from serum concentrations for both formulations. The 90% confidence intervals of the ln-transformed test/reference treatment ratios for peak plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) parameters were found to be within the predetermined acceptable interval of 80%-125% set by the US Food and Drug Administration. Conclusion: Analysis of variance for peak plasma concentrations and AUC parameters showed no significant difference between the two formulations and, therefore, Doloraz was considered bioequivalent to Brufen. 2011 Al-Talla et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

  18. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  19. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  20. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  1. Computer electronics made simple computerbooks

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdillon, J F B

    1975-01-01

    Computer Electronics: Made Simple Computerbooks presents the basics of computer electronics and explains how a microprocessor works. Various types of PROMs, static RAMs, dynamic RAMs, floppy disks, and hard disks are considered, along with microprocessor support devices made by Intel, Motorola and Zilog. Bit slice logic and some AMD bit slice products are also described. Comprised of 14 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of hardware design, followed by a discussion on the basic building blocks of hardware (NAND, NOR, AND, OR, NOT, XOR); tools and equipment that

  2. Systems analysis made simple computerbooks

    CERN Document Server

    Antill, Lyn

    1980-01-01

    Systems Analysis: Made Simple Computerbooks introduces the essential elements of information systems analysis and design and teaches basic technical skills required for the tasks involved. The book covers the aspects to the design of an information system; information systems and the organization, including the types of information processing activity and computer-based information systems; the role of the systems analyst; and the human activity system. The text also discusses information modeling, socio-technical design, man-machine interface, and the database design. Software specification

  3. Two- and three-index formulations of the minimum cost multicommodity k-splittable flow problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Peter Neergaard; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    by introducing a simple heuristic method to reach a feasible solution by eliminating some symmetry. A novel branching strategy for the two-index formulation is presented, forbidding subpaths in the branching children. Though the proposed heuristic for the three-index algorithm improves its performance, the three......-index algorithm is still outperformed by the two-index algorithm, both with respect to running time and to the number of solved test instances....

  4. Mathematical Formulation of DMH-Based Inverse Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Ivaylo B; Moros, Eduardo G

    2014-01-01

    To introduce the concept of dose-mass-based inverse optimization for radiotherapy applications. Mathematical derivation of the dose-mass-based formalism is presented. This mathematical representation is compared to the most commonly used dose-volume-based formulation used in inverse optimization. A simple example on digitally created phantom is presented. The phantom consists of three regions: a target surrounded by high- and low-density regions. The target is irradiated with two beams through those regions and inverse optimization with dose-volume and dose-mass-based objective functions is performed. The basic properties of the two optimization types are demonstrated on the phantom. It is demonstrated that dose-volume optimization is a special case of dose-mass optimization. In a homogenous media, dose-mass optimization turns into dose-volume optimization. The dose calculations performed on the digital phantom show that in this very simple case dose-mass optimization tends to penalize more the dose delivery through the high-density region and therefore it results in delivering more dose through the low-density region. It was demonstrated that dose-mass-based optimization is mathematically more general than dose-volume-based optimization. In the case of constant density media, dose-mass optimization transforms into dose-volume optimization.

  5. A novel molluscicidal formulation of niclosamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jian-Rong; Wang, Wei; Liang, You-Sheng; Li, Hong-Jun; Guan, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Yin-Chang

    2008-07-01

    Snail control by molluscicides is an important strategy for schistosomiasis control in China. Currently, only one chemical molluscicide, niclosamide, which is used as 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN), is commercially available for field snail control in China. However, WPN is costly, toxic, and has a lower dispersibility and precipitates rapidly. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel formulation of niclosamide, a suspension concentrate of niclosamide (SCN). The efficacy of SCN was evaluated both in the laboratory and field. SCN showed better molluscicidal effects than conventional formulation of WPN, as determined by LC(50) for adult snails, young snails, and snail eggs. The acute toxicity of SCN to Brachdanio rerio hamiton was less than WPN. In conclusion, the novel formulation of SCN suspension is physically more stable, more effective, and less toxic. Therefore, it can be more useful for controlling snails in endemic areas of schistosomiasis in China.

  6. Engaged Problem Formulation in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby

    2016-01-01

    problems requires a more substantial engagement with the different stakeholders, especially when their problems are ill structured and situated in complex organizational settings. On this basis, we present an engaged approach to formulating IS problems with, not for, IS practitioners. We have come...... to understand engaged problem formulation as joint researching and as the defining of contemporary and complex problems by researchers and those practitioners who experience and know these problems. We used this approach in investigating IS management in Danish municipalities. In this paper, we present...... the approach to formulating problems in an engaged way. We discuss it in relation to ideas and assumptions that underpin engaged scholarship, and we discuss the implications for IS action research, design science research, and mixed approaches....

  7. Engaged Problem Formulation in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby

    2016-01-01

    “Is this the problem?”: the question that haunts many information systems (IS) researchers when they pursue work relevant to both practice and research. Nevertheless, a deliberate answer to this question requires more than simply asking the involved IS practitioners. Deliberately formulating prob...... the approach to formulating problems in an engaged way. We discuss it in relation to ideas and assumptions that underpin engaged scholarship, and we discuss the implications for IS action research, design science research, and mixed approaches....... to understand engaged problem formulation as joint researching and as the defining of contemporary and complex problems by researchers and those practitioners who experience and know these problems. We used this approach in investigating IS management in Danish municipalities. In this paper, we present...

  8. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  9. A displacement-based finite element formulation for incompressible and nearly-incompressible cardiac mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjicharalambous, Myrianthi; Lee, Jack; Smith, Nicolas P; Nordsletten, David A

    2014-06-01

    The Lagrange Multiplier (LM) and penalty methods are commonly used to enforce incompressibility and compressibility in models of cardiac mechanics. In this paper we show how both formulations may be equivalently thought of as a weakly penalized system derived from the statically condensed Perturbed Lagrangian formulation, which may be directly discretized maintaining the simplicity of penalty formulations with the convergence characteristics of LM techniques. A modified Shamanskii-Newton-Raphson scheme is introduced to enhance the nonlinear convergence of the weakly penalized system and, exploiting its equivalence, modifications are developed for the penalty form. Focusing on accuracy, we proceed to study the convergence behavior of these approaches using different interpolation schemes for both a simple test problem and more complex models of cardiac mechanics. Our results illustrate the well-known influence of locking phenomena on the penalty approach (particularly for lower order schemes) and its effect on accuracy for whole-cycle mechanics. Additionally, we verify that direct discretization of the weakly penalized form produces similar convergence behavior to mixed formulations while avoiding the use of an additional variable. Combining a simple structure which allows the solution of computationally challenging problems with good convergence characteristics, the weakly penalized form provides an accurate and efficient alternative to incompressibility and compressibility in cardiac mechanics.

  10. RAACFDb: Rheumatoid arthritis ayurvedic classical formulations database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Thoufic Ali, A M; Agrawal, Aakash; Sajitha Lulu, S; Mohana Priya, A; Vino, S

    2017-02-02

    In the past years, the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has undergone remarkable changes in all therapeutic modes. The present newfangled care in clinical research is to determine and to pick a new track for better treatment options for RA. Recent ethnopharmacological investigations revealed that traditional herbal remedies are the most preferred modality of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, several ayurvedic modes of treatments and formulations for RA are not much studied and documented from Indian traditional system of medicine. Therefore, this directed us to develop an integrated database, RAACFDb (acronym: Rheumatoid Arthritis Ayurvedic Classical Formulations Database) by consolidating data from the repository of Vedic Samhita - The Ayurveda to retrieve the available formulations information easily. Literature data was gathered using several search engines and from ayurvedic practitioners for loading information in the database. In order to represent the collected information about classical ayurvedic formulations, an integrated database is constructed and implemented on a MySQL and PHP back-end. The database is supported by describing all the ayurvedic classical formulations for the treatment rheumatoid arthritis. It includes composition, usage, plant parts used, active ingredients present in the composition and their structures. The prime objective is to locate ayurvedic formulations proven to be quite successful and highly effective among the patients with reduced side effects. The database (freely available at www.beta.vit.ac.in/raacfdb/index.html) hopefully enables easy access for clinical researchers and students to discover novel leads with reduced side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Monajjemzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6. Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2. Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8 and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study.

  12. [Estimating child mortality using the previous child technique, with data from health centers and household surveys: methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A; Hill, A G

    1988-01-01

    2 trials of the previous child or preceding birth technique in Bamako, Mali, and Lima, Peru, gave very promising results for measurement of infant and early child mortality using data on survivorship of the 2 most recent births. In the Peruvian study, another technique was tested in which each woman was asked about her last 3 births. The preceding birth technique described by Brass and Macrae has rapidly been adopted as a simple means of estimating recent trends in early childhood mortality. The questions formulated and the analysis of results are direct when the mothers are visited at the time of birth or soon after. Several technical aspects of the method believed to introduce unforeseen biases have now been studied and found to be relatively unimportant. But the problems arising when the data come from a nonrepresentative fraction of the total fertile-aged population have not been resolved. The analysis based on data from 5 maternity centers including 1 hospital in Bamako, Mali, indicated some practical problems and the information obtained showed the kinds of subtle biases that can result from the effects of selection. The study in Lima tested 2 abbreviated methods for obtaining recent early childhood mortality estimates in countries with deficient vital registration. The basic idea was that a few simple questions added to household surveys on immunization or diarrheal disease control for example could produce improved child mortality estimates. The mortality estimates in Peru were based on 2 distinct sources of information in the questionnaire. All women were asked their total number of live born children and the number still alive at the time of the interview. The proportion of deaths was converted into a measure of child survival using a life table. Then each woman was asked for a brief history of the 3 most recent live births. Dates of birth and death were noted in month and year of occurrence. The interviews took only slightly longer than the basic survey

  13. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  14. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  15. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  16. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  17. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  18. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  19. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  20. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  1. Formulation and stability testing of photolabile drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnesen, H H

    2001-08-28

    Exposure of a drug to irradiation can influence the stability of the formulation, leading to changes in the physicochemical properties of the product. The influence of excipients of frequently used stabilizers is often difficult to predict and, therefore, stability testing of the final preparation is important. The selection of a protective packaging must be based on knowledge about the wavelength causing the instability. Details on drug photoreactivity will also be helpful in order to minimize side-effects and/or optimize drug targeting by developing photoresponsive drug delivery systems. This review focuses on practical problems related to formulation and stability testing of photolabile drugs.

  2. Design of formulated products: a systematic methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    -based computer-aided methodology for design and verification of a class of chemical-based products (liquid formulations) is presented. This methodology is part of an integrated three-stage approach for design/verification of liquid formulations where stage-1 generates a list of feasible product candidates and....../or verifies a specified set through a sequence of predefined activities (work-flow). Stage-2 and stage-3 (not presented here) deal with the planning and execution of experiments, for product validation. Four case studies have been developed to test the methodology. The computer-aided design (stage-1...

  3. Boundary layer computations using a generalized formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, D.; Zingg, D. W.

    A numerical solution procedure for a generalized form of the boundary-layer equations based on the formulation of Steger and Van Dalsem is described. The formulation, which is intended for use in a fortified Navier-Stokes procedure, uses the boundary-layer equations expressed in body-confromal coordinates but transformed into generalized coordinates for the solution process. Results are presented for attached and separated transonic airfoil flows with external pressure gradient given from a Navier-Stokes solution in the boundary layers. Discrepancies are noted near shocks and trailing edges, where normal pressure gradients can be appreciable and streamwise velocity gradients can be high.

  4. Problem formulation as a discursive design activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Dorst, Kees; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2009-01-01

    part of any engineering design education. Yet the assumptions behind the rational problem solving approach to design do not sit well with some of the experiences we have in design teaching and design practice. Problem formulation is one such area where we might have to look for a different way...... the intricacies of problem formulation in design. Key notions in design methodology, like ‘design problem’, ‘design solution’ and ‘ill-structuredness’ are reconsidered in this light. This directly leads to identifying further lines for investigation, and an agenda for design research....

  5. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon

    Aggregating formulations is a powerful approach for transforming problems into taking more tractable forms. Aggregated formulations can, though, have drawbacks: some information may get lost in the aggregation and { put in a branch-and-bound context { branching may become very di_cult and even....... The paper includes general considerations on types of problems for which the method is of particular interest. Furthermore, we prove the correctness of the procedure and consider how to include extensions such as cutting planes and advanced branching strategies....

  6. Determination of carbamazepine in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Grace da Silva Solon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of five different solid formulations of carbamazepine. The reference formulation was Tegretol® 200.00 mg (Novartis and the others were: generic formulation of carbamazepine 200.00 mg (National Industry, similar formulation of carbamazepine 200.00 mg (National Industry, and two formulations of carbamazepine 200.00 mg acquired from two different compounding pharmacies. The latter consisted of capsules obtained in Natal, the capital city of the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Norte. The quality of samples was evaluated through physical and physical-chemical tests, including: weight, diameter, thickness, content, dissolution, disintegration, hardness, friability and moisture. The results of friability analysis showed that all formulations met Brazilian and United States Pharmacopeia (USP specifications. In spite of having a higher hardness compared to the reference, the generic formulation had a lower disintegration time. This could be associated to the presence of crospovidone in its formulation. Results of this study showed that all formulations had dissolutions which were in accordance with Brazilian Pharmacopoeia specifications, and quality control tests. An exception was found for the similar formulation, which had a hardness parameter that exceeded the USP standard. However, this difference was not significant given the similar formulation's satisfactory disintegration time.O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de cinco formulações de carbamazepina na dosagem de 200,00 mg: medicamento referência Tegretol® (Novartis, medicamento genérico (indústria nacional, medicamento similar (indústria nacional e cápsulas do mesmo medicamento obtidas de duas farmácias de manipulação da cidade do Natal, RN. Os ensaios realizados foram: peso médio, diâmetro, espessura, teor, dissolução, desintegração, dureza, friabilidade e umidade. Foi observado que nenhuma das amostras

  7. Interpretation and Implications of Previous Sea Pay Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    simple example of the Navy paying “rents” in the labor market .... 30  Figure 13.   When disutility of general Navy duty and sea duty are perfectly...their true demand for a product. This mechanism allows companies to tailor prices to specific segments of their market and, in so doing, to maximize...entire use of bandwidth. Telecommunications companies use this distinction to construct a market segmentation technique that is the heart of the non

  8. Improving question formulation for use in evidence appraisal in a tertiary care setting: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN66375463

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Meera

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The specificity of clinical questions is gauged by explicit descriptions of four dimensions: subjects, interventions, comparators and outcomes of interest. This study determined whether adding simple instructions and examples on clinical question formulation would increase the specificity of the submitted question compared to using a standard form without instructions and examples. Methods A randomised controlled trial was conducted in an evidence-search and appraisal service. New participants were invited to reformulate clinical queries. The Control Group was given no instructions. The Intervention Group was given a brief explanation of proper formulation, written instructions, and diagrammatic examples. The primary outcome was the change in the proportion of reformulated questions that described each the dimensions of specificity. Results Fifty-two subjects agreed to participate in the trial of which 13 were lost to follow-up. The remaining 17 Intervention Group and 22 Control Group participants were analysed. Baseline characteristics were comparable. Overall, 20% of initially submitted questions from both groups were properly specified (defined as an explicit statement describing all dimensions of specificity. On follow-up, 7/14 questions previously rated as mis-specified in the Intervention Group had all dimensions described at follow-up (p = 0.008 while the Control Group did not show any changes from baseline. Participants in the Intervention Group were also more likely to explicitly describe patients (p = 0.028, comparisons (p = 0.014, and outcomes (p = 0.008. Conclusions This trial demonstrated the positive impact of specific instructions on the proportion of properly-specified clinical queries. The evaluation of the long-term impact of such changes is an area of continued research.

  9. iPad Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin; Learning, MSL Made Simple

    2010-01-01

    The new iPad is sleek, powerful, and most importantly, it's much more than just a big iPhone. Your iPad is can be used for reading, surfing the web, emailing, watching TV/Movies, getting work done, and much more. And with the upcoming wave of iPad apps, the possibilities are endless. iPad X Made Simple clarifies all of the key features on the iPad, introduces what's new, and also reveals dozens of time-saving shortcuts and techniques. The book has over 1,000 screen shots that are carefully annotated with step-by-step instructions. * Clear instructions on how to set up and use the iPad * Illust

  10. The simple approach to deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, N.O.

    1980-01-01

    The use of a simple top hat plume model in conjunction with the principle of source depletion facilitates an analytical treatment of the deposition problem. With such a model, explicit formulae for downwind deposition amounts and ground level atmospheric concentrations are given. The method has the advantage of allowing estimates of the most unfavorable parameter combinations for, say, the maximum deposition that can occur at a given distance from the source. With regard to the land contamination problem, where an area is defined as 'contaminated' when the amount of deposited material is greater than some minimum value, estimates of, for example, the maximum area contaminated and the maximum amount of contamination deposited will also be given

  11. Methadone radioimmunoassay: two simple methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, K.; Smith, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Two simple and economical radioimmunoassays for methadone in blood or urine are described. Haemolysis, decomposition, common anticoagulants and sodium fluoride do not affect the results. One assay used commercially-available [1- 3 H](-)-methadone hydrobromide as the label, while the other uses a radioiodinated conjugate of 4-dimethylamino-2,2-diphenylpentanoic acid and L-tyrosine methyl ester. A commercially-available antiserum is used in both assays. Normethadone and α-methadol cross-react to a small extent with the antiserum while methadone metabolites, dextropropoxyphene, dipipanone and phenadoxone have negligible cross-reactivities. The 'cut-offs' of the two assays as described are 30 and 33 ng ml -1 for blood, and 24 and 21 ng ml -1 for urine. The assay using the radioiodinated conjugate can be made more sensitive if required by increasing the specific activity of the label. (author)

  12. Simple radiography by Imaging Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Shigeru; Koyama, Motoko; Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Insitute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Photo-stimulable phosphor is a material which emits luminescence by incitement of light. As useful photo-stimulable phosphor, alkali halide, like BaFBr: Eu, II - VI compound, like SrS: Eu and oxide, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Care reported at present. Imaging Plate is a popular name of products, which is composed of thin layer of the phosphor fixed plastic plate. Photo-stimulable luminescence of Imaging Plate is emitted by scanning with narrow beam of incitement light. The light of luminescence is separated from incitement light by filter and it`s intensity is measured. The intensity of luminescence is proportional to absorbed dose of Imaging Plate from incident radiation. The map of luminescence intensity makes radiation image like radiograph taken by X-ray film. Reusability and usability of digital image are another advantage. The problem to solve of Imaging Plate are less resolution than X-ray film, expensive reading instrument and fading, which means decrease of luminescence intensity depend on elapse time after irradiation. High sensitivity of Imaging Plate makes possible of simple radiography by small radiation source. In Japanese law, sealed radioisotopes source less than 3.7 MBq can use without permission and register. If radiograph can be taken by sealed source less than 3.7 MBq, application of radiography is widely developed. So we try to take radiographs of some objects using Imaging Plate and sealed radioisotope sources under 3.7 MBq. As the result, useful radiographs are taken under conditions that exposure time is more than a few hours and distance between the source and the Plate is less than 30 cm. Quality of the image is poor than general radiograph by large radiation source. But the simple radiography taken by small source is of great value. (J.P.N.)

  13. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  14. Formulation, stabilisation and encapsulation of bacteriophage for phage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Danish J; Sokolov, Ilya J; Vinner, Gurinder K; Mancuso, Francesco; Cinquerrui, Salvatore; Vladisavljevic, Goran T; Clokie, Martha R J; Garton, Natalie J; Stapley, Andrew G F; Kirpichnikova, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Against a backdrop of global antibiotic resistance and increasing awareness of the importance of the human microbiota, there has been resurgent interest in the potential use of bacteriophages for therapeutic purposes, known as phage therapy. A number of phage therapy phase I and II clinical trials have concluded, and shown phages don't present significant adverse safety concerns. These clinical trials used simple phage suspensions without any formulation and phage stability was of secondary concern. Phages have a limited stability in solution, and undergo a significant drop in phage titre during processing and storage which is unacceptable if phages are to become regulated pharmaceuticals, where stable dosage and well defined pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are de rigueur. Animal studies have shown that the efficacy of phage therapy outcomes depend on the phage concentration (i.e. the dose) delivered at the site of infection, and their ability to target and kill bacteria, arresting bacterial growth and clearing the infection. In addition, in vitro and animal studies have shown the importance of using phage cocktails rather than single phage preparations to achieve better therapy outcomes. The in vivo reduction of phage concentration due to interactions with host antibodies or other clearance mechanisms may necessitate repeated dosing of phages, or sustained release approaches. Modelling of phage-bacterium population dynamics reinforces these points. Surprisingly little attention has been devoted to the effect of formulation on phage therapy outcomes, given the need for phage cocktails, where each phage within a cocktail may require significantly different formulation to retain a high enough infective dose. This review firstly looks at the clinical needs and challenges (informed through a review of key animal studies evaluating phage therapy) associated with treatment of acute and chronic infections and the drivers for phage encapsulation. An important driver

  15. Increased immunogenicity of recombinant Ad35-based malaria vaccine through formulation with aluminium phosphate adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ophorst, Olga J. A. E.; Radosevic, Katarina; Klap, Jaco M.; Sijtsma, Jeroen; Gillissen, Gert; Mintardjo, Ratna; van Ooij, Mark J. M.; Holterman, Lennart; Companjen, Arjen; Goudsmit, Jaap; Havenga, Menzo J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we have shown the potency of recombinant Adenovirus serotype 35 viral vaccines (rAd35) to induce strong immune response against the circumsporozoite protein (CS) of the plasmodium parasite. To further optimize immunogenicity of Ad35-based malaria vaccines we formulated rAd35.CS vaccine

  16. Application of the KeratinoSens™ assay for assessing the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical active ingredients and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settivari, Raja S; Gehen, Sean C; Amado, Ricardo Acosta; Visconti, Nicolo R; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of skin sensitization potential is an important component of the safety evaluation process for agrochemical products. Recently, non-animal approaches including the KeratinoSens™ assay have been developed for predicting skin sensitization potential. Assessing the utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for use with multi-component mixtures such as agrochemical formulations has not been previously evaluated and is a significant need. This study was undertaken to evaluate the KeratinoSens™ assay prediction potential for agrochemical formulations. The assay was conducted for 8 agrochemical active ingredients (AIs) including 3 sensitizers (acetochlor, meptyldinocap, triclopyr), 5 non-sensitizers (aminopyralid, clopyralid, florasulam, methoxyfenozide, oxyfluorfen) and 10 formulations for which in vivo sensitization data were available. The KeratinoSens™ correctly predicted the sensitization potential of all the AIs. For agrochemical formulations it was necessary to modify the standard assay procedure whereby the formulation was assumed to have a common molecular weight. The resultant approach correctly predicted the sensitization potential for 3 of 4 sensitizing formulations and all 6 non-sensitizing formulations when compared to in vivo data. Only the meptyldinocap-containing formulation was misclassified, as a result of high cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate the promising utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for evaluating the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical AIs and formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Formulation and Development of a Validated UV-Spectrophotometric Analytical Method of Rutin Tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad N. Abualhasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutin is available in some foods, fruits, and vegetables. It has various beneficial medical effects making it useful in the treatment of various diseases. Rutin is available in different oral dosage forms such as tablets or capsules, widely available in the market. Rutin and many herbal medicines lack quality control due to unavailability of analytical methods. In this study, we formulated rutin tablet and studied its stability using a simple developed analytical method. The dissolution profile of our formulated tablet was also inspected. The results showed that our developed method was linear (R2=0.999, precise (% RSD = 0.026, and accurate (% recovery = 98.55–103.34. The formulated rutin tablet was stable under accelerated conditions as well as room temperature for 150 days (% assay > 91.69. The dissolution profile over 45 minutes of our formulated tablet showed a better dissolution (26.5% compared with the internationally marketed Rutin® tablet (18.5%. This study can serve as a guideline to companies that manufacture herbal products to improve their formulated herbs and apply validated analytical methods to check the quality of their product.

  18. Development of Novel Formulations to Enhance in Vivo Transdermal Permeation of Tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Aly H.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tocopherol represents a big challenge for transdermal permeation owing to its extreme hydrophobicity and large molecular mass. The aim of the present study was to develop alpha-tocopherol (T topical formulations and evaluate their ex vivo and in vivo permeation. Franz diffusion cells were used for ex vivo permeation, and neonatal rats were used for in vivo permeation. Seven gel formulations and 21 liquid formulations were investigated for physical stability, viscosity and permeation of T. Analysis of T was performed by a validated HPLC method using a UV detector. The ex vivo permeation from gel and emulsion formulations was very poor (0.001-0.015 %. Highest permeation was observed from monophasic liquid formulations containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, tocopheryl polyethylene glycols (TPGs, propylene glycol, ethanol and 9.5 % T. The in vivo results demonstrated higher retention in the epidermis compared to subcutaneous tissues, 1377 and 1.13 μg g-1, respectively. Increasing T concentration from 4.8 to 9.5 % did not increase the amount permeated or % of T retained. It was concluded that simple solutions of T in the presence of DMSO and TPGs were more promising systems for effective transdermal permeation compared to gel, emulsion or oleaginous systems.

  19. Lagrangian formulation of classical BMT-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupasov-Maksimov, Andrey; Deriglazov, Alexei; Guzman, Walberto

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The most popular classical theory of electron has been formulated by Bargmann, Michel and Telegdi (BMT) in 1959. The BMT equations give classical relativistic description of a charged particle with spin and anomalous magnetic momentum moving in homogeneous electro-magnetic field. This allows to study spin dynamics of polarized beams in uniform fields. In particular, first experimental measurements of muon anomalous magnetic momentum were done using changing of helicity predicted by BMT equations. Surprisingly enough, a systematic formulation and the analysis of the BMT theory are absent in literature. In the present work we particularly fill this gap by deducing Lagrangian formulation (variational problem) for BMT equations. Various equivalent forms of Lagrangian will be discussed in details. An advantage of the obtained classical model is that the Lagrangian action describes a relativistic spinning particle without Grassmann variables, for both free and interacting cases. This implies also the possibility of canonical quantization. In the interacting case, an arbitrary electromagnetic background may be considered, which generalizes the BMT theory formulated to the case of homogeneous fields. The classical model has two local symmetries, which gives an interesting example of constrained classical dynamics. It is surprising, that the case of vanishing anomalous part of the magnetic momentum is naturally highlighted in our construction. (author)

  20. Clinical pharmacology of novel anticancer drug formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman, F.E.

    2013-01-01

    Studies outlined in this thesis describe the impact of drug formulations on pharmacology of anticancer drugs. It consists of four parts and starts with a review describing the mechanisms of low oral bioavailability of anti-cancer drugs and strategies for improvement of the bioavailability. The

  1. Formulation and characterization of caffeine biodegradable chewing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) is a test for analysing the textural properties of food, in which the samples are ..... Food Technol 1978;. 32: 62-66. 16. Mehta FM, Trivedi P. Formulation and characterization of biodegradable medicated chewing gum delivery system for motion ...

  2. Formulation and evaluation and terbutaline sulphate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the use of low rugosity lactose, product of controlled crystallization of this carrier, in the formulation of terbutaline sulphate and beclomethasone dipropionate dry powder inhalers. The deposition patterns obtained with inhalation mixtures consisting of the modified lactose and each of the micronised drugs ...

  3. Dynamic psychiatry and the psychodynamic formulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In her book 'An Unquiet Mind' the psychologist Kay Jamison gives a moving ... Department of Psychiatry, University of Pretoria, Weskoppies Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa. Abstract: This ... psychodynamic formulation is unfortunately seldom incorporated in the psychiatric presentation of patients; guidelines are therefore ...

  4. Facile Colorimetric Determination of Duloxetine in Formulations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DX). Methods: Ion-pair spectrophotometric method was employed for the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DX) in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations using acidic dye methyl orange (MO) as ion-pairing agent at pH 4 (phthalate buffer). The yellow ion-pair complex ...

  5. Yang-Mills formulation of interacting strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Hongmo; Tsou Sheungtsun

    1988-06-01

    A suggestion that the theory of interacting open bosonic string be reformulated as a generalised Yang-Mills theory is further elucidated. Moreover, a serious reservation regarding the ordering of operators in the earlier 'proof' of equivalence between the new and standard formulations is now removed. (author)

  6. State-Space Formulation for Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Marin, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new state-space approach for temporal analysis of electrical circuits. The method systematically obtains the state-space formulation of nondegenerate linear networks without using concepts of topology. It employs nodal/mesh systematic analysis to reduce the number of undesired variables. This approach helps students to…

  7. Formulation of statistical mechanics for chaotic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we again strengthen the idea of statistical mechanics of chaotic systems using Kinchin's formulation based on microcanonical ensemble [13]. Further, we extend the study to canonical ensemble of such a system and as an example, we consider QO and obtain various thermodynamic quantities and the results are.

  8. Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Martin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Topical delivery of gabapentin is desirable to treat peripheral neuropathic pain conditions whilst avoiding systemic side effects. To date, reports of topical gabapentin delivery in vitro have been variable and dependent on the skin model employed, primarily involving rodent and porcine models. In this study a variety of topical gabapentin formulations were investigated, including Carbopol® hydrogels containing various permeation enhancers, and a range of proprietary bases including a compounded Lipoderm® formulation; furthermore microneedle facilitated delivery was used as a positive control. Critically, permeation of gabapentin across a human epidermal membrane in vitro was assessed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Subsequently this data was contextualised within the wider scope of the literature. Although reports of topical gabapentin delivery have been shown to vary, largely dependent upon the skin model used, this study demonstrated that 6% (w/w gabapentin 0.75% (w/w Carbopol® hydrogels containing 5% (w/w DMSO or 70% (w/w ethanol and a compounded 10% (w/w gabapentin Lipoderm® formulation were able to facilitate permeation of the molecule across human skin. Further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required to investigate the topical delivery performance and pharmacodynamic actions of prospective formulations.

  9. Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Natalie; Hiom, Sarah; Birchall, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Topical delivery of gabapentin is desirable to treat peripheral neuropathic pain conditions whilst avoiding systemic side effects. To date, reports of topical gabapentin delivery in vitro have been variable and dependent on the skin model employed, primarily involving rodent and porcine models. In this study a variety of topical gabapentin formulations were investigated, including Carbopol® hydrogels containing various permeation enhancers, and a range of proprietary bases including a compounded Lipoderm® formulation; furthermore microneedle facilitated delivery was used as a positive control. Critically, permeation of gabapentin across a human epidermal membrane in vitro was assessed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Subsequently this data was contextualised within the wider scope of the literature. Although reports of topical gabapentin delivery have been shown to vary, largely dependent upon the skin model used, this study demonstrated that 6% (w/w) gabapentin 0.75% (w/w) Carbopol® hydrogels containing 5% (w/w) DMSO or 70% (w/w) ethanol and a compounded 10% (w/w) gabapentin Lipoderm® formulation were able to facilitate permeation of the molecule across human skin. Further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required to investigate the topical delivery performance and pharmacodynamic actions of prospective formulations. PMID:28867811

  10. Kit systems for granulated decontamination formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2010-07-06

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field. The formulation can be pre-mixed and pre-packaged as a multi-part kit system, where one or more of the parts are packaged in a powdered, granulated form for ease of handling and mixing in the field.

  11. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to formulate sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B by controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a “passive carrier” in targeted antifungal therapy. Methods: Sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B were prepared by controlled ...

  12. Formulation of Thermosensitive Hydrogel Containing Cyclodextrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation of Thermosensitive Hydrogel Containing Cyclodextrin for Controlled Drug Delivery of Camptothecin. ... Camptothecin (CPT) released from the hydrogel (TF8) over 8 h in pH 7.4 buffer ranged from 38.97 - 92.5 %, and varied according to the composition of the hydrogels. Release of camptothecin was lowest from ...

  13. Screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gel formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ochoa Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of vaginal drug delivery formulations requires special attention to vehicle properties that optimize vaginal coating and retention. The aim of the present work was to perform a screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gels formulated with carbomer or carrageenan in binary combination with a second polymer (carbomer, guar or xanthan gum. The gels were characterised using in vitroadhesion, spreadability and leakage potential studies, as well as rheological measurements (stress and frequency sweep tests and the effect of dilution with simulated vaginal fluid (SVF on spreadability. Results were analysed using analysis of variance and multiple factor analysis. The combination of polymers enhanced adhesion of both primary gelling agents, carbomer and carrageenan. From the rheological point of view all formulations presented a similar behaviour, prevalently elastic and characterised by loss tangent values well below 1. No correlation between rheological and adhesion behaviour was found. Carbomer and carrageenan gels containing the highest percentage of xanthan gum displayed good in vitro mucoadhesion and spreadability, minimal leakage potential and high resistance to dilution. The positive results obtained with carrageenan-xanthan gum-based gels can encourage the use of natural biocompatible adjuvants in the composition of vaginal products, a formulation field that is currently under the synthetic domain.

  14. Comparative evaluation of organic formulations of Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative evaluation of organic formulations of Pseudomonas fluorescens based biopesticides and their application in the management of bacterial wilt of brinjal ... Effective management of bacterial wilt of brinjal by P. fluorescens under local conditions signifies its potentiality and scope as a plant growth promoting ...

  15. [Optimization of formulations for dietetic pastry products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, M; Uquiche, E; Brito, G; Cancino, M

    2000-03-01

    Optimized formulations of dietetic pastry products such as cake and sponge cake premixes were formulated using the surface response methodology. % Emulsifier agent and baking time were the selected independent variables for cake, as well as % emulsifier agent % chlorinated flour the variables selected for sponge cake. Three different level of each variable summing up thirteen experimental formulae of each product were assessed to optimize the variables that could have some influence in the sensory characteristics of these dietetic products. The total sensory quality was determined for both dietetic products using the composite scoring test and a panel of 18 trained judges. Looking at the contour graphic and considering economic aspects the best combination of variables for cake formulation was 2% emulsifier agent and 48 minutes for baking time, With respect to sponge cake, the best combination was 6% emulsifier agent and 48% chlorinated flour. Shelf life studies showed that both dietetic formulations remained stable during storage conditions of 75 days at 30 degrees C. During this period, significant differences in sensory characteristics were not found (p pastry products had good acceptability, and open up marketing opportunities for new products with potential health benefits to consumers.

  16. Release Properties of Paracetamol Granulationa Formulated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theobroma cacao gum, TCG was derived as a dry powder from fresh fruits of Theobroma cacao. Various granulations of paracetamol were prepared with TCG at the concentrations of 0.5 – 4% w/w. Similar formulations were prepared using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, SCMC and acacia gums as standards. In each ...

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of polyherbal formulation against carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... The ethanloic extracts of the polyherbal medicinal plants (Asteracantha longifolia, Cyperus rotundus and Bryophyllum pinnatum) were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. The ethanolic extract of polyherbal formulation at 250 mg/kg b.w. exhibited a ...

  18. Initial value formulation of higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The initial value problem is considered for the conformally coupled scalar field and higher derivative gravity, by expressing the equations of each theory in harmonic coordinates. For each theory it is shown that the (vacuum) equations can take the form of a diagonal hyperbolic system with constraints on the initial data. Consequently these theories possess well-posed initial value formulations

  19. Formulation of statistical mechanics for chaotic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We formulate the statistical mechanics of chaotic system with few degrees of freedom and investigated the quartic oscillator system using microcanonical and canonical ensembles. Results of statistical mechanics are numerically verified by considering the dynamical evolution of quartic oscillator system with two degrees of ...

  20. On fictitious domain formulations for Maxwell's equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahmen, W.; Jensen, Torben Klint; Urban, K.

    2003-01-01

    We consider fictitious domain-Lagrange multiplier formulations for variational problems in the space H(curl: Omega) derived from Maxwell's equations. Boundary conditions and the divergence constraint are imposed weakly by using Lagrange multipliers. Both the time dependent and time harmonic...

  1. Efficacy of Three Disinfectant Formulations against Multidrug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current increase in the prevalence of nosocomial infections within the hospital environment despite adequate cleaning and disinfection can be said to be due to the following: (i) ineffectiveness of the various disinfectant formulations used in infection control on the various hospital equipments and wards; (ii) development ...

  2. PERFORMANCE OF LOCALLY FORMULATED FEEDS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Fisheries is an important food production sub-sector, providing almost 20% of the world's protein supply; however, the trend in fish production from capture fisheries has reached its limits due to overfishing. A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of two locally formulated feeds as possible replacements for an ...

  3. Formulation and Characterization of Biodegradable Medicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (TPA), biodegradation, in vitro drug release using a modified chewing apparatus, and sensory properties. Result: Formulations code MCG-5 and MCG-9 which incorporated glyceryl triacetate and castor oil as plasticizers, respectively, showed a biodegradation score of 2 and 1, respectively, indicating significant.

  4. Formulation of Bioadhesive Carbomer Gel Incorporating Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate carbomer gel to localize and target drug action in periodontal pockets. Methods: Diclofenac sodium (DS, anti-inflammatory) and metronidazole hydrochloride (MH, antibacterial) were loaded in gelatin microspheres using glutaraldehyde cross-linking. The microspheres were evaluated for drug loading, ...

  5. A parcel formulation for Hamiltonian layer models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Oliver, M.

    Starting from the three-dimensional hydrostatic primitive equations, we derive Hamiltonian N-layer models with isentropic tropospheric and isentropic or isothermal stratospheric layers. Our construction employs a new parcel Hamiltonian formulation which describes the fluid as a continuum of

  6. Formulation and Release Characteristics of Zidovudine- Loaded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    novel microencapsulating material for ibuprofen and diltiazem hydrochloride. Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 2007; 67: 263–268. 15. Doktorovova S, Souto EB. Nanostructured lipid carrier- based hydrogel formulations for drug delivery: A comprehensive review. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2009; 6: 165–176. 16. Higuchi T. Mechanism of ...

  7. Necessity of rethinking oral pediatric formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bar-Shalom, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    by all patient groups, is needed, and an automated compounding concept is proposed. The finishing of the formulation is done at the dispensing pharmacy using an automated process. The individual components (pudding-like carrier, microencapsulated drug, and the dispensing robot and its software...

  8. Mathematical programming formulations for the examinations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We formulate, test and compare three Integer Programming models. It is concluded that, although exact methods cannot give a solution to a real-size problem, these models give a good benchmark for testing the performance of other approaches. This paper also gives a direction for better exact models for the University of ...

  9. Potentials of cellulosic wastes in media formulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... Potential use of cellulosic wastes as carbon and energy sources in selective media formulations was investigated. Two agar media, Czapek-Dox and Sabouraud's agar, were modified by substituting their carbon sources with cellulose, sawdust and sugarcane pulps. Then, two fungi; Aspergillus niger.

  10. Report - Melter Testing of New High Bismuth HLW Formulations VSL-13R2770-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-11-13

    The primary objective of the work described was to test two glasses formulated for a high bismuth waste stream on the DM100 melter system. Testing was designed to determine processing characteristics and production rates, assess the tendency for foaming, and confirm glass properties. The glass compositions tested were previously developed to maintain high waste loadings and processing rates while suppressing the foaming observed in previous tests

  11. Simple snoring: not quite so simple after all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Vincent; Ellis, Jason G; Wilson, Janet A; Coulter, Cheryl; Barclay, Nicola L

    2014-12-01

    Simple snoring (SS), in the absence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), is a common problem, yet our understanding of its causes and consequences is incomplete. Our understanding is blurred by the lack of consistency in the definition of snoring, methods of assessment, and degree of concomitant complaints. Further, it remains contentious whether SS is independently associated with daytime sleepiness, or adverse health outcomes including cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Regardless of this lack of clarity, it is likely that SS exists on one end of a continuum, with OSA at its polar end. This possibility highlights the necessity of considering an otherwise 'annoying' complaint, as a serious risk factor for the development and progression of sleep apnoea, and consequent poor health outcomes. In this review, we: 1) highlight variation in prevalence estimates of snoring; 2) review the literature surrounding the distinctions between SS, upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) and OSA; 3) present the risk factors for SS, in as far as it is distinguishable from UARS and OSA; and 4) describe common correlates of snoring, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and daytime sleepiness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  13. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  14. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  15. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  16. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  17. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of highly dispersive insulin dry powder formulations for lung administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depreter, Flore; Amighi, Karim

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this work was to develop highly dispersible and dry formulations of insulin for use in dry powder inhalers (DPIs) using high-pressure homogenisation (HPH) and spray-drying. Several formulations were evaluated, including formulations spray-dried without excipients and formulations coated with lipids. A physiological lipid composition based on a mixture of cholesterol and phospholipids was used to form the coating film around micronised drug particles. The production technique and excipients were chosen in order to limit the degradation of the active ingredient. The resulting powders exhibited a size and shape suitable for the deep lung deposition of drugs, and good aerodynamic features were obtained for the different formulations tested, with fine particle fractions between 46% and 63% vs. 11% for raw insulin powder. The presence of a lipid coating of up to 30% (w/w) did not significantly affect the aerodynamic behaviour, and the coated formulations also exhibited a decreased residual moisture content of between 2.3% and 3.7% vs. 4.8% for raw insulin, which should improve the long-term stability of the protein formulations. No degradation of the insulin molecule occurred during the HPH/spray-drying process, as it was shown using an HPLC method (insulin content between 98.4% and 100.5%), and the content in high molecular weight proteins, assessed using a gel filtration method, stayed below 0.4%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Simple Demonstration Model of Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Joseph G.

    1999-01-01

    A simple device constructed from a wire screen, a large beaker, beans, and oats is described. It provides a simple and effective visual model of the phenomenon of osmosis and, by extension, the origin of other colligative properties of solutions.

  19. Superlattice band structure: New and simple energy quantification condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiz, F., E-mail: fethimaiz@gmail.com [University of Cartage, Nabeul Engineering Preparatory Institute, Merazka, 8000 Nabeul (Tunisia); King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-10-01

    Assuming an approximated effective mass and using Bastard's boundary conditions, a simple method is used to calculate the subband structure for periodic semiconducting heterostructures. Our method consists to derive and solve the energy quantification condition (EQC), this is a simple real equation, composed of trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, and does not need any programming effort or sophistic machine to solve it. For less than ten wells heterostructures, we have derived and simplified the energy quantification conditions. The subband is build point by point; each point presents an energy level. Our simple energy quantification condition is used to calculate the subband structure of the GaAs/Ga{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5}As heterostructures, and build its subband point by point for 4 and 20 wells. Our finding shows a good agreement with previously published results.

  20. Difficult to swallow: patient preferences for alternative valproate pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monali Bhosle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Monali Bhosle,1 Joshua S Benner,1 Mitch DeKoven,1 Jeff Shelton21Health Economics and Outcomes Research, IMS Health Inc, Falls Church, VA, USA; 2Answers and Insights Market Research, Inc, Indianapolis, IN, USAObjective: To determine the degree to which swallowing valproate (VP tablets is an issue, the proportion of patients who would prefer an alternative formulation, and the predictors of preference.Methods: A quantitative telephone survey of eligible adults (n = 400, ≥18 years old who currently take (n = 236 or previously took (n = 164 VP tablets within the past 6 months was conducted.Results: More than half of the patients indicated that VP tablets were ‘uncomfortable to swallow’ (68.5%, n = 274 and were ‘very interested’ (65.8%, n = 263 in medications that were easier to swallow. When choosing conceptually between taking VP tablet once/day or an equally safe and effective but significantly smaller soft gel capsule twice per day, the 82.8%, (n = 331 preferred the soft gel capsule. In the multivariate regression analysis, perceiving soft gel capsules to be easier to swallow (OR = 73.54; 95% CI = 15.01 to 360.40 and taking VP more frequently (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.13 to 3.61 were significant predictors of soft gel capsule treatment preference.Conclusion: VP users would prefer a formulation that is easier to swallow, even if it is needed to be taken twice per day. When choosing between medications with similar efficacy and safety, physicians can consider patient preferences to optimize conditions for medication adherence.Keywords: patient preference, valproate formulations, tablet characteristics

  1. Assessment of Plant-Probiotic Performance of Novel Endophytic Bacillus sp. in Talc-Based Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Jasim; Ravi, Aswani; Mathew, Jyothis; Krishnankutty, Radhakrishnan Edayileveettil

    2018-01-25

    Endophytic bacteria are considered to have a plethora of plant growth promoting and anti-phytopathogenic traits to live within the plants. Hence, they have immense promises for plant probiotic development. In the current study, plant probiotic endophytic Bacillus sp. CaB5 which has been previously isolated from Capsicum annuum was investigated for its performance in talc-based formulation. For this, CaB5 was made into formulation with sterile talc, calcium carbonate, and carboxymethyl cellulose. The viability analysis of the formulation by standard plate count and fluorescence methods has confirmed the stable microbial count up to 45 days. Plant probiotic performance of the prepared formulation was analyzed on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and lady's finger (Abelmoschus esculentus). The results showed the formulation treatment to have enhancement effect on seed germination as well as plant growth in both selected plants. The results highlight the potential of CaB5-based formulation for field application to enhance growth of economically important plants.

  2. Enhancement of factor VIIa haemostatic efficacy by formulation with PEGylated liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatuv, R; Dayan, I; Carmel-Goren, L; Robinson, M; Aviv, I; Goldenberg-Furmanov, M; Baru, M

    2008-05-01

    Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is an effective treatment of the haemophilia patient with inhibitors and acquired haemophilia. However, on account of its relatively short half-life (HL), achieving therapeutic efficacy with FVIIa requires repeated injections. The development of a long-acting FVIIa product would therefore be beneficial. The formulation of factor VIII with PEGylated liposomes (PEGLip) was previously shown to extend the bleeding-free period in haemophilia patients. We report here an enhancement of haemostatic efficacy by similarly formulating FVIIa with PEGLip. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that FVIIa binds non-covalently but with high affinity and specificity to PEGLip. A one-stage clotting assay demonstrated that formulation of FVIIa with PEGLip does not affect FVIIa activity and stability. A pharmacokinetic study in rats demonstrated that PEGLip formulation of FVIIa extends circulation time and results in higher FVIIa levels several hours after injection. Thromboelastography experiments indicated that PEGLip-FVIIa induces faster clot formation and higher clot stability than standard formulated FVIIa. These results suggest that formulation of FVIIa with PEGLip may lead to a safe and effective long-acting FVIIa that improves the care of haemophilic patients with inhibitors and acquired haemophilia.

  3. Characterization of Amorphous and Co-Amorphous Simvastatin Formulations Prepared by Spray Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Craye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, spray drying from aqueous solutions, using the surface-active agent sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS as a solubilizer, was explored as a production method for co-amorphous simvastatin–lysine (SVS-LYS at 1:1 molar mixtures, which previously have been observed to form a co-amorphous mixture upon ball milling. In addition, a spray-dried formulation of SVS without LYS was prepared. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS revealed that SLS coated the SVS and SVS-LYS particles upon spray drying. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC showed that in the spray-dried formulations the remaining crystallinity originated from SLS only. The best dissolution properties and a “spring and parachute” effect were found for SVS spray-dried from a 5% SLS solution without LYS. Despite the presence of at least partially crystalline SLS in the mixtures, all the studied formulations were able to significantly extend the stability of amorphous SVS compared to previous co-amorphous formulations of SVS. The best stability (at least 12 months in dry conditions was observed when SLS was spray-dried with SVS (and LYS. In conclusion, spray drying of SVS and LYS from aqueous surfactant solutions was able to produce formulations with improved physical stability for amorphous SVS.

  4. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  5. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  6. On \\omega-categorical simple theories

    OpenAIRE

    Palacin, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we shall prove that countable \\omega-categorical simple CM-trivial theories and countable \\omega-categorical simple theories with strong stable forking are low. In addition, we observe that simple theories of bounded finite weight are low.

  7. Simple substrates for complex cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex cognitive tasks present a range of computational and algorithmic challenges for neural accounts of both learning and inference. In particular, it is extremely hard to solve them using the sort of simple policies that have been extensively studied as solutions to elementary Markov decision problems. There has thus been recent interest in architectures for the instantiation and even learning of policies that are formally more complicated than these, involving operations such as gated working memory. However, the focus of these ideas and methods has largely been on what might best be considered as automatized, routine or, in the sense of animal conditioning, habitual, performance. Thus, they have yet to provide a route towards understanding the workings of rule-based control, which is critical for cognitively sophisticated competence. Here, we review a recent suggestion for a uniform architecture for habitual and rule-based execution, discuss some of the habitual mechanisms that underpin the use of rules, and consider a statistical relationship between rules and habits.

  8. Simple model for dice loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Jan; Richter, Peter H.

    2010-03-01

    Dice tossing is commonly believed to be random. However, throwing a fair cube is a dissipative process that is well described by deterministic classical mechanics. In Nagler and Richter (2008 Phys. Rev. E 78 036207; featured in 2008 Nature 455 434), we proposed a simplified model to analyze the origin of the pseudorandomness: a barbell with two masses at its tips with only two final outcomes. In order to keep things simple, we focused on the symmetrical case of equal masses. Here, we complete the picture by considering the general asymmetric case of unequal masses. We show how, depending on the initial conditions, dissipation during bounces, and mass asymmetry, the degree of unpredictability varies. Our analysis reveals, for the simplest possible non-trivial dice throwing model, the effect of dice loading. A surprising consequence of dynamical resonances is that an experienced player may benefit sometimes more from an unloaded than from a loaded barbell. In addition, we investigate the influence of loading on the symmetry breaking process causing one mass to come to rest earlier than the others.

  9. Simple model for molecular scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nirav; Ticknor, Christopher; Hazzard, Kaden

    2017-04-01

    The collisions of ultracold molecules are qualitatively different from the collisions of ultracold atoms due to the high density of bimolecular resonances near the collision energy. We present results from a simple N-channel scattering model with square-well channel potentials and constant channel couplings (inside the well) designed to reproduce essential features of chaotic molecular scattering. The potential depths and channel splittings are tuned to reproduce the appropriate density of states for the short-range bimolecular collision complex (BCC), which affords a direct comparison of the resulting level-spacing distribution to that expected from random matrix theory (RMT), namely the so-called Wigner surmise. The density of states also sets the scale for the rate of dissociation from the BCC to free molecules, as approximated by transition state theory (TST). Our model affords a semi-analytic solution for the scattering amplitude in the open channel, and a determinantal equation for the eigenenergies of the short-ranged BCC. It is likely the simplest finite-ranged scattering model that can be compared to expectations from the approximations of RMT, and TST. The validity of these approximations has implications for the many-channel Hubbard model recently developed. This research was funded in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. NSF PHY-1125915.

  10. Triptans and migraine: advances in use, administration, formulation, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macone, Amanda E; Perloff, Michael D

    2017-03-01

    Recent triptan development has focused on new administration methods and formulations, triptan combination therapies, treatment in menstrually related migraines, and novel serotonin receptor subtype agonists (5HTf). Areas covered: Clinical triptan research related to migraine was reviewed, analyzing EMBASE and PUBMED data bases from 01/01/2011 to 06/29/2016, with a focus on clinical trials of class 1 or 2 level of evidence. There have been advances in drug combination therapies, as well as administration devices that aid in ease of use, increase efficacy, and decrease adverse reactions. Some new agents and devices have similar or less efficacy compared to previous generic triptan formulations. New agents have action at the 5HTf receptor subtype, and avoid vascular side effects of classic 5Ht1b/d agonists, however adverse reactions may limit their clinic use. Long half-life triptans, frovatriptan and naratriptan, do appear to have good benefit in menstral related migraine. Expert opinion: Recent advances in triptan development can offer some advantages to migraine therapy and patient preferences, but have a much higher cost compared to individual generic triptan agents. In the coming years, triptan advances with high efficacy, limiting ADRs and cost are welcomed, in this regard the 5HT1b/d triptans are already well established.

  11. A new formulation of quantum field theory on S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, B.A.; Joshi, G.C.

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in quantum gravity suggest that wormholes may influence the observed values of the constants of nature. The Euclidean formulation of quantum gravity predicts that wormholes induce a probability distribution in the space of possible fundamentals constants. In particular, the effective action on a large spherical space may lead to the vanishing of the cosmological constant and possibly determine the values of other constants of nature. The ability to perform calculations involving interacting quantum fields, particularly non-Abelian models, on a four-sphere is vital if one is to investigate this possibility. In this paper, a new formulation of field theory on a four-sphere is presented using the angular momentum space representation of SO(5). A review of field theory on a sphere is given and then show how a matrix element prescription in angular momentum space and a new summation technique based on the complex l-plane, overcome previous limitations in calculation techniques. The standard one-loop graphs of QED are given as examples. 13 refs., 3 figs

  12. Dissolution rates of over-the-counter painkillers: a comparison among formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemanni, Matteo; Gatoulis, Sergio C; Voelker, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We wanted to compare the dissolution profile of several over-the-counter analgesics to understand whether the different formulation techniques employed to enhance absorption were associated with variations in the dissolution rate, a parameter known to affect drug absorption. We considered 5 formulations currently marketed in Italy: aspirin tablets (Aspirina Dolore e Infiammazione®), ibuprofen tablets and liquid capsules (Moment®), ibuprofen lysine tablets (Nurofenimmedia®) and dexketoprofen trometamol tablets (Enantyum®). Dissolution tests were performed according to the current USP/NF monograph dissolution procedure. Drug dissolution was evaluated at 1, 3, 6, 15, and 30 minutes since the start of the test. Dissolution was evaluated at three different pH: 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8. Every test was repeated 12 times. The aspirin formulation was by far the most rapid dissolving formulation, among those tested, with more than 80% of the tablet dissolved at 6 minutes for every pH considered. At pH 1.2 and 4.5, only the dexketoprofen formulation was able to reach the dissolution level of aspirin at 30 minutes, but had lower levels of dissolution at the previous time points. Instead, at pH 6.8, most of the formulations approached aspirin dissolution level, but only after 15 minutes. Ibuprofen capsules had the slowest kinetics, with a lag phase the first 6 minutes. Different formulation strategies can lead to great differences in the dissolution rates even among drugs of the same class, suggesting that enhancements in the formulation of painkillers can lead to improvements in drug absorption, and thus in the onset of analgesia.

  13. A Simple Probabilistic Model for Estimating the Risk of Standard Air Dives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Liew, H. D; Flynn, E. T

    2004-01-01

    .... Here we present a simple model, based on premises different from those used previously, to test whether long decompression times are necessary and to enable risk of decompression sickness (UCS...

  14. Lattice Boltzmann formulation for conjugate heat transfer in heterogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karani, Hamid; Huber, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach for studying conjugate heat transfer using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The approach is based on reformulating the lattice Boltzmann equation for solving the conservative form of the energy equation. This leads to the appearance of a source term, which introduces the jump conditions at the interface between two phases or components with different thermal properties. The proposed source term formulation conserves conductive and advective heat flux simultaneously, which makes it suitable for modeling conjugate heat transfer in general multiphase or multicomponent systems. The simple implementation of the source term approach avoids any correction of distribution functions neighboring the interface and provides an algorithm that is independent from the topology of the interface. Moreover, our approach is independent of the choice of lattice discretization and can be easily applied to different advection-diffusion LBM solvers. The model is tested against several benchmark problems including steady-state convection-diffusion within two fluid layers with parallel and normal interfaces with respect to the flow direction, unsteady conduction in a three-layer stratified domain, and steady conduction in a two-layer annulus. The LBM results are in excellent agreement with analytical solution. Error analysis shows that our model is first-order accurate in space, but an extension to a second-order scheme is straightforward. We apply our LBM model to heat transfer in a two-component heterogeneous medium with a random microstructure. This example highlights that the method we propose is independent of the topology of interfaces between the different phases and, as such, is ideally suited for complex natural heterogeneous media. We further validate the present LBM formulation with a study of natural convection in a porous enclosure. The results confirm the reliability of the model in simulating complex coupled fluid and thermal dynamics

  15. Design and formulation of nano-sized spray dried efavirenz. Part I: Influence of formulation parameters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Katata, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available statistical design with an L8 orthogonal array, was implemented to optimise the formulation parameters of PCL-EFV nanoparticles. The types of sugar (lactose or trehalose), surfactant concentration and solvent (dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) were chosen...

  16. Formulation of Pine Tar Antidandruff Shampoo Assessment and Comparison With Some Commercial Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gharavi

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study a pine tar shampoo as a new antidandruff formulation is presented. Assessment of antidandruff preparations has been hampered by the lack of standardized schedules, and reliable methods of evaluation.Some antidandruff agents such as : Zinc pyri-thione pine tar, selenium sulphide and (sulfure were used in shampoos. Samples were coded as numbers 1,2 formulated by us and 3,4 formulated commercially. The grading scheme based on 10 point scale, and corneocyte count was carried out on 50 selected volunte¬ers. Corneocyte count and fungal study proved that pine tor shampoo is effective against pityrosporum ovale. Draize lest was used for determination of the irritancy potential of the samples. Results showed that samples numbered 1,2 were relatively innocous in comparison with the others. I urthermore,s kin sensitination test on rabbit also confirmed the results obtained by Draize test. Consumer judgments proved that all formulations were acceptable.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of a Multistrain Probiotic Formulation Depends from Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Vito; Laghi, Luca; Vitali, Beatrice; Parolin, Carola; Giusti, Ilaria; Capobianco, Daniela; Mastromarino, Paola; De Simone, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Variability in probiotics manufacturing may affect their properties, with potential implications for their efficacy and safety. This is of particular concern with probiotic products destined for use in patients with serious medical conditions, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The purpose of the study was to carry out a series of experiments comparing the properties of the US-made probiotic formulation originally commercialized under the brand name VSL#3 ® , with those of the Italian-made formulation now commercialized under the same name. The US-made formulation has previously shown beneficial effects at the intestinal and neurological levels in HIV-infected subjects as well as in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and hepatic encephalopathy. Eleven subjects receiving combined antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 were treated for 6 months with the US-made VSL#3 formulation. At baseline and 6 months, T-cells were analyzed for phenotype and activation markers, and fecal samples were analyzed for bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and their metabolites. The fecal metabolome was assessed using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. Production of metabolites of interest by bacteria obtained from sachets of the two formulations was compared in vitro and their effects on a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) were assessed. Particular attention was paid to the metabolite 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA). At 6 months, fecal samples showed a significant increase in the specific bacterial genera contained in the probiotic supplement. Immune activation was reduced as shown by a significant reduction in the percentage of CD4 + CD38 + HLA-DR + T-cells at 6 months. Fecal concentrations of DHA decreased significantly. In vitro , significant differences in the production and metabolism of DHA were found between bacteria from the US-made and Italian-made formulations: the US-made formulation was able to metabolize DHA whereas the bacteria in the Italian

  18. Efficacy and Safety of a Multistrain Probiotic Formulation Depends from Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Trinchieri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVariability in probiotics manufacturing may affect their properties, with potential implications for their efficacy and safety. This is of particular concern with probiotic products destined for use in patients with serious medical conditions, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The purpose of the study was to carry out a series of experiments comparing the properties of the US-made probiotic formulation originally commercialized under the brand name VSL#3®, with those of the Italian-made formulation now commercialized under the same name. The US-made formulation has previously shown beneficial effects at the intestinal and neurological levels in HIV-infected subjects as well as in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and hepatic encephalopathy.MethodsEleven subjects receiving combined antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 were treated for 6 months with the US-made VSL#3 formulation. At baseline and 6 months, T-cells were analyzed for phenotype and activation markers, and fecal samples were analyzed for bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and their metabolites. The fecal metabolome was assessed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Production of metabolites of interest by bacteria obtained from sachets of the two formulations was compared in vitro and their effects on a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6 were assessed. Particular attention was paid to the metabolite 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA.ResultsAt 6 months, fecal samples showed a significant increase in the specific bacterial genera contained in the probiotic supplement. Immune activation was reduced as shown by a significant reduction in the percentage of CD4+CD38+HLA-DR+ T-cells at 6 months. Fecal concentrations of DHA decreased significantly. In vitro, significant differences in the production and metabolism of DHA were found between bacteria from the US-made and Italian-made formulations: the US-made formulation was able to metabolize DHA whereas the bacteria

  19. Excitation of simple atoms by slow magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, N.M.; Parke, S.J.; Ganapathi, V.; Drell, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    We present a theory of excitation of simple atoms by slow moving massive monopoles. Previously presented results for a monopole of Dirac strength on hydrogen and helium are reviewed. The hydrogen theory is extended to include arbitrary integral multiples of the Dirac pole strength. The excitation of helium by double strength poles and by dyons is also discussed. It is concluded that a helium proportional counter is a reliable and effective detector for monopoles of arbitrary strength, and for negatively charged dyons

  20. Formulation of diclofenac for dermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Choon Fu; Lane, Majella E

    2014-10-01

    Diclofenac (DF) was first synthesized in the 1960's and is currently available as ophthalmic, oral, parenteral, rectal and skin preparations. This review focuses on the administration of DF to the skin. As a member of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) group of drugs the primary indications of DF are for the management of inflammation and pain but it is also used to treat actinic keratosis. The specific aims of this paper are to: (i) provide an overview of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of DF following oral and topical administration; (ii) examine critically the various formulation approaches which have been investigated to enhance dermal delivery of DF; and (iii) identify new formulation strategies for enhanced DF skin penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Principles of ration formulation for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Feeding standards as practiced in developed countries could be misleading when non-conventional feed resources are used in formulating rations for ruminant livestock in developing countries. They tend to reject the poor quality feeds that are available in vast quantities. The non-availability of good quality forage throughout the year and the need to optimise the efficiency of utilisation of locally available feed resources have lead to the application of basic nutritional principles when considering ration formulation. The alternative approach to the use of feeding standards would be to ensure that the production system matches the available resources. The development of feed supplementation strategies based on locally available feed resources require the understanding of the relative roles and nutrient needs of the two-compartment system represented by the micro-organisms in the rumen and the host animal. (author)

  2. Application of UV Imaging in Formulation Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yu; Østergaard, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Efficient drug delivery is dependent on the drug substance dissolving in the body fluids, being released from dosage forms and transported to the site of action. A fundamental understanding of the interplay between the physicochemical properties of the active compound and pharmaceutical excipients...... defining formulation behavior after exposure to the aqueous environments and pharmaceutical performance is critical in pharmaceutical development, manufacturing and quality control of drugs. UV imaging has been explored as a tool for qualitative and quantitative characterization of drug dissolution...... and release with the characteristic feature of providing real-time visualization of the solution phase drug transport in the vicinity of the formulation. Events occurring during drug dissolution and release, such as polymer swelling, drug precipitation/recrystallization, or solvent-mediated phase transitions...

  3. Ising formulations of many NP problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    We provide Ising formulations for many NP-complete and NP-hard problems, including all of Karp's 21 NP-complete problems. This collects and extends mappings to the Ising model from partitioning, covering and satisfiability. In each case, the required number of spins is at most cubic in the size of the problem. This work may be useful in designing adiabatic quantum optimization algorithms.

  4. Improved formulation for Faraday rotation characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tioh, Jin-Wei; Weber, Robert J.; Mina, Mani

    2011-04-01

    The analysis of complex structures consisting of fibers, films, birefringent, and magnetic materials is greatly aided by the availability of an analysis structure. Jones calculus is typically utilized in the course of such analyses. However, standard Jones calculus does not account for the effect of reflections. An improved formulation for the characterization of Faraday rotation that alleviates this shortcoming is reported here and is integral for the proper analysis of devices employing magneto-optic effects.

  5. Policy formulation and enactment: Linked up thinking?

    OpenAIRE

    McLaren, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the challenges, issues and potential of Design and Technology Education as an active contributor in transformational change working towards a sustainable future. The focus is on the process of policy formulation, through translation, into practice and implementation in Design and Technology education in schools. Overall, the aim is to examine what is central to change, the key stakeholders, and what might be considered the inhibitors to enactment of policy and practice c...

  6. Path Integral Formulation of Anomalous Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Rudolf; Eule, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    We present the path integral formulation of a broad class of generalized diffusion processes. Employing the path integral we derive exact expressions for the path probability densities and joint probability distributions for the class of processes under consideration. We show that Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRWs) are included in our framework. A closed expression for the path probability distribution of CTRWs is found in terms of their waiting time distribution as the solution of a Dyson ...

  7. Ising formulations of many NP problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eLucas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide Ising formulations for many NP-complete and NP-hard problems, including all of Karp's 21 NP-complete problems. This collects and extends mappings to the Ising model from partitioning, covering and satisfiability. In each case, the required number of spins is at most cubic in the size of the problem. This work may be useful in designing adiabatic quantum optimization algorithms.

  8. Planar multibody dynamics formulation, programming and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nikravesh, Parviz E

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Multibody Mechanical Systems Types of Analyses Methods of Formulation Computer Programming Application Examples Unit System Remarks Preliminaries Reference Axes Scalars and Vectors Matrices Vector, Array, and Matrix Differentiation Equations and Expressions Remarks Problems Fundamentals of Kinematics A Particle Kinematics of a Rigid Body Definitions Remarks Problems Fundamentals of Dynamics Newton's Laws of Motion Dynamics of a Body Force Elements Applied Forces Reaction Force Remarks Problems Point-Coordinates: Kinematics Multipoint

  9. Archaeology: formulation of a Roman cosmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evershed, R P; Berstan, R; Grew, F; Copley, M S; Charmant, A J H; Barham, E; Mottram, H R; Brown, G

    2004-11-04

    The discovery of a small tin canister in London during archaeological excavations of a Roman temple precinct, dated to the middle of the second century AD, is a landmark in the study of this class of artefact. Such discoveries from the Roman world are rare and this is the only one to be found so far with its lid and contents--a whitish medicinal or cosmetic cream--providing a unique opportunity for us to study the ancient formulation.

  10. [Formulation aspects and ex-vivo examination of buccal drug delivery systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Barnabás; Hetényi, Gergely; Majoros, Klaudia; Miszori, Veronika; Kállai, Nikolett; Zelkó, Romána

    2011-01-01

    Application of buccal dosage forms has several advantages. Buccal route can be used for systemic delivery because the mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is relatively permeable. This route of drug delivery is of special advantages, including the bypass of first pass effect and the avoidance of presystemic elimination within the GIT. Buccal delivery systems enable the systemic delivery of peptides and proteins. In our previous study the physiological background of this application and the excipients of the possible formulations were reviewed. In the present work the formulation and ex vivo examination aspects of buccal drug delivery systems are summarized.

  11. Covariant formulation of wave-particle interaction in a transverse magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, J.T.; Silva, L.O. [Grupo de Lasers e Plasmas, Centro de Electrodinamica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1096 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)

    1997-01-01

    We consider the interaction of relativistic charged particles with a perpendicular monochromatic wave of arbitrary amplitude in the presence of a static magnetic field. We introduce a covariant formulation based on a super-Hamiltonian and we study the energy-time phase plane. This formalism considerably simplifies the analysis of the problem and improves previous theoretical models. It is shown that the system dynamics for the monochromatic perturbation is quite different from the usual wave-packet perturbation: with the present formulation a finite stochastic web with three topologically distinct regions is observed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Colligative properties of simple solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, F C

    1976-11-05

    Vapor pressure lowering, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression are all related quantitatively to the decrease in micro(1)(soln) upon the addition of solute in forming a solution. In any equilibrium system, regardless of whether it is in a gravitational field or whether it contains walls, semipermeable membranes, phase transitions, or solutes, all equilibria are maintained locally, in the small region of the equilibrium, by the equality of micro(1)(soln). If there are several subsystems in a gravitational field, at any fixed height, microi will have the same value in each subsystem into which substance i can get, and microi + M(i)gh is constant throughout the entire system. In a solution, there is no mechanism by which solvent and solute molecules could sustain different pressures. Both the solvent and solute are always under identical pressures in a region of solution, namely, the pressure of the solution in that region. Since nature does not know which component we call the solvent and which the solute, equations should be symmetric in the two (acknowledging that the nonvolatile component, if any, is commonly chosen to be solute). Simple molecular pictures illustrate what is happening to cause pressure (positive or negative) in liquids, vapor pressure of liquids, and the various colligative properties of solutions. The only effect of solute involved in these properties is that it dilutes the solvent, with the resulting increase in S and decrease in micro(1)(soln). Water can be driven passively up a tree to enormous heights by the difference between its chemical potential in the roots and the ambient air. There is nothing mysterious about the molecular bases for any of these phenomena. Biologists can use the well-understood pictures of these phenomena with confidence to study what is happening in the complicated living systems they consider.

  13. Interactions between simple radicals and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo-Otero, Rachel [Lehrstuhl fuer Organische Chemie II der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Laboratorio de Quimica Computacional y Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Habana, 10400 (Cuba); Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa [Lehrstuhl fuer Organische Chemie II der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)], E-mail: elsa.sanchez@rub.de; Suardiaz, Reynier; Montero, Luis A. [Laboratorio de Quimica Computacional y Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Habana, 10400 (Cuba); Sander, Wolfram [Lehrstuhl fuer Organische Chemie II der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)], E-mail: wolfram.sander@rub.de

    2008-11-03

    The interactions of the simple radicals CH{sub 3}, NH{sub 2}, OH, and F with water have been studied by DFT (UB3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p)) and ab initio (RHF-UCCSD(T)/6-311++G(2d,2p)) methods. In this order the number of lone pairs (from zero to three), the electronegativity, and the strength of the X-H bonds increase (X = C, N, and O). The various minima of the radical-water complexes were located using the multiple minima hypersurface (MMH) approach which had previously been proven to be useful for closed-shell molecules. The role of the unpaired electron in hydrogen bonding was investigated using the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. A considerable contribution of the unpaired electron to the complex stabilization was only found for the methyl radical and the fluorine atom, whereas in the aminyl and the hydroxyl radical the role of the unpaired electron is negligible.

  14. Variations on a simple dice game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heafner, Joe

    2018-04-01

    I begin my introductory astronomy course with a unit on critical thinking that focuses on, among other things, the differences between the "scientific method" as frequently presented in textbooks and actual scientific practice. One particular classroom activity uses a simple dice game to simulate observation of a natural phenomenon and the process of figuring out the framework, which we have previously defined as the rules that allow us to make predictions, governing the simulated phenomenon. Using games to teach scientific methodology is not new (see Maloney and Masters and Smith and references therein). I have experimented with Maloney and Masters' games and discovered that my students found them too difficult to figure out and therefore they did not learn what I hoped they would from them. I also experimented with other card games and found that too many students already knew the rules of both well-known and obscure card games. I even tried inventing my own games with, at best, mediocre results.

  15. Supramolecular curcumin-barium prodrugs for formulating with ceramic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalasanan, Kaladhar; Anupriya; Deepa, M K; Sharma, Chandra P

    2014-10-01

    A simple and stable curcumin-ceramic combined formulation was developed with an aim to improve curcumin stability and release profile in the presence of reactive ceramic particles for potential dental and orthopedic applications. For that, curcumin was complexed with barium (Ba(2+)) to prepare curcumin-barium (BaCur) complex. Upon removal of the unbound curcumin and Ba(2+) by dialysis, a water-soluble BaCur complex was obtained. The complex was showing [M+1](+) peak at 10,000-20,000 with multiple fractionation peaks of MALDI-TOF-MS studies, showed that the complex was a supramolecular multimer. The (1)H NMR and FTIR studies revealed that, divalent Ba(2+) interacted predominantly through di-phenolic groups of curcumin to form an end-to-end complex resulted in supramolecular multimer. The overall crystallinity of the BaCur was lower than curcumin as per XRD analysis. The complexation of Ba(2+) to curcumin did not degrade curcumin as per HPLC studies. The fluorescence spectrum was blue shifted upon Ba(2+) complexation with curcumin. Monodisperse nanoparticles with size less than 200dnm was formed, out of the supramolecular complex upon dialysis, as per DLS, and upon loading into pluronic micelles the size was remaining in similar order of magnitude as per DLS and AFM studies. Stability of the curcumin was improved greater than 50% after complexation with Ba(2+) as per UV/Vis spectroscopy. Loading of the supramloecular nanoparticles into pluronic micelles had further improved the stability of curcumin to approx. 70% in water. These BaCur supramolecule nanoparticles can be considered as a new class of prodrugs with improved solubility and stability. Subsequently, ceramic nanoparticles with varying chemical composition were prepared for changing the material surface reactivity in terms of the increase in, degradability, surface pH and protein adsorption. Further, these ceramic particles were combined with curcumin prodrug formulations and optimized the curcumin release

  16. Inhaled dry powder formulations for treating tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyamal; Tucker, Ian; Stewart, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death from infectious diseases. Although antitubercular drugs have been traditionally administered orally, there is a growing interest in delivering drugs via the pulmonary route using nebulisers or dry powder inhalers. Drugs in dry powder inhalers (DPI) are stable and DPI are user-friendly compared to nebulisation which is time consuming, inconvenient and inefficient and requires special equipment. For tuberculosis treatment, drugs should target alveolar macrophages that harbour microorganisms and/or maintain high drug concentration at the infection site in the lung. Drug particles include micro-particles or nanoparticles. Powders can be engineered by micronisation, crystallisation, spray drying, freeze drying and particle coating approaches. The formulation may contain single or combination drugs. This paper will provide an update on current status of TB, its pathogenesis, current treatment strategies, shortcomings of current oral or parenteral delivery strategies, pulmonary delivery devices, advantages of pulmonary delivery of powder formulations, formulation approaches and pharmacokinetic studies of pulmonary delivery of powders for inhalation.

  17. Phytoconstituents as photoprotective novel cosmetic formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, S; Kaur, C D

    2010-01-01

    Phytoconstituents are gaining popularity as ingredients in cosmetic formulations as they can protect the skin against exogenous and endogenous harmful agents and can help remedy many skin conditions. Exposure of skin to sunlight and other atmospheric conditions causes the production of reactive oxygen species, which can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system. Such injuries damage regulation pathways of skin and lead to photoaging and skin cancer development. The effects of aging include wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks. Herbal extracts act on these areas and produce healing, softening, rejuvenating, and sunscreen effects. We have selected a few photoprotective phytoconstituents, such as curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols, silymarin, quercetin and ascorbic acid, and have discussed the considerations to be undertaken for the development of herbal cosmetic formulations that could reduce the occurrence of skin cancer and delay the process of photoaging. This article is aimed at providing specific and compiled knowledge for the successful preparation of photoprotective herbal cosmetic formulations.

  18. What is Quantum Mechanics? A Minimal Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, R.; Hohenberg, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a minimal formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, by which is meant a formulation which describes the theory in a succinct, self-contained, clear, unambiguous and of course correct manner. The bulk of the presentation is the so-called "microscopic theory", applicable to any closed system S of arbitrary size N, using concepts referring to S alone, without resort to external apparatus or external agents. An example of a similar minimal microscopic theory is the standard formulation of classical mechanics, which serves as the template for a minimal quantum theory. The only substantive assumption required is the replacement of the classical Euclidean phase space by Hilbert space in the quantum case, with the attendant all-important phenomenon of quantum incompatibility. Two fundamental theorems of Hilbert space, the Kochen-Specker-Bell theorem and Gleason's theorem, then lead inevitably to the well-known Born probability rule. For both classical and quantum mechanics, questions of physical implementation and experimental verification of the predictions of the theories are the domain of the macroscopic theory, which is argued to be a special case or application of the more general microscopic theory.

  19. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  20. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  1. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  2. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  3. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  4. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  5. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  6. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  7. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  9. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  10. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  11. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  13. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  14. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  15. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  16. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  17. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  18. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  19. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  20. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  1. Long- term effects of previous experience determine nutrient discrimination abilities in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Kathrin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foraging behaviour is an essential ecological process linking different trophic levels. A central assumption of foraging theory is that food selection maximises the fitness of the consumer. It remains unknown, however, whether animals use innate or learned behaviour to discriminate food rewards. While many studies demonstrated that previous experience is a strong determinant of complex food choices such as diet mixing, the response to simple nutritional stimuli, such as sugar concentrations, is often believed to be innate. Results Here we show that previous experience determines the ability to track changes in sugar composition in same-aged individuals of a short-lived migratory songbird, the garden warbler (Sylvia borin. Although birds received identical foods for seven months prior to the experiment, wild-caught birds achieved higher sugar intake rates than hand-raised birds when confronted with alternative, differently coloured, novel food types. Hand-raised and wild birds did not differ in their initial colour selection or overall food intake, but wild birds were quicker to adjust food choice to varying sugar intake. Conclusion Over a period of at least seven months, broader previous experience translates into a higher plasticity of food choice leading to higher nutrient intake. Our results thus highlight the need to address previous long-term experience in foraging experiments. Furthermore, they show that hand-raised animals are often poor surrogates for testing the foraging behaviour of wild animals.

  2. A Simple FDTD Algorithm for Simulating EM-Wave Propagation in General Dispersive Anisotropic Material

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, an finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for simulating propagation of EM waves in anisotropic material is presented. The algorithm is based on the auxiliary differential equation and the general polarization formulation. In anisotropic materials, electric fields are coupled and elements in the permittivity tensor are, in general, multiterm dispersive. The presented algorithm resolves the field coupling using a formulation based on electric polarizations. It also offers a simple procedure for the treatment of multiterm dispersion in the FDTD scheme. The algorithm is tested by simulating wave propagation in 1-D magnetized plasma showing excellent agreement with analytical solutions. Extension of the algorithm to multidimensional structures is straightforward. The presented algorithm is efficient and simple compared to other algorithms found in the literature. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  4. MODFLOW-NWT, A Newton formulation for MODFLOW-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niswonger, Richard G.; Panday, Sorab; Ibaraki, Motomu

    2011-01-01

    This report documents a Newton formulation of MODFLOW-2005, called MODFLOW-NWT. MODFLOW-NWT is a standalone program that is intended for solving problems involving drying and rewetting nonlinearities of the unconfined groundwater-flow equation. MODFLOW-NWT must be used with the Upstream-Weighting (UPW) Package for calculating intercell conductances in a different manner than is done in the Block-Centered Flow (BCF), Layer Property Flow (LPF), or Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF; Anderman and Hill, 2000) Packages. The UPW Package treats nonlinearities of cell drying and rewetting by use of a continuous function of groundwater head, rather than the discrete approach of drying and rewetting that is used by the BCF, LPF, and HUF Packages. This further enables application of the Newton formulation for unconfined groundwater-flow problems because conductance derivatives required by the Newton method are smooth over the full range of head for a model cell. The NWT linearization approach generates an asymmetric matrix, which is different from the standard MODFLOW formulation that generates a symmetric matrix. Because all linear solvers presently available for use with MODFLOW-2005 solve only symmetric matrices, MODFLOW-NWT includes two previously developed asymmetric matrix-solver options. The matrix-solver options include a generalized-minimum-residual (GMRES) Solver and an Orthomin / stabilized conjugate-gradient (CGSTAB) Solver. The GMRES Solver is documented in a previously published report, such that only a brief description and input instructions are provided in this report. However, the CGSTAB Solver (called XMD) is documented in this report. Flow-property input for the UPW Package is designed based on the LPF Package and material-property input is identical to that for the LPF Package except that the rewetting and vertical-conductance correction options of the LPF Package are not available with the UPW Package. Input files constructed for the LPF Package can be used

  5. Use of an Expanded Version of the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation on a Cultural Consultation Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Thombs, Brett D.; Jurcik, Tomas; Jarvis, G. Eric; Guzder, Jaswant

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed cultural consultants’ impression of the utility of an expanded version of the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation in cultural psychiatric consultation and identified ways to improve the usefulness of the cultural formulation. Methods A structured interview and questionnaire on the use of the cultural formulation was administered to 60 consultants working for an outpatient Cultural Consultation Service (CCS). Results Most consultants (93%) found the cultural formulation to be moderately to very useful. More than half (57%) had little or no familiarity with the cultural formulation before working with the CCS. The main suggestions for improvement of the cultural formulation were to expand sections on migration experience and include sections on religious and spiritual practice. Conclusions Although many consultants had little previous familiarity with the cultural formulation, most found it useful in organizing their assessment and preparing consultation reports. The cultural formulation is a useful tool for nonmedical consultants and culture brokers, as well as for clinicians. PMID:18511590

  6. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  7. Anti-botulism single-shot vaccine using chitosan for protein encapsulation by simple coacervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Roger S; de Almeida, Anna Christina; Cangussu, Alex S R; Jorge, Edson V; Mozzer, Otto D; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; Quintilio, Wagner; Brandi, Igor Viana; Andrade, Viviane Aguiar; Miguel, Angelo Samir M; Sobrinho Santos, Eliane M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the potency and safety of vaccines against Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum) type C and D formulated with chitosan as controlled release matrix and vaccines formulated in conventional manner using aluminum hydroxide. Parameters were established for the development of chitosan microspheres, using simple coacervation to standardize the use of this polymer in protein encapsulation for vaccine formulation. To formulate a single shot vaccine inactivated antigens of C. botulinum type C and D were used with original toxin titles equal to 5.2 and 6.2 log LD50/ml, respectively. For each antigen a chitosan based solution of 50 mL was prepared. Control vaccines were formulated by mixing toxoid type C and D with aluminum hydroxide [25% Al(OH) 3 , pH 6.3]. The toxoid sterility, innocuity and potency of vaccines were evaluated as stipulated by MAPA-BRASIL according to ministerial directive no. 23. Encapsulation efficiency of BSA in chitosan was 32.5-40.37%, while that the encapsulation efficiency to toxoid type C was 41,03% (1.94 mg/mL) and of the toxoid type D was 32.30% (1.82 mg/mL). The single shot vaccine formulated using chitosan for protein encapsulation through simple coacervation showed potency and safety similar to conventional vaccine currently used in Brazilian livestock (10 and 2 IU/mL against C. botulinum type C and D, respectively). The present work suggests that our single shot vaccine would be a good option as a cattle vaccine against these C. botulinum type C and D. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simple Examples of the Interpretation of Changes in Kinetic and Potential Energy Under Galilean Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Edw. S.

    2018-02-01

    The compatibility of the Newtonian formulation of mechanical energy and the transformation equations of Galilean relativity is demonstrated for three simple examples of motion treated in most introductory physics courses (free fall, a frictionless inclined plane, and a mass/spring system). Only elementary concepts and mathematics, accessible to students at that level, are used. Emphasis is on pedagogy and concepts related to the transformation properties of potential energy.

  9. A Simple Map Between Fokker-Planck Equation and its Fractional form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    A simple map between Fokker-Planck Equation (FPE) and its fractional form (FFPE), which recently formulates to describe sub diffusive processes, has been suggested. This connection based on a relation between k-orders for moments of ordinary time domain of FPE and the moments associated with fractional time domain of FFPE . Two classes of special interest of FFPE has been considered to outline this map

  10. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  11. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  12. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  13. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  14. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  15. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  16. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D

    1989-05-01

    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  17. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  18. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  19. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  20. Towards a methodology to formulate sustainable diets for livestock: accounting for environmental impact in diet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-05-28

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation.

  1. A simple formulation for thermodynamic properties of steam from 273 to 523 K, explicit in temperature and pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pátek, Jaroslav; Klomfar, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 5 (2009), s. 1123-1125 ISSN 0140-7007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : absorption system * vapour * water * water-lithium bromide Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.537, year: 2009 http://apps.isiknowledge.com/summary.do?qid=1&product=UA&SID=T2f%407aA433c5aJl9C9C&search_mode=GeneralSearch

  2. Determination of Ideal Broth Formulations Needed to Prepare Hydrous Aluminum Oxide Microspheres via the Internal Gelation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Jack Lee [ORNL; Pye, S. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2009-02-01

    A simple test-tube methodology was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide microspheres by the internal gelation process. Broth formulations of aluminum, hexamethylenetetramine, and urea were found that can be used to prepare hydrous aluminum oxide gel spheres in the temperature range of 60-90 C. A few gel-forming runs were made in which microspheres were prepared with some of these formulations in order to equate the test-tube gelation times with actual gelation times. These preparations confirmed that the test-tube methodology is reliable for determining the ideal broths.

  3. A weakly compressible formulation for modelling liquid-gas sloshing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, Johan A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available , the implementation of a weakly compressible formulation which accounts for variations in the gas density is presented. With the aim of ensuring a computational efficient implementation of the proposed formulation, an implicit iterative GMRES solver with LU...

  4. Preparation and characterization of Slow Release Formulations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alginate beads and characterize the resulting slow release formulations (SRFs) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Two sets of formulations were made by extrusion into 0.25 M calcium ...

  5. Formulation and delivery of dermal DNA vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    DNA vaccination is an appealing strategy of active vaccination, leading to the intracellular production of the encoding antigen which results in an efficient activation of an antigen specific immune response. Intradermal DNA tattooing was recently developed as a simple and robust method to induce

  6. Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of gemifloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A.M. Ebraheem

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two simple spectrophotometric methods for the determination of the antibiotic gemifloxacin mesylate (GFX in pharmaceutical formulations. The first (A is an indirect method in which oxidation of the drug with a known excess of cerium (IV sulphate is followed by determination of the residual oxidant by adding excess methyl orange and measuring residual dye at 507 nm. The second (B is a derivatisation method involving reaction of GFX with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS in alkaline medium (pH 11 to form an orange-coloured product exhibiting maximum absorption (λmax at 411 nm. The methods were linear in the concentration ranges 2–9 and 5–30 μg/mL for methods A and B, respectively, with intra-day precision (as RSD <1.5% for both. When applied to the determination of GFX in pharmaceutical tablets, the results were in good agreement with those obtained by capillary electrophoresis. The two methods are useful for routine analysis of GFX in quality control laboratories.

  7. End-Member Formulation of Solid Solutions and Reactive Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtner, Peter C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A model for incorporating solid solutions into reactive transport equations is presented based on an end-member representation. Reactive transport equations are solved directly for the composition and bulk concentration of the solid solution. Reactions of a solid solution with an aqueous solution are formulated in terms of an overall stoichiometric reaction corresponding to a time-varying composition and exchange reactions, equivalent to reaction end-members. Reaction rates are treated kinetically using a transition state rate law for the overall reaction and a pseudo-kinetic rate law for exchange reactions. The composition of the solid solution at the onset of precipitation is assumed to correspond to the least soluble composition, equivalent to the composition at equilibrium. The stoichiometric saturation determines if the solid solution is super-saturated with respect to the aqueous solution. The method is implemented for a simple prototype batch reactor using Mathematica for a binary solid solution. Finally, the sensitivity of the results on the kinetic rate constant for a binary solid solution is investigated for reaction of an initially stoichiometric solid phase with an undersaturated aqueous solution.

  8. A general field-covariant formulation of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2013-01-01

    In all nontrivial cases renormalization, as it is usually formulated, is not a change of integration variables in the functional integral, plus parameter redefinitions, but a set of replacements, of actions and/or field variables and parameters. Because of this, we cannot write simple identities relating bare and renormalized generating functionals, or generating functionals before and after nonlinear changes of field variables. In this paper we investigate this issue and work out a general field-covariant approach to quantum field theory, which allows us to treat all perturbative changes of field variables, including the relation between bare and renormalized fields, as true changes of variables in the functional integral, under which the functionals Z and W=lnZ behave as scalars. We investigate the relation between composite fields and changes of field variables, and we show that, if J are the sources coupled to the elementary fields, all changes of field variables can be expressed as J-dependent redefinitions of the sources L coupled to the composite fields. We also work out the relation between the renormalization of variable-changes and the renormalization of composite fields. Using our transformation rules it is possible to derive the renormalization of a theory in a new variable frame from the renormalization in the old variable frame, without having to calculate it anew. We define several approaches, useful for different purposes, in particular a linear approach where all variable changes are described as linear source redefinitions. We include a number of explicit examples. (orig.)

  9. Spectrophotometric methods for determination of zolpidem tartrate in tablet formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Chomwal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The study aims to develop simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for estimation of Zolpidem tartrate in tablet dosage forms. Materials and Methods : For method I, II, III and IV in a series of 10 ml volumetric flask, aliquots of standard drug solution (100 μg/ml in 0.1N HCl were transferred and diluted with same so as to give several dilutions in concentration range of 5-30 μg/ml, 5-30 μg/ml, 10-50 μg/ml and 5-40 μg/ml respectively of zolpidem tartrate. To 5 ml of each dilution taken in a separating funnel, (5 ml of bromo phenol red, bromo cresol purple, bromo cresol green and bromo phenol blue for method I, II, III and IV respectively reagent and 5 ml of chloroform was added. Reaction mixture was shaken gently for 5 min and allowed to stand so as to separate aqueous and chloroform layer. Absorbance maxima measured at 407 nm, 417 nm, 412 nm and 415 nm for method I, II, III and IV respectively. Results : The recovery studies were found close to 100 % that indicates accuracy and precision of the proposed methods. The statistical analysis was carried out and results of which were found satisfactory. Standard deviation values were found low that indicated reproducibility of the proposed methods. Conclusion : Based on results the developed methods could be used for routine estimation of zolpidem tartrate from tablet formulations.

  10. Unified formulation of the theory of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, C.

    The determination of the scattering matrix in the theory of nuclear reactions is essentially equivalent to the construction of the Green function for the Schroedinger equation in the internal region of the configuration space with proper boundary conditions at the nuclear surface. This Green function can be expressed as the inverse of an operator involving the sum of the Hamiltonian and of a ''boundary value operator'' which is different from zero only on the nuclear surface where it has a singularity of the same kind as a Dirac function. A general operator expression for the scattering matrix is derived. This expression can be transformed into a matrix expression by introducing an arbitrary basis of orthonormal functions in the internal region. The Wigner-Eisenbud and the Peierls-Kapur formulations are obtained by an appropriate choice of the internal functions. When a large number of resonances contribute to the cross section, the expansion of the scattering matrix in terms of resonances of the compound system is not useful, and a more appropriate starting point can be obtained from a perturbation expansion of the scattering matrix which is easily derived from the general operator expression. A simple statistical assumption is proposed in order to determine the dominant terms in such an expansion. It leads to the optical model for the elastic scattering and to the direct interactions for the inelastic scattering

  11. Spectrophotometric estimation of betahistine hydrochloride in tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aims to develop simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for estimation of Betahistine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms. Materials and Methods: For method I and II, in a series of 10 ml volumetric flask, aliquots of standard drug solution (100 μg/ml in double distilled water were transferred and diluted with same so as to give several dilutions in concentration range of 15-90 μg/ml and 10-80 μg/ml respectively of betahistine hydrochloride. To 5 ml of each dilution taken in a separating funnel, (5 ml of methyl orange for method I and 5 ml of bromo phenol blue for method II reagent and 5 ml of chloroform was added. Reaction mixture was shaken gently for 5 min and allowed to stand so as to separate aqueous and chloroform layer. Absorbance maxima measured at 421.6 nm and 412 nm for method I and II respectively. Results: The recovery studies were found close to 100 % that indicates accuracy and precision of the proposed methods. The statistical analysis was carried out and results of which were found satisfactory. Standard deviation values were found low that indicated reproducibility of the proposed methods. Conclusion: Based on results the developed methods could be used for routine estimation of betahistine hydrochloride from tablet formulations.

  12. A simple model for straggling evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J W; Tai, H; Tripathi, R K

    2002-01-01

    Simple straggling models had largely been abandoned in favor of Monte Carlo simulations of straggling which are accurate but time consuming, limiting their application in practice. The difficulty of simple analytic models is the failure to give accurate values past 85% of the particle range. A simple model is derived herein based on a second order approximation upon which rapid analysis tools are developed for improved understanding of material charged particle transmission properties.

  13. Formulation design of oral pediatric Acetazolamide suspension: dose uniformity and physico-chemical stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoveña, Ana; Suárez-González, Javier; Martín-Rodríguez, Cristina; Fariña, José B

    2017-03-01

    The formulation of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as oral solution or suspension in pediatrics is a habitual practice, due to the non-existence of many commercialized medicines in pediatric doses. It is also the simplest way to prepare and administer them to this vulnerable population. The design of a formulation that assures the dose and the system stability depends on the physico-chemical properties of the API. In this study, we formulate a class IV API, Acetazolamide (AZM) as suspension for oral administration to pediatric population. The suspension must comply attributes of quality, safety and efficacy for this route of administration. We use simple compounding procedures, as well as fewer pure excipients, as recommended for children. Mass and uniformity content assays and physical and chemical stability studies were performed. To quantify the API an UPLC method was used. We verified the physico-chemical stability of the suspensions and that they passed the mass test of the European Pharmacopeia (EP), but not the dose uniformity test. This reveals that AZM must be formulated as liquid forms with a more complex system of excipients (not usually indicated in pediatrics), or otherwise solid forms capable of assuring uniformity of mass and dose for every dosage unit.

  14. Novel formulation and evaluation of a Q10-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle cream: in vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farboud ES

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Effat Sadat Farboud, Saman Ahmad Nasrollahi, Zahra TabbakhiDepartment of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 were formulated by a high-pressure homogenization method. The best formulation of SLN dispersion consisted of 13% lipid (cetyl palmitate or stearic acid, 8% surfactant (Tween 80 or Tego Care 450, and water. Stability tests, particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, and release study were conducted to find the best formulation. A simple cream of CoQ10 and a cream containing CoQ10-loaded SLNs were prepared and compared on volunteers aged 20–30 years. SLNs with particle size between 50 nm and100 nm exhibited the most suitable stability. In vitro release profiles of CoQ10 from simple cream, SLN alone, and CoQ10-loaded SLN cream showed prolonged release for SLNs compared with the simple cream, whereas there was no significant difference between SLN alone and SLN in cream. In vitro release studies also demonstrated that CoQ10-loaded SLN and SLN cream possessed a biphasic release pattern in comparison with simple cream. In vivo skin hydration and elasticity studies on 25 volunteers suggested good dermal penetration and useful activity of Q10 on skin as a hydratant and antiwrinkle cream.Keywords: coenzyme Q10, SLN, release study 

  15. Random path formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncadelli, M.

    1993-01-01

    Quantum amplitudes satisfy (almost) the same calculus that probabilities obey in the theory of classical stochastic diffusion processes. As a consequence of this structural analogy, a new formulation of (nonrelativistic) quantum mechanics naturally arises as the quantum counterpart of the Langevin description of (classical) stochastic diffusion processes. Quantum fluctuations are simulated here by a Fresnel white noise (FWN), which is a (real) white noise with imaginary diffusion constant, whose functional (pseudo) measure yields the amplitude distribution for its configurations. Central to this approach is the idea that classical dynamical trajectories in configuration space are perturbed by the FWN. Hence, a single (arbitrary) classical dynamical path gets replaced by a family of quantum random paths (QRPs) - one for each FWN sample - all originating from the same space-time point (x', t'). The QRPs are the basic objects of the present formulation and are given by a Langevin equation with the FWN, whose drift is controlled by a (arbitrary) solution to the classical Hamilton-Jacobi equation. So, our approach is manifestly based on classical dynamics. Now, a transition amplitude is associated with each QRP: it gives the amplitude that a particle starting from (x', t') will reach (x'', t'') by travelling just along the considered QRP. The quantum mechanical propagator (x'', t'' modul x', t') then emerges as the FWN average of the transition amplitude along a QRP. Thus, quantum mechanics looks like classical mechanics as perturbed by the FWN. The general structure of this formulation is discussed in detail, along with some practical and conceptual implications. (author). 14 refs

  16. Preparation and physicochemical evaluation of topical formulations of purified curcuminoids from Curcuma longa rhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Berenjian*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The purpose of this study was optimization of semisolid topical formulation from ethanol extract of turmeric and evaluation of rheological characterization and investigation of physicochemical control tests. Methods: The ethanolic extract was prepared with Soxhlet method and the compounds were isolated with silica gel column chromatography. Isolation of curcuminoids was accomplished by preparative HPLC.  The accelerated and real time stability tests for the formulations were investigated at 40±2 °C/70% RH for 90 days and 30±2° C/35%±5 RH for 12 month, respectively. Results: The yield of pure curcuminoids was 0.8%.The results of rheograms at 25° C showed pseudoplastic, plastic and pseudoplastic behavior for the ointment, cream and gel formulations respectively. The pH was measured by using  a  digital  type  of  pH  meter  by  dipping  the  glass electrical probe  for all of formulation, and the consequences exhibited PH values of 6.6, 6.8 and 6.9for the ointment, cream and gel, respectively. The results of cumulative release (µg/cm2 for ointment, cream and gel formulation achieved with dissolution media which contained buffer phosphate with pH 7.2 and 1% tween 20 after 24 h were 693.6, 648.5 and 650.5, respectively. Discussion:  The advantage of this method extraction compared to previously described methods, was utilizing safer solvent for extraction. The cumulative release of formulation and drug content during the physicochemical control tests was compared with commercial product and showed no significant different (p˃ 0.05.The formulations of this study showed functional and physical stability in the period of the study.

  17. Variational discretization of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop variational integrators for the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple closed systems. These integrators are obtained by a discretization of the Lagrangian variational formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics developed in (Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017a J. Geom. Phys. part I 111 169–93 Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017b J. Geom. Phys. part II 111 194–212) and thus extend the variational integrators of Lagrangian mechanics, to include irreversible processes. In the continuous setting, we derive the structure preserving property of the flow of such systems. This property is an extension of the symplectic property of the flow of the Euler–Lagrange equations. In the discrete setting, we show that the discrete flow solution of our numerical scheme verifies a discrete version of this property. We also present the regularity conditions which ensure the existence of the discrete flow. We finally illustrate our discrete variational schemes with the implementation of an example of a simple and closed system.

  18. The Canvas model in project formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira-Herrera, Diana Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to determine the relevance of the Canvas methodology in project formulation through model characterization, thus answering the question: Is the Canvas methodology a relevant model for project management in an entrepreneurial context? Description: The Canvas model seeks to manage projects as business units. It is a model intended for emphasizing the entrepreneurial potential in project management. For this, texts and articles that have provided the basis for...

  19. Gradient Elasticity Formulations for Micro/Nanoshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohua Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on illustrating how to extend the second author’s gradient theory of elasticity to shells. Three formulations are presented based on the implicit gradient elasticity constitutive relation 1 -ld2∇2σij=Cijkl(1-ls2∇2εkl and its two approximations 1+ls2∇2-ld2∇2σij=Cijklεkl and σij=Cijkl(1+ld2∇2-ls2∇2εkl.

  20. A geometric formulation of exceptional field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosque, Pascal du [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics,Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Hassler, Falk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Phillips Hall, CB #3255, 120 E. Cameron Ave., Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); City University of New York, The Graduate Center, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Department of Physics, Columbia University, Pupin Hall, 550 West 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lüst, Dieter [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics,Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Malek, Emanuel [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics,Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    We formulate the full bosonic SL(5) exceptional field theory in a coordinate-invariant manner. Thereby we interpret the 10-dimensional extended space as a manifold with SL(5)×ℝ{sup +}-structure. We show that the algebra of generalised diffeomorphisms closes subject to a set of closure constraints which are reminiscent of the quadratic and linear constraints of maximal seven-dimensional gauged supergravities, as well as the section condition. We construct an action for the full bosonic SL(5) exceptional field theory, even when the SL(5)×ℝ{sup +}-structure is not locally flat.

  1. Problem formulation as a discursive design activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Dorst, Kees; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2009-01-01

    In the design methodology literature, design is often described as a rational problem solving process. This approach has been very successful; it has lead to the creation of design process models, tools, methods and techniques. Design methods teaching along these lines has become an indispensable...... part of any engineering design education. Yet the assumptions behind the rational problem solving approach to design do not sit well with some of the experiences we have in design teaching and design practice. Problem formulation is one such area where we might have to look for a different way...

  2. Quality Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Formulations Containing Hydrochlorothiazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antonio de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic used to treat hypertension that belongs to class IV of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. The drug was evaluated by quality control, thermal characterization tests, and pharmaceutical formulation compatibility studies. It was concluded that the generic drug, Lab 2, was not a pharmaceutical equivalent. The compounded drugs, Lab 5 and Lab 6, produced unsatisfactory but expected results, since there is no requirement for dissolution and dissolution profile testing for the commercialization of these products. In a compatibility study, lactose and mannitol were shown to be incompatible with HCTZ, which may explain the lack of equivalence of the generic pharmaceutical product, associated with other situations.

  3. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  4. Antimicrobial Cream Formulated with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extract of Tuberose Flowers Arrests Growth of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Das, Satadal

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial potency of herbal extracts is well known. The review of patents and research articles revealed that several herbal extracts have been employed in the formulation of topical products such as creams, exclusive of the cream reported in the present study. 0ur previous study has established antimicrobial potency of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of tuberose flowers, better known for its sweet fragrance. The present work focuses on formulating a topical antimicrobial herbal cream with methyl eugenol (principal antimicrobial compound) rich - supercritical carbon dioxide extract of tuberose flowers, having good combination of phytochemical and antimicrobial potencies. Supercritical carbon dioxide parameters such as temperature, pressure and time were optimized using full factorial experimental design to obtain methyl eugenol-rich extracts. A cream was formulated using the extract having the best combination of phytochemical and antimicrobial potencies and was assayed further for in vitro antimicrobial potency; physiochemical and sensory properties. Two commercial antimicrobial cream samples were used as reference samples in the study. The extract obtained at 40°C, 10 MPa, 135 min at 1 L min-1 flow rate of gaseous C02 showed the best combination of phytochemical and antimicrobial potencies and was used for formulation of herbal creams. The cream formulated with 5% w/w of extract arrested growth of the common human skin pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and showed stable physiochemical properties and high sensory appeal for a year. The cream could be considered as a 'finished herbal product&' in compliance with the World Health 0rganization guidelines.

  5. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....

  6. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  7. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  8. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2016-07-26

    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a

  9. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  10. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M

    2017-04-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous hafnium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L; Hunt, Rodney D; Montgomery, Frederick C

    2013-08-06

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous hafnium oxide gels contain a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous hafnium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  12. Formulation and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Controlled-Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A coating layer was then applied with a mixture of HPMC, ethylcellulose, shellac, and HPMC phthalate. The effect of several formulation variables on in vitro drug release was studied; furthermore, the drug release kinetics of the optimized formulation was evaluated. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of the optimized formulation ...

  13. Formulation and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Controlled-Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mixture of HPMC, ethylcellulose, shellac, and HPMC phthalate. The effect of several formulation variables on in vitro drug release was studied; furthermore, the drug release kinetics of the optimized formulation was evaluated. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of the optimized formulation was compared with those of commercial ...

  14. Studies on the antimicrobial properties of formulated creams and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their performances were compared with those of standard antiseptic creams and ointments. The results of agar diffusion studies on cream and ointment formulations revealed that the topical bases used to disperse the medicaments could significantly affect the antimicrobial effectiveness of the formulation. Formulations ...

  15. 21 CFR 864.2875 - Balanced salt solutions or formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balanced salt solutions or formulations. 864.2875 Section 864.2875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Balanced salt solutions or formulations. (a) Identification. A balanced salt solution or formulation is a...

  16. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  17. Herbal antihyperlipidemic formulation of cocoa tea: Preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize a formulation containing an ethanol extract of Camellia ptilophylla leaves (cocoa tea), with a focus on antihyperlipidemic and anti-obesity activities. Methods: An aloe vera–based formulation of an ethanol extract of cocoa tea (C. ptilophylla) was prepared. The formulation was given ...

  18. Standardization Of A Siddha Formulation Amukkara Curanam By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amukkara curanam, a Siddha formulation, currently used in all types of gastric disorders, rheumatic pain, insomnia and sexual insufficiency, was investigated for the estimation of the marker compounds, withaferine A and piperine contents in a prepared standard formulation and a commercial formulation by using HPTLC ...

  19. A displacement based FE formulation for steady state problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis a new displacement based formulation is developed for elasto-plastic deformations in steady state problems. In this formulation the displacements are the primary variables, which is in contrast to the more common formulations in terms of the velocities as the primary variables. In a

  20. Nanoemulsion formulation of Abatacept for lupus nephritis therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate a nanoemulsion preparation of abatacept and evaluate its treatment efficacy in a C57BL/6 J mouse model of lupus nephritis (LN). Methods: An abatacept nanoemulsion formulation was prepared using coarse homogenization followed by high-energy ultrasonication. The formulation was assessed for ...

  1. Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Nebivolol Hydrochloride in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lakshmana Rao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, highly accurate spectrophotometric method in UV region has been developed for the determination of nebivolol hydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. Nebivolol hydrochloride is an antihypertensive drug, which shows maximum absorbance at 281 nm with apparent molar absorptivity of 5.37208 × 103 mol-1 cm-1. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 4-60 μg/mL. The slope, intercept and correlation coefficient were also calculated. The proposed method has been successfully used for the analysis of the drug in pure and its tablet dosage forms. Results of percentage recovery shows that the method was not affected by the presence of common excipients. The percentage assay of nebivolol hydrochloride was 98.75 and 99.02 respectively. The method was validated by sensitivity and precision which proves suitability of proposed method for the routine estimation of nebivolol in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.

  2. An alternative analytical formulation for the Voigt function applied to resonant effects in nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Daniel A.P.; Goncalves, Alessandro da C; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2011-01-01

    The Voigt function H(a,v) is defined as the convolution of the Gaussian and Lorentzian functions. Recent papers puplished in different areas of physics emphasize the importance of the fast and accurate calculation of the Voigt function for different orders of magnitude of variables a and v. An alternative analytical formulation for the Voigt function is proposed in this paper. This formulation is based on the solution of the non-homogeneous ordinary differential equation, satisfied by the Voigt function, using the Frobenius and parameter variation methods. The functional form of the Voigt function, as proposed, proved simple and precise. Systematic tests are accomplished demonstrating some advantages with other existent methods in the literature and with the numeric method of reference.

  3. An alternative analytical formulation for the Voigt function applied to resonant effects in nuclear processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Daniel A.P., E-mail: dpalmaster@gmail.com [CNEN-Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, 22290-901, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Goncalves, Alessandro da C; Martinez, Aquilino S. [COPPE/UFRJ-Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-10-21

    The Voigt function H(a,v) is defined as the convolution of the Gaussian and Lorentzian functions. Recent papers puplished in different areas of physics emphasize the importance of the fast and accurate calculation of the Voigt function for different orders of magnitude of variables a and v. An alternative analytical formulation for the Voigt function is proposed in this paper. This formulation is based on the solution of the non-homogeneous ordinary differential equation, satisfied by the Voigt function, using the Frobenius and parameter variation methods. The functional form of the Voigt function, as proposed, proved simple and precise. Systematic tests are accomplished demonstrating some advantages with other existent methods in the literature and with the numeric method of reference.

  4. Flexible Multibody Dynamics Finite Element Formulation Applied to Structural Progressive Collapse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo André Kuche Sanches

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a two-dimensional frame finite element methodology to deal with flexible multi-body dynamic systems and applies it to building progressive collapse analysis. The proposed methodology employs a frame element with Timoshenko kinematics and the dynamic governing equation is solved based on the stationary potential energy theorem written regarding nodal positions and generalized vectors components instead of displacements and rotations. The bodies are discretized by lose finite elements, which are assembled by Lagrange multipliers in order to make possible dynamical detachment. Due to the absence of rotation, the time integration is carried by classical Newmark algorithm, which reveals to be stable to the position based formulation. The accuracy of the proposed formulation is verified by simple examples and its capabilities regarding progressive collapse analysis is demonstrated in a more complete building analysis.

  5. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  6. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  7. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  8. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  9. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  10. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Formulation and characterisation of valsartan proniosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Rekha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-ionic surfactant vesicles of valsartan, an angiotensin II inhibitor, were prepared by coacervation phase separation method. The prepared systems were characterised for encapsulation efficiency, shape, size and in vitro drug release. Stability study was carried out to investigate the leaching of drug from the proniosomal system during storage. The results showed that valsartan in all the formulations was successfully entrapped and a substantial change in release rate and an alteration in the encapsulation efficiency of valsartan from proniosomes were observed upon varying the type of surfactant and cholesterol content. The encapsulation efficiency of proniosomes prepared with Span 60 was superior to that prepared with Span 40. A preparation with 9:2:9 ratio of Span 60, cholesterol and lecithin gave maximum encapsulation efficiency (71.50% and release results (Q24h= 75% as compared to other compositions. Proniosomal formulations showed fairly high retention of valsartan inside the vesicles at refrigerated temperature (4-8oC up to 1 month.

  12. Stabilisation de la formule des traces tordue

    CERN Document Server

    Moeglin, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Ce travail en deux volumes donne la preuve de la stabilisation de la formule des trace tordue. Stabiliser la formule des traces tordue est la méthode la plus puissante connue actuellement pour comprendre l'action naturelle du groupe des points adéliques d'un groupe réductif, tordue par un automorphisme, sur les formes automorphes de carré intégrable de ce groupe. Cette compréhension se fait en réduisant le problème, suivant les idées de Langlands, à des groupes plus petits munis d'un certain nombre de données auxiliaires; c'est ce que l'on appelle les données endoscopiques. L'analogue non tordu a été résolu par J. Arthur et dans ce livre on suit la stratégie de celui-ci. Publier ce travail sous forme de livre permet de le rendre le plus complet possible. Les auteurs ont repris la théorie de l'endoscopie tordue développée par R. Kottwitz et D. Shelstad et par J.-P. Labesse. Ils donnent tous les arguments des démonstrations même si nombre d'entre eux se trouvent déjà dans les travaux d'Ar...

  13. Projecting India's energy requirements for policy formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Kirit S.; Karandikar, Vivek; Rana, Ashish; Dani, Prasanna

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy has to have a long-term perspective. To formulate it one needs to know the contours of energy requirements and options. Different approaches have been followed in literature, each with their own problems. A top down econometric approach provides little guidance on policies, while a bottom up approval requires too much knowledge and too many assumptions. Using top-down econometric approach for aggregate overall benchmarking and a detailed activity analysis model, Integrated Energy System Model, for a few large sectors, provides a unique combination for easing the difficulties of policy formulation. The model is described in this paper. Eleven alternate scenarios are built, designed to map out extreme points of feasible options. Results show that even after employing all domestic energy resource to their full potential, there will be a continued rise of fossil fuel use, continued importance of coal, and continued rise of import dependence. Energy efficiency emerges as a major option with a potential to reduce energy requirement by as much as 17%. Scenario results point towards pushing for development of alternative sources. (author)

  14. Convex Formulations of Learning from Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, Hiroshi; Kashima, Hisashi

    It has attracted considerable attention to use crowdsourcing services to collect a large amount of labeled data for machine learning, since crowdsourcing services allow one to ask the general public to label data at very low cost through the Internet. The use of crowdsourcing has introduced a new challenge in machine learning, that is, coping with low quality of crowd-generated data. There have been many recent attempts to address the quality problem of multiple labelers, however, there are two serious drawbacks in the existing approaches, that are, (i) non-convexity and (ii) task homogeneity. Most of the existing methods consider true labels as latent variables, which results in non-convex optimization problems. Also, the existing models assume only single homogeneous tasks, while in realistic situations, clients can offer multiple tasks to crowds and crowd workers can work on different tasks in parallel. In this paper, we propose a convex optimization formulation of learning from crowds by introducing personal models of individual crowds without estimating true labels. We further extend the proposed model to multi-task learning based on the resemblance between the proposed formulation and that for an existing multi-task learning model. We also devise efficient iterative methods for solving the convex optimization problems by exploiting conditional independence structures in multiple classifiers.

  15. Lyoprotected nanosphere formulations for paclitaxel controlled delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, T; Vicari, L; Ventura, C A; Gulisano, M; Pignatello, R; Puglisi, G

    2006-01-01

    The preparation and technological characterization of nanosphere formulations (NS) containing the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) are reported. Poly(lactide) (PLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres (NS) were prepared by a solvent displacement method. They showed a mean particle size in the range 150-300 nm, with a high homogeneity (polydispersity index < 0.3). For long term stability, NS require additional procedures, such as freeze-drying. In this study, the effect on NS particle size and surface charge of different lyoprotectants (mono- and disaccharides, polyalcohols, and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin) at various concentrations was tested by means of light scattering size analysis. The formulations freeze-dried with the addition of 10% glucose (w/v) showed interesting characteristics after freeze-drying. They were chosen for specific studies on drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release and biological activity on the human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line 8305C. The PLGA NS, in particular, showed a cell growth inhibitory activity comparable to the free drug.

  16. Nimodipine Ophthalmic Formulations for Management of Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Doaa Nabih; Abd-Elgawad, Abd-Elgawad Helmy; Soliman, Osama Abd-Elazeem; El-Dahan, Marwa Salah; Jablonski, Monica M

    2017-04-01

    Preparation and evaluation of topical ophthalmic formulations containing nimodipine-CD complexes prepared using HP-β-CD, SBE-β-CD and M-β-CD for the management of glaucoma. Nimodipine-CD complexes were prepared using a freeze-drying method. Two different molar ratios (NMD:CD) were used for each cyclodextrin. The inclusion complexes were characterized using DSC, FTIR, yield (%), drug content and in vitro release characteristics. NMD-CD complexes incorporated into chitosan eye drops and a temperature-triggered in situ gelling system were evaluated for their pH, viscosity and in vitro release characteristics. We determined the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect of NMD-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) eye drops through a single dose response design using C57BL/6J mice. The minimum effective concentration (MEC) of nimodipine was further applied to mice that vary in the parental allele of Cacna1s, the drug target of nimodipine. Cytotoxicity was also evaluated. Our ophthalmic formulations possessed pH and viscosity values that are compatible with the eye. In vitro release of nimodipine was significantly increased from chitosan eye drops containing NMD-CD complexes compared to uncomplexed drug. Administration of nimodipine can lower IOP significantly after a single drop of drug HPMC suspension. The IOP-lowering response of the MEC (0.6%) was significantly influenced by the parental allele of Cacna1s. Nimodipine can be used as a promising topical drug for management of glaucoma through ocular delivery.

  17. Approaches to polymer selection for mascara formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, Yelena; Shah, Vibha; Allen, Glenn; Macchio, Ralph; Farer, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The use of hair-care and hair-styling polymers in mascara formulation is well known. This paper introduces pre-formulative evaluation of film formers which are intended to be applied on eyelashes for mascara development to screen film formers more effectively. The film-forming characteristics of randomly selected hairstyling polymers were evaluated under the influence of pH, temperature, surfactant, and pigment dispersion. The selected polymers included acrylics, polyurethanes, and a pyrrolidone, all of which are used throughout the hair-care and mascara industries. An Erichsen Model 299/300 Pendulum Damping Tester was used to determine film hardness. In analyzing samples by the effect of temperature, the hardest neat polymer, a styrene-acrylate, softened 30% after heating. For most of the other polymers, the hardness was slightly lower compared to the neat polymer. The addition of pigment didn't significantly influence the hardness of one acrylic copolymer and a urethane dispersion, but most of the other polymers exhibited a reduction in film hardness. Various hardnesses were observed with different surfactants and different pH's.

  18. Factors for formulating strategies for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This publication focusses on factors which are important for formulating a strategy for environmental restoration. In parallel to this effort, the IAEA has conducted activities in related areas which have been reported in companion reports dealing with (1) the characterization of radioactively contaminated sites for remediation purposes and (2) available technology for cleanup and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. Additionally, follow-up activities will focus on two other areas, viz. planning and management options for cleanup of contaminated groundwater, and post-restoration monitoring of decommissioned sites. In a separate initiative the IAEA has developed preliminary guidance on radiological criteria for determining when cleanup action is needed and for deciding on when areas have been cleaned up to a sufficient extent. It is also concerned with radioactive contamination of soils, groundwaters, structures and biota which may have the potential for harm to people. It is intended that it will serve as an important source of information and data on the key factors to be considered in the formulation of an environmental restoration strategy

  19. Simple utility functions with Giffen demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2007-01-01

    Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences......Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences...

  20. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  1. (SSR) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, they were washed 3 to 4 times with sterile distilled water and inoculated aseptically on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium free hormones. Single nodes resulted from seedlings cultured as explants. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers used produced different ...

  2. Simple Numerical Analysis of Longboard Speedometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Simple numerical data analysis is described, using a standard spreadsheet program, to determine distance, velocity (speed) and acceleration from voltage data generated by a skateboard/longboard speedometer (Hare 2012 "Phys. Educ." 47 409-17). This simple analysis is an introduction to data processing including scaling data as well as…

  3. Sunspots and Their Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C. I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an example of a simple harmonic motion, the apparent motion of sunspots due to the Sun's rotation, is described, which can be used to teach this subject to high-school students. Using real images of the Sun, students can calculate the star's rotation period with the simple harmonic motion mathematical expression.

  4. Stochastic Programming with Simple Integer Recourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louveaux, François V.; van der Vlerk, Maarten H.

    1993-01-01

    Stochastic integer programs are notoriously difficult. Very few properties are known and solution algorithms are very scarce. In this paper, we introduce the class of stochastic programs with simple integer recourse, a natural extension of the simple recourse case extensively studied in stochastic

  5. In vitro and ex vivo characterisation of an in situ gelling formulation for sustained lidocaine release with potential use following knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manisha; Chandramouli, Kaushik; Curley, Louise; Pontre, Beau; Reilly, Keryn; Munro, Jacob; Hill, Andrew; Young, Simon; Svirskis, Darren

    2018-02-06

    Sustained lidocaine release via a thermoresponsive poloxamer-based in situ gelling system has the potential to alleviate pain following knee arthroplasty. A previously developed formulation showed a promising drug release profile in synthetic phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). To support the translation of this formulation, ex vivo characterisation was warranted. This study therefore aimed (1) to modify the previously developed formulation to reduce the burst release, (2) to compare the release behaviour into ex vivo human intra-articular fluid (IAF) and PBS and (3) to determine the formulation spread in an ex vivo human knee using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All formulations provided sustained release out to 72 h; polyvinyl pyrrolidone was the most effective additive yielding a small yet significant decrease (p post-operative pain following knee arthroplasty.

  6. Simple heat conduction model with phase change for reactor fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.L.; Ishii, M.; Grolmes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    A simple conduction model with phase change has been developed for the transient analysis of a reactor fuel pin based on average properties and lumped parameter techniques. Using the predetermined average overall heat transfer coefficient across a fuel pin in the steady-state period, the average transient fuel and clad temperatures can be formulated analytically. For loss-of-flow at constant power, the start of melting and complete melting for both the fuel and clad can be estimated with considerable accuracy. The purpose of the analysis is to provide a simple useful tool to obtain the general information about fuel and clad leading into the cooling transients. At present, the formulation is being employed for cladding motion and cladding blockage formation in the subassembly of a reactor core. The solution of the simple conduction model for the incipient melting time and the complete melting time of the clad in both R-5 and L-2 test fuel pins was compared with the numerical solution obtained from the SAS code, and the agreement between both solutions is excellent. For the R-5 test case, the analytical solution of the simple conduction model for the complete melting times for both clad and fuel was further compared with numerical solution calculated from THTB code at various axial position of the fuel pin. The comparison shows good agreement. The present lumped parameter model for a fuel pin has been developed to be used in an analysis of multichannel clad motions in a loss-of-flow accident

  7. Effects of Organogel Hardness and Formulation on Acceptance of Frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S; Wood, J; Marangoni, A G

    2016-09-01

    Different organogel formulations used as beef fat (BF) replacement (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) were utilized to optimize the mechanical properties of frankfurters. Organogels, made of canola oil (CO), included different concentrations of ethyl cellulose (EC) and sorbitan monostearate (SMS). They consisted of: 8% EC + 1.5% SMS referred to as organogel-I (OG-I), 8% EC + 3.0% SMS (OG-II), and 10% EC + 1.5% SMS (OG-III), which were found promising in a previous study when used at 100% replacement. Replacement of BF with organogels at all levels could bring down the very high hardness values (texture profile analysis and sensory) of frankfurters prepared using CO by itself, relative to the BF control. OG-I and OG-II quantity had no significant effect on hardness and springiness, being similar in many cases to the BF and lower than the CO control. Shear force values of all organogel treatments were not significantly different from one another, and were between the BF and CO controls. Smokehouse yield showed a pattern of decreasing losses with increasing organogel replacement level. Sensory analysis revealed that using CO by itself significantly increased hardness, but structuring the oil (via organogelation), brought it down to the BF control value in all OG-I and OG-II formulations. Juiciness was significantly reduced by using liquid oil but increased with raising the amount of organogels. Oiliness sensation increased with higher organogel substitution and was actually higher than the beef control. The study demonstrates the potential use of vegetable oil structuring in replacing the more saturated BF in emulsion-type meat products. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Engaged Problem Formulation of IT Management in Danish Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby

    2012-01-01

    relevant in contemporary municipal IT management practice. On this basis, we present an engaged scholarship approach to formulate IT management problems together with municipalities - not for municipalities. We have come to understand such engaged problem formulation as joint researching and defining...... of a contemporary and complex problem by researchers and those who experience and know the problem. We present the formulated IT management problems and discuss the engaged problem formulation process in relation to engaged scholarship. Furthermore, we discuss how engaged problem formulation may contribute...... to action research when making sense of ill-structured problems by involving multiple stakeholders....

  9. An Explicit Formulation of Singularity-Free Dynamic Equations of Mechanical Systems in Lagrangian Form---Part one: Single Rigid Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Johan From

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the explicit dynamic equations of a mechanical system. The equations are presented so that they can easily be implemented in a simulation software or controller environment and are also well suited for system and controller analysis. The dynamics of a general mechanical system consisting of one or more rigid bodies can be derived from the Lagrangian. We can then use several well known properties of Lie groups to guarantee that these equations are well defined. This will, however, often lead to rather abstract formulation of the dynamic equations that cannot be implemented in a simulation software directly. In this paper we close this gap and show what the explicit dynamic equations look like. These equations can then be implemented directly in a simulation software and no background knowledge on Lie theory and differential geometry on the practitioner's side is required. This is the first of two papers on this topic. In this paper we derive the dynamics for single rigid bodies, while in the second part we study multibody systems. In addition to making the equations more accessible to practitioners, a motivation behind the papers is to correct a few errors commonly found in literature. For the first time, we show the detailed derivations and how to arrive at the correct set of equations. We also show through some simple examples that these correspond with the classical formulations found from Lagrange's equations. The dynamics is derived from the Boltzmann--Hamel equations of motion in terms of local position and velocity variables and the mapping to the corresponding quasi-velocities. Finally we present a new theorem which states that the Boltzmann--Hamel formulation of the dynamics is valid for all transformations with a Lie group topology. This has previously only been indicated through examples, but here we also present the formal proof. The main motivation of these papers is to allow practitioners not familiar with

  10. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P

    1996-06-01

    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  11. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  12. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W

    1991-04-01

    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.

  13. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  14. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  16. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  17. A simple and self-consistent geostrophic-force-balance model of the thermohaline circulation with boundary mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Callies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple model of the thermohaline circulation (THC is formulated, with the objective to represent explicitly the geostrophic force balance of the basinwide THC. The model comprises advective-diffusive density balances in two meridional-vertical planes located at the eastern and the western walls of a hemispheric sector basin. Boundary mixing constrains vertical motion to lateral boundary layers along these walls. Interior, along-boundary, and zonally integrated meridional flows are in thermal-wind balance. Rossby waves and the absence of interior mixing render isopycnals zonally flat except near the western boundary, constraining meridional flow to the western boundary layer. The model is forced by a prescribed meridional surface density profile.

    This two-plane model reproduces both steady-state density and steady-state THC structures of a primitive-equation model. The solution shows narrow deep sinking at the eastern high latitudes, distributed upwelling at both boundaries, and a western boundary current with poleward surface and equatorward deep flow. The overturning strength has a 2/3-power-law dependence on vertical diffusivity and a 1/3-power-law dependence on the imposed meridional surface density difference. Convective mixing plays an essential role in the two-plane model, ensuring that deep sinking is located at high latitudes. This role of convective mixing is consistent with that in three-dimensional models and marks a sharp contrast with previous two-dimensional models.

    Overall, the two-plane model reproduces crucial features of the THC as simulated in simple-geometry three-dimensional models. At the same time, the model self-consistently makes quantitative a conceptual picture of the three-dimensional THC that hitherto has been expressed either purely qualitatively or not self-consistently.

  18. Low-dose computed tomography image restoration using previous normal-dose scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianhua; Huang, Jing; Feng, Qianjin; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong; Chen, Wufan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In current computed tomography (CT) examinations, the associated x-ray radiation dose is of a significant concern to patients and operators. A simple and cost-effective means to perform the examinations is to lower the milliampere-seconds (mAs) or kVp parameter (or delivering less x-ray energy to the body) as low as reasonably achievable in data acquisition. However, lowering the mAs parameter will unavoidably increase data noise and the noise would propagate into the CT image if no adequate noise control is applied during image reconstruction. Since a normal-dose high diagnostic CT image scanned previously may be available in some clinical applications, such as CT perfusion imaging and CT angiography (CTA), this paper presents an innovative way to utilize the normal-dose scan as a priori information to induce signal restoration of the current low-dose CT image series.Methods: Unlike conventional local operations on neighboring image voxels, nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm utilizes the redundancy of information across the whole image. This paper adapts the NLM to utilize the redundancy of information in the previous normal-dose scan and further exploits ways to optimize the nonlocal weights for low-dose image restoration in the NLM framework. The resulting algorithm is called the previous normal-dose scan induced nonlocal means (ndiNLM). Because of the optimized nature of nonlocal weights calculation, the ndiNLM algorithm does not depend heavily on image registration between the current low-dose and the previous normal-dose CT scans. Furthermore, the smoothing parameter involved in the ndiNLM algorithm can be adaptively estimated based on the image noise relationship between the current low-dose and the previous normal-dose scanning protocols.Results: Qualitative and quantitative evaluations were carried out on a physical phantom as well as clinical abdominal and brain perfusion CT scans in terms of accuracy and resolution properties. The gain by the use of

  19. Flow Formulations for Curriculum-based Course Timetabling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Niels-Christian Fink; Kristiansen, Simon; Sørensen, Matias

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present two mixed-integer programming formulations for the Curriculum based Course Timetabling Problem (CTT). We show that the formulations contain underlying network structures by dividing the CTT into two separate models and then connect the two models using flow formulation...... techniques. The first mixed-integer programming formulation is based on an underlying minimum cost flow problem, which decreases the number of integer variables significantly and improves the performance compared to an intuitive mixed-integer programming formulation. The second formulation is based...... on a multi-commodity flow problem which in general is NP-hard, however, we prove that it suffices to solve the linear programming relaxation of the model. The formulations show competitiveness with other approaches based on mixed-integer programming from the literature and improve the currently best known...

  20. Perturbation theory and importance functions in integral transport formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1976-01-01

    Perturbation theory expressions for the static reactivity derived from the flux, collision density, birth-rate density, and fission-neutron density formulations of integral transport theory, and from the integro-differential formulation, are intercompared. The physical meaning and relation of the adjoint functions corresponding to each of the five formulations are established. It is found that the first-order approximation of the perturbation expressions depends on the transport theory formulation and on the adjoint function used. The approximations of the integro-differential formulation corresponding to different first-order approximations of the integral transport theory formulations are identified. It is found that the accuracy of all first-order approximations of the integral transport formulations examined is superior to the accuracy of first-order integro-differential perturbation theory