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Sample records for previously established techniques

  1. [Establishment of beta block matching technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fa-Ming; Lü, Qin-Feng; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Hai-Qin; Fu, Qi-Hua; Yan, Li-Xing

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish beta block matching technique. DNA was extracted from whole blood by salting-out method, beta block matching was performed by PCR and GeneScan technique. The results showed that the length of fragments amplificated in 100 samples was different and the range of them was 91-197 bp. Amplification fragments could be divided into four regions: 91-93, 105-113, 125-139 and 177-197 bp respectively. 91 bp DNA fragments could be found in all of samples. The numbers of DNA fragments with different length have been shown high polymorphism and they focused on the range of seven to twenty four. In conclusion, the beta block matching technique is reliable and applicable to the selection of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation donors.

  2. [Establishment of delta block matching technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qin-Feng; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Yan, Li-Xing

    2006-04-01

    To establish delta block HLA-matching technique, DNA was extracted from whole blood by salting-out method, delta block was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR product was detected by GeneScan. The results showed that delta block had polymorphism in 104 samples without sibship of the Han people from Zhejiang province. The range of DNA fragment length was 81-393 bp and could be divided into 4 groups: 81-118 bp, 140-175 bp, 217-301 bp, 340-393 bp. The numbers of DNA fragments were 6-32. It is concluded that the method of delta block matching is reliable and can be applied to select donors for the patients to be transplanted. It is the first time to get delta block data of the Han people in China.

  3. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  4. Repeated mirtazapine nullifies the maintenance of previously established methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Robin M; Mickiewicz, Amanda L; Napier, T Celeste

    2011-11-20

    The atypical antidepressant mirtazapine enhances monoaminergic transmission; thus, mirtazapine therapy may counter the hypo-activation of monoamine systems associated with withdrawal from methamphetamine abuse. Human addiction therapy will likely require chronic administration that is given after brain and behavioral maladaptations are established. To emulate this scenario in rats, we ascertained if acute or repeated mirtazapine treatments could antagonize previously established consequences of repeated methamphetamine. Methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was used, wherein methamphetamine (1mg/kg, i.p.) was administered in a unique environmental context once-daily for three days interposed by saline injections in an alternate context. Subsequently, mirtazapine (5mg/kg, i.p.) was administered in the home cage either as 10 once-daily injections or a single injection. The expression of CPP was determined in drug-free rats three days after the last mirtazapine injection. Expression of methamphetamine-induced CPP was inhibited by 10 home cage administrations of mirtazapine but not by a single injection of mirtazapine. These findings reveal that mirtazapine can inhibit the maintenance of methamphetamine-induced CPP and that treatment duration and/or treatment timing contributes to this effect of mirtazapine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between cerebrovascular complications and previously established use of antiplatelet therapy in left-sided infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Hassager, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular complications (CVC) in infective endocarditis (IE) are common. The only established treatments to reduce the incidence of CVC in IE are antibiotics and in selected cases early cardiac surgery. Potential effects of previously established antiplatelet therapy are under debate....

  6. Liver growth factor treatment reverses emphysema previously established in a cigarette smoke exposure mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Girón-Martínez, Alvaro; Terrón-Expósito, Raúl; Díaz-Gil, Juan J; González-Mangado, Nicolás; Peces-Barba, Germán

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disease largely associated with cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) and characterized by pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations, including systemic inflammation. Liver growth factor (LGF) is an albumin-bilirubin complex with demonstrated antifibrotic, antioxidant, and antihypertensive actions even at extrahepatic sites. We aimed to determine whether short LGF treatment (1.7 μg/mouse ip; 2 times, 2 wk), once the lung damage was established through the chronic CSE, contributes to improvement of the regeneration of damaged lung tissue, reducing systemic inflammation. We studied AKR/J mice, divided into three groups: control (air-exposed), CSE (chronic CSE), and CSE + LGF (LGF-treated CSE mice). We assessed pulmonary function, morphometric data, and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers to test the LGF regenerative capacity in this system. Our results revealed that the lungs of the CSE animals showed pulmonary emphysema and inflammation, characterized by increased lung compliance, enlargement of alveolar airspaces, systemic inflammation (circulating leukocytes and serum TNF-α level), and in vivo lung matrix metalloproteinase activity. LGF treatment was able to reverse all these parameters, decreasing total cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and T-lymphocyte infiltration in peripheral blood observed in emphysematous mice and reversing the decrease in monocytes observed in chronic CSE mice, and tends to reduce the neutrophil population and serum TNF-α level. In conclusion, LGF treatment normalizes the physiological and morphological parameters and levels of various systemic inflammatory biomarkers in a chronic CSE AKR/J model, which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Establishment of euglycemic clamp technique in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lihou; Song Haifeng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To establish a euglycemic clamp technique in beagle dogs. Methods: The euglycemic clamp technique was applied in healthy beagle dogs and the blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, insulin and glucagon were monitored during the clamp. Results: The blood glucose was controlled within the basal level. The coefficient of variation was less than 5% during the clamp. The serum insulin concentration finally reached (40.0 ± 3.8) mIU/L stably and a significant inhibition was shown in endogenous insulin by the determination of C-peptide. But there was no significant increase in serum glucagon compared with basal values. Conclusion: Methodology confirmed that the euglycemic clamp technique is successful in beagle dogs and can be applied in the study of pharmacodynamics of insulin preparations. (authors)

  8. Insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotsikoris, Ioannis; Zygomalas, Apollon; Papas, Theofanis; Maras, Dimitris; Pavlidis, Polyvios; Andrikopoulou, Maria; Tsanis, Antonis; Alivizatos, Vasileios; Bessias, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Central venous catheter placement is an effective alternative vascular access for dialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations in terms of efficacy of the procedure and early complications. Materials and methods: Between 2008 and 2010, the vascular access team of our hospital placed 409 central venous catheters in patients with chronic renal failure. The procedure was performed using the Seldinger blind technique. In 18 (4.4%) cases it was impossible to advance the guidewire, and so the patients were transported to the angiography suite. Results: Using the angiographic technique, the guidewire was advanced in order to position the central venous catheter. The latter was inserted into the subclavian vein in 12 (66.6%) cases, into the internal jugular vein in 4 (22.2%) and into the femoral vein in 2 (11.1%) cases. There was only one complicated case with severe arrhythmia in 1 (5.5%) patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that insertion of central venous catheters using angiographic techniques in hemodialysis patients with previous multiple catheterizations is a safe and effective procedure with few complications and high success rates

  9. Insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsikoris, Ioannis, E-mail: gkotsikoris@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Zygomalas, Apollon, E-mail: azygomalas@upatras.gr [Department of General Surgery, University Hospital of Patras (Greece); Papas, Theofanis, E-mail: pfanis@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Maras, Dimitris, E-mail: dimmaras@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Pavlidis, Polyvios, E-mail: polpavlidis@yahoo.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Andrikopoulou, Maria, E-mail: madric@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Tsanis, Antonis, E-mail: atsanis@gmail.com [Department of Interventional Radiology, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Alivizatos, Vasileios, E-mail: valiviz@hol.gr [Department of General Surgery and Artificial Nutrition Unit, “Agios Andreas” General Hospital of Patras (Greece); Bessias, Nikolaos, E-mail: bessias@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece)

    2012-09-15

    Introduction: Central venous catheter placement is an effective alternative vascular access for dialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations in terms of efficacy of the procedure and early complications. Materials and methods: Between 2008 and 2010, the vascular access team of our hospital placed 409 central venous catheters in patients with chronic renal failure. The procedure was performed using the Seldinger blind technique. In 18 (4.4%) cases it was impossible to advance the guidewire, and so the patients were transported to the angiography suite. Results: Using the angiographic technique, the guidewire was advanced in order to position the central venous catheter. The latter was inserted into the subclavian vein in 12 (66.6%) cases, into the internal jugular vein in 4 (22.2%) and into the femoral vein in 2 (11.1%) cases. There was only one complicated case with severe arrhythmia in 1 (5.5%) patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that insertion of central venous catheters using angiographic techniques in hemodialysis patients with previous multiple catheterizations is a safe and effective procedure with few complications and high success rates.

  10. Internal Jugular Vein Catheterization with Seldinger Technique, previous Needle Puncture: Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrizo G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheterization (CVC is a common procedure performed daily for its outnumbered indications, complication rates range are up to 15%. The previous puncture with a fine needle with the Seldinger technique can reduce even more the possible complications, guaranteeing a high percentage of success. The objective was to determine the number of CVC per puncture with Seldinger technique performed by general surgery residents and identify number and type of mechanical complications, related to the residence year. A descriptive transversal cut study has been carried out, between March and November of 2014. A number of 243 patients were evaluated, observing that 41% of the cases were to measure CVP and hemodynamic monitoring; 76% of the punctures were done by 1º and 2º year residents, presenting only 10% on mechanic complications, most frequently on arterial puncture. In conclusion, previous puncture with needle with the Seldinger technique is safer, more secure, lower cost, and reduces the number of complications, it is a variant puncture under ultrasound guidance.

  11. Technique for sparing previously irradiated critical normal structures in salvage proton craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Mark W; Wolanski, Mark R; Simmons, Joseph W; Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Cranial reirradiation is clinically appropriate in some cases but cumulative radiation dose to critical normal structures remains a practical concern. The authors developed a simple technique in 3D conformal proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) to block organs at risk (OAR) while minimizing underdosing of adjacent target brain tissue. Two clinical cases illustrate the use of proton therapy to provide salvage CSI when a previously irradiated OAR required sparing from additional radiation dose. The prior radiation plan was coregistered to the treatment planning CT to create a planning organ at risk volume (PRV) around the OAR. Right and left lateral cranial whole brain proton apertures were created with a small block over the PRV. Then right and left lateral “inverse apertures” were generated, creating an aperture opening in the shape of the area previously blocked and blocking the area previously open. The inverse aperture opening was made one millimeter smaller than the original block to minimize the risk of dose overlap. The inverse apertures were used to irradiate the target volume lateral to the PRV, selecting a proton beam range to abut the 50% isodose line against either lateral edge of the PRV. Together, the 4 cranial proton fields created a region of complete dose avoidance around the OAR. Comparative photon treatment plans were generated with opposed lateral X-ray fields with custom blocks and coplanar intensity modulated radiation therapy optimized to avoid the PRV. Cumulative dose volume histograms were evaluated. Treatment plans were developed and successfully implemented to provide sparing of previously irradiated critical normal structures while treating target brain lateral to these structures. The absence of dose overlapping during irradiation through the inverse apertures was confirmed by film. Compared to the lateral X-ray and IMRT treatment plans, the proton CSI technique improved coverage of target brain tissue while providing the least

  12. Alkylation induced cerebellar degeneration dependent on Aag and Parp1 does not occur via previously established cell death mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, Carrie M; Chaim, Isaac Alexander; Mazumder, Aprotim; Criscione, June; Samson, Leona D

    2017-01-01

    Alkylating agents are ubiquitous in our internal and external environments, causing DNA damage that contributes to mutations and cell death that can result in aging, tissue degeneration and cancer. Repair of methylated DNA bases occurs primarily through the base excision repair (BER) pathway, a multi-enzyme pathway initiated by the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (Aag, also known as Mpg). Previous work demonstrated that mice treated with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) undergo cerebellar degeneration in an Aag-dependent manner, whereby increased BER initiation by Aag causes increased tissue damage that is dependent on activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (Parp1). Here, we dissect the molecular mechanism of cerebellar granule neuron (CGN) sensitivity to MMS using primary ex vivo neuronal cultures. We first established a high-throughput fluorescent imaging method to assess primary neuron sensitivity to treatment with DNA damaging agents. Next, we verified that the alkylation sensitivity of CGNs is an intrinsic phenotype that accurately recapitulates the in vivo dependency of alkylation-induced CGN cell death on Aag and Parp1 activity. Finally, we show that MMS-induced CGN toxicity is independent of all the cellular events that have previously been associated with Parp-mediated toxicity, including mitochondrial depolarization, AIF translocation, calcium fluxes, and NAD+ consumption. We therefore believe that further investigation is needed to adequately describe all varieties of Parp-mediated cell death.

  13. Alkylation induced cerebellar degeneration dependent on Aag and Parp1 does not occur via previously established cell death mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie M Margulies

    Full Text Available Alkylating agents are ubiquitous in our internal and external environments, causing DNA damage that contributes to mutations and cell death that can result in aging, tissue degeneration and cancer. Repair of methylated DNA bases occurs primarily through the base excision repair (BER pathway, a multi-enzyme pathway initiated by the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (Aag, also known as Mpg. Previous work demonstrated that mice treated with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS undergo cerebellar degeneration in an Aag-dependent manner, whereby increased BER initiation by Aag causes increased tissue damage that is dependent on activation of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (Parp1. Here, we dissect the molecular mechanism of cerebellar granule neuron (CGN sensitivity to MMS using primary ex vivo neuronal cultures. We first established a high-throughput fluorescent imaging method to assess primary neuron sensitivity to treatment with DNA damaging agents. Next, we verified that the alkylation sensitivity of CGNs is an intrinsic phenotype that accurately recapitulates the in vivo dependency of alkylation-induced CGN cell death on Aag and Parp1 activity. Finally, we show that MMS-induced CGN toxicity is independent of all the cellular events that have previously been associated with Parp-mediated toxicity, including mitochondrial depolarization, AIF translocation, calcium fluxes, and NAD+ consumption. We therefore believe that further investigation is needed to adequately describe all varieties of Parp-mediated cell death.

  14. Portacaval shunt established in six dogs using magnetic compression technique.

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    Xiaopeng Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Installing the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for portal hypertension is relatively safe, but complications are still high. To explore a new method of portacaval shunt, the magnetic compression technique was introduced into the shunting procedure. METHODS: A portal-inferior vena cava shunt was performed on 6 male mongrel dogs by two hemocompatible Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets, parent and daughter. The parent magnet was applied to the inferior vena cava guided by a catheter through the femoral vein. The daughter magnet was moved to the anastomosis position on the portal vein with a balloon catheter through the splenic vein. After the daughter magnet reached the target position, the two magnets acted to compress the vessel wall and hold it in place. Five to 7 days later, under X-ray guidance, the magnets were detached from the vessel wall with a rosch-uchida transjugular liver access set. One month later, histological analysis and portal venography were performed. RESULTS: 5-7 days after the first surgery, a mild intimal hyperplasia in the portal vein and the inferior vena cava, and continuity of the vascular adventitia from the portal vein to the inferior vena cava as observed. During the second surgery, the contrast media could be observed flowing from the portal vein into the inferior vena cava. Portal venography revealed that the portosystemic shunt was still present one month after the second surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Magnamosis via a device of novel design was successfully used to establish a portacaval shunt in dogs.

  15. Changes in the dominance hierarchy of captive female Japanese macaques as a consequence of merging two previously established groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily J; Weladji, Robert B; Paré, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Dominance hierarchies play an important role in reducing competition and aggression in social animals. In zoos, changes in group composition are often required due to management protocols, but these changes may have long lasting effects on dominance hierarchies, and, consequently, the wellbeing of the animals. We studied the changes in the female dominance hierarchy that occurred both during and after the formation of a group of 10 adult Japanese macaques at the Zoo de Granby by combining members from two previously established groups. There was no significant correlation between individual ranks in the old groups (groups A and B) and their ranks in the new group (group AB), indicating a significant change in the hierarchy. Alliances between kin appeared to be important in determining rank; when the sister of the dominant female was removed from group AB, the hierarchy changed significantly a second time. The average standardized rank of individuals added later in the formation process of group AB was not different from those added earlier. Ranks in the group AB did correlate with age of individual at the beginning of the field season, but not at the end, after the shift in hierarchy occurred. Zoo management must be aware of the consequences small changes in a social group can have when removing and transferring individuals in both primates and in other social species. Zoo Biol. 35:505-512, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  17. Translocation techniques used to establish pen farmed Alaskan reindeer

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    R. A. Dieterich

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Small herds of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus frequently have been needed to be established in fenced holding pens for research or commercial reasons in Alaska and other areas. Native ranges of reindeer in Alaska were not on road systems, and the diet of the native reindeer had to be changed when they were translocated to small pens. Economics of transportation and feeding played an important role in the feasibility of translocation. Gathering and holding of reindeer for shipment, transport methods, adjustment of free-ranging reindeer to confinement, and a new diet were primary considerations to insure survival. Minimal psychologic stress of short duration, thermoregulation, and physical comfort were extremely important in carrying out a successful translocation. Receiving facilities, feed, and personnel were equally important. A minimum of one month was required to adjust reindeer to confinement and diet change.

  18. Establishment of reproducible osteosarcoma rat model using orthotopic implantation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhe; Sun, Honghui; Fan, Qingyu; Long, Hua; Yang, Tongtao; Ma, Bao'an

    2009-05-01

    In experimental musculoskeletal oncology, there remains a need for animal models that can be used to assess the efficacy of new and innovative treatment methodologies for bone tumors. Rat plays a very important role in the bone field especially in the evaluation of metabolic bone diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a rat osteosarcoma model for evaluation of new surgical and molecular methods of treatment for extremity sarcoma. One hundred male SD rats weighing 125.45+/-8.19 g were divided into 5 groups and anesthetized intraperitoneally with 10% chloral hydrate. Orthotopic implantation models of rat osteosarcoma were performed by injecting directly into the SD rat femur with a needle for inoculation with SD tumor cells. In the first step of the experiment, 2x10(5) to 1x10(6) UMR106 cells in 50 microl were injected intraosseously into median or distal part of the femoral shaft and the tumor take rate was determined. The second stage consisted of determining tumor volume, correlating findings from ultrasound with findings from necropsia and determining time of survival. In the third stage, the orthotopically implanted tumors and lung nodules were resected entirely, sectioned, and then counter stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic evaluation. The tumor take rate was 100% for implants with 8x10(5) tumor cells or more, which was much less than the amount required for subcutaneous implantation, with a high lung metastasis rate of 93.0%. Ultrasound and necropsia findings matched closely (r=0.942; p<0.01), which demonstrated that Doppler ultrasonography is a convenient and reliable technique for measuring cancer at any stage. Tumor growth curve showed that orthotopically implanted tumors expanded vigorously with time-lapse, especially in the first 3 weeks. The median time of survival was 38 days and surgical mortality was 0%. The UMR106 cell line has strong carcinogenic capability and high lung metastasis frequency. The present rat

  19. Angiotensin (1-7) re-establishes heart cell communication previously impaired by cell swelling: implications for myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, Walmor C

    2014-05-01

    The influence of hypertonic solution on dye coupling was investigated in cell pairs isolated from the left ventricle of adult Sprague Dawley rats.The hypertonic solution together with Lucifer Yellow CH, were dialyzed into one cell of the pair using the whole cell clamp tecnique, and the diffusion of dye in the dialyzed as well as in non-dialyzed cell, was followed by measuring the intensity of fluorescence in both cells as a function of time.The results indicated that: (1) Lucifer Yellow CH dialyzed into one cell of the pair diffuses easily into the nondialyzed cell through gap junctions; (2) the intracellular dialysis of an hypertonic solution into one cell of the pair, increases the area of the dialyzed cell and reduced the area of the non-dialyzed cell suggesting intercellular movement of water; (3) the hypertonic solution dialyzed into one cell of the pair abolished the dye coupling; (4) the gap junction permeability (Pj) estimated before and after administration of hypertonic solution showed an appreciably decrease of Pj; (5) angiotensin (1-7) (Ang (1-7) (10-9M) administered to the bath re-established the dye coupling abolished by hypertonic solution and reduced the cell area; (6) the effect of Ang (1-7) was related to the activation of Mas receptor and was dependent on the activation of PKA. the reestablishment of dye coupling elicited by Ang (1-7) seen in cell pairs dialyzed with hypertonic solution, might indicate that under similar conditions like that seen during myocardial ischemia, the peptide might be of benefit preventing the impairment of cell communication and impulse propagation associated with cardiac reentrant arrhytmias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of an automation technique for the establishment of functional lipid bilayer arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J. S.; Perry, M.; Vogel, J.; Vissing, T.; Hansen, C. R.; Geschke, O.; Emnéus, J.; Nielsen, C. H.

    2009-02-01

    In the present work, a technique for establishing multiple black lipid membranes (BLMs) in arrays of micro structured ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) films, and supported by a micro porous material was developed. Rectangular 8 × 8 arrays with apertures having diameters of 301 ± 5 µm were fabricated in ETFE Teflon film by laser ablation using a carbon dioxide laser. Multiple lipid membranes could be formed across the micro structured 8 × 8 array ETFE partitions. Success rates for the establishment of cellulose-supported BLMs across the multiple aperture arrays were above 95%. However, the time course of the membrane thinning process was found to vary considerably between multiple aperture bilayer experiments. An airbrush partition pretreatment technique was developed to increase the reproducibility of the multiple lipid bilayers formation during the time course from the establishment of the lipid membranes to the formation of bilayers. The results showed that multiple lipid bilayers could be reproducible formed across the airbrush-pretreated 8 × 8 rectangular arrays. The ionophoric peptide valinomycin was incorporated into established membrane arrays, resulting in ionic currents that could be effectively blocked by tetraethylammonium. This shows that functional bimolecular lipid membranes were established, and furthermore outlines that the established lipid membrane arrays could host functional membrane-spanning molecules.

  1. Immediate breast reconstruction after skin- or nipple-sparing mastectomy for previously augmented patients: a personal technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgarello, Marzia; Rochira, Dario; Barone-Adesi, Liliana; Farallo, Eugenio

    2012-04-01

    Breast reconstruction for previously augmented patients differs from breast reconstruction for nonaugmented patients. Many surgeons regard conservation therapy as not feasible for these patients because of implant complications, whether radiotherapy-induced or not. Despite this, most authors agree that mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction is the most suitable choice, ensuring both a good cosmetic result and a low complication rate. Implant retention or removal remains a controversial topic in addition to the best available surgical technique. This study reviewed the authors' experience with immediate breast reconstruction after skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) with anatomically definitive implants. The retrospective records of 12 patients were examined (group A). These patients were among 254 patients who underwent SSM or NSM for breast carcinoma. The control group comprised 12 of the 254 patients submitted to SSM or NSM (group B) who best matched the 12 patients in the studied group. All of them underwent immediate breast reconstruction, with an anatomically definitive implant placed in a submuscular-subfascial pocket. The demographic, technical, and oncologic data of the two groups were compared as well as the aesthetic outcomes using the Breast Q score. The proportion of complications, the type of implant, the axillary lymph node procedure, and the histology were compared between the two groups using Fisher's exact test. Student's t test was used to compare the scores for the procedure-specific modules of the breast Q questionnaire in the two groups. A validated patient satisfaction score was obtained using the breast Q questionnaire after breast reconstruction. The demographic, technical, and oncologic characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The previously augmented patients reported a significantly higher level of satisfaction with their breast than the control patients. The scores

  2. [Estimating child mortality using the previous child technique, with data from health centers and household surveys: methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A; Hill, A G

    1988-01-01

    2 trials of the previous child or preceding birth technique in Bamako, Mali, and Lima, Peru, gave very promising results for measurement of infant and early child mortality using data on survivorship of the 2 most recent births. In the Peruvian study, another technique was tested in which each woman was asked about her last 3 births. The preceding birth technique described by Brass and Macrae has rapidly been adopted as a simple means of estimating recent trends in early childhood mortality. The questions formulated and the analysis of results are direct when the mothers are visited at the time of birth or soon after. Several technical aspects of the method believed to introduce unforeseen biases have now been studied and found to be relatively unimportant. But the problems arising when the data come from a nonrepresentative fraction of the total fertile-aged population have not been resolved. The analysis based on data from 5 maternity centers including 1 hospital in Bamako, Mali, indicated some practical problems and the information obtained showed the kinds of subtle biases that can result from the effects of selection. The study in Lima tested 2 abbreviated methods for obtaining recent early childhood mortality estimates in countries with deficient vital registration. The basic idea was that a few simple questions added to household surveys on immunization or diarrheal disease control for example could produce improved child mortality estimates. The mortality estimates in Peru were based on 2 distinct sources of information in the questionnaire. All women were asked their total number of live born children and the number still alive at the time of the interview. The proportion of deaths was converted into a measure of child survival using a life table. Then each woman was asked for a brief history of the 3 most recent live births. Dates of birth and death were noted in month and year of occurrence. The interviews took only slightly longer than the basic survey

  3. A Simple Planting Technique for Re-establishing Trees Where Frequent Inundation Occurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, Thomas W; Cline, Eric A

    2018-01-26

    Many of the Everglades tree islands have lost elevation over the past century and most of their trees have died such that they are now covered with herbaceous plants. This protocol describes a simple, cost-effective tree planting technique needed for restoring degraded Everglade tree islands. The design is patterned after a natural Everglades process that creates floating peat islands, which allows tree survival and growth in flooded conditions and often leads to the development of tree islands. Commercially available peat bags were used as the medium for the growth and establishment of potted native tree saplings. The pop-up configuration floated initially and provided additional elevation to minimize inundation, with a single native tree species sapling and a single tree fertilizer spike. During a 3 year study involving 105 pop-ups, most plants survived (80%) and many thrived. Determining whether this technique can establish trees on a degraded tree island will require longer studies and extensive field tests.

  4. Establishment techniques in under-sown perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise C; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    Establishment methods have proven to be of major importance for grass-seed production. The objective of this research was to test the effect of different sowing techniques on plant establishment and the subsequent seed yield. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is used as the model grass due...... to its large importance in Danish agriculture. In a three-year trial six different methods of under-sowing of perennial ryegrass in a spring barley cover crop were employed. Perennial ryegrass was either sown directly at different depths within the spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) rows or placed 2, 6......, or 12 cm from the spring barley rows. Results of dry-matter yield indicate that the best establishment of the grass occurred when placing the grass 6 or 12 cm from the cover-crop row, and this is of importance in less vigorous grasses. Overall, no seed-yield difference has been observed for perennial...

  5. Establishment of Measurement Techniques for Sliding Bubble on a Horizontal Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu-Na Kim; Park, Goon-Cherl; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic wall boiling model includes many parameters relevant with bubble behaviors, such as the bubble departure diameter, bubble lift-off diameter, bubble waiting time, etc. Although there have been a large number of studies investigating bubble behavior, the subjects of observation are almost bubbles on a plane or vertical tube. Since the bubble motion is highly influenced by the directions of gravitational force and the heating surfaces, it is expected that the bubble behavior on a horizontal tube is largely different from those on the other geometry. The heat exchanger of APR+ has horizontal U-tube configuration installed in a water pool, of which diameter is 50mm. The study aims to establish measurement techniques for sliding bubbles on a horizontal tube. The measurement parameters include the diameter, interface area, volume, and velocity of the bubble. Additionally, in order to analyze the force acting on the bubble, liquid velocity measurement method was proposed. This paper presents the procedure of the measurement; the phase separation technique, 3-D reconstruction technique, and velocity measurement techniques. For visualization of the sliding bubble behavior, bubble and liquid velocity measurement methods were established which use two high speed cameras and a continuous LASER for the PTV and PIV. Three steps for the bubble shape and velocity measurement (the phase separation, 3-D reconstruction, and velocity calculation), were successfully set up and verified. A PIV technique which uses two different time duration for two regions where the velocity difference is huge was proposed and tested. Using these methods, various information regarding a sliding bubble can be obtained such as bubble and liquid velocities, shape, volume, surface area etc

  6. Establishment of a Pcr Technique for Determination of Htlv-1 Infection in Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rastin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HTLV-1 , the first known human retrovirus belongs to oncovirus subfamily of retroviruses. The major characteristic of HTLV-1 is its highly restricted geographic prevalence. Northern part of Khorasan is an endemic region of HTLV-1 infection. Epidemiological studies can help in designing preventive programs for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was the establishment of a PCR technique for determination of HTLV-1 infection in paraffin-embedded tissues. Methods: In this experimental laboratory study for establishment of a technique, PCR was initially optimized using Beta-actin primers on various formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from liver, spleen, skin and lymph nodes. The optimized concentration of Mgcl2 was 2mm, primer was 8 pmol. Optimized concentration of DNA was different according to the kind of tissue. HTLV-1 infection was determined by applying tax, pol, env and LTR primers on 50 paraffin-embedded lymph node tissues . The reporoducibility of this technique was shown for skin and lymph node tissues infected with HTLV-1. Resuls: In 50 lymph node tissues, one case with pathologic diagnosis of NHL was positive with all 5 sets of primers (tax, Pol, env and LTR primers and the other case was positive with only two sets of tax primers but was negative with pol, env and LTR primers. The prevalence of infection was 2% among lymph node specimens. (1 of 50 specimens and if the second case is considered, the prevalence would be 4%. Conclusion: Comparison of the results of this study with another study on blood specimens (seroprevalence2.3% was not statistically significant thus confirming the results of one another. (P=0.883

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN A PREVIOUSLY UNAFFECTED AREA BY CONVENTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND CELL-BLOCK FIXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuanne Rotti ABRANTES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the report of a second case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL in São Bento da Lagoa, Itaipuaçu, in the municipality of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological survey was carried out, through active search, totaling 145 dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and rapid chromatographic immunoassay based on dual-path platform (DPP(r were used to perform the serological examinations. The parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous fragments was performed by parasitological culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In the serological assessment, 21 dogs were seropositive by IFA, 17 by ELISA, and 11 by DPP(r, with sensitivity of 66.7%, 66.7% and 50%, and specificity of 87.2%, 90.2% and 94%, respectively for each technique. The immunohistochemistry of bone marrow using the cell-block technique presented the best results, with six positive dogs found, three of which tested negative by the other parasitological techniques. Leishmania sp. was isolated by parasitological culture in three dogs. The detection of autochthonous Leishmania infantum in Itaipuaçu, and the high prevalence of seropositive dogs confirm the circulation of this parasite in the study area and alert for the risk of expansion in the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN A PREVIOUSLY UNAFFECTED AREA BY CONVENTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND CELL-BLOCK FIXATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABRANTES, Tuanne Rotti; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; da SILVA, Denise Amaro; PERIÉ, Carolina dos Santos F. S.; V. MENDES, Artur Augusto; MENEZES, Rodrigo Caldas; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2016-01-01

    After the report of a second case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in São Bento da Lagoa, Itaipuaçu, in the municipality of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological survey was carried out, through active search, totaling 145 dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and rapid chromatographic immunoassay based on dual-path platform (DPP(r)) were used to perform the serological examinations. The parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous fragments was performed by parasitological culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In the serological assessment, 21 dogs were seropositive by IFA, 17 by ELISA, and 11 by DPP(r), with sensitivity of 66.7%, 66.7% and 50%, and specificity of 87.2%, 90.2% and 94%, respectively for each technique. The immunohistochemistry of bone marrow using the cell-block technique presented the best results, with six positive dogs found, three of which tested negative by the other parasitological techniques. Leishmania sp. was isolated by parasitological culture in three dogs. The detection of autochthonous Leishmania infantum in Itaipuaçu, and the high prevalence of seropositive dogs confirm the circulation of this parasite in the study area and alert for the risk of expansion in the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26910449

  9. Radio-guided excision of metastatic lymph nodes in thyroid carcinoma: a safe technique for previously operated neck compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbil, Yeşim; Sari, Serkan; Ağcaoğlu, Orhan; Ersöz, Feyzullah; Bayraktar, Adem; Salmaslioğlu, Artür; Gozkun, Osman; Adalet, Işik; Ozarmağan, Selçuk

    2010-11-01

    Better follow-up of patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and more sensitive detection leads to detection of recurrences in the neck. Despite excellent outcomes, the major challenge is controlling locoregional recurrence. We aimed to investigate whether the radio-guided excision of metastatic lymph nodes makes it possible to find the affected lymph nodes in patients with previously operated neck compartments. This prospective study included 46 patients with recurrent/persistent PTC who had previously undergone operation of the neck compartment. Prior to operation, the pathologic node was localized by ultrasound (US) and radiotracer ((99m)Tc-labeled rhenium colloid) was injected directly into the pathologic node. Careful dissection was carried out following the area of maximum radioactivity until the metastatic lymph node(s) were identified and excised. One affected lymph node was removed in 17 patients, and more than one lymph node (affected or additional nodes) was removed in 29 patients. The median count from the lesion was significantly higher than values from the lesion bed (background activity) (16,886 counts/20 s versus 52 counts/20 s; p basal thyroglobulin (Tg). Five patients had suspicious lymph nodes on the operated side. Although the basal Tg level remained above the normal limit, moderately high in 8 patients, no metastases were detected in the neck. Radio-guided excision of metastatic lymph nodes can be performed safely for the detection and excision of recurrent thyroid cancer in the central and lateral neck.

  10. Establishment of Advanced Technique for the Prediction of pH in the Sump Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Cheol; Kim, Sang Nyung

    2010-01-01

    During LOCA Iodine is leaked from RCS along with the coolant in the form of CsI and finally collected in the sump. When the iodine in the sump is regasified, the material of the containment vessel is likely to be damaged, and the iodine is highly likely to be leaked to the outside due to the cracks in the containment vessel or through the vent. So it can threaten the safety of the NPP to a considerable degree. Accordingly, to prevent the regasification of the iodine inside the sump solution, it is stipulated that the pH of the sump solution should be 7.0 or greater and 8.5 or less. The pH of the sump solution is determined by the boric acid-neutralizing additive (referred to as TSP hereinafter) reaction, organic reaction, and the chemical equilibrium of fission products. Accordingly, correct pH estimation in consideration of them is necessary As the pH calculation method considering only the boric acid-TSP reaction is presently used in Korea, the results are not accurate and calculation was complicated. Accordingly, this study intends to take other compounds affecting the pH of the sump solution into consideration, and to use the free minimization, a theory of chemical equilibrium, and the Lagrange Multiplier Technique to establish a simple and accurate method of calculating the pH. The first-year study investigated the correlation of the pH-Iodine behavior and the substances affecting pH. In this year's study the program for calculating the pH of the sump solution will be established by improving the SOLGASMIX-PV code, the chemical equilibrium calculation program

  11. Establishing Food Traceability System Using Nuclear and Related Techniques in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainon Othman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Salmah Moosa; Roslanzairi Mostapha

    2015-01-01

    Determination of food traceability is important in quality control and safety of food. The dramatic increase in the volume of global trade and complexity of supply chains has caused a number of issues concerning food authenticity and safety. Commodities that attract premium prices are subject to fraud such as adulteration and counterfeit. This poses serious health risks due to unknown origin of the counterfeit. In addition to safety concern, the capability to certify food origin is becoming significant economic importance. In several countries, the use of geographical indications allows producers to obtain market recognition and often a premium price. In addressing food safety issues in Malaysia, the Food Hygiene Regulations (2009) has provision for traceability but mechanism on how traceability can be achieved is not prescribed. Present mechanism is mainly paper-based system that passes information along with the commodity. However, such system is subject to failure either inadvertently or deliberately (fraud). Thus there is a need to establish a science-based traceability system to support the food safety surveillance program in Malaysia. This paper presents the concept and use of nuclear and related techniques involving isotopic and elemental fingerprinting in determining the geographical origin of various food products and its potential application for traceability of Malaysian agricultural produce. (author)

  12. [Establishment of the micro-stress sensor measurement system for invisible aligner technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chao-chao; Bai, Yu-xing; Wang, Zhe-yao; Zhang, Min

    2011-10-01

    To design and build the micro-stress sensor measurement system for invisible aligner technique. A measurement system based on silicon-on-insulator piezoresistive stress sensor was developed. A four-point-bending based experimental apparatus was constructed to calibrate the piezoresistive coefficients of this stress sensor. A chemical-mechanical polishing process was developed for thinning the stress sensor dies. A packaging solution using flexible printed circuit to get signals out was designed. The developed silicon stress sensor chip was 7.0 mm × 6.0 mm × 0.1 mm in size, and 13 sensor rosettes and 4 calibration rosettes were fabricated in one sensor. And a main testing PCB and a Lab View program were designed to carry out the automation measurement of the stress sensor. The stress state during the process was obtained through this test system. And measuered the stress of the 13 sensor unit. A stress measurement system was established for measuring stress during orthodontic treatment with invisable aligner.

  13. Standard Establishment Through Scenarios (SETS): A new technique for occupational fitness standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacklock, R E; Reilly, T J; Spivock, M; Newton, P S; Olinek, S M

    2015-01-01

    An objective and scientific task analysis provides the basis for establishing legally defensible Physical Employment Standards (PES), based on common and essential occupational tasks. Infrequent performance of these tasks creates challenges when developing PES based on criterion, or content validity. Develop a systematic approach using Subject Matter Experts (SME) to provide tasks with 1) an occupationally relevant scenario considered common to all personnel; 2) a minimum performance standard defined by time, distance, load or work. Examples provided here relate to the development of a new PES for the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF). SME of various experience are selected based on their eligibility criteria. SME are required to define a reasonable scenario for each task from personal experience, provide occupational performance requirements of the scenario in sub-groups, and discuss and agree by consensus vote on the final standard based on the definition of essential. A common and essential task for the CAF is detailed as a case example of process application. Techniques to avoid common SME rating errors are discussed and advantages to the method described. The SETS method was developed as a systematic approach to setting occupational performance standards and qualifying information from SME.

  14. Application of OSL and 10Be techniques to the establishment of deglaciation chronology in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raukas, Anto

    2004-01-01

    The deglaciation history of Estonia has been under research for about a century. Despite the great number of publications devoted to this subject and marked improvements in study methods, many problems of topical interest have not been solved yet, especially due to the lack of good direct dating methods. In this paper the suitability of OSL and 10 Be dating techniques for establishing accurate deglaciation chronology for Estonia is assessed. Turbidity and water depth, velocity of outwash streams and transport length, possible fast sedimentation at night hours or below the ice, incorporation of older, unbleached particles, and other factors affected the extent of the bleaching of the TL signal in different ways, causing great variability of dates. Surface inclination, height of the surface over ground, snow and vegetation cover, and evolution of water bodies influenced the calculation of reliable exposure ages of objects dated using the 10 Be method. It means that age determinations of both glaciofluvial deposits with the OSL method and erratic boulders with the 1B e method are highly problematic, especially for glaciofluvial intertill sediments where the exact genesis of deposits is unknown and for boulders, which have been in the forest, under the waters of proglacial lakes and/or the Baltic Sea, or under snow cover for a long time. (author)

  15. Establishment of screening technique for mutant cell and analysis of base sequence in the mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofuni, Toshio; Nomi, Takehiko; Yamada, Masami; Masumura, Kenichi

    2000-01-01

    This research project aimed to establish an easy and quick detection method for radiation-induced mutation using molecular-biological techniques and an effective analyzing method for the molecular changes in base sequence. In this year, Spi mutants derived from γ-radiation exposed mouse were analyzed by PCR method and DNA sequence method. Male transgenic mice were exposed to γ-ray at 5,10, 50 Gy and the transgene was taken out from the genome DNA from the spleen in vivo packaging method. Spi mutant plaques were obtained by infecting the recovered phage to E. coli. Sequence analysis for the mutants was made using ALFred DNA sequencer and SequiTherm TM Long-Red Cycle sequencing kit. Sequence analysis was carried out for 41 of 50 independent Spi mutants obtained. The deletions were classified into 4 groups; Group 1 included 15 mutants that were characterized with a large deletion (43 bp-10 kb) with a short homologous sequence. Group 2 included 11 mutants of a large deletion having no homologous sequence at the connecting region. Group 3 included 11 mutants having a short deletion of less than 20 bp, which occurred in the non-repetitive sequence of gam gene and possibly caused by oxidative breakage of DNA or recombination of DNA fragment produced by the breakage. Group 4 included 4 mutants having deletions as short as 20 bp or less in the repetitive sequence of gam gene, resulting in an alteration of the reading frame. Thus, the synthesis of Gam protein was terminated by the appearance of TGA between code 13 and 14 of redB gene, leading to inactivation of gam gene and redBA gene. These results indicated that most of Spi mutants had a deletion in red/gam region and the deletions in more than half mutants occurred in homologous sequences as short as 8 bp. (M.N.)

  16. Techniques for establishing vegetation for long-term erosion control on disturbed slopes in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Dougherty; A. Baharanyi; B. Guertal; J. Grace

    2010-01-01

    One year results from 21 outdoor erosion and sediment control plots constructed in 2008 on a 4:1 slope are presented. The study objectives were to evaluate; 1) the effects of incorporating lime and fertilizer on establishment of bermudagrass on steep slopes, 2) the differences in bermudagrass establishment as a function of temporary covers including wheat straw,...

  17. Water retention techniques for vegetation establishment in TxDOT West Texas districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Water harvesting is the collection of runoff for its productive use and may aid in the germination and : establishment of vegetation seeded in the roadside. This project is a synthesis study on the feasibility and : implications of adapting water har...

  18. Developing Alternative Methods/Techniques for Plant Establishment Under Reduced Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-10

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate soil treatments for their effect on establishment of wild-land : shrubs without supplemental irrigation. The treatments that significantly improved growth over irrigation : alone at a central California fill s...

  19. Development of an Automation Technique for the Establishment of Functional Lipid Bilayer Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard; Perry, Mark; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    fabricated in ETFE Teflon film by laser ablation using a carbon dioxide laser. Multiple lipid membranes could be formed across the micro structured 8 x 8 array ETFE partitions. Success rates for the establishment of cellulose-supported BLMs across the multiple aperture arrays were above 95%. However...

  20. Re-establishing esthetics of fluorosis-stained teeth using enamel microabrasion and dental bleaching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Danielson Guedes; Correa, Ketlen Michele; Cohen-Carneiro, Flávia

    2012-01-01

    Dental fluorosis manifests itself as white stains on the enamel of teeth exposed to excessive doses of fluoride during their formation. Fluorosis usually occurs as a result of the ingestion of dentifrices, gels and fluoridated solutions. It may be diagnosed as mild, moderate or severe, and in some cases, it may cause the loss of the surface structure of dental enamel. The aim of this study was to report the clinical case of a female patient of 18 years with moderate fluorosis, whose smile was reestablished by the use of an enamel microabrasion technique, followed by in-office bleaching. A microabrasion technique with 6% hydrochloric acid associated with silica carbide showed to be a safe and efficient method for removing white fluorosis stains, while dental bleaching was useful for obtaining a uniform tooth shade. The association of these techniques presented excellent results and the patient was satisfied. Both techniques are painless, fast and easy to perform, in addition to preserving the dental structure. Treatment showed immediate and permanent results; this technique must be divulged among professionals and their patients.

  1. Establishment of a luminescence technique for the quantification of uranyl ion in a KNO3 media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras R, A.; Fernandez V, S.M.; Ordonez R, E.

    2005-01-01

    The study of the storage of high level radioactive residuals that contain uranium, it makes necessary that in the sorption studies is counted with a reliable technique and not pollutant for the quantification of this element. Presently work intends a technique for the quantification of the uranyl ion using the luminescence technique, which allows not to generate radioactive or industrial residuals. It was used a solution of uranyl nitrate in KNO 3 0.5 M media. The solutions were adjusted to a pH of 1.48+0.03. A statistical study for the analysis of the data of fluorescence, about the maximum value of the peak, total area under the curve and area under the it curves is shown, being the best correlation for the concentration curve versus maximum of the peak, adjusted with a polynomial of second grade. The study of stability of the solutions with regard to the time is reported and that the technique proposal works for the interval of concentrations among 1 x 10 -2 M and 6 x 10 -5 M. (Author)

  2. Multiclass pesticide analysis in fruit-based baby food: A comparative study of sample preparation techniques previous to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrarca, Mateus H; Fernandes, José O; Godoy, Helena T; Cunha, Sara C

    2016-12-01

    With the aim to develop a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to analyze 24 pesticide residues in baby foods at the level imposed by established regulation two simple, rapid and environmental-friendly sample preparation techniques based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, robust and safe) were compared - QuEChERS with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and QuEChERS with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE). Both sample preparation techniques achieved suitable performance criteria, including selectivity, linearity, acceptable recovery (70-120%) and precision (⩽20%). A higher enrichment factor was observed for DLLME and consequently better limits of detection and quantification were obtained. Nevertheless, d-SPE provided a more effective removal of matrix co-extractives from extracts than DLLME, which contributed to lower matrix effects. Twenty-two commercial fruit-based baby food samples were analyzed by the developed method, being procymidone detected in one sample at a level above the legal limit established by EU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The development and use of decision aiding techniques for establishing intervention levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident there has been considerable international discussion on the principles underlying the choice of intervention levels and their practical application. While there is broad agreement on the underlying principles - that is to put potentially exposed individuals into a better position in the sense that lower overall risks are achieved at reasonable cost in financial and social terms - the determination of what constitutes the most appropriate type and level of intervention in any particular circumstances is more complex. Within the CEC Radiation Protection Research Programme techniques are being developed to aid well founded and more transparent decisions on the choice of intervention levels. The techniques are described and areas identified where they might usefully be applied

  4. ESTABLISHMENT TECHNIQUES FOR TROPICAL LEGUMES IN THE UNDERSTORY OF A EUCALYPTUS PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Franceschi Nicodemo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated establishment methods for a mixture of herbaceous forage legumes [Centrosema acutifolium, Clitoria ternatea, Pueraria phaseoloides, Stylosanthes Campo Grande (Stylosanthes capitata + S. macrocephala, Calopogonium mucunoides, Lablab purpureus, Arachis pintoi, and Aeschynomene villosa] under the shade of an Eucalyptus grandis plantation submitted to thinning (40% 8 years after planting in Anhembi, São Paulo (22°40'S, 48°10'W, altitude of 455 m. The experiment started in December 2008 and consisted of the comparison of the following four types of seed incorporation by light disc harrowing: (1 broadcast sowing without seed incorporation; disc harrowing before (2 or after (3 planting, and (4 disc harrowing before and after planting. Ninety days after planting, the number of legume plants/m2 and the percentage of ground cover by the plants varied between the treatments tested; however, the treatments had no effect on the dry matter accumulation of forage legumes. Disc harrowing before planting yielded superior results compared to the treatments without disc harrowing and disc harrowing after planting. At the end of the experimental period, the plots contained Arachis, Centrosema, Stylosanthes, and Pueraria. The dry matter accumulated by Centrosema corresponded to 73% of total dry matter yield of the plots. The participation of Arachis, Centrosema and Stylosanthes in final dry matter composition of the plots varied according to establishment method. The advantages of the use of species mixtures rather than monocultures in the understory of forest plantations were discussed.

  5. [A new algorithm for the establishment of blood relationship based on the application of the dermatoglyphic technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhchenko, A P; Tolmachev, I A

    2011-01-01

    An original classification of dermatoglyphic features is proposed taking into consideration their inter-relations in conjunction with the new principles of comparative studies. A new and improved algorithm for the establishment of blood relationship has been developed based on the application of the dermatoglyphic technique. The method is recommended for the use in forensic medical expertise for the purpose of estimation of the probability of paternity, maternity, and substitution of children. Moreover, it may find application for the indirect (via establishment of blood relationship) identification of personality of an unknown subject.

  6. Establishing the concurrent validity of general and technique-specific skills assessments in surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwald, Sarah N; Park, Jason; Hardy, Krista M; Gillman, Lawrence; Vergis, Ashley S

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery entails a unique skill set, but it is unclear whether it requires a specific assessment form or whether more general assessment tools can be applied. The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of 2 previously validated assessment scales. One scale designed specifically to assess laparoscopic skills and the other to assess more general surgical skills. Postgraduate year 1-6 general surgery and urology residents (n = 33) performed a live laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Three surgeon raters scored their performance using previously validated objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) and global operative assessment of laparoscopic skills rating scales. Pearson's correlation coefficient between global operative assessment of laparoscopic skills and OSATS rating scales was .975 (P = .01). The near total correlation between the 2 scales questions the need for separate laparoscopic assessment tools, highlighting the real strengths of OSATS, the use of which allows for more consistent nomenclature and standardized skills assessment across surgical platforms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ion mobility in the pharmaceutical industry: an established biophysical technique or still niche?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, Iain Dg; Lippens, Jennifer L

    2018-02-01

    Over the past decade ion mobility (IM) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a wide spread analytical technique, utilized in research areas ranging from small molecule to proteins analyzed under native-MS and solution conditions. The ion-neutral collision cross section (Ω) derived from an IM experiment can be used to make inferences about the ion's size, shape and charge distribution, when compared to molecular dynamic (MD) or quantum mechanically (QM) derived candidate structures. IM can also be used as an orthogonal separation technique when coupled with liquid chromatographic (LC) separations. IM has been readily adopted by academic research groups and has been demonstrated to be highly enabling, resulting in the inception of completely new research areas, such as gas-phase structural biology. The same cannot be said for IM in pharma, where it is still perceived as a standalone, research-only based analytical tool. Herein, we will describe key innovations of IM instrumentation by current MS vendors and IMs application within academic and pharmaceutical research and how these developments have been, and can be applied to research discovery efforts within the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Confidence in the curve: Establishing instantaneous cost mapping techniques using bilateral ankle exoskeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Jeffrey R; Gates, Deanna H; Ferris, Daniel P; Remy, C David

    2017-02-01

    Lower extremity robotic prostheses and exoskeletons can require tuning a large number of control parameters on a subject-specific basis to reduce users' metabolic power during locomotion. We refer to the functional relationship between control parameter configurations and users' metabolic power as the metabolic cost landscape. Standard practice for estimating a metabolic cost landscape, and thus identifying optimal parameter configurations, is to vary control parameters while measuring steady-state metabolic power during walking. This approach is time consuming, tedious, and inefficient. We have developed an instantaneous cost mapping analysis that allows for an estimate of the metabolic cost landscape without the explicit need for steady-state measurements. Here we present novel methods to quantify the confidence in an estimated metabolic cost landscape, allowing for an objective subject-specific comparison of protocols regardless of which metabolic analysis is used. We validated these techniques by estimating metabolic cost landscapes for healthy subjects walking with bilateral robotic ankle exoskeletons using a standard practice protocol and two innovative protocols that use an instantaneous cost mapping analysis. All cost landscapes were a function of the devices' actuation timing. Results showed that for this device a protocol using an instantaneous cost mapping analysis could accurately identify optimal parameter configurations in 20 min, where the standard practice protocol required 42 min. Additionally, using an instantaneous cost mapping analysis with the standard practice's parameter exploration significantly improved fit confidence. These methods could greatly improve real-time optimization of robotic assistive devices or studies focused on biomechanical manipulations of locomotion. We are presenting novel subject-specific metabolic cost landscape confidence analyses. These confidence analyses can greatly improve experimental design, intersubject

  9. Abdominal wall CT angiography: a detailed account of a newly established preoperative imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Timothy J; Stella, Damien L; Rozen, Warren M; Ashton, Mark; Taylor, G Ian

    2008-10-01

    Institutional review board approval was obtained for this study, and all patients gave written informed consent. Autologous surgical breast reconstruction with use of abdominal wall donor flaps based on the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) and one or more of its anterior musculocutaneous perforating branches (DIEA perforator flap) is being used with increasing frequency instead of breast reconstruction with use of traditional transverse rectus abdominus musculocutaneous and modified muscle-sparing flaps. Preoperative mapping of the DIEA perforators with abdominal wall computed tomographic (CT) angiography may improve patient care by providing the surgeon with additional information that will lead to optimization of the surgical technique, shorter procedure time, and reduction in the frequency of surgical complications. The branching patterns of the DIEA, the segmental anatomy of the anterior adipocutaneous perforating branches of the DIEA, and the importance of these features in pre- and intraoperative surgical planning necessitate a different approach to abdominal wall CT angiography than that used with other abdominal CT angiographic techniques. In abdominal wall CT angiography, the common femoral artery is used as the bolus trigger, CT scanning is performed in the caudocranial direction, the automatic exposure control feature is disabled, a scaled grid overlay tool is used to present information to the surgeons, and radiation dose is minimized (average dose, 6 mSv). The anatomic accuracy of abdominal wall CT angiography has been investigated in cadaveric and surgical studies, with sensitivity of 96%-100% and specificity of 95%-100%. This detailed description will allow other radiologists and surgeons interested in free DIEP flap surgery to incorporate this useful tool into their practice. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  10. Establishment and Analysis of Nuclear Structure Data DB for Nuclear Safety Regulation Technique Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ouk; Yoo, Jae Kwon; Gil, Choong; Cho, Young Sik; Kim, Hyung Il; Kim, Jong Woon; Kwon, Duk Hee; Lee, Jong Hwa

    2013-10-01

    The contents of the project consisting of four research fields carried out are: Ο Installation of DB with nuclear structure/decay datasets - Setup a computer system for production of nuclear structure/decay data in ENSDF format - Production of nuclear structure/decay data in ENSDF format( 211 , 215 Po, 136 Cs) and setup a data converting system from ENSDF format to ENDF-6 format. Ο Computer simulation of nuclear decay and burnup using the ENSDF DB - Calculation of decay heats of the several radioactive nuclides with Geant4 - Burnup calculation with full decay chain using Monte Carlo method Ο Comparison and analysis of nuclear structure/decay and fission product yields data. - Acquisitions and Analyses of decay and fission yields data in ENDF-6 format - Research for theoretical evaluation method of fission product yields data. Ο Analysis of SCALE(ORIGEN-s, -ARP) libraries - Analysis of ORIGEN library structure of nuclear decay/yields data. - Methodological studies to improve nuclear decay/yield ORIGEN libraries by use of nuclear structure/yield data in ENDF-6 format. The results of this project will be a basis to establish the nuclear decay and fission yield data DB in Korea. Additionally, new decay and yield data can be immediately served for the users to utilize those data for nuclear research and/or development

  11. Establishing the Appropriate Attributes in Current Human Reliability Assessment Techniques for Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowie, Jane; Munley, Gary; Dang, Vinh; Wreathall, John; Bye, Andreas; Cooper, Susan; Marble, Julie; Peters, Sean; Xing, Jing; Fauchille, Veronique; Fiset, Jean Yves; Haage, Monica; Johanson, Gunnar; Jung, Won Dae; Kim, Jaewhan; Lee, Seung Jung; Kubicek, Jan; Le Bot, Pierre; Pesme, Helene; Preischl, Wolfgang; Salway, Alice; Amri, Abdallah; Lamarre, Greg; White, Andrew; )

    2015-03-01

    This report presents the results of a joint task of the Working Groups on Risk Assessment (WGRISK) and on Human and Organisational Factors (WGHOF) of the OECD/NEA CSNI, to identify desirable attributes of Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) methods, and to evaluate a range of HRA methods used in OECD member countries against those attributes. The purpose of this project is to provide information that will support regulators and operators of nuclear facilities when making judgements about the appropriateness of HRA methods for conducting assessments in support of Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSA). The task was performed by an international team of Human Factors, HRA and PSA experts from a broad range of OECD member countries. As in other reviews of HRA methods, the study did not set out to recommend or promote the use of any particular HRA method. Rather the study aims to identify the strengths and limitations of commonly used and developing methods to aid those responsible for production of HRAs in selecting appropriate tools for specific HRA applications. The study also aims to assist regulators when making judgements on the appropriateness of the application of an HRA technique within nuclear-related probabilistic safety assessments. The report is aimed at practitioners in the field of human reliability assessment, human factors, and risk assessment more generally

  12. Provenance Establishment of Stingless Bee Honey Using Multi-element Analysis in Combination with Chemometrics Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadan, Aidil Fahmi; Mahat, Naji A; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Ariffin, Zaiton; Ismail, Dzulkiflee

    2018-01-01

    As consumption of stingless bee honey has been gaining popularity in many countries including Malaysia, ability to identify accurately its geographical origin proves pertinent for investigating fraudulent activities for consumer protection. Because a chemical signature can be location-specific, multi-element distribution patterns may prove useful for provenancing such product. Using the inductively coupled-plasma optical emission spectrometer as well as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the distributions of multi-elements in stingless bee honey collected at four different geographical locations (North, West, East, and South) in Johor, Malaysia, were investigated. While cross-validation using PCA demonstrated 87.0% correct classification rate, the same was improved (96.2%) with the use of LDA, indicating that discrimination was possible for the different geographical regions. Therefore, utilization of multi-element analysis coupled with chemometrics techniques for assigning the provenance of stingless bee honeys for forensic applications is supported. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Scaling Analysis Techniques to Establish Experimental Infrastructure for Component, Subsystem, and Integrated System Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, James E. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Housley, Gregory K. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid energy system research has the potential to expand the application for nuclear reactor technology beyond electricity. The purpose of this research is to reduce both technical and economic risks associated with energy systems of the future. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) mitigate the variability of renewable energy sources, provide opportunities to produce revenue from different product streams, and avoid capital inefficiencies by matching electrical output to demand by using excess generation capacity for other purposes when it is available. An essential step in the commercialization and deployment of this advanced technology is scaled testing to demonstrate integrated dynamic performance of advanced systems and components when risks cannot be mitigated adequately by analysis or simulation. Further testing in a prototypical environment is needed for validation and higher confidence. This research supports the development of advanced nuclear reactor technology and NHES, and their adaptation to commercial industrial applications that will potentially advance U.S. energy security, economy, and reliability and further reduce carbon emissions. Experimental infrastructure development for testing and feasibility studies of coupled systems can similarly support other projects having similar developmental needs and can generate data required for validation of models in thermal energy storage and transport, energy, and conversion process development. Experiments performed in the Systems Integration Laboratory will acquire performance data, identify scalability issues, and quantify technology gaps and needs for various hybrid or other energy systems. This report discusses detailed scaling (component and integrated system) and heat transfer figures of merit that will establish the experimental infrastructure for component, subsystem, and integrated system testing to advance the technology readiness of components and systems to the level required for commercial

  14. An automated patient recognition method based on an image-matching technique using previous chest radiographs in the picture archiving and communication system environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Junji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Kondo, Keisuke; Doi, Kunio

    2001-01-01

    An automated patient recognition method for correcting 'wrong' chest radiographs being stored in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment has been developed. The method is based on an image-matching technique that uses previous chest radiographs. For identification of a 'wrong' patient, the correlation value was determined for a previous image of a patient and a new, current image of the presumed corresponding patient. The current image was shifted horizontally and vertically and rotated, so that we could determine the best match between the two images. The results indicated that the correlation values between the current and previous images for the same, 'correct' patients were generally greater than those for different, 'wrong' patients. Although the two histograms for the same patient and for different patients overlapped at correlation values greater than 0.80, most parts of the histograms were separated. The correlation value was compared with a threshold value that was determined based on an analysis of the histograms of correlation values obtained for the same patient and for different patients. If the current image is considered potentially to belong to a 'wrong' patient, then a warning sign with the probability for a 'wrong' patient is provided to alert radiology personnel. Our results indicate that at least half of the 'wrong' images in our database can be identified correctly with the method described in this study. The overall performance in terms of a receiver operating characteristic curve showed a high performance of the system. The results also indicate that some readings of 'wrong' images for a given patient in the PACS environment can be prevented by use of the method we developed. Therefore an automated warning system for patient recognition would be useful in correcting 'wrong' images being stored in the PACS environment

  15. Junk-food enhances conditioned food cup approach to a previously established food cue, but does not alter cue potentiated feeding; implications for the effects of palatable diets on incentive motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Rifka C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2018-03-16

    Efforts to stem the global rise in obesity have been minimally effective, perhaps in part because our understanding of the psychological and behavioral drivers of obesity is limited. It is well established that stimuli that are paired with palatable foods can powerfully influence food-seeking and feeding behaviors. However, how consumption of sugary, fatty "junk-foods" affects these motivational responses to food cues is poorly understood. Here, we determined the effects of short- and long-term "junk-food" consumption on the expression of cue potentiated feeding and conditioned food cup approach to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CS). Further, to determine the degree to which effects of "junk-food" were selective to Pavlovian motivational processes, we varied the predictive validity of the CS by including training groups conditioned with unique CS-US contingencies ranging from -1.0 to +1.0. "Junk-food" did not enhance cue potentiated feeding in any group, but expression of this potentiation effect varied with the CS-US contingency independent of diet. In contrast, "junk-food" consistently enhanced conditioned approach to the food cup; this effect was dependent on the previously established CS-US contingency. That is, consumption of "junk-food" following training enhanced approach to the food cup only in response to CSs with previously positive CS-US contingencies. This was accompanied by reduced motivation for the US itself. Together these data show that "junk-food" consumption selectively enhances incentive motivational responses to previously established food CSs, without altering cue potentiated feeding induced by these same CSs, and in the absence of enhanced motivation for food itself. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of plant growth regulators, a simple technique for improving the establishment success of plant cuttings in coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Elena; Vallerini, Flavia; Castelli, Alberto; Lardicci, Claudio

    2012-03-01

    Exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) may be an effective technique for increasing the rooting ability and the growth of vegetative fragments (cuttings) of plants used in dune restoration programs. Various concentrations (0, 50 and 100 mg l-1) of two auxins, alpha-naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and two cytokinins, 6-furfurylaminopurine (Kinetin) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), were applied separately to cuttings of two widely used species for restoration, Ammophila arenaria and Sporobuls virginicus. Root development and production of new buds in cuttings were examined under laboratory conditions one month after application. Cuttings were also examined one year after transplanting into a sandy substratum under natural conditions, to test for possible long term effects of PGRs on plant establishment success and growth. The response of the two study species to PGRs differed substantially. In A. arenaria the auxin NAA at 100 mg l-1 reduced the time for root initiation and increased the rooting capacity of cuttings, while the cytokinin Kinetin at 50 mg l-1 facilitated root growth. No auxin had effect on rooting or growth of S. virginicus cuttings, but treatment with 100 mg l-1 Kinetin resulted in higher rooting success than the control. One year after planting, the cuttings of A. arenaria treated with 100 mg l-1 NAA showed a higher establishment success (90% vs. 55%) and produced more culms and longer roots than the control; those treated with cytokinins did not differ in the establishment success from the control, but had longer roots, more culms and rhizomes. On the other hand, the cuttings of S. virginicus treated with 100 mg l-1 Kinetin showed a higher establishment success (75% vs. 35%) and had more culms than the control. Therefore, in restoration activities that involved A. arenaria, a pre-treatment of cuttings with NAA would be beneficial, as it allows the production of a higher number of well-developed plants with

  17. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS for Echographic Detection of Hepato Cellular Carcinoma in Cirrhotic Patients Previously Treated with Multiple Techniques: Comparison of Conventional US, Spiral CT and 3-Dimensional CEUS with Navigator Technique (3DNav CEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Giangregorio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available technique named “NAVIGATOR” (Esaote, Italy easily enables a 3-D reconstruction of a single 2-D acquisition of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS imaging of the whole liver (with a volumetric correction thanks to the electromagnetic device of NAVIGATOR. Aim of the study was to evaluate this “panoramic” technique in comparison with conventional US and spiral CT in the detection of new hepatic lesions. 144 cirrhotic patients (previously treated for hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC in follow-up with detection of 98 new nodules (N, 28 multinodular (Nmulti, 14 loco-regional regrowth (LR 94 efficaciously treated without new nodules (neg and four multinodular without new nodules, were submitted to 200 examinations with this new technique from November 2008 to November 2009. 3DNavCEUS was performed using SonoVue (Bracco, as contrast agent, and a machine (Technos MPX, Esaote. Spiral CT and 3DNav CEUS were performed in the same month during follow up. Sens.,Spec.,diagn.-Acc.,PPV and NPV were evaluated; comparison and differences between the techniques were obtained with chi-square (SPSS release-15. Final diagnosis was: 98 new lesions (N (one to three, 28 multinodular HCC (Nmulti and 14 loco-regional regrowth (LR; in 94 no more lesions were observed during follow-up; conventional US obtained: 58 N (+18 multinodularN and 8 LR, 40 false negative (+10 Nmulti and 6 LR (sens:59.2, spec:100%, Diagn Accur:73.6, PPV:100; NPV:70.1; spiral CT obtained: 84N (+26-multinodularN and 14-LR, 14 false-negative (+2-Nmulti, and one false-positive (sens:85.7, spec:97.9%, Diagn Accur:90.9, PPV:97.7; NPV:86.8; 3DNAV obtained: 92N (+28 multinodularN and 14LR, 6 false-negative, and two false-positives (sens:93.9, spec:97.9%, Diagn Accur:95.6, PPV:97.9; NPV:93.9. 3-DNav CEUS is significantly better than US and almost similar to spiral CT for detection of new HCC. This technique, in particular, showed the presence of lesions even in the cases not

  18. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) for Echographic Detection of Hepato Cellular Carcinoma in Cirrhotic Patients Previously Treated with Multiple Techniques: Comparison of Conventional US, Spiral CT and 3-Dimensional CEUS with Navigator Technique (3DNav CEUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangregorio, Francesco [Department of Gastroenterology, Guglielmo da Saliceto Hospital, Via Taverna 49, Piacenza 29121 (Italy)

    2011-03-30

    A commercially available technique named “NAVIGATOR” (Esaote, Italy) easily enables a 3-D reconstruction of a single 2-D acquisition of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) imaging of the whole liver (with a volumetric correction thanks to the electromagnetic device of NAVIGATOR). Aim of the study was to evaluate this “panoramic” technique in comparison with conventional US and spiral CT in the detection of new hepatic lesions. 144 cirrhotic patients (previously treated for hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC)) in follow-up with detection of 98 new nodules (N), 28 multinodular (Nmulti), 14 loco-regional regrowth (LR) 94 efficaciously treated without new nodules (neg) and four multinodular without new nodules, were submitted to 200 examinations with this new technique from November 2008 to November 2009. 3DNavCEUS was performed using SonoVue (Bracco), as contrast agent, and a machine (Technos MPX, Esaote). Spiral CT and 3DNav CEUS were performed in the same month during follow up. Sens.,Spec.,diagn.-Acc.,PPV and NPV were evaluated; comparison and differences between the techniques were obtained with chi-square (SPSS release-15). Final diagnosis was: 98 new lesions (N) (one to three), 28 multinodular HCC (Nmulti) and 14 loco-regional regrowth (LR); in 94 no more lesions were observed during follow-up; conventional US obtained: 58 N (+18 multinodularN and 8 LR), 40 false negative (+10 Nmulti and 6 LR) (sens:59.2, spec:100%, Diagn Accur:73.6, PPV:100; NPV:70.1); spiral CT obtained: 84N (+26-multinodularN and 14-LR), 14 false-negative (+2-Nmulti), and one false-positive (sens:85.7, spec:97.9%, Diagn Accur:90.9, PPV:97.7; NPV:86.8); 3DNAV obtained: 92N (+28 multinodularN and 14LR), 6 false-negative, and two false-positives (sens:93.9, spec:97.9%, Diagn Accur:95.6, PPV:97.9; NPV:93.9). 3-DNav CEUS is significantly better than US and almost similar to spiral CT for detection of new HCC. This technique, in particular, showed the presence of lesions even in the cases not

  19. Expert training with standardized operative technique helps establish a successful penile prosthetics program for urologic resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley B; Klausner, Adam P; Johnson, Corey M; Moore, Blake W; Wilson, Steven K; Grob, B Mayer

    2011-10-01

    The challenge of resident education in urologic surgery programs is to overcome disparity imparted by diverse patient populations, limited training times, and inequalities in the availability of expert surgical educators. Specifically, in the area of prosthetic urology, only a small proportion of programs have full-time faculty available to train residents in this discipline. To examine whether a new model using yearly training sessions from a recognized expert can establish a successful penile prosthetics program and result in better outcomes, higher case volumes, and willingness to perform more complex surgeries. A recognized expert conducted one to two operative training sessions yearly to teach standardized technique for penile prosthetics to residents. Each session consisted of three to four operative cases performed under the direct supervision of the expert. Retrospective data were collected from all penile prosthetic operations before (February, 2000 to June, 2004: N = 44) and after (July, 2004 to October, 2007: N = 79) implementation of these sessions. Outcomes reviewed included patient age, race, medical comorbidities, operative time, estimated blood loss, type of prosthesis, operative approach, drain usage, length of stay, and complications including revision/explantation rates. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-tests, Fisher's tests, and survival curves using the Kaplan-Meier technique (P value ≤ 0.05 to define statistical significance). Patient characteristics were not significantly different pre- vs. post-training. Operative time and estimated blood loss significantly decreased. Inflatable implants increased from 19/44 (43.2%, pre-training) to 69/79 (87.3%, post-training) (P prosthetics surgery. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Establishment of IDF-curves for precipitation in the tropical area of Central Africa - comparison of techniques and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mohymont

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves for precipitation remains a powerful tool in the risk analysis of natural hazards. Indeed the IDF-curves allow for the estimation of the return period of an observed rainfall event or conversely of the rainfall amount corresponding to a given return period for different aggregation times. There is a high need for IDF-curves in the tropical region of Central Africa but unfortunately the adequate long-term data sets are frequently not available. The present paper assesses IDF-curves for precipitation for three stations in Central Africa. More physically based models for the IDF-curves are proposed. The methodology used here has been advanced by Koutsoyiannis et al. (1998 and an inter-station and inter-technique comparison is being carried out. The IDF-curves for tropical Central Africa are an interesting tool to be used in sewer system design to combat the frequently occurring inundations in semi-urbanized and urbanized areas of the Kinshasa megapolis.

  1. [Visualization for Traditional Quality Management Techniques--Characterization Method for Spikenard of INUBUSHI SEIYAKU Established in the Edo Period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ken; Inubushi, Soichiro; Moriwaki, Takafumi; Matsunaga, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Kyoko; Ueda, Takahiro; Hashizume, Setsuya; Takemoto, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Ota, Tomoe; Nakamura, Seiko; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    INUBUSHI SEIYAKU, a Japanese pharmaceutical company established in 1807, manufactures KEISHIN-TAN. This is an original drug developed by the company, and consists of 14 exotic natural medicines, spikenard, oriental bezoar, musk, agarwood, etc. It has been used for adjusting the autonomic nervous system and physical conditions. We studied the original methods of the traditional quality management techniques handed down within INUBUSHI SEIYAKU in selecting the appropriate spikenard (Nardostachys chinensis) for medicinal use. Currently, spikenards are mainly used as incense rather than medicine. KEISHIN-TAN is a rare case in that the bulk powder of the spikenards is used for pharmaceutical products in Japan. We examined the morphological characteristics and made an analysis of the component of spikenards selected by traditional methods. The raw material of the spikenards was purchased from the Japanese market, and was classified into two categories-superior, fit for medicinal use and defective, to be discarded-by traditional methods of INUBUSHI SEIYAKU. The methods of the characterization of the spikenard by INUBUSHI SEIYAKU were investigated. As a result, only thick spikenard roots over 2.0 cm in length and approximately 0.5 cm in diameter were found to be used, and the total weight of the superior was only 15% of the raw material. By comparing the weights of hexane extracts and GC-MS analyses, the content of calarene--main sedative compound in spikenards--in the superior material was 2.8 times higher than the raw material and 4.3 times higher than the defective material. The ways to devise how to enhance the pharmacological effects of spikenards may be contained in this method. These results revealed the traditional spikenard selection criteria, and may show the indications of using spikenard or its compounds for medicinal purposes.

  2. Field-based detection of biological samples for forensic analysis: Established techniques, novel tools, and future innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jack; Watts, Giles; Hobbs, Glyn; Dawnay, Nick

    2018-02-21

    Field based forensic tests commonly provide information on the presence and identity of biological stains and can also support the identification of species. Such information can support downstream processing of forensic samples and generate rapid intelligence. These approaches have traditionally used chemical and immunological techniques to elicit the result but some are known to suffer from a lack of specificity and sensitivity. The last 10 years has seen the development of field-based genetic profiling systems, with specific focus on moving the mainstay of forensic genetic analysis, namely STR profiling, out of the laboratory and into the hands of the non-laboratory user. In doing so it is now possible for enforcement officers to generate a crime scene DNA profile which can then be matched to a reference or database profile. The introduction of these novel genetic platforms also allows for further development of new molecular assays aimed at answering the more traditional questions relating to body fluid identity and species detection. The current drive for field-based molecular tools is in response to the needs of the criminal justice system and enforcement agencies, and promises a step-change in how forensic evidence is processed. However, the adoption of such systems by the law enforcement community does not represent a new strategy in the way forensic science has integrated previous novel approaches. Nor do they automatically represent a threat to the quality control and assurance practices that are central to the field. This review examines the historical need and subsequent research and developmental breakthroughs in field-based forensic analysis over the past two decades with particular focus on genetic methods Emerging technologies from a range of scientific fields that have potential applications in forensic analysis at the crime scene are identified and associated issues that arise from the shift from laboratory into operational field use are discussed

  3. The influence of alternative plant propagation and stand establishment techniques on survival and growth of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) clones.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarek, Donald J.; et. al.,

    2014-02-09

    Four eastern cottonwood clones, including standard operational clone ST66 and three advanced clonal selections were produced and included in a test utilizing five different plant propagation methods. Despite relatively large first-year growth differences among clones, all clones demonstrated similar responses to the treatments and clone 9 cutting treatment interactions were generally non-significant. The effects of changing cutting lengths are consistent with previous studies which indicated the potential for increased plant survival and growth with increased cutting lengths. Differences in stored carbohydrate reserves alone do not appear to completely control first-year growth and development of cuttings. First-year growth of 51 cm long cuttings planted 30.5 cm deep was greater than the same cuttings planted 48 cm deep. Stem form of plants derived from whip-tip propagation did not differ from plants derived from standard, unrooted cuttings. This propagation method offers the potential of far greater production capacity from a cutting orchard and rapid bulk-up of new or limited clones. Stand uniformity assessments suggest that surviving trees of each individual cutting treatment exhibit similar levels of growth variation. Optimization of plantation establishment techniques has the potential to increase growth of young Populus plantations.

  4. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Damien C; Miralbell, Raymond; Wang, Hui; Cozzi, Luca; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Khan, Haleem G; Ratib, Osman; Rouzaud, Michel; Vees, Hansjoerg; Zaidi, Habib

    2009-01-01

    A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA) and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT) radiation therapy (RT) for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined on 18 F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (D Max ) of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, D Max was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal D Median was < 17 Gy. Results were analyzed using Dose-Volume Histogram and conformity index (CI 90 ) parameters. Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV) was improved with RA (V 95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%), when compared to IMRT (V 95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%). The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V 95% 88.9 ± 10.5%) and better for the PTV (V 95% 85.6 ± 5.0%). The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy) were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3%) and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%), when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%). CI 90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm 3 *10 5 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk

  5. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  6. Studies on Plant Population and Stand Establishment Techniques for Increasing Productivity of Rice in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Safdar BALOCH

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice production in Pakistan is constraint by many factors pertaining to prevalent planting techniques. A research on the feasibility of new planting techniques (direct seeding on flat, transplanting on flat, direct seeding on ridges, transplanting on ridges and parachute planting in transplanted and direct wet-seeded rice was undertaken at Dera Ismail Khan region of Pakistan's North West Frontier Province during 2002 and 2003. Among the planting techniques, the best performance for the yield formation and economic evaluation was noted for transplanting on flat during both years. Chinese parachute planting technology also showed very promising results in most of the parameters. Direct seeding on ridges could not excel transplanting on flat and parachute planting during both cropping seasons. The findings concluded the feasibility of parachute planting technology along with traditional rice transplanting on flat over all other planting techniques being practiced in the area.

  7. Salivary bacterial fingerprints of established oral disease revealed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Paster, Bruce J; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The composition of the salivary microbiota, as determined using various molecular methods, has been reported to differentiate oral health from diseases. Thus, the purpose of this study was to utilize the newly developed molecular technique HOMINGS (Human Oral Microbe Ide...

  8. Established applications of non-destructive techniques for nuclear materials measurements control or verification; reported to ESARDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    Non-destructive measurement techniques are widely used in the states and organisations represented in the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA). This paper comprises a list of those applications which are either used routinely, or which it has been decided to use routinely, for plant control, assay or verification purposes. Wherever possible precision and accuracies achieved in these routine conditions are stated. (author)

  9. Salivary bacterial fingerprints of established oral disease revealed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Paster, Bruce J.; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Bardow, Allan; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective The composition of the salivary microbiota, as determined using various molecular methods, has been reported to differentiate oral health from diseases. Thus, the purpose of this study was to utilize the newly developed molecular technique HOMINGS (Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing) for comparison of the salivary microbiota in patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that this method could add on to the existing knowledge on salivary bacterial profiles in oral health and disease. Design Stimulated saliva samples (n=30) were collected from 10 patients with untreated periodontitis, 10 patients with untreated dental caries, and 10 orally healthy individuals. Salivary microbiota was analyzed using HOMINGS and statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis test with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction. Results From a total of 30 saliva samples, a mean number of probe targets of 205 (range 120–353) were identified, and a statistically significant higher mean number of targets was registered in samples from patients with periodontitis (mean 220, range 143–306) and dental caries (mean 221, range 165–353) as compared to orally healthy individuals (mean 174, range 120–260) (p=0.04 and p=0.04). Nine probe targets were identified with a different relative abundance between groups (pdental caries. PMID:26782357

  10. LIVER ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN DOLPHINS: USE OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY TO ESTABLISH A TECHNIQUE FOR HEPATOBILIARY IMAGING AND TO EVALUATE METABOLIC DISEASE-ASSOCIATED LIVER CHANGES IN BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Kelsey E; Smith, Cynthia R; Marks, Stanley L; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Ivančić, Marina

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a comprehensive technique for ultrasound examination of the dolphin hepatobiliary system and apply this technique to 30 dolphins to determine what, if any, sonographic changes are associated with blood-based indicators of metabolic syndrome (insulin greater than 14 μIU/ml or glucose greater than 112 mg/dl) and iron overload (transferrin saturation greater than 65%). A prospective study of individuals in a cross-sectional population with and without elevated postprandial insulin levels was performed. Twenty-nine bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) in a managed collection were included in the final data analysis. An in-water ultrasound technique was developed that included detailed analysis of the liver and pancreas. Dolphins with hyperinsulinemia concentrations had larger livers compared with dolphins with nonelevated concentrations. Using stepwise, multivariate regression including blood-based indicators of metabolic syndrome in dolphins, glucose was the best predictor of and had a positive linear association with liver size (P = 0.007, R 2 = 0.24). Bottlenose dolphins are susceptible to metabolic syndrome and associated complications that affect the liver, including fatty liver disease and iron overload. This study facilitated the establishment of a technique for a rapid, diagnostic, and noninvasive ultrasonographic evaluation of the dolphin liver. In addition, the study identified ultrasound-detectable hepatic changes associated primarily with elevated glucose concentration in dolphins. Future investigations will strive to detail the pathophysiological mechanisms for these changes.

  11. Salivary bacterial fingerprints of established oral disease revealed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The composition of the salivary microbiota, as determined using various molecular methods, has been reported to differentiate oral health from diseases. Thus, the purpose of this study was to utilize the newly developed molecular technique HOMINGS (Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing for comparison of the salivary microbiota in patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that this method could add on to the existing knowledge on salivary bacterial profiles in oral health and disease. Design: Stimulated saliva samples (n=30 were collected from 10 patients with untreated periodontitis, 10 patients with untreated dental caries, and 10 orally healthy individuals. Salivary microbiota was analyzed using HOMINGS and statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis test with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction. Results: From a total of 30 saliva samples, a mean number of probe targets of 205 (range 120–353 were identified, and a statistically significant higher mean number of targets was registered in samples from patients with periodontitis (mean 220, range 143–306 and dental caries (mean 221, range 165–353 as compared to orally healthy individuals (mean 174, range 120–260 (p=0.04 and p=0.04. Nine probe targets were identified with a different relative abundance between groups (p<0.05. Conclusions: Cross-sectional comparison of salivary bacterial profiles by means of HOMINGS analysis showed that different salivary bacterial profiles were associated with oral health and disease. Future large-scale prospective studies are needed to evaluate if saliva-based screening for disease-associated oral bacterial profiles may be used for identification of patients at risk of acquiring periodontitis and dental caries.

  12. Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracks in Nickel Alloy Dissimilar Metal Welds: Detection and Sizing Using Established and Emerging Nondestructive Examination Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braatz, Brett G.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Prokofiev, Iouri

    2012-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) as a follow-on to the international cooperative Program for the Inspection of Nickel Alloy Components (PINC). The goal of PINC was to evaluate the capabilities of various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to detect and characterize surface-breaking primary water stress corrosion cracks in dissimilar-metal welds (DMW) in bottom-mounted instrumentation (BMI) penetrations and small-bore (≈400-mm diameter) piping components. A series of international blind round-robin tests were conducted by commercial and university inspection teams. Results from these tests showed that a combination of conventional and phased-array ultrasound techniques provided the highest performance for flaw detection and depth sizing in dissimilar metal piping welds. The effective detection of flaws in BMIs by eddy current and ultrasound shows that it may be possible to reliably inspect these components in the field. The goal of PARENT is to continue the work begun in PINC and apply the lessons learned to a series of open and blind international round-robin tests that will be conducted on a new set of piping components including large-bore (≈900-mm diameter) DMWs, small-bore DMWs, and BMIs. Open round-robin testing will engage universities and industry worldwide to investigate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and accurately size flaws having a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin testing will invite testing organizations worldwide, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from easy to very difficult to detect and size. This paper presents highlights of PINC and reports on the plans and progress for

  13. Primary water stress corrosion cracks in nickel alloy dissimilar metal welds: Detection and sizing using established and emerging nondestructive examination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braatz, B.G.; Doctor, S.R.; Cumblidge, S.E.; Prokofiev, I.G.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) as a follow-on to the international cooperative Program for the Inspection of Nickel Alloy Components (PINC). The goal of PINC was to evaluate the capabilities of various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to detect and characterize surface-breaking primary water stress corrosion cracks in dissimilar-metal welds (DMW) in bottom-mounted instrumentation (BMI) penetrations and small-bore (∼400-mm diameter) piping components. A series of international blind round-robin tests were conducted by commercial and university inspection teams. Results from these tests showed that a combination of conventional and phased-array ultrasound techniques provided the highest performance for flaw detection and depth sizing in dissimilar metal piping welds. The effective detection of flaws in BMIs by eddy current and ultrasound shows that it may be possible to reliably inspect these components in the field. The goal of PARENT is to continue the work begun in PINC and apply the lessons learned to a series of open and blind international round-robin tests that will be conducted on a new set of piping components including large-bore (∼900-mm diameter) DMWs, small-bore DMWs, and BMIs. Open round-robin testing will engage universities and industry worldwide to investigate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and accurately size flaws having a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin testing will invite testing organizations worldwide, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from easy to very difficult to detect and size. This paper presents highlights of PINC and reports on the plans and progress for

  14. [A cadaveric study on establishing an individualized navigation template for the placement of occipital condyle screws using a three-dimensional printing technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan; Li, Fengning; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Kun; Yang, Qingsong; Dang, Ruishan; Su, Jiacan; Shen, Hongxing; Li, Ming

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of establishing an individualized navigation template for occipital condyle screws insertion using a fused deposition modeling based three-dimensional printing forming technique, and to evaluate the accuracy and safety of template-assisted condyle screw insertion. Thirty adult occipitocervical specimens were selected to take a CT-scan. After original Dicom data imported into the Mimics software, the craniocervical junction models were created, which were used to evaluate anatomic structures and define the screw-related parameters. Design and generate the cavity models of the occipital condyle based on a three-dimensional printing forming technique. After using a free-hand procedure to create a navigation template with a well-established screw path, finish bilateral condyle screws insertion assisted by the navigation template. Anatomy study and CT-scan were taken postoperatively to access the position of the screws. Sixty condyle screws were implanted assisted by 30 individualized navigation templates with an average time cost of (91.4 ± 8.2) s. The axial medial angle, sagittal cranial angle and distance between the entry point to atlantooccipital joint surface were (33.2 ± 6.4)°, (8.9 ± 3.4)°, (3.9 ± 0.9) mm, respectively. The variations due to different sex and sides resulted in a statistically insignificant difference of the parameters. Anatomy study and CT-scan indicated no intrusion of the vertebral artery, hypoglossal canal, condyle emissary vein canal or atlantooccipital joint. Fifty-nine condyle screws were completely contained within the condyle, while only 1 screw perforated lateral condyle wall. Using the Mimics software for establishing the occipital condyle and related cavity model based on CT-scan images proves to be a feasible and precise method.Occipital condyle screws insertion assisted by a three-dimensional printing model is highly accurate and simple, which could be a new alternative to conventional technique.

  15. [Study on standardization of cupping technique: elucidation on the establishment of the National Standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-zhong; Liu, Bing

    2010-02-01

    From the aspects of basis, technique descriptions, core contents, problems and solutions, and standard thinking in standard setting process, this paper states experiences in the establishment of the national standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping, focusing on methodologies used in cupping standard setting process, the method selection and operating instructions of cupping standardization, and the characteristics of standard TCM. In addition, this paper states the scope of application, and precautions for this cupping standardization. This paper also explaines tentative ideas on the research of standardized manipulation of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  16. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  17. [Selective biopsy of the sentinel lymph node in patients with breast cancer and previous excisional biopsy: is there a change in the reliability of the technique according to time from surgery?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté-Llobera, A; Notta, P C; Benítez-Segura, A; López-Ojeda, A; Pernas-Simon, S; Boya-Román, M P; Bajén, M T

    2015-01-01

    To assess the influence of time on the reliability of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients with previous excisional biopsy (EB), analyzing both the sentinel lymph node detection and the lymph node recurrence rate. Thirty-six patients with cT1/T2 N0 breast cancer and previous EB of the lesion underwent a lymphoscintigraphy after subdermal periareolar administration of radiocolloid, the day before SLNB. Patients were classified into two groups, one including 12 patients with up to 29 days elapsed between EB and SLNB (group A), and another with the remaining 24 in which time between both procedures was of 30 days or more (group B). Scintigraphic and surgical detection of the sentinel lymph node, histological status of the sentinel lymph node and of the axillary lymph node dissection, if performed, and lymphatic recurrences during follow-up, were analyzed. Sentinel lymph node visualization at the lymphoscintigraphy and surgical detection were 100% in both groups. Histologically, three patients showed macrometastasis in the sentinel lymph node, one from group A and two from group B. None of the patients, not even those with malignancy of the sentinel lymph node, relapsed after a medium follow-up of 49.5 months (24-75). Time elapsed between EB and SLNB does not influence the reliability of this latter technique as long as a superficial injection of the radiopharmaceutical is performed, proving a very high detection rate of the sentinel lymph node without evidence of lymphatic relapse during follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of uncertainties in the existence of free berths with risk analysis techniques. Establishment of policies in port of Cadiz (SPAIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad Nuñez, S.; Camarero Orive, A.; Romero Sanchez-Brunete, M.; Camarero Orive, A.; Gonzalez Cancelas, N.

    2016-07-01

    This research discusses the challenges involved in the treatment of uncertainties in the existence of free berths during the arrival of cruise ships at seaports. Pursuing this goal, a three-step methodology is adopted: 1) Identifying risk sources and critical risk variables and how they are related; 2) Fitting the Probability Distribution Functions that best represent the behaviour of each critical risk variable; and 3) Simulating the probability of a ship having to wait because there are no free berths using a technique that combines statistical concepts (random sampling) with the ability of computers to generate pseudo-random numbers and automate estimations of the values of the set of critical risk variables. The innovative use of risk analysis techniques in this field allows the establishment of policies to improve the planning and management of port infrastructure, for example, deciding when it is necessary to work to increase the number of berths. As a case of study, we applied this methodology to study whether the enlargement of the wharf in the port of Cadiz (Spain) is necessary right now considering the number of cruise ships that have arrived at the port in the past three years, their date and hour of arrival, their length and draught, the duration of their stay in port and their waiting time before being able to enter the port. This action would require moving logistics activities to a new terminal, but would bring to the city the opportunity to rethink the seafront, introducing new cruiser links with the city centre and developing a better seaport-city integration. (Author)

  19. Ultrasound-assisted extraction technique for establishing selenium contents in breast cancer biopsies by Zeeman-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using multi-injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavilla, I.; Mosquera, A.; Millos, J.; Cameselle, J.; Bendicho, C.

    2006-01-01

    A solid-liquid extraction method is developed to establish the contents of selenium in breast cancer biopsies. The method is based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction of selenium from pretreated biopsies prior to Se determination by atomic absorption spectrometry with longitudinal-Zeeman background correction. Fifty-one breast biopsies were collected from the Cies Hospital (Vigo, Spain), 32 of which correspond to tumor tissue and 19 to normal tissue (parenchyma). Difficulties arising from the samples analyzed, i.e. small samples mass (50-100 mg), extremely low Se contents and sample texture modification including tissue hardening due to formaldehyde preservation are addressed and overcome. High intensity sonication using a probe together with addition of hydrogen peroxide succeeded in completely extracting Se from biopsies. The multiple injection technique was useful to tackle the low Se contents present in some biopsies. The detection limit was 25 ng g -1 of Se and the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was less than 10%. Se contents ranged from 0.08 to 0.4 μg g -1 for parenchyma samples and from 0.09 to 0.8 μg g -1 for tumor samples. In general, Se levels in tumor biopsies were higher as compared with the adjacent normal tissue in 19 patients by a factor of up to 6. Analytical data confirmed Se accumulation in the breast tumors

  20. The Assessment and Validation of Mini-Compact Tension Test Specimen Geometry and Progress in Establishing Technique for Fracture Toughness Master Curves for Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Mikhail A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nanstad, Randy K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Small specimens are playing the key role in evaluating properties of irradiated materials. The use of small specimens provides several advantages. Typically, only a small volume of material can be irradiated in a reactor at desirable conditions in terms of temperature, neutron flux, and neutron dose. A small volume of irradiated material may also allow for easier handling of specimens. Smaller specimens reduce the amount of radioactive material, minimizing personnel exposures and waste disposal. However, use of small specimens imposes a variety of challenges as well. These challenges are associated with proper accounting for size effects and transferability of small specimen data to the real structures of interest. Any fracture toughness specimen that can be made out of the broken halves of standard Charpy specimens may have exceptional utility for evaluation of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) since it would allow one to determine and monitor directly actual fracture toughness instead of requiring indirect predictions using correlations established with impact data. The Charpy V-notch specimen is the most commonly used specimen geometry in surveillance programs. Assessment and validation of mini-CT specimen geometry has been performed on previously well characterized HSST Plate 13B, an A533B class 1 steel. It was shown that the fracture toughness transition temperature measured by these Mini-CT specimens is within the range of To values that were derived from various large fracture toughness specimens. Moreover, the scatter of the fracture toughness values measured by Mini-CT specimens perfectly follows the Weibull distribution function providing additional proof for validation of this geometry for the Master Curve evaluation of rector pressure vessel steels. Moreover, the International collaborative program has been developed to extend the assessment and validation efforts to irradiated weld metal. The program is underway and involves ORNL, CRIEPI, and EPRI.

  1. A new optical method improves fluorescence guided diagnosis of bladder tumor in the outpatient department and reveals significant photo bleaching problems in established inpatients PDD techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindvold, Lars R.; Hermann, Gregers G.

    2013-03-01

    Photo dynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a convenient and well-documented procedure for diagnosis of bladder cancer and tumours using endoscopic techniques. At present, this procedure is available only for routine use in an operating room (OR) and often with substantial photobleaching effects of the photosensitizer. We present a novel optical design of the endoscopic PDD procedure that allows the procedure to be performed in the outpatient department (OPD) and not only in the OR. Thereby, inpatient procedures lasting 1-2 days may be replaced by a few hours lasting procedure in the OPD. Urine blurs the fluorescence during PDD used in the OPD. Urine contains fluorescent metabolites that are excited by blue light giving an opaque green fluorescence confounding the desired red fluorescence (PDD) from the tumour tissue. Measurements from the clinical situation has shown that some systems for PPD based on blue light illumination (PDD mode) and white light illumination used for bladder tumour diagnosis and surgery suffers some inherent disadvantages, i.e., photo bleaching in white light that impairs the possibility for PDD as white light usually is used before the blue light for PDD. Based on spectroscopic observations of urine and the photoactive dye Protoporphyrin IX used in PDD a novel optical system for use with the cystoscope has been devised that solves the problem of green fluorescence from urine. This and the knowledge of photo-bleaching pitfalls in established systems make it possible to perform PDD of bladder tumours in the OPD and to improve PDD in the OR.

  2. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  3. The state-of-the-art of the established conventional and advanced NDE-techniques and procedures for defect detection and sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.; Edelmann, X.

    1988-01-01

    This document presents several non-destructive ultrasonic techniques used for the inspection of various welds. Some probes are described and acoustic holography is presented as well as the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique. The three phases of the Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components (PISC) are described and results of each phase are presented. Eventually, problems related to the examination of austenitic welds are described. Special techniques for the ultrasonic examination of these welds are then presented. (TEC)

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid collection in dogs: modification of previous technique / Colheita de líquido cefalorraquidiano em cães: modificação de técnica prévia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áureo Evangelista Santana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the already described techniques, which are based on imaginary lines among extremities or bone projections, this research describes a collection technique modification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in dogs, in the atlantooccipital space. The palpation of bone structures in this joint, plus the supported directioning of the needle, does make the collection easy, even by professionals which have no experience in this kind of procedure. The applied technique enabled the collection of adequate volumes of limpid and colorless CSF of 50 healthy dogs in the first attempt of collection. There was no contamination with blood during the procedure, what made possible the correct interpretation of laboratory parameters usually examined in CSF samples.Diferentemente das demais técnicas já descritas, que se baseiam em linhas imaginárias entre extremidades ou protuberâncias ósseas, o presente trabalho descreve uma modificação de técnica de colheita de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR em cães, no espaço atlanto-occipital. A palpação das estruturas ósseas nessa articulação, juntamente com o direcionamento apoiado da agulha, facilita muito essa colheita, até mesmo para profissionais que não possuem experiência nesse tipo de procedimento. A técnica utilizada neste experimento possibilitou a obtenção de volumes adequados de amostras de LCR límpidas e incolores dos 50 cães sadios utilizados na primeira tentativa de colheita. Não houve contaminação com sangue durante o procedimento, o que possibilitou a interpretação adequada de parâmetros laboratoriais analisados rotineiramente em amostras de LCR.

  5. RAF-5074: Enhancing Capacity for Detection, Surveillance and Suppression of Exotic and Established Fruit Fly Species through Integration of Sterile Insect Technique with Other Suppression Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyoki, M.; Kasina, M.

    2017-01-01

    Fruit flies (Family Tephritidae) is one of the most destructive and economically challenging pest insect of fruits and vegetables. It is responsible for loss of export markets and poor farm gate prices of fruits and vegetables. Fruit flies are insects (Diptera) and undergoes complete metamorphosis: eggs- larva- pupa- adult. Only larva (maggots) are extremely damaging and the Adults in addition cause economic injury through stippling. The purpose of this project is to build capacity of African countries in the management of fruit flies using area wide approach and incorporating sterile insect technique (SIT ). sterile insect technique is a method that uses sterile insects (males) to flood them in the wild, and by so doing they mate with wild fertile individuals, resulting to no progeny. KALRO looking forward to develop mass rearing facility for fruit flies and SIT facility

  6. Project Increase of infrastructure: 'Establishment of a laboratory for studies of pollutants in air, water and soil through atomic and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape U, F.

    1993-10-01

    In this report there are the guidelines of this project as well as the goals, activities and costs. The general objectives were: 1. A laboratory that allows to analyze with efficiency samples of air, water and soil pollutants using atomic and nuclear origin techniques as PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission, NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) as well as auxiliary and/or complementary techniques. 2. To obtain indicators of the influence of the pollution of the Valley of Mexico about the ecology and the health of the inhabitants of Mexico City with perspectives of carrying out studies in other cities. 3. To develop an appropriate technology for the realization of those studies and to generate human resources in this area. (Author)

  7. Achievements 2006-Activities 2007: Feasibility study on the application of the sterile insect technique for the establishment of a zone free of tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sall, Baba

    2007-01-01

    The Project ''Feasibility study on the application of the sterile insect technique for the creation of a zone free of tsetse flies'' aims to eradicate the tsetse fly and the trypanosomiasis it transmits from the Niayes area and part of the small coast. These areas were re-infested after several decades of lull following the eradication campaigns of the 1970s and 1980s. The project began in 2006 for a period of 4 years.This document presents the achievements of 2006 and the activities planned in 2007 within the framework of the project.

  8. A new optical method improves fluorescence guided diagnosis of bladder tumor in the outpatient department and reveals significant photo bleaching problems in established inpatients PDD techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvold, Lars René; Hermann, Gregers G.

    2013-01-01

    Photo dynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a convenient and well-documented procedure for diagnosis of bladder cancer and tumours using endoscopic techniques. At present, this procedure is available only for routine use in an operating room (OR) and often with substantial photobleaching effects...... light illumination (PDD mode) and white light illumination used for bladder tumour diagnosis and surgery suffers some inherent disadvantages, i.e., photo bleaching in white light that impairs the possibility for PDD as white light usually is used before the blue light for PDD. Based on spectroscopic...... of bladder tumours in the OPD and to improve PDD in the OR. © 2013 SPIE....

  9. Design of a Data Catalogue for Perdigão-2017 Field Experiment: Establishing the Relevant Parameters, Post-Processing Techniques and Users Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, J. L.; Belo-Pereira, M.; Leo, L. S.; Fernando, J.; Wildmann, N.; Gerz, T.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Lopes, A. S.; Lopes, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Perdigão is the largest of a series of wind-mapping studies embedded in the on-going NEWA (New European Wind Atlas) Project. The intensive observational period of the Perdigão field experiment resulted in an unprecedented volume of data, covering several wind conditions through 46 consecutive days between May and June 2017. For researchers looking into specific events, it is time consuming to scrutinise the datasets looking for appropriate conditions. Such task becomes harder if the parameters of interest were not measured directly, instead requiring their computation from the raw datasets. This work will present the e-Science platform developed by University of Porto for the Perdigao dataset. The platform will assist scientists of Perdigao and the larger scientific community in extrapolating the datasets associated to specific flow regimes of interest as well as automatically performing post-processing/filtering operations internally in the platform. We will illustrate the flow regime categories identified in Perdigao based on several parameters such as weather type classification, cloud characteristics, as well as stability regime indicators (Brunt-Väisälä frequency, Scorer parameter, potential temperature inversion heights, dimensionless Richardson and Froude numbers) and wind regime indicators. Examples of some of the post-processing techniques available in the e-Science platform, such as the Savitzky-Golay low-pass filtering technique, will be also presented.

  10. SU-C-BRD-05: Implementation of Incident Learning in the Safety and Quality Management of Radiotherapy: The Primary Experience in a New Established Program with Advanced Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R; Wang, J [Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the implementation and effectiveness of incident learning for the safety and quality of radiotherapy in a new established radiotherapy program with advanced technology. Methods: Reference to the consensus recommendations by American Association of Physicist in Medicine, an incident learning system was specifically designed for reporting, investigating, and learning of individual radiotherapy incidents in a new established radiotherapy program, with 4D CBCT, Ultrasound guided radiotherapy, VMAT, gated treatment delivered on two new installed linacs. The incidents occurring in external beam radiotherapy from February, 2012 to January, 2014 were reported. Results: A total of 33 reports were analyzed, including 28 near misses and 5 incidents. Among them, 5 originated in imaging for planning, 25 in planning, 1 in plan transfer, 1 in commissioning and 1 in treatment delivery. Among them, three near misses originated in the safety barrier of the radiotherapy process. In terms of error type, 1 incident was classified as wrong patient, 7 near misses/incidents as wrong site, 6 as wrong laterality, 5 as wrong dose, 7 as wrong prescription, and 7 as suboptimal plan quality. 5 incidents were all classified as grade 1/2 of dosimetric severity, 1 as grade 0, and the other 4 as grade 1 of medical severity. For the causes/contributory factors, negligence, policy not followed, inadequate training, failure to develop an effective plan, and communication contributed to 19, 15, 12, 5 and 3 near misses/incidents, respectively. The average incident rate per 100 patients treated was 0.4; this rate fell to 0.28% in the second year from 0.56% in the first year. The rate of near miss fell to 1.24% from 2.22%. Conclusion: Effective incident learning can reduce the occurrence of near miss/incidents, enhance the culture of safety. Incident learning is an effective proactive method for improving the quality and safety of radiotherapy.

  11. SU-C-BRD-05: Implementation of Incident Learning in the Safety and Quality Management of Radiotherapy: The Primary Experience in a New Established Program with Advanced Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, R; Wang, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the implementation and effectiveness of incident learning for the safety and quality of radiotherapy in a new established radiotherapy program with advanced technology. Methods: Reference to the consensus recommendations by American Association of Physicist in Medicine, an incident learning system was specifically designed for reporting, investigating, and learning of individual radiotherapy incidents in a new established radiotherapy program, with 4D CBCT, Ultrasound guided radiotherapy, VMAT, gated treatment delivered on two new installed linacs. The incidents occurring in external beam radiotherapy from February, 2012 to January, 2014 were reported. Results: A total of 33 reports were analyzed, including 28 near misses and 5 incidents. Among them, 5 originated in imaging for planning, 25 in planning, 1 in plan transfer, 1 in commissioning and 1 in treatment delivery. Among them, three near misses originated in the safety barrier of the radiotherapy process. In terms of error type, 1 incident was classified as wrong patient, 7 near misses/incidents as wrong site, 6 as wrong laterality, 5 as wrong dose, 7 as wrong prescription, and 7 as suboptimal plan quality. 5 incidents were all classified as grade 1/2 of dosimetric severity, 1 as grade 0, and the other 4 as grade 1 of medical severity. For the causes/contributory factors, negligence, policy not followed, inadequate training, failure to develop an effective plan, and communication contributed to 19, 15, 12, 5 and 3 near misses/incidents, respectively. The average incident rate per 100 patients treated was 0.4; this rate fell to 0.28% in the second year from 0.56% in the first year. The rate of near miss fell to 1.24% from 2.22%. Conclusion: Effective incident learning can reduce the occurrence of near miss/incidents, enhance the culture of safety. Incident learning is an effective proactive method for improving the quality and safety of radiotherapy

  12. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  13. Establishment of an open database of realistic simulated data for evaluation of partial volume correction techniques in brain PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Ana [Instituto de Biofísica e Engenharia Biomédica, FC-UL, Lisboa (Portugal); Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Cuplov, Vesna [Instituto de Biofísica e Engenharia Biomédica, FC-UL, Lisboa (Portugal); Schott, Jonathan; Hutton, Brian; Thielemans, Kris [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Drobnjak, Ivana [Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Dickson, John [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Bert, Julien [INSERM UMR1101, LaTIM, CHRU de Brest, Brest (France); Burgos, Ninon; Cardoso, Jorge; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien [Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Erlandsson, Kjell [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    The Partial Volume (PV) effect in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging leads to loss in quantification accuracy, which manifests in PV effects (small objects occupy partially the sensitive volume of the imaging instrument, resulting in blurred images). Simultaneous acquisition of PET and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) produces concurrent metabolic and anatomical information. The latter has proved to be very helpful for the correction of PV effects. Currently, there are several techniques used for PV correction. They can be applied directly during the reconstruction process or as a post-processing step after image reconstruction. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the different PV correction techniques in brain- PET, we are constructing a database of simulated data. Here we present the framework and steps involved in constructing this database. Static 18F-FDG epilepsy and 18F-Florbetapir amyloid dementia PET/MR were selected because of their very different characteristics. The methodology followed was based on four main steps: Image pre-processing, Ground Truth (GT) generation, MRI and PET data simulation and reconstruction. All steps used Open Source software and can therefore be repeated at any centre. The framework as well as the database will be freely accessible. Tools used included GIF, FSL, POSSUM, GATE and STIR. The final data obtained after simulation, involving raw or reconstructed PET data together with corresponding MRI datasets, were close to the original patient data. Besides, there is the advantage that data can be compared with the GT. We indicate several parameters that can be improved and optimized.

  14. Applications of In Ovo Technique for the Optimal Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract and the Potential Influence on the Establishment of its Microbiome in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Roto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the current poultry production system stands, there is a period of time that newly hatched chicks are prevented from access to feed for approximately 48 to 72 hours. Research has indicated that this delay in feeding may result in decreased growth performance when compared to chicks that are fed immediately post-hatch. To remedy this issue, in ovo methodology may be applied in order to supply the embryo with additional nutrients prior to hatching and that those nutrients will continue to be utilized by the chick post-hatch during the fasting period. Furthermore, in ovo injection of various biologics have been researched based on the ability of not only supplying the chick embryo with additional nutrients that would promote improved growth, but also compounds that may benefit the future health of the chicken host. Such compounds include various immunostimulants, live beneficial bacteria, prebiotics, and synbiotics. However, it is important to determine the site and age of the in ovo injection for the most productive effects. The primary focus of the current review is to address these two issues (the most effective site(s and age(s of in ovo injection as well as provide the framework for the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT of the chick embryo. Additionally, recent research suggests the colonization of the microbiota in the developing chick may occur during the late stages of embryogenesis. Therefore, we will also discuss the potentials of the in ovo injection method in establishing a healthy and diverse community of microorganisms to colonize the developing GIT that will provide both protection from pathogen invasion as well as improved growth performance to developing chicks.

  15. Applications of In Ovo Technique for the Optimal Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract and the Potential Influence on the Establishment of Its Microbiome in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roto, Stephanie M; Kwon, Young Min; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    As the current poultry production system stands, there is a period of time when newly hatched chicks are prevented from access to feed for approximately 48-72 h. Research has indicated that this delay in feeding may result in decreased growth performance when compared to chicks that are fed immediately post-hatch. To remedy this issue, in ovo methodology may be applied in order to supply the embryo with additional nutrients prior to hatching and those nutrients will continue to be utilized by the chick post-hatch during the fasting period. Furthermore, in ovo injection of various biologics have been researched based on the ability of not only supplying the chick embryo with additional nutrients that would promote improved growth but also compounds that may benefit the future health of the chicken host. Such compounds include various immunostimulants, live beneficial bacteria, prebiotics, and synbiotics. However, it is important to determine the site and age of the in ovo injection for the most productive effects. The primary focus of the current review is to address these two issues [the most effective site(s) and age(s) of in ovo injection] as well as provide the framework for the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the chick embryo. Additionally, recent research suggests the colonization of the microbiota in the developing chick may occur during the late stages of embryogenesis. Therefore, we will also discuss the potentials of the in ovo injection method in establishing a healthy and diverse community of microorganisms to colonize the developing GIT that will provide both protection from pathogen invasion and improvement in growth performance to developing chicks.

  16. New analytical technique for establishing the quality of Soil Organic Matter affected by a wildfire. A first approach using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; Waggoner, Derek C.; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Fire is one of the most important modulator factors of the environment and the forest. It is able to induce chemical and biological shifts and these, in turn, can alter the physical properties of soil. Generally, fire affects the most reactive fraction, soil organic matter (SOM) (González-Pérez et al., 2004) resulting in changes to several soil properties and functions. To study changes in SOM following a wildfire, researchers can count on several traditional as well as new analytical techniques. One of the most recently employed techniques is Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). This new powerful ultra-high resolution mass spectral technique, together with graphic interpretation tools such as van Krevelen diagrams (Kim et al, 2003), may be used to shed light on alterations caused by the burning of SOM. The objective of this research is to study fire impacts on SOM, using a sandy soil collected under a Cork oak (Quercus suber) in Doñana National Park, Southwest Spain. that was affected by a wildfire in August 2012. Methods: The impact of fire on SOM was studied in various different sieve fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, operating in negative ion mode). The ESI voltages were optimized for each sample, and all spectra were internally calibrated following the procedure of (Sleighter and Hatcher, 2007), after which, peaks were assigned unique molecular formulas using a MatLab script written in house by Dr. Wassim Obeid of Old Dominion University. Results: The van Krevelen diagrams together with the relative intensity of each chemical compound, both obtained by FT-ICR-MS, allowed us to assess SOM quality for each sample and size fractions. The chemical compounds were grouped into the 7 main families; condensed aromatic compounds, unspecific aromatics, tannins, lignin, lipids, protein and carbohydrate derived. The unburnt SOM in the coarse fraction was mainly composed of compounds with a high intensity in the

  17. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  18. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy following previous abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellato, T A; Gauderer, M W; Ponsky, J L

    1984-01-01

    During a 36-month period, 89 patients have undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy without mortality. Of these patients, 25 (13 infants and children, 12 adults) had prior abdominal procedures that increased their risk for the endoscopic procedure. With two exceptions, all gastrostomies were performed utilizing local anesthesia. There was one major complication, a gastrocolic fistula, which was successfully managed by repeating the endoscopic gastrostomy procedure at a location more cephalad in the stomach. Twenty-two of the gastrostomies were placed for feeding purposes and all of these patients were able to leave the hospital with alimentation accomplished via the tube. Three of the endoscopically placed gastrostomies were for gastrointestinal tract decompression. A total of 255 patient months have been accumulated in these patients with the endoscopically placed gastrostomy in situ. The technique can be safely performed in patients with prior abdominal surgery and in the majority of cases is the technique of choice for establishing a tube gastrostomy. PMID:6428334

  19. Estratégia de análise da qualidade de madeira de Eucalyptus sp. para produção de celulose A laboratory technique to establish Eucalyptus sp. wood quality for kraft pulp production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lívio Gomide

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se uma nova técnica laboratorial de análise de qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus sp. para produção de polpa celulósica kraft. A técnica consiste em realizar, simultaneamente, quatro cozimentos de cavacos utilizando diferentes cargas de álcali ativo para estabelecer a característica de deslignificação da madeira. Pelo uso de equações de regressão, calcula-se o álcali ativo necessário para obter o número kappa desejado, o rendimento, a viscosidade e álcali consumido para o kappa objetivo. Os estudos estatísticos evidenciaram que uma única batelada de quatro cozimentos é suficiente, não sendo necessário realizar repetições.A new laboratory technique was tested to determine Eucalyptus sp. wood quality for kraft pulp production. This technique consists in performing four cooks simultaneously using different active alkali charges to establish the wood delignification characteristics. Based on regression equation it is possible to determine the alkali charge necessary to obtain a desired kappa number and the yield, viscosity and the alkali consumed for the target kappa. Statistical analysis demonstrated that a set of four cooks without replication is sufficient to determine the wood quality characteristics.

  20. Comparison of activation cross section measurements and experimental techniques for fusion reactor technology. Summary report of the IAEA specialists' meeting held at the Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, Japan, 15 to 17 November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The present report contains the Summary of the IAEA Specialists' Meeting (SPM) on ''Comparison of Activation Cross Section Measurements and Experimental Techniques for Fusion Reactor Technology'', held at the Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, Japan, from 15 to 17 November 1993. This SPM was organized by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS) with the co-operation and assistance of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The purpose of the Specialists' Meeting was to form an international programme of the comparison of activation cross section measurements and experimental techniques useful in reactor technology. It was agreed that new activation measurements be performed at the Fusion Neutronics Source Facility (FNS) of JAERI, neutron source facilities of the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia, and in the Institute of Experimental Physics, Debrecen, Hungary. A list of the most important reactions has been prepared. Fourteen experts from seven Member States attended the meeting. The conclusions and recommendations are presented on the basis of discussions held by meeting participants. (author). 4 tabs

  1. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  2. Multiple inflammatory biomarker detection in a prospective cohort study: a cross-validation between well-established single-biomarker techniques and an electrochemiluminescense-based multi-array platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas C T van Bussel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In terms of time, effort and quality, multiplex technology is an attractive alternative for well-established single-biomarker measurements in clinical studies. However, limited data comparing these methods are available. METHODS: We measured, in a large ongoing cohort study (n = 574, by means of both a 4-plex multi-array biomarker assay developed by MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD and single-biomarker techniques (ELISA or immunoturbidimetric assay, the following biomarkers of low-grade inflammation: C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1. These measures were realigned by weighted Deming regression and compared across a wide spectrum of subjects' cardiovascular risk factors by ANOVA. RESULTS: Despite that both methods ranked individuals' levels of biomarkers very similarly (Pearson's r all≥0.755 absolute concentrations of all biomarkers differed significantly between methods. Equations retrieved by the Deming regression enabled proper realignment of the data to overcome these differences, such that intra-class correlation coefficients were then 0.996 (CRP, 0.711 (SAA, 0.895 (sICAM-1 and 0.858 (sVCAM-1. Additionally, individual biomarkers differed across categories of glucose metabolism, weight, metabolic syndrome and smoking status to a similar extent by either method. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple low-grade inflammatory biomarker data obtained by the 4-plex multi-array platform of MSD or by well-established single-biomarker methods are comparable after proper realignment of differences in absolute concentrations, and are equally associated with cardiovascular risk factors, regardless of such differences. Given its greater efficiency, the MSD platform is a potential tool for the quantification of multiple biomarkers of low-grade inflammation in large ongoing and future clinical studies.

  3. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  4. Selected clinically established and scientific techniques of diffusion-weighted MRI. In the context of imaging in oncology; Ausgewaehlte klinisch etablierte und wissenschaftliche Techniken der diffusionsgewichteten MRT. Im Kontext der onkologischen Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, M.T.; Bickelhaupt, S.; Ziener, C.; Mosebach, J.; Schlemmer, H.P. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abteilung fuer Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Meier-Hein, K. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abteilung fuer medizinische Informatik, Heidelberg (Germany); Radtke, J.P. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abteilung fuer Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Urologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Kuder, T.A.; Laun, F.B. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abteilung fuer Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that was established in the clinical routine primarily for the detection of brain ischemia. In the past 15 years its clinical use has been extended to oncological radiology, as tumor and metastases can be depicted in DWI due to their hypercellular nature. The basis of DWI is the Stejskal-Tanner experiment. The diffusion properties of tissue can be visualized after acquisition of at least two diffusion-weighted series using echo planar imaging and a specific sequence of gradient pulses. The use of DWI in prostate MRI was reported to be one of the first established applications that found its way into internationally recognized clinical guidelines of the European Society of Urological Radiology (ESUR) and the prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) scale. Due to recently reported high specificity and negative predictive values of 94 % and 92 %, respectively, its regular use for breast MRI is expected in the near future. Furthermore, DWI can also reliably be used for whole-body imaging in patients with multiple myeloma or for measuring the extent of bone metastases. New techniques in DWI, such as intravoxel incoherent motion imaging, diffusion kurtosis imaging and histogram-based analyses represent promising approaches to achieve a more quantitative evaluation for tumor detection and therapy response. (orig.) [German] Die diffusionsgewichtete Bildgebung (''diffusion-weighted imaging'', DWI), ein Verfahren aus der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT), wurde in der klinischen Routine primaer fuer die Detektion von Schlaganfaellen etabliert. Der Einsatz dieser Methode hat in den letzten 15 Jahren auch fuer die onkologische Diagnostik stark zugenommen, da Tumoren und Metastasen aufgrund ihrer hochzellulaeren Zusammensetzung in der DWI sehr gut sichtbar gemacht werden koennen. Basis der diffusionsgewichteten Bildgebung ist das Experiment nach Stejskal-Tanner. Hier

  5. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  6. 20 CFR 416.1337 - Exceptions to the continuation of previously established payment level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... same address; (iv) The sex code for such individual is the same; and (v) The date of birth for such.... (ii) Federal supplemental security income benefit and optional supplementation, or optional supplementation only—$700 Recipients whose records indicate they were eligible for Federal supplemental security...

  7. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  8. A New Technique for Demonstrating the Actor-Observer Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anne K.; Kaplar, Mary E.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we describe a new classroom exercise for introducing the actor-observer bias in social perception. We describe 2 experiments that compared our new technique (which involves resolving interpersonal dilemmas for oneself and another) with a previously established technique (judging the applicability of traits for oneself and another).…

  9. Imaging Techniques in Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Marie Payne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available New imaging techniques are increasingly being used within cultural heritage. This paper explores potential uses of such technologies within conservation and implications of their use on object preservation and accessibility. Study of their effects on objects is crucial because their employment is becoming irreplaceable; for example, polynomial texture mapping (PTM has revealed previously undetectable surface features. In such cases, it is necessary to continue to use the technique to monitor object condition. 3D laser scanning, PTM, and CT scanning are investigated. Case studies are explored to investigate their current role in cultural heritage. The appropriateness of this role and whether it should be expanded is addressed by analysing advantages and disadvantages of the techniques, their feasibility, and risks caused to object preservation and accessibility. The results indicate that the technologies present some advantages over standard digital photography; PTM in particular is found to be an extremely useful, affordable technique. A more established role within conservation, especially for condition assessments, could be worthwhile. Use of the imaging techniques to create models for exhibition can also be advantageous; however, care must be taken to ensure that such models are used to enhance accessibility to original objects and not to replace them.

  10. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  11. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  12. Establishment of a luminescence technique for the quantification of uranyl ion in a KNO{sub 3} media; Establecimiento de una tecnica de luminiscencia para la cuantificacion del ion uranilo en medio de KNO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras R, A. [UAEM, A.P. 2-139, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Fernandez V, S.M.; Ordonez R, E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The study of the storage of high level radioactive residuals that contain uranium, it makes necessary that in the sorption studies is counted with a reliable technique and not pollutant for the quantification of this element. Presently work intends a technique for the quantification of the uranyl ion using the luminescence technique, which allows not to generate radioactive or industrial residuals. It was used a solution of uranyl nitrate in KNO{sub 3} 0.5 M media. The solutions were adjusted to a pH of 1.48+0.03. A statistical study for the analysis of the data of fluorescence, about the maximum value of the peak, total area under the curve and area under the it curves is shown, being the best correlation for the concentration curve versus maximum of the peak, adjusted with a polynomial of second grade. The study of stability of the solutions with regard to the time is reported and that the technique proposal works for the interval of concentrations among 1 x 10{sup -2} M and 6 x 10{sup -5} M. (Author)

  13. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  14. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  15. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  16. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  17. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  18. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  19. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  20. Blood Establishment Registration Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This application provides information for active, inactive, and pre-registered firms. Query options are by FEI, Applicant Name, Establishment Name, Other Names,...

  1. Establishing software quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malsbury, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is concerned with four questions about establishing software QA: What is software QA. Why have software QA. What is the role of software QA. What is necessary to ensure the success of software QA

  2. Ion Prostate Irradiation (IPI) - a pilot study to establish the safety and feasibility of primary hypofractionated irradiation of the prostate with protons and carbon ions in a raster scan technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habl, Gregor; Hatiboglu, Gencay; Edler, Lutz; Uhl, Matthias; Krause, Sonja; Roethke, Matthias; Schlemmer, Heinz P; Hadaschik, Boris; Debus, Juergen; Herfarth, Klaus

    2014-03-19

    Due to physical characteristics, ions like protons or carbon ions can administer the dose to the target volume more efficiently than photons since the dose can be lowered at the surrounding normal tissue. Radiation biological considerations are based on the assumption that the α/β value for prostate cancer cells is 1.5 Gy, so that a biologically more effective dose could be administered due to hypofractionation without increasing risks of late effects of bladder (α/β = 4.0) and rectum (α/β = 3.9). The IPI study is a prospective randomized phase II study exploring the safety and feasibility of primary hypofractionated irradiation of the prostate with protons and carbon ions in a raster scan technique. The study is designed to enroll 92 patients with localized prostate cancer. Primary aim is the assessment of the safety and feasibility of the study treatment on the basis of incidence grade III and IV NCI-CTC-AE (v. 4.02) toxicity and/or the dropout of the patient from the planned therapy due to any reason. Secondary endpoints are PSA-progression free survival (PSA-PFS), overall survival (OS) and quality-of-life (QoL). This pilot study aims at the evaluation of the safety and feasibility of hypofractionated irradiation of the prostate with protons and carbon ions in prostate cancer patients in an active beam technique. Additionally, the safety results will be compared with Japanese results recently published for carbon ion irradiation. Due to the missing data of protons in this hypofractionated scheme, an in depth evaluation of the toxicity will be created to gain basic data for a following comparison study with carbon ion irradiation. Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT01641185 (clinicaltrials.gov).

  3. Establishment of floor ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Robič, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    After the socioeconomic system had been changed in 1991 the right of ownership and land registry seemed to gain a much greater importance. In that time the concept of floor ownership has also started to develop, but after 25 years a significant number of multi-unit buildings without the established floor ownership still exist in Slovenia. In this thesis both theoretical background and practical solutions for establishing a floor ownership are presented, furthermore, possible causes for an ina...

  4. The vertebral biomechanic previous and after kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, V; Piazzolla, Andrea; Moretti, L; Carlucci, S; Parato, C; Maxy, P; Moretti, B

    2013-10-01

    The biomechanical understanding of increasing anterior column load with progressing kyphosis leading to subsequent vertebral compression fracture (VCF) established the basic rationale for kyphoplasty. The lumbar spine can support an effort of 500 kg in the axis of the vertebral body, and a bending moment of 20 Nm in flexion. Consequently, if this effort is forward deviated of only 10 cm, the acceptable effort will be reduced to 20 kg so it is important to restore the vertebral anterior wall after a VCF: the authors describe the biomechanical modifications in the spine after kyphoplasty.

  5. Application of the 210Pb-dating technique to establish a chronological framework of trace element and heavy metal contamination resulting from the impact of European settlement in estuarine systems of the Sydney Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkinson, A.V.; Chisari, R.; Farrar, Y.J.; Heijnis, H.; McOrist, G.D.; Tinker, R.A.; Smith, J.D.; Napoli, M.; Hughes, M.; James, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The estuaries of Georges River and Hacking River, partly located in suburban Sydney, are at significant risk of contamination by heavy metal and trace element pollutants associated with urban/industrial development. The object of the current work is to correlate changes in land use resulting from European settlement with chemical changes observed in soil sediments. At each location core samples were taken and selected slices analysed for 226 Ra and 210 Po using alpha spectrometry. The 226 Ra activity equates to the supported 210 Pb activity and the 210 Po activity equates to the total 210 Pb activity. The difference between the total and the supported 210 Pb is the excess 210 Pb activity. Once the excess 210 Pb has been layed down in the sediment its activity at depth (assuming the core to be undisturbed) is solely a function of its half-life and the initial amount present; a circumstance which readily affords the calculation of a sedimentation rate. Owing to its relatively short half-life (22.26 year) the 20P b dating technique can be used to date sediments as far back as about 120 years. In Australia this time frame would cover most of the period of European settlement

  6. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W

    1991-04-01

    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.

  7. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M

    2017-04-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  9. Establishing a University Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemish, Donald L.

    A handbook on how to establish a university foundation is presented. It presupposes that a foundation will be used as the umbrella organization for receiving all private gifts, restricted and unrestricted, for the benefit of a public college or university; and hence it chiefly addresses readers from public colleges and universities. Information is…

  10. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer to the co...

  11. Re-establishing dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C

    2012-01-01

    study with 29 nurses and nurse assistants was performed following Van Manen’s hermeneutic phenomenology. Findings show that caring mainly concerns ‘re-establishing dignity’ especially through ‘seeing the patient as a unique person’, ‘assisting in getting rid of the bed’ and ‘supporting patient...... appearance’. The study documents that caring for older people is about creating small everyday circumstances in which patient dignity can flourish. Shortcomings of a secondary analysis are discussed and suggestions for future research, such as how older hospital patients experience caring and dignity...

  12. Establishing Malware Attribution and Binary Provenance Using Multicompilation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramshaw, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-28

    Malware is a serious problem for computer systems and costs businesses and customers billions of dollars a year in addition to compromising their private information. Detecting malware is particularly difficult because malware source code can be compiled in many different ways and generate many different digital signatures, which causes problems for most anti-malware programs that rely on static signature detection. Our project uses a convolutional neural network to identify malware programs but these require large amounts of data to be effective. Towards that end, we gather thousands of source code files from publicly available programming contest sites and compile them with several different compilers and flags. Building upon current research, we then transform these binary files into image representations and use them to train a long-term recurrent convolutional neural network that will eventually be used to identify how a malware binary was compiled. This information will include the compiler, version of the compiler and the options used in compilation, information which can be critical in determining where a malware program came from and even who authored it.

  13. Establishing pneumoperitoneum: Verres or Hasson? The debate continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, N; Booth, M I; Dehn, T C B

    2011-01-01

    The technique of establishing pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery remains contentious, with various different techniques available and each having its own advocates. The Verres needle approach has attracted much criticism and is seen to entail more risk, but is this view justified in the era of evidence-based medicine? Over a 6-year period, a prospective study was undertaken of 3126 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery performed by two upper gastrointestinal surgeons. One surgeon preferred the Verres needle and the other an open technique. A database was created of all cases and complication rates of the different techniques ascertained. Peri-umbilical Verres needle was used in 1887 cases (60.4%) with two complications encountered, both of which were colonic injuries, with an incidence of 0.1%. Open port insertion was used in 1200 cases (38.4%) with one complication, a small bowel perforation, to give an incidence of 0.08%. The Verres needle was used in alternative positions in 22 cases (0.75%) and, when used in the left upper quadrant (19 cases), there was one complication, a left hepatic lobe puncture, with an incidence of 5.26%. Our overall incidence of intra-abdominal injury was 0.13%, all in patients who had undergone previous abdominal surgery, and in the subgroup of patients with previous surgery the rate was 0.78%. There was no mortality. Practice varies as to the method chosen to induce pneumoperitoneum, but our results show there is no significant difference between the technique chosen and incidence of complications, and this is supported in the literature.

  14. Establishing effective working relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council.

  15. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion...... of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define...

  16. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2016-07-26

    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a

  17. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  18. The Establishing Operation and Teaching Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Vincent J.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years ago Michael (1993) refined and extended the concept of the conditioned establishing operation (CEO). With this paper he updated his previous treatment of the topic (Michael, 1982) by providing terminological refinements and conceptually clear descriptions of the reflexive and transitive CEOs. In the 20 years since the publication of…

  19. Risoe Research Establishment, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    On the poetic Roskilde Fjord, 40 kilometers from Copenhagen, and near Roskilde, capital of Denmark in the 12th century, stands the Risoe Research Establishment of the Danish Atomic Energy Commission. ere 700 men and women are engaged in searching for ways in which atomic energy can be used to make the world a better and healthier place. The work at Risoe comprises fundamental research, reactor technology and other technological studies, agricultural research and health and safety studies. Nuclear power stations are scheduled to be operative in Denmark some time between 1975 and 1980, and the planning of these stations and development of the many processes this will involve has become a major task at Risoe. Special conditions have to be fulfilled in selecting the site of an atomic research station, and the barren Risoe peninsula had them all: safety, because the site was free from buildings to permit continuous control; closeness to the scientific institutions of the capital, Copenhagen; social amenities in Roskilde; finally, access to an a adequate water supply. his special series of photos covering some aspects of the work and safety conditions at Risoe was commissioned by WHO. (author)

  20. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  1. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  2. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  3. Establishment for Nuclear Equipment -Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracz, J.

    2006-01-01

    Research and development works conducted in the Establishment for Nuclear Equipment (ZdAJ) were focused around 3 subject areas: an accelerator for cancer treatment, therapeutical tables, systems and methods for controlling objects that cross international borders. The new, medium energy accelerator for cancer therapy cases is being designed in the Establishment for several years. In 2005 progress was achieved. A physical part, containing an electron beam has been completed and the parameters of that beam make it useful for therapeutical purposes. Consequently, the work on designing and testing of beam control systems, ensuring its high stability, repetition of irradiation parameters and accuracy of dosage have been started. Results of these tests make it very probable that 2006 will be the final year of scientific works and in 2007 the new apparatus will be ready for sales. Therapeutical tables have become a leading product of ZdAJ IPJ. Their technical parameters, reliability and universality in uses are appreciated by many customers of ZdAJ. In 2005, the table Polkam 16 was registered by the national Office for Registration of Medical Equipment as the first product of ZdAJ that meets all technical and formal requirements of the safety mark CE. This allows sales of the product on the market of the European Union. The research and development part of designing a therapeutical table for uses in the total body irradiation technique was also concluded in 2005. After the September 11 terrorist attacks on WTC a matter of controlling international borders have become a priority for many countries. In 2005 in ZdAJ IPJ, we conducted many preliminary calculations and experiments analyzing systems of irradiation sources, both photon and neutron as well as systems of detection and designing of signals triggered by controlling objects crossing the border. The results so far have enabled us to formulate a research project which has been positively evaluated by experts and found

  4. Establishment of phase diagram of a chiral smectic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, T.; Gharbi, A.; Gineste, S.; Marcerou, J. P.; Bitri, N.

    2011-10-01

    Chiral smectic liquid crystals are well known to exhibit the following sequence of phases as the temperature is increased: Sm- CA*, Sm- CFi1*, Sm- CFi2*, Sm- C* and Sm- Cα*. Surprisingly, some compounds appear in several publications to present other tilted phases, which not only do not belong to the previous series but change from one paper to the other although the studied compound is the same. Such is the chiral smectic liquid crystal ( R) or ( S)-12OF1M7 that we have re-synthesized and studied with various techniques: dielectric spectroscopy, optical rotatory power, conoscopic measurements and electro-optic properties. Our conclusion is that this compound presents the ordinary phase sequence at the exception of the Sm- Cα* phase. In addition, the ( E- T) phase diagram of this compound was established.

  5. Establishing operations and reinforcement effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A

    1991-01-01

    Positive reinforcement procedures have had a major impact on educational programs for the developmentally disabled; nevertheless, variation in reinforcer effectiveness both within and across individuals is a common phenomenon. This study examined one class of variables--establishing operations--that might influence the effectiveness of reinforcers. Five developmentally disabled adult males participated. Responding on one of two motor tasks--switch closure or block placement--was assessed during baseline, satiation, and deprivation conditions with respect to three classes of consequences: small food items, music, and social praise. Deprivation and satiation conditions were constructed so as not to alter significantly the normal course of events in a subject's day. For example, food deprivation entailed scheduling sessions just prior to a subject's regular lunch, and social deprivation involved limiting a subject's access to social interaction for 15 minutes, during which time the subject had access to an assortment of other activities. Results showed that each stimulus class functioned as reinforcement with different degrees of effectiveness during satiation versus deprivation conditions. These results are discussed in light of previous research on enhancement of reinforcer efficacy as well as the assessment and identification of functional reinforcers, and implications are presented for future research and client habilitation.

  6. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  7. Drug Establishments Current Registration Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Establishments Current Registration Site (DECRS) is a database of current information submitted by drug firms to register establishments (facilities) which...

  8. Establishment probability in newly founded populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusset Markus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishment success in newly founded populations relies on reaching the established phase, which is defined by characteristic fluctuations of the population’s state variables. Stochastic population models can be used to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations; however, so far no simple but robust method for doing so existed. To determine a critical initial number of individuals that need to be released to reach the established phase, we used a novel application of the “Wissel plot”, where –ln(1 – P0(t is plotted against time t. This plot is based on the equation P0t=1–c1e–ω1t, which relates the probability of extinction by time t, P0(t, to two constants: c1 describes the probability of a newly founded population to reach the established phase, whereas ω1 describes the population’s probability of extinction per short time interval once established. Results For illustration, we applied the method to a previously developed stochastic population model of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. A newly founded population reaches the established phase if the intercept of the (extrapolated linear parts of the “Wissel plot” with the y-axis, which is –ln(c1, is negative. For wild dogs in our model, this is the case if a critical initial number of four packs, consisting of eight individuals each, are released. Conclusions The method we present to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations is generic and inferences thus are transferable to other systems across the field of conservation biology. In contrast to other methods, our approach disaggregates the components of a population’s viability by distinguishing establishment from persistence.

  9. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  10. Microinstability of the hip: a previously unrecognized pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolia, Ioanna; Chahla, Jorge; Locks, Renato; Briggs, Karen; Philippon, Marc J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Hip microinstability is an established diagnosis; however, its occurrence is still debated by many physicians. Diagnosis of hip microinstability is often challenging, due to a lack of specific signs or symptoms, and patients may remain undiagnosed for long periods. This may lead to early manifestation of degenerative joint disease. Consequently, careful patient and family history must be obtained and diagnostic imaging should follow. After a thorough clinical evaluation of the patient with suspected hip microinstability, the physician should focus on how to improve symptoms and functionality in daily and sports activities. Purpose The purpose of this review article was to give a current update regarding this diagnosis and to provide a complete diagnostic approach in order to effectively treat hip microinstability. Methods We reviewed the literature on the diagnosis, the non-operative and operative indications for the treatment of this complex and often misdiagnosed pathology. Conclusion Conservative treatment is considered the best initial approach, though, surgical intervention should be considered if symptoms persist or other hip pathology exists. Successful surgical intervention, such as hip arthroscopy, should focus on restoring the normal anatomy of the hip joint in order to regain its functionality. The role of the hip joint capsule has gained particular research interest during the last years, and its repair or reconstruction during hip arthroscopy is considered necessary in order to avoid iatrogenic hip microinstability. Various capsular closure/plication techniques have been developed towards this direction with encouraging results. Level of evidence V. PMID:28066740

  11. Establishment, maintenance, and re-establishment of the safe and efficient steady-following state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Deng; Zheng Ying-Ping

    2015-01-01

    We present an integrated mathematical model of vehicle-following control for the establishment, maintenance, and re-establishment of the previous or new safe and efficient steady-following state. The hyperbolic functions are introduced to establish the corresponding mathematical models, which can describe the behavioral adjustment of the following vehicle steered by a well-experienced driver under complex vehicle following situations. According to the proposed mathematical models, the control laws of the following vehicle adjusting its own behavior can be calculated for its moving in safety, efficiency, and smoothness (comfort). Simulation results show that the safe and efficient steady-following state can be well established, maintained, and re-established by its own smooth (comfortable) behavioral adjustment with the synchronous control of the following vehicle’s velocity, acceleration, and the actual following distance. (paper)

  12. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Baik, Seong Hoon; Hong, Seok Kyung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-01-01

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  13. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.

    2004-01-01

    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  14. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  15. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain : Findings From 19 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of

  16. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  17. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Life-history traits in an evergreen Mediterranean oak respond differentially to previous experimental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rey Benayas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms respond both to current and previous environments, which can have important consequences on population dynamics. However, there is little experimental evidence based on long-term field studies of the effects of previous environments on the performance of individuals. We tested the hypothesis that trees that establish under different environmental conditions perform differently under similar post-establishment conditions. We used the slow-growing, evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia as target species. We analyzed the effects of previous environments, competition effects and tradeoffs among life-history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction. We enhanced seedling establishment for three years by reducing abiotic environmental harshness by means of summer irrigation and artificial shading in 12 experimental plots, while four plots remained as controls. Then these treatments were interrupted for ten years. Seedlings under ameliorated environmental conditions survived and grew faster during early establishment. During the post-management period, previous treatments 1 did not have any effect on survival, 2 experienced a slower above-ground growth, 3 decreased root biomass as indicated from reflectivity of Ground Penetration Radar, 4 increased acorn production mostly through a greater canopy volume and 5 increased acorn production effort. The trees exhibited a combination of effects related to acclimation for coping with abiotic stress and effects of intra-specific competition. In accordance with our hypothesis, tree performance overall depended on previous environmental conditions, and the response was different for different life-history traits. We recommend early management because it increased plot cover, shortened the time to attain sexual maturity and increased the amount of acorn production. Plots such as those assessed in this study may act as sources of propagules in deforested

  19. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  20. Imaging Techniques in Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Emma Marie

    2013-01-01

    New imaging techniques are increasingly being used within cultural heritage. This paper explores potential uses of such technologies within conservation and implications of their use on object preservation and accessibility. Study of their effects on objects is crucial because their employment is becoming irreplaceable; for example, polynomial texture mapping (PTM) has revealed previously undetectable surface features. In such cases, it is necessary to continue to use the technique to monitor...

  1. Overview on establishing flax industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blouw, S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available has bedding and fillers as end products. However the challenges that are met during the establishment of a flax industry are the development of economic viable models, human capacity development and local and overseas markets....

  2. Establishing Tools for Computing Hybrids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiem, Clare; Bhat, Sunil; Blount, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Establishing Tools for Computing hybrids (ETCH) provides a starting point from which to explore how advanced computing technology, based upon biotechnology, might enable intelligent systems and provide new capabilities to the Air Force...

  3. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  4. Aortic root replacement after previous surgical intervention on the aortic valve, aortic root, or ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, E W Matthias; Radu, N Costin; Mekontso-Dessap, Armand; Hillion, Marie-Line; Loisance, Daniel

    2006-03-01

    Aortic root replacement after a previous operation on the aortic valve, aortic root, or ascending aorta remains a major challenge. Records of 56 consecutive patients (44 men; mean age, 56.4 +/- 13.6 years) undergoing reoperative aortic root replacement between June 1994 and June 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Reoperation was performed 9.4 +/- 6.7 years after the last cardiac operation. Indications for reoperation were true aneurysm (n = 14 [25%]), false aneurysm (n = 10 [18%]), dissection or redissection (n = 9 [16%]), structural or nonstructural valve dysfunction (n = 10 [18%]), prosthetic valve-graft infection (n = 12 [21%]), and miscellaneous (n = 1 [2%]). Procedures performed were aortic root replacement (n = 47 [84%]), aortic root replacement plus mitral valve procedure (n = 5 [9%]), and aortic root replacement plus arch replacement (n = 4 [7%]). In 14 (25%) patients coronary artery bypass grafting had to be performed unexpectedly during the same procedure or immediately after the procedure to re-establish coronary perfusion. Hospital mortality reached 17.9% (n = 10). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the need for unplanned perioperative coronary artery bypass grafting as the sole independent risk factor for hospital death (P = .005). Actuarial survival was 83.8% +/- 4.9% at 1 month, 73.0% +/- 6.3% at 1 year, and 65.7% +/- 9.0% at 5 years after the operation. One patient had recurrence of endocarditis 6.7 months after the operation and required repeated homograft aortic root replacement. Reoperative aortic root replacement remains associated with a high postoperative mortality. The need to perform unplanned coronary artery bypass grafting during reoperative aortic root replacement is a major risk factor for hospital death. The optimal technique for coronary reconstruction in this setting remains to be debated.

  5. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, M.; Mantero, J.; Mosqueda, F.; Hurtado, S.; Manjón, G.; Vaca, F.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H2SO4, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the 238U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased. A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning

  6. Streptococcus oralis previously identified as uncommon 'Streptococcus sanguis' in Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narikawa, S; Suzuki, Y; Takahashi, M; Furukawa, A; Sakane, T; Mizushima, Y

    1995-08-01

    The relation between the biochemical and serological properties of 'Streptococcus sanguis' was studied to characterize the strains isolated from dental plaque of patients with Behçet's disease and controls. Seven reference and 100 clinical strains preserved by the Behçet's Disease Research Committee of Japan were identified using established criteria and differentiated with antisera against Strep. oralis ATCC 10557, Strep. sanguis ATCC 10556 and 'Strep. sanguis' ST7, compatible with the criteria. Uncommon serovars (serotypes) KTH-1 (= ATCC 49298), KTH-2 (= ATCC 49296), KTH-3 (= ATCC KTH-4 (= ATCC 49297) and B220 (serovar KTH-1) with both IgA1 protease and neuraminidase (sialidase) were identified as Strep. oralis, whereas common serovars ST3 with IgA1 protease alone and ST7 without both enzymes were identified as Strep. sanguis and Strep. gordonii, respectively. Isolates previously ranked as uncommon serovars were identified as Strep. oralis, whereas the rest ranked as common serovars were identified as the same species as those of the grouping strains. A soft-agar technique was available for species identification except for Strep. oralis serovar KTH-1 reacting with the antiserum against Strep. gordonii ST7. The frequency of isolation of Strep. oralis was higher in Behçet's disease (52%) than in controls (38%), but no difference was observed between the properties of the two groups of isolates. Strep. oralis virulence factors may be involved in breach the mucosal barrier in patients with specific reactivity to these antigens and inducing Behçet's disease.

  7. Tubal anastomosis after previous sterilization: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seeters, Jacoba A H; Chua, Su Jen; Mol, Ben W J; Koks, Carolien A M

    2017-05-01

    Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success. Two search strategies were employed. Firstly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies presenting fertility outcomes of sterilization reversal up to July 2016. Data on the following outcomes were collected: pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, cost of the procedure and operative time. Eligible study designs included prospective or retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and case series. No age restriction was applied. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from tubal infertility from any other reason (e.g. infection, endometriosis and adhesions from previous surgery) and studies including sterilization reversal procedures were then evaluated: female age, BMI and duration and method of sterilization. Secondly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies that compared reversal of sterilization to IVF and evaluated them for pregnancy outcomes and cost effectiveness. We included 37 studies that investigated a total of 10 689 women. No randomized controlled trials were found. Most studies were retrospective cohort studies of a moderate quality. The pooled pregnancy rate after sterilization reversal was 42-69%, with heterogeneity seen from the different methods utilized. The reported ectopic pregnancy rate was 4-8%. The only prognostic factor affecting the

  8. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  9. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  10. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  11. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  12. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  13. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  14. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  15. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  16. Previous Webinars about Integrated Pest Management in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Center of Expertise for School IPM hosts a webinar series featuring national experts from across the country relaying educational and practical strategies for establishing and improving integrated pest management programs in schools.

  17. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  18. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  19. catering establishments of Awassa Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of catering business establishments in Awassa Town, Southern Ethiopia, February to. April 1996. Data were collected using standardized questionnaires, free listings, parasitological and bacteriological laboratory analyses. A total of 164 catering ..... identified include: a) Good coverage of safe water (defined as ...

  20. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  1. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  2. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  3. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  4. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  5. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  6. Dental health in workers previously exposed to mercury vapour at a chloralkali plant.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, R I; Ellingsen, D G; Olstad, M L; Kjuus, H

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The dental health of 73 workers previously exposed to mercury vapour at a chloralkali plant was studied and compared with that of 51 non-exposed referents. METHODS--A record of oral, periodontal, gingival and mucosal conditions, including teeth, restorations, prostheses, and oral hygiene, was established during a 30 min examination. The participants' periodontal conditions were assessed according to the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN). The results with the C...

  7. Establishment of ITER: Relevant documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    At the Geneva Summit Meeting in November, 1985, a proposal was made by the Soviet Union to build a next-generation tokamak experiment on a collaborative basis involving the world's four major fusion blocks. In October, 1986, after consulting with Japan and the European Community, the United States responded with a proposal on how to implement such an activity. Ensuing diplomatic and technical discussions resulted in the establishment, under the auspices of the IAEA, of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Conceptual Design Activities. This tome represents a collection of all documents relating to the establishment of ITER, beginning with the initial meeting of the ITER Quadripartite Initiative Committee in Vienna on 15-16 March, 1987, through the meeting of the Provisional ITER Council, also in Vienna, on 8-9 February, 1988

  8. Establishment for Nuclear Equipment: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracz, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The main objective of the activity of the Establishment for Nuclear Equipment (ZdAJ) in 1999 was to obtain the ISO 9001 certificate. Work on this problem has been successfully completed. The changes introduced in agreement with requirements of ISO in supervising the construction, manufacturing and servicing eliminate possible deficiencies of our products and will pay in the future. Two new important ventures have been undertaken: design of an accelerator with two photon energies and a reconstruction of simulator directed towards better geometrical parameters. The completion of the improvements in accelerator is foreseen for the year 2002. The changes comprise almost all sub-assemblies of the device. The modernized simulator will be installed in the hospital already in the year 2000 - the ameliorations concern mainly the arm of the apparatus, collimator, driving gears and control system. Of course - apart from this, the routine production activity of the Establishment was continued in 1999. (author)

  9. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  10. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  11. Nonenhanced MR angiography techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzman, R.S.; Kroepil, P.; Blondin, D.; Schmitt, P.

    2011-01-01

    Especially in regard to the potential risks for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) following the administration of Gadolinium-based contrast material, nonenhanced MR angiography (MRA) methods are becoming ever more important. Besides well-established time-of-flight (TOF) and phase-contrast (PC) MRA, alternative imaging techniques based on balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) and turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequences are increasingly used in combination with or without arterial spin labeling (ASL) strategies. This article provides an overview of the principles and clinical values of different nonenhanced MRA techniques. In addition, recent nonenhanced MRA developments are presented. (orig.)

  12. Advanced Techniques in Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arrondo, José Luis R

    2006-01-01

    Technical advancements are basic elements in our life. In biophysical studies, new applications and improvements in well-established techniques are being implemented every day. This book deals with advancements produced not only from a technical point of view, but also from new approaches that are being taken in the study of biophysical samples, such as nanotechniques or single-cell measurements. This book constitutes a privileged observatory for reviewing novel applications of biophysical techniques that can help the reader enter an area where the technology is progressing quickly and where a comprehensive explanation is not always to be found.

  13. Establishing the isolated Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang; Zhao, Yue

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this article is to initiate a discussion on what it takes to claim ''there is no new physics at the weak scale,'' namely that the Standard Model (SM) is ''isolated.'' The lack of discovery of beyond the SM (BSM) physics suggests that this may be the case. But to truly establish this statement requires proving all ''connected'' BSM theories are false, which presents a significant challenge. We propose a general approach to quantitatively assess the current status and future prospects of establishing the isolated SM (ISM), which we give a reasonable definition of. We consider broad elements of BSM theories, and show many examples where current experimental results are not sufficient to verify the ISM. In some cases, there is a clear roadmap for the future experimental program, which we outline, while in other cases, further efforts - both theoretical and experimental - are needed in order to robustly claim the establishment of the ISM in the absence of new physics discoveries.

  14. Establishing the isolated standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang; Zhao, Yue

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this article is to initiate a discussion on what it takes to claim "there is no new physics at the weak scale," namely that the Standard Model (SM) is "isolated." The lack of discovery of beyond the SM (BSM) physics suggests that this may be the case. But to truly establish this statement requires proving all "connected" BSM theories are false, which presents a significant challenge. We propose a general approach to quantitatively assess the current status and future prospects of establishing the isolated SM (ISM), which we give a reasonable definition of. We consider broad elements of BSM theories, and show many examples where current experimental results are not sufficient to verify the ISM. In some cases, there is a clear roadmap for the future experimental program, which we outline, while in other cases, further efforts—both theoretical and experimental—are needed in order to robustly claim the establishment of the ISM in the absence of new physics discoveries.

  15. Case Report - Sudden onset methaemoglobinaemia in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... country but we managed to get it all the way from Nairobi, Kenya. A diagnosis of Methaemoglobinaemia was made using Spectrophotometry and she was successfully treated using 2 doses of intravenous Methylene blue. The cause of Methaemoglobinaemia was established to have been nitrites from food preservatives.

  16. Intensity techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  17. Comparing the reliability of a trigonometric technique to goniometry and inclinometry in measuring ankle dorsiflexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidaway, Ben; Euloth, Tracey; Caron, Heather; Piskura, Matthew; Clancy, Jessica; Aide, Alyson

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability of three previously used techniques for the measurement of ankle dorsiflexion ROM, open-chained goniometry, closed-chained goniometry, and inclinometry, to a novel trigonometric technique. Twenty-one physiotherapy students used four techniques (open-chained goniometry, closed-chained goniometry, inclinometry, and trigonometry) to assess dorsiflexion range of motion in 24 healthy volunteers. All student raters underwent training to establish competence in the four techniques. Raters then measured dorsiflexion with a randomly assigned measuring technique four times over two sessions, one week apart. Data were analyzed using a technique by session analysis of variance, technique measurement variability being the primary index of reliability. Comparisons were also made between the measurements derived from the four techniques and those obtained from a computerized video analysis system. Analysis of the rater measurement variability around the technique means revealed significant differences between techniques with the least variation being found in the trigonometric technique. Significant differences were also found between the technique means but no differences between sessions were evident. The trigonometric technique produced mean ROMs closest in value to those derived from computer analysis. Application of the trigonometric technique resulted in the least variability in measurement across raters and consequently should be considered for use when changes in dorsiflexion ROM need to be reliably assessed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalent musculoskeletal pain as a correlate of previous exposure to torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorte Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bojholm, S

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To research possible associations between previous exposure to specific torture techniques and prevalent pain in the head and face, back, and feet. METHODS: 221 refugees, 193 males and 28 females, previously exposed to torture in their home country, were subject to a clinical interview...... was general abuse of the whole body (OR 5.64, 95% CI 1.93-16.45). CONCLUSION: In spite of many factors being potentially co-responsible for prevalent pain, years after the torture took place it presents itself as strongly associated with specific loci of pain, with generalized effects, and with somatizing....

  19. Upon Further Review: V. An Examination of Previous Lightcurve Analysis from the Palmer Divide Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Updated results are given for nine asteroids previously reported from the Palmer Divide Observatory (PDO). The original images were re-measured to obtain new data sets using the latest version of MPO Canopus photometry software, analysis tools, and revised techniques for linking multiple observing runs covering several days to several weeks. Results that were previously not reported or were moderately different were found for 1659 Punkajarju, 1719 Jens, 1987 Kaplan, 2105 Gudy, 2961 Katsurahama, 3285 Ruth Wolfe, 3447 Burckhalter, 7816 Hanoi, and (34817) 2000 SE116. This is one in a series of papers that will examine results obtained during the initial years of the asteroid lightcurve program at PDO.

  20. 21 CFR 820.250 - Statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statistical techniques. 820.250 Section 820.250...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Statistical Techniques § 820.250 Statistical techniques. (a... statistical techniques required for establishing, controlling, and verifying the acceptability of process...

  1. Establishment of Filipino standard man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.; San Jose, V.; Napenas, D.

    1984-01-01

    The initial data gathered on measurements of total body weight and weights of specific organs from autopsy cases of normal Filipinos are reported. Comparison of the above data with the Reference Man data of ICRP which was based primarily on Caucasians suggests some differences in the average weight and height of whole body and in the weights of some organs. Hence there appears to be a need for the establishment of Filipino standard man which can be used in the estimation of internal dose commitment of the Filipinos. (author)

  2. A well-established profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2011-01-01

    It was during the economic boom of the 1960s that the demand for landscape architects began to explode in Denmark as the expanding welfare state brought about rapid physical changes. At this time the country’s first specific education for landscape architects was established and 2010 marked the 5......th anniversary of landscape architecture teaching, at the Faculty of Life Science – the University of Copenhagen(KU-Life). It’s origins can be traced further back but, then as now, the essence of the education is that of creating a dynamic synergy of the sciences and the arts....

  3. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  4. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  5. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  6. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  7. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  8. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  9. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  10. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  11. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  13. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  14. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  15. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  17. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  18. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  19. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  20. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  1. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  2. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  3. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  4. Systematic approach to establishing criticality biases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.L.

    1995-09-01

    A systematic approach has been developed to determine benchmark biases and apply those biases to code results to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.24 regarding documenting criticality safety margins. Previously, validation of the code against experimental benchmarks to prove reasonable agreement was sufficient. However, DOE Order 5480.24 requires contractors to adhere to the requirements of ANSI/ANS-8.1 and establish subcritical margins. A method was developed to incorporate biases and uncertainties from benchmark calculations into a k eff value with quantifiable uncertainty. The method produces a 95% confidence level in both the k eff value of the scenario modeled and the distribution of the k eff S calculated by the Monte Carlo code. Application of the method to a group of benchmarks modeled using the KENO-Va code and the SCALE 27 group cross sections is also presented

  5. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  6. Establishing sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Canto-Perello, Julian; Calvo, Maria A

    2004-07-01

    Growth of urban areas, the corresponding increased demand for utility services and the possibility of new types of utility systems are overcrowding near surface underground space with urban utilities. Available subsurface space will continue to diminish to the point where utilidors (utility tunnels) may become inevitable. Establishing future sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering consists of the ability to lessen the use of traditional trenching. There is an increasing interest in utility tunnels for urban areas as a sustainable technique to avoid congestion of the subsurface. One of the principal advantages of utility tunnels is the substantially lower environmental impact compared with common trenches. Implementing these underground facilities is retarded most by the initial cost and management procedures. The habitual procedure is to meet problems as they arise in current practice. The moral imperative of sustainable strategies fails to confront the economic and political conflicts of interest. Municipal engineers should act as a key enabler in urban underground sustainable development.

  7. Nonmammographic breast imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywang-Köbrunner, S H

    1992-10-01

    Significant progress in early detection of malignancy has been achieved by the improvement of mammographic technique, the introduction of quality control, the demonstration of benefits from screening, and appropriate application of supplementary methods such as ultrasound, cytology, and stereotaxis. Certain problems in breast imaging, however, are still unsolved. These include early detection and exclusion of malignancy without microcalcifications in mammographically dense tissue (particularly in younger women), the still-limited accuracy of mammographic signs, and the management of diagnostic problems after surgery, radiation therapy, or silicone implants. Therefore, research is needed to further improve diagnostic capabilities. The research can be subdivided into different approaches: 1) further development of the mammographic technique (digital luminescence radiography); 2) evaluation of techniques that image other physical tissue properties (sonography, thermography, trans-illumination, CT, non-contrast-enhanced MR imaging, biomagnetism, biostereometry, and ductoscopy); 3) investigation of techniques that image metabolic changes (MR spectroscopy, positron-emission tomography) or metabolism-induced differences in perfusion or vascularity (Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced MR imaging); and 4) development of techniques that attempt tissue diagnosis using monoclonal antibodies. Among these techniques, digital luminescence radiography and contrast-enhanced MR imaging are the most developed and the most promising. They are at the threshold of becoming clinically important. Doppler ultrasound could be useful for certain indications. Whereas MR spectroscopy, positron-emission tomography, the search for appropriate antibodies, and possibly transillumination, ductoscopy, and biomagnetism offer interesting new aspects for research, the value of CT, thermography, and biostereometry is not yet established.

  8. Establishment of Health Technology Assessment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Doaee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Health Technology Assessment (HTA aims at informing healthcare policymakers, managers and practitioners of the "clinical consequences, but also the economic, ethical, and other social implications of the diffusion and use of a specific procedure or technique on medical practice". So considering the policy-oriented nature of HTA that calls for a close integration into the functioning and governance of health systems the present study focuses on executive processes and function of the HTA office of Iran.Materials and methods: Data of this review study were collected through documented sources and observations from 2007 to 2010.Results: Health Technology Assessment began its activities as a secretariat in the Deputy of Health in 2007 and it continues as a Health Technology Assessment Office at the Management of Health Technology Assessment, Standardization, and Tariff at the Deputy of curative affairs of MOHME in the beginning of 2010.14 Technology of modern medical equipment and 8 pharmaceutical medicine are assessed, Now many of measures for HTA establishment  such as cooperation National Institute of Health Research (NIHR, Holding scientific committee meetings, Establishing  the  Master's degree of  health technology assessment ,Building capacities for health technology assessment through education in major universities of the country.Conclusion: pay attention to health technology assessment, selection and application of proper technologies in the frameworks of policy-making and managerial strategies and make efforts to develop it with the support of the governmental in Iran is necessary.

  9. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  10. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  11. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  12. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  13. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  14. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  15. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D

    1989-05-01

    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  16. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  17. Establishment of the International Power Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Julius E.

    2000-04-29

    Building on the two previous trips to Central America last year, International Power Institute (IPI) and its partner Tennessee Valley Infrastructure Group (TVIG) have focused their attention this quarter on project sites in Honduras. TVIG's unit--an Integrated Infrastructure Platform or IIP--combines water and electricity production in a single integrated unit, thereby providing both products at a lower cost than could be attained for each one separately. Because of the unmet demand for clean drinking water and electricity in remote towns throughout the developing world, the need for such units is widespread. Previous visits to Honduras have resulted in strong in-country commercial interest, support in the form of memorandums of understanding by key government agencies, and identification of four prospective project sites for IIP installations. From March 5 to March 15 and with IPI support and participation, representatives from the TVIG, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), IPI, and market research firm International Business Initiatives (IBI) conducted an intensive survey of project opportunities in the four communities, to establish how IIPs might help these four communities enhance their economic development, A key aspect of the projects examined is the need to make them economically self-supporting so that they will be viable in the private sector. Summary of specific project site studies follow here, and feasibility studies for the four sites are included as attachments.

  18. AWRE: Atomic Weapons Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This reviews the work of AWRE at Aldermaston and Foulness. The main programme is nuclear and is concerned with the design and development of warheads for strategic and tactical nuclear weapons for the British nuclear deterrent, including those for the Royal Navy's missile carrying submarine fleet. The work is described grouped as design physics, development and materials. Services to these groups and to the whole establishment are provided by Engineering, Safety and Administration. The work ranges from long-term fundamental research, the development of technology, design, prototype development to the environmental testing of engineered products. In materials research the emphasis is on plutonium, uranium and beryllium, on high explosives and a wide range of inorganic and organic materials. The physics of the earth's crust is studied to aid detection of underground nuclear explosions. Reactor research facilities include the two reactors, Herald and Viper. (U.K.)

  19. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  20. Interpretation and Implications of Previous Sea Pay Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    simple example of the Navy paying “rents” in the labor market .... 30  Figure 13.   When disutility of general Navy duty and sea duty are perfectly...their true demand for a product. This mechanism allows companies to tailor prices to specific segments of their market and, in so doing, to maximize...entire use of bandwidth. Telecommunications companies use this distinction to construct a market segmentation technique that is the heart of the non

  1. A strategy for establishing diagnostic and related services to dairy farmers in developing countries based on radioimmunoassay of progesterone in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, D.B.; Perera, B.M.A.O.; Manar, S.

    2001-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for progesterone in milk samples collected from cattle has been used for monitoring ovarian activity, diagnosis of pregnancy and non-pregnancy, assessment of the accuracy of oestrus detection and for surveying efficiency of artificial insemination services. The establishment of a service to dairy farmers in developing countries based on this technique has not been previously reported but there are clear potential benefits in such a service. A strategy was therefore developed for the establishment of diagnostic and related services to dairy farmers in Morocco on a pilot basis, using RIA of progesterone in milk for possible adoption as a model for other developing countries. (author)

  2. Establishment and Characterization of a Newly Established Diabetic Gerbil Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Li

    Full Text Available We aimed to selectively breed a spontaneous diabetic gerbil when a sub-line of inbred gerbil showed increased blood glucose levels was found recently. Then we investigated the characteristics including the serum insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin and explored the underlying molecular mechanism for the diabetic phenotype.The spontaneous diabetic line of gerbils was selectively inbreed the sub-line of gerbil by monitoring blood glucose of each animal. The serum insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were tested using an ELISA kit. The expression levels of GLUT4, Akt, leptin, adiponectin, and calpain 10 (CAPN10 were tested by western blot and Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR in liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose.Our results show that the percentages of animals with FPG≥5.2 (mmol/l, PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l and both FPG≥5.2 and PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l were increased with the number of breeding generations from F0 (21.33% to F6 (38.46%. These diabetic gerbils exhibited insulin resistance and leptin resistance as well as decreased adiponectin level in the serum. We also observed decreased expression of adiponectin and increased expression of leptin in the skeletal muscle, respectively.These results indicate that we have primarily established a spontaneous diabetic gerbil line, and the diabetic phenotypes may have been accounted for by altered expression of leptin and adiponectin.

  3. Radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazraki, N.

    1988-01-01

    During approximately 25 years of experience with bone scanning, broad expansions in the clinical impact of radionuclide imaging on disorders of bones, joints, and soft tissues have occurred. This increased impact had its groundwork laid by advances in radiopharmaceuticals and instruments that are used for bone imaging. The progression from /sup 85/Sr- to /sup 99m/Tc-labeled phosphate and phosphonate compounds, coupled with the advance from crude rectilinear scanning techniques to whole body scintillation imaging with large crystal cameras and sophisticated electronics, has encourage use of radionuclide techniques in the evaluation of muscoloskeletal diseases. Many clinical studies have documented the high degree of sensitivity of the bone scan compared with that of the radiograph in detecting osseous and articular abnormalities

  4. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  5. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  6. Aseptic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykowski, Tomasz; Stevenson, Brian

    2008-11-01

    This chapter describes common laboratory procedures that can reduce the risk of culture contaminations (sepsis), collectively referred as "aseptic technique." Two major strategies of aseptic work are described: using a Bunsen burner and a laminar flow hood. Both methods are presented in the form of general protocols applicable to a variety of laboratory tasks such as pipetting and dispensing aliquots, preparing growth media, and inoculating, passaging, and spreading microorganisms on petri dishes. Copyright 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....

  8. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  9. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  10. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  11. Presentation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froejmark, M.

    1992-10-01

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  12. Is the prefrontal cortex necessary for establishing cognitive sets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowe, James B; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Lund, Torben E

    2007-01-01

    first instructed as to whether to perform a spatial or a verbal working memory task and then given spatial and verbal items after a delay of 4-12 s. The patients showed an increase in switch costs, making more errors by repeating what they had done on the previous trial. They were able to establish...

  13. Petten establishment. Annual report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    1978 was the second year in the Joint Research Centre's 1977-1980 multiannual research programme. Since the following exercise is intended to run from 1980 to 1983 with a one year overlap, new proposals will be placed before the Council of Ministers in 1979. To this end, a considerable part of the programme and project management staff activities has been devoted to the peliminary preparation of future plans. In general it is expected that the Establishment's three research activities will continue along the lines already proceeding successfully in the present programme in the materials testing reactor (HFR), high temperature materials and organic chemistry spheres with some updating and refocussing where necessary. Consultation with the appropriate Advisory Committees for Programme Management has been contributed to these processes. Another important development has been the question of site security, following decisions of the European Commission and the Dutch Government to apply International Atomic Agency regulations. The work to apply the necessary measures has had to be executed in the shortest possible time. We have endeavoured to maintain and increase for all three programmes the already intensive contacts with research institutes and industry in the Member States. Important in this connection are the international conferences, 'Alloy 800' held in March and 'Ramping and Load following Behaviour of Reactor Fuel' in December, as well as an international meeting of the 'irradiation Devices Working Party' which took place in May

  14. Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy cattle using the in situ polyester bag technique. 2. Energy sources. LJ Erasmus, J Prinsloo, PM Botha, HH Meissner. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy cattle using the in situ polyester bag technique. 3. Roughages. LJ Erasmus, J Prinsloo, PM Botha, HH Meissner. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  16. The establishment of a protein degradability data base for dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The establishment of a protein degradability data base for dairy cattle using the nylon bag technique. 1. Protein sources. LJ Erasmus, J Prinsloo, HH Meissner. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  17. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  18. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  19. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  20. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Ecthyma gangrenosum in the periorbital region in a previously healthy immunocompetent woman without bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG is a cutaneous lesion classically associated with potentially fatal Pseudomonas septicemia in immunocompromised patients. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens have also been implicated. Although EG typically occurs in immunocompromised or neutropenic patients, it may occasionally affect a previously healthy person. The cutaneous findings are characteristic with small indurated papulovesicles progressing rapidly to necrotic ulcers with surrounding erythema and a central black Eschar. While lesions can occur at any site, most are commonly found over the buttocks, perineum, limbs, and axillae. We describe a case of EG in periorbital region in a previously healthy woman who responded to appropriate antibiotic treatment for Pseudomonas. It is very important to establish the diagnosis early so that appropriate systemic antibiotic therapy can be initiated to reduce morbidity and potential mortality.

  2. Terahertz Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bründermann, Erik; Kimmitt, Maurice FitzGerald

    2012-01-01

    Research and development in the terahertz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has expanded very rapidly during the past fifteen years due to major advances in sources, detectors and instrumentation. Many scientists and engineers are entering the field and this volume offers a comprehensive and integrated treatment of all aspects of terahertz technology. The three authors, who have been active researchers in this region over a number of years, have designed Terahertz Techniques to be both a general introduction to the subject and a definitive reference resource for all those involved in this exciting research area.

  3. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P

    1996-06-01

    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  4. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  5. Re-Operationalizing Established Groups in Brainstorming: Validating Osborn's Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Kenneth J.; Heuett, Kyle B.; Reno, Katie M.

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of brainstorming as an idea-generation technique to address organizational problems, researchers have struggled to replicate some of the claims around the technique. One major concern has been the differences in the number of ideas generated between established groups as found in industry versus the non-established groups…

  6. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  7. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  9. [Bentall operation after previous repair of tetralogy of Fallot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballore, Luca; Tramontin, Corrado; Manca, Paolo; Tocco, Stefania; Lixi, Giovanni; Matta, Gildo; Cirio, Emiliano Maria; Martelli, Valentino

    2007-04-01

    Pathologies that involve the ascending aorta are described in case reports of patients after complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Here, we present a case report. Preoperative tests showed an aortic ratio of > 1.5. The patient was operated on replacement of the ascending aorta according to the Bentall technique. At present, the guidelines for replacement of the ascending aorta recommend an aortic ratio of > 1.5 and in case of Marfan syndrome of > 1.3. In these patient subsets, cystic medial necrosis and an increased risk of aortic dissection have been described. Therefore, as for Marfan syndrome, why an aortic ratio of >1.3 should not be considered a proper surgical indication also for these patients?

  10. Do attitudes of families concerned influence features of children who claim to remember previous lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Satwant K

    2011-01-01

    Reported cases of nearly 2600 children (subjects) who claim to remember previous lives have been investigated in cultures with and without belief in reincarnation. The authenticity in most cases has been established. To study the influence of attitudes of parents of the subjects, families of the deceased person with whom they are identified and attention paid by others on the features of the cases. The study is based on field investigations. Data is derived from analysis of a larger series of an ongoing project. Information on initial and subsequent attitudes of subjects' mothers was available for 292 and 136 cases, respectively; attitudes of 227 families of deceased person (previous personality) with whom he is identified, and the extent of attention received from outsiders for 252 cases. Observations and interviews with multiple firsthand informants on both sides of the case as well as some neutral informants supplemented by examination of objective data were the chief methods of investigation. The initial attitude of mothers varied from encouragement (21%) to neutral or tolerance (51%) to discouragement (28%). However, it changed significantly from neutrality to taking measures to induce amnesia in their children for previous life memories due to various psychosocial pressures and prevalent beliefs. Families of the previous personalities, once convinced, showed complete acceptance in a majority of cases. Outside attention was received in 58% cases. The positive attitude of parents might facilitate expression of memories but subsequently attitudes of persons concerned do not seem to alter features of the cases.

  11. Important biological information uncovered in previously unaligned reads from chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments (ChIP-Seq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Wilberforce Zachary; Mejia-Guerra, Maria Katherine; Yilmaz, Alper; Pareja-Tobes, Pablo; Li, Wei; Doseff, Andrea I.; Grotewold, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the architecture of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) relies on chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) methods that provide genome-wide transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). ChIP-Seq furnishes millions of short reads that, after alignment, describe the genome-wide binding sites of a particular TF. However, in all organisms investigated an average of 40% of reads fail to align to the corresponding genome, with some datasets having as much as 80% of reads failing to align. We describe here the provenance of previously unaligned reads in ChIP-Seq experiments from animals and plants. We show that a substantial portion corresponds to sequences of bacterial and metazoan origin, irrespective of the ChIP-Seq chromatin source. Unforeseen was the finding that 30%–40% of unaligned reads were actually alignable. To validate these observations, we investigated the characteristics of the previously unaligned reads corresponding to TAL1, a human TF involved in lineage specification of hemopoietic cells. We show that, while unmapped ChIP-Seq read datasets contain foreign DNA sequences, additional TFBSs can be identified from the previously unaligned ChIP-Seq reads. Our results indicate that the re-evaluation of previously unaligned reads from ChIP-Seq experiments will significantly contribute to TF target identification and determination of emerging properties of GRNs. PMID:25727450

  12. Project Increase of infrastructure: 'Establishment of a laboratory for studies of pollutants in air, water and soil through atomic and nuclear techniques; Proyecto Incremento de infraestructura: 'Establecimiento de un laboratorio para estudios de contaminantes en aire, agua y suelo mediante tecnicas atomicas y nucleares'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1993-10-15

    In this report there are the guidelines of this project as well as the goals, activities and costs. The general objectives were: 1. A laboratory that allows to analyze with efficiency samples of air, water and soil pollutants using atomic and nuclear origin techniques as PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission, NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) as well as auxiliary and/or complementary techniques. 2. To obtain indicators of the influence of the pollution of the Valley of Mexico about the ecology and the health of the inhabitants of Mexico City with perspectives of carrying out studies in other cities. 3. To develop an appropriate technology for the realization of those studies and to generate human resources in this area. (Author)

  13. Diagnosis of Beta-thalassaemia major in previously transfused patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Rehman, Z.; Karamat, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of blood transfusion(s) on the haematological picture of beta-thalassaemia major. Results: Out of the 280 patients 109 (39%) had received one or more blood transfusions (cases). The remaining 171 patients who did not receive any transfusion served as controls. The mean MCV, MCH and Hb-F in cases were significantly higher than in the controls (p 4 transfusions (17%) (p=0.016). In the occasionally transfused patients Hb-F level was directly related to the time since last transfusion. In 44/109 (40%) transfused patients (Hb-F>30%) the diagnosis of thalassaemia was not difficult. In 54/109 (50%) patients (Hb-:5-30%) the diagnosis was aided by parent's study, while PCR for thalassaemia mutation was required in 11/109 (10%) patients (Hb-F <5%). Conclusion: In most transfused patients of thalassaemia major MCV and MCH were significantly higher while Hb-F was lower than in the un-transfused patients. There was a linear correlation between Hb-F level and time since last transfusion in the occasionally transfused patients. However, the reduction in Hb-F level was more marked and sustained in multipally transfused patients. Parent's study and PCR are useful aids in establishing the correct diagnosis in these patients. (author)

  14. Nuclear Physics in High School: what are the previous knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, F. de O.

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear physics is a branch of physics that about a century occupies an important space in the theoretical, experimental and scientific fields. Currently, its relevance in application is concentrated in several areas such as energy production, diagnostic processes and medical treatment and nuclear bombs, high destructive power. Whereas, according to legal regulations, the teaching of physics must make the student competent in the understanding of the world and assuming the perspective of Paulo Freire (2011) that education is not done on the subject, but together with him, in dialogue with his point of departure, his prior knowledge, we established the general objective of raising students prior knowledge of the third year of high School at Nair Ferreira Neves school, in São Sebastião-SP, about nuclear physics. We concluded that the school has not fulfilled its role in relation to nuclear physics, because students have information from other means of information and these knowledge are stereotyped and mistaken, damaging the world's reading and exercising full citizenship.

  15. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for previously untreated malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kenji; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Matsushita, Haruo; Takeda, Ken; Takai, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Shogo; Kumabe, Toshihiro

    2002-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is one of the methods used to deliver a large single dose to the tumor tissue while reducing the exposure of normal surrounding tissue. However, the usefulness of intraoperative electron therapy for malignant gliomas has not been established. During the period from 1987 to 1997, 32 patients with malignant gliomas were treated with IORT. The histological diagnoses were anaplastic astrocytoma in 11 patients and glioblastoma in 21 patients. Therapy consisted of surgical resection and intraoperative electron therapy using a dose of 12–15 Gy (median, 15 Gy). The patients later underwent postoperative external radiation therapy (EXRT) with a median total dose of 60 Gy. Each of the 32 patients treated with IORT was randomly matched with patients who had been treated with postoperative EXRT alone (control). Patients were matched according to histological grade, age, extent of tumor removal, and tumor location. In the anaplastic astrocytoma group, the one-, two- and five-year survival rates were 81%, 51% and 15%, respectively in the IORT patients and 54%, 43% and 21%, respectively in the control patients. In the glioblastoma group, one-, two- and five-year survival rates were 63%, 26% and 0%, respectively in the IORT patients and 70%, 18% and 6%, respectively in the control patients. There was no significant difference between survival rates in the IORT patients and control patients in either the anaplastic astrocytoma group or glioblastoma group. IORT dose not improve survival of patients with malignant gliomas compared to that of patients who have received EXRT alone

  16. Combinatorial techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharad S

    2013-01-01

    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.

  17. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  18. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  19. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  20. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  1. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  2. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  3. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  4. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  5. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  6. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  7. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2011-01-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  8. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: vc@cdtn.b, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Arno H. de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  9. Stress and blood donation: effects of music and previous donation experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, E; Singh, A P; Cunningham-Snell, N

    1997-05-01

    Making a blood donation, especially for first-time donors, can be a stressful experience. These feelings of stress may inhibit donors from returning. This paper applies stress theory to this particular problem. The effects of a stress management intervention (the provision of music) and previous donor experience were examined in relation to pre- and post-donation mood, environmental appraisals and coping behaviour. Results indicated that the provision of music had detrimental effects on environmental appraisals for those who have donated up to two times previously, but beneficial effects for those who had donated three times before. These effects were, to an extent, moderated by coping processes but not perceived control. It is recommended that the provision of music is not used as a stress management technique in the context of blood donation.

  10. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  11. Serratia liquefaciens Infection of a Previously Excluded Popliteal Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coelho

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs are rare in the general population, but they account for nearly 70% of peripheral arterial aneurysms. There are several possible surgical approaches including exclusion of the aneurysm and bypass grafting, or endoaneurysmorrhaphy and interposition of a prosthetic conduit. The outcomes following the first approach are favorable, but persistent blood flow in the aneurysm sac has been documented in up to one third of patients in the early post-operative setting. Complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms include aneurysm enlargement, local compression symptoms, and sac rupture. Notably infection of a previously excluded and bypassed PAA is rare. This is the third reported case of PAA infection after exclusion and bypass grafting and the first due to Serratia liquefaciens. Methods: Relevant medical data were collected from the hospital database. Results: This case report describes a 54 year old male patient, diagnosed with acute limb ischaemia due to a thrombosed PAA, submitted to emergency surgery with exclusion and venous bypass. A below the knee amputation was necessary 3 months later. Patient follow-up was lost until 7 years following surgical repair, when he was diagnosed with aneurysm sac infection with skin fistulisation. He had recently been diagnosed with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis Child–Pugh Class B. The patient was successfully treated by aneurysm resection, soft tissue debridement and systemic antibiotics. Conclusion: PAA infection is a rare complication after exclusion and bypass procedures but should be considered in any patient with evidence of local or systemic infection. When a PAA infection is diagnosed, aneurysmectomy, local debridement, and intravenous antibiotic therapy are recommended. The “gold standard” method of PAA repair remains controversial. PAA excision or endoaneurysmorrhaphy avoids complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms, but is associated with

  12. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoyan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  13. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  14. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  15. Clinical outcomes of Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy at patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riza Odabasi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical outcomes of Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy (LAVH at patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery.\tDesign: A clinical observational, prospective, non randomised trial comparing outcomes of 13 patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery with outcomes of 19 patients who had not surgery.\tSetting: Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.\tPatients: Thirty-two subjects [average age 51,1±6,9 (37-66] who had indication of total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral\tsalpingooferectomy due to benign pathologies.\tInterventions: According to ACOG, LAVH was performed by using the Garry technique at the trocar insertions, the Reich technique\tat the laparoscopic phase and the Heaney technique at the vaginal phase by the same operator. After adhesiolysis and diagnostic procedures, ureters were dissected medially. By coagulating, bilateral round and infundibulopelvic ligaments were cut after the\tmobilisation of bladder. The operation was completed by the same operation team by vaginal approach consequently. At all operations, 80 W unipolar or 150 W bipolar diathermic dissection and 25-35 W unipolar diathermic cutting were performed.\tMain outcome measures: Age, parity, menopausal status, preoperative indications, type of previous abdominopelvic surgey and incision, intraoperative indications, adhesion scores, rate of unintended laparotomy, operative time, uterus weight, loss of blood,\tcomplications, postoperative pain scores and analgesic requirements, time necessary for returning to normal intestinal function, length of hospitalisation and rate of readmission to hospital.\tRESULTS: When compared with the patients who had not previous abdominopelvic surgery, all adhesion scores, uterus weight, operative time and the number of total postoperative complications were found significantly high at patients who had previous\tsurgery. Loss of blood, the rate

  16. Outcome of trial of scar in patients with previous caesarean section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, B.; Bashir, R.; Khan, W.

    2016-01-01

    Medical evidence indicates that 60-80% of women can achieve vaginal delivery after a previous lower segment caesarean section. Proper selection of patients for trial of scar and vigilant monitoring during labour will achieve successful maternal and perinatal outcome. The objective of our study is to establish the fact that vaginal delivery after one caesarean section has a high success rate in patients with previous one caesarean section for non-recurrent cause. Methods: The study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Abbottabad, Gynae-B Unit. All labouring patients, during the study period of five years, with previous one caesarean section and between 37 weeks to 41 weeks of gestation for a non-recurrent cause were included in the study. Data was recorded on special proforma designed for the purpose. Patients who had previous classical caesarean section, more than one caesarean section, and previous caesarean section with severe wound infection, transverse lie and placenta previa in present pregnancy were excluded. Foetal macrosomia (wt>4 kg) and severe IUGR with compromised blood flow on Doppler in present pregnancy were also not considered suitable for the study. Patients who had any absolute contraindication for vaginal delivery were also excluded. Results: There were 12505 deliveries during the study period. Total vaginal deliveries were 8790 and total caesarean sections were 3715. Caesarean section rate was 29.7%. Out of these 8790 patients, 764 patients were given a trial of scar and 535 patients delivered successfully vaginally (70%). Women who presented with spontaneous onset of labour were more likely to deliver vaginally (74.8%) as compared to induction group (27.1%). Conclusion: Trial of vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary caesarean section. (author)

  17. Reproductive compatibility between mite populations previously identified as Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Aloyséia Cristina da Silva; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present research is to study the reproductive compatibility between populations of predatory mites previously identified as Euseius concordis (Chant) based on morphological characteristics. Colonies of these mite populations were established in the lab with specimens collected from different localities and host plants. Reproductive compatibility was evaluated through crosses and backcrosses within and between populations and the subsequent observation of females' oviposition, over a period of 10 days. The levels of oviposition obtained in the crosses between individuals from the same population were higher than those obtained in the crosses between individuals from different populations. Results indicate the occurrence of post-mating reproductive incompatibility between the mite population from Petrolina and the other populations studied. Crosses and backcrosses between populations involving female mites from Petrolina did not produce offspring, although endospermatophores were present inside the spermathecas of those females. Oviposition was reduced, and only sons were obtained, in crosses between populations with males from Petrolina. Crosses of females from Pontes e Lacerda and males from Jaguariúna and vice versa produced only male progeny. Our results established that the populations originating from Arroio do Meio, Pontes e Lacerda, Jaguarúna and Viçosa, are reproductively compatible. However, the latter populations and the population from Petrolina are genetically isolated. Based on these results we suggest that more cytological and genetic studies are needed to establish if this reproductive isolation represents a species barrier.

  18. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention discloses a technique for disassembling a nuclear reactor fuel element without destroying the individual fuel pins and other structural components from which the element is assembled. A traveling bridge and trolley that span a water-filled spent fuel storage pool support a strongback. The strongback is under water and provides a working surface on which the spent fuel element is placed for inspection and for the manipulation that is associated with disassembly and assembly. To remove, in a non-destructive manner, the grids that hold the fuel pins in the proper relative positions within the element, bars are inserted through apertures in the grids with the aid of special tools. These bars are rotated to flex the adjacent grid walls and, in this way relax the physical engagement between protruding portions of the grid walls and the associated fuel pins. With the grid structure so flexed to relax the physical grip on the individual fuel pins, these pins can be withdrawn for inspection or replacement as necessary without imposing a need to destroy fuel element components. (U.S.)

  19. Clinical observation of phacoemulsification in patients with previous trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2013-09-01

    . CONCLUSION: Visual function restore is stable in transparent corneal incision phacoemulsification in cataract patients who underwent glaucoma filtration surgeries; the intraocular pressure can be controlled effectively, and can further reduce the intraocular pressure of angle-closure glaucoma. Preoperative comprehensive evaluation of the affected eye and appropriate technique selection are benefit to the improvement of operation effect and the reduction of complications.

  20. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  1. Previous Land Use and Invasive Species Impacts on Long-term Afforestation Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Nickelson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of agricultural lands to forests has increased worldwide over the past few decades for multiple reasons including increasing forest connectivity and wildlife habitat. However, previous land cover and competing vegetation often impede afforestation. We established 219 plots in 29 Quercus plantations on four previous land cover types (LCT: Clover, Soybeans, Woody Brush, and Herbaceous Weeds. Plantations were located in Illinois, USA and were sampled 15–18 years after planting. Sampling data for all trees (planted and volunteer included species, diameter, and vine presence on the main bole of the tree. Free-to-grow status was recorded for all Quercus species and estimated cover of two invasive species, Elaeagnus umbellata and Lonicera japonica, was documented on each plot. There was a strong relationship between total tree density and invasive species cover across all sites. Stocking success was lower and E. umbellata cover was higher on Woody Brush sites compared to Clover and Soybean cover types. Additionally, significantly more free-to-grow Quercus saplings occurred in Clover and Soybean cover types compared to the Woody Brush sites. The results indicate that previous land cover plays a critical role in forest afforestation. Furthermore, while historically, volunteer tree species were thought to be detrimental to the development of planted species these results suggest that with the increasing prevalence of invasive species worldwide the role of volunteer species in afforestation should be reconsidered and silvicultural protocols adjusted accordingly.

  2. Weaning and establishment of pineapple (Ananas Comosus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -vitro propagation). The paper reports on establishment after treatment with two different auxins in-vitro. About ninety-nine (99) percent of the transported plantlets successfully established in compost. Spiny individuals increased with higher ...

  3. Out Come Of Trial Of Scar In Patients With Previous Caesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bushra; Deeba, Farhat; Bashir, Rubina; Khan, Wajiha

    2016-01-01

    Patients who had one caesarean section were previously not given a trial of scar due to fear of increased morbidity. However, recently there has been a trend to give a trial of labour to patients with a previous caesarean section for a non-recurrent cause. Medical evidence indicates that 60-80% of women can achieve vaginal delivery after a previous lower segment caesarean section. Proper selection of patients for trial of scar and vigilant monitoring during labour will achieve successful maternal and perinatal outcome. The objective of our study is to establish the fact that vaginal delivery after one caesarean section has a high success rate in patients with previous one caesarean section for non-recurrent cause. The study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Abbottabad, Gynae-B Unit. All labouring patients, during the study period of five years, with previous one caesarean section and between 37 weeks to 41 weeks of gestation for a non-recurrent cause were included in the study. Data was recorded on special pro forma designed for the purpose. Patients who had previous classical caesarean section, more than one caesarean section, and previous caesarean section with severe wound infection, transverse lie and placenta previa in present pregnancy were excluded. Foetal macrosomia (wt>4 kg) and severe IUGR with compromised blood flow on Doppler in present pregnancy were also not considered suitable for the study. Patients who had any absolute contraindication for vaginal delivery were also excluded. There were 12505 deliveries during the study period. Total vaginal deliveries were 8790 and total caesarean sections were 3715. Caesarean section rate was 29.7%. Out of these 8790 patients, 764 patients were given a trial of scar and 535 patients delivered successfully vaginally (70%). Women who presented with spontaneous onset of labour were more likely to deliver vaginally (74.8%) as compared to induction group (27.1%). Trial of vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) in selected

  4. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  5. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  6. Tumescent mastectomy technique in autologous breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Christina R; Koolen, Pieter G L; Ho, Olivia A; Ricci, Joseph A; Tobias, Adam M; Lin, Samuel J; Lee, Bernard T

    2015-10-01

    Use of the tumescent mastectomy technique has been reported to facilitate development of a hydrodissection plane, reduce blood loss, and provide adjunct analgesia. Previous studies suggest that tumescent dissection may contribute to adverse outcomes after immediate implant reconstruction; however, its effect on autologous microsurgical reconstruction has not been established. A retrospective review was conducted of all immediate microsurgical breast reconstruction procedures at a single academic center between January 2004 and December 2013. Records were queried for age, body mass index, mastectomy weight, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, preoperative radiation, reconstruction flap type, and autologous flap weight. Outcomes of interest were mastectomy skin necrosis, complete and partial flap loss, return to the operating room, breast hematoma, seroma, and infection. There were 730 immediate autologous breast reconstructions performed during the study period; 46% with the tumescent dissection technique. Groups were similar with respect to baseline patient and procedural characteristics. Univariate analysis revealed no significant difference in the incidence of mastectomy skin necrosis, complete or partial flap loss, return to the operating room, operative time, estimated blood loss, recurrence, breast hematoma, seroma, or infection in patients undergoing tumescent mastectomy. Multivariate analysis also demonstrated no significant association between the use of tumescent technique and postoperative breast mastectomy skin necrosis (P = 0.980), hematoma (P = 0.759), or seroma (P = 0.340). Use of the tumescent dissection technique during mastectomy is not significantly associated with adverse outcomes after microsurgical breast reconstruction. Despite concern for its impact on implant reconstruction, our findings suggest that this method can be used safely preceding autologous procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of molecular techniques in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, G; Ulfig, K; Hazen, T C; Brigmon, R L

    2001-01-01

    In a practical sense, biotechnology is concerned with the production of commercial products generated by biological processes. More formally, biotechnology may be defined as "the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of material by biological agents to provide goods and services" (Cantor, 2000). From a historical perspective, biotechnology dates back to the time when yeast was first used for beer or wine fermentation, and bacteria were used to make yogurt. In 1972, the birth of recombinant DNA technology moved biotechnology to new heights and led to the establishment of a new industry. Progress in biotechnology has been truly remarkable. Within four years of the discovery of recombinant DNA technology, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) were making human insulin, interferon, and human growth hormone. Now, recombinant DNA technology and its products--GMOs are widely used in environmental biotechnology (Glick and Pasternak, 1988; Cowan, 2000). Bioremediation is one of the most rapidly growing areas of environmental biotechnology. Use of bioremediation for environmental clean up is popular due to low costs and its public acceptability. Indeed, bioremediation stands to benefit greatly and advance even more rapidly with the adoption of molecular techniques developed originally for other areas of biotechnology. The 1990s was the decade of molecular microbial ecology (time of using molecular techniques in environmental biotechnology). Adoption of these molecular techniques made scientists realize that microbial populations in the natural environments are much more diverse than previously thought using traditional culture methods. Using molecular ecological methods, such as direct DNA isolation from environmental samples, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), PCR methods, nucleic acid hybridization etc., we can now study microbial consortia relevant to pollutant degradation in the environment. These techniques promise to

  8. A Robust Trust Establishment Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farruh Ishmanov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Security techniques like cryptography and authentication can fail to protect a network once a node is compromised. Hence, trust establishment continuously monitors and evaluates node behavior to detect malicious and compromised nodes. However, just like other security schemes, trust establishment is also vulnerable to attack. Moreover, malicious nodes might misbehave intelligently to trick trust establishment schemes. Unfortunately, attack-resistance and robustness issues with trust establishment schemes have not received much attention from the research community. Considering the vulnerability of trust establishment to different attacks and the unique features of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks, we propose a lightweight and robust trust establishment scheme. The proposed trust scheme is lightweight thanks to a simple trust estimation method. The comprehensiveness and flexibility of the proposed trust estimation scheme make it robust against different types of attack and misbehavior. Performance evaluation under different types of misbehavior and on-off attacks shows that the detection rate of the proposed trust mechanism is higher and more stable compared to other trust mechanisms.

  9. Application of multivariate techniques to analytical data on Aegean ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, A.M.; Brooks, D.W.; Harbottle, G.; Sayre, E.V.

    1976-01-01

    The general problems of data collection and handling for multivariate elemental analyses of ancient pottery are considered including such specific questions as the level of analytical precision required, the number and type of elements to be determined and the need for comprehensive multivariate statistical analysis of the collected data in contrast to element by element statistical analysis. The multivariate statistical procedures of clustering in a multidimensional space and determination of the numerical probabilities of specimens belonging to a group through calculation of the Mahalanobis distances for these specimens in multicomponent space are described together with supporting univariate statistical procedures used at Brookhaven. The application of these techniques to the data on Late Bronze Age Aegean pottery (largely previously analysed at Oxford and Brookhaven with some new specimens considered) have resulted in meaningful subdivisions of previously established groups. (author)

  10. Revision and simplification of the boarding previous minimum of the lumbar column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazannec, JY; Del Vecchio, R; Ramare, S; Saillant, G

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the boarding retroperineal previous minimum, which provides access at any level discal and vertebral between T12 and S1. It is carried out a technique of dissection retroperineal that facilitates the renal and duodenum-pancreatic mobilization to consent to the face previous left of the whole lumbar column and of the thoracic-lumbar union. They were carried out careful anatomical dissections in fresh cadavers and preserved to determine the topography and the anatomical relationships of interest and this way to develop a sure boarding and easily reproducible. Special attention has been paid to the description of the lumbar veins and the anastomosis between the vein renal left and the hemiacigos system for the exhibition of the expensive left anterolateral of T12 and L1. A series of 94 patients is reported with lesions caused by traumas or degenerative processes. For all the lumbar levels, even in-patient with antecedents of surgery intraperitoneal, the boarding minimum retroperitoneal, was safe for the kidneys, ureters, spleen, hypo gastric plexus and duodenum-pancreatic union. Better cosmetic results are reported, decrease of the time surgical, scarce bled intraoperatory and easiness for the decortications and placement of implants. The previous boarding minimum retro peritoneal of the column developed starting from the boarding classic retroperineals, offers significant advantages on the endoscopic techniques, which require sophisticated machinery and they are technically plaintiffs. The exhibition of all the lumbar levels, as well as the reduction maneuvers and placement of implants, they can be carried out with easiness without causing muscular damage

  11. Genomic reconstruction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 metabolism reveals previously uncharacterized machinery for lactate utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Yang, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Osterman, Andrei L.; Dervyn, Etienne; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Collart, Frank R.; Scott, J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2009-02-24

    The ability to utilize lactate as a sole source of carbon and energy is one of the key metabolic signatures of Shewanellae, a diverse group of dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria commonly found in aquatic and sedimentary environments. Nonetheless, homology searches failed to recognize orthologs of previously described bacterial D- or L-lactate oxidizing enzymes (Escherichia coli genes dld and lldD) in any of the 13 analyzed genomes of Shewanella spp. Using comparative genomic techniques, we identified a conserved chromosomal gene cluster in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (locus tag: SO1522-SO1518) containing lactate permease and candidate genes for both D- and L-lactate dehydrogenase enzymes. The predicted D-LDH gene (dldD, SO1521) is a distant homolog of FAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase from yeast, whereas the predicted L-LDH is encoded by three genes with previously unknown functions (lldEGF, SO1520-19-18). Through a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we experimentally confirmed the predicted physiological role of these novel genes in S. oneidensis MR-1 and carried out successful functional validation studies in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We conclusively showed that dldD and lldEFG encode fully functional D-and L-LDH enzymes, which catalyze the oxidation of the respective lactate stereoisomers to pyruvate. Notably, the S. oneidensis MR-1 LldEFG enzyme is the first described example of a multi-subunit lactate oxidase. Comparative analysis of >400 bacterial species revealed the presence of LldEFG and Dld in a broad range of diverse species accentuating the potential importance of these previously unknown proteins in microbial metabolism.

  12. Mississippi River streamflow measurement techniques at St. Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastson, Chester C.; Holmes, Robert R.; Biedenham, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Streamflow measurement techniques of the Mississippi River at St. Louis have changed through time (1866–present). In addition to different methods used for discrete streamflow measurements, the density and range of discrete measurements used to define the rating curve (stage versus streamflow) have also changed. Several authors have utilized published water surface elevation (stage) and streamflow data to assess changes in the rating curve, which may be attributed to be caused by flood control and/or navigation structures. The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough review of the available flow measurement data and techniques and to assess how a strict awareness of the limitations of the data may affect previous analyses. It is concluded that the pre-1930s discrete streamflow measurement data are not of sufficient accuracy to be compared with modern streamflow values in establishing long-term trends of river behavior.

  13. Feasibility study to establish a new value chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingrid Herman, Marie; Thai, Thi Minh

    Since the 90s value chain (VC) approaches have received considerable attention by governments and development agencies for poverty reduction and strengthening the private sector. VC analysis has been used for developing intervention strategies to upgrade existing or to establish new VCs. Despite......-harvesting of Gleichenia ferns in New Caledonia using a holistic framework combining relevant conceptual elements and various analytical tools in VC literature. Results showed the importance of starting with understanding goals of establishing the VC. In this case goals were creating employment in remote areas...... responsibility for value-creation and distribution activities. Finally, the feasibility analysis underlined the importance of reflecting on findings from the previous analyses with regards to set goals in order to identify (mis)matches between expected benefits from the established VC and goals as well...

  14. Non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and previous undetermined acute cerebellar injury: a mysterious clinical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide group of neurological diseases secondary to dysfunctions of cerebellum or its associated pathways, rarely coursing with acute-onset acquired etiologies and chronic non-progressive presentation. We evaluated patients with acquired non-progressive cerebellar ataxia that presented previous acute or subacute onset. Clinical and neuroimaging characterization of adult patients with acquired non-progressive ataxia were performed. Five patients were identified with the phenotype of acquired non-progressive ataxia. Most patients presented with a juvenile to adult-onset acute to subacute appendicular and truncal cerebellar ataxia with mild to moderate cerebellar or olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Establishing the etiology of the acute triggering events of such ataxias is complex. Non-progressive ataxia in adults must be distinguished from hereditary ataxias.

  15. Non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and previous undetermined acute cerebellar injury: a mysterious clinical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide group of neurological diseases secondary to dysfunctions of cerebellum or its associated pathways, rarely coursing with acute-onset acquired etiologies and chronic non-progressive presentation. We evaluated patients with acquired non-progressive cerebellar ataxia that presented previous acute or subacute onset. Clinical and neuroimaging characterization of adult patients with acquired non-progressive ataxia were performed. Five patients were identified with the phenotype of acquired non-progressive ataxia. Most patients presented with a juvenile to adult-onset acute to subacute appendicular and truncal cerebellar ataxia with mild to moderate cerebellar or olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Establishing the etiology of the acute triggering events of such ataxias is complex. Non-progressive ataxia in adults must be distinguished from hereditary ataxias.

  16. Why the definition of high risk has been inappropriately used in previous carotid trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Borst, G J; Schermerhorn, M; Moll, F L

    2015-04-01

    Carotid artery revascularization by endarterectomy is an effective means of stroke prevention in selected patients with carotid stenosis. With the development of endovascular techniques, carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been proposed as a viable alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA), particularly in patients considered at high risk for CEA. Guidelines have established criteria that outline these patients who are considered at "high risk" for complications after CEA, to whom CAS may provide benefit. The validity of these theoretical high-risk criteria, however, is yet unproven, and, as a consequence, there is no clear evidence suggesting that the risk with CAS is lower in these high-risk patients compared with CEA. This manuscript summarizes the role of "high risk" within recent trials and discusses why the optimal treatment for these patients with deemed high risk for surgery remains a matter of debate.

  17. Vibration transducer calibration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, D. J.

    1980-09-01

    Techniques for the calibration of vibration transducers used in the Aeronautical Quality Assurance Directorate of the British Ministry of Defence are presented. Following a review of the types of measurements necessary in the calibration of vibration transducers, the performance requirements of vibration transducers, which can be used to measure acceleration, velocity or vibration amplitude, are discussed, with particular attention given to the piezoelectric accelerometer. Techniques for the accurate measurement of sinusoidal vibration amplitude in reference-grade transducers are then considered, including the use of a position sensitive photocell and the use of a Michelson laser interferometer. Means of comparing the output of working-grade accelerometers with that of previously calibrated reference-grade devices are then outlined, with attention given to a method employing a capacitance bridge technique and a method to be used at temperatures between -50 and 200 C. Automatic calibration procedures developed to speed up the calibration process are outlined, and future possible extensions of system software are indicated.

  18. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  19. Repetition of previously novel melodies sometimes increases both remember and know responses in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, J M; Kaminska, Z; Dixon, M; Java, R I

    1996-09-01

    Recognition memory for previously novel melodies was tested in three experiments in which subjects usedremember andknow responses to report experiences of recollection, or of familiarity in the absence of recollection, for each melody they recognized. Some of the melodies were taken from Polish folk songs and presented vocally, but without the words. Others were taken from obscure pieces of classical music, presented as single-line melodies. Prior to the test, the melodies were repeated for varying numbers of study trials. Repetition of the Polish melodies increased both remember and know responses, while repetition of classical melodies increased remember but not know responses. When subjects were instructed to report guesses, guess responses were inversely related to remember and know responses and there were more guesses to lures than to targets. These findings establish that remembering and knowing are fully independent functionally and, by the same token, they provide further evidence against the idea that response exclusivity causes increases in remembering to force decreases in knowing. The findings also suggest that simultaneous increases in remembering and knowing occurred because the Polish melodies came from a genre for which the subjects had relatively little previous experience.

  20. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorder...

  1. Development and Establishment of Detection Method of Irradiated Foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Jo, Cheo Run; Kim, Jang Ho; Kim, Kyong Su

    2004-12-15

    The present project was related to the development and establishment of the detection techniques for the safety management of gamma-irradiated food and particularly conducted for the establishment of standard detection method for gamma-irradiated dried spices and raw materials, dried meat and fish powder for processed foods, bean paste powder, red pepper paste powder, soy sauce powder, and starch for flavoring ingredients described in 3, 6, 7 section of Korean Food Standard. Since the approvement of gamma-irradiated food items will be enlarged due to the international tendency for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded that the establishment of detailed detection methods for each food group is not efficient for the enactment and enforcement of related regulations. For this reason, in order to establish the standard detection method, a detection system for gamma-irradiated food suitable for domestic operation was studied using comparative analysis of domestic and foreign research data classified by items and methods and European Standard as a reference. According to the comparative analyses of domestic and foreign research data and regulations of detection for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded to be desirable that the optimal detection method should be decided after principal detection tests such as physical, chemical, and biological detection methods are established as standard methods and that the specific descriptions such as pre-treatment of raw materials, test methods, and the evaluation of results should be separately prescribed.

  2. Development and Establishment of Detection Method of Irradiated Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Jo, Cheo Run; Kim, Jang Ho; Kim, Kyong Su

    2004-12-01

    The present project was related to the development and establishment of the detection techniques for the safety management of gamma-irradiated food and particularly conducted for the establishment of standard detection method for gamma-irradiated dried spices and raw materials, dried meat and fish powder for processed foods, bean paste powder, red pepper paste powder, soy sauce powder, and starch for flavoring ingredients described in 3, 6, 7 section of Korean Food Standard. Since the approvement of gamma-irradiated food items will be enlarged due to the international tendency for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded that the establishment of detailed detection methods for each food group is not efficient for the enactment and enforcement of related regulations. For this reason, in order to establish the standard detection method, a detection system for gamma-irradiated food suitable for domestic operation was studied using comparative analysis of domestic and foreign research data classified by items and methods and European Standard as a reference. According to the comparative analyses of domestic and foreign research data and regulations of detection for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded to be desirable that the optimal detection method should be decided after principal detection tests such as physical, chemical, and biological detection methods are established as standard methods and that the specific descriptions such as pre-treatment of raw materials, test methods, and the evaluation of results should be separately prescribed

  3. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... (previously Precision Helicopters, LLC); Robinson Air Crane, Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins... (Previously Hawkins & Powers Aviation); S.M. &T. Aircraft (Previously Us Helicopter Inc., UNC Helicopters, Inc...

  4. Patellar tendon re-rupture on the opposite end of the previous site of surgical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Bryan Thean Howe; Sayampanathan, Andrew A; Lee, Keng Thiam

    2017-01-01

    We describe a rare case of a patellar tendon "re-rupture" at the opposite end of a previous proximal tendon repair. A 32-year-old male with a history of surgically repaired right proximal patellar tendon rupture presented with an acute non-traumatic right knee pain and instability during sports. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a complete rupture of his distal patellar tendon at the tibial tuberosity. The patellar tendon was repaired using two 5.5 mm BioCorkscrews (Arthrex) inserted into the tibial tuberosity; the tendon was stitched with the No. 2 fiberwires using Krackow technique. As the patellar tendon was degenerative, the repair was augmented with a semitendinosus tendon harvested using an open tendon stripper, leaving the distal attachment intact. At 2.6 years followup he had mild anterior knee pain, range of motion 0-130° and was able to squat. MRI scan done at followup revealed good healing of repaired patellar tendon.

  5. An electronic delphi study to establish pediatric intensive care nursing research priorities in twenty European countries*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tume, Lyvonne N.; van den Hoogen, Agnes; Wielenga, Joke M.; Latour, Jos M.

    2014-01-01

    To identify and to establish research priorities for pediatric intensive care nursing science across Europe. A modified three-round electronic Delphi technique was applied. Questionnaires were translated into seven different languages. European PICUs. The participants included pediatric intensive

  6. Bases for establishing radiation exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    It is an essential requirement of good radiation protection that all unnecessary exposure of people should be avoided and that any necessary exposure, whether of workers or of members of the general public, should be minimized. It is, however, an additional requirement that such necessary exposures should not exceed certain stated limits. These principles are based on the possibility that even the smallest exposures may involve some risk of harm, that any risk of harm should be justifiable by the circumstances necessitating it, and that risk should always be limited to an appropriately low level. The bases for establishing exposure limits must therefore involve an assessment of the risk involved in any form of radiation exposure, and an opinion as to the degree of safety that should be ensured in circumstances which necessitate any occupational or public exposure to radiation. There is increasing quantitative evidence on the frequency on which harm, and particularly the induction of malignancies, may be caused in people exposed to radiation at high doses; and somewhat clearer bases than previously for inferring the possible frequencies at low doses. It is therefore easier to assess the degree of safety ensured by restricting radiation exposure to particular levels. It is clear also that a comparable degree of safety should be ensured whether the radiation exposure involves the whole body more of less uniformly, or individual tissues or organs selectively. The ''weighting'' factors appropriate to irradiation of particular tissues from internal emitters can thus be defined in terms of their likely individual contributions to the harm of whole-body irradiation. In this way the limits for different modes of exposure by external or internal radiation can be related so as to ensure that protection should be equally effective for different distributions of absorbed dose in the body. In particular, the over-simplified concept of a single critical organ determining the

  7. Collision vulnerability of vultures at established windfarms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Vulture News 65. November 2013. Collision vulnerability of vultures at established windfarms. Warren Goodwin. 177 Fraser Road North, Canning vale, WA 6155, Australia. shikra_g@yahoo.com. Established wind farms are commonly situated on mountain ridges or hillsides, in order to make optimal use of prevailing winds,.

  8. Improving tree establishment with forage crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Holzmueller; Carl W. Mize

    2003-01-01

    Tree establishment in Iowa can be difficult without adequate weed control. Although herbicides are effective at controlling weeds, they may not be desirable in riparian settings and some landowners are opposed to using them. An alternative to herbicides is the use of forage crops to control weeds. A research project was established in 1998 to evaluate the influence of...

  9. VAT and Fixed Establishment : Mysteries Solved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Schippers (Martijn); Boender, J.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe Sixth Value Added Tax (VAT) Directive introduced the concept of the fixed establishment in VAT. For a long time, the criteria for classifying activities as a fixed establishment seemed relatively clear. However the introduction in 2011 of the VAT Implementing Regulation3

  10. 39 CFR 11.1 - Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment. 11.1 Section 11.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE ADVISORY BOARDS (ARTICLE XI) § 11.1 Establishment. The Board of Governors may create such advisory boards as it may deem...

  11. Moisture availability limits subalpine tree establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Harvey, Brian J; Rodman, Kyle C; Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T

    2018-03-01

    In the absence of broad-scale disturbance, many temperate coniferous forests experience successful seedling establishment only when abundant seed production coincides with favorable climate. Identifying the frequency of past establishment events and the climate conditions favorable for seedling establishment is essential to understanding how climate warming could affect the frequency of future tree establishment events and therefore future forest composition or even persistence of a forest cover. In the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, research on the sensitivity of establishment of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa)-two widely distributed, co-occurring conifers in North America-to climate variability has focused on the alpine treeline ecotone, leaving uncertainty about the sensitivity of these species across much of their elevation distribution. We compared annual germination dates for >450 Engelmann spruce and >500 subalpine fir seedlings collected across a complex topographic-moisture gradient to climate variability in the Colorado Front Range. We found that Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir established episodically with strong synchrony in establishment events across the study area. Broad-scale establishment events occurred in years of high soil moisture availability, which were characterized by above-average snowpack and/or cool and wet summer climatic conditions. In the recent half of the study period (1975-2010), a decrease in the number of fir and spruce establishment events across their distribution coincided with declining snowpack and a multi-decadal trend of rising summer temperature and increasing moisture deficits. Counter to expected and observed increases in tree establishment with climate warming in maritime subalpine forests, our results show that recruitment declines will likely occur across the core of moisture-limited subalpine tree ranges as warming drives increased moisture deficits. © 2018 by the

  12. Current role of endovascular therapy in Marfan patients with previous aortic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Akin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Akin, Stephan Kische, Tim C Rehders, Tushar Chatterjee, Henrik Schneider, Thomas Körber, Christoph A Nienaber, Hüseyin InceDepartment of Medicine, Division of Cardiology at the University Hospital Rostock, Rostock School of Medicine, Ernst-Heydemann-Str. 6, 18057 Rostock, GermanyAbstract: The Marfan syndrome is a heritable disorder of the connective tissue which affects the cardiovascular, ocular, and skeletal system. The cardiovascular manifestation with aortic root dilatation, aortic valve regurgitation, and aortic dissection has a prevalence of 60% to 90% and determines the premature death of these patients. Thirty-four percent of the patients with Marfan syndrome will have serious cardiovascular complications requiring surgery in the first 10 years after diagnosis. Before aortic surgery became available, the majority of the patients died by the age of 32 years. Introduction in the aortic surgery techniques caused an increase of the 10 year survival rate up to 97%. The purpose of this article is to give an overview about the feasibility and outcome of stent-graft placement in the descending thoracic aorta in Marfan patients with previous aortic surgery.Keywords: Marfan syndrome, aortic dissection, root replacement, stent-graft, previous aortic surgery

  13. Peritoneal Dialysis as a First versus Second Option after Previous Haemodialysis: A Very Long-Term Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Roberto José; Cámpora, María Inés; Gimenez, Nélida Susana; Ramirez, Liliana; Panese, Sergio Alberto; Santopietro, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    For renal replacement therapy, overall survival is more important than the choice of currently available individual therapy. Objectives. To compare patients and technique survival on peritoneal dialysis as first treatment (PDF) versus after previous haemodialysis (HDPD) and other indicators of follow-up. Methods. We prospectively studied 110 incident patients, during the period from August 4, 1993, to June 30, 2012, for patients and technique survival (Kaplan-Meier) (log rank P Peritoneal dialysis enables a greater extension of renal replacement therapy for patients with serious difficulties continuing with haemodialysis. PMID:25505992

  14. Establishment of a Learning Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K. W.; Kim, Y. T.; Lee, E. J.; Min, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    A web-based learning management system (LMS) has been established to address the need of customized education and training of Nuclear Training Center (NTC) of KAERI. The LMS is designed to deal with various learning types (e.g. on-line, off-line and blended) and a practically comprehensive learning activity cycle (e.g. course preparation, registration, learning, and postlearning) as well as to be user-friendly. A test with an example course scenario on the established system has shown its satisfactory performance. This paper discusses details of the established webbased learning management system in terms of development approach and functions of the LMS

  15. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  16. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

  17. 21 CFR 1.337 - What information must nontransporters establish and maintain to identify the nontransporter and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must nontransporters establish and maintain to identify the nontransporter and transporter immediate previous sources of food? 1.337... Previous Sources of Food § 1.337 What information must nontransporters establish and maintain to identify...

  18. Establishment of mesenchymal cell line derived from human developing odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, H; Kudo, Y; Ogawa, I; Shimasue, H; Shigeishi, H; Ohta, K; Higashikawa, K; Takechi, M; Takata, T; Kamata, N

    2012-11-01

    An odontoma, which shows proliferating odontogenic epithelium and mesenchymal tissue, is one of the most common odontogenic tumors encountered. These are commonly found in tooth-bearing regions, although the etiology remains unknown. There are no previous reports of an established line of immortalized human odontoma cells. Using odontoma fragments obtained from a girl treated at our department, we established an immortalized human odontoma cell line and investigated cell morphology, dynamic proliferation, the presence of contamination, and karyotype. Moreover, cell characterization was examined using osteogenic and odontogenic markers. We successfully established a mesenchymal odontoma cell (mOd cells). The cells were found to be fibroblastic and had a high level of telomerase activity. Cell growth was confirmed after more than 200 population doublings without significant growth retardation. mOd cells expressed mRNA for differentiation markers, including collagen type I (COLI), alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteocalcin, cementum-derived protein (CP-23), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and distal-less homeobox 3 (DLX3), as well as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In addition, they showed a high level of calcified nodule formation activity in vitro. We successfully established a cell line that may be useful for investigating the mechanisms of normal odontogenesis as well as characteristics of odontoma tumors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Clinical Governance: Efficacy of Establishment in Mashhad Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoodi R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Clinical governance is a framework in which the organizations providing clinical services are responsible in exchange for the permanent improvement of quality and preserving the service’s high standard. It relies on the responsibility to maintain current levels of care and on clinical governance pillars to improve the quality of future care. Also, it is a concept that attempts to integrate the previous methods and tools in measuring and improving quality of care. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic-interventional study was conducted to evaluate the hospitals of Mashhad before and after the establishment of clinical governance in 2011. Data were collected by both questionnaires and observation. Results: Comparing the range of clinical governance’s pillars obtained, from the selected hospitals, showed a significant improvement in all studied axes following the establishment of clinical governance. The highest effectiveness was related to clinical audit, staff management and training axes, whereas the least effective part was the interaction with patients, their relatives and the community. Conclusion: Regarding the significant difference in the obtained results after the establishment of clinical governance in this study, it could be concluded that the establishment of clinical governance and its performance could remarkably improve the quality of health services.

  20. Principles for Establishing Ecologically Successful Riparian Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principles for establishing riparian areas. Riparian areas are three‐dimensional ecotones of interaction that include terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, that extend down into the groundwater, up above the canopy, outward across the floodplain.

  1. Establishments of scientific radiation protection management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1988-01-01

    Some aspects for establishing the radiation protection management program have been discussed. Radiation protection management program includes: definite aims of management, complete data register, strict supervision system, and scientific management methodology

  2. Sustainable landscaping practices for enhancing vegetation establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Soil compaction can severely limit the success of vegetation establishment. Current grading and landscaping : practices commonly produce compacted soils of varied textures and profiles within SHA medians and roadsides, : resulting in limited capacity...

  3. Personnel fluctuations in large research establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, S.; Schwarz, W.

    1975-12-01

    The present personnel situation in large West Germany research establishments, reasons for and direction of mobility, a so-called status-quo-projection, and the influenceability of the situation are discussed. (HK/AK) [de

  4. Learning and Action Alliances: defining and establishing

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Emily; Lamond, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    A factsheet describing how you define and establish a Learning and Action Alliance (LAA) using a demonstration example in Newcastle, UK, as part of the research being conducted by the Blue-Green Cities Research Project

  5. Genetic modifications of established varieties of potato through mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Owing to the high intercrossability of improved clones with primitive cultivars and many wild species there is little justification for use of induced mutations in potato to increase variability per se. Modification of certain traits while leaving the genotype basically intact is a promising use of mutagenesis in potato. The successful curing of defects in clones will depend on the establishment a priori of three principles. First, the clones undergoing mutagenesis should be well established varieties tolerant or resistant to the major biotic and abiotic stresses in the area of cultivation. The yield and culinary quality should also be considered high. Second, there should exist some indication that the variation desired is induceable, either through reports of natural intra-clone variation or previous mutagenesis studies. Third, initial screening should be done in virus-free materials

  6. Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Noor Azuin; Mat Taib, Che Norma; Mohd Moklas, Mohamad Aris; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik; Basir, Rusliza

    2016-01-01

    Nootropics or smart drugs are well-known compounds or supplements that enhance the cognitive performance. They work by increasing the mental function such as memory, creativity, motivation, and attention. Recent researches were focused on establishing a new potential nootropic derived from synthetic and natural products. The influence of nootropic in the brain has been studied widely. The nootropic affects the brain performances through number of mechanisms or pathways, for example, dopaminergic pathway. Previous researches have reported the influence of nootropics on treating memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Those disorders are observed to impair the same pathways of the nootropics. Thus, recent established nootropics are designed sensitively and effectively towards the pathways. Natural nootropics such as Ginkgo biloba have been widely studied to support the beneficial effects of the compounds. Present review is concentrated on the main pathways, namely, dopaminergic and cholinergic system, and the involvement of amyloid precursor protein and secondary messenger in improving the cognitive performance.

  7. Development og groundwater flow modeling techniques for the low-level radwaste disposal (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Dae-Seok; Kim, Chun-Soo; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Park, Byung-Yoon; Koh, Yong-Kweon; Park, Hyun-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The project amis to establish the methodology of hydrogeologic assessment by the field application of the evaluation techniques gained and accumulated from the previous hydrogeological research works in Korea. The results of the project and their possible areas for application are (1) acquisition of detailed hydrogeologic information by using a borehole televiewer and a multipacker system, (2) establishing an integrated hydrogeological assessment method for fractured rocks, (3) acquisition of the fracture parameters for fracture modeling, (4) an inversion analysis of hydraulic parameters from fracture network modeling, (5) geostatistical methods for the spatial assignment of hydraulic parameters for fractured rocks, and (6) establishing the groundwater flow modeling procedure for a repository. 75 refs., 72 figs., 34 tabs. (Author)

  8. Establishing community trust at radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, E.

    1999-01-01

    Establishing community trust is an essential element in the successful remediation of a radioactively contaminated site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 2 has been involved in the clean up of numerous radioactively contaminated Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), and Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites in New Jersey and New York. Each site presented a unique challenge which centered around establishing and, often, re-establishing the trust of the surrounding community. Thanks to the United States government's history regarding the use of radioactive materials, people question whether governmental regulators could possibly have the public's best interests in mind when it comes to addressing radioactively contaminated sites. It has been our experience that EPA can use its position as guardian of the environment to help establish public confidence in remedial actions. The EPA can even use its position to lend credibility to remedial activities in situations where it is not directly responsible for the clean-up. Some ways that we have found to instill community confidence are: establishing radioanalytical cross-check programs using EPA's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory to provide analytical quality assurance; and establishing an environmental radiation monitoring program for the contaminated site and surrounding community. (author)

  9. Establishment of Hepatocellular Cancer Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using a Reprogramming Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Joon; Jeong, Jaemin; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook; Lee, Seung Bum; Choi, Dongho

    2017-03-15

    Cancer is known to be a disease by many factors. However, specific results of reprogramming by pluripotency-related transcription factors remain to be scarcely reported. Here, we verified potential effects of pluripotent-related genes in hepatocellular carcinoma cancer cells. To better understand reprogramming of cancer cells in different genetic backgrounds, we used four liver cancer cell lines representing different states of p53 (HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7 and PLC). Retroviral-mediated introduction of reprogramming related genes (KLF4, Oct4, Sox2, and Myc) was used to induce the expression of proteins related to a pluripotent status in liver cancer cells. Hep3B cells (null p53) exhibited a higher efficiency of reprogramming in comparison to the other liver cancer cell lines. The reprogrammed Hep3B cells acquired similar characteristics to pluripotent stem cells. However, loss of stemness in Hep3B-iPCs was detected during continual passage. We demonstrated that reprogramming was achieved in tumor cells through retroviral induction of genes associated with reprogramming. Interestingly, the reprogrammed pluripotent cancer cells (iPCs) were very different from original cancer cells in terms of colony shape and expressed markers. The induction of pluripotency of liver cancer cells correlated with the status of p53, suggesting that different expression level of p53 in cancer cells may affect their reprogramming.

  10. Establish nesting beach origins for all turtles in CA via genetic techniques

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To examine the stock origin and evaluate current life-history hypotheses of green turtles foraging in southern California, 780 bp of the mitochondrial (mtDNA)...

  11. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt After Previous Recanalization of a Chronically Thrombosed Portal Vein via a Transmesenteric Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Jun; Kadoya, Masumi; Gabata, Tosifumi; Takashima, Tsutomu; Urabe, Takeshi; Unoura, Masasi; Kobayashi, Kenichi

    1996-01-01

    We report a cirrhotic patient with complete occlusion of the portal vein with marked cavernous transformation due to chronic thrombosis in whom a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was successfully created after direct minilaparotomy mesenteric vein catheterization, lysis and aspiration of the thrombus, and stenting in the portal vein. The methods used, we believe, provide a new technique for performing TIPS in chronically thrombosed portal veins in which previously no effective surgical therapeutic options were available

  12. Evaluation of the national health surveillance program of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain (2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Montserrat García; Castañeda, Rosario; López, Vega García; Vidal, Manuel Martínez; Villanueva, Vicent; Espinosa, Mercedes Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Although asbestos was banned in Spain in 2001, monitoring the health of previously-exposed workers is required. In 2002 the Ministry of Health and the autonomous regions of Spain planned a health surveillance program for workers exposed to asbestos (Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores Expuestos al Amianto [PIVISTEA]) with employers' organizations, trade unions and scientific societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PIVISTEA to improve its effectiveness. A questionnaire with indicators for the year 2008 was sent to Spain's 17 autonomous regions, as well as to the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The results were analyzed by evaluating the compliance of each program with the activities established by the PIVISTEA. In December 2008, a total of 22,158 workers from 14 autonomous regions and 306 companies were included in the program. The program had been started in 88% of the regions but surveillance activities remained scarce in 24%. Fifty-seven percent of the autonomous regions (69% of the total number of workers) provided the information requested. Seven autonomous regions provided data on the relationship between the diseases found and asbestos exposure. Only 5% of these diseases entitled affected individuals to receive compensation for occupational diseases. The health surveillance of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain, as well as medical-legal recognition of diseases caused by exposure at work, remain in adequate. Although the trend is positive, the effectiveness of many regional programs is limited, and inter-regional inequalities among affected workers have been detected. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain: Findings From 19 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    2018-01-01

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders

  14. The Relationship Between Functional Movement, Balance Deficits, and Previous Injury History in Deploying Marine Warfighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Motte, Sarah J; Lisman, Peter; Sabatino, Marc; Beutler, Anthony I; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-06-01

    Screening for primary musculoskeletal injury (MSK-I) is costly and time-consuming. Both the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Y-Balance Test (YBT) have been shown to predict future MSK-I. With a goal of optimizing the efficiency of primary MSK-I screening, we studied associations between performance on the FMS and YBT and whether history of MSK-I influenced FMS and YBT scores. In total, 365 deploying Marines performed the FMS and YBT as prescribed. Composite and individual scores were each categorized as high risk or low risk using published injury thresholds: High-risk FMS included composite scores ≤14 and right-to-left (R/L) asymmetry for Shoulder Mobility, In-Line Lunge, Straight Leg Raise, Hurdle Step, or Rotary Stability. High-risk YBT consisted of anterior, posteromedial, and/or posterolateral R/L differences >4 cm and/or composite differences ≥12 cm. Pearson's χ tests evaluated associations between: (a) all FMS and YBT risk groups and (b) previous MSK-I and all FMS and YBT risk groups. Marines with high-risk FMS were twice as likely to have high-risk YBT posteromedial scores (χ = 10.2, p = 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-3.2). History of any MSK-I was not associated with high-risk FMS or high-risk YBT. However, previous lower extremity MSK-I was associated with In-Line Lunge asymmetries (χ = 9.8, p = 0.002, OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6). Overall, we found limited overlap in FMS and YBT risk. Because both methods seem to assess different risk factors for injury, we recommend FMS and YBT continue to be used together in combination with a thorough injury history until their predictive capacities are further established.

  15. Global Distribution of Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides in 2010 Relative to Previous Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Adler, David; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Huffman, George

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides worldwide. While research has evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local or regional scales using in situ data, few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This study uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from TRMM data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurrence of precipitation and landslides globally. Evaluation of the GLC indicates that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This study characterizes the variability of satellite precipitation data and reported landslide activity at the globally scale in order to improve landslide cataloging, forecasting and quantify potential triggering sources at daily, monthly and yearly time scales.

  16. Microscopy techniques in flavivirus research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mun Keat; Chua, Anthony Jin Shun; Tan, Terence Tze Tong; Tan, Suat Hoon; Ng, Mah Lee

    2014-04-01

    The Flavivirus genus is composed of many medically important viruses that cause high morbidity and mortality, which include Dengue and West Nile viruses. Various molecular and biochemical techniques have been developed in the endeavour to study flaviviruses. However, microscopy techniques still have irreplaceable roles in the identification of novel virus pathogens and characterization of morphological changes in virus-infected cells. Fluorescence microscopy contributes greatly in understanding the fundamental viral protein localizations and virus-host protein interactions during infection. Electron microscopy remains the gold standard for visualizing ultra-structural features of virus particles and infected cells. New imaging techniques and combinatory applications are continuously being developed to push the limit of resolution and extract more quantitative data. Currently, correlative live cell imaging and high resolution three-dimensional imaging have already been achieved through the tandem use of optical and electron microscopy in analyzing biological specimens. Microscopy techniques are also used to measure protein binding affinities and determine the mobility pattern of proteins in cells. This chapter will consolidate on the applications of various well-established microscopy techniques in flavivirus research, and discuss how recently developed microscopy techniques can potentially help advance our understanding in these membrane viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 21 CFR 207.40 - Establishment registration and drug listing requirements for foreign establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the English language. (c) Each foreign drug establishment required to register under paragraph (a... requirements for foreign establishments. 207.40 Section 207.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL DISTRIBUTION Procedure for Foreign Drug Establishments § 207.40...

  18. Consumer attitudes towards the establishment of a national Australian familial cancer research database by the Inherited Cancer Connect (ICCon) Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Laura; Mitchell, Gillian; Thrupp, Letitia; Petelin, Lara; Richardson, Kate; Mascarenhas, Lyon; Young, Mary-Anne

    2018-01-01

    Clinical genetics units hold large amounts of information which could be utilised to benefit patients and their families. In Australia, a national research database, the Inherited Cancer Connect (ICCon) database, is being established that comprises clinical genetic data held for all carriers of mutations in cancer predisposition genes. Consumer input was sought to establish the acceptability of the inclusion of clinical genetic data into a research database. A qualitative approach using a modified nominal group technique was used to collect data through consumer forums conducted in three Australian states. Individuals who had previously received care from Familial Cancer Centres were invited to participate. Twenty-four consumers participated in three forums. Participants expressed positive attitudes about the establishment of the ICCon database, which were informed by the perceived benefits of the database including improved health outcomes for individuals with inherited cancer syndromes. Most participants were comfortable to waive consent for their clinical information to be included in the research database in a de-identified format. As major stakeholders, consumers have an integral role in contributing to the development and conduct of the ICCon database. As an initial step in the development of the ICCon database, the forums demonstrated consumers' acceptance of important aspects of the database including waiver of consent.

  19. 75 FR 20933 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US Helicopters, Inc., UNC Helicopter, Inc... Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US...

  20. Correction of Large Oro-antral Communications From Previously Failed Implant Treatment: Reconstruction of Hard and Soft Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrungaro, Paul S; Gonzalez, Santiago; Villegas, Carlos

    2018-02-01

    As dental implants become more popular for the treatment of partial and total edentulism and treatment of "terminal dentitions," techniques for the management of the atrophic posterior maxillae continue to evolve. Although dental implants carry a high success rate long term, attention must be given to the growing numbers of revisions or retreatment of cases that have had previous dental implant treatment and/or advanced bone replacement procedures that, due to either poor patient compliance, iatrogenic error, or poor quality of the pre-existing alveolar and/or soft tissues, have led to large osseous defects, possibly with deficient soft-tissue volume. In the posterior maxillae, where the poorest quality of bone in the oral cavity exists, achieving regeneration of the alveolar bone and adequate volume of soft tissue remains a complex procedure. This is made even more difficult when dealing with loss of dental implants previously placed, aggressive bone reduction required in various implant procedures, and/or residual sinus infections precluding proper closure of the oral wound margins. The purpose of this article is to outline a technique for the total closure of large oro-antral communications, with underlying osseous defects greater than 15 mm in width and 30 mm in length, for which multiple previous attempts at closure had failed, to achieve not only the reconstruction of adequate volume and quality of soft tissues in the area of the previous fistula, but also total regeneration of the osseous structures in the area of the large void.

  1. Establishment of ultra trace nuclear material analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyuseok; Jee, Kwangyong; Lee, Changheon

    2012-05-01

    Highly accurate and precise analysis of ultra trace nuclear materials contained in swipe samples and environmental samples is required to improve the national nuclear transparency and the international nuclear security. The objectives of the first stage of this project are to develop the techniques for bulk analysis of environmental samples and the elemental techniques for particle analysis using FT-TIMS. To accomplish the objectives, state-of-the-art analytical instruments were set up followed by the development of the techniques for screening of nuclear materials, chemical treatement, particle handling, isotopic measurements using TIMS and ICP-MS, and fabrication of uranium microparticles. The verifications of the developed techniques were carried out by measurement of reference materials, and by participation to interlaboratory comparison programs. In additon, the establishement of a quality management system and the performance of the analysis of QC samples for IAEA-NWAL qualification were carried out to obtain the international accreditation for the related analytical system. In this report, the results of research and developments, and the achievements to obtain the international accreditation were summarized

  2. Prevention of Tetanus Outbreak Following Natural Disaster in Indonesia: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascapurnama, Dyshelly Nurkartika; Murakami, Aya; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Hattori, Toshio; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    In Indonesia, the Aceh earthquake and tsunami in 2004 killed 127,000 people and caused half a million injuries, while the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006 caused 5,700 deaths and 37,000 injuries. Because disaster-affected areas are vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases and tetanus is one such disease that is preventable, we systematically reviewed the literature related to tetanus outbreaks following previous two natural disasters in Indonesia. Based on our findings, recommendations for proper vaccination and education can be made for future countermeasures. Using specified keywords related to tetanus and disasters, relevant documents were screened from PubMed, the WHO website, and books. Reports offering limited data and those released before 2004 were excluded. In all, 16 publications were reviewed systematically. Results show that 106 cases of tetanus occurred in Aceh, with a case fatality ratio (CFR) of 18.9%; 71 cases occurred in Yogyakarta, with CFR of 36.6%. For both outbreaks, most patients had been wounded during scavenging or evacuation after the disaster occurred. Poor access to health care because of limited transportation or hospital facilities, and low vaccination coverage and lack of awareness of tetanus risk contributed to delayed treatment and case severity. Tetanus outbreaks after disasters are preventable by increasing vaccination coverage, improving wound care treatment, and establishing a regular surveillance system, in addition to good practices of disaster management and supportive care following national guidelines. Furthermore, health education for communities should be provided to raise awareness of tetanus risk reduction.

  3. Klassevirus 1, a previously undescribed member of the family Picornaviridae, is globally widespread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipas James M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is the third leading infectious cause of death worldwide and is estimated to be responsible for approximately 2 million deaths a year. While many infectious causes of diarrhea have been established, approximately 40% of all diarrhea cases are of unknown etiology. In an effort to identify novel viruses that may be causal agents of diarrhea, we used high throughput mass sequencing to analyze stool samples collected from patients with acute diarrhea. Results Sequences with limited similarity to known picornaviruses were detected in a stool sample collected in Australia from a child with acute diarrhea. Using a combination of mass sequencing, RT-PCR, 5' RACE and 3' RACE, a 6383 bp fragment of the viral genome was sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this virus was highly divergent from, but most closely related to, members of the genus Kobuvirus. We have tentatively named this novel virus klassevirus 1. We also detected klassevirus 1 by RT-PCR in a diarrhea specimen collected from a patient in St. Louis, United States as well as in untreated sewage collected in Barcelona, Spain. Conclusion Klassevirus 1 is a previously undescribed picornavirus that is globally widespread and present on at least three continents. Further investigations to determine whether klassevirus 1 is a human pathogen are needed.

  4. Moraxella catarrhalis: from emerging to established pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verduin (Cees); C. Hol; A. Fleer; H. van Dijk (Hans); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMoraxella catarrhalis (formerly known as Branhamella catarrhalis) has emerged as a significant bacterial pathogen of humans over the past two decades. During this period, microbiological and molecular diagnostic techniques have been developed and improved for M.

  5. Safety and feasibility of laparoscopic sigmoid colon and rectal cancer surgery in patients with previous vertical abdominal laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haksal, Mustafa; Ozdenkaya, Yasar; Atici, Ali Emre; Okkabaz, Nuri; Aksakal, Nihat; Erdemir, Ayhan; Civil, Osman; Oncel, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Current study aims to analyze the impact of previous vertical laparotomy on safety and feasibility of laparoscopic sigmoid colon and rectal cancer operations. All consecutive patients who underwent a laparoscopic resection for sigmoid colon or rectal cancer were included. These aspects were abstracted and compared within no laparotomy and previous vertical laparotomy groups: demographics, perioperative aspects, pathological features and survival. There were 252 patients in no laparotomy group, and 25 cases with previous vertical incisions including lower (n = 12, 48%), upper (n = 7, 28%), and lower&upper (n = 2, 8%) midline and paramedian (n = 4, 16%) laparotomies. Veress insufflation and open technique were used in 19 (76%) and 6 (24%) cases, respectively, during the insertion of the first trocar in previous laparotomy group. Patients in previous laparotomy group were significantly older (59.2 ± 13.4 vs. 66.2 ± 10.1, p = 0.01), but gender, ASA scores, tumor and technique related factors were similar within the groups, including operation time (200 [70-600] vs. 200 [130-390] min, p = 0.353), blood loss (250 [100-1500] vs. 250 [0-2200] ml, p = 0.46), additional trocar insertion (10 [4%] vs. 3 [12%], p = 0.101), conversion (20 [7.9%] vs. 4 [16%], p = 0.25), postoperative complication (59 [23.4%] vs. 4 [16%], p = 0.06) and 30-day mortality (7 [2.8%] vs. 1 [4%], p = 0.536) rates. Oncological outcomes regarding pathological features and 5-year survival rates (65% vs. 73.2%, p = 0.678) were not different. The presence of a previous laparotomy does not worsen the outcomes in patients undergoing laparoscopic removal of sigmoid or rectal cancer, thus laparoscopy may be considered to be safe and feasible in these cases. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Misoprostol use for second-trimester termination of pregnancy among women with one or more previous cesarean deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar Torriente, Martin; Steinberg, Wilhelm J; Joubert, Gina

    2017-07-01

    To establish the safety and efficacy of misoprostol for second-trimester termination of pregnancy among women with one or more previous cesarean deliveries. In a retrospective study, data were reviewed from women attending a reproductive health clinic in Bloemfontein, South Africa, for second-trimester termination between 2010 and 2013. The study group, comprising women with one or more previous cesareans, was compared with a control group, comprising women with no previous cesarean or uterine scarring. Procedure-specific information was compared, including misoprostol use, termination duration, need for other methods (e.g. oxytocin), placenta delivery, termination outcome, and bleeding. The study group comprised 268 women: 231 (86.2%) with one and 37 (13.8%) with two previous cesareans. The control group comprised 266 women. Incomplete abortion was recorded in 223 (85.4%) of 261 women in the study group and 213 (80.4%) of 265 in the control group. The number of women with retained placenta was higher in the study than in the control group (158/261 [60.5%] vs 146/265 [55.1%]; PMisoprostol was safe for second-trimester termination among women with previous cesareans; however, the efficacy of the local regimen was reduced owing to high placental retention. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  7. Establishment for quality control of experimental animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Soo Kwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    1999-06-01

    Until now, because we have imported experimental animal from foreign experimental animal corporation, we could have saved money by establishing the quality control of animal in barrier system. In order to improve the quality of animal experiment and efficiency of biomedical study, it is indispensable to control many factors that effect in the experiment. Therefore, it is essential to organize the system of laboratory animal care for enhancing reliability and revivability of experimental results. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish the quality control system of experimental animals that we can provide good quality animals according to the experimental condition of each investigator although the exact quality control system to estimate the infection of bacteria and virus easily remains ill-defined yet. Accordingly, we established the useful quality control system for microbiologic monitoring and environmental monitoring to protect experimental animal from harmful bacteria and virus

  8. Establishment for quality control of experimental animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Soo Kwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    1999-06-01

    Until now, because we have imported experimental animal from foreign experimental animal corporation, we could have saved money by establishing the quality control of animal in barrier system. In order to improve the quality of animal experiment and efficiency of biomedical study, it is indispensable to control many factors that effect in the experiment. Therefore, it is essential to organize the system of laboratory animal care for enhancing reliability and revivability of experimental results. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish the quality control system of experimental animals that we can provide good quality animals according to the experimental condition of each investigator although the exact quality control system to estimate the infection of bacteria and virus easily remains ill-defined yet. Accordingly, we established the useful quality control system for microbiologic monitoring and environmental monitoring to protect experimental animal from harmful bacteria and virus.

  9. Establishing a Comprehensive Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleeter, Sanford [Purdue University

    2012-09-30

    This project was directed at establishing a comprehensive wind energy program in Indiana, including both educational and research components. A graduate/undergraduate course ME-514 - Fundamentals of Wind Energy has been established and offered and an interactive prediction of VAWT performance developed. Vertical axis wind turbines for education and research have been acquired, instrumented and installed on the roof top of a building on the Calumet campus and at West Lafayette (Kepner Lab). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have been performed to simulate these urban wind environments. Also, modal dynamic testing of the West Lafayette VAWT has been performed and a novel horizontal axis design initiated. The 50-meter meteorological tower data obtained at the Purdue Beck Agricultural Research Center have been analyzed and the Purdue Reconfigurable Micro Wind Farm established and simulations directed at the investigation of wind farm configurations initiated. The virtual wind turbine and wind turbine farm simulation in the Visualization Lab has been initiated.

  10. Establishing diagnostic reference levels in digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bana, Remy Wilson

    2016-04-01

    Medical application of radiation has gained wider study since diagnostic radiology plays a very important role in modern medicine. The need of the service seems to increase since the invention of digital radiology as a new technology that promises greater accuracy while minimizing patient dose. However, it is not exempted in the harmonization of doses delivered to the patient undergoing same radiologic examination in different institutions either regional or nationwide. The objective of this project was to review the establishment of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) in digital radiology at National level with the aim to reduce patient dose while maintaining appropriate image quality. A general discussion on digital radiology has been presented focusing on the optimization of patient dose as well as dosimetric quantities used for the establishment of DRLs. Recommendations have been provided for Rwanda to initiate steps to establish National Diagnostic Reference Levels for common procedures in digital radiology. (au)

  11. Establishing soil loss tolerance: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Di Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss tolerance is a criterion for establishing if a soil is potentially subjected to erosion risk, productivity loss and if a river presents downstream over-sedimentation or other off-site effects are present at basin scale. At first this paper reviews the concept of tolerable soil loss and summarises the available definitions and the knowledge on the recommended values and evaluating criteria. Then a threshold soil loss value, at the annual temporal scale, established for limiting riling was used for defining the classical soil loss tolerance. Finally, some research needs on tolerable soil loss are listed.

  12. Manuscripts on establishment of Korea nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik Su

    1999-12-01

    This book mentions establishment of Korea nuclear power with twelve manuscripts. It is comprised of twelve documents with conversation and recollection the contents of this book are summary, conversation with Yoon, Se Won, conversation with Choe, Paeng Seop, conversation with Lee, Dong Jip, conversation with Lee, Sang Su, conversation with Kim, Jong Ju, conversation with Lee, Jong Hun, conversation with Youn, Young Ryeok, conversation with Han, Pil Sun, recollection on my nuclear energy by Kim, Dong Hun, recollection on my nuclear power by Lee, Chang Gun, I and nuclear power by Park, Ik Su. It reports the establishment on history and process of Korea nuclear power plant through dialogue with twelve people.

  13. Point of Technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .

    hotmail.com. Introduction. Minimally invasive techniques are becoming popular choice for the recent times. These techniques are lowering the cost and giving the best cosmetic results. For cardiovascular surgery these techniques are much more.

  14. Cogeneration techniques; Les techniques de cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This dossier about cogeneration techniques comprises 12 parts dealing successively with: the advantages of cogeneration (examples of installations, electrical and thermal efficiency); the combustion turbine (principle, performances, types); the alternative internal combustion engines (principle, types, rotation speed, comparative performances); the different configurations of cogeneration installations based on alternative engines and based on steam turbines (coal, heavy fuel and natural gas-fueled turbines); the environmental constraints of combustion turbines (pollutants, techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions); the environmental constraints of alternative internal combustion engines (gas and diesel engines); cogeneration and energy saving; the techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions (pollutants, unburnt hydrocarbons, primary and secondary (catalytic) techniques, post-combustion); the most-advanced configurations of cogeneration installations for enhanced performances (counter-pressure turbines, massive steam injection cycles, turbo-chargers); comparison between the performances of the different cogeneration techniques; the tri-generation technique (compression and absorption cycles). (J.S.)

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITY FOR ESTABLISHING PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE (PMO IN COMPANIES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Project Management Office (PMO is an organizational unit established to help project managers, project teams and the various levels of management in carrying out the principles of project management. The research was carried out in Serbia, in 2011, with the aim to establish which methodologies and techniques are used for project m anagement, and which of them are used the most frequently. Furthermore, the need for establishment of PMOs in Serbia is discussed. These offices should help in establishing a standardized methodology (at the organization level and thus overcome the obviou s poor use of any project management methodology at all.

  16. Prospects of establishing food irradiation facilities in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, A.O.; Patel, J.P.; Rathore, I.V.S.; Hashim, N.O.; Kinyua, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: A national project of food irradiation in the country is being proposed. At present there are no facilities for food irradiation (and food irradiation research) in Kenya. This report is therefore largely comparative between the traditional and the conventional food preservation methods on the one hand and the irradiation technique on the other. The report is also based on information from other countries where food irradiation is practiced (Kawabata, 1981) or is being also contemplated (Diop et al, 1997), as well as on the relevant report of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on this topic (IAEA, 1993). The paper presents the statement of the research problem, i.e., in Kenya large quantities of food and other farm produces go to waste annually as a result of the inadequacies of the preservation techniques currently in use. These (other) preservation techniques, although often less controversial than the irradiation techniques, have also been found to be more expensive to run when compared to irradiation techniques. Such techniques, presently employed in Kenya, include the traditional methods (e.g. sun drying, smoke and fire drying, etc.) and modern techniques such as freezing or refrigeration, lyophilization, etc., as well as application of chemicals like insecticides and fumigants. The latter combines the disadvantages of high costs with environmental pollution and associated health risks. In this preliminary research, aimed at studying the prospects of a national food irradiation project, the following food items that are selected for their importance to the economy of the country, include potatoes, rice, maize, coffee, tea, various fruits, fish and meat. The paper also explores the economic feasibility as well as the human and technological requirements of establishing a commercial food irradiation plant, with aim of assessing the applicability of food irradiation as alternative or a complimentary approach for preservation technique in

  17. Fractures around a previous fixation of proximal femur. A simple solution to a complex problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Manuel Bidolegui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of hip fractures in the elderly growth with the increase in life expectancy. Therefore meet with a femur fractured, distal to a previously  implant fixation used in intertrochanteric femur fractures as dynamic hip screw or fixed angle plate, is not an uncommon scenario despite year mortality of hip fracture of 30 to 50%. Given this situation, we used a retrograde intramedullary nail associated with extracting screws percutaneously prior implant. We present 8 cases in patients with an average age of 85.6 years, 5 female and 3 male with a time from the proximal femur fixation to the  new fracture average 3.5 years. Will we track 36 months and we evaluated postoperative mobility and pain getting a consolidation of the fracture in all cases. We found this technique effective; capable of achieving stable fixation without adding morbidity due to the possibility of overlapping two implants decreasing the possibility of potential new interimplantes fracture.

  18. Human papilloma virus identification in breast cancer patients with previous cervical neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Women with human papilloma virus (HPV associated cervical neoplasia have a higher risk of developing breast cancer than the general female population. The purpose of this study was to (i identify high risk for cancer HPVs in cervical neoplasia and subsequent HPV positive breast cancers which developed in the same patients and (ii determine if these HPVs were biologically active.Methods: A range of polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunohistochemical techniques were used to conduct a retrospective cohort study of cervical precancers and subsequent breast cancers in the same patients. Results: The same high risk HPV types were identified in both the cervical and breast specimens in 13 (46% of 28 patients. HPV type 18 was the most prevalent. HPVs appeared to be biologically active as demonstrated by the expression of HPV E7 proteins and the presence of HPV associated koilocytes. The average age of these patients diagnosed with breast cancer following prior cervical precancer was 51 years, as compared to 60 years for all women with breast cancer (p for difference = 0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate that high risk HPVs can be associated with cervical neoplasia and subsequent young age breast cancer. However these associations are unusual and are a very small proportion of breast cancers. These outcomes confirm and extend the observations of 2 similar previous studies and offer one explanation for the increased prevalence of serious invasive breast cancer among young women.

  19. Identification of Previously Unknown Groups of Microorganisms Under the Tundra Snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Schadt, C. W.; Lipson, D. A.; Martin, A. P.

    2003-12-01

    Recent work has shown that microbial communities are active under snow. In fact, in some tundra soils these organisms reach their year-round peak in late winter. These communities can function at temperatures down to at least -5° C and are fuelled by dead plant material laid down in the Autumn. Until now the identity of these cold adapted microbial communities was a complete mystery. We used microbiological and molecular techniques to elucidate the phylogenetic composition of these under-snow microbial communities. At the broadest taxonomic level, we show that fungi dominate the under-snow world. More detailed molecular analyses revealed a high diversity within the fungi and we identified three clades that constitute major new groups of fungi (at the subphylum or class level) that have not been previously described or cultured. An abundance of hitherto unknown fungi that are active beneath the snow significantly broadens our understanding of both the diversity and biogeochemical functioning of fungi in cold environments.

  20. Patellar tendon re-rupture on the opposite end of the previous site of surgical repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Thean Howe KOH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rare case of a patellar tendon “re-rupture” at the opposite end of a previous proximal tendon repair. A 32-year-old male with a history of surgically repaired right proximal patellar tendon rupture presented with an acute non-traumatic right knee pain and instability during sports. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a complete rupture of his distal patellar tendon at the tibial tuberosity. The patellar tendon was repaired using two 5.5 mm BioCorkscrews (Arthrex inserted into the tibial tuberosity; the tendon was stitched with the No. 2 fiberwires using Krackow technique. As the patellar tendon was degenerative, the repair was augmented with a semitendinosus tendon harvested using an open tendon stripper, leaving the distal attachment intact. At 2.6 years followup he had mild anterior knee pain, range of motion 0-130[0] and was able to squat. MRI scan done at followup revealed good healing of repaired patellar tendon.

  1. Simulatedin vivoElectrophysiology Experiments Provide Previously Inaccessible Insights into Visual Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Maria; Price, Nicholas SC

    2016-01-01

    Lecture content and practical laboratory classes are ideally complementary. However, the types of experiments that have led to our detailed understanding of sensory neuroscience are often not amenable to classroom experimentation as they require expensive equipment, time-consuming surgeries, specialized experimental techniques, and the use of animals. While sometimes feasible in small group teaching, these experiments are not suitable for large cohorts of students. Previous attempts to expose students to sensory neuroscience experiments include: the use of electrophysiology preparations in invertebrates, data-driven simulations that do not replicate the experience of conducting an experiment, or simply observing an experiment in a research laboratory. We developed an online simulation of a visual neuroscience experiment in which extracellular recordings are made from a motion sensitive neuron. Students have control over stimulation parameters (direction and contrast) and can see and hear the action potential responses to stimuli as they are presented. The simulation provides an intuitive way for students to gain insight into neurophysiology, including experimental design, data collection and data analysis. Our simulation allows large cohorts of students to cost-effectively "experience" the results of animal research without ethical concerns, to be exposed to realistic data variability, and to develop their understanding of how sensory neuroscience experiments are conducted.

  2. Cellular uptake and intracellular fate of engineered nanoparticles: a review on the application of imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra, Ratna; Knight, Alex

    2011-09-01

    The use of imaging tools to probe nanoparticle-cell interactions will be crucial to elucidating the mechanisms of nanoparticle-induced toxicity. Of particular interest are mechanisms associated with cell penetration, translocation and subsequent accumulation inside the cell, or in cellular compartments. The objective of the present paper is to review imaging techniques that have been previously used in order to assess such interactions, and new techniques with the potential to be useful in this area. In order to identify the most suitable techniques, they were evaluated and matched against a list of evaluation criteria. We conclude that limitations exist with all of the techniques and the ultimate choice will thus depend on the needs of end users, and their particular application. The state-of-the-art techniques appear to have the least limitations, despite the fact that they are not so well established and still far from being routine. For example, super-resolution microscopy techniques appear to have many advantages for understanding the details of the interactions between nanoparticles and cells. Future research should concentrate on further developing or improving such novel techniques, to include the development of standardized methods and appropriate reference materials.

  3. Procedures to establish National Rules of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this procedure is to establish the EPA National Rules of Behavior to comply with OMB Circular A-130, regarding rules of behavior for users of information systems applicable to all users of EPA information and information systems for users.

  4. Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study are presumed to be of paramount importance in providing input information for policy makers towards establishing financial markets in Ethiopia. As a way forward the Government of ... addressing the direct challenges. Keywords: Financial Market, Securities Market, Environment, Governance ...

  5. Establishing And Managing Development Networks In Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishing And Managing Development Networks In Africa: Perspectives On The African Virtual Library And Information Network (Avlin) ... In times like this when libraries are facing problems with access and acquisition of materials, networking becomes very important. This paper discusses issues relating to networking in ...

  6. Establishment of an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd) is a medicinally and economically important plant and also used as vegetable. In this study, we established an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation procedure for M. dioica. Leaf explants were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing a binary ...

  7. Waste management in healthcare establishments within Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Poor management of healthcare waste exposes health workers and the public to the toxic effects of wastes generated from health establishments. The disposal of these wastes could also lead to environmental problems if not done properly. This study has assessed the waste management practices in hospitals and ...

  8. Establishing and agreeing on research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian de Ia Roche

    1999-01-01

    The organizers asked me to share with you my experiences in developing and implementing a process for establishing and agreeing on research priorities in a multi-stakeholder research institute such as Forintek. The mechanism we have in place has been well received by Forintek's membership and certain aspects have been adopted by other research organizations. While...

  9. Optimization of micropropagation and establishment of cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to establish a stable regeneration system with 4 landraces collected from different climate in Iran, major parameters such as regeneration rate, rooting percentage, shooting induction, proliferation rate, fresh and dry weight as a biomass of cells were investigated. Statistical analysis of results showed that BAP in ...

  10. Polystoma umthakathi (Monogenea): establishment, mortality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of Polystoma umthakathi oncomiracidia were studied in experimentally infected Natalobatrachus boneberg tadpoles to establish a normal reference of parasite performance in the natural host. The anteroventral body wall is transparent in these tadpoles and it was possible to follow the destiny of each ...

  11. 45 CFR 1620.3 - Establishing priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... should address the need for outreach, training of the recipient's employees, and support services. (c... IN USE OF RESOURCES § 1620.3 Establishing priorities. (a) The governing body of a recipient must... the cases and matters which may be undertaken by the recipient. (b) The procedures adopted must...

  12. Establishing a Center for Instructional Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, George H.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews how the University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin) established a center to support its faculty. Addresses key questions related to the development of instructional technology (IT) centers through examples from UT-Austin. Discusses funding, fees, types of services and support, staffing, facilities provided, and training philosophy.…

  13. Establishment of high effective regeneration and propagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to establish efficient regeneration system for ornamental tissue culture, we used Malus spp. 'Indian Magic as the experimental materials and investigated the effects of disinfection and antibrowning agents, culture mediums and hormones proportion on differentiation, multiplication, callus induction and rooting, and ...

  14. Attitudes of Children Established by Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabei, Fred; And Others

    This study examined the attitudes of children established by classical conditioning. Subjects were 4th graders (26 males and 31 females). Each child was randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. A posttest-only design was used with positive and negative word associations presented to the experimental group, and neutral word…

  15. Optimization of micropropagation and establishment of cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... those established conditions to produce useful essential oil. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Seed sterilization procedure. Viable seeds of M. officinalis ..... technology. UK: Butler and Tammer. Gopi C, Vatsala TM (2006) In vitro studies on effects of plant growth regulators on callus and suspension culture ...

  16. ESTABLISHING A PUBLISHING OUTFIT IN NIGERIA EMENYONU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CIU

    undertake, steps to follow in establishing a publishing company, networking with stakeholders in the publishing industry,the legal .... should network with the following stakeholders. The book industry,like any other industry, needs ..... Author, publisher and bookseller: a tripartite synergy in book development in Nigeria.

  17. Polystoma umthakathi (Monogenea): establishment, mortality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-02-28

    Feb 28, 1989 ... at 23°C (± 1°C), and were fed on pulverized alfalfa and goldfish flakes. N. bonebergi tadpoles infected with P. umthakathi were c()llected from streams ... the complete history of each parasite present can be followed. For each tadpole the numbers and locations of established parasites were determined on ...

  18. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, F.J.; Yielder, J.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  19. innovation platforms for establishment and management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    designed to document important processes, lessons and challenges encountered from the participatory nursery ... The processes of establishing nurseries were started by forming Innovation Platforms (IPs). The IPs in each watershed consisted of local community, a local administrator, ..... would share that money equally.

  20. 36 CFR 901.2 - Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States subject to the Government Corporation Control Act (31 U.S.C. 841 et seq.), was established by the Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-578, 86 Stat. 1266 (40 U.S.C. 871 et seq.)), as amended, hereinafter referred to as the Act. (b) Purposes. The purposes for which this Corporation...

  1. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, F.J. [School of Healthcare Professions, University of Salford, Salford M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.j.murphy@salford.ac.uk; Yielder, J. [Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Unitec, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-02-15

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  2. Introduction, establishment and spread of the Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... native fishes and predation on fish larvae. Pseudocrenilabrus philander in the Baakens River therefore satisfies all criteria for an invasive species in this river and was categorised as invasive using a unified framework for biological invasions. Keywords: abundance, cichlid, electrofishing, establishment, invasion, spread ...

  3. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  4. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  5. Disturbance and California riparian tree establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendix, J.; Cowell, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    As is the case in many ecosystems, tree establishment in riparian corridors is often episodic, following disturbance events that clear colonization sites. In many riparian settings, flooding is the most obvious, and relevant disturbance agent. However, in Mediterranean-climate regions, fire is an equally important disturbance agent. In California, the frequency and severity of both floods and fire are expected to change with projected climate change, making an understanding of their roles key to understanding future ecological processes in California riparian environments. In this paper, we use tree-ring data from the Transverse Ranges of Southern California to explore the relative importance of fire and flood in the establishment of riparian gallery forest. We examined 42 cores of Alnus rhombifolia, Populus fremontii and Quercus agrifolia from the riparian zone adjacent to Piedra Blanca and Potrero John Creeks in California’s Transverse Ranges, and compared their establishment dates with records of fire and floods, to see how establishment related to disturbance history. Our results show some evidence for major fire having an impact, as all of the largest stems dated to the few years following the 1932 Matilija fire, which had burned all of the sites in our sample. The remainder of the record is less straightforward, although there is an establishment peak in the 1970s, which may be related to a 1975 fire that burned part of the Potrero John watershed. Of note, the establishment chronology shows no relationship to the flood record, as years of major floods do not relate to either prolific or sparse years in the tree-ring record. This record suggests that large fires may serve as a trigger for tree establishment in California riparian settings, but that they are hardly a prerequisite, as many stems germinated between fires. Indeed, ongoing regeneration is apparently independent of disturbance, given the apparent irrelevance of flooding in this regard. The result

  6. Establishment of human cell lines showing circadian rhythms of bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Aki; Shimada, Hiroko; Numazawa, Kahori; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Ikeda, Masaaki; Kawashima, Minae; Kato, Nobumasa; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Ebisawa, Takashi

    2008-11-28

    We have established human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines stably expressing the luciferase gene, driven by the human Bmal1 promoter, to obtain human-derived cells that show circadian rhythms of bioluminescence after dexamethasone treatment. The average circadian period of bioluminescence for the obtained clones was 24.07+/-0.48 h. Lithium (10 mM) in the medium significantly lengthened the circadian period of bioluminescence, which is consistent with previous reports, while 2 mM or 5 mM lithium had no effect. This is the first report on the establishment of human-derived cell lines that proliferate infinitely and show circadian rhythms of bioluminescence, and also the first to investigate the effects of low-dose lithium on the circadian rhythms of human-derived cells in vitro. The established cells will be useful for various in vitro studies of human circadian rhythms and for the development of new therapies for human disorders related to circadian rhythm disturbances.

  7. Establishing and maintaining international collaborative research teams: an autobiographical insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T J Carr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing impetus for international collaborative research teams (ICRT, there are relatively few resources available to guide and support researchers through the processes of establishing and maintaining ICRTs. In particular, no articles were found that provided researchers’ firsthand accounts of being a member of such a team. Having access to such personal accounts can help both experienced and novice researchers learn more directly about what to expect, as well as the benefits, challenges, pitfalls, and success strategies for establishing and maintaining ICRTs. The authors used phenomenological autobiographical reflective journaling to capture their experiences as members of ICRTs. In this article we provide an overview of key themes that emerged from the analysis of our reflections as members of ICRTs. These themes include: benefits, challenges, and strategies for success. Our aim is to share our first-hand experiences of what it is like to establish and participate in ICRT. It is not our intention to provide readers with prescriptive guidelines on how to set up and maintain ICRTs. Every ICRT is unique and some of these ideas may or may not apply in every case. Instead, we are describing what worked for us, hoping that others may benefit from our experience. Consequently, we suggest that the focus of ICRT should be on the benefits thereof which promote and encourage interaction between disciplines, transfer of knowledge and techniques and personal and professional development. Keywords: international, collaborative, research, teams, interdisciplinary

  8. Establishing a Modern Ground Network for Space Geodesy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, M.; Pavlis, E.; Altamimi, Z.; Noll, C.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based networks of co-located space-geodesy techniques (VLBI, SLR, GLASS, DORIS) are the basis for the development and maintenance of the :International Terrestrial deference Frame (ITRE), which is the basis for our metric measurements of global change. The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) within the International Association of Geodesy has established a task to develop a strategy to design, integrate and maintain the fundamental geodetic network and supporting infrastructure in a sustainable way to satisfy the long-term requirements for the reference frame. The GGOS goal is an origin definition at I mm or better and a temporal stability on the order of 0.1 mm/y, with similar numbers for the scale and orientation components. These goals are based on scientific requirements to address sea level rise with confidence. As a first step, simulations focused on establishing the optimal global SLR and VLBI network, since these two techniques alone are sufficient to define the reference frame. The GLASS constellations will then distribute the reference frame to users anywhere on the Earth. Using simulated data to be collected by the future networks, we investigated various designs and the resulting accuracy in the origin, scale and orientation of the resulting ITRF. We present here the results of extensive simulation studies aimed at designing optimal global geodetic networks to support GGOS science products. Current estimates are the network will require 24 - 32 globally distributed co-location sites. Stations in the near global network will require geologically stable sites witla good weather, established infrastructure, and local support and personnel. EGOS will seek groups that are interested in participation. GGOS intends to issues a Call for Participation of groups that would like to take part in the network implementation and operation_ Some examples of integrated stations currently in operation or under development will be presented. We will examine

  9. Tailored anterior tension-free repair for the treatment of recurrent inguinal hernia previously repaired by anterior approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdas, E; Medas, F; Gordini, L; Licheri, S; Pisano, G; Nicolosi, A; Calò, P G

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe our policy in selecting different types of anaesthesia and anterior tension-free techniques for the repair of recurrent inguinal hernias previously treated by anterior approach and to evaluate early and late outcomes. The medical records of 111 patients who underwent recurrent inguinal hernia repair by anterior approach in the period 2000-2013 were reviewed. Fifty patients (45 %) were over 70 years old and 63 (56.7 %) had one or more co-morbidities. Hernias with large defects were the most frequently observed (59.5 %), and no-mesh techniques were the most frequent failed repair (75.7 %). Different anterior tension-free techniques and types of anaesthesia were used, depending on hernia and patient characteristics. Seventy-three patients (65.8 %) were operated on an outpatient basis. Mean follow-up period was 89 months (range 10-183). No perioperative deaths, medical events, or visceral injuries were recorded. Early postoperative complications occurred in 11 patients: 4 haematomas (3.6 %), 5 seromas (4.5 %), 1 superficial wound infection (0.9 %) and 1 ischemic orchitis (0.9 %). Late complications consisted in 3 cases of chronic moderate pain (3.2 %) and 2 re-recurrences (2.1 %). Recurrent inguinal hernia previously treated by open anterior technique can be repaired using the same approach, often on an outpatient basis, with a low rate of recurrence and postoperative complications. To be safe and effective, the repair should be performed by appropriately trained surgeons, well versed in the use of different types of anaesthesia and surgical techniques depending on patient and hernia characteristics.

  10. A three year review of injuries to professional footballers (1995-98) and comparison with previous observations (1990-93).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, J C; Rae, A; Melvin, W D

    2000-02-01

    A prospective study over a three year period (1995-8) of footballers' injuries in first team players was undertaken in a similar fashion to a previous study (1990-3). During the present study the Club had a major cup success and appeared to have a younger squad with less major injury and subsequent time out of action. As a result of the earlier paper it would appear that some lessons and observations may have been put into action and helped produce a more consistent standard for the club. Increasing recognition of the need to reduce and monitor the levels and types of injuries seems now to be established.

  11. Prevalence, distribution, and diversity of Listeria monocytogenes in retail environments, focusing on small establishments and establishments with a history of failed inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Karin; Sauders, Brian D; Sanchez, Maria D; Olsen, Peter T; Pickett, Michele M; Mangione, Kurt J; Rice, Daniel H; Corby, Joe; Stich, Stephen; Fortes, Esther D; Roof, Sherry E; Grohn, Yrjo T; Wiedmann, Martin; Oliver, Haley F

    2011-07-01

    Despite growing concerns about cross-contamination of ready-to-eat foods with Listeria monocytogenes, our knowledge about the ecology and transmission of L. monocytogenes in retail establishments has remained limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study to characterize the prevalence, distribution, and subtype diversity of L. monocytogenes in 120 New York State retail deli establishments that were hypothesized to present an increased risk for environmental L. monocytogenes contamination (i.e., small establishments and establishments with a history of failed New York State Agriculture and Markets inspections). Analysis of these data along with previously reported data for 121 predominantly larger retail establishments in New York State identified establishment size, geographic location, and inspection history as significant predictors of L. monocytogenes presence and prevalence. The odds of an establishment being L. monocytogenes positive were approximately twice as high for large establishments, establishments located in New York City, or establishments with poor inspection history (as compared with establishments without these attributes), even though correlation between location and inspection history complicated interpretation of results. Within an establishment, L. monocytogenes was significantly more prevalent on nonfood contact surfaces than on food contact surfaces; prevalence was particularly high for floors and in floor drains, sinks, the dairy case, and milk crates. L. monocytogenes subtype diversity differed between sites, with lineage I isolates significantly associated with nonfood contact surfaces and lineage II isolates significantly associated with food contact surfaces. Isolates belonging to the same ribotype were often found dispersed across multiple sites within an operation. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  12. Validation of an online replanning technique for prostate adaptive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Cheng; Chen Guangpei; Ahunbay, Ergun; Wang Dian; Lawton, Colleen; Li, X Allen

    2011-01-01

    We have previously developed an online adaptive replanning technique to rapidly adapt the original plan according to daily CT. This paper reports the quality assurance (QA) developments in its clinical implementation for prostate cancer patients. A series of pre-clinical validation tests were carried out to verify the overall accuracy and consistency of the online replanning procedure. These tests include (a) phantom measurements of 22 individual patient adaptive plans to verify their accuracy and deliverability and (b) efficiency and applicability of the online replanning process. A four-step QA procedure was established to ensure the safe and accurate delivery of an adaptive plan, including (1) offline phantom measurement of the original plan, (2) online independent monitor unit (MU) calculation for a redundancy check, (3) online verification of plan-data transfer using an in-house software and (4) offline validation of actually delivered beam parameters. The pre-clinical validations demonstrate that the newly implemented online replanning technique is dosimetrically accurate and practically efficient. The four-step QA procedure is capable of identifying possible errors in the process of online adaptive radiotherapy and to ensure the safe and accurate delivery of the adaptive plans. Based on the success of this work, the online replanning technique has been used in the clinic to correct for interfractional changes during the prostate radiation therapy.

  13. Magnetoencephalography: Fundamentals and Established and Emerging Clinical Applications in Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeutigam, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography is a noninvasive, fast, and patient friendly technique for recording brain activity. It is increasingly available and is regarded as one of the most modern imaging tools available to radiologists. The dominant clinical use of this technology currently centers on two, partly overlapping areas, namely, localizing the regions from which epileptic seizures originate, and identifying regions of normal brain function in patients preparing to undergo brain surgery. As a consequence, many radiologists may not yet be familiar with this technique. This review provides an introduction to magnetoencephalography, discusses relevant analytical techniques, and presents recent developments in established and emerging clinical applications such as pervasive developmental disorders. Although the role of magnetoencephalography in diagnosis, prognosis, and patient treatment is still limited, it is argued that this technology is exquisitely capable of contributing indispensable information about brain dynamics not easily obtained with other modalities. This, it is believed, will make this technology an important clinical tool for a wide range of disorders in the future

  14. Established rheumatoid arthritis - new imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQueen, Fiona M; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    New imaging modalities are assuming an increasingly important role in the investigation and management of rheumatoid arthritis. It is now possible to obtain information about all tissues within the joint in three dimensions using tomographic techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...

  15. Established rheumatoid arthritis - new imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQueen, Fiona M; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    New imaging modalities are assuming an increasingly important role in the investigation and management of rheumatoid arthritis. It is now possible to obtain information about all tissues within the joint in three dimensions using tomographic techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and...

  16. Developing criteria to establish Trusted Digital Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper details the drivers, methods, and outcomes of the U.S. Geological Survey’s quest to establish criteria by which to judge its own digital preservation resources as Trusted Digital Repositories. Drivers included recent U.S. legislation focused on data and asset management conducted by federal agencies spending $100M USD or more annually on research activities. The methods entailed seeking existing evaluation criteria from national and international organizations such as International Standards Organization (ISO), U.S. Library of Congress, and Data Seal of Approval upon which to model USGS repository evaluations. Certification, complexity, cost, and usability of existing evaluation models were key considerations. The selected evaluation method was derived to allow the repository evaluation process to be transparent, understandable, and defensible; factors that are critical for judging competing, internal units. Implementing the chosen evaluation criteria involved establishing a cross-agency, multi-disciplinary team that interfaced across the organization. 

  17. Toothbrushing procedure in schoolchildren with no previous formal instruction: variables associated to dental biofilm removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Glenda N; Sorazabal, Ana L; Salgado, Pablo A; Squassi, Aldo F; Klemonskis, Graciela L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the association between features regarding brushing procedure performed by schoolchildren without previous formal training and the effectiveness of biofilm removal. Out of a population of 8900 6- and 7-year-old schoolchildren in Buenos Aires City, 600 children were selected from schools located in homogeneous risk areas. Informed consent was requested from parents or guardians and formal assent was obtained from children themselves. The final sample consisted of 316 subjects. The following tooth brushing variables were analyzed: toothbrush-gripping, orientation of active part of bristles with respect to the tooth, type of movement applied, brushing both jaws together or separately, including all 6 sextants and duration of brushing. The level of dental biofilm after brushing was determined by O'Leary's index, acceptable cut-off point = 20%. Four calibrated dentists performed observations and clinical examinations. Frequency distribution, central tendency and dispersion measures were calculated. Cluster analyses were performed; proportions of variables for each cluster were compared with Bonferroni's correction and OR was obtained. The most frequent categories were: palm gripping (71.51%); perpendicular orientation (85.8%); horizontal movement (95.6%); separate addressing of jaws (68%) and inclusion of all 6 sextants (50.6%). Mean duration of brushing was 48.78 ± 27.36 seconds. 42.7% of the children achieved an acceptable biofilm level. The cluster with the highest proportion of subjects with acceptable post-brushing biofilm levels (p<0.05) differed significantly from the rest for the variable "inclusion of all 6 sextants in brushing procedure". OR was 2.538 (CI 95% 1.603 - 4.017). Inclusion of all six sextants could be a determinant variable for the removal of biofilm by brushing in schoolchildren, and should be systematized as a component in oral hygiene education. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  18. Late preterm birth and previous cesarean section: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen Iii, Abdool S; Bassil, Kate; Sprague, Ann; Urquia, Marcelo; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2018-02-21

    Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. We use population-based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers. PCS was the primary exposure, LPB (34-36 weeks) was the primary outcome, and an unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was the potential mediator. Associations were quantified using propensity weighted multivariable Poisson regression, and mediating associations were explored using the Baron-Kenny approach. The cohort included 481,531 births, 21,893 (4.5%) were LPB, and 119,983 (24.9%) were predated by at least one PCS. Among mothers with at least one PCS, 6307 (5.26%) were LPB. There was increased risk of LPB among women with at least one PCS (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 1.20 (95%CI [1.16, 1.23]). Unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was identified as a strong mediator to this relationship (mediation ratio = 97%). PCS was associated with higher risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. This may be due to an increased risk of subsequent unplanned or emergency preterm cesarean sections. Efforts to minimize index cesarean sections may reduce the risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies.

  19. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE SERBIAN FADN INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Ivkov, Ivana; Vasiljevic, Zorica; Ghelfi, Rino

    2013-01-01

    While the Republic of Serbia is increasingly moving towards EU integration, and while one of the many EU requirements is the yearly transmission of the accountancy data that are important for the annual determination of the incomes of agricultural holdings and analysis of their business operation, the need to establish and develop Serbian Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) system becomes a crucial strategic option. This research paper describes how this requirement has been fulfilled for th...

  20. Establishing Key Performance Indicators : Case company X

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jatinder

    2015-01-01

    The key performance indicators serve as the navigational tools for a business organization to monitor its performance. They enable the management team to take real time decisions to keep organization’s resources aligned to its business strategy to accomplish its strategic objec-tives. This research was conducted to analyse the process of establishing successful key per-formance indicators for a business organization. The research was conducted to recommend key performance indicators developme...

  1. Post Gliphosate treatments establishment of some grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan ROTAR; Mariana RUSU; Fl. PRICA

    1997-01-01

    The sward dominated by Festuca rubra/Agrostis tenuis was treated to reduce the Nardus component and others weed by spraying with Gliphosate. Treatments were applied in the autumn of 1993. In the spring of 1994 a mixture of Phleum pratense, Fesuca rubra, Dactylis glomerata, Trifolium repens and Lotus corniculatus was oversown. Establishment of each species and botanical composition of the pasture were measured over the next three years. Nardus and weed was largely replaced by Phleum/Festuca mi...

  2. Joint Research Centre. Ispra establishment-Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, Antonio

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the work carried out during 1974 and 1975 in the Ispra establishment of the Joint Research Centre is presented. A description of the activity carried out within the context of the running programmes is given. Some of the most relevant scientific and technical achievement are described from the viewpoints of the Scientific Departments of the Centre. The technical and administrative support activities are also presented. A list of publications issued by the Ispra Scientific staff is given

  3. Establishing a green lights revolving fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The report details the experiences of the City of Houston in establishing a Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides examples of key documents and guidelines which can be used in other jurisdictions to establish an internal revolving fund to provide continuing monies through recapture of cost savings for an ongoing program of energy improvements in governmental facilities. It provides guidelines on how to establish a continuing source of funds for governmental facility energy improvements. The report provides background information on the ongoing energy improvement programs in the City of Houston, including its participation in the Environmental Protection Agency`s Green Lights Program. It reviews the steps required to establish a Green Lights Revolving Fund, including the administrative, legal, budgetary, accounting, interdepartmental, mayoral, and governing body approvals and actions needed to create a self-sustaining revolving fund devoted to energy improvements. The report also describes two funding sources in addition to the grant seed funds which were used to increase the initial funds available in the Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides sample documents for modification and use in other jurisdictions that want to use similar funding sources. It reports the initial project submission and selection procedure and criteria, and provides a transferable project application kit based on the criteria specified. It also details a sample repayment memorandum of understanding between departments, which can be used in other governments. Other transferable products provided in the report are sample energy audit summaries which were conducted by qualified, independent staff to determine the accuracy of the departmental project costs and savings payback calculations.

  4. For establishment on nuclear disaster prevention system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    For increasing requirement of peoples for review of nuclear disaster countermeasure at a chance of the JCO critical accident, the Japanese Government newly established the 'Special Measure Act on Nuclear Disaster Countermeasure', which was enacted on July 16, 2000. The nuclear business relatives such as electric power company and so forth established the Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives' after their consultation with local communities at their construction, under their co-operation. Simultaneously, the electric power industry field decided to intend to provide some sufficient countermeasures to incidental formation of nuclear accident such as start of the Co-operative agreement on nuclear disaster prevention among the nuclear business relatives' and so forth. Here were described on nuclear safety and disaster prevention, nuclear disaster prevention systems at the electric power industry field, abstract on 'Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives', preparation of technical assistance system for nuclear disaster prevention, executive methods and subjects on nuclear disaster prevention at construction areas, recent business on nuclear disaster prevention at the Nuclear Technical Center, and subjects on establishment of nuclear disaster prevention system. (G.K.)

  5. Developing isotope techniques for water exploration in the Sahel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranyossy, J.F.; Louvat, D.; Maksoudi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA in the early 1980s started its first activities on hydrogeology in Mali, Niger, and Senegal through its technical co-operation programme. These activities included, first of all, local aquifer studies with environmental isotopes. The studies were found to be particularly useful for obtaining specific information on, for example, relationships between aquifers and between surface water and groundwater, and the existence or absence of recent recharge. Moreover, the IAEA established the basic infrastructures needed for the application of artificial tracer techniques and the use of nuclear instrumentation in hydrology and hydrosedimentology. Several factors underscored the need for co-ordinating the scientific activities already being carried out under existing bilateral projects. Firstly, the ''horizontal'' flow of information was very poor in spite of the similarity between the hydrological and hydrogeological problems encountered in the three countries. Secondly, political frontiers do not generally follow the boundaries of the hydrological basins, so that the same aquifer can be shared between several countries. Thirdly, the costly infrastructure established by the IAEA in certain countries deserved to be utilized at the regional level. To meet these concerns, an African regional project was launched 4 years ago on the development of isotope and nuclear techniques in hydrology in the Sahelian countries. Its main objectives were to further broaden ongoing studies in the participating countries; to strengthen training; to promote exchange of information on various previous studies; to foster co-operation between the different institutes involved in these studies; and to reinforce the infrastructures established by the IAEA and their utilization in the region

  6. MODIFIED TECHNIQUE OF TOTAL LARYNGECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Spirić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical technique of total laryngectomy is well presented in many surgical textbooks. Essentially, it has remained the same since Gluck an Soerensen in 1922 described all its details. Generally, it stresses the U shape skin incision with releasing laryngeal structures and removing larynx from up to down. Further, pharyngeal reconstruction is performed with different kinds of sutures in two or more layers and is finished with skin suture and suction drainage. One of worst complications following this surgery is pharyngocutaneous fistula (PF. Modifications proposed in this this article suggests vertical skin incision with larynx removal from below upwards. In pharyngeal reconstruction we used the running locked suture in submucosal plan with „tobacco sac“ at the end on the tongue base instead of traditional T shaped suture. Suction drains were not used.The aim of study was to present the modified surgical technique of total laryingectomy and its impact on hospital stay duration and pharyngocutanous fistula formation. In this randomized study we analyzed 49 patients operated with modified surgical technique compared to 49 patient operated with traditional surgical technique of total laryngectomy. The modified technique of total laryngectomy was presented. Using modified technique we managed to decrease the PF percentage from previous 20,41% to acceptable 8,16% (p=0,0334. Also, the average hospital stay was shortened from 14,96 to 10,63 days (t =-2.9850; p=0.0358.The modified technique of total laryngectomy is safe, short and efficient surgical intervention which decreases the number of pharyngocutaneos fistulas and shortens the hospital stay.

  7. An anonymization technique using intersected decision trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Fletcher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Data mining plays an important role in analyzing the massive amount of data collected in today’s world. However, due to the public’s rising awareness of privacy and lack of trust in organizations, suitable Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM techniques have become vital. A PPDM technique provides individual privacy while allowing useful data mining. We present a novel noise addition technique called Forest Framework, two novel data quality evaluation techniques called EDUDS and EDUSC, and a security evaluation technique called SERS. Forest Framework builds a decision forest from a dataset and preserves all the patterns (logic rules of the forest while adding noise to the dataset. We compare Forest Framework to its predecessor, Framework, and another established technique, GADP. Our comparison is done using our three evaluation criteria, as well as Prediction Accuracy. Our experimental results demonstrate the success of our proposed extensions to Framework and the usefulness of our evaluation criteria.

  8. 29 CFR 779.369 - Funeral home establishments may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., long distance calls, newspaper notices, flowers, livery service, honoraria to participating personnel... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Funeral Homes § 779.369 Funeral home establishments may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2...

  9. Establishment of screening method for mutant cell and analysis of base sequence of its mutated gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofuni, Toshio; Nomi, Takehiko; Yamada, Masami; Masumura, Kenichi

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for effective detection of the changes in DNA sequences due to radiation-induced mutation and further to establish techniques for risk evaluation and its reduction in human bodies. A transgene including E. coli gpt gene was transfected to produce a transgenic mouse model for detecting a mutation. E. coli gpt gene, a reporter gene for detection of point mutation was inserted into a shuttle vector, λEG10 and the vector was micro-injected into mouse fertilized eggs. Genome DNA was extracted from the bone marrow and the testis of its F1 mice and the presence of λEG10 DNA was confirmed by PCR method and Southern hybridization technique. A system which effectively detect a deletion mutation (Spi selection) was inserted into a shuttle vector and the mutation rate was determined using the transgenic mouse. The number of copies of the transfected gene was estimated through comparison with those for the previous transgenic mice such as Muta TM , Big Blue TM mouse. The number of copies of λEG10 DNA was about 30 in BDF1-derived mouse and 80 in C57BL16J-derived one. The rate of mutation in gpt gene was significantly increased in the bone morrow of mice intraperitoneally administered with ethylnitrosourea at 150 mg/kg of body weight. The rate of Spi mutation was dose-dependently increased in the spleen of mice exposed to γ-radiation (5, 10, 50 Gy). These results indicate that the transgenic mouse, 'gpt Δ' developed was available for in vivo detection and analysis of various types of mutation. (M.N.)

  10. Improvements on the seismic catalog previous to the 2011 El Hierro eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; del Fresno, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Precursors from the submarine eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands) in 2011 included 10,000 low magnitude earthquakes and 5 cm crustal deformation within 81 days previous to the eruption onset on the 10th October. Seismicity revealed a 20 km horizontal migration from the North to the South of the island and depths ranging from 10 and 17 km with deeper events occurring further South. The earthquakes of the seismic catalog were manually picked by the IGN almost in real time, but there has not been a subsequent revision to check for new non located events jet and the completeness magnitude for the seismic catalog have strong changes during the entire swarm due to the variable number of events per day. In this work we used different techniques to improve the quality of the seismic catalog. First we applied different automatic algorithms to detect new events including the LTA-STA method. Then, we performed a semiautomatic system to correlate the new P and S detections with known phases from the original catalog. The new detected earthquakes were also located using Hypoellipse algorithm. The resulting new catalog included 15,000 new events mainly concentrated in the last weeks of the swarm and we assure a completeness magnitude of 1.2 during the whole series. As the seismicity from the original catalog was already relocated using hypoDD algorithm, we improved the location of the new events using a master-cluster relocation. This method consists in relocating earthquakes towards a cluster of well located events instead of a single event as the master-event method. In our case this cluster correspond to the relocated earthquakes from the original catalog. Finally, we obtained a new equation for the local magnitude estimation which allow us to include corrections for each seismic station in order to avoid local effects. The resulting magnitude catalog has a better fit with the moment magnitude catalog obtained for the strong earthquakes of this series in previous studies

  11. CT colonography: Techniques, indications, findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mang, Thomas; Graser, Anno; Schima, Wolfgang; Maier, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for imaging the entire colon. Based on a helical thin-section CT of the cleansed and air-distended colon, two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections are used for image interpretation. Several clinical improvements in patient preparation, technical advances in CT, and new developments in evaluation software have allowed CTC to develop into a powerful diagnostic tool. It is already well established as a reliable diagnostic tool in symptomatic patients. Many experts currently consider CTC a comparable alternative to conventional colonoscopy, although there is still debate about its sensitivity for the detection of colonic polyps in a screening population. This article summarizes the main indications, the current techniques in patient preparation, data acquisition and data analysis as well as imaging features for common benign and malignant colorectal lesions

  12. 75 FR 39192 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (Previously Utah State University), et al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    .... (Previously Jamie R. Hill and Southwest Florida Aviation); Tamarack Helicopters, Inc. (Previously Ranger... 6220: Main Rotor Head. Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on June 5, 2010. Mark R. Schilling, Acting Manager...

  13. Advanced qualification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winokur, P.S.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ''builds in'' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co 60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments

  14. Advanced qualification techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winokur, P.S; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1993-12-01

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ``builds in`` the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ``process capability`` is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co{sup 60} gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe`s Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments.

  15. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous, suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies.

  16. Established rheumatoid arthritis - new imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQueen, Fiona M; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    ) and high-resolution computerized tomography. Erosions are very clearly depicted using these modalities and MRI also allows imaging of soft tissues with assessment of joint inflammation. High-resolution ultrasound is a convenient clinical technique for the assessment of erosions, synovitis and tenosynovitis...... in real-time and facilitates diagnostic and therapeutic interventions such as joint aspiration and injection. Exciting experimental modalities are also being developed with the potential to provide not just morphological but functional imaging. Techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET......) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) can reveal actively metabolizing bone and the proliferation of synovial cells via radioactive labeling. Bioluminescence and fluorescence reflectance imaging are other approaches that allow imaging, and potentially the delivery of therapeutic agents...

  17. Reoperative Aortic Root Replacement in Patients with Previous Aortic Root or Aortic Valve Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Kwon Chong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generalization of standardized surgical techniques to treat aortic valve (AV and aortic root diseases has benefited large numbers of patients. As a consequence of the proliferation of patients receiving aortic root surgeries, surgeons are more frequently challenged by reoperative aortic root procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of redo-aortic root replacement (ARR. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 66 patients (36 male; mean age, 44.5±9.5 years who underwent redo-ARR following AV or aortic root procedures between April 1995 and June 2015. Results: Emergency surgeries comprised 43.9% (n=29. Indications for the redo-ARR were aneurysm (n=12, pseudoaneurysm (n=1, or dissection (n=6 of the residual native aortic sinus in 19 patients (28.8%, native AV dysfunction in 8 patients (12.1%, structural dysfunction of an implanted bioprosthetic AV in 19 patients (28.8%, and infection of previously replaced AV or proximal aortic grafts in 30 patients (45.5%. There were 3 early deaths (4.5%. During follow- up (median, 54.65 months; quartile 1–3, 17.93 to 95.71 months, there were 14 late deaths (21.2%, and 9 valve-related complications including reoperation of the aortic root in 1 patient, infective endocarditis in 3 patients, and hemorrhagic events in 5 patients. Overall survival and event-free survival rates at 5 years were 81.5%±5.1% and 76.4%±5.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Despite technical challenges and a high rate of emergency conditions in patients requiring redo-ARR, early and late outcomes were acceptable in these patients.

  18. Stereotactic external beam irradiation in previously untreated brain tumors in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, C R; Souhami, L; Caron, J L; Villemure, J G; Olivier, A; Montes, J; Farmer, J P; Podgorsak, E B

    1994-01-01

    Stereotactically guided external beam irradiation may be a useful form of treatment for small, well-circumscribed, but surgically inaccessible, primary brain tumors that are either benign or of low malignant potential. Between March 1988 and December 1991, 10 children and adolescents with previously untreated primary brain tumors were treated with stereotactic external beam irradiation (SEBI) using a linac-based dynamic technique. Eleven lesions were treated in the 10 patients. Treatment was given using a collimator diameter of 1.5-4 cm (median 2 cm). Single fractions of 18, 20, and 25 Gy were used for 3 lesions in 2 patients. A fractionated schedule delivering a median dose of 42 Gy in 6 fractions over 2 weeks was used in the remaining 8 patients. Morbidity related to treatment was minimal. Three patients suffered a temporary worsening of preexisting neurological symptoms and/or signs at 2, 5, and 5 months posttreatment, with subsequent recovery in all. With a median follow up post-SEBI of 17.5 months (range 5-47 months), improvement in neurological findings related to the lesion was noted for 5 treated lesions; 6 remained clinically stable. Seven of the 11 treated lesions improved radiologically, and only 2 showed evidence of progressive disease. Stereotactic external beam irradiation represents a potentially valuable therapeutic option for selected primary brain tumors in the pediatric and adolescent age group. Morbidity related to the treatment appears acceptable in frequency and type, and preliminary data with regard to response are encouraging. However, in order to assess the impact of such treatment on long-term tumor control and survival, further experience with a larger cohort of patients followed for a longer period of time will be necessary.

  19. 12 CFR 563b.260 - May I use previously executed proxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I use previously executed proxies? 563b.260... FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Proxy Solicitation § 563b.260 May I use previously executed proxies? You may not use previously executed proxies for the plan of conversion vote. If members...

  20. 22 CFR 40.93 - Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present after previous... TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.93 Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation. An alien described...

  1. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of a previously submitted... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may... the citation is necessary. (b) Study previously submitted by another person. If the applicant is not...

  2. Training techniques for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used training techniques in relation to cost-effective, prevention-oriented Quality Assurance are examined. Important questions are whether training techniques teach cost effectiveness and whether the techniques are, themselves, cost effective. To answer these questions, criteria for evaluating teaching techniques for cost effectiveness were developd, and then commonly used techniques are evaluated in terms of specific training program objectives. Motivation of personnel is also considered important to the success of a training program, and methods are outlined by which recognition of the academic quality of industrial training can be used as a motivational technique

  3. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  4. Clinical potential of boron neutron capture therapy for locally recurrent inoperable previously irradiated head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Diana; Quah, Daniel SC; Leech, Michelle; Marignol, Laure

    2015-01-01

    This review compares the safety and efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of previously irradiated, inoperable locoregional recurrent HNC patients and compares BNCT against the standard treatment of platinum-based chemotherapy. Our analysis of published clinical trials highlights efficacy of BNCT associated with mild side effects. However, the use of BNCT should be explored in stratified randomised trials. - Highlights: • BNCT can prolong median overall survival. • BNCT can be associated with severe adverse effects. • BNCT may be comparable to chemotherapy-based regimens. • BNCT may be comparable to re-irradiation techniques regimens in patients with low performance status.

  5. Establishment of nuclear equipment qualification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Po Kook; Lim, Nam Jin; Lee, Young Gun

    2003-04-01

    This study is carried out by KEARI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) as the lead organization in cooperation with KIMM(Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials), KTL(Korea Testing Laboratory) and KRISS(Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science) to construct a basis of efficient management of nuclear equipment qualification business by expanding test equipment of each of participating organization, and developing qualification technologies. As for KIMM, control system of large scale shaker was replaced with advanced system, and LOCA(Loss of Coolant Accident) test facility was installed. KTL is now capable of conducting seismic tests of nuclear I and C as a result of installation of seismic test equipment during the first two project years. KRISS participated in the Project with a view to have large scale EMI test equipment and related technologies. In parallel with expansion of test equipment, a industrial-educational-research cooperation committee, as an intermediate step toward integrated equipment qualification system to maximize the usage of test equipment, was established and cooperation methods were investigated. As a result, Korea Nuclear Equipment Qualification Association, an corporate juridical person, was established. Research on development of thermal and radiation aging test technology of nuclear materials was carried out by Hanyang University and SECO(Saehan Engineering and Qualification Co., Ltd.). Integrated Equipment Qualification Database was developed which contains material test data, equipment qualification data and other EQ related informations. Standard qualification procedures were developed in order for test laboratories and manufacturers to establish design requirements and to efficiently perform tests

  6. Monitoring process hygiene in Serbian retail establishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesković Moračanin, S.; Baltić, T.; Milojević, L.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the effectiveness of sanitary procedures on food contact surfaces and food handlers’ hands in Serbian retail establishments. For that purpose, a total of 970 samples from food contact surfaces and 525 samples from workers’ hands were microbiologically analyzed. Results of total aerobic plate count and total Enterobacteriaceae count showed that the implemented washing and disinfection procedures, as a part of HACCP plans, were not effective enough in most retail facilities. Constant and intensive education of employees on proper implementation of sanitation procedures are needed in order to ensure food safety in the retail market.

  7. Establishment of a local psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1981-01-01

    of senile psychoses. The total increase amounts to 2.4 times the admission rates of psychiatric cases to the General Hospital and 4.4 times the admission rates to the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing in the last years prior to the start of the local service. The outpatient department has grown steadily...... patients were referred to the local General Hospital and about half of the patients in each diagnostic group were sent on the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing on Zealand, Denmark. Since the establishment of the department, admissions have increased in all diagnostic groups, especially in the group...

  8. Establishment of heart teams in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Uva, M; Leite Moreira, A; Gavina, C; Pereira, H; Lopes, M G

    2014-01-01

    Whenever several therapeutic options exist, multidisciplinary decision-making is beneficial for the patient and for society at large. The main obstacles to the establishment of heart teams in Portugal are organizational and logistical. Implementing a heart team approach entails definition of the situations requiring multidisciplinary discussion, creation of clear lines of communication, written protocols and obtaining patient informed consent. The European Society of Cardiology guidelines define the clinical scenarios where intervention of the heart team is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Visualization of information with an established order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pak Chung [Richland, WA; Foote, Harlan P [Richmond, WA; Thomas, James J [Richland, WA; Wong, Kwong-Kwok [Sugar Land, TX

    2007-02-13

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is a system including one or more processors operable to access data representative of a biopolymer sequence of monomer units. The one or more processors are further operable to establish a pattern corresponding to at least one fractal curve and generate one or more output signals corresponding to a number of image elements each representative of one of the monomer units. Also included is a display device responsive to the one or more output signals to visualize the biopolymer sequence by displaying the image elements in accordance with the pattern.

  10. Research Establishment Risoe 1975/76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-11-01

    A summary of the chief activities of the research establishment Risoe is given. These are roughly divided into sections dealing with nuclear technology, applied research, basic research, and research facilities and auxiliary services. For more detailed descriptions of the work in progress, readers are referred to the annual reports published in the two report series, as well as to articles appearing in scientific journals. A selected list of staff publications is given, and the design data on research facilities are presented. (B.P.)

  11. Case study of establishing a clean production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kun; Nam, Yoon Mi [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study was implemented to derive suggestions for improving policies in Korea through the examination and analysis on the present policies related to the clean production and its establishment in enterprises. The characters of concept on clean production presented in pollution prevention, waste minimization, zero emission, environmental friendly design, and industrial ecology were analyzed and the mechanism for implementing clean production and government policy were arranged comprehensively. The related policies of major countries with international organizations including UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) and EU (European Union) were reviewed and compared to those of Korea to propose future policy plan. 73 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  12. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Attribute and topology based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, Reginald N.

    2016-01-19

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  14. Comparison of survey techniques on detection of northern flying squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggins, Corinne A.; Gilley, L. Michelle; Kelly, Christine A.; Ford, W. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect a species is central to the success of monitoring for conservation and management purposes, especially if the species is rare or endangered. Traditional methods, such as live capture, can be labor-intensive, invasive, and produce low detection rates. Technological advances and new approaches provide opportunities to more effectively survey for species both in terms of accuracy and efficiency than previous methods. We conducted a pilot comparison study of a traditional technique (live-trapping) and 2 novel noninvasive techniques (camera-trapping and ultrasonic acoustic surveys) on detection rates of the federally endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) in occupied habitat within the Roan Mountain Highlands of North Carolina, USA. In 2015, we established 3 5 × 5 live-trapping grids (6.5 ha) with 4 camera traps and 4 acoustic detectors systematically embedded in each grid. All 3 techniques were used simultaneously during 2 4-day survey periods. We compared techniques by assessing probability of detection (POD), latency to detection (LTD; i.e., no. of survey nights until initial detection), and survey effort. Acoustics had the greatest POD (0.37 ± 0.06 SE), followed by camera traps (0.30 ± 0.06) and live traps (0.01 ± 0.005). Acoustics had a lower LTD than camera traps (P = 0.017), where average LTD was 1.5 nights for acoustics and 3.25 nights for camera traps. Total field effort was greatest with live traps (111.9 hr) followed by acoustics (8.4 hr) and camera traps (9.6 hr), although processing and examination for data of noninvasive techniques made overall effort similar among the 3 methods. This pilot study demonstrated that both noninvasive methods were better rapid-assessment detection techniques for flying squirrels than live traps. However, determining seasonal effects between survey techniques and further development of protocols for both noninvasive techniques is

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ESTABLISHING A NEW EDUCATIONAL PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna V. Knysh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study shows that two educational paradigms have been established at the current stage of Ukrainian education, namely, off-line education as a system and on-line education as a network; their advantages and disadvantages have been outlined. The author has grounded that theoretical and methodological disbalance between these two paradigms brought about the appearance of a new understanding of Life Long Learning as a new paradigm of education. The article provides analysis of modern innovative techniques and methods used in the educational paradigms. It has been grounded that ICT cannot be considered as a means of enslavement but rather a means of liberation which can be reached due to the production, processing and distribution of new anthropopractices that will facilitate the return of a man to himself and to others. ICT should encourage self-organization, self-cognition and self-improvement of a personality of Learner (Student as well as Teacher (Educator.

  16. Establishment of Chronic Infection: Brucella's Stealth Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Waqas; Zheng, Ke; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Brucella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes zoonotic infection known as brucellosis which results in abortion and infertility in natural host. Humans, especially in low income countries, can acquire infection by direct contact with infected animal or by consumption of animal products and show high morbidity, severe economic losses and public health problems. However for survival, host cells develop complex immune mechanisms to defeat and battle against attacking pathogens and maintain a balance between host resistance and Brucella virulence. On the other hand as a successful intracellular pathogen, Brucella has evolved multiple strategies to evade immune response mechanisms to establish persistent infection and replication within host. In this review, we mainly summarize the “Stealth” strategies employed by Brucella to modulate innate and the adaptive immune systems, autophagy, apoptosis and possible role of small noncoding RNA in the establishment of chronic infection. The purpose of this review is to give an overview for recent understanding how this pathogen evades immune response mechanisms of host, which will facilitate to understanding the pathogenesis of brucellosis and the development of novel, more effective therapeutic approaches to treat brucellosis. PMID:27014640

  17. Establishment of mouse expanded potential stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Ryan, David J; Wang, Wei; Tsang, Jason Cheuk-Ho; Lan, Guocheng; Masaki, Hideki; Gao, Xuefei; Antunes, Liliana; Yu, Yong; Zhu, Zhexin; Wang, Juexuan; Kolodziejczyk, Aleksandra A; Campos, Lia S; Wang, Cui; Yang, Fengtang; Zhong, Zhen; Fu, Beiyuan; Eckersley-Maslin, Melanie A; Woods, Michael; Tanaka, Yosuke; Chen, Xi; Wilkinson, Adam C; Bussell, James; White, Jacqui; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Reik, Wolf; Göttgens, Berthold; Teichmann, Sarah A; Tam, Patrick P L; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Zou, Xiangang; Lu, Liming; Liu, Pentao

    2017-10-19

    Mouse embryonic stem cells derived from the epiblast contribute to the somatic lineages and the germline but are excluded from the extra-embryonic tissues that are derived from the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm upon reintroduction to the blastocyst. Here we report that cultures of expanded potential stem cells can be established from individual eight-cell blastomeres, and by direct conversion of mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Remarkably, a single expanded potential stem cell can contribute both to the embryo proper and to the trophectoderm lineages in a chimaera assay. Bona fide trophoblast stem cell lines and extra-embryonic endoderm stem cells can be directly derived from expanded potential stem cells in vitro. Molecular analyses of the epigenome and single-cell transcriptome reveal enrichment for blastomere-specific signature and a dynamic DNA methylome in expanded potential stem cells. The generation of mouse expanded potential stem cells highlights the feasibility of establishing expanded potential stem cells for other mammalian species.

  18. Establishment of the Integrated Plant Data Warehouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oota, Yoshimi; Yoshinaga, Toshiaki

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents 'The Establishment of the Integrated Plant Data Warehouse and Verification Tests on Inter-corporate Electronic Commerce based on the Data Warehouse (PDWH)', one of the 'Shared Infrastructure for the Electronic Commerce Consolidation Project', promoted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) through the Information-Technology Promotion Agency (IPA), Japan. A study group called Japan Plant EC (PlantEC) was organized to perform relevant activities. One of the main activities of plantEC involves the construction of the Integrated (including manufacturers, engineering companies, plant construction companies, and machinery and parts manufacturers, etc.) Data Warehouse which is an essential part of the infrastructure necessary for a system to share information on industrial life cycle ranging from planning/designing to operation/maintenance. Another activity is the utilization of this warehouse for the purpose of conducting verification tests to prove its usefulness. Through these verification tests, PlantEC will endeavor to establish a warehouse with standardized data which can be used for the infrastructure of EC in the process plant industry. (author)

  19. Mosquitoes established in Lhasa city, Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, residents of Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China reported large numbers of mosquitoes and bites from these insects. It is unclear whether this was a new phenomenon, which species were involved, and whether these mosquitoes had established themselves in the local circumstances. Methods The present study was undertaken in six urban sites of Chengguan district Lhasa city, Tibet. Adult mosquitoes were collected by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in August 2009 and August 2012. The trapped adult mosquitoes were initially counted and identified according to morphological criteria, and a proportion of mosquitoes were examined more closely using a multiplex PCR assay. Results 907 mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were collected in this study. Among them, 595 were females and 312 were males. There was no significant difference in mosquito density monitored by bed net trap and labor hour method in 2009 and 2012. Of 105 mosquitoes identified by multiplex PCR, 36 were pure mosquitoes (34.29%) while 69 were hybrids (65.71%). The same subspecies of Culex pipiens complex were observed by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in 2009 and 2012. Conclusion The local Culex pipiens complex comprises the subspecies Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and its hybrids. Mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex, known to be, potentially, vectors of periodic filariasis and encephalitis, are now present from one season to the next, and appear to be established in Lhasa City, TAR. PMID:24060238

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of ... Pulmonary Exacerbations Clinical Care Guidelines SCREENING & TREATING DEPRESSION & ANXIETY GUIDELINES Clinician Resources As a clinician, you’re ...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CYSTIC FIBROSIS Learn about cystic fibrosis, a genetic lung disorder that affects the pancreas and other organs, ... Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and Huffing High- ...

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing ... Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation ( ...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy ... to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear ...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ... for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast To learn more about how you can ...

  5. Nuclear techniques in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are utilized in almost every industry. The discussion in this paper includes discussions on tracer methods and uses nucleonic control systems technology; non-destructive testing techniques and radiation technology. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... many challenges, including medical, social, and financial. By learning more about how you can manage your disease every day, you can ultimately help find a ... Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic ...

  7. Variational Monte Carlo Technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ias

    RESONANCE ⎜ August 2014. GENERAL ⎜ ARTICLE. Variational Monte Carlo Technique. Ground State Energies of Quantum Mechanical Systems. Sukanta Deb. Keywords. Variational methods, Monte. Carlo techniques, harmonic os- cillators, quantum mechanical systems. Sukanta Deb is an. Assistant Professor in the.

  8. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2011-01-01

    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  9. Base-line studies for DAE establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Atomic Energy has establishments located in various regions of the country and they include front-end fuel cycle facilities, nuclear power stations, back-end fuel cycle facilities and facilities for research and societal applications. These facilities handle naturally occurring radionuclides such as uranium, thorium and a variety of man-made radionuclides. These radionuclides are handled with utmost care so that they do not affect adversely the occupational workers or the members of public residing nearby. There is safety culture of the highest standard existing in all DAE establishments and it matches with the international standards. In addition, there is a perpetual environmental monitoring program carried out by the Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESLs) located at all DAE establishments. The environmental data generated by such program is studied regularly by experts to ensure compliance with the regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements in the country are of international standards and ensure adequate protection of workers and members of public. In addition to such continued monitoring program and studies being carried out for the ongoing projects, base-line studies are carried out for all the new projects of the DAE. The purpose of the base-line studies is to establish a detailed base-line data set for a new DAE location well before the foundation stone is laid, so that the data collected when there is no departmental activity can be compared with the data generated later by the ESL. The data so generated is site specific and it varies from place to place depending upon the location of the site, e.g., inland or coastal, the presence of water bodies and pattern of irrigation, the geological characteristics of the location, the local culture and habits of the people, population density and urban or rural background. The data to be recorded as base-line data is generated over a period of at least one year covering all the seasons

  10. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Balkan, Naci

    2012-01-01

    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  11. Techniques in Teaching Deviance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatwood, Derral; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses two techniques for use on the college level in teaching about the sociology of deviance. The first technique helps students understand the relativity of their personal beliefs. The second technique deals with strategies for investigating membership in deviant social groups. (Author/DB)

  12. Point of Technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .

    Minimally invasive techniques are becoming popular choice for the recent times. These techniques are lowering the cost and giving the best cosmetic results. For cardiovascular surgery these techniques are much more newer and much more unknown. Open lumbar sympathectomy for certain indications is a very well ...

  13. Techniques for characterizing lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Daniel J. Yelle; Umesh P. Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Many techniques are available to characterize lignin. The techniques presented in this chapter are considered nondegradative, which are commonly applied to lignin. A brief discussion of lignin structure is included with this chapter to aid the reader in understanding why the discussed characterization techniques are appropriate for the study of lignin. Because the...

  14. A Secure Trust Establishment Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farruh Ishmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trust establishment is an important tool to improve cooperation and enhance security in wireless sensor networks. The core of trust establishment is trust estimation. If a trust estimation method is not robust against attack and misbehavior, the trust values produced will be meaningless, and system performance will be degraded. We present a novel trust estimation method that is robust against on-off attacks and persistent malicious behavior. Moreover, in order to aggregate recommendations securely, we propose using a modified one-step M-estimator scheme. The novelty of the proposed scheme arises from combining past misbehavior with current status in a comprehensive way. Specifically, we introduce an aggregated misbehavior component in trust estimation, which assists in detecting an on-off attack and persistent malicious behavior. In order to determine the current status of the node, we employ previous trust values and current measured misbehavior components. These components are combined to obtain a robust trust value. Theoretical analyses and evaluation results show that our scheme performs better than other trust schemes in terms of detecting an on-off attack and persistent misbehavior.

  15. Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik

    2016-01-01

    Nootropics or smart drugs are well-known compounds or supplements that enhance the cognitive performance. They work by increasing the mental function such as memory, creativity, motivation, and attention. Recent researches were focused on establishing a new potential nootropic derived from synthetic and natural products. The influence of nootropic in the brain has been studied widely. The nootropic affects the brain performances through number of mechanisms or pathways, for example, dopaminergic pathway. Previous researches have reported the influence of nootropics on treating memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Those disorders are observed to impair the same pathways of the nootropics. Thus, recent established nootropics are designed sensitively and effectively towards the pathways. Natural nootropics such as Ginkgo biloba have been widely studied to support the beneficial effects of the compounds. Present review is concentrated on the main pathways, namely, dopaminergic and cholinergic system, and the involvement of amyloid precursor protein and secondary messenger in improving the cognitive performance. PMID:27656235

  16. Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azuin Suliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nootropics or smart drugs are well-known compounds or supplements that enhance the cognitive performance. They work by increasing the mental function such as memory, creativity, motivation, and attention. Recent researches were focused on establishing a new potential nootropic derived from synthetic and natural products. The influence of nootropic in the brain has been studied widely. The nootropic affects the brain performances through number of mechanisms or pathways, for example, dopaminergic pathway. Previous researches have reported the influence of nootropics on treating memory disorders, such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. Those disorders are observed to impair the same pathways of the nootropics. Thus, recent established nootropics are designed sensitively and effectively towards the pathways. Natural nootropics such as Ginkgo biloba have been widely studied to support the beneficial effects of the compounds. Present review is concentrated on the main pathways, namely, dopaminergic and cholinergic system, and the involvement of amyloid precursor protein and secondary messenger in improving the cognitive performance.

  17. Early counterpulse technique applied to vacuum interrupters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.

    1979-11-01

    Interruption of dc currents using counterpulse techniques is investigated with vacuum interrupters and a novel approach in which the counterpulse is applied before contact separation. Important increases have been achieved in this way in the maximum interruptible current as well as large reductions in contact erosion. The factors establishing these new limits are presented and ways are discussed to make further improvements

  18. Technique and interpretation in tree seed radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard B. Kriebel

    1966-01-01

    The study of internal seed structure by radiography requires techniques which will give good definition. To establish the best procedures, we conducted a series of experiments in which we manipulated the principal controllable variables affecting the quality of X-radiographs: namely, focus-to-film distance, film speed (grain), exposure time, kilovoltage, and...

  19. Multimodal Authentication Techniques For Staff Identification And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is obvious that most establishments are faced with security challenges. Consequently securing and protecting our ... It is best, most efficient, effective and most reliable when Biometric Technique and Magnetic Coded Swiping Card or Barcode Reader Technology is combined. A Hybrid of Structured System Analysis and ...

  20. Establishing student perceptions of an entrepreneur using word associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine E. Goliath

    2014-05-01

    Research purpose: To identify the image or perceptions that students have of an entrepreneur. Motivation for study: By establishing the image or perceptions that students have of an entrepreneur, insights could be provided into the factors influencing them to become entrepreneurs or not. Research approach, design and method: A qualitative projective technique, namely continuous word association, was adopted. Convenience sampling was used and 163 students participated. The words generated were coded into categories by searching for themes and words of a similar nature. The total words generated, the frequencies of recurring words, the number of different types of words, first words recalled and the average number of words recalled were established. Main findings: The students participating in the study have a good understanding of the general nature of an entrepreneur and entrepreneurship; an entrepreneur is perceived as someone who is a creative and innovative risk-taker, who owns a business involved in the selling of goods and services. Practical/managerial implications: Future entrepreneurs need to be aware that, in addition to several innate attributes, successful entrepreneurs have learned skills and competencies. It is also important that educators of entrepreneurship create a realistic image of what it is like to be an entrepreneur, and that both positive and negative aspects are highlighted. Contribution/value-add: By identifying the image or perceptions of an entrepreneur held by students, the marketing of entrepreneurship as a desirable career choice can be enhanced.

  1. Intra-urinoma Rendezvous Using a Transconduit Approach to Re-establish Ureteric Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Hugh; Alyas, Faisal; Edwin, Patrick Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Ureteric discontinuity following injury has been traditionally treated surgically. With the advent of improved interventional instrumentation it is possible to stent these lesions percutaneously, retrogradely or failing that using a combined (rendezvous) technique. We describe an intra-urinoma rendezvous procedure combining a percutaneous antegrade-transconduit retrograde technique of stent insertion to successfully re-establish ureteric integrity that was used following the failure of a percutaneous retrograde approach. We illustrate its usefulness as an alternative to surgery

  2. Comparison of a commercial blood cross-matching kit to the standard laboratory method for establishing blood transfusion compatibility in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Leo Roa; Streeter, Elizabeth; Malandra, Allison

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a commercial blood transfusion cross-match kit when compared to the standard laboratory method for establishing blood transfusion compatibility. A prospective observational in intro study performed from July 2009 to July 2013. Private referral veterinary center. Ten healthy dogs, 11 anemic dogs, and 24 previously transfused dogs. None. Forty-five dogs were enrolled in a prospective study in order to compare the standard blood transfusion cross-match technique to a commercial blood transfusion cross-matching kit. These dogs were divided into 3 different groups that included 10 healthy dogs (control group), 11 anemic dogs in need of a blood transfusion, and 24 sick dogs that were previously transfused. Thirty-five dogs diagnosed with anemia secondary to multiple disease processes were cross-matched using both techniques. All dogs cross-matched via the kit had a compatible major and minor result, whereas 16 dogs out of 45 (35%) had an incompatible cross-match result when the standard laboratory technique was performed. The average time to perform the commercial kit was 15 minutes and this was 3 times shorter than the manual cross-match laboratory technique that averaged 45-50 minutes to complete. While the gel-based cross-match kit is quicker and less technically demanding than standard laboratory cross-match procedures, microagglutination and low-grade hemolysis are difficult to identify by using the gel-based kits. This could result in transfusion reactions if the gel-based kits are used as the sole determinant of blood compatibility prior to transfusion. Based on our results, the standard manual cross-match technique remains the gold standard test to determine blood transfusion compatibility. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  3. Risk of oesophageal cancer among patients previously hospitalised with eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, David H; Nowell, Siân L; Clark, David N

    2015-06-01

    It has been suggested that the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma might be increased in patients with a history of eating disorders due to acidic damage to oesophageal mucosa caused by self-induced vomiting practiced as a method of weight control. Eating disorders have also been associated with risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus, including alcohol use disorders, as well as smoking and nutritional deficiencies, which have been associated with both main sub-types of oesophageal cancer. There have been several case reports of oesophageal cancer (both main sub-types) arising in patients with a history of eating disorders. We used linked records of hospitalisation, cancer registration and mortality in Scotland spanning 1981-2012 to investigate the risk of oesophageal cancer among patients with a prior history of hospitalisation with eating disorder. The cohort was restricted to patients aged ≥10 years and eating disorder. Disregarding the first year of follow-up, we calculated indirectly standardised incidence ratios using the general population as the reference group to generate expected numbers of cases (based on age-, sex-, socio-economic deprivation category-, and calendar period-specific rates of disease). After exclusions, the cohort consisted of 3617 individuals contributing 52,455 person-years at risk. The median duration of follow-up was 13.9 years. Seven oesophageal cancers were identified, as compared with 1.14 expected, yielding a standardised incidence ratio of 6.1 (95% confidence interval: 2.5-12.6). All were squamous cell carcinomas arising in females with a prior history of anorexia nervosa. Patients hospitalised previously with eating disorders are at increased risk of developing oesophageal cancer. Confounding by established risk factors (alcohol, smoking, and nutritional deficiency) seems a more likely explanation than acidic damage through self-induced vomiting because none of the incident cases of oesophageal cancer were

  4. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-03-02

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorders were assessed using logistic regressions. Obesity was significantly associated with known atopic disorders (adjusted OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.22)). The association of obesity with newly diagnosed atopic cases was not as strong as that with known cases, and was not statistically significant (adjusted OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.72)). The similar pattern was observed in different allergic diseases, gender and age stratifications. The association between overweight and atopic diseases were not significant. Obesity is strongly associated with previously diagnosed atopic cases but not so with newly diagnosed atopic cases in Chinese adults. It is likely that people with atopic disorders have a higher risk of developing obesity. Our findings are important for the management of atopic disorders and chronic disease prevention among atopic disease patients.

  5. Kalijodo transformation in establishment of healthy environment in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, Erik; Junadi, Purnawan

    2018-03-01

    A good city setting can create a healthy environment. One of the structuring of cities that can create a healthy environment is the development of public space like Green Open Space (RTH) and Child-Friendly Integrated Public Space (RPTRA) such as in Kalijodo, Jakarta, Indonesia. The objective of building a public space in Kalijodo is to restore the functioning of the green zone in the area that previously used for housing residents and prostitution businesses to increase public space in Jakarta. The purpose of this study is to describe the formation of a healthy environment and the impact felt by users of this public space. The research method used in this research is descriptive qualitative with a phenomenological approach through interview, observation and documentation. There are three types of community activities in the public sphere, such as sports, children’s playground, and relaxation. The results show that the decline in crime rates and the presence of facilities and infrastructure in time to establish a healthy environment. The construction of facilities in the public spaces changes the image of Kalijodo from the previous place that has a negative image then turned into a positive image because the environment of Kalijodo became healthy. We also find that this changing image creates a positive spirit of the surrounding community and people are generally healthier and happier.

  6. Nuclear techniques in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.

    1976-01-01

    The nuclear techniques used in hydrology are usually tracer techniques based on the use of nuclides either intentionally introduced into, or naturally present in the water. The low concentrations of these nuclides, which must be detected in groundwater and surface water, require special measurement techniques for the concentrations of radioactive or of stable nuclides. The nuclear techniques can be used most fruitfully in conjunction with conventional methods for the solution of problems in the areas of hydrology, hydrogeology and glacier hydrology. Nuclear techniques are used in practice in the areas of prospecting for water, environment protection and engineering hydrogeology. (orig.) [de

  7. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  8. How to Establish Security Awareness in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Anja; Westendorf, Christiane

    The internet is a fast changing medium and comprises several websites fraught with risk. In this context especially young age groups are endangered. They have less experience using the media and little knowledge on existing internet risks. There are a number of initiatives, which are engaged in the topic of internet safety. They provide information about measures on how to prevent and to deal with internet risks. However it is not certain if these initiatives do reach their target group (children and adolescents). In this regard schools bear a special relevance, since they have the knowledge about didactic methods and the chance to address measures directly to children and adolescents. The authors of this paper provide an overview of current security education in German schools, problems and open questions. Finally the authors make recommendations on how to establish internet safety in schools.

  9. Regulations in establishing and developing urban entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubić Slavoljub C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this work is to represent relatively new method of analyzing, planning and developing various projects in different architectural fields. The concept 'pattern' symbolizes a new view on objects and items that are already exist around us or those that will be created in the future. By explaining this concept, this work focus on describing 'pattern' as a new system or 'pattern language' that identifies foundation and development of unplanned cities. Every town or urban entity symbolizes 'pattern', but it is made from various 'patterns' as well. There are certain rules i.e. patterns that particular urban entities follow in order to establish themselves and 'pattern language' has been developed on that basis. The main purpose of this work is to emphasize this phenomenon and reveal the significance that 'patterns' have in urbanism development. Their understanding is of great importance so they can be implemented not only in theoretical but also in practical examination and analysis.

  10. Facial beauty--establishing a universal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Yosh

    2004-01-01

    There is a universal standard for facial beauty regardless of race, age, sex and other variables. Beautiful faces have ideal facial proportion. Ideal proportion is directly related to divine proportion, and that proportion is 1 to 1.618. All living organisms, including humans, are genetically encoded to develop to this proportion because there are extreme esthetic and physiologic benefits. The vast majority of us are not perfectly proportioned because of environmental factors. Establishment of a universal standard for facial beauty will significantly simplify the diagnosis and treatment of facial disharmonies and abnormalities. More important, treating to this standard will maximize facial esthetics, TMJ health, psychologic and physiologic health, fertility, and quality of life.

  11. Interactive video instruction - Establishing a positive alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillinger, F.J.; McCulloch, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses The New York Power Authority's (NYPA's) efforts to establish and implement a viable interactive video instruction program to provide an alternative to traditional instructor-led classroom training. The NYPA training department was looking for alternative methods of providing adequate training for a new apprenticeship program being developed for its nonnuclear plant employees. They were also looking for another way to provide cost-effective basic computer training for an ever-increasing number of company computer users. Interactive video instruction was selected because it offered an interesting and fresh approach to self-paced learning. The paper describes problems associated with startup, implementation, and administration, benefits expected, and obtaining college accreditation

  12. Emotion causes targeted forgetting of established memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan A. Strange

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Reconsolidation postulates that reactivation of a memory trace renders it susceptible to disruption by treatments similar to those that impair initial memory consolidation. Despite evidence that implicit, or non-declarative, human memories can be disrupted at retrieval, a convincing demonstration of selective impairment in retrieval of target episodic memories following reactivation is lacking. In human subjects, we demonstrate that if reactivation of a verbal memory, through successful retrieval, is immediately followed by an emotionally aversive stimulus, a significant impairment is evident in its later recall. This effect is time-dependent and persists for at least six days. Thus, in line with a reconsolidation hypothesis, established human episodic memories can be selectively impaired following their retrieval.

  13. Resourcefulness Training for Dementia Caregivers: Establishing Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.; Lekhak, Nirmala; Burant, Christopher J.; Underwood, Patricia W.; Morris, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    Providing care for an elder with dementia can produce extreme stress that adversely affects caregiver health. Learning to be resourceful, which involves practicing resourcefulness skills using a journal or voice recorder, may reduce caregiver stress. However, before testing the effectiveness of journaling and voice recording as resourcefulness training (RT) practice methods, intervention fidelity should first be established. This pilot trial with 63 women dementia caregivers examined the fidelity of journaling and voice recording and whether allowing a choice between the methods affected RT intervention fidelity. Following RT, Resourcefulness Scale scores were similar for journal and recorder methods but higher for caregivers in the choice versus random condition. Patterns of RT skill use documented in journals or recordings were similar for choice and random conditions and for journal and recorder methods. The results support the implementation fidelity of RT that allows caregivers to choose a method to reinforce their resourcefulness skills. PMID:27338751

  14. Establishment of fecal bioassay facility at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, H.; Yuvaraj, Ramani; Mohanty, B.N.; Sivasubramanian, K.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    In the event of an unusual occurrence, occupational radiation workers employed in fuel reprocessing/fuel fabrication facilities have potential risk of acquiring internal contamination, in spite of implementation of efficient engineering and administrative control measures. Quantification of internally deposited radionuclides is achieved either by (i) direct methods and/or (ii) indirect methods. In general, urinalysis is preferred for moderately absorbing (Type M-compounds of Americium) compounds, while analysis of fecal samples are preferred for slow absorption (Type S - Oxides of Plutonium) compounds. The predicted clearance of Type S and Type M compounds deposited in respiratory tract via fecal is about three to five orders higher than urinary excretion. In view of this, a facility for ashing fecal samples was established and standardization of radioanalytical procedure for quantification of Pu/Am using synthetic fecal (SF) samples was carried out

  15. Establishment of Database System for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Sup; Lee, Chang Ju; Yoo, Soon Mi; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Woo Seok; Kang, Tae Young; Back, Geum Mun; Hong, Dong Ki; Kwon, Kyung Tae

    2008-01-01

    To enlarge the efficiency of operation and establish a constituency for development of new radiotherapy treatment through database which is established by arranging and indexing radiotherapy related affairs in well organized manner to have easy access by the user. In this study, Access program provided by Microsoft (MS Office Access) was used to operate the data base. The data of radiation oncology was distinguished by a business logs and maintenance expenditure in addition to stock management of accessories with respect to affairs and machinery management. Data for education and research was distinguished by education material for department duties, user manual and related thesis depending upon its property. Registration of data was designed to have input form according to its subject and the information of data was designed to be inspected by making a report. Number of machine failure in addition to its respective repairing hours from machine maintenance expenditure in a period of January 2008 to April 2009 was analyzed with the result of initial system usage and one year after the usage. Radiation oncology database system was accomplished by distinguishing work related and research related criteria. The data are arranged and collected according to its subjects and classes, and can be accessed by searching the required data through referring the descriptions from each criteria. 32.3% of total average time was reduced on analyzing repairing hours by acquiring number of machine failure in addition to its type in a period of January 2008 to April 2009 through machine maintenance expenditure. On distinguishing and indexing present and past data upon its subjective criteria through the database system for radiation oncology, the use of information can be easily accessed to enlarge the efficiency of operation, and in further, can be a constituency for improvement of work process by acquiring various information required for new radiotherapy treatment in real time.

  16. The establishment of the safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The first step in the establishment of the Safety Culture is splitting this concept into the elements involved in the same, so as to facilitate and approach to the issue. Then, two methodologies must be introduced, which shall perform independently, although synergically: (1) an 'updated' Quality Assurance Program and (2) a Program of Non-Technical (psychological and social) Activities aimed at stimulating motivation among the individuals in the Organization and at facilitating team work. Later on, once the necessary experience has been gained, the management of the organization must be based, essentially, on continuous development and on making full use of the skills of the individuals involved. In order to be successful, the establishment of a new culture of business management requires three key elements: 1) a working method containing the adequate indicators for measuring progress; 2) the commitment of the managers and the participation of all the staff; 3) the attainment of a net economical benefit that is made evident through an increase in productivity. However, all these actions refer only to one of the components of the system: the Operator of a Nuclear Power Plant, while Safety Culture must involve the whole National System, including the Government and the Regulatory Authority. The introduction of a new culture must necessarily bring along the acceptance of new concepts, new criteria and new methodologies among all the decision makers in the National System. Therefore, a change in culture must include a change in the culture of the Regulatory Authority. For instance, an evaluation of the Safety Culture is not workable by means of a conventional audit or a regulatory inspection. The fact is that what is easy to measure is not the main thing and what is difficult to measure is the only thing that actually matters. Summarizing: 'The Regulatory Authority shall be unable to verify the results because the evidences are intangible', but it shall indeed be able

  17. Establishing an institutional therapeutic apheresis registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Steven A; McCleskey, Brandi; Marques, Marisa B; Adamski, Jill

    2016-12-01

    Apheresis was first performed as a therapeutic procedure in the 1950s. The first national therapeutic apheresis (TA) registry was established in Canada in 1981 and other national registries followed, including two attempts at establishing an international TA registry. There is no national registry in the United States. Our large, academic, tertiary hospital has a very active TA service. We created a TA database to track all procedures performed by the apheresis service by transferring data from paper appointment logs and the electronic medical records into a Microsoft Access database. Retrospective data from each TA procedure performed at UAB from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were entered, including the type of procedure, indication, date, and patient demographics. Microsoft Excel was used for data analysis. During the 10-year period, our TA service treated 1,060 patients and performed 11,718 procedures. Of these patients, 70% received therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), 21% received extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), 4.5% received red cell exchange (RCE), 4.2% received leukocytapheresis, and 0.6% underwent platelet depletion. Among the procedures, 54% were TPEs, 44% were ECPs, 1.3% were RCEs, 0.5% were leukocytaphereses, and 0.1% were platelet depletions. According to the current literature, national and international TA use is underreported. We believe that the UAB TA registry provides useful information about TA practices in our region and can serve as a model for other institutions. Furthermore, data from multiple institutional registries can be used for clinical research to increase the available evidence for the role of TA in various conditions. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:516-522, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Plant-Damage Assessment Technique for Evaluating Military Vehicular Impacts to Vegetation in the Mojave Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen; W. K. Ostler

    2001-09-01

    A new plant damage assessment technique was developed by plant ecologists from Bechtel Nevada at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration Nevada Operations Office and funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Project CS-1131 in cooperation with the U.S. Army's National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California. The technique establishes linear transects the width of vehicle tracts from evidence of vehicle tracks in the soil (usually during a prior training rotation period of 30 days or since the last rain or wind storm), and measures vegetation within the tracks to determine the area of plant parts being run over, the percent of the impacted parts damaged, and the percent of impacted parts expected to recover. It documents prior-damage classes based on estimated of damage that plants have apparently experienced previously (as assessed from field indicators of damage such as plant shape and height). The technique was used to evaluate different vehicle types (rubber-tire wheels vs. tracks) in six area at the NTC with different soils and training intensity levels. The technique provides tabular data that can be sorted and queried to show a variety of trends related to military vehicular impacts. The technique also appears suitable for assessing other non-military off-road traffic impacts. Findings report: (1) differences in plant sensitivity of different vehicular impacts, (2) plant cover and density by species and training area, (3) the degree to which wheels have less impact than tracks, and (4) the mean percent survival is inversely proportional to the degree of prior damage received by the vegetation (i.e., plants previously impacted have lower survival than plants not previously impacted).

  19. The Effect of Single Versus Repeated Previous Strategy Use on Individuals' Subsequent Strategy Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viki Schillemans

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that participants' strategy choices can be influenced by the previously-used strategy. This'perseveration effect' has been demonstrated both after a repeated use of the previous strategy (e.g., Schillemans, Luwel, Bulté, Onghena, & Verschaffel, 2009, but also after a single use of the previous strategy (Lemaire & Lecacheur, 2010. In the present study, we tested whether this perseveration effect would be stronger after a repeated than after a single previous strategy application. We were able to replicate the perseveration effect but we did not find evidence for an influence of the number of previous strategy applications on the strength of this effect. An additional cluster analysis revealed that only about one third of the participants was susceptible for the perseveration effect. The theoretical, methodological, and educational implications of these results are discussed.

  20. Analysis Of Navy Hornet Squadron Mishap Costs With Regard To Previously Flown Flight Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    HORNET SQUADRON MISHAP COSTS WITH REGARD TO PREVIOUSLY FLOWN FLIGHT HOURS by Jason R. Baumann June 2017 Thesis Advisor: Robert Eger Co...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF NAVY HORNET SQUADRON MISHAP COSTS WITH REGARD TO PREVIOUSLY FLOWN...flown flight hours with mishap costs . It uses a macro level approach by evaluating how a squadron’s previously flown flight hours affect mishap cost and