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Sample records for previously established results

  1. Repeated mirtazapine nullifies the maintenance of previously established methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Robin M; Mickiewicz, Amanda L; Napier, T Celeste

    2011-11-20

    The atypical antidepressant mirtazapine enhances monoaminergic transmission; thus, mirtazapine therapy may counter the hypo-activation of monoamine systems associated with withdrawal from methamphetamine abuse. Human addiction therapy will likely require chronic administration that is given after brain and behavioral maladaptations are established. To emulate this scenario in rats, we ascertained if acute or repeated mirtazapine treatments could antagonize previously established consequences of repeated methamphetamine. Methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was used, wherein methamphetamine (1mg/kg, i.p.) was administered in a unique environmental context once-daily for three days interposed by saline injections in an alternate context. Subsequently, mirtazapine (5mg/kg, i.p.) was administered in the home cage either as 10 once-daily injections or a single injection. The expression of CPP was determined in drug-free rats three days after the last mirtazapine injection. Expression of methamphetamine-induced CPP was inhibited by 10 home cage administrations of mirtazapine but not by a single injection of mirtazapine. These findings reveal that mirtazapine can inhibit the maintenance of methamphetamine-induced CPP and that treatment duration and/or treatment timing contributes to this effect of mirtazapine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between cerebrovascular complications and previously established use of antiplatelet therapy in left-sided infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Hassager, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular complications (CVC) in infective endocarditis (IE) are common. The only established treatments to reduce the incidence of CVC in IE are antibiotics and in selected cases early cardiac surgery. Potential effects of previously established antiplatelet therapy are under debate....

  3. Liver growth factor treatment reverses emphysema previously established in a cigarette smoke exposure mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Girón-Martínez, Alvaro; Terrón-Expósito, Raúl; Díaz-Gil, Juan J; González-Mangado, Nicolás; Peces-Barba, Germán

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disease largely associated with cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) and characterized by pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations, including systemic inflammation. Liver growth factor (LGF) is an albumin-bilirubin complex with demonstrated antifibrotic, antioxidant, and antihypertensive actions even at extrahepatic sites. We aimed to determine whether short LGF treatment (1.7 μg/mouse ip; 2 times, 2 wk), once the lung damage was established through the chronic CSE, contributes to improvement of the regeneration of damaged lung tissue, reducing systemic inflammation. We studied AKR/J mice, divided into three groups: control (air-exposed), CSE (chronic CSE), and CSE + LGF (LGF-treated CSE mice). We assessed pulmonary function, morphometric data, and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers to test the LGF regenerative capacity in this system. Our results revealed that the lungs of the CSE animals showed pulmonary emphysema and inflammation, characterized by increased lung compliance, enlargement of alveolar airspaces, systemic inflammation (circulating leukocytes and serum TNF-α level), and in vivo lung matrix metalloproteinase activity. LGF treatment was able to reverse all these parameters, decreasing total cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and T-lymphocyte infiltration in peripheral blood observed in emphysematous mice and reversing the decrease in monocytes observed in chronic CSE mice, and tends to reduce the neutrophil population and serum TNF-α level. In conclusion, LGF treatment normalizes the physiological and morphological parameters and levels of various systemic inflammatory biomarkers in a chronic CSE AKR/J model, which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Alkylation induced cerebellar degeneration dependent on Aag and Parp1 does not occur via previously established cell death mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, Carrie M; Chaim, Isaac Alexander; Mazumder, Aprotim; Criscione, June; Samson, Leona D

    2017-01-01

    Alkylating agents are ubiquitous in our internal and external environments, causing DNA damage that contributes to mutations and cell death that can result in aging, tissue degeneration and cancer. Repair of methylated DNA bases occurs primarily through the base excision repair (BER) pathway, a multi-enzyme pathway initiated by the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (Aag, also known as Mpg). Previous work demonstrated that mice treated with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) undergo cerebellar degeneration in an Aag-dependent manner, whereby increased BER initiation by Aag causes increased tissue damage that is dependent on activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (Parp1). Here, we dissect the molecular mechanism of cerebellar granule neuron (CGN) sensitivity to MMS using primary ex vivo neuronal cultures. We first established a high-throughput fluorescent imaging method to assess primary neuron sensitivity to treatment with DNA damaging agents. Next, we verified that the alkylation sensitivity of CGNs is an intrinsic phenotype that accurately recapitulates the in vivo dependency of alkylation-induced CGN cell death on Aag and Parp1 activity. Finally, we show that MMS-induced CGN toxicity is independent of all the cellular events that have previously been associated with Parp-mediated toxicity, including mitochondrial depolarization, AIF translocation, calcium fluxes, and NAD+ consumption. We therefore believe that further investigation is needed to adequately describe all varieties of Parp-mediated cell death.

  5. Alkylation induced cerebellar degeneration dependent on Aag and Parp1 does not occur via previously established cell death mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie M Margulies

    Full Text Available Alkylating agents are ubiquitous in our internal and external environments, causing DNA damage that contributes to mutations and cell death that can result in aging, tissue degeneration and cancer. Repair of methylated DNA bases occurs primarily through the base excision repair (BER pathway, a multi-enzyme pathway initiated by the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (Aag, also known as Mpg. Previous work demonstrated that mice treated with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS undergo cerebellar degeneration in an Aag-dependent manner, whereby increased BER initiation by Aag causes increased tissue damage that is dependent on activation of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (Parp1. Here, we dissect the molecular mechanism of cerebellar granule neuron (CGN sensitivity to MMS using primary ex vivo neuronal cultures. We first established a high-throughput fluorescent imaging method to assess primary neuron sensitivity to treatment with DNA damaging agents. Next, we verified that the alkylation sensitivity of CGNs is an intrinsic phenotype that accurately recapitulates the in vivo dependency of alkylation-induced CGN cell death on Aag and Parp1 activity. Finally, we show that MMS-induced CGN toxicity is independent of all the cellular events that have previously been associated with Parp-mediated toxicity, including mitochondrial depolarization, AIF translocation, calcium fluxes, and NAD+ consumption. We therefore believe that further investigation is needed to adequately describe all varieties of Parp-mediated cell death.

  6. Changes in the dominance hierarchy of captive female Japanese macaques as a consequence of merging two previously established groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily J; Weladji, Robert B; Paré, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Dominance hierarchies play an important role in reducing competition and aggression in social animals. In zoos, changes in group composition are often required due to management protocols, but these changes may have long lasting effects on dominance hierarchies, and, consequently, the wellbeing of the animals. We studied the changes in the female dominance hierarchy that occurred both during and after the formation of a group of 10 adult Japanese macaques at the Zoo de Granby by combining members from two previously established groups. There was no significant correlation between individual ranks in the old groups (groups A and B) and their ranks in the new group (group AB), indicating a significant change in the hierarchy. Alliances between kin appeared to be important in determining rank; when the sister of the dominant female was removed from group AB, the hierarchy changed significantly a second time. The average standardized rank of individuals added later in the formation process of group AB was not different from those added earlier. Ranks in the group AB did correlate with age of individual at the beginning of the field season, but not at the end, after the shift in hierarchy occurred. Zoo management must be aware of the consequences small changes in a social group can have when removing and transferring individuals in both primates and in other social species. Zoo Biol. 35:505-512, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Angiotensin (1-7) re-establishes heart cell communication previously impaired by cell swelling: implications for myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, Walmor C

    2014-05-01

    The influence of hypertonic solution on dye coupling was investigated in cell pairs isolated from the left ventricle of adult Sprague Dawley rats.The hypertonic solution together with Lucifer Yellow CH, were dialyzed into one cell of the pair using the whole cell clamp tecnique, and the diffusion of dye in the dialyzed as well as in non-dialyzed cell, was followed by measuring the intensity of fluorescence in both cells as a function of time.The results indicated that: (1) Lucifer Yellow CH dialyzed into one cell of the pair diffuses easily into the nondialyzed cell through gap junctions; (2) the intracellular dialysis of an hypertonic solution into one cell of the pair, increases the area of the dialyzed cell and reduced the area of the non-dialyzed cell suggesting intercellular movement of water; (3) the hypertonic solution dialyzed into one cell of the pair abolished the dye coupling; (4) the gap junction permeability (Pj) estimated before and after administration of hypertonic solution showed an appreciably decrease of Pj; (5) angiotensin (1-7) (Ang (1-7) (10-9M) administered to the bath re-established the dye coupling abolished by hypertonic solution and reduced the cell area; (6) the effect of Ang (1-7) was related to the activation of Mas receptor and was dependent on the activation of PKA. the reestablishment of dye coupling elicited by Ang (1-7) seen in cell pairs dialyzed with hypertonic solution, might indicate that under similar conditions like that seen during myocardial ischemia, the peptide might be of benefit preventing the impairment of cell communication and impulse propagation associated with cardiac reentrant arrhytmias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Priming in word stem completion tasks: comparison with previous results in word fragment completion tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Soler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates priming in an implicit Word Stem Completion (WSC task. A total of 305 participants performed a WSC task in two phases (study and test. The test phase included 63 unique-solution stems and 63 multiple-solution stems. After confirming the presence of priming (mean = 0.22, analysis revealed that it was stronger in the case of multiple-solution stems, indicating that the stems were not a homogeneous group of stimuli. Thus, further analyses were performed only for the data of the unique-solution stems. The correlations between priming and a set of conceptual (familiarity, frequency of use, number of meanings and non-conceptual (letters/blanks ratio and difficulty of completed variables showed significant relationships between two conceptual variables (familiarity and frequency and priming. Difficulty was also significantly correlated with priming. The most familiar and frequent words were those that produced a greater magnitude of priming. At the same time, the most difficult stems were those generating more priming. A regression analysis showed that the difficulty of completing a stem was the strongest predictor of priming. When difficulty was the dependent variable in the regression analysis, the significant variables in the regression were familiarity and letters-blanks ratio. Finally, a comparison was made between these results and those obtained in a previous study of WFC by Soler et al. (2009 in which the same words and procedure were employed. A comparison of results from these two sets of data suggested that the only relevant difference between the two tasks was the influence of the variable letters-blanks ratio. This perceptual variable had a significant correlation with priming only in the WFC task. These results highlight the importance of controlling the characteristics (conceptual and non-conceptual of stimuli used in WFC and WSC tasks when exploring the nature of priming.

  9. Priming in word stem completion tasks: comparison with previous results in word fragment completion tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, María J; Dasí, Carmen; Ruiz, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates priming in an implicit word stem completion (WSC) task by analyzing the effect of linguistic stimuli characteristics on said task. A total of 305 participants performed a WSC task in two phases (study and test). The test phase included 63 unique-solution stems and 63 multiple-solution stems. Analysis revealed that priming (mean = 0.22) was stronger in the case of multiple-solution stems, indicating that they were not a homogeneous group of stimuli. Thus, further analyses were performed only for the data of the unique-solution stems. Correlations between priming and familiarity, frequency of use, and baseline completion were significant. The less familiar words, which were less frequent, had higher priming values. At the same time, the stems with lower baseline completion generated more priming. A regression analysis showed that baseline completion was the only significant predictor of priming, suggesting that the previous processing of the stimuli had a greater impact on the stimuli with low baseline performance. At the same time, baseline completion showed significant positive correlations with familiarity and frequency of use, and a negative correlation with length. When baseline completion was the dependent variable in the regression analysis, the significant variables in the regression were familiarity and length. These results were compared with those obtained in a study using word fragment completion (WFC) by Soler et al. (2009), in which the same words and procedure were employed. Analysis showed that the variables that correlated with priming were the same as in the WSC task, and that completion baseline was the variable that showed the greatest predictive power of priming. This coincidence of results obtained with WFC and WSC tasks highlights the importance of controlling the characteristics of the stimuli used when exploring the nature of priming.

  10. REGIONAL VACCINATION PROGRAMME: WAYS TO ESTABLISH, RESULTS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Kovtun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a step-by-step strategy for establishing a regional vaccination programme. The authors draw attention to the need for expansion of the National Schedule given the current domestic epidemiological situation — a significant increase in the frequency of severe pneumonias, meningitis, otitis and their complications. It provides examples of immunization programmes in the Sverdlovsk region, Tyumen, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia, shows the importance of the regional component in the National Immunizations Schedule as an effective tool to control infectious disease incidence in the area. Key words: regional programme of vaccination, vaccinoprophylaxis, infection control, children, pneumococcal infection. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(4:19-23

  11. Initial results of CyberKnife treatment for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himei, Kengo; Katsui, Kuniaki; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CyberKnife for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer. Thirty-one patients with recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer were treated with a CyberKnife from July 1999 to March 2002 at Okayama Kyokuto Hospital were retrospectively studied. The accumulated dose was 28-80 Gy (median 60 Gy). The interval between CyberKnife treatment and previous radiotherapy was 0.4-429.5 months (median 16.3 months). Primary lesions were nasopharynx: 7, maxillary sinus: 6, tongue: 5, ethmoid sinus: 3, and others: 1. The pathology was squamous cell carcinoma: 25, adenoid cystic carcinoma: 4, and others: 2. Symptoms were pain: 8, and nasal bleeding: 2. The prescribed dose was 15.0-40.3 Gy (median 32.3 Gy) as for the marginal dose. The response rate (complete response (CR)+partial response (PR)) and local control rate (CR+PR+no change (NC)) was 74% and 94% respectively. Pain disappeared for 4 cases, relief was obtained for 4 cases and no change for 2 cases and nasal bleeding disappeared for 2 cases for an improvement of symptoms. An adverse effects were observed as mucositis in 5 cases and neck swelling in one case. Prognosis of recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer was estimated as poor. Our early experience shows that CyberKnife is expected to be feasible treatment for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer, and for the reduction adverse effects and maintenance of useful quality of life (QOL) for patients. (author)

  12. Previous treatment influences fingolimod efficacy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: results from an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Eleonora; Guareschi, Angelica; Vitetta, Francesca; Senesi, Caterina; Curti, Erica; Montepietra, Sara; Simone, Anna Maria; Immovilli, Paolo; Caniatti, Luisa; Tola, Maria Rosaria; Pesci, Ilaria; Montanari, Enrico; Sola, Patrizia; Granella, Franco; Motti, Luisa; Ferraro, Diana

    2014-09-01

    Fingolimod (FTY) is licensed as a disease-modifying treatment in highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FTY in a real-life setting and to explore the possible role of clinical and MRI parameters, including previous treatment type, in predicting its efficacy. Clinical and MRI data was collected on 127 patients assigned to treatment with FTY in six multiple sclerosis centers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, between August 2011 and June 2013. During a mean follow-up period of 10 months (range 1-22), we observed a total of 47 relapses in 39 patients (30.7%); new T2 lesions or gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions were present at follow-up MRI in 32/71 patients (45%). Expanded disability status scale (EDSS) at the end of the follow-up period was not different when compared to the baseline EDSS. Serious adverse events occurred in three patients (2.4%). A higher proportion of patients previously treated with natalizumab showed clinical (41%) or MRI activity (54%). Previous treatment with natalizumab increased the risk of a relapse within 30 days (versus immunomodulatory drugs; OR: 4.3; p = 0.011) and at survival analysis (versus remaining patients; HR: 1.9; p = 0.046). Study limitations include a small population sample, a short observation period with variable timing of follow-up MRI and different baseline characteristics of patients previously treated with natalizumab compared to those treated with immunomodulatory drugs. This study confirms the efficacy of FTY in reducing relapse rate in patients previously treated with immunomodulatory drugs, while it seems to be less effective in patients discontinuing natalizumab. Due to the short duration of follow-up it is not possible to evaluate disability progression; however, no difference was observed between the groups.

  13. Preliminary Results From a Newly Established Behavioral Health Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Maragakis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI have higher rates of preventable diseases such as diabetes in comparison to the general population. While multifaceted, these high rates of preventable diseases in the population with SMI may be partially attributed to limited access to primary care. A new program, the Behavioral Health Home (BHH, which allows for the delivery of somatic care coordination and population-based care, may provide this population with the much needed somatic coordination and education it requires. Methods: The impact of the population-based health management program of the BHH identification and severity rating of glucose metabolism disorders was assessed during the initial 10 months of the BHH. Results: Multiple patients were identified who either were not having hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels drawn per recommended guidelines for individuals prescribed antipsychotic medications or were within diabetic range but did not have a diagnosis of diabetes. Mixed results occurred in regard to patients’ HbA1c levels while engaging in the BHH. Conclusion: This case study provides some initial evidence for the utility of the BHH in regard to identifying patients who need preventive care.

  14. Previous antibiotic exposure and antimicrobial resistance in invasive pneumococcal disease: results from prospective surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Stefan P; Rudnick, Wallis; Shigayeva, Altynay; Green, Karen; Baqi, Mahin; Gold, Wayne L; Lovinsky, Reena; Muller, Matthew P; Powis, Jeff E; Rau, Neil; Simor, Andrew E; Walmsley, Sharon L; Low, Donald E; McGeer, Allison

    2014-10-01

    Estimating the risk of antibiotic resistance is important in selecting empiric antibiotics. We asked how the timing, number of courses, and duration of antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months affected antibiotic resistance in isolates causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We conducted prospective surveillance for IPD in Toronto, Canada, from 2002 to 2011. Antimicrobial susceptibility was measured by broth microdilution. Clinical information, including prior antibiotic use, was collected by chart review and interview with patients and prescribers. Clinical information and antimicrobial susceptibility were available for 4062 (90%) episodes; 1193 (29%) of episodes were associated with receipt of 1782 antibiotic courses in the prior 3 months. Selection for antibiotic resistance was class specific. Time elapsed since most recent antibiotic was inversely associated with resistance (cephalosporins: adjusted odds ratio [OR] per day, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], .96-1.00; P = .02; macrolides: OR, 0.98; 95% CI, .96-.99; P = .005; penicillins: OR [log(days)], 0.62; 95% CI, .44-.89; P = .009; fluoroquinolones: profile penalized-likelihood OR [log(days)], 0.62; 95% CI, .39-1.04; P = .07). Risk of resistance after exposure declined most rapidly for fluoroquinolones and penicillins and reached baseline in 2-3 months. The decline in resistance was slowest for macrolides, and in particular for azithromycin. There was no significant association between duration of therapy and resistance for any antibiotic class. Too few patients received multiple courses of the same antibiotic class to assess the significance of repeat courses. Time elapsed since last exposure to a class of antibiotics is the most important factor predicting antimicrobial resistance in pneumococci. The duration of effect is longer for macrolides than other classes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved

  15. Additional coiling of previously coiled cerebral aneurysms : Clinical and angiographic results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, MJ; Sluzewski, M; van Rooij, WJ; Roks, G; Rinkel, GJE

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Some cerebral aneurysms that have been coiled reopen over time and additional treatment should be considered to reduce the risk of recurrent hemorrhage. Our purpose was to assess procedural complications and angiographic results of additional coiling in patients with

  16. UsToo PC-SPES surveys: review of studies and update of previous survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, H

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, we resolved to survey UsToo members and other men known at that time to be taking PC-SPES, a Chinese herb combination that contains eight herbs: chrysanthemum, dyers woad, licorice, reishi, san-qi ginseng, rabdosia, saw palmetto, and baikal skullcap. The survey showed positive results, with respondents experiencing a decline in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), most to the undetectable range. Of these patients, 88% maintained a low PSA concentration, whereas 12% had a rise from nadir. These results made it obvious that we should obtain follow-up reports from the respondents. We therefore conducted a second survey, this time finding 93% of the respondents with positive results and only 7% reporting a rise in PSA after the initial lowering with PC-SPES. Even though there are some side effects, a great majority of men are realizing good PSA control while taking the capsules, and some of the respondents are now into their fourth year of PC-SPES use. Currently, several institutions are investigating the biology of this Chinese herb combination. Although there is some estrogenic effect, there are other potential mechanisms of action to enable this product to control PSA, not only in newly diagnosed cancer, but also in longer-term use.

  17. Potential substitution of ammonium chloride in Ruhr coal hydrogenation. (Previous test results)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl

    1943-10-20

    The report related that ammonium chloride could be nearly totally replaced by equivalent amounts of elemental chlorine in the form of gas, chlorinated grinding oil, moderately chlorinated coal, as well as hydrogen chloride. Similar results were obtained using organic chloride compounds, such as carbon tetrachloride. Sulfur monochloride was also considered a substitute for ammonium chloride, since sulfuric acid and ammonium fluoride were considered unfavorable at the time. At a reaction temperature 1/2 mV higher than usual, phosphoric acid gave results similar to those of ammonium chloride except for splitting. By using metal powders (Fe, Al, Zn, Sn, etc.), the amount of chlorine could be reduced from 1/3 to 1/2, yet to attain a favorable reduction in asphalt as with NH/sub 4/Cl, a slight temperature increase was necessary. Tests with chlorine-containing water-soluble aluminum oxide as well as aqueous aluminum chloride appeared to be good prospects and were to be followed up. A number of summaries were referred to in relation to this report.

  18. False-Positive Xpert MTB/RIF Results in Retested Patients with Previous Tuberculosis: Frequency, Profile, and Prospective Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Grant; Venter, Rouxjeane; Smith, Liezel; Esmail, Aliasgar; Randall, Philippa; Sood, Vishesh; Oelfese, Suzette; Calligaro, Greg; Warren, Robin; Dheda, Keertan

    2018-03-01

    Globally, Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is the most widely used PCR test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Positive results in previously treated patients, which are due to old DNA or active disease, are a diagnostic dilemma. We prospectively retested sputum from 238 patients, irrespective of current symptoms, who were previously diagnosed to be Xpert positive and treated successfully. Patients who retested as Xpert positive and culture negative were exhaustively investigated (repeat culture, chest radiography, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, long-term clinical follow-up). We evaluated whether the duration since previous treatment completion, mycobacterial burden (the Xpert cycle threshold [ C T ] value), and reclassification of Xpert-positive results with a very low semiquantitation level to Xpert-negative results reduced the rate of false positivity. A total of 229/238 (96%) of patients were culture negative. Sixteen of 229 (7%) were Xpert positive a median of 11 months (interquartile range, 5 to 19 months) after treatment completion. The specificity was 93% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89 to 96%). Nine of 15 (40%) Xpert-positive, culture-negative patients reverted to Xpert negative after 2 to 3 months (1 patient declined further participation). Patients with false-positive Xpert results had a lower mycobacterial burden than patients with true-positive Xpert results ( C T , 28.7 [95% CI, 27.2 to 30.4] versus 17.6 [95% CI, 16.9 to 18.2]; P < 0.001), an increased likelihood of a chest radiograph not compatible with active TB (5/15 patients versus 0/5 patients; P = 0.026), and less-viscous sputum (15/16 patients versus 2/5 patients whose sputum was graded as mucoid or less; P = 0.038). All patients who initially retested as Xpert positive and culture negative ("Xpert false positive") were clinically well without treatment after follow-up. The duration since the previous treatment poorly predicted false-positive results (a duration of ≤2 years identified

  19. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.S. [Univ. of Sunderland (United Kingdom). Ecology Centre

    1996-05-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at ion-cyclotron resonance conditions for stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} (B{sub H} = 78.3 {micro}T, B{sub HAC} = 40 {micro}T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B{sub v} = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science.

  20. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M S

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at "ion-cyclotron resonance" conditions for stimulation of Ca(2+) (B(H) = 78.3 mu T, B(HAC) = 40 mu T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B(V) = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science.

  1. COMPARISON OF THE RESULTS OF BLOOD GLUCOSE SELFMONITORING AND CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Dreval'

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy is one of the indications for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM. The data on its efficiency in pregnant women are contradictory.Aim: To compare the results of blood glucose self-monitoring (SMBG and CGM in pregnant women with previous diabetes mellitus.Materials and methods: We performed a cross-sectional comparative study of glycemia in 18 pregnant women with previous type 1 (87.8% of patients and type 2 diabetes (22.2% of patients with various degrees of glycemic control. Their age was 27.7 ± 4.9 year. At study entry, the patients were at 17.2 ± 6.1 weeks of gestation. CGM and SMBG were performed in and by all patients for the duration of 5.4 ± 1.5 days. Depending on their HbA1c levels, all patients were divided into two groups: group 1 – 12 women with the HbA1c above the target (8.5 ± 1%, and group 2 – 6 women with the HbA1c levels within the target (5.6 ± 0.3%.Results: According to SMBG results, women from group 2 had above-the-target glycemia levels before breakfast, at 1 hour after breakfast and at bedtime: 6.2 ± 1.6, 8.7 ± 2.1, and 5.7 ± 1.9 mmol/L, respectively. According to CGM, patients from group 1 had higher postprandial glycemia than those from group 2 (8.0 ± 2.1 and 6.9 ± 1.8 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.03. The analysis of glycemia during the day time revealed significant difference between the groups only at 1 hour after dinner (7.1 ± 1.4 mmol/L in group 1 and 5.8 ± 0.9 mmol/L in group 2, р = 0.041 and the difference was close to significant before lunch (6.0 ± 2.2 mmol/L in group 1 and 4.8 ± 1.0 mmol/L in group 2, р = 0.053. Comparison of SMBG and CGM results demonstrated significant difference only at one timepoint (at 1 hour after lunch and only in group 1: median glycemia was 7.4 [6.9; 8.1] mmol/L by SMBG and 6 [5.4; 6.6] mmol/L by CGM measurement (р = 0.001. Lower median values by CGM measurement could be explained by averaging of three successive measurements carried out in the

  2. Environmental survey at the AAEC Research Establishment, Lucas Heights - results for 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, M.S.; Dudaitis, A.

    1980-09-01

    This report presents the results of the environmental survey at the AAEC Research Establishment, Lucas Heights, during 1979. They show that the only radioactivity detected which could be of AAECRE origin and which could also be ingested by humans was due to tritium. The maximum credible dose which a member of the public could receive from this radioactivity is calculated to be one ten thousandth of the derived working limit consistent with the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  3. Three magnetic particles solid phase radioimmunoassay for T4: Comparison of their results with established methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, T.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of solid phase separation techniques is an important improvement in radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. Magnetic particle solid phase method has additional advantages over others, as the separation is rapid and centrifugation is not required. Three types of magnetic particles have been studied in T 4 RIA and the results have been compared with commercial kits and other established methods. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Overview of JET post-mortem results following the 2007-9 operational period, and comparisons with previous campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, J. P.; Gruenhagen, S.; Hole, D. E.; Hakola, A.; Koivuranta, S.; Likonen, J.; Rubel, M.; Widdowson, A.; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2011-12-01

    In 2010, all the plasma-facing components were removed from JET so that the carbon-based surfaces could be replaced with beryllium (Be) or tungsten as part of the ITER-like wall (ILW) project. This gives unprecedented opportunities for post-mortem analyses of these plasma-facing surfaces; this paper reviews the data obtained so far and relates the information to studies of tiles removed during previous JET shutdowns. The general pattern of erosion/deposition at the JET divertor has been maintained, with deposition of impurities in the scrape-off layer (SOL) at the inner divertor and preferential removal of carbon and transport into the corner. However, the remaining films in the SOL contain very high Be/C ratios at the surface. The first measurements of erosion using a tile profiler have been completed, with up to 200 microns erosion being recorded at points on the inner wall guard limiters.

  5. The Election System of the Swiss Confederation: Counting of Votes and Establishment of Election Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena A. Tarnavskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following article the author covers the process of counting the votes and the disclosure rules of establishment the election results in the Swiss Confederation. Switzerland along with other EU member states pays special attention to the determination of the election results. According to Art. 149 para. 2 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation the elections to the National Council, which is one of two chambers of the Federal Assembly, are held according to proportional representation system. The Hagenbach-Bischoff system is used for allocating seats in National Council of the Swiss Con federation. However the above mentioned system for determining the quota of votes per each mandate creates ambiguous opinions among Swiss scientists and legal experts, which frequently comes up in discussions whether to modify it or not. In this article, the author also gives a brief description of the main political parties in Switzerland and statistics of seats allocation in 49 legislature of National Council following the elections of October 23, 2011. As a result, the author provides the full information on the process of votes counting and establishment of election results in the Swiss Confederation. The material presented in this article is particularly interesting and relevant in terms of improving the electoral legislation in the Russian Federation. The information presented by the author will be useful to all parties interested in electoral law.

  6. Continuation of the summarizing interim report on previous results of the Gorleben site survey as of May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    In addition to results from the 1983 interim report, this report contains, in order to supplement the surface explorations, seismic reflection measurements, hydrogeologic and seismologic investigations, sorption experiments, and studies of glacial development in the site region and of long-term safety of final waste repositories in salt domes. The site's high grade of suitability for becoming a final radioactive waste repository, the legal basis as well as quality assurance are evaluated. (orig.) [de

  7. Radioactive waste disposal by UKAEA establishments during 1981 and associated environmental monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flew, E.M.

    1982-09-01

    This report gives details of the amounts of solid and liquid radioactive waste disposed of by the principal establishments of the UKAEA during 1981. Waste arising at the UKAEA Nuclear Power Development Laboratories at Windscale and Springfields, which are both situated on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) sites, is disposed of by BNFL and included in their authorisations. Discharges to atmosphere of airborne radioactive waste are also included in the report. A summary of the results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in connection with the radioactive waste discharges is given. (author)

  8. Radon in Estonian buildings. Establishment of a measurement system and obtained results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahapill, L.; Rulkov, A.; Swedjemark, G.A.

    1996-12-01

    One purpose of this project was the establishment of a radon monitoring programme inside the state environmental monitoring programme. Another purpose was to investigate regions, expected to have high radon levels indoors. A new method for the long-term measurement of indoor radon was established and the staff for these measurements was trained. The results of the measurement can be used by Estonian decision-makers to work out rules and standards. There is no legislative act in the field of radiation in Estonian at this time. To summarize the results of the measurements we can say that indoor radon concentrations vary by region. The radon investigations must be continued to identify the risk areas and types of housing construction. The results of the state radon monitoring are provided to the municipalities, who advice the owners of planned new houses to select the right construction for the house. A new project will follow with an investigation of radon in randomly selected dwellings, training and equipment for radon measurement in soil, and general advice with regard to radon, as well as assistance in preparing information about radon. 7 refs, 5 figs

  9. Locating previously unknown patterns in data-mining results: a dual data- and knowledge-mining method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knaus William A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data mining can be utilized to automate analysis of substantial amounts of data produced in many organizations. However, data mining produces large numbers of rules and patterns, many of which are not useful. Existing methods for pruning uninteresting patterns have only begun to automate the knowledge acquisition step (which is required for subjective measures of interestingness, hence leaving a serious bottleneck. In this paper we propose a method for automatically acquiring knowledge to shorten the pattern list by locating the novel and interesting ones. Methods The dual-mining method is based on automatically comparing the strength of patterns mined from a database with the strength of equivalent patterns mined from a relevant knowledgebase. When these two estimates of pattern strength do not match, a high "surprise score" is assigned to the pattern, identifying the pattern as potentially interesting. The surprise score captures the degree of novelty or interestingness of the mined pattern. In addition, we show how to compute p values for each surprise score, thus filtering out noise and attaching statistical significance. Results We have implemented the dual-mining method using scripts written in Perl and R. We applied the method to a large patient database and a biomedical literature citation knowledgebase. The system estimated association scores for 50,000 patterns, composed of disease entities and lab results, by querying the database and the knowledgebase. It then computed the surprise scores by comparing the pairs of association scores. Finally, the system estimated statistical significance of the scores. Conclusion The dual-mining method eliminates more than 90% of patterns with strong associations, thus identifying them as uninteresting. We found that the pruning of patterns using the surprise score matched the biomedical evidence in the 100 cases that were examined by hand. The method automates the acquisition of

  10. Sudden onset of cauda equina syndrome resulting from posterior migration of lumbar herniated disc without significant previous neurological signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jeong-Hyuk; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Chul-Ku; Ha, Ho-Gyun

    2012-09-01

    While extruded disc fragments are known to migrate anteriorly, posteriorly, or laterally to the theca sac, posterior migration of the fragments is relatively rare and sudden onset of cauda equina syndrome (CES) caused by the migration is extremely rare. The authors experienced a case of CES that was manifested abruptly with sudden paraplegia caused by posterior migration of the lumbar intervertebral disc. A 74-year old man, who had no prior significant neurologic signs or trauma history, visited our emergency center with paraplegia of both lower extremities occurring suddenly when awakened. On magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings, we could detect ruptured disc herniation with severe lumbar stenosis at the L2-3 level. We performed an emergent decompression, and the right posterior migrated disc fragments at L2-3 were intraoperatively observed. The patient was fully recovered himself on the follow up after 3 months of the operation. In conclusion, early operation can result in better outcome in acute paraplegia caused by the posterior migrated disc fragments.

  11. Making the best use of our previous results as a clue for interpreting kinetics of scintigraphic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sato

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, we have performed scintigraphy with 201-thallium chloride (201-TlCl and 99m-Tc-hexakis-2-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (99m-Tc-MIBI for malignant tumors and lymphoscintigraphy with 99m-Tc-rhenium-colloid (99m-Tc-Re and 99m-Tc-human-serum-albumin-diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic-acid (99m-Tc-HSA-D for lymph node metastasis. In this article, we re-evaluated scintigraphic images retrospectively with a hope that the results might be a clue, even if it is small, for dentists to try to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of malignant tumors. From scintigraphy, we obtained the tumor retention index as a factor to estimate the uptake of radioactive agents in tumor cells. Moreover, we estimated transport proteins of Na+/K+-ATPase and permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp expressed on the cell membrane that might regulate the kinetic condition of radioactive agents. Among the tumor retention index, the transport protein and the histopathologic finding of tumors, there were relatively well correlations. The tumor retention index showed a difference clearly between malignant tumor and benign tumor. The transport protein revealed a distinct expression in accordance with the malignancy of tumor, and the uptake clearly depended upon the expression of transport protein. Moreover, the lymph node metastasis was detected well by lymphoscintigraphy with 99m-Tc-Re and 99m-Tc-HSA-D.

  12. Prevalence and development of workplace health promotion in Germany: results of the IAB Establishment Panel 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollederer, Alfons; Wießner, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Based on survey data from the IAB Establishment Panel, the investigation aims to examine the prevalence of workplace health promotion among German establishments and its determinants. The IAB Establishment Panel 2012 comprises interviews with 15,556 establishments of all sizes and industrial sectors in Germany. We first present some descriptive statistics and then analyse the determinants of the prevalence of workplace health promotion by means of a probit regression. In 2012, 27 % of the interviewed establishments reported providing workplace health promotion measures on a voluntary basis. 64 % of all employees do work in establishments with workplace health promotion. From 2002 to 2012, the share of establishments with workplace health promotion increased by 8 % points. The strongest increase was observed in establishments in Western Germany and establishments with work councils. Most popular among the measures of workplace health promotion are employee surveys and analysis of the sickness absence. The vast majority of establishments provide only single measures. The econometric analysis shows that industrial sector, size of establishment, expected problems with human resources and the existence of a work council are important factors for workplace health promotion. Only a minority of establishments are committed to workplace health promotion, while these establishments provide the majority of jobs in Germany. Our analysis displays considerable disparities in terms of prevalence as well as potential for further extensions. This could be taken more into account when discussing innovative approaches of workplace health promotion.

  13. Junk-food enhances conditioned food cup approach to a previously established food cue, but does not alter cue potentiated feeding; implications for the effects of palatable diets on incentive motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Rifka C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2018-03-16

    Efforts to stem the global rise in obesity have been minimally effective, perhaps in part because our understanding of the psychological and behavioral drivers of obesity is limited. It is well established that stimuli that are paired with palatable foods can powerfully influence food-seeking and feeding behaviors. However, how consumption of sugary, fatty "junk-foods" affects these motivational responses to food cues is poorly understood. Here, we determined the effects of short- and long-term "junk-food" consumption on the expression of cue potentiated feeding and conditioned food cup approach to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CS). Further, to determine the degree to which effects of "junk-food" were selective to Pavlovian motivational processes, we varied the predictive validity of the CS by including training groups conditioned with unique CS-US contingencies ranging from -1.0 to +1.0. "Junk-food" did not enhance cue potentiated feeding in any group, but expression of this potentiation effect varied with the CS-US contingency independent of diet. In contrast, "junk-food" consistently enhanced conditioned approach to the food cup; this effect was dependent on the previously established CS-US contingency. That is, consumption of "junk-food" following training enhanced approach to the food cup only in response to CSs with previously positive CS-US contingencies. This was accompanied by reduced motivation for the US itself. Together these data show that "junk-food" consumption selectively enhances incentive motivational responses to previously established food CSs, without altering cue potentiated feeding induced by these same CSs, and in the absence of enhanced motivation for food itself. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards Establishment of National Dose Levels from Computed Tomography in Croatia - First Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasic, B.; Brnic, Z.; Popic, J.; Viskovic, K.; Sostarec-Crnic, M.; Posedel, D.

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a sectional imaging technique that uses a collimated X-ray beam perpendicular to the body axis to acquire image of a body slice of desired width. CT is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of a wide variety of disorders. Since its introduction, it has been known that CT is related to high radiation dose to the patient. Expanding the use of this diagnostic modality resulted in making it a major source of radiation exposure to population from diagnostic X-rays. In countries with developed healthcare it contributes up to 41 % of the annual collective dose from medical radiation exposures. Many ways are found in the literature to describe and measure radiation dose from CT. In an effort to further improve dose management in CT, European Commission published European Guidelines (EG) on quality criteria for CT. To our knowledge, there are no data currently available concerning nationwide patient doses from CT examinations in Croatia. The aim of the present work is to contribute to the establishment of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for various CT examinations in our country. Our survey was performed on the helical CT scanner Shimadzu X-ray CT system SCT-7800 T (Shimadzu, Japan) during 2009 and 2010. 105 adult patients took part in our survey, 44 women (42 %) and 61 men (58 %). Mean patient age was 58, ranging from 21 to 94. Each patient signed the informed consent form. Typical CT examinations, namely routine head, chest and abdomen, were selected for the study. For each examination, the parameters, such as kVp, mAs, number of slices, slice thickness, pitch and length of examined body segment were recorded. CTDI 1 00 was measured with standard ionization chamber and Unfors Xi (Unfors, Sweden) measurement system. Radiation dose in mGy was multiplied with 10 cm length, equaling CTDI in mGyxcm. Results were normalized to 10 mm slice width. For our measurements we used standard polymethyl - methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms: body

  15. Efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with aspirin in patients who previously tried but failed treatment with vitamin K antagonists: results from the AVERROES trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Michiel; Synhorst, David; Eikelboom, John W; Yusuf, Salim; Shestakovska, Olga; Connolly, Stuart J

    2014-07-21

    The AVERROES double-blinded, randomized trial demonstrated that apixaban reduces the risk of stroke or systemic embolism (SSE) by 55% compared with aspirin without an increase in major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation either who previously tried but failed vitamin K antagonists (VKA) therapy or who were expected to be unsuitable for VKA therapy. In this pre-specified analysis, we explored the consistency of the results in the subgroup of patients who tried but failed VKA therapy. Of 5599 patients, 2216 (40%) had previously failed VKA treatment [main reasons: poor international normalized ratio (INR) control 42%, refusal 37%, bleeding on VKA 8%]. Compared with those expected to be unsuitable for VKA therapy, those who had previously failed were older, more often male, had higher body mass index, more likely to have moderate renal impairment and a history of stroke and less likely to have heart failure or to be medically undertreated. The effects of apixaban compared with aspirin were consistent in those who previously failed and those who were expected to be unsuitable, for both SSE (P interaction 0.13) and major bleeding (P interaction 0.74) and were also consistent among different subgroups of patients who had previously failed VKA therapy defined by reasons for unsuitability, age, sex, renal function, CHADS2 score, aspirin dose, duration, indication, and quality of INR control of prior VKA use. The efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with aspirin is consistent in subgroups of patients who have previously attempted but failed VKA therapy, irrespective of the reason for discontinuation. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Usefullness of palatal rugae patterns in establishing identity: Preliminary results from Bengaluru city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indira, Ap; Gupta, Manish; David, Maria Priscilla

    2012-01-01

    Palatal rugoscopy is the name given to the study of palatal rugae. Rugae pattern are widely considered to remain unchanged during an individual's lifetime. The rugae pattern has the potential to remain intact by virtue of their internal position in the head when most other anatomical structures are destroyed or burned. Moreover, rugae pattern are considered to be unique similar to fingerprints and are advocated in personal identification. The purpose of the study is to establish, individual identity using palatal rugae patterns. The study group consisted of 100 study models all of whom were subjects above 14 years old. Martin dos Santos' classification was followed based on form and position to assess the individuality of rugae pattern. Each individual had different rugae patterns including dizygous twins and the rugae patterns were not symmetrical, both in number and in its distribution. The preliminary study undertaken here shows no two palates are alike in terms of their rugae pattern. Palatal rugae possess unique characteristics as they are absolutely individualistic and therefore, can be used as a personal soft-tissue 'oral' print for identification in forensic cases.

  17. Permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto island. Establishment and results from the first inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhta, A.P.; Korpela, L.

    2006-05-01

    This report describes in detail the vegetation quadrats established inside the permanent, follow-up sample plots (Forest Extensive High-level monitoring plots, FEH) on Olkiluoto Island. During summer 2005 a total of 94 sample plots (a 30 m 2 ), each containing eight quadrats (a 1m 2 ), were investigated. The total number of sampled quadrats was 752. Seventy of the 94 plots represent coniferous stands: 57 Norway spruce-dominated and 13 Scots pine-dominated stands. Ten of the plots represent deciduous, birch-dominated (Betula spp.) stands, 7 plots common alder-dominated (Alnus glutinosa) stands, and seven plots are mires. The majority of the coniferous tree stands were growing on sites representing various succession stages of the Myrtillus, Vaccinium-Myrtillus and Deschampsia-Myrtillus forest site types. The pine-dominated stands growing on exposed bedrock clearly differed from the other coniferous stands: the vegetation was characterised by the Cladina, Calluna-Cladina and Empetrum-Vaccinium vitis-idaea/Vaccinium Myrtillus forest site types. The deciduous stands were characterized by tall grasses, especially Calamagrostis epigejos, C. purpurea and Deschampsia flexuosa. The vegetation of the deciduous stands dominated by common alder represented grove-like sites and seashore groves. Typical species for mires included Calamagrostis purpurea, Calla palustris, Equisetum sylvaticum, and especially white mosses (Sphagnum spp.). A total of 184 vascular plant species were found growing within the quadrats. Due to the high number of quadrats in these forests, the spruce stands had the highest total number of species, but the birch and alder-dominated forests had the highest average number of species per quadrat. This basic inventory of the permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto Island provides a sound starting point for future vegetation surveys. Guidelines for future inventories and supplementary sampling are given in the discussion part of this report. (orig.)

  18. Permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto island. Establishment and results from the first inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhta, A.P.; Korpela, L. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-05-15

    This report describes in detail the vegetation quadrats established inside the permanent, follow-up sample plots (Forest Extensive High-level monitoring plots, FEH) on Olkiluoto Island. During summer 2005 a total of 94 sample plots (a 30 m{sup 2}), each containing eight quadrats (a 1m{sup 2}), were investigated. The total number of sampled quadrats was 752. Seventy of the 94 plots represent coniferous stands: 57 Norway spruce-dominated and 13 Scots pine-dominated stands. Ten of the plots represent deciduous, birch-dominated (Betula spp.) stands, 7 plots common alder-dominated (Alnus glutinosa) stands, and seven plots are mires. The majority of the coniferous tree stands were growing on sites representing various succession stages of the Myrtillus, Vaccinium-Myrtillus and Deschampsia-Myrtillus forest site types. The pine-dominated stands growing on exposed bedrock clearly differed from the other coniferous stands: the vegetation was characterised by the Cladina, Calluna-Cladina and Empetrum-Vaccinium vitis-idaea/Vaccinium Myrtillus forest site types. The deciduous stands were characterized by tall grasses, especially Calamagrostis epigejos, C. purpurea and Deschampsia flexuosa. The vegetation of the deciduous stands dominated by common alder represented grove-like sites and seashore groves. Typical species for mires included Calamagrostis purpurea, Calla palustris, Equisetum sylvaticum, and especially white mosses (Sphagnum spp.). A total of 184 vascular plant species were found growing within the quadrats. Due to the high number of quadrats in these forests, the spruce stands had the highest total number of species, but the birch and alder-dominated forests had the highest average number of species per quadrat. This basic inventory of the permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto Island provides a sound starting point for future vegetation surveys. Guidelines for future inventories and supplementary sampling are given in the discussion part of this report. (orig.)

  19. Risk for high depressive symptoms in diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes: 5-year follow-up results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Icks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. METHODS: We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD 59.1 (7.6 years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULT: Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2-10.9, 4.1 (1.8-8.0, and 6.5 (5.6-7.4, respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74-2.03 in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59-1.68 after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35-1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30-1.30. CONCLUSION: We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  20. Reduced live-birth rates after IVF/ICSI in women with previous unilateral oophorectomy: results of a multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Tekla; Holte, Jan; Olofsson, Jan I; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Gudmundsson, Johannes; Nedstrand, Elizabeth; Lood, Mikael; Berglund, Lars; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny

    2018-02-01

    Is there a reduced live-birth rate (LBR) after IVF/ICSI treatment in women with a previous unilateral oophorectomy (UO)? A significantly reduced LBR after IVF/ICSI was found in women with previous UO when compared with women with intact ovaries in this large multicentre cohort, both crudely and after adjustment for age, BMI, fertility centre and calendar period and regardless of whether the analysis was based on transfer of embryos in the fresh cycle only or on cumulative results including transfers using frozen-thawed embryos. Similar pregnancy rates after IVF/ICSI have been previously reported in case-control studies and small cohort studies of women with previous UO versus women without ovarian surgery. In all previous studies multiple embryos were transferred. No study has previously evaluated LBR in a large cohort of women with a history of UO. This research was a multicentre cohort study, including five reproductive medicine centres in Sweden: Carl von Linné Clinic (A), Karolinska University Hospital (B), Uppsala University Hospital (C), Linköping University Hospital (D) and Örebro University Hospital (E). The women underwent IVF/ICSI between January 1999 and November 2015. Single embryo transfer (SET) was performed in approximately 70% of all treatments, without any significant difference between UO exposed women versus controls (68% versus 71%), respectively (P = 0.32), and a maximum of two embryos were transferred in the remaining cases. The dataset included all consecutive treatments and fresh and frozen-thawed cycles. The exposed cohort included 154 women with UO who underwent 301 IVF/ICSI cycles and the unexposed control cohort consisted of 22 693 women who underwent 41 545 IVF/ICSI cycles. Overall, at the five centres (A-E), the exposed cohort underwent 151, 34, 35, 41 and 40 treatments, respectively, and they were compared with controls of the same centre (18 484, 8371, 5575, 4670 and 4445, respectively). The primary outcome was LBR, which was

  1. Targeted MRI/TRUS fusion-guided biopsy in men with previous prostate biopsies using a novel registration software and multiparametric MRI PI-RADS scores: first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewes, Susanne; Hueper, Katja; Hartung, Dagmar; Imkamp, Florian; Herrmann, Thomas R W; Weidemann, Juergen; Renckly, Stefan; Kuczyk, Markus A; Wacker, Frank; Peters, Inga

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate a novel system for MRI/TRUS fusion-guided biopsy for detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in patients with previous negative prostate biopsy and determine diagnostic accuracy when using the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) as proposed by the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. Thirty-nine men with clinical suspicion of PCa and history of previous prostate biopsy underwent mpMRI on a 3-T MRI. In total, 72 lesions were evaluated by the consensus of two radiologists. PI-RADS scores for each MRI sequence, the sum of the PI-RADS scores and the global PI-RADS were determined. MRI/TRUS fusion-guided targeted biopsy was performed using the BioJet™ software combined with a transrectal ultrasound system. Image fusion was based on rigid registration. PI-RADS scores of the dominant lesion were compared with histopathological results. Diagnostic accuracy was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. MRI/TRUS fusion-guided biopsy was reliable and successful for 71 out of 72 lesions. The global PI-RADS score of the dominant lesion was significantly higher in patients with PCa (4.0 ± 1.3) compared to patients with negative histopathology (2.6 ± 0.8; p = 0.0006). Using a global PI-RADS score cut-off ≥4, a sensitivity of 85 %, a specificity of 82 % and a negative predictive value of 92 % were achieved. The described fusion system is dependable and efficient for targeted MRI/TRUS fusion-guided biopsy. mpMRI PI-RADS scores combined with a novel real-time MRI/TRUS fusion system facilitate sufficient diagnosis of PCa with high sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Safety and tolerability of frovatriptan in the acute treatment of migraine and prevention of menstrual migraine: Results of a new analysis of data from five previously published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, E Anne; Pawsey, Stephen P; Campbell, John C; Hu, Xiaojun

    2010-04-01

    Triptans are a recommended first-line treatment for moderate to severe migraine. Using clinical trial data, we evaluated the safety and tolerability of frovatriptan as acute treatment (AT) and as short-term preventive (STP) therapy for menstrual migraine (MM). Data from 2 Phase III AT trials (AT1: randomized, placebo controlled, 1 attack; AT2: 12-months, noncomparative, open label) and 3 Phase IIIb STP trials in MM (MMP1 and MMP2: randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, 3 perimenstrual periods; MMP3: open label, noncomparative, 12 perimenstrual periods) were analyzed. In AT1, patients treated each attack with frovatriptan 2.5 mg, sumatriptan 100 mg, or placebo. In AT2, they used frovatriptan 2.5 mg. In MMP1 and MMP2, women administered frovatriptan 2.5 mg for 6 days during the perimenstrual period, taking a loading dose of 2 or 4 tablets on day 1, followed by once-daily or BID frovatriptan 2.5 mg, respectively; in MMP3, they used BID frovatriptan 2.5 mg. In AT1, which was previously published in part, group differences in adverse events (AEs) were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, and response rates were compared using logistic regression. Post hoc analyses of sustained pain-free status with no AEs (SNAE) and sustained pain response with no AEs (SPRNAE) were performed using a 2-sample test for equality of proportions without continuity correction. For AT2 and the STP studies, data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results of individual safety analyses for the STP studies were previously reported; the present report includes new results from a pooled analysis of MMP1 and MMP2 and a new analysis of MMP3 in which AEs were coded using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities version 8.0. AT1 included 1206 patients in the safety group; AT2 included 496. In the STP studies, safety data were collected for 1487 women. In AT1 and AT2, 85.6% and 88.3%, respectively, of enrolled patients were women. Overall, AEs were generally mild to moderate (AT

  3. Mirror activity in the human brain while observing hand movements: a comparison between EEG desynchronization in the mu-range and previous fMRI results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Anat; Bentin, Shlomo

    2009-07-28

    Mu (mu) rhythms are EEG oscillations between 8-13 Hz distinguished from alpha by having more anterior distribution and being desynchronized by motor rather than visual activity. Evidence accumulating during the last decade suggests that the desynchronization of mu rhythms (mu suppression) might be also a manifestation of a human Mirror Neuron System (MNS). To further explore this hypothesis we used a paradigm that, in a previous fMRI study, successfully activated this putative MNS in humans. Our direct goal was to provide further support for a link between modulation of mu rhythms and the MNS, by finding parallels between the reported patterns of fMRI activations and patterns of mu suppression. The EEG power in the mu range has been recorded while participants passively observed either a left or a right hand, reaching to and grasping objects, and compared it with that recorded while participants observed the movement of a ball, and while observing static grasping scenes or still objects. Mirroring fMRI results (Shmuelof, L., Zohary, E., 2005. Dissociation between ventral and dorsal fMRI activation during object and action recognition. Neuron 47, 457-470), mu suppression was larger in the hemisphere contra-lateral to the moving hand and larger when the hands grasped different objects in different ways than when the movement was repetitive. No suppression was found while participants observed still objects but mu suppression was also found while seeing static grasping postures. These data are discussed in light of similar parallels between modulations of alpha waves and fMRI while recording EEG in the magnet. The present data support a link between mu suppression and a human MNS.

  4. Efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with aspirin in patients who previously tried but failed treatment with vitamin K antagonists: results from the AVERROES trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Michiel; Synhorst, David; Eikelboom, John W.; Yusuf, Salim; Shestakovska, Olga; Connolly, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    The AVERROES double-blinded, randomized trial demonstrated that apixaban reduces the risk of stroke or systemic embolism (SSE) by 55% compared with aspirin without an increase in major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation either who previously tried but failed vitamin K antagonists (VKA)

  5. Office and ambulatory blood pressure control with a fixed-dose combination of candesartan and hydrochlorothiazide in previously uncontrolled hypertensive patients: results of CHILI CU Soon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramlage P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Mengden1, Reinhold Hübner2, Peter Bramlage31Kerckhoff-Klinik GmbH, Bad Nauheim, 2Takeda Pharma GmbH, Aachen, 3Institut für Kardiovaskuläre Pharmakologie und Epidemiologie, Mahlow, GermanyBackground: Fixed-dose combinations of candesartan 32 mg and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ have been shown to be effective in clinical trials. Upon market entry we conducted a noninterventional study to document the safety and effectiveness of this fixed-dose combination in an unselected population in primary care and to compare blood pressure (BP values obtained during office measurement (OBPM with ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM.Methods: CHILI CU Soon was a prospective, noninterventional, noncontrolled, open-label, multicenter study with a follow-up of at least 10 weeks. High-risk patients aged ≥18 years with previously uncontrolled hypertension were started on candesartan 32 mg in a fixed-dose combination with either 12.5 mg or 25 mg HCTZ. OBPM and ABPM reduction and adverse events were documented.Results: A total of 4131 patients (52.8% male with a mean age of 63.0 ± 11.0 years were included. BP was 162.1 ± 14.8/94.7 ± 9.2 mmHg during office visits at baseline. After 10 weeks of candesartan 32 mg/12.5 mg or 25 mg HCTZ, mean BP had lowered to 131.7 ± 10.5/80.0 ± 6.6 mmHg (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons. BP reduction was comparable irrespective of prior or concomitant medication. In patients for whom physicians regarded an ABPM to be necessary (because of suspected noncontrol over 24 hours, ABP at baseline was 158.2/93.7 mmHg during the day and 141.8/85.2 mmHg during the night. At the last visit, BP had significantly reduced to 133.6/80.0 mmHg and 121.0/72.3 mmHg, respectively, resulting in 20.8% being normotensive over 24 hours (<130/80 mmHg. The correlation between OBPM and ABPM was good (r = 0.589 for systolic BP and r = 0.389 for diastolic BP during the day. Of those who were normotensive upon OBPM, 35.1% had high ABPM during the

  6. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in the setting of previous abdominal surgery: Perioperative results, oncological and functional outcomes, and complications in a single surgeon's series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Giovanni Battista; Grande, Pietro; Mordasini, Livio; Danuser, Hansjörg; Mattei, Agostino

    2016-12-01

    Data on safety and efficacy of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) after previous abdominal surgery are scarce. Hence, we assessed perioperative, oncological and functional outcomes, and complications of RARP in patients with previous abdominal surgery after 1-year minimum follow-up. Prospectively collected data from 339 consecutive patients undergoing transperitoneal RARP by a single surgeon (AM) between November 2008 and May 2014 were analysed. Complications were classified according to Modified Clavien System. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was defined as two consecutive PSA values ≥ 0.2 ng/ml. Functional outcomes were assessed using validated, self-administered questionnaires. In particular, only patients undergoing nerve-sparing RARP with no erectile dysfunction (baseline IIEF-5 score >21) and no use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors preoperatively who were interested in erections and required no adjuvant therapy (radiation, orchiectomy and androgen-deprivation therapy) were evaluated concerning potency recovery. Patients without and with previous abdominal surgery were compared using Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests (or Fisher exact test). On 339 patients, 247 (71.6%) had not undergone previous abdominal surgery (Group 1) and 92 (28.4%) were pre-operated (Group 2). There were no statistically significant differences between Groups 1 and 2 regarding mean operative time (260 vs. 257 min; p = 0.597), median number of resected nodes (16 vs. 17; p = 0.484), mean length of stay (7.2 vs. 7.1 d; p = 0.151), positive surgical margin (12.5% vs. 16.3%; p = 0.233) and complication rates (26.7% vs. 31.5%; p = 0.187). Median (IQR) follow-up was 36 (12-48) months. For Groups 1 and 2, BCR-free survival rates were 78.5% and 79.8% (p = 0.467); continence rates were 97.9% and 100% (p = 0.329), whereas a potency recovery was achieved in 69.5% and 62.2% of patients (p = 0.460), respectively. Transperitoneal RARP is a safe and efficient treatment for

  7. Everolimus Plus Exemestane in Advanced Breast Cancer: Safety Results of the BALLET Study on Patients Previously Treated Without and with Chemotherapy in the Metastatic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generali, Daniele; Montemurro, Filippo; Bordonaro, Roberto; Mafodda, Antonino; Romito, Sante; Michelotti, Andrea; Piovano, Pierluigi; Ionta, Maria Teresa; Bighin, Claudia; Sartori, Donata; Frassoldati, Antonio; Cazzaniga, Marina Elena; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Testore, Franco; Vici, Patrizia; Barone, Carlo Antonio; Schirone, Alessio; Piacentini, Federico; Nolè, Franco; Molino, Annamaria; Latini, Luciano; Simoncini, Edda Lucia; Roila, Fausto; Cognetti, Francesco; Nuzzo, Francesco; Foglietta, Jennifer; Minisini, Alessandro Marco; Goffredo, Francesca; Portera, Giuseppe; Ascione, Gilda; Mariani, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The BALLET study was an open-label, multicenter, expanded access study designed to allow treatment with everolimus plus exemestane in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer progressed following prior endocrine therapy. A post hoc analysis to evaluate if previous chemotherapy in the metastatic setting affects the safety profile of the combination regimen of everolimus and exemestane was conducted on the Italian subset, as it represented the major part of the patients enrolled (54%). One thousand one hundred and fifty-one Italian patients were included in the present post hoc analysis, which focused on two sets of patients: patients who never received chemotherapy in the metastatic setting (36.1%) and patients who received at least one chemotherapy treatment in the metastatic setting (63.9%). One thousand one hundred and sixteen patients (97.0%) prematurely discontinued the study drug, and the main reasons reported were disease progression (39.1%), local reimbursement of everolimus (31.1%), and adverse events (AEs) (16.1%). The median duration of study treatment exposure was 139.5 days for exemestane and 135.0 days for everolimus. At least one AE was experienced by 92.5% of patients. The incidence of everolimus-related AEs was higher (83.9%) when compared with those that occurred with exemestane (29.1%), and the most commonly reported everolimus-related AE was stomatitis (51.3%). However, no significant difference in terms of safety related to the combination occurred between patients without and with chemotherapy in the metastatic setting. Real-life data of the Italian patients BALLET-related cohort were an adequate setting to state that previous chemotherapy did not affect the safety profile of the combination regimen of everolimus and exemestane. With the advent of new targeted agents for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, multiple lines of therapy may be possible, and components of the combined regimens can overlap from

  8. Culture Negative Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Resulting in Hydrocephalus and Severe Neurological Sequelae in a Previously Healthy Immunocompetent Man with Penicillin Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin; Karlsen, Gunn Hege; Nandy, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy 74-year-old Caucasian man with penicillin allergy was admitted with evolving headache, confusion, fever, and neck stiffness. Treatment for bacterial meningitis with dexamethasone and monotherapy ceftriaxone was started. The cerebrospinal fluid showed negative microscopy...... the catheter. The patient had severe neurological sequelae. This case report emphasises the importance of covering empirically for Listeria monocytogenes in all patients with penicillin allergy with suspected bacterial meningitis. The case also shows that it is possible to have significant infection...... for bacteria, no bacterial growth, and negative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial DNA. The patient developed hydrocephalus on a second CT scan of the brain on the 5th day of admission. An external ventricular catheter was inserted and Listeria monocytogenes grew in the cerebrospinal fluid from...

  9. Drug-Induced QT Prolongation as a Result of an Escitalopram Overdose in a Patient with Previously Undiagnosed Congenital Long QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of drug-induced QT prolongation caused by an escitalopram overdose in a patient with previously undiagnosed congenital LQTS. A 15-year-old Caucasian female presented following a suicide attempt via an escitalopram overdose. The patient was found to have a prolonged QT interval with episodes of torsades de pointes. The patient was admitted to the telemetry unit and treated. Despite the resolution of the torsades de pointes, she continued to demonstrate a persistently prolonged QT interval. She was seen by the cardiology service and diagnosed with congenital long QT syndrome. This case illustrates the potential for an escitalopram overdose to cause an acute QT prolongation in a patient with congenital LQTS and suggests the importance of a screening electrocardiogram prior to the initiation of SSRIs, especially in patients at high risk for QT prolongation.

  10. [Establishment of an Animal Based Therapy at a University Hospital for Psychiatry: Results of a Preliminary Study and Future Prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfiel, Cajetan; Bodatsch, Mitja; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Kuhn, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Dogs have been integrated in human society over centuries. This process has selected unique social and communicative skills. Dogs are thus able to represent social substitutes for human counterparts in cases of social withdrawal. Furthermore, dogs act as "social catalysts" in promoting interhuman encounters. Thus, the integration of dogs in psychotherapeutic concepts addressing social and interpersonal deficits may be of special interest. Methods: The present investigation reports the results of a pilot study to establish animal-assisted therapy (dogs) at a psychiatric department. The animal-assisted intervention straddled the following areas: (1) contact making, communication and orientation to needs, (2) recreation and play, (3) outward orientation, (4) release and farewell. The sample comprised 22 subjects. Results: The results demonstrated in particular that the animal-assisted intervention significantly promoted unspecific aspects of positive affectivity and wellbeing. Evaluation of the overall acceptance of the dog on the psychiatric ward revealed very positive feedback. Conclusions: We conclude that animal-assisted therapies represent a significant enchrichment of the therapeutic context, that may be used to enhance the patients' openness and adherence to conventional therapies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Lack of association of variants previously associated with anti-TNF medication response in rheumatoid arthritis patients: results from a homogeneous Greek population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I Zervou

    Full Text Available Treatment strategies blocking tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF have proven very successful in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, showing beneficial effects in approximately 50-60% of the patients. However, a significant subset of patients does not respond to anti-TNF agents, for reasons that are still unknown. The aim of this study was to validate five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of PTPRC, CD226, AFF3, MyD88 and CHUK gene loci that have previously been reported to predict anti-TNF outcome. In addition, two markers of RA susceptibility, namely TRAF1/C5 and STAT4 were assessed, in a cohort of anti-TNF-treated RA patients, from the homogeneous Greek island of Crete, Greece. The RA patient cohort consisted of 183 patients treated with either of 3 anti-TNF biologic agents (infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept from the Clinic of Rheumatology of the University Hospital of Crete. The SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan assays or following the Restriction Fragments Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs approach. Disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28 at baseline and after 6 months were available for all patients and analysis of good versus poor response at 6 months was performed for each SNP. None of the 7 genetic markers correlated with treatment response. We conclude that the gene polymorphisms under investigation are not strongly predictive of anti-TNF response in RA patients from Greece.

  12. Lack of association of variants previously associated with anti-TNF medication response in rheumatoid arthritis patients: results from a homogeneous Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervou, Maria I; Myrthianou, Efsevia; Flouri, Irene; Plant, Darren; Chlouverakis, Gregory; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Rapsomaniki, Panayiota; Barton, Anne; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Sidiropoulos, Prodromos; Goulielmos, George N

    2013-01-01

    Treatment strategies blocking tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) have proven very successful in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), showing beneficial effects in approximately 50-60% of the patients. However, a significant subset of patients does not respond to anti-TNF agents, for reasons that are still unknown. The aim of this study was to validate five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PTPRC, CD226, AFF3, MyD88 and CHUK gene loci that have previously been reported to predict anti-TNF outcome. In addition, two markers of RA susceptibility, namely TRAF1/C5 and STAT4 were assessed, in a cohort of anti-TNF-treated RA patients, from the homogeneous Greek island of Crete, Greece. The RA patient cohort consisted of 183 patients treated with either of 3 anti-TNF biologic agents (infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept) from the Clinic of Rheumatology of the University Hospital of Crete. The SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan assays or following the Restriction Fragments Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) approach. Disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) at baseline and after 6 months were available for all patients and analysis of good versus poor response at 6 months was performed for each SNP. None of the 7 genetic markers correlated with treatment response. We conclude that the gene polymorphisms under investigation are not strongly predictive of anti-TNF response in RA patients from Greece.

  13. Culture Negative Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Resulting in Hydrocephalus and Severe Neurological Sequelae in a Previously Healthy Immunocompetent Man with Penicillin Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 74-year-old Caucasian man with penicillin allergy was admitted with evolving headache, confusion, fever, and neck stiffness. Treatment for bacterial meningitis with dexamethasone and monotherapy ceftriaxone was started. The cerebrospinal fluid showed negative microscopy for bacteria, no bacterial growth, and negative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial DNA. The patient developed hydrocephalus on a second CT scan of the brain on the 5th day of admission. An external ventricular catheter was inserted and Listeria monocytogenes grew in the cerebrospinal fluid from the catheter. The patient had severe neurological sequelae. This case report emphasises the importance of covering empirically for Listeria monocytogenes in all patients with penicillin allergy with suspected bacterial meningitis. The case also shows that it is possible to have significant infection and inflammation even with negative microscopy, negative cultures, and negative broad range polymerase chain reaction in cases of Listeria meningitis. Follow-up spinal taps can be necessary to detect the presence of Listeria monocytogenes.

  14. Non-perforation tension pneumoperitoneum resulting from primary non-aerobic bacterial peritonitis in a previously healthy middle-aged man: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, Ognyan Georgiev; Nikolov, Plamen Cekov

    2016-06-06

    Tension pneumoperitoneum is a rare surgical emergency in which free intraperitoneal gas accumulates under pressure. The known sources of free gas are perforated hollow viscera. We believe this is the first published case of a tension non-perforation pneumoperitoneum secondary to anaerobic gas production. This occurred in a background of primary non-aerobic bacterial peritonitis, which developed in an immunocompetent adult man. A previously healthy 45-year-old Bulgarian man presented with a 3-week history of abdominal pain. He displayed signs of shock, peritonitis, and abdominal compartment syndrome. A plain abdominal X-ray showed the pathognomonic "saddlebag sign" with his liver displaced downwards and medially. An emergency laparotomy released pressurized gas, accompanied by 3100 mL of foamy pus. A sudden hemodynamic deterioration occurred soon after decompression. The sources of infection and tension pneumoperitoneum were not found. The peritoneal exudate sample did not recover aerobes. A laparostomy was created and three planned re-operations were performed. During the second re-laparotomy we placed an intraperitoneal silo and his abdomen was closed with skin sutures. Definitive fascial closure was achieved through separation of his two rectus muscles from their posterior sheaths. He was discharged in good health on the 25th postoperative day. Our case provides evidence supporting the theory that anaerobic infection may underlie the etiology of tension pneumoperitoneum. Prior to decompressive laparotomy the patient should receive an intravenous volume bolus to compensate for possible hypotension. If laparostomy leads to lateralization of the rectus muscles with a gap of 6 cm or less, the posterior part of the components separation technique is effective in achieving fascial closure. We present an original classification of tension pneumoperitoneum defining it as primary or secondary.

  15. A comparison of results from previous and present investigations of benthic macroinvertebrates in the small and shallow Lake Shoji, Fuji Five Lakes, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimio Hirabayashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the current status of the benthic community of Lake Shoji, and to examine the difference with the last quantitative data of the lake by Miyadi (1932 and Kitagawa (1973, the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in this lake was studied. Also, a comparison of the benthic fauna and density was made between the present and previous studies, with a discussion concerning the succession of benthic macroinvertebrates in relation to changes in the lake bottom environment. On March 1, 2010, and September 7, 2011, bathymetrical sampling surveys were carried out using a standard Ekman-Birge grab at each of the 7 locations in Lake Shoji. The average densities of the benthic communities for all the stations were 4,107 inds. m-2, comprised principally of oligochaetes 50.2%, chironomids 48.6%, and chaoborid 1.2% in March 2010, whereas in September 2011 the average density was 1,185 inds. m-2, and mostly comprised of oligochaetes 86.6% and chironomids 13.4%. On the other hand, the average biomasses (wet weight of these benthic macroinvertebrates in March 2010 were composed of 33.3% oligochaetes, 62.8% chironomid larvae, and 3.9% chaoborid larvae, as opposed to 48.8% oligochaetes and 51.2% chironomid larvae, respectively, in September 2011. Propsilocerus akamusi (Tokunaga, 1938 and Procladius sp. of chironomid larvae were the dominant species, making up 10.0% and 17.6%, respectively, of the total chironomid fauna in density, and 83.2% and 9.2% in biomass in March 2010. The mean density of P. akamusi was about 2.5 times higher than that reported by Kitagawa in the 1970s. In recent years, the number of P. akamusi larvae has tended to increase; they are widely distributed, and the anoxic-layer and anaerobic-layer are thickening, especially during summer to late fall in Lake Shoji, suggesting that the lake is in the process of eutrophication.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1365.Published online: 17 October 2012

  16. Integrating magnetic resonance imaging postprocessing results into neuronavigation for electrode implantation and resection of subtle focal cortical dysplasia in previously cryptogenic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Jörg; Parpaley, Yaroslav; von Lehe, Marec; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are highly epileptogenic lesions. Surgical removal is frequently the best treatment option for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. However, subtle FCDs may remain undetected even after high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Morphometric MRI analysis, which compares the individual brain with a normal database, can facilitate the detection of FCDs. We describe how the results of normal database-based MRI postprocessing can be used to guide stereotactic electrode implantation and subsequent resection of lesions that are suspected to be FCDs. A presurgical evaluation was conducted on a 19-year-old woman with pharmacoresistant hypermotor seizures. Conventional high-resolution MRI was classified as negative for epileptogenic lesions. However, morphometric analysis of the spatially normalized MRI revealed abnormal gyration and blurring of the gray-white matter junction, which was suggestive of a small and deeply seated FCD in the left frontal lobe. The brain region highlighted by morphometric analysis was marked as a region of interest, transferred back to the original dimension of the individual MRI, and imported into a neuronavigation system. This allowed the region of interest-targeted stereotactic implantation of 2 depth electrodes, by which seizure onset was confirmed in the lesion. The electrodes also guided the final resection, which rendered the patient seizure-free. The lesion was histologically classified as FCD Palmini and Lüders IIB. Transferring normal database-based MRI postprocessing results into a neuronavigation system is a new and worthwhile extension of multimodal neuronavigation. The combination of resulting regions of interest with functional and anatomic data may facilitate planning of electrode implantation for invasive electroencephalographic recordings and the final resection of small or deeply seated FCDs.

  17. Can GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms predict clinical outcomes of chemotherapy in gastric and colorectal cancers? A result based on the previous reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Haixia Liu,1,* Wei Shi,2,* Lianli Zhao,3 Dianlu Dai,4 Jinghua Gao,5 Xiangjun Kong6 1Department of Ultrasound, 2Office of Medical Statistics, 3Human Resource Department, 4Department of Surgical Oncology, 5Department of Medical Oncology, 6Central Laboratory, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Yunhe District, Cangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study and should be considered cofirst authors Background: Gastric and colorectal cancers remain the major causes of cancer-related death. Although chemotherapy improves the prognosis of the patients with gastrointestinal cancers, some patients do not benefit from therapy and are exposed to the adverse effects. The polymorphisms in genes including GSTM1 and GSTT1 have been explored to predict therapeutic efficacy; however, the results were inconsistent and inconclusive. Materials and methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching relevant studies about the association between the GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and chemotherapy efficacy in gastrointestinal cancers in databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang database up to January 10, 2016. Subgroup analyses were also performed according to ethnicity, cancer type, evaluation criteria, study type, chemotherapy type, and age. Results: A total of 19 articles containing 3,217 cases were finally included. Overall analysis suggested that no significance was found between overall toxicity, neurotoxicity, neutropenia, gastrointestinal toxicity, tumor response, and progression-free survival, and the polymorphisms in GSTM1 and GSTT1, while GSTM1 polymorphism associated with overall survival (OS; hazard ratio =1.213, 95% confidence interval =1.060–1.388, P=0.005. Subgroup analyses suggested that neurotoxicity was associated with GSTM1 polymorphism in the Asian population, neutropenia was associated with GSTM1 polymorphism in palliative

  18. Differences in Stem Cell Processing Lead to Distinct Secretomes Secretion-Implications for Differential Results of Previous Clinical Trials of Stem Cell Therapy for Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernly, Bernhard; Gonçalves, Inês; Kiss, Attila; Paar, Vera; Mösenlechner, Tobias; Leisch, Michael; Santer, David; Motloch, Lukas Jaroslaw; Klein, Klaus U; Tretter, Eva V; Kretzschmar, Daniel; Podesser, Bruno; Jung, Christian; Hoppe, Uta C; Lichtenauer, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Stem cell therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) seemed to be a promising therapy, however, large clinical trials brought differential outcome. It has been shown that paracrine effects of secretomes of stem cells rather than cell therapy might play a fundamental role. The present study seeks to compare cell processing protocols of clinical trials and investigate effects of differential cell culture conditions on chemokine secretion and functional effects. Different secretomes are compared regarding IL-8, VEGF, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha secretion. Secretome mediated effects are evaluated on endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation and migration. Cardioprotective signaling kinases in human cardiomyocytes are determined by Western immunoblotting. Cells processed according to the REPAIR-AMI protocol secrete significantly higher amounts of IL-8 (487.3 ± 1231.1 vs 9.1 ± 8.2 pg mL -1 ; p Cell processing conditions have a major impact on the composition of the secretome. The REPAIR-AMI secretome significantly enhances proangiogenic chemokine secretion, angiogenesis, cell migration, and cardioprotective signaling pathways. These results might explain differential outcomes between clinical trials. Optimizing cell processing protocols with special regards to paracrine factors, might open a new therapeutic concept for improving patient outcome. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Constructing a paleo-DEM in an urban area by the example of the city of Aachen, Germany: Methods and previous results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröschel, Bernhard; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructing paleo-landscapes in urban areas is always a special challenge since the research area often witnessed constant human impact over long time periods. Dense building development is a major difficulty, particularly in regard to accessibility to in-situ soils and archaeological findings. It is therefore necessary to use data from various sources and combine methods from different fields to gain a detailed picture of the former topography. The area, which is occupied by the city of Aachen today, looks back on a long history of human influence. Traces of human activity can be dated back to Neolithic time. The first architectural structures and the first road network were built by the Romans about 2000 years ago. From then on, the area of Aachen was more or less continuously inhabited forming today's city. This long history is represented by archaeological findings throughout the city. Several meters of settlement deposits, covering different eras, are present in many locations. Therefore, it can be assumed that the modern topography significantly differs from the pre-roman topography. The main objective of this project is a reconstruction of the paleo-topography of Aachen in order to gain new insights on the spatial preconditions that the first settlers found. Moreover, further attention is given to the question whether and to what extent a paleo-DEM can help to clarify specific open archaeological and historical questions. The main database for the reconstruction are the archaeological excavation reports of the past 150 years, provided by municipal and regional archives. After analyzing these written accounts, we linked this information to drill data, provided by the Geological Service of North Rhine-Westphalia. Together with additional sources like geological and hydrological maps, we generated a GIS-based terrain model. The result is a high-resolution terrain model, representing the undisturbed pre-roman topography of the inner city of Aachen without any

  20. Results From the Phase III Randomized Trial of Onartuzumab Plus Erlotinib Versus Erlotinib in Previously Treated Stage IIIB or IV Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: METLung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigel, David R; Edelman, Martin J; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Paz-Ares, Luis; Mocci, Simonetta; Phan, See; Shames, David S; Smith, Dustin; Yu, Wei; Paton, Virginia E; Mok, Tony

    2017-02-01

    Purpose The phase III OAM4971g study (METLung) examined the efficacy and safety of onartuzumab plus erlotinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer selected by MET immunohistochemistry whose disease had progressed after treatment with a platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned at a one-to-one ratio to receive onartuzumab (15 mg/kg intravenously on day 1 of each 21-day cycle) plus daily oral erlotinib 150 mg or intravenous placebo plus daily oral erlotinib 150 mg. The primary end point was overall survival (OS) in the intent-to-treat population. Secondary end points included median progression-free survival, overall response rate, biomarker analysis, and safety. Results A total of 499 patients were enrolled (onartuzumab, n = 250; placebo, n = 249). Median OS was 6.8 versus 9.1 months for onartuzumab versus placebo (stratified hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.65; P = .067), with a greater number of deaths in the onartuzumab arm (130 [52%] v 114 [46%]). Median progression-free survival was 2.7 versus 2.6 months (stratified HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.20; P = .92), and overall response rate was 8.4% and 9.6% for onartuzumab versus placebo, respectively. Exploratory analyses using MET fluorescence in situ hybridization status and gene expression showed no benefit for onartuzumab; patients with EGFR mutations showed a trend toward shorter OS with onartuzumab treatment (HR, 4.68; 95% CI, 0.97 to 22.63). Grade 3 to 5 adverse events were reported by 56.0% and 51.2% of patients, with serious AEs in 33.9% and 30.7%, for experimental versus control arms, respectively. Conclusion Onartuzumab plus erlotinib did not improve clinical outcomes, with shorter OS in the onartuzumab arm, compared with erlotinib in patients with MET-positive non-small-cell lung cancer.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of clinical remission by treat to target strategy in established rheumatoid arthritis: results of the CREATE registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, M; de la Fuente, S; Castro-Villegas, M C; Romero-Gómez, M; Ruiz-Vílchez, D; Calvo-Gutiérrez, J; Escudero-Contreras, A; Del Prado, J R; Collantes-Estévez, E; Font, P

    2016-12-01

    To analyse the cost-effectiveness, in daily clinical practice, of the strategy of treating to the target of clinical remission (CR) in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA), after 2 years of treatment with biological therapy. Adult patients with established RA were treated with biological therapy and followed up for 2 years by a multidisciplinary team responsible for their clinical management. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated by the DAS28 score. The direct costs incurred during this period were quantified from the perspective of the healthcare system. We calculated the cost-effectiveness of obtaining a DAS28 cost of achieving CR at 2 years was 79,681 ± 38,880 euros. The strategy of treatment to the target of CR is considered the most effective, but in actual clinical practice in patients with established RA, it has a high cost.

  2. Establishing the tolerability and performance of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP in treating dry eye syndrome: results of a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Cristiana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the problems arising from available preparations for dry eye syndrome is the limited residence time of products on the ocular surface. In this paper, we look at an innovative new treatment for dry eye, tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP. TSP possesses mucomimetic, mucoadhesive and pseudoplastic properties. The 'mucin-like' molecular structure of TSP is similar to corneal and conjunctival mucin 1 (MUC1, a transmembrane glycoprotein thought to play an essential role in protecting and wetting the corneal surface and may explain its increased retention on the eye surface. Methods The activity of TSP and hyaluronic acid (HA in the treatment of dry eye syndrome was compared in an open-label, randomised, single-centre clinical study. Thirty patients were randomised to receive three or more applications per day of either TSP 0.5%, TSP 1% or HA 0.2% (Hyalistil™ over a period of 90 days. The primary objective of tolerability was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS, scoring of specific symptoms and the incidence of adverse events. Secondary objectives included improvement in stability of the precorneal tear film, subjective symptoms and corneal and conjunctival staining. Results TSP 0.5% and 1% were comparable to HA 0.2% with regard to both primary and secondary objective parameters. TSP 1% showed benefits over HA 0.2% for the subjective symptoms; trouble blinking, ocular burning and foreign body sensation. Conclusion This study suggests that TSP 0.5% and 1% offer at least equivalent relief to HA 0.2% for dry eye syndrome. All treatments demonstrated optimal tolerability and are suitable for frequent use in the therapy of dry eye. TSP 1% produced promising results in terms of improvements in certain patient symptoms and suggests benefits of the TSP formulation. This study paves the way for a larger study to further establish the performance and safety of TSP compared with HA and highlights the need to expand this therapeutic

  3. Factors that may contribute to the establishment of mobile learning in institutions – Results from a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Zawacki-Richter

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a survey investigating the role that differences in expectations and perceptions of mobile learning and mobile devices play in establishing mobile learning at an educational institution, Responses from institutions with no institutional plans for mobile learning and others that do plan or currently have developed mobile learning programmes were compared. Various factors that may contribute to the establishment of mobile learning in educational institutions were therefore also investigated. These factors include, amongst other, expectations concerning the impact of mobile technologies on teaching and learning, and perceptions concerning mobile learning applications and mobile learning activities.

  4. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  5. Neighborhood context and cognitive decline in older Mexican Americans: results from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Kristin M; Peek, M Kristen

    2009-05-01

    In previous research on cognitive decline among older adults, investigators have not considered the potential impact of contextual variables, such as neighborhood-level conditions. In the present investigation, the authors examined the association between 2 neighborhood-context variables-socioeconomic status and percentage of Mexican-American residents-and individual-level cognitive function over a 5-year follow-up period (1993-1998). Data were obtained from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly, a longitudinal study of community-dwelling older Mexican Americans (n = 3,050) residing in the southwestern United States. Individual records were linked with 1990 US Census tract data, which provided information on neighborhood characteristics. Hierarchical linear growth-curve models and hierarchical logistic models were used to examine relations between individual- and neighborhood-level variables and the rate and incidence of cognitive decline. Results showed that baseline cognitive function and rates of cognitive decline varied significantly across US Census tracts. Respondents living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods experienced significantly faster rates of cognitive decline than those in more advantaged neighborhoods. Odds of incident cognitive decline decreased as a function of neighborhood percentage of Mexican-American residents and increased with neighborhood economic disadvantage. The authors conclude that neighborhood context is associated with late-life cognitive function and that the effects are independent of individual-level risk factors.

  6. Nonmyeloablative chemotherapy followed by T-cell adoptive transfer and dendritic cell-based vaccination results in rejection of established melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Nobusada; Pilon-Thomas, Shari; Mulé, James J

    2008-05-01

    We demonstrated previously that dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines could mediate a specific and long-lasting antitumor immune response during early lymphoid reconstitution after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplant. The purpose of this current study was to examine the potential therapeutic efficacy of DC-based vaccines in combination with sublethal lymphodepletion and T-cell transfer. In an aggressive model of melanoma, treatment with the combination of 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (Cy) and 100 mg/kg fludarabine (Flu) led to a lymphopenic state lasting approximately 14 days, but had no effect on the growth of an established M05 melanoma. Addition of ovalbumin (OVA) peptide-pulsed DC-based immunization resulted in a delay in tumor growth but did not enhance overall survival in this model. To improve treatment, adoptively transferred naive T cells were added. After induction of lymphopenia with Cy and Flu, transferred T cells demonstrated an activated memory phenotype including high expression of CD44 and low expression of CD62L. Induction of lymphopenia with Cy and Flu in combination with adoptive transfer of naive T cells and OVA peptide-pulsed DCs immunization led to an enhancement in the number of OVA specific, CD8 T cells that demonstrated specific cytotoxic activity, proliferation, and interferon-gamma production in response to the OVA expressing M05 melanoma. This combination therapy also led to tumor regression and enhanced survival in mice bearing M05 melanoma.

  7. Establishment of IDF-curves for precipitation in the tropical area of Central Africa - comparison of techniques and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mohymont

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves for precipitation remains a powerful tool in the risk analysis of natural hazards. Indeed the IDF-curves allow for the estimation of the return period of an observed rainfall event or conversely of the rainfall amount corresponding to a given return period for different aggregation times. There is a high need for IDF-curves in the tropical region of Central Africa but unfortunately the adequate long-term data sets are frequently not available. The present paper assesses IDF-curves for precipitation for three stations in Central Africa. More physically based models for the IDF-curves are proposed. The methodology used here has been advanced by Koutsoyiannis et al. (1998 and an inter-station and inter-technique comparison is being carried out. The IDF-curves for tropical Central Africa are an interesting tool to be used in sewer system design to combat the frequently occurring inundations in semi-urbanized and urbanized areas of the Kinshasa megapolis.

  8. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  9. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

  10. A BDNF Sensitive Mechanism Is Involved in the Fear Memory Resulting from the Interaction between Stress and the Retrieval of an Established Trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachero, Marcelo; Bustos, Silvia G.; Calfa, Gaston; Molina, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the fear memory resulting from the interaction of a stressful experience and the retrieval of an established fear memory trace. Such a combination enhanced both fear expression and fear retention in adult Wistar rats. Likewise, midazolam intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion prior to stress attenuated the…

  11. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  12. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  13. Establishment of a finite element model of a neonate's skull to evaluate the stress pattern distribution resulting during nasoalveolar molding therapy of cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Franz X; Heinrich, Veronika; Grill, Florian D; Wölfle, Felix; Hedderich, Dennis M; Rau, Andrea; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Ritschl, Lucas M; Loeffelbein, Denys J

    2018-02-02

    Nasoalveolar Molding (NAM) is associated with ambivalent acceptance regarding effectiveness and unknown long-term results. Our purpose was to analyze the stress distribution patterns within the viscero- and neurocranium of neonates during the first phase of NAM therapy. A finite element (FE) model of a healthy four-week-old neonate was generated, derived from a computed tomography scan allowing the implementation of a bone-density-dependent material model. The influence of dental germs with variable material properties, the cleft width and area of expected force application were analyzed in a worst-case scenario. The resulting stress distribution patterns for each situation were analyzed using the software Ansys APDL. The established FE model was verified with a convergence analysis. Overall, stress patterns at the age of four weeks showed von Mises stress values below 60.000 Pa in the viscero- and neurocranium. The influences of the allocation of material properties for the dental germs, the area of force application, and the cleft width were negligible. A workflow to simulate the stress distribution and deformation in neonates attributable to various areas of force application has been established. Further analyses of the skulls of younger and older neonates are needed to describe the stress distribution patterns during NAM therapy. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Conspecific plants are better 'nurses' than rocks: consistent results revealing intraspecific facilitation as a process that promotes establishment in a hyper-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loayza, Andrea P; Herrera-Madariaga, Marisol A; Carvajal, Danny E; García-Guzmán, Patricio; Squeo, Francisco A

    2017-11-01

    Harsh environmental conditions in arid ecosystems limit seedling recruitment to microhabitats under nurse structures, such as shrubs or rocks. These structures, however, do not necessarily afford the same benefits to plants because nurse rocks provide only physical nurse effects, whereas nurse plants can provide both physical and biological nurse effects. Nevertheless, if the nurse plant is a conspecific, the benefits it provides may be outweighed by higher mortality due to negative density-dependent processes; consequently, negative density-dependence is expected to limit plants from acting as nurses to their own seedlings. The degree to which an abiotic nurse may be more beneficial than a conspecific one remains largely unexplored. Here, we examine the role and elucidate the mechanisms by which conspecific plants and rocks promote plant establishment in a hyper-arid desert. For 4 years, we examined establishment patterns of Myrcianthes coquimbensis (Myrtaceae), a threatened desert shrub that recruits solely in rock cavities and under conspecific shrubs. Specifically, we characterized these microhabitats, as well as open interspaces for comparison, and conducted germination, seed removal and seedling survival experiments. Our results revealed that conspecific shrubs and nurse rocks modified environmental conditions in similar ways; soil and air temperatures were lower, and water availability was higher than in open interspaces. We found no evidence on negative density-dependent recruitment: seed removal was lowest and seedling emergence highest under conspecific plants, moreover seedling survival probabilities were similar in rock cavities and under conspecific plants. We conclude that the probability of establishment was highest under conspecific plants than in other microhabitats, contrasting what is expected under the Janzen-Connell recruitment model. We suggest that for species living in stressful environments, population regulation may be a function of

  15. Concentrations and Size Distributions of Trace Metals in Particulate Matter in Urban New Jersey: Preliminary Results from the Newly Established Rutgers Newark Urban Air Quality Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, O.; Gao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with health issues in general and respiratory diseases in particular. Some research has shown that higher concentration of fine particulate matter (PM) is found in lungs. However, why and what kind of PM plays the roles affecting the human health still need more investigations, and most of previous and current studies were limited to those focusing on PM2.5 or larger particles. The city of Newark in New Jersey is the largest metropolitan center in the state with dense population; it is a commerce and transportation hub surrounded by many highways and busy airports, in addition to numerous power plants, waste combustion treatment facilities, etc. in the area. Thus, the city is impacted by air pollution emissions In some areas of the city, the elevated records of respiratory illness were reported. Although some PM2.5 concentration studies were done in the past, the enrichment of toxic metals in PM with respect to their sizes have not been fully addressed. The Rutgers Newark Air Quality Observatory (RNAQO) was recently established to address urban air pollution and its impact on human health. During this study, both size-segregated PM and PM2.5 are collected in RNAQO, Newark, New Jersey. The samples are analyzed to evaluate the enrichment of trace metals focusing on Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in different sizes of PM that will be discussed in this presentation. Such data will be valuable to further investigations into the health effects of fine mode PM. Particularly, this data will be helpful in exploring the relationships between respiratory sickness and fine mode toxic metals' concentrations.

  16. Val-boroPro accelerates T cell priming via modulation of dendritic cell trafficking resulting in complete regression of established murine tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghaan P Walsh

    Full Text Available Although tumors naturally prime adaptive immune responses, tolerance may limit the capacity to control progression and can compromise effectiveness of immune-based therapies for cancer. Post-proline cleaving enzymes (PPCE modulate protein function through N-terminal dipeptide cleavage and inhibition of these enzymes has been shown to have anti-tumor activity. We investigated the mechanism by which Val-boroPro, a boronic dipeptide that inhibits post-proline cleaving enzymes, mediates tumor regression and tested whether this agent could serve as a novel immune adjuvant to dendritic cell vaccines in two different murine syngeneic murine tumors. In mice challenged with MB49, which expresses the HY antigen complex, T cell responses primed by the tumor with and without Val-boroPro were measured using interferon gamma ELISPOT. Antibody depletion and gene-deficient mice were used to establish the immune cell subsets required for tumor regression. We demonstrate that Val-boroPro mediates tumor eradication by accelerating the expansion of tumor-specific T cells. Interestingly, T cells primed by tumor during Val-boroPro treatment demonstrate increased capacity to reject tumors following adoptive transfer without further treatment of the recipient. Val-boroPro -mediated tumor regression requires dendritic cells and is associated with enhanced trafficking of dendritic cells to tumor draining lymph nodes. Finally, dendritic cell vaccination combined with Val-boroPro treatment results in complete regression of established tumors. Our findings demonstrate that Val-boroPro has antitumor activity and a novel mechanism of action that involves more robust DC trafficking with earlier priming of T cells. Finally, we show that Val-boroPro has potent adjuvant properties resulting in an effective therapeutic vaccine.

  17. Evaluation of clinical and biological prognostic factors in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients after previous treatment with rituximab and chemotherapy: results of the PRO-R-IPI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizo, Carlos; Rodríguez, Anny Jaramillo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Díaz, Francisco Javier; González-Barca, Eva; de Oña, Raquel; Grande, Carlos; Sancho, Juan Manuel; García-Álvarez, María Flor; Sánchez-González, Blanca; Peñalver, Francisco Javier; Cannata, Jimena; Espeso, Manuel; Requena, María José; Gardella, Santiago; Durán, Soledad; González, Ana Pilar; Alfonso, Ana; Caballero, María Dolores

    2015-07-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous entity, showing a highly variable outcome. In patients with DLBCL relapsed/refractory to first-line treatment with rituximab the usefulness of the revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI) as a prognostic tool remains unexplored. Some biological parameters (B-cell lymphoma 6 [Bcl-6], Bcl-2, p53, and multiple myeloma 1 [MUM1]) and blood populations (lymphocyte and monocyte counts) have been described as International Prognostic Index-independent prognostic factors. The objective was to evaluate the R-IPI to predict the outcome of DLBCL patients at the time of relapse after a front-line treatment with chemotherapy and rituximab and to establish in this population the relationship between biological parameters and outcome. We included patients with refractory/relapsed DLBCL after first-line treatment with rituximab-containing regimens; patients must have already finished a rescue treatment also including rituximab. Immunohistochemical assessment of Bcl-2, Bcl-6, p53, and MUM1 expression were undertaken in available biopsies. R-IPI factors were identified from the clinical data at diagnosis and at relapse. Response was assessed using National Cancer Institute-sponsored Working Group guidelines. R-IPI prognosis at relapse was not significantly associated with overall response rate (ORR) after Rituximab-chemotherapy rescue therapy. None of the immunohistochemical parameters analyzed correlated with rescue therapy results. In contrast, patients with absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ≥ 1 × 10(9)/L at relapse were more likely to respond than patients with ALC IPI score calculated at relapse could not predict the ORR to second-line treatment. Lymphopenia is a simple and useful predictor for outcome in relapsed/refractory DLBCL and the only prognostic factor that in our hands could predict the overall response to a second-line treatment with rituximab and chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. A BDNF sensitive mechanism is involved in the fear memory resulting from the interaction between stress and the retrieval of an established trace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachero, Marcelo; Bustos, Silvia G; Calfa, Gaston; Molina, Victor A

    2013-04-15

    The present study investigates the fear memory resulting from the interaction of a stressful experience and the retrieval of an established fear memory trace. Such a combination enhanced both fear expression and fear retention in adult Wistar rats. Likewise, midazolam intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion prior to stress attenuated the enhancement of fear memory thus suggesting the involvement of a stress-induced reduction of the GABAergic transmission in BLA in the stress-induced enhancing effect. It has been suggested that, unlike the immediate-early gene Zif268 which is related to the reconsolidation process, the expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is highly correlated with consolidation. We therefore evaluate the relative contribution of these two neurobiological processes to the fear memory resulting from the above-mentioned interaction. Intra-dorsal hippocampus (DH) infusions of either the antisense Zif268 or the inhibitor of the protein degradation (Clasto-Lactacystin β-Lactone), suggested to be involved in the retrieval-dependent destabilization process, did not affect the resulting contextual memory. In contrast, the knockdown of hippocampal BDNF mitigated the stress-induced facilitating influence on fear retention. In addition, the retrieval experience elevated BDNF level in DH at 60 min after recall exclusively in stressed animals. These findings suggest the involvement of a hippocampal BDNF sensitive mechanism in the stress-promoting influence on the fear memory following retrieval.

  19. Empagliflozin and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Asian Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Established Cardiovascular Disease - Results From EMPA-REG OUTCOME®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Kohei; Lee, Jisoo; Mattheus, Michaela; Kaspers, Stefan; George, Jyothis; Woerle, Hans-Juergen

    2017-01-25

    In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME ® trial, empagliflozin added to standard of care reduced the risk of 3-point major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (3-point MACE: composite of CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke) by 14%, CV death by 38%, hospitalization for heart failure by 35%, and all-cause mortality by 32% in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and established CV disease. We investigated the effects of empagliflozin in patients of Asian race.Methods and Results:Patients were randomized to receive empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, or placebo. Of 7,020 patients treated, 1,517 (21.6%) were of Asian race. The reduction in 3-point MACE in Asian patients was consistent with the overall population: 3-point MACE occurred in 79/1,006 patients (7.9%) in the pooled empagliflozin group vs. 58/511 patients (11.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio: 0.68 [95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.95], P-value for treatment by race interaction (Asian, White, Black/African-American): 0.0872). The effects of empagliflozin on the components of MACE, all-cause mortality, and heart failure outcomes in Asian patients were consistent with the overall population (P-values for interaction by race >0.05). The adverse event profile of empagliflozin in Asian patients was similar to the overall trial population. Reductions in the risk of CV outcomes and mortality with empagliflozin in Asian patients with T2DM and established CV disease were consistent with the overall trial population.

  20. Sex differences in response to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in early and established rheumatoid arthritis -- results from the DANBIO registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jawaheer, Damini; Olsen, Jørn; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2012-01-01

    To investigate sex differences in response to anti-tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) therapy over time in early versus established rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......To investigate sex differences in response to anti-tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) therapy over time in early versus established rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Vorapaxar With and Without a Thienopyridine for Secondary Prevention in Patients With Previous Myocardial Infarction and No History of Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: Results from TRA 2°P-TIMI 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohula, Erin A; Aylward, Philip E; Bonaca, Marc P; Corbalan, Ramon L; Kiss, Robert G; Murphy, Sabina A; Scirica, Benjamin M; White, Harvey; Braunwald, Eugene; Morrow, David A

    2015-11-17

    Vorapaxar antagonizes protease-activated receptor 1, the primary receptor for thrombin on human platelets, and reduces recurrent thrombotic events in stable patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI). We wished to determine whether the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet therapy with vorapaxar was modified by concurrent thienopyridine use. The Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 50 (TRA 2°P-TIMI 50) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vorapaxar in 26,449 patients with previous atherothrombosis. This prespecified analysis included 16,897 patients who qualified with a MI in the preceding 2 weeks to 12 months and was restricted to patients without a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack given its contraindication in that population. Randomization was stratified on the basis of planned thienopyridine use. Thienopyridine was planned at randomization in 12,410 (73%). Vorapaxar significantly reduced the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, and stroke in comparison with placebo regardless of planned thienopyridine therapy (planned thienopyridine, hazard ratio, 0.80, 0.70-0.91, PGlobal Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) moderate or severe bleeding risk was increased with vorapaxar and was not significantly altered by planned thienopyridine (planned, hazard ratio, 1.50; 1.18-1.89, Phistory of previous MI, whether treated concomitantly with a thienopyridine or not. The relative risk of moderate or severe bleeding was similarly increased irrespective of thienopyridine use. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00526474. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Establishing and validating luminiscence dating procedures for archaoelogical remains in the geochronology laboratory of the University of A Coruña: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjurjo Sánchez, Jorge

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoluminescence dating (TL of archaeological material is a technique about 50 years old, but it is not much used in Spain. Recent methodological advances have improved the accuracy and precision of the method. The unit of Geochronology of the University Geological Institute “Isidro Parga Pondal” University of A Coruña, has set up recently a Luminescence laboratory. In order to test analytical dating procedures, medieval tiles from an archaeological site next to the Hercules Tower (A Coruña have been dated. The stratigraphical column was previously dated by 14C, so a good chronological control is available. Samples were analysed using two different analytical procedures: a classical one using a multialiquot approach (AD-TL and a recent one using a single aliquot procedure (SAR-TL. Our results show that both methods yield comparable paleodoses, being the SAR-TL the one with smaller error.

    La datación mediante termoluminiscencia (TL de material arqueológico es una técnica con unos 50 años de antigüedad, aunque no muy empleada en España. Avances metodológicos recientes han permitido aumentar la exactitud y precisión del método. La Unidad de Geocronología del Instituto Universitario de Xeoloxía “Isidro Parga Pondal” de la Universidad de A Coruña cuenta en la actualidad con un Laboratorio de Luminiscencia. Para poner a punto los procedimientos analíticos de datación, se han datado tejas medievales de una excavación cercana a la Torre de Hércules (A Coruña en la que la columna estratigráfica fue datada por medio de 14C. Las muestras fueron sometidas a dos procedimientos existentes en la literatura: uno clásico (AD-TL y otro de reciente desarrollo (SAR-TL. Los resultados muestran concordancia entre ambos métodos e incluso mejoras considerables obtenidas con el SAR-TL.

  3. Pain and other non-neurological adverse events in children with sickle cell anemia and previous stroke who received hydroxyurea and phlebotomy or chronic transfusions and chelation: results from the SWiTCH clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Ofelia; Yovetich, Nancy A; Scott, J Paul; Owen, William; Miller, Scott T; Schultz, William; Lockhart, Alexandre; Aygun, Banu; Flanagan, Jonathan; Bonner, Melanie; Mueller, Brigitta U; Ware, Russell E

    2013-11-01

    To compare the non-neurological events in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and previous stroke enrolled in SWiTCH. The NHLBI-sponsored Phase III multicenter randomized clinical trial stroke with transfusions changing to hydroxyurea (SWiTCH) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122980) compared continuation of chronic blood transfusion/iron chelation to switching to hydroxyurea/phlebotomy for secondary stroke prevention and management of iron overload. All randomized children were included in the analysis (intention to treat). The Fisher's Exact test was used to compare the frequency of subjects who experienced at least one SCA-related adverse event (AE) or serious adverse event (SAE) in each arm and to compare event rates. One hundred and thirty three subjects, mean age 13 ± 3.9 years (range 5.2-19.0 years) and mean time of 7 years on chronic transfusion at study entry, were randomized and treated. Numbers of subjects experiencing non-neurological AEs were similar in the two treatment arms, including SCA-related events, SCA pain events, and low rates of acute chest syndrome and infection. However, fewer children continuing transfusion/chelation experienced SAEs (P = 0.012), SCA-related SAEs (P = 0.003), and SCA pain SAEs (P = 0.016) as compared to children on the hydroxyurea/phlebotomy arm. The timing of phlebotomy did not influence SAEs. Older age at baseline predicted having at least 1 SCA pain event. Patients with recurrent neurological events during SWiTCH were not more likely to experience pain. In children with SCA and prior stroke, monthly transfusions and daily iron chelation provided superior protection against acute vaso-occlusive pain SAEs when compared to hydroxyurea and monthly phlebotomy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Cervical screening with primary HPV testing or cytology in a population of women in which those aged 33 years or younger had previously been offered HPV vaccination: Results of the Compass pilot randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfell, Karen; Caruana, Michael; Gebski, Val; Darlington-Brown, Jessica; Heley, Stella; Brotherton, Julia; Gertig, Dorota; Jennett, Chloe J; Farnsworth, Annabelle; Tan, Jeffrey; Wrede, C David; Castle, Philip E; Saville, Marion

    2017-09-01

    Using primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for cervical screening increases detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplastic lesions and invasive cancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ [CIN2+]) compared to cytology, but no evaluation has been conducted in a population previously offered HPV vaccination. We aimed to assess colposcopy referral and CIN2+ detection rates for HPV-screened versus cytology-screened women in Australia's HPV-vaccinated population (by 2014, resident women ≤33 years had been age-eligible for HPV vaccination, with 3-dose uptake across age cohorts being about 50%-77%). Compass is an open-label randomised trial of 5-yearly HPV screening versus 2.5-yearly liquid-based cytology (LBC) screening. In the first phase, consenting women aged 25-64 years presenting for routine screening at 47 primary practices in Victoria, Australia, provided a cervical sample and were randomised at a central laboratory at a 1:2:2 allocation to (i) image-read LBC screening with HPV triage of low-grade cytology ('LBC screening'), (ii) HPV screening with those HPV16/18 positive referred to colposcopy and with LBC triage for other oncogenic (OHR) types ('HPV+LBC triage'), or (iii) HPV screening with those HPV16/18 positive referred to colposcopy and with dual-stained cytology triage for OHR types ('HPV+DS triage'). A total of 5,006 eligible women were recruited from 29 October 2013 to 7 November 2014 (recruitment rate 58%); of these, 22% were in the group age-eligible for vaccination. Data on 4,995 participants were analysed after 11 withdrawals; 998 were assigned to, and 995 analysed (99.7%) in, the LBC-screened group; 1,996 assigned to and 1,992 analysed (99.8%) in the HPV+LBC triage group; and 2,012 assigned to and 2,008 analysed (99.8%) in the HPV+DS triage group. No serious trial-related adverse events were reported. The main outcomes were colposcopy referral and detected CIN2+ rates at baseline screening, assessed on an intention

  6. Cervical screening with primary HPV testing or cytology in a population of women in which those aged 33 years or younger had previously been offered HPV vaccination: Results of the Compass pilot randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfell, Karen; Gebski, Val; Heley, Stella; Brotherton, Julia; Gertig, Dorota; Jennett, Chloe J.; Farnsworth, Annabelle; Castle, Philip E.; Saville, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Background Using primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for cervical screening increases detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplastic lesions and invasive cancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ [CIN2+]) compared to cytology, but no evaluation has been conducted in a population previously offered HPV vaccination. We aimed to assess colposcopy referral and CIN2+ detection rates for HPV-screened versus cytology-screened women in Australia’s HPV-vaccinated population (by 2014, resident women ≤33 years had been age-eligible for HPV vaccination, with 3-dose uptake across age cohorts being about 50%–77%). Methods and findings Compass is an open-label randomised trial of 5-yearly HPV screening versus 2.5-yearly liquid-based cytology (LBC) screening. In the first phase, consenting women aged 25–64 years presenting for routine screening at 47 primary practices in Victoria, Australia, provided a cervical sample and were randomised at a central laboratory at a 1:2:2 allocation to (i) image-read LBC screening with HPV triage of low-grade cytology (‘LBC screening’), (ii) HPV screening with those HPV16/18 positive referred to colposcopy and with LBC triage for other oncogenic (OHR) types (‘HPV+LBC triage’), or (iii) HPV screening with those HPV16/18 positive referred to colposcopy and with dual-stained cytology triage for OHR types (‘HPV+DS triage’). A total of 5,006 eligible women were recruited from 29 October 2013 to 7 November 2014 (recruitment rate 58%); of these, 22% were in the group age-eligible for vaccination. Data on 4,995 participants were analysed after 11 withdrawals; 998 were assigned to, and 995 analysed (99.7%) in, the LBC-screened group; 1,996 assigned to and 1,992 analysed (99.8%) in the HPV+LBC triage group; and 2,012 assigned to and 2,008 analysed (99.8%) in the HPV+DS triage group. No serious trial-related adverse events were reported. The main outcomes were colposcopy referral and detected CIN2+ rates at

  7. Cervical screening with primary HPV testing or cytology in a population of women in which those aged 33 years or younger had previously been offered HPV vaccination: Results of the Compass pilot randomised trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Canfell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using primary human papillomavirus (HPV testing for cervical screening increases detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplastic lesions and invasive cancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ [CIN2+] compared to cytology, but no evaluation has been conducted in a population previously offered HPV vaccination. We aimed to assess colposcopy referral and CIN2+ detection rates for HPV-screened versus cytology-screened women in Australia's HPV-vaccinated population (by 2014, resident women ≤33 years had been age-eligible for HPV vaccination, with 3-dose uptake across age cohorts being about 50%-77%.Compass is an open-label randomised trial of 5-yearly HPV screening versus 2.5-yearly liquid-based cytology (LBC screening. In the first phase, consenting women aged 25-64 years presenting for routine screening at 47 primary practices in Victoria, Australia, provided a cervical sample and were randomised at a central laboratory at a 1:2:2 allocation to (i image-read LBC screening with HPV triage of low-grade cytology ('LBC screening', (ii HPV screening with those HPV16/18 positive referred to colposcopy and with LBC triage for other oncogenic (OHR types ('HPV+LBC triage', or (iii HPV screening with those HPV16/18 positive referred to colposcopy and with dual-stained cytology triage for OHR types ('HPV+DS triage'. A total of 5,006 eligible women were recruited from 29 October 2013 to 7 November 2014 (recruitment rate 58%; of these, 22% were in the group age-eligible for vaccination. Data on 4,995 participants were analysed after 11 withdrawals; 998 were assigned to, and 995 analysed (99.7% in, the LBC-screened group; 1,996 assigned to and 1,992 analysed (99.8% in the HPV+LBC triage group; and 2,012 assigned to and 2,008 analysed (99.8% in the HPV+DS triage group. No serious trial-related adverse events were reported. The main outcomes were colposcopy referral and detected CIN2+ rates at baseline screening, assessed on an intention

  8. From “Mr. Guthrie is profoundly mistaken ...” to “Our data do not seem to confirm the results of a previous study on...”: A diachronic study of polemicity in academic writing (1810-1995)

    OpenAIRE

    Françoise Salager-Meyer

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the quantitative and qualitative diachronic evolution of critical (Cr) with respect to non-critical (NCr) references in English medical discourse over a 185 year-period.Materials and Methods: We analyzed a corpus of 90 medical articles drawn from 34 different journals published between 1810 and 1995. Cr and NCr references were recorded in each paper and their frequency of occurrence was computed per 20 year-period. Results were analyzed...

  9. Correlação entre fratura por queda em idosos e uso prévio de medicamentos Correlation between fractures resulting from falls and previous drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Hamra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de medicamentos por idosos é freqüente e tem crescido a cada dia em virtude do aumento da expectativa de vida no Brasil. Algumas destas drogas quando administradas, podem provocar efeitos colaterais como tontura e diminuição dos reflexos podendo ocasionar quedas e conseqüentes fraturas. Este trabalho verificou se o uso de medicamentos pode ser considerado como fator de risco para fratura por queda no idoso. Para isso fez-se um estudo no ano de 2004 com 205 pacientes a partir de 60 anos de idade internados com fratura por queda e comparou-se estatisticamente com grupo-controle de 205 pacientes do mesmo grupo etário sem fratura. Verificou-se que o uso de medicamentos pode ser considerado como fator de risco para fratura por queda. Os resultados também podem servir como orientação para equipe médica, pacientes e seus familiares, no sentido de se tentar evitar quedas, principalmente quando o uso de medicamentos é necessário.The use of medication by elderly individuals is frequently and is constantly growing due to the increase of life expectance rates in Brazil. When some of these drugs are administered, they can cause collateral effects like dizziness and decreased reflex, potentially causing the occurrence of falls resulting in fractures. This study examined whether the use of medications by the elderly could be regarded as a risk factor to fractures resulting from falls. The study, conducted in 2004, assessed 205 hospitalized patients > 60 years old, with fractures resulting from falls. These patients were statistically compared to a control group (205 patients in the same age group and without fractures. We’ve found that the use of medication can be regarded as a risk factor to fractures resulting from falls. Our results could be useful to raise the awareness of doctors, patients and their families so that to avoid accidents when any drug therapy is required.

  10. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  11. Docking and Molecular Dynamics Calculations of Some Previously Studied and newly Designed Ligands to Catalytic Core Domain of HIV-1 Integrase and an Investigation to Effects of Conformational Changes of Protein on Docking Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ercan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, AIDS still remains as a worldwide pandemic and continues to cause many death which arise from HIV-1 virus. For nearly 35 years, drugs that target various steps of virus life cycle have been developed. HIV-1 integrase is the one of these steps which is essential for virus life cycle. Computer aided drug design is being used in many drug design studies as also used in development of the first HIV-1 integrase inhibitor Raltegravir. In this study 3 ligands which are used as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors and 4 newly designed ligands were docked to catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase. Each of ligands docked to three different conformations of protein. Prepared complexes (21 item were carried out by 50 ns MD simulations and results were analyzed. Finally, the binding free energies of ligands were calculated. Hereunder, it was determined that designed ligands L01 and L03 gave favorable results. The questions about the ligands which have low docking scores in a conformation of protein could give better scores in another conformation of protein and if the MD simulations carry the different oriented and different localized ligands in same position at the end of simulation were answered.

  12. From “Mr. Guthrie is profoundly mistaken ...” to “Our data do not seem to confirm the results of a previous study on...”: A diachronic study of polemicity in academic writing (1810-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Salager-Meyer

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the quantitative and qualitative diachronic evolution of critical (Cr with respect to non-critical (NCr references in English medical discourse over a 185 year-period.Materials and Methods: We analyzed a corpus of 90 medical articles drawn from 34 different journals published between 1810 and 1995. Cr and NCr references were recorded in each paper and their frequency of occurrence was computed per 20 year-period. Results were analyzed by means of Chi-square tests.Results: Our quantitative results indicate that in the corpus as a whole NCr significantly outweigh Cr references. When diachronically analyzed, our quantitative data revealed that the corpus analyzed could be divided into 2 blocks: Block A (1810-1929 and Block B (1930-1995, the cutting point being the 1930’s when NCr references started exhibiting a dramatic ascent. Our findings further showed that, proportionally speaking, Cr references were significantly more frequent in Block A than in Block B, but that NCr references significantly outnumbered Cr ones in Block B. Our quantitative data also indicated that the NCr/Cr reference ratio remained rather constant for the first 120 years studied, but that it changed radically from the 1930’s. Finally, our qualitative findings revealed that 19th and early 20th century Cr references were formulated in a much more direct, involved, personal and author-responsible manner than their mid- and late 20th century counterparts, the rhetorical features of the latter being a pronounced hedginess and the shifting of the disagreeement responsibility from a human agent (who became a detached and apparently neutral actor to an inanimate “talking fact/finding” which is then given a prominent thematic position.Conclusions: We conclude that 19th and early 20th century medical papers adopted a critical stand more frequently than mid- and late 20th century medical discourse did, and that the

  13. Conception of spent fuel and radioactive wastes management in Poland based on the results of the previous work performed in the frames of Governmental Strategic Programme realised under patronate of National Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodarski, J.; Chwaszczewski, S.; Slizowski, K.; Frankowski, Z.

    1999-01-01

    About 300 cubic meters of solid and solidified radioactive wastes of low and medium activity are produced each year in Poland. Such materials, after processing, are stored in the Institute of Atomic Energy at Swierk or in the National Repository for Radioactive Wastes in Rozan. About 6000 spent fuel elements are temporarily stored in water pools at Swierk. Assumptions and strategy of future spent fuel and radioactive wastes management are presented taking into account operation of the first nuclear power plants (after 2010). Then Governmental Strategic Programme (GSP) for the year 1997-1999 concerning such topic is described and some results of the work performed in the frames of the GSP are given

  14. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  15. Application of a quality by design approach to the cell culture process of monoclonal antibody production, resulting in the establishment of a design space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hiroaki; Watari, Akiko; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Takuma, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    This case study describes the application of Quality by Design elements to the process of culturing Chinese hamster ovary cells in the production of a monoclonal antibody. All steps in the cell culture process and all process parameters in each step were identified by using a cause-and-effect diagram. Prospective risk assessment using failure mode and effects analysis identified the following four potential critical process parameters in the production culture step: initial viable cell density, culture duration, pH, and temperature. These parameters and lot-to-lot variability in raw material were then evaluated by process characterization utilizing a design of experiments approach consisting of a face-centered central composite design integrated with a full factorial design. Process characterization was conducted using a scaled down model that had been qualified by comparison with large-scale production data. Multivariate regression analysis was used to establish statistical prediction models for performance indicators and quality attributes; with these, we constructed contour plots and conducted Monte Carlo simulation to clarify the design space. The statistical analyses, especially for raw materials, identified set point values, which were most robust with respect to the lot-to-lot variability of raw materials while keeping the product quality within the acceptance criteria. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Floodplain restoration on the upper Danube by re-establishing back water dynamics: first results of the hydro-geomorphological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Hilger, Ludwig; Cyffka, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    Within the framework of a restoration project at the upper Danube, eight working groups of different scientific disciplines have been operating since 2009. They investigate the changes evoked through the accomplished restoration measures, which seek to bring back new dynamics to the floodplain and to reconnect it with the river in order to optimize flood plain ecological functioning. Main object is the identification and analysis of hydro-geomorphological processes and their impact on vegetation and fauna. Hydrology is one of the key factors determining the type and function of flood plains and thus alternating water levels are the motor of riparian ecosystems. Diverse water and groundwater levels and particularly flood events affect and support floodplain typical vegetation and animal species. All floodplain waterbodies (oxbows, floodplain ponds, backwaters and sidearms) are more or less connected by surface or subsurface waterways. Hydrological conditions are mainly influenced by the following measures: a, permanent nature orientated bypass river with a discharge of up to 5 m3/s; b, man controlled ecological flooding (discharge of up to 30 m3/s); c, groundwater drawdown in the eastern project area. These measures shall bring back "former" natural hydrological dynamics to the floodplain. They establish geomorphological processes and forms as well and create a mosaic of typical habitats. River morphology is monitored by terrestrial laser scanning analysing the so attained data sets, erosion and aggregation rates at selected undercut slopes and point bars can be detected with a high resolution. Large scale mapping by a drone and dGPS mapping are very helpful tools for identifing widespread flooding areas. Further methods such as, cross section and bed load measurements complete the research work. The aim is to link the interaction of these abiotic processes with the biotic nature and determine the importance of geomorphological disturbance for floodplain ecosystems

  17. Cytoreductive Surgery plus Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy to Treat Advanced/Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Results from a Retrospective Study on Prospectively Established Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the best standard treatment, optimal cytoreductive surgery (CRS and platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy, prognosis of advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC remains poor. Recently, CRS plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC has been developed to treat peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC. This study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CRS+HIPEC to treat PC from advanced/recurrent EOC. METHODS: Forty-six PC patients from advanced EOC (group A or recurrent EOC (group B were treated by 50 CRS+HIPEC procedures. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS; the secondary endpoints were safety profiles. RESULTS: The median OS was 74.0 months [95% confidence interval (CI 8.5-139.5] for group A versus 57.5 months (95% CI 29.8-85.2 for group B (P = .68. The median PFS was not reached for group A versus 8.5 months (95% CI 0-17.5 for group B (P = .034. Better median OS correlated with peritoneal cancer index (PCI 20 group, P = .01, complete cyroreduction (residual disease ≤ 2.5 mm [79.5 months for completeness of cytoreduction (CC score 0-1 vs 24.3 months for CC 2-3, P = .00], and sensitivity to platinum (65.3 months for platinum-sensitive group vs 20.0 for platinum-resistant group, P = .05. Serious adverse events occurred in five patients (10.0%. Multivariate analysis identified CC score as the only independent factor for better survival. CONCLUSION: For advanced/recurrent EOC, CRS+HIPEC could improve OS with acceptable safety.

  18. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  19. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  20. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  1. Establishment, maintenance, and re-establishment of the safe and efficient steady-following state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Deng; Zheng Ying-Ping

    2015-01-01

    We present an integrated mathematical model of vehicle-following control for the establishment, maintenance, and re-establishment of the previous or new safe and efficient steady-following state. The hyperbolic functions are introduced to establish the corresponding mathematical models, which can describe the behavioral adjustment of the following vehicle steered by a well-experienced driver under complex vehicle following situations. According to the proposed mathematical models, the control laws of the following vehicle adjusting its own behavior can be calculated for its moving in safety, efficiency, and smoothness (comfort). Simulation results show that the safe and efficient steady-following state can be well established, maintained, and re-established by its own smooth (comfortable) behavioral adjustment with the synchronous control of the following vehicle’s velocity, acceleration, and the actual following distance. (paper)

  2. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  3. 20 CFR 416.1337 - Exceptions to the continuation of previously established payment level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... same address; (iv) The sex code for such individual is the same; and (v) The date of birth for such.... (ii) Federal supplemental security income benefit and optional supplementation, or optional supplementation only—$700 Recipients whose records indicate they were eligible for Federal supplemental security...

  4. The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's advice to ministers on the establishment of scientific consensus on the interpretation and significance of the results of science programmes into radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This document presents conclusions and recommendations on establishment of scientific consensus on the interpretation and significance of the results of science programmes into radioactive waste disposal. The topics discussed include: the nature of science and its limitations; societal views of science and the radioactive waste problem; issues upon which consensus will be needed; evidence of past attempts at greater involvement of the public; the linking of scientific and social consensus; communicating the nature of consensus to the public

  5. Establishment probability in newly founded populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusset Markus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishment success in newly founded populations relies on reaching the established phase, which is defined by characteristic fluctuations of the population’s state variables. Stochastic population models can be used to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations; however, so far no simple but robust method for doing so existed. To determine a critical initial number of individuals that need to be released to reach the established phase, we used a novel application of the “Wissel plot”, where –ln(1 – P0(t is plotted against time t. This plot is based on the equation P0t=1–c1e–ω1t, which relates the probability of extinction by time t, P0(t, to two constants: c1 describes the probability of a newly founded population to reach the established phase, whereas ω1 describes the population’s probability of extinction per short time interval once established. Results For illustration, we applied the method to a previously developed stochastic population model of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. A newly founded population reaches the established phase if the intercept of the (extrapolated linear parts of the “Wissel plot” with the y-axis, which is –ln(c1, is negative. For wild dogs in our model, this is the case if a critical initial number of four packs, consisting of eight individuals each, are released. Conclusions The method we present to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations is generic and inferences thus are transferable to other systems across the field of conservation biology. In contrast to other methods, our approach disaggregates the components of a population’s viability by distinguishing establishment from persistence.

  6. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  7. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  8. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  9. Establishing operations and reinforcement effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A

    1991-01-01

    Positive reinforcement procedures have had a major impact on educational programs for the developmentally disabled; nevertheless, variation in reinforcer effectiveness both within and across individuals is a common phenomenon. This study examined one class of variables--establishing operations--that might influence the effectiveness of reinforcers. Five developmentally disabled adult males participated. Responding on one of two motor tasks--switch closure or block placement--was assessed during baseline, satiation, and deprivation conditions with respect to three classes of consequences: small food items, music, and social praise. Deprivation and satiation conditions were constructed so as not to alter significantly the normal course of events in a subject's day. For example, food deprivation entailed scheduling sessions just prior to a subject's regular lunch, and social deprivation involved limiting a subject's access to social interaction for 15 minutes, during which time the subject had access to an assortment of other activities. Results showed that each stimulus class functioned as reinforcement with different degrees of effectiveness during satiation versus deprivation conditions. These results are discussed in light of previous research on enhancement of reinforcer efficacy as well as the assessment and identification of functional reinforcers, and implications are presented for future research and client habilitation.

  10. Dental health in workers previously exposed to mercury vapour at a chloralkali plant.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, R I; Ellingsen, D G; Olstad, M L; Kjuus, H

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The dental health of 73 workers previously exposed to mercury vapour at a chloralkali plant was studied and compared with that of 51 non-exposed referents. METHODS--A record of oral, periodontal, gingival and mucosal conditions, including teeth, restorations, prostheses, and oral hygiene, was established during a 30 min examination. The participants' periodontal conditions were assessed according to the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN). The results with the C...

  11. Adding pharmacists to primary care teams reduces predicted long-term risk of cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients without established cardiovascular disease: results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, N N; Majumdar, S R; Johnson, J A; Tsuyuki, R T; Lewanczuk, R Z; Spooner, R; Simpson, S H

    2012-11-01

    To determine the impact of adding pharmacists to primary care teams on predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular events in patients with Type 2 diabetes without established cardiovascular disease. This was a pre-specified secondary analysis of randomized trial data. The main study found that, compared with usual care, addition of a pharmacist resulted in improvements in blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia for primary care patients with Type 2 diabetes. In this sub-study, predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular events at baseline and 1 year were calculated for patients free of cardiovascular disease at enrolment. The primary outcome was change in UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk score; change in Framingham risk score was a secondary outcome. Baseline characteristics were similar between the 102 intervention patients and 93 control subjects: 59% women, median (interquartile range) age 57 (50-64) years, diabetes duration 3 (1-6.5) years, systolic blood pressure 128 (120-140) mmHg, total cholesterol 4.34 (3.75-5.04) mmol/l and HbA(1c) 54 mmol/mol (48-64 mmol/mol) [7.1% (6.5-8.0%)]. Median baseline UKPDS risk score was 10.2% (6.0-16.7%) for intervention patients and 9.5% (5.8-15.1%) for control subjects (P = 0.80). One-year post-randomization, the median absolute reduction in UKPDS risk score was 1.0% greater for intervention patients compared with control subjects (P = 0.032). Similar changes were seen with the Framingham risk score (median reduction 1.2% greater for intervention patients compared with control subjects, P = 0.048). The two risk scores were highly correlated (rho = 0.83; P risk of cardiovascular events for patients with Type 2 diabetes without established cardiovascular disease. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  12. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  13. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  14. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  15. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  16. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  17. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  18. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  19. Annual report on major results and progress of Naka Fusion Research Establishment of JAERI from April 1 to September 30, 2005 and Fusion Research and Development Directorate of JAEA from October 1, 2005 to March 31, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hidetoshi; Oasa, Kazumi; Hayashi, Takao; Nakamura, Hiroo; Ogawa, Hiroaki

    2006-09-01

    This annual report provides an overview of major results and progress on research and development (R and D) activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) during the period from April 1 to September 30, 2005 and at Fusion Research and Development Directorate of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) from October 1, 2005 to March 31, 2006, including those performed in collaboration with other research establishments of JAERI, research institutes, and universities. In JT-60, ferritic steel tiles (FSTs) were installed inside the vacuum vessel of JT-60U to reduce the toroidal field ripple. After the installation of FSTs, a high normalized beta plasma at β N ∼2.3 was sustained for 28.6s with ELMy H-mode confinement as required for an ITER hybrid operation scenario. National Centralized Tokamak was placed as the ITER satellite tokamak in collaboration with the EU fusion community, and the facility design was modified strongly in support of ITER. In theoretical and analytical researches, studies on H-mode confinement, ITB in reversed shear plasmas, aspect ratio effects on external MHD modes and magnetic island evolution in a rotating plasma were progressed. Progress was also made in the NEXT project in which the behaviors of collisionless MHD modes and the dynamics of zonal flows were simulated. In fusion reactor technologies, R and Ds for ITER and fusion DEMO plants have been carried out. For ITER, a steady state operation of the 170GHz gyrotron up to 1000 s with 0.2 MW was demonstrated. Also current density of the neutral beam injector has been extended to 134A/m 2 at 0.75MeV. In the ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM), designs of Water and Helium Cooled Solid Breeder TBMs and R and Ds of tritium breeder/multiplier materials were progressed. Tritium processing technology for breeding blankets was also progressed. For the DEMO reactors, high temperature superconductor such as Bi2212 has been examined. In plasma facing

  20. Blood Establishment Registration Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This application provides information for active, inactive, and pre-registered firms. Query options are by FEI, Applicant Name, Establishment Name, Other Names,...

  1. Establishing software quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malsbury, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is concerned with four questions about establishing software QA: What is software QA. Why have software QA. What is the role of software QA. What is necessary to ensure the success of software QA

  2. Establishment of floor ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Robič, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    After the socioeconomic system had been changed in 1991 the right of ownership and land registry seemed to gain a much greater importance. In that time the concept of floor ownership has also started to develop, but after 25 years a significant number of multi-unit buildings without the established floor ownership still exist in Slovenia. In this thesis both theoretical background and practical solutions for establishing a floor ownership are presented, furthermore, possible causes for an ina...

  3. The vertebral biomechanic previous and after kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, V; Piazzolla, Andrea; Moretti, L; Carlucci, S; Parato, C; Maxy, P; Moretti, B

    2013-10-01

    The biomechanical understanding of increasing anterior column load with progressing kyphosis leading to subsequent vertebral compression fracture (VCF) established the basic rationale for kyphoplasty. The lumbar spine can support an effort of 500 kg in the axis of the vertebral body, and a bending moment of 20 Nm in flexion. Consequently, if this effort is forward deviated of only 10 cm, the acceptable effort will be reduced to 20 kg so it is important to restore the vertebral anterior wall after a VCF: the authors describe the biomechanical modifications in the spine after kyphoplasty.

  4. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  5. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy following previous abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellato, T A; Gauderer, M W; Ponsky, J L

    1984-01-01

    During a 36-month period, 89 patients have undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy without mortality. Of these patients, 25 (13 infants and children, 12 adults) had prior abdominal procedures that increased their risk for the endoscopic procedure. With two exceptions, all gastrostomies were performed utilizing local anesthesia. There was one major complication, a gastrocolic fistula, which was successfully managed by repeating the endoscopic gastrostomy procedure at a location more cephalad in the stomach. Twenty-two of the gastrostomies were placed for feeding purposes and all of these patients were able to leave the hospital with alimentation accomplished via the tube. Three of the endoscopically placed gastrostomies were for gastrointestinal tract decompression. A total of 255 patient months have been accumulated in these patients with the endoscopically placed gastrostomy in situ. The technique can be safely performed in patients with prior abdominal surgery and in the majority of cases is the technique of choice for establishing a tube gastrostomy. PMID:6428334

  6. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W

    1991-04-01

    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.

  7. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M

    2017-04-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness results from the randomised, Phase IIB trial in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia to compare fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone and low-dose rituximab: the Attenuated dose Rituximab with ChemoTherapy In Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (ARCTIC) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Dena R; Munir, Talha; McParland, Lucy; Rawstron, Andy C; Chalmers, Anna; Gregory, Walter M; O'Dwyer, John L; Smith, Alison; Longo, Roberta; Varghese, Abraham; Smith, Alexandra; Hillmen, Peter

    2017-05-01

    mitoxantrone. A total of 100 participants completed FCR, 79 completed FCM-miniR and 21 commenced FCM-miniR but switched to FCR following DMEC recommendations. The CR rate for participants receiving FCR was 76%, compared with 55% for FCM-miniR (adjusted odds ratio 0.37; 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 0.73). Key secondary end points also showed that FCR was superior, with more participants achieving MRD negativity (57% for FCR vs. 46% for FCM-miniR). More participants experienced a serious adverse reaction with FCM-miniR compared with FCR (50% vs. 41%). At a median of 37.3 months' follow-up, the PFS and OS rates are good compared with previous studies, with no significant difference between the treatment arms. The economic analysis indicates that because FCM-miniR is less effective than FCR, FCM-miniR is not expected to be cost-effective over a lifetime horizon, producing a mean cost-saving of -£7723, a quality-adjusted life-year loss of -0.73 and a resulting incremental net monetary loss of -£6780. FCM-miniR is less well tolerated, with poorer response rates, than FCR, partly owing to the additional toxicity associated with mitoxantrone. In view of this, FCM-miniR will not be taken forward into a larger definitive Phase III trial. The trial demonstrated that oral FCR yields extremely high response rates compared with historical series with intravenous chemotherapy. We shall compare the results of ARCTIC with those of the ADMIRE (Does the ADdition of Mitoxantrone Improve Response to FCR chemotherapy in patients with CLL?) trial, which compared FCR with FCM-R to assess the efficacy of low- versus standard-dose rituximab, allowing for the toxicity associated with mitoxantrone. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16544962. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment ; Vol. 21, No. 28. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

  9. Establishing a University Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemish, Donald L.

    A handbook on how to establish a university foundation is presented. It presupposes that a foundation will be used as the umbrella organization for receiving all private gifts, restricted and unrestricted, for the benefit of a public college or university; and hence it chiefly addresses readers from public colleges and universities. Information is…

  10. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer to the co...

  11. Day-and-Night Closed-Loop Glucose Control in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Under Free-Living Conditions: Results of a Single-Arm 1-Month Experience Compared With a Previously Reported Feasibility Study of Evening and Night at Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renard, Eric; Farret, Anne; Kropff, Jort; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Messori, Mirko; Place, Jerome; Visentin, Roberto; Calore, Roberta; Toffanin, Chiara; Di Palma, Federico; Lanzola, Giordano; Magni, Paolo; Boscari, Federico; Galasso, Silvia; Avogaro, Angelo; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kovatchev, Boris; del Favero, Simone; Cobelli, Claudio; Magni, Lalo; DeVries, J. Hans

    2016-01-01

    After testing of a wearable artificial pancreas (AP) during evening and night (E/N-AP) under free-living conditions in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), we investigated AP during day and night (D/N-AP) for 1 month. Twenty adult patients with T1D who completed a previous randomized crossover study

  12. Systematic approach to establishing criticality biases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.L.

    1995-09-01

    A systematic approach has been developed to determine benchmark biases and apply those biases to code results to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.24 regarding documenting criticality safety margins. Previously, validation of the code against experimental benchmarks to prove reasonable agreement was sufficient. However, DOE Order 5480.24 requires contractors to adhere to the requirements of ANSI/ANS-8.1 and establish subcritical margins. A method was developed to incorporate biases and uncertainties from benchmark calculations into a k eff value with quantifiable uncertainty. The method produces a 95% confidence level in both the k eff value of the scenario modeled and the distribution of the k eff S calculated by the Monte Carlo code. Application of the method to a group of benchmarks modeled using the KENO-Va code and the SCALE 27 group cross sections is also presented

  13. (hydronsan) in previously untreated cases of pulmo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B., M.D., King George V. Hospital, Durban. SUMMARY. The results of a randomized, single-blind, between-paTienI trial of various combinations of rifampicin, .... clearing after 16 weeks of trial is higher in the rifampicin- treated groups than in the ethambutol-plus-Hydronsan group. Table III shows the radiological clearing.

  14. Re-establishing dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C

    2012-01-01

    study with 29 nurses and nurse assistants was performed following Van Manen’s hermeneutic phenomenology. Findings show that caring mainly concerns ‘re-establishing dignity’ especially through ‘seeing the patient as a unique person’, ‘assisting in getting rid of the bed’ and ‘supporting patient...... appearance’. The study documents that caring for older people is about creating small everyday circumstances in which patient dignity can flourish. Shortcomings of a secondary analysis are discussed and suggestions for future research, such as how older hospital patients experience caring and dignity...

  15. Reproductive compatibility between mite populations previously identified as Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Aloyséia Cristina da Silva; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present research is to study the reproductive compatibility between populations of predatory mites previously identified as Euseius concordis (Chant) based on morphological characteristics. Colonies of these mite populations were established in the lab with specimens collected from different localities and host plants. Reproductive compatibility was evaluated through crosses and backcrosses within and between populations and the subsequent observation of females' oviposition, over a period of 10 days. The levels of oviposition obtained in the crosses between individuals from the same population were higher than those obtained in the crosses between individuals from different populations. Results indicate the occurrence of post-mating reproductive incompatibility between the mite population from Petrolina and the other populations studied. Crosses and backcrosses between populations involving female mites from Petrolina did not produce offspring, although endospermatophores were present inside the spermathecas of those females. Oviposition was reduced, and only sons were obtained, in crosses between populations with males from Petrolina. Crosses of females from Pontes e Lacerda and males from Jaguariúna and vice versa produced only male progeny. Our results established that the populations originating from Arroio do Meio, Pontes e Lacerda, Jaguarúna and Viçosa, are reproductively compatible. However, the latter populations and the population from Petrolina are genetically isolated. Based on these results we suggest that more cytological and genetic studies are needed to establish if this reproductive isolation represents a species barrier.

  16. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  17. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  18. Attempted establishment of proficiency levels for laparoscopic performance on a national scale using simulation: the results from the 2004 SAGES Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR) learning center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sickle, K R; Ritter, E M; McClusky, D A; Lederman, A; Baghai, M; Gallagher, A G; Smith, C D

    2007-01-01

    The Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR) has been well validated as a training device for laparoscopic skills. It has been demonstrated that training to a level of proficiency on the simulator significantly improves operating room performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The purpose of this project was to obtain a national standard of proficiency using the MIST-VR based on the performance of experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Surgeons attending the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) 2004 Annual Scientific Meeting who had performed more than 100 laparoscopic procedures volunteered to participate. All the subjects completed a demographic questionnaire assessing laparoscopic and MIST-VR experience in the learning center of the SAGES 2004 meeting. Each subject performed two consecutive trials of the MIST-VR Core Skills 1 program at the medium setting. Each trial involved six basic tasks of increasing difficulty: acquire place (AP), transfer place (TP), traversal (TV), withdrawal insert (WI), diathermy task (DT), and manipulate diathermy (MD). Trial 1 was considered a "warm-up," and trial 2 functioned as the test trial proper. Subject performance was scored for time, errors, and economy of instrument movement for each task, and a cumulative total score was calculated. Trial 2 data are expressed as mean time in seconds in Table 2. Proficiency levels for laparoscopic skills have now been established on a national scale by experienced laparoscopic surgeons using the MIST-VR simulator. Residency programs, training centers, and practicing surgeons can now use these data as guidelines for performance criterion during MIST-VR skills training.

  19. Establishing effective working relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council.

  20. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion...... of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define...

  1. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2016-07-26

    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a

  2. Important biological information uncovered in previously unaligned reads from chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments (ChIP-Seq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Wilberforce Zachary; Mejia-Guerra, Maria Katherine; Yilmaz, Alper; Pareja-Tobes, Pablo; Li, Wei; Doseff, Andrea I.; Grotewold, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the architecture of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) relies on chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) methods that provide genome-wide transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). ChIP-Seq furnishes millions of short reads that, after alignment, describe the genome-wide binding sites of a particular TF. However, in all organisms investigated an average of 40% of reads fail to align to the corresponding genome, with some datasets having as much as 80% of reads failing to align. We describe here the provenance of previously unaligned reads in ChIP-Seq experiments from animals and plants. We show that a substantial portion corresponds to sequences of bacterial and metazoan origin, irrespective of the ChIP-Seq chromatin source. Unforeseen was the finding that 30%–40% of unaligned reads were actually alignable. To validate these observations, we investigated the characteristics of the previously unaligned reads corresponding to TAL1, a human TF involved in lineage specification of hemopoietic cells. We show that, while unmapped ChIP-Seq read datasets contain foreign DNA sequences, additional TFBSs can be identified from the previously unaligned ChIP-Seq reads. Our results indicate that the re-evaluation of previously unaligned reads from ChIP-Seq experiments will significantly contribute to TF target identification and determination of emerging properties of GRNs. PMID:25727450

  3. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  4. Establishment of the International Power Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Julius E.

    2000-04-29

    Building on the two previous trips to Central America last year, International Power Institute (IPI) and its partner Tennessee Valley Infrastructure Group (TVIG) have focused their attention this quarter on project sites in Honduras. TVIG's unit--an Integrated Infrastructure Platform or IIP--combines water and electricity production in a single integrated unit, thereby providing both products at a lower cost than could be attained for each one separately. Because of the unmet demand for clean drinking water and electricity in remote towns throughout the developing world, the need for such units is widespread. Previous visits to Honduras have resulted in strong in-country commercial interest, support in the form of memorandums of understanding by key government agencies, and identification of four prospective project sites for IIP installations. From March 5 to March 15 and with IPI support and participation, representatives from the TVIG, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), IPI, and market research firm International Business Initiatives (IBI) conducted an intensive survey of project opportunities in the four communities, to establish how IIPs might help these four communities enhance their economic development, A key aspect of the projects examined is the need to make them economically self-supporting so that they will be viable in the private sector. Summary of specific project site studies follow here, and feasibility studies for the four sites are included as attachments.

  5. Feasibility study to establish a new value chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingrid Herman, Marie; Thai, Thi Minh

    Since the 90s value chain (VC) approaches have received considerable attention by governments and development agencies for poverty reduction and strengthening the private sector. VC analysis has been used for developing intervention strategies to upgrade existing or to establish new VCs. Despite......-harvesting of Gleichenia ferns in New Caledonia using a holistic framework combining relevant conceptual elements and various analytical tools in VC literature. Results showed the importance of starting with understanding goals of establishing the VC. In this case goals were creating employment in remote areas...... responsibility for value-creation and distribution activities. Finally, the feasibility analysis underlined the importance of reflecting on findings from the previous analyses with regards to set goals in order to identify (mis)matches between expected benefits from the established VC and goals as well...

  6. What are the factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection screening behaviour among heterosexual men patronising entertainment establishments who engaged in casual or paid sex? - Results from a cross-sectional survey in an Asian urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Tham, Dede Kam Tyng; Cheung, Olive N Y; Tai, Bee Choo; Chan, Roy; Wong, Mee Lian

    2016-12-19

    Late presentation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with heterosexual transmission, particularly among heterosexual men in Asia. Although data on HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing behaviour is increasing, information is still lacking among heterosexual men who receive far lesser attention and are generally invisible in HIV/ STI prevention, particularly in the Asian urban setting. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HIV/STI testing among heterosexual men patronising entertainment establishments (EEs) who engaged in casual or paid sex in Singapore, and the factors associated with this behaviour. This was a cross-sectional survey involving 604 participants using time location sampling between March and May 2015. For multivariable analysis, we used a mixed effects Poisson regression model with backward stepwise approach to account for clustering by venue and to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) for the association of various factors with HIV/STI testing. Among 604 at-risk participants, only 163 (27.0%) had gone for HIV or STI testing in the past 6 months. Of this, 83.4% of them specifically underwent HIV testing. In multivariable analysis, HIV/STI testing increased with being non-Chinese (aPR 1.50; 95% CI: 1.08-2.06), having engaged in anal sex with casual or paid partner in the past 6 months (aPR 1.80; 95% CI: 1.27-2.57), number of partners in the past 6 months (aPR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) and HIV knowledge score (aPR 1.11; 95% CI: 1.05-1.16). Among those who reported non-consistent condom use with casual or paid partner, almost half of them (47.9%) perceived that they were at low risk for HIV/STI. Sigmatisation and discrimination was another common barrier for non-testing. Despite being at risk of HIV/STI, the low prevalence of testing coupled with a high prevalence of risky sexual behaviour among this group of heterosexual men in Singapore calls for a need for HIV/STI prevention interventions in the EE

  7. Establishment of ITER: Relevant documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    At the Geneva Summit Meeting in November, 1985, a proposal was made by the Soviet Union to build a next-generation tokamak experiment on a collaborative basis involving the world's four major fusion blocks. In October, 1986, after consulting with Japan and the European Community, the United States responded with a proposal on how to implement such an activity. Ensuing diplomatic and technical discussions resulted in the establishment, under the auspices of the IAEA, of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Conceptual Design Activities. This tome represents a collection of all documents relating to the establishment of ITER, beginning with the initial meeting of the ITER Quadripartite Initiative Committee in Vienna on 15-16 March, 1987, through the meeting of the Provisional ITER Council, also in Vienna, on 8-9 February, 1988

  8. The Establishing Operation and Teaching Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Vincent J.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years ago Michael (1993) refined and extended the concept of the conditioned establishing operation (CEO). With this paper he updated his previous treatment of the topic (Michael, 1982) by providing terminological refinements and conceptually clear descriptions of the reflexive and transitive CEOs. In the 20 years since the publication of…

  9. Risoe Research Establishment, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    On the poetic Roskilde Fjord, 40 kilometers from Copenhagen, and near Roskilde, capital of Denmark in the 12th century, stands the Risoe Research Establishment of the Danish Atomic Energy Commission. ere 700 men and women are engaged in searching for ways in which atomic energy can be used to make the world a better and healthier place. The work at Risoe comprises fundamental research, reactor technology and other technological studies, agricultural research and health and safety studies. Nuclear power stations are scheduled to be operative in Denmark some time between 1975 and 1980, and the planning of these stations and development of the many processes this will involve has become a major task at Risoe. Special conditions have to be fulfilled in selecting the site of an atomic research station, and the barren Risoe peninsula had them all: safety, because the site was free from buildings to permit continuous control; closeness to the scientific institutions of the capital, Copenhagen; social amenities in Roskilde; finally, access to an a adequate water supply. his special series of photos covering some aspects of the work and safety conditions at Risoe was commissioned by WHO. (author)

  10. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  11. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  12. Previous Land Use and Invasive Species Impacts on Long-term Afforestation Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Nickelson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of agricultural lands to forests has increased worldwide over the past few decades for multiple reasons including increasing forest connectivity and wildlife habitat. However, previous land cover and competing vegetation often impede afforestation. We established 219 plots in 29 Quercus plantations on four previous land cover types (LCT: Clover, Soybeans, Woody Brush, and Herbaceous Weeds. Plantations were located in Illinois, USA and were sampled 15–18 years after planting. Sampling data for all trees (planted and volunteer included species, diameter, and vine presence on the main bole of the tree. Free-to-grow status was recorded for all Quercus species and estimated cover of two invasive species, Elaeagnus umbellata and Lonicera japonica, was documented on each plot. There was a strong relationship between total tree density and invasive species cover across all sites. Stocking success was lower and E. umbellata cover was higher on Woody Brush sites compared to Clover and Soybean cover types. Additionally, significantly more free-to-grow Quercus saplings occurred in Clover and Soybean cover types compared to the Woody Brush sites. The results indicate that previous land cover plays a critical role in forest afforestation. Furthermore, while historically, volunteer tree species were thought to be detrimental to the development of planted species these results suggest that with the increasing prevalence of invasive species worldwide the role of volunteer species in afforestation should be reconsidered and silvicultural protocols adjusted accordingly.

  13. Establishing the isolated Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang; Zhao, Yue

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this article is to initiate a discussion on what it takes to claim ''there is no new physics at the weak scale,'' namely that the Standard Model (SM) is ''isolated.'' The lack of discovery of beyond the SM (BSM) physics suggests that this may be the case. But to truly establish this statement requires proving all ''connected'' BSM theories are false, which presents a significant challenge. We propose a general approach to quantitatively assess the current status and future prospects of establishing the isolated SM (ISM), which we give a reasonable definition of. We consider broad elements of BSM theories, and show many examples where current experimental results are not sufficient to verify the ISM. In some cases, there is a clear roadmap for the future experimental program, which we outline, while in other cases, further efforts - both theoretical and experimental - are needed in order to robustly claim the establishment of the ISM in the absence of new physics discoveries.

  14. Establishing the isolated standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang; Zhao, Yue

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this article is to initiate a discussion on what it takes to claim "there is no new physics at the weak scale," namely that the Standard Model (SM) is "isolated." The lack of discovery of beyond the SM (BSM) physics suggests that this may be the case. But to truly establish this statement requires proving all "connected" BSM theories are false, which presents a significant challenge. We propose a general approach to quantitatively assess the current status and future prospects of establishing the isolated SM (ISM), which we give a reasonable definition of. We consider broad elements of BSM theories, and show many examples where current experimental results are not sufficient to verify the ISM. In some cases, there is a clear roadmap for the future experimental program, which we outline, while in other cases, further efforts—both theoretical and experimental—are needed in order to robustly claim the establishment of the ISM in the absence of new physics discoveries.

  15. Application of the 210Pb-dating technique to establish a chronological framework of trace element and heavy metal contamination resulting from the impact of European settlement in estuarine systems of the Sydney Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkinson, A.V.; Chisari, R.; Farrar, Y.J.; Heijnis, H.; McOrist, G.D.; Tinker, R.A.; Smith, J.D.; Napoli, M.; Hughes, M.; James, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The estuaries of Georges River and Hacking River, partly located in suburban Sydney, are at significant risk of contamination by heavy metal and trace element pollutants associated with urban/industrial development. The object of the current work is to correlate changes in land use resulting from European settlement with chemical changes observed in soil sediments. At each location core samples were taken and selected slices analysed for 226 Ra and 210 Po using alpha spectrometry. The 226 Ra activity equates to the supported 210 Pb activity and the 210 Po activity equates to the total 210 Pb activity. The difference between the total and the supported 210 Pb is the excess 210 Pb activity. Once the excess 210 Pb has been layed down in the sediment its activity at depth (assuming the core to be undisturbed) is solely a function of its half-life and the initial amount present; a circumstance which readily affords the calculation of a sedimentation rate. Owing to its relatively short half-life (22.26 year) the 20P b dating technique can be used to date sediments as far back as about 120 years. In Australia this time frame would cover most of the period of European settlement

  16. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  17. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Outcome of trial of scar in patients with previous caesarean section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, B.; Bashir, R.; Khan, W.

    2016-01-01

    Medical evidence indicates that 60-80% of women can achieve vaginal delivery after a previous lower segment caesarean section. Proper selection of patients for trial of scar and vigilant monitoring during labour will achieve successful maternal and perinatal outcome. The objective of our study is to establish the fact that vaginal delivery after one caesarean section has a high success rate in patients with previous one caesarean section for non-recurrent cause. Methods: The study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Abbottabad, Gynae-B Unit. All labouring patients, during the study period of five years, with previous one caesarean section and between 37 weeks to 41 weeks of gestation for a non-recurrent cause were included in the study. Data was recorded on special proforma designed for the purpose. Patients who had previous classical caesarean section, more than one caesarean section, and previous caesarean section with severe wound infection, transverse lie and placenta previa in present pregnancy were excluded. Foetal macrosomia (wt>4 kg) and severe IUGR with compromised blood flow on Doppler in present pregnancy were also not considered suitable for the study. Patients who had any absolute contraindication for vaginal delivery were also excluded. Results: There were 12505 deliveries during the study period. Total vaginal deliveries were 8790 and total caesarean sections were 3715. Caesarean section rate was 29.7%. Out of these 8790 patients, 764 patients were given a trial of scar and 535 patients delivered successfully vaginally (70%). Women who presented with spontaneous onset of labour were more likely to deliver vaginally (74.8%) as compared to induction group (27.1%). Conclusion: Trial of vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary caesarean section. (author)

  19. [Establishing Prevention Reporting in Bavaria - Concept, Implementation and First Results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Veronika; Kuhn, Joseph; Poppe, Franziska; Caselmann, Wolfgang H

    2018-01-01

    Bavaria is currently embarking on the endeavour of building up systematic prevention reporting. Prevention reporting is meant to support the implementation of the Bavarian Prevention Plan and the German Prevention Law and to further the ongoing development in the field of health promotion and health-related prevention in Bavaria. Prevention reporting in Bavaria aims to draw on general health reporting and complement it with specific prevention-related data taking into special consideration the Bavarian Prevention Plan. Particularly, data on prevention-amenable health determinants, prevention interventions, prevention spending and on indicators related to the targets of the Bavarian Prevention Plan are meant to be included. Periodic reporting will allow ongoing monitoring and the observation of trends. The reporting system will encompass shorter publications for the general public as well as more extensive reports for an expert audience. Where possible, data will be reported not only Bavaria wide but also on a smaller regional level to support local action. An extensive stocktaking of prevention and health promotion activities in Bavaria in 2014/2015 as well as a survey of the partner organisations in the Bavarian Prevention Alliance in 2016 presented an overview of the prevention scene in Bavaria. A core indicator set to support the implementation of the Bavarian Prevention Plan was developed in 2016 and a first short data brochure for the public was published. A comprehensive compilation of prevention-related data and a Bavarian prevention report are planned for 2017 and 2018. Like health reporting, prevention reporting, as conceptualised in Bavaria, presents overview data and thus allows a monitoring of prevention. For specific planning or evaluation purposes, it needs to be supplemented by more in-depth analyses. Current challenges include the development of valid, prevention-specific indicators, the generation of an empiric database and the attempt of a coordinated approach amongst the federal states within Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  1. Drug Establishments Current Registration Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Establishments Current Registration Site (DECRS) is a database of current information submitted by drug firms to register establishments (facilities) which...

  2. Clinical Governance: Efficacy of Establishment in Mashhad Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoodi R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Clinical governance is a framework in which the organizations providing clinical services are responsible in exchange for the permanent improvement of quality and preserving the service’s high standard. It relies on the responsibility to maintain current levels of care and on clinical governance pillars to improve the quality of future care. Also, it is a concept that attempts to integrate the previous methods and tools in measuring and improving quality of care. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic-interventional study was conducted to evaluate the hospitals of Mashhad before and after the establishment of clinical governance in 2011. Data were collected by both questionnaires and observation. Results: Comparing the range of clinical governance’s pillars obtained, from the selected hospitals, showed a significant improvement in all studied axes following the establishment of clinical governance. The highest effectiveness was related to clinical audit, staff management and training axes, whereas the least effective part was the interaction with patients, their relatives and the community. Conclusion: Regarding the significant difference in the obtained results after the establishment of clinical governance in this study, it could be concluded that the establishment of clinical governance and its performance could remarkably improve the quality of health services.

  3. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  4. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  5. Establishment for Nuclear Equipment -Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracz, J.

    2006-01-01

    Research and development works conducted in the Establishment for Nuclear Equipment (ZdAJ) were focused around 3 subject areas: an accelerator for cancer treatment, therapeutical tables, systems and methods for controlling objects that cross international borders. The new, medium energy accelerator for cancer therapy cases is being designed in the Establishment for several years. In 2005 progress was achieved. A physical part, containing an electron beam has been completed and the parameters of that beam make it useful for therapeutical purposes. Consequently, the work on designing and testing of beam control systems, ensuring its high stability, repetition of irradiation parameters and accuracy of dosage have been started. Results of these tests make it very probable that 2006 will be the final year of scientific works and in 2007 the new apparatus will be ready for sales. Therapeutical tables have become a leading product of ZdAJ IPJ. Their technical parameters, reliability and universality in uses are appreciated by many customers of ZdAJ. In 2005, the table Polkam 16 was registered by the national Office for Registration of Medical Equipment as the first product of ZdAJ that meets all technical and formal requirements of the safety mark CE. This allows sales of the product on the market of the European Union. The research and development part of designing a therapeutical table for uses in the total body irradiation technique was also concluded in 2005. After the September 11 terrorist attacks on WTC a matter of controlling international borders have become a priority for many countries. In 2005 in ZdAJ IPJ, we conducted many preliminary calculations and experiments analyzing systems of irradiation sources, both photon and neutron as well as systems of detection and designing of signals triggered by controlling objects crossing the border. The results so far have enabled us to formulate a research project which has been positively evaluated by experts and found

  6. Effect of booster doses of poliovirus vaccine in previously vaccinated children, Clinical Trial Results 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Soofi, Sajid; Mach, Ondrej; Samejo, Tariq; Alam, Didar; Bhatti, Zaid; Weldon, William C; Oberste, Steven M; Sutter, Roland; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-07-19

    Considering the current polio situation Pakistan needs vaccine combinations to reach maximum population level immunity. The trial assessed whether inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) can be used to rapidly boost immunity among children in Pakistan. A five-arm randomized clinical trial was conducted among children (6-24months, 5-6years and 10-11years). Children were randomized in four intervention arms as per the vaccines they received (bOPV, IPV, bOPV+vitamin A, and bOPV+IPV) and a control arm which did not receive any vaccine. Baseline seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies and serological immune response 28days after intervention were assessed. The baseline seroprevalence was high for all serotypes and the three age groups [PV1: 97%, 100%, 96%, PV2: 86%, 100%, 99%, PV3: 83%, 95%, 87% for the three age groups respectively]. There was significantly higher rate of immune response observed in the study arms which included IPV (95-99%) compared with bOPV only arms (11-43%), [p0.5]. IPV has shown the ability to efficiently close existing immunity gaps in a vulnerable population of children in rural Pakistan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  8. Sustainable landscaping practices for enhancing vegetation establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Soil compaction can severely limit the success of vegetation establishment. Current grading and landscaping : practices commonly produce compacted soils of varied textures and profiles within SHA medians and roadsides, : resulting in limited capacity...

  9. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  10. Prevalence, distribution, and diversity of Listeria monocytogenes in retail environments, focusing on small establishments and establishments with a history of failed inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Karin; Sauders, Brian D; Sanchez, Maria D; Olsen, Peter T; Pickett, Michele M; Mangione, Kurt J; Rice, Daniel H; Corby, Joe; Stich, Stephen; Fortes, Esther D; Roof, Sherry E; Grohn, Yrjo T; Wiedmann, Martin; Oliver, Haley F

    2011-07-01

    Despite growing concerns about cross-contamination of ready-to-eat foods with Listeria monocytogenes, our knowledge about the ecology and transmission of L. monocytogenes in retail establishments has remained limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study to characterize the prevalence, distribution, and subtype diversity of L. monocytogenes in 120 New York State retail deli establishments that were hypothesized to present an increased risk for environmental L. monocytogenes contamination (i.e., small establishments and establishments with a history of failed New York State Agriculture and Markets inspections). Analysis of these data along with previously reported data for 121 predominantly larger retail establishments in New York State identified establishment size, geographic location, and inspection history as significant predictors of L. monocytogenes presence and prevalence. The odds of an establishment being L. monocytogenes positive were approximately twice as high for large establishments, establishments located in New York City, or establishments with poor inspection history (as compared with establishments without these attributes), even though correlation between location and inspection history complicated interpretation of results. Within an establishment, L. monocytogenes was significantly more prevalent on nonfood contact surfaces than on food contact surfaces; prevalence was particularly high for floors and in floor drains, sinks, the dairy case, and milk crates. L. monocytogenes subtype diversity differed between sites, with lineage I isolates significantly associated with nonfood contact surfaces and lineage II isolates significantly associated with food contact surfaces. Isolates belonging to the same ribotype were often found dispersed across multiple sites within an operation. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  11. Establishment and Characterization of a Newly Established Diabetic Gerbil Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Li

    Full Text Available We aimed to selectively breed a spontaneous diabetic gerbil when a sub-line of inbred gerbil showed increased blood glucose levels was found recently. Then we investigated the characteristics including the serum insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin and explored the underlying molecular mechanism for the diabetic phenotype.The spontaneous diabetic line of gerbils was selectively inbreed the sub-line of gerbil by monitoring blood glucose of each animal. The serum insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were tested using an ELISA kit. The expression levels of GLUT4, Akt, leptin, adiponectin, and calpain 10 (CAPN10 were tested by western blot and Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR in liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose.Our results show that the percentages of animals with FPG≥5.2 (mmol/l, PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l and both FPG≥5.2 and PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l were increased with the number of breeding generations from F0 (21.33% to F6 (38.46%. These diabetic gerbils exhibited insulin resistance and leptin resistance as well as decreased adiponectin level in the serum. We also observed decreased expression of adiponectin and increased expression of leptin in the skeletal muscle, respectively.These results indicate that we have primarily established a spontaneous diabetic gerbil line, and the diabetic phenotypes may have been accounted for by altered expression of leptin and adiponectin.

  12. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  13. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  14. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. A three year review of injuries to professional footballers (1995-98) and comparison with previous observations (1990-93).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, J C; Rae, A; Melvin, W D

    2000-02-01

    A prospective study over a three year period (1995-8) of footballers' injuries in first team players was undertaken in a similar fashion to a previous study (1990-3). During the present study the Club had a major cup success and appeared to have a younger squad with less major injury and subsequent time out of action. As a result of the earlier paper it would appear that some lessons and observations may have been put into action and helped produce a more consistent standard for the club. Increasing recognition of the need to reduce and monitor the levels and types of injuries seems now to be established.

  16. Moisture availability limits subalpine tree establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Harvey, Brian J; Rodman, Kyle C; Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T

    2018-03-01

    In the absence of broad-scale disturbance, many temperate coniferous forests experience successful seedling establishment only when abundant seed production coincides with favorable climate. Identifying the frequency of past establishment events and the climate conditions favorable for seedling establishment is essential to understanding how climate warming could affect the frequency of future tree establishment events and therefore future forest composition or even persistence of a forest cover. In the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, research on the sensitivity of establishment of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa)-two widely distributed, co-occurring conifers in North America-to climate variability has focused on the alpine treeline ecotone, leaving uncertainty about the sensitivity of these species across much of their elevation distribution. We compared annual germination dates for >450 Engelmann spruce and >500 subalpine fir seedlings collected across a complex topographic-moisture gradient to climate variability in the Colorado Front Range. We found that Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir established episodically with strong synchrony in establishment events across the study area. Broad-scale establishment events occurred in years of high soil moisture availability, which were characterized by above-average snowpack and/or cool and wet summer climatic conditions. In the recent half of the study period (1975-2010), a decrease in the number of fir and spruce establishment events across their distribution coincided with declining snowpack and a multi-decadal trend of rising summer temperature and increasing moisture deficits. Counter to expected and observed increases in tree establishment with climate warming in maritime subalpine forests, our results show that recruitment declines will likely occur across the core of moisture-limited subalpine tree ranges as warming drives increased moisture deficits. © 2018 by the

  17. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain : Findings From 19 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of

  18. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P

    1996-06-01

    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  19. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  20. Life-history traits in an evergreen Mediterranean oak respond differentially to previous experimental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rey Benayas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms respond both to current and previous environments, which can have important consequences on population dynamics. However, there is little experimental evidence based on long-term field studies of the effects of previous environments on the performance of individuals. We tested the hypothesis that trees that establish under different environmental conditions perform differently under similar post-establishment conditions. We used the slow-growing, evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia as target species. We analyzed the effects of previous environments, competition effects and tradeoffs among life-history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction. We enhanced seedling establishment for three years by reducing abiotic environmental harshness by means of summer irrigation and artificial shading in 12 experimental plots, while four plots remained as controls. Then these treatments were interrupted for ten years. Seedlings under ameliorated environmental conditions survived and grew faster during early establishment. During the post-management period, previous treatments 1 did not have any effect on survival, 2 experienced a slower above-ground growth, 3 decreased root biomass as indicated from reflectivity of Ground Penetration Radar, 4 increased acorn production mostly through a greater canopy volume and 5 increased acorn production effort. The trees exhibited a combination of effects related to acclimation for coping with abiotic stress and effects of intra-specific competition. In accordance with our hypothesis, tree performance overall depended on previous environmental conditions, and the response was different for different life-history traits. We recommend early management because it increased plot cover, shortened the time to attain sexual maturity and increased the amount of acorn production. Plots such as those assessed in this study may act as sources of propagules in deforested

  1. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  2. Search Results | Page 17 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 161 - 170 of 197 ... This project builds on previous (IDRC) partnership with the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) for establishing a knowledge-sharing network of IFAD rural poverty alleviation projects and partners in the Asia-Pacific region to b. Project.

  3. Overview on establishing flax industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blouw, S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available has bedding and fillers as end products. However the challenges that are met during the establishment of a flax industry are the development of economic viable models, human capacity development and local and overseas markets....

  4. Establishing Tools for Computing Hybrids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiem, Clare; Bhat, Sunil; Blount, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Establishing Tools for Computing hybrids (ETCH) provides a starting point from which to explore how advanced computing technology, based upon biotechnology, might enable intelligent systems and provide new capabilities to the Air Force...

  5. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  6. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  7. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  8. Diagnosis of Beta-thalassaemia major in previously transfused patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Rehman, Z.; Karamat, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of blood transfusion(s) on the haematological picture of beta-thalassaemia major. Results: Out of the 280 patients 109 (39%) had received one or more blood transfusions (cases). The remaining 171 patients who did not receive any transfusion served as controls. The mean MCV, MCH and Hb-F in cases were significantly higher than in the controls (p 4 transfusions (17%) (p=0.016). In the occasionally transfused patients Hb-F level was directly related to the time since last transfusion. In 44/109 (40%) transfused patients (Hb-F>30%) the diagnosis of thalassaemia was not difficult. In 54/109 (50%) patients (Hb-:5-30%) the diagnosis was aided by parent's study, while PCR for thalassaemia mutation was required in 11/109 (10%) patients (Hb-F <5%). Conclusion: In most transfused patients of thalassaemia major MCV and MCH were significantly higher while Hb-F was lower than in the un-transfused patients. There was a linear correlation between Hb-F level and time since last transfusion in the occasionally transfused patients. However, the reduction in Hb-F level was more marked and sustained in multipally transfused patients. Parent's study and PCR are useful aids in establishing the correct diagnosis in these patients. (author)

  9. Microinstability of the hip: a previously unrecognized pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolia, Ioanna; Chahla, Jorge; Locks, Renato; Briggs, Karen; Philippon, Marc J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Hip microinstability is an established diagnosis; however, its occurrence is still debated by many physicians. Diagnosis of hip microinstability is often challenging, due to a lack of specific signs or symptoms, and patients may remain undiagnosed for long periods. This may lead to early manifestation of degenerative joint disease. Consequently, careful patient and family history must be obtained and diagnostic imaging should follow. After a thorough clinical evaluation of the patient with suspected hip microinstability, the physician should focus on how to improve symptoms and functionality in daily and sports activities. Purpose The purpose of this review article was to give a current update regarding this diagnosis and to provide a complete diagnostic approach in order to effectively treat hip microinstability. Methods We reviewed the literature on the diagnosis, the non-operative and operative indications for the treatment of this complex and often misdiagnosed pathology. Conclusion Conservative treatment is considered the best initial approach, though, surgical intervention should be considered if symptoms persist or other hip pathology exists. Successful surgical intervention, such as hip arthroscopy, should focus on restoring the normal anatomy of the hip joint in order to regain its functionality. The role of the hip joint capsule has gained particular research interest during the last years, and its repair or reconstruction during hip arthroscopy is considered necessary in order to avoid iatrogenic hip microinstability. Various capsular closure/plication techniques have been developed towards this direction with encouraging results. Level of evidence V. PMID:28066740

  10. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  11. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  12. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  13. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  14. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  15. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  16. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  17. Previous Webinars about Integrated Pest Management in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Center of Expertise for School IPM hosts a webinar series featuring national experts from across the country relaying educational and practical strategies for establishing and improving integrated pest management programs in schools.

  18. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  19. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.

    2004-01-01

    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  20. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  1. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  2. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  3. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  4. catering establishments of Awassa Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of catering business establishments in Awassa Town, Southern Ethiopia, February to. April 1996. Data were collected using standardized questionnaires, free listings, parasitological and bacteriological laboratory analyses. A total of 164 catering ..... identified include: a) Good coverage of safe water (defined as ...

  5. Optimization of micropropagation and establishment of cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to establish a stable regeneration system with 4 landraces collected from different climate in Iran, major parameters such as regeneration rate, rooting percentage, shooting induction, proliferation rate, fresh and dry weight as a biomass of cells were investigated. Statistical analysis of results showed that BAP in ...

  6. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  7. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  8. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  9. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  10. Evaluation of the national health surveillance program of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain (2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Montserrat García; Castañeda, Rosario; López, Vega García; Vidal, Manuel Martínez; Villanueva, Vicent; Espinosa, Mercedes Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Although asbestos was banned in Spain in 2001, monitoring the health of previously-exposed workers is required. In 2002 the Ministry of Health and the autonomous regions of Spain planned a health surveillance program for workers exposed to asbestos (Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores Expuestos al Amianto [PIVISTEA]) with employers' organizations, trade unions and scientific societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PIVISTEA to improve its effectiveness. A questionnaire with indicators for the year 2008 was sent to Spain's 17 autonomous regions, as well as to the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The results were analyzed by evaluating the compliance of each program with the activities established by the PIVISTEA. In December 2008, a total of 22,158 workers from 14 autonomous regions and 306 companies were included in the program. The program had been started in 88% of the regions but surveillance activities remained scarce in 24%. Fifty-seven percent of the autonomous regions (69% of the total number of workers) provided the information requested. Seven autonomous regions provided data on the relationship between the diseases found and asbestos exposure. Only 5% of these diseases entitled affected individuals to receive compensation for occupational diseases. The health surveillance of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain, as well as medical-legal recognition of diseases caused by exposure at work, remain in adequate. Although the trend is positive, the effectiveness of many regional programs is limited, and inter-regional inequalities among affected workers have been detected. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  12. Establishment for quality control of experimental animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Soo Kwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    1999-06-01

    Until now, because we have imported experimental animal from foreign experimental animal corporation, we could have saved money by establishing the quality control of animal in barrier system. In order to improve the quality of animal experiment and efficiency of biomedical study, it is indispensable to control many factors that effect in the experiment. Therefore, it is essential to organize the system of laboratory animal care for enhancing reliability and revivability of experimental results. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish the quality control system of experimental animals that we can provide good quality animals according to the experimental condition of each investigator although the exact quality control system to estimate the infection of bacteria and virus easily remains ill-defined yet. Accordingly, we established the useful quality control system for microbiologic monitoring and environmental monitoring to protect experimental animal from harmful bacteria and virus

  13. Establishment for quality control of experimental animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Soo Kwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    1999-06-01

    Until now, because we have imported experimental animal from foreign experimental animal corporation, we could have saved money by establishing the quality control of animal in barrier system. In order to improve the quality of animal experiment and efficiency of biomedical study, it is indispensable to control many factors that effect in the experiment. Therefore, it is essential to organize the system of laboratory animal care for enhancing reliability and revivability of experimental results. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish the quality control system of experimental animals that we can provide good quality animals according to the experimental condition of each investigator although the exact quality control system to estimate the infection of bacteria and virus easily remains ill-defined yet. Accordingly, we established the useful quality control system for microbiologic monitoring and environmental monitoring to protect experimental animal from harmful bacteria and virus.

  14. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  15. Serratia liquefaciens Infection of a Previously Excluded Popliteal Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coelho

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs are rare in the general population, but they account for nearly 70% of peripheral arterial aneurysms. There are several possible surgical approaches including exclusion of the aneurysm and bypass grafting, or endoaneurysmorrhaphy and interposition of a prosthetic conduit. The outcomes following the first approach are favorable, but persistent blood flow in the aneurysm sac has been documented in up to one third of patients in the early post-operative setting. Complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms include aneurysm enlargement, local compression symptoms, and sac rupture. Notably infection of a previously excluded and bypassed PAA is rare. This is the third reported case of PAA infection after exclusion and bypass grafting and the first due to Serratia liquefaciens. Methods: Relevant medical data were collected from the hospital database. Results: This case report describes a 54 year old male patient, diagnosed with acute limb ischaemia due to a thrombosed PAA, submitted to emergency surgery with exclusion and venous bypass. A below the knee amputation was necessary 3 months later. Patient follow-up was lost until 7 years following surgical repair, when he was diagnosed with aneurysm sac infection with skin fistulisation. He had recently been diagnosed with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis Child–Pugh Class B. The patient was successfully treated by aneurysm resection, soft tissue debridement and systemic antibiotics. Conclusion: PAA infection is a rare complication after exclusion and bypass procedures but should be considered in any patient with evidence of local or systemic infection. When a PAA infection is diagnosed, aneurysmectomy, local debridement, and intravenous antibiotic therapy are recommended. The “gold standard” method of PAA repair remains controversial. PAA excision or endoaneurysmorrhaphy avoids complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms, but is associated with

  16. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  17. Prevention of Tetanus Outbreak Following Natural Disaster in Indonesia: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascapurnama, Dyshelly Nurkartika; Murakami, Aya; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Hattori, Toshio; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    In Indonesia, the Aceh earthquake and tsunami in 2004 killed 127,000 people and caused half a million injuries, while the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006 caused 5,700 deaths and 37,000 injuries. Because disaster-affected areas are vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases and tetanus is one such disease that is preventable, we systematically reviewed the literature related to tetanus outbreaks following previous two natural disasters in Indonesia. Based on our findings, recommendations for proper vaccination and education can be made for future countermeasures. Using specified keywords related to tetanus and disasters, relevant documents were screened from PubMed, the WHO website, and books. Reports offering limited data and those released before 2004 were excluded. In all, 16 publications were reviewed systematically. Results show that 106 cases of tetanus occurred in Aceh, with a case fatality ratio (CFR) of 18.9%; 71 cases occurred in Yogyakarta, with CFR of 36.6%. For both outbreaks, most patients had been wounded during scavenging or evacuation after the disaster occurred. Poor access to health care because of limited transportation or hospital facilities, and low vaccination coverage and lack of awareness of tetanus risk contributed to delayed treatment and case severity. Tetanus outbreaks after disasters are preventable by increasing vaccination coverage, improving wound care treatment, and establishing a regular surveillance system, in addition to good practices of disaster management and supportive care following national guidelines. Furthermore, health education for communities should be provided to raise awareness of tetanus risk reduction.

  18. Klassevirus 1, a previously undescribed member of the family Picornaviridae, is globally widespread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipas James M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is the third leading infectious cause of death worldwide and is estimated to be responsible for approximately 2 million deaths a year. While many infectious causes of diarrhea have been established, approximately 40% of all diarrhea cases are of unknown etiology. In an effort to identify novel viruses that may be causal agents of diarrhea, we used high throughput mass sequencing to analyze stool samples collected from patients with acute diarrhea. Results Sequences with limited similarity to known picornaviruses were detected in a stool sample collected in Australia from a child with acute diarrhea. Using a combination of mass sequencing, RT-PCR, 5' RACE and 3' RACE, a 6383 bp fragment of the viral genome was sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this virus was highly divergent from, but most closely related to, members of the genus Kobuvirus. We have tentatively named this novel virus klassevirus 1. We also detected klassevirus 1 by RT-PCR in a diarrhea specimen collected from a patient in St. Louis, United States as well as in untreated sewage collected in Barcelona, Spain. Conclusion Klassevirus 1 is a previously undescribed picornavirus that is globally widespread and present on at least three continents. Further investigations to determine whether klassevirus 1 is a human pathogen are needed.

  19. Establishment for Nuclear Equipment: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracz, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The main objective of the activity of the Establishment for Nuclear Equipment (ZdAJ) in 1999 was to obtain the ISO 9001 certificate. Work on this problem has been successfully completed. The changes introduced in agreement with requirements of ISO in supervising the construction, manufacturing and servicing eliminate possible deficiencies of our products and will pay in the future. Two new important ventures have been undertaken: design of an accelerator with two photon energies and a reconstruction of simulator directed towards better geometrical parameters. The completion of the improvements in accelerator is foreseen for the year 2002. The changes comprise almost all sub-assemblies of the device. The modernized simulator will be installed in the hospital already in the year 2000 - the ameliorations concern mainly the arm of the apparatus, collimator, driving gears and control system. Of course - apart from this, the routine production activity of the Establishment was continued in 1999. (author)

  20. Case Report - Sudden onset methaemoglobinaemia in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... country but we managed to get it all the way from Nairobi, Kenya. A diagnosis of Methaemoglobinaemia was made using Spectrophotometry and she was successfully treated using 2 doses of intravenous Methylene blue. The cause of Methaemoglobinaemia was established to have been nitrites from food preservatives.

  1. Establishing Apical Patency and its Effect on Endodontic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    accurate prognosis and improved treatment planning related to establishing apical patency. The preliminary results of this interim analysis indicate there...canal space and periodontal ligament. Establishing apical patency is controversial with only 50% of dental programs in the United States teaching the...concept. Both sides can cite articles favoring their position. However, the clinical impact of establishing patency on endodontic treatment outcome

  2. Tubal anastomosis after previous sterilization: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seeters, Jacoba A H; Chua, Su Jen; Mol, Ben W J; Koks, Carolien A M

    2017-05-01

    Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success. Two search strategies were employed. Firstly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies presenting fertility outcomes of sterilization reversal up to July 2016. Data on the following outcomes were collected: pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, cost of the procedure and operative time. Eligible study designs included prospective or retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and case series. No age restriction was applied. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from tubal infertility from any other reason (e.g. infection, endometriosis and adhesions from previous surgery) and studies including sterilization reversal procedures were then evaluated: female age, BMI and duration and method of sterilization. Secondly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies that compared reversal of sterilization to IVF and evaluated them for pregnancy outcomes and cost effectiveness. We included 37 studies that investigated a total of 10 689 women. No randomized controlled trials were found. Most studies were retrospective cohort studies of a moderate quality. The pooled pregnancy rate after sterilization reversal was 42-69%, with heterogeneity seen from the different methods utilized. The reported ectopic pregnancy rate was 4-8%. The only prognostic factor affecting the

  3. Establishment of Filipino standard man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.; San Jose, V.; Napenas, D.

    1984-01-01

    The initial data gathered on measurements of total body weight and weights of specific organs from autopsy cases of normal Filipinos are reported. Comparison of the above data with the Reference Man data of ICRP which was based primarily on Caucasians suggests some differences in the average weight and height of whole body and in the weights of some organs. Hence there appears to be a need for the establishment of Filipino standard man which can be used in the estimation of internal dose commitment of the Filipinos. (author)

  4. A well-established profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2011-01-01

    It was during the economic boom of the 1960s that the demand for landscape architects began to explode in Denmark as the expanding welfare state brought about rapid physical changes. At this time the country’s first specific education for landscape architects was established and 2010 marked the 5......th anniversary of landscape architecture teaching, at the Faculty of Life Science – the University of Copenhagen(KU-Life). It’s origins can be traced further back but, then as now, the essence of the education is that of creating a dynamic synergy of the sciences and the arts....

  5. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  6. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  7. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  8. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  9. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  10. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  11. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  12. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  13. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  14. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  15. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  16. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  17. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  18. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  19. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  20. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  1. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  2. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  3. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  4. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  5. Nitrogen rate and previous crop effects on some agronomic traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a previous crop x N rate interaction for seed yield during both years while significant previous crop x N rate interactions were determined for 1000 seed weight and seed weight of each ear in 2005. This study suggested that N rates and corn cultivars might result significant differences on tasseling period, ear silk ...

  6. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  7. The Effect of Single Versus Repeated Previous Strategy Use on Individuals' Subsequent Strategy Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viki Schillemans

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that participants' strategy choices can be influenced by the previously-used strategy. This'perseveration effect' has been demonstrated both after a repeated use of the previous strategy (e.g., Schillemans, Luwel, Bulté, Onghena, & Verschaffel, 2009, but also after a single use of the previous strategy (Lemaire & Lecacheur, 2010. In the present study, we tested whether this perseveration effect would be stronger after a repeated than after a single previous strategy application. We were able to replicate the perseveration effect but we did not find evidence for an influence of the number of previous strategy applications on the strength of this effect. An additional cluster analysis revealed that only about one third of the participants was susceptible for the perseveration effect. The theoretical, methodological, and educational implications of these results are discussed.

  8. Disturbance and California riparian tree establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendix, J.; Cowell, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    As is the case in many ecosystems, tree establishment in riparian corridors is often episodic, following disturbance events that clear colonization sites. In many riparian settings, flooding is the most obvious, and relevant disturbance agent. However, in Mediterranean-climate regions, fire is an equally important disturbance agent. In California, the frequency and severity of both floods and fire are expected to change with projected climate change, making an understanding of their roles key to understanding future ecological processes in California riparian environments. In this paper, we use tree-ring data from the Transverse Ranges of Southern California to explore the relative importance of fire and flood in the establishment of riparian gallery forest. We examined 42 cores of Alnus rhombifolia, Populus fremontii and Quercus agrifolia from the riparian zone adjacent to Piedra Blanca and Potrero John Creeks in California’s Transverse Ranges, and compared their establishment dates with records of fire and floods, to see how establishment related to disturbance history. Our results show some evidence for major fire having an impact, as all of the largest stems dated to the few years following the 1932 Matilija fire, which had burned all of the sites in our sample. The remainder of the record is less straightforward, although there is an establishment peak in the 1970s, which may be related to a 1975 fire that burned part of the Potrero John watershed. Of note, the establishment chronology shows no relationship to the flood record, as years of major floods do not relate to either prolific or sparse years in the tree-ring record. This record suggests that large fires may serve as a trigger for tree establishment in California riparian settings, but that they are hardly a prerequisite, as many stems germinated between fires. Indeed, ongoing regeneration is apparently independent of disturbance, given the apparent irrelevance of flooding in this regard. The result

  9. A Secure Trust Establishment Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farruh Ishmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trust establishment is an important tool to improve cooperation and enhance security in wireless sensor networks. The core of trust establishment is trust estimation. If a trust estimation method is not robust against attack and misbehavior, the trust values produced will be meaningless, and system performance will be degraded. We present a novel trust estimation method that is robust against on-off attacks and persistent malicious behavior. Moreover, in order to aggregate recommendations securely, we propose using a modified one-step M-estimator scheme. The novelty of the proposed scheme arises from combining past misbehavior with current status in a comprehensive way. Specifically, we introduce an aggregated misbehavior component in trust estimation, which assists in detecting an on-off attack and persistent malicious behavior. In order to determine the current status of the node, we employ previous trust values and current measured misbehavior components. These components are combined to obtain a robust trust value. Theoretical analyses and evaluation results show that our scheme performs better than other trust schemes in terms of detecting an on-off attack and persistent misbehavior.

  10. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  11. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  12. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  13. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  14. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  15. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D

    1989-05-01

    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  16. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  17. AWRE: Atomic Weapons Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This reviews the work of AWRE at Aldermaston and Foulness. The main programme is nuclear and is concerned with the design and development of warheads for strategic and tactical nuclear weapons for the British nuclear deterrent, including those for the Royal Navy's missile carrying submarine fleet. The work is described grouped as design physics, development and materials. Services to these groups and to the whole establishment are provided by Engineering, Safety and Administration. The work ranges from long-term fundamental research, the development of technology, design, prototype development to the environmental testing of engineered products. In materials research the emphasis is on plutonium, uranium and beryllium, on high explosives and a wide range of inorganic and organic materials. The physics of the earth's crust is studied to aid detection of underground nuclear explosions. Reactor research facilities include the two reactors, Herald and Viper. (U.K.)

  18. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  19. Reproductive outcomes after previous cesarean scar pregnancy: Follow up of 189 women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Wang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Even though our result did not necessarily represent the true recurrence rate, our study provided some evidence about the likelihood of fertility and recurrence risk for future pregnancies after previous CSP.

  20. Kalijodo transformation in establishment of healthy environment in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, Erik; Junadi, Purnawan

    2018-03-01

    A good city setting can create a healthy environment. One of the structuring of cities that can create a healthy environment is the development of public space like Green Open Space (RTH) and Child-Friendly Integrated Public Space (RPTRA) such as in Kalijodo, Jakarta, Indonesia. The objective of building a public space in Kalijodo is to restore the functioning of the green zone in the area that previously used for housing residents and prostitution businesses to increase public space in Jakarta. The purpose of this study is to describe the formation of a healthy environment and the impact felt by users of this public space. The research method used in this research is descriptive qualitative with a phenomenological approach through interview, observation and documentation. There are three types of community activities in the public sphere, such as sports, children’s playground, and relaxation. The results show that the decline in crime rates and the presence of facilities and infrastructure in time to establish a healthy environment. The construction of facilities in the public spaces changes the image of Kalijodo from the previous place that has a negative image then turned into a positive image because the environment of Kalijodo became healthy. We also find that this changing image creates a positive spirit of the surrounding community and people are generally healthier and happier.

  1. Charged-Particle Thermonuclear Reaction Rates: IV. Comparison to Previous Work

    OpenAIRE

    Iliadis, Christian; Longland, Richard; Champagne, Art; Coc, Alain

    2010-01-01

    We compare our Monte Carlo reaction rates (see Paper II of this series) to previous results that were obtained by using the classical method of computing thermonuclear reaction rates. For each reaction, the comparison is presented using two types of graphs: the first shows the change in reaction rate uncertainties, while the second displays our new results normalized to the previously recommended reaction rate. We find that the rates have changed significantly for almost all reactions conside...

  2. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  3. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....

  4. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  5. Is the prefrontal cortex necessary for establishing cognitive sets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowe, James B; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Lund, Torben E

    2007-01-01

    first instructed as to whether to perform a spatial or a verbal working memory task and then given spatial and verbal items after a delay of 4-12 s. The patients showed an increase in switch costs, making more errors by repeating what they had done on the previous trial. They were able to establish...

  6. Petten establishment. Annual report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    1978 was the second year in the Joint Research Centre's 1977-1980 multiannual research programme. Since the following exercise is intended to run from 1980 to 1983 with a one year overlap, new proposals will be placed before the Council of Ministers in 1979. To this end, a considerable part of the programme and project management staff activities has been devoted to the peliminary preparation of future plans. In general it is expected that the Establishment's three research activities will continue along the lines already proceeding successfully in the present programme in the materials testing reactor (HFR), high temperature materials and organic chemistry spheres with some updating and refocussing where necessary. Consultation with the appropriate Advisory Committees for Programme Management has been contributed to these processes. Another important development has been the question of site security, following decisions of the European Commission and the Dutch Government to apply International Atomic Agency regulations. The work to apply the necessary measures has had to be executed in the shortest possible time. We have endeavoured to maintain and increase for all three programmes the already intensive contacts with research institutes and industry in the Member States. Important in this connection are the international conferences, 'Alloy 800' held in March and 'Ramping and Load following Behaviour of Reactor Fuel' in December, as well as an international meeting of the 'irradiation Devices Working Party' which took place in May

  7. Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

  8. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  9. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, M.; Mantero, J.; Mosqueda, F.; Hurtado, S.; Manjón, G.; Vaca, F.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H2SO4, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the 238U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased. A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning

  10. Ecthyma gangrenosum in the periorbital region in a previously healthy immunocompetent woman without bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG is a cutaneous lesion classically associated with potentially fatal Pseudomonas septicemia in immunocompromised patients. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens have also been implicated. Although EG typically occurs in immunocompromised or neutropenic patients, it may occasionally affect a previously healthy person. The cutaneous findings are characteristic with small indurated papulovesicles progressing rapidly to necrotic ulcers with surrounding erythema and a central black Eschar. While lesions can occur at any site, most are commonly found over the buttocks, perineum, limbs, and axillae. We describe a case of EG in periorbital region in a previously healthy woman who responded to appropriate antibiotic treatment for Pseudomonas. It is very important to establish the diagnosis early so that appropriate systemic antibiotic therapy can be initiated to reduce morbidity and potential mortality.

  11. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  12. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  14. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :200). The South African education .... related ideal would determine the principals' morale, motivation and job satisfaction. This conception of an .... scribing these verbatim, and presenting direct quotes from interviews in the results. The results.

  15. Predictive factors for the development of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Kühl, C.; Bertelsen, Aksel

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of diabetes in women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify predictive factors for development of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Two to 11 years post partum, glucose tolerance was investigated in 241...... women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and 57 women without previous gestational diabetes mellitus (control group). RESULTS: Diabetes developed in 42 (17.4%) women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (3.7% insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 13.7% non......-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Diabetes did not develop in any of the controls. Predictive factors for diabetes development were fasting glucose level at diagnosis (high glucose, high risk), preterm delivery, and an oral glucose tolerance test result that showed diabetes 2 months post partum. In a subgroup...

  16. Do attitudes of families concerned influence features of children who claim to remember previous lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Satwant K

    2011-01-01

    Reported cases of nearly 2600 children (subjects) who claim to remember previous lives have been investigated in cultures with and without belief in reincarnation. The authenticity in most cases has been established. To study the influence of attitudes of parents of the subjects, families of the deceased person with whom they are identified and attention paid by others on the features of the cases. The study is based on field investigations. Data is derived from analysis of a larger series of an ongoing project. Information on initial and subsequent attitudes of subjects' mothers was available for 292 and 136 cases, respectively; attitudes of 227 families of deceased person (previous personality) with whom he is identified, and the extent of attention received from outsiders for 252 cases. Observations and interviews with multiple firsthand informants on both sides of the case as well as some neutral informants supplemented by examination of objective data were the chief methods of investigation. The initial attitude of mothers varied from encouragement (21%) to neutral or tolerance (51%) to discouragement (28%). However, it changed significantly from neutrality to taking measures to induce amnesia in their children for previous life memories due to various psychosocial pressures and prevalent beliefs. Families of the previous personalities, once convinced, showed complete acceptance in a majority of cases. Outside attention was received in 58% cases. The positive attitude of parents might facilitate expression of memories but subsequently attitudes of persons concerned do not seem to alter features of the cases.

  17. Nuclear Physics in High School: what are the previous knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, F. de O.

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear physics is a branch of physics that about a century occupies an important space in the theoretical, experimental and scientific fields. Currently, its relevance in application is concentrated in several areas such as energy production, diagnostic processes and medical treatment and nuclear bombs, high destructive power. Whereas, according to legal regulations, the teaching of physics must make the student competent in the understanding of the world and assuming the perspective of Paulo Freire (2011) that education is not done on the subject, but together with him, in dialogue with his point of departure, his prior knowledge, we established the general objective of raising students prior knowledge of the third year of high School at Nair Ferreira Neves school, in São Sebastião-SP, about nuclear physics. We concluded that the school has not fulfilled its role in relation to nuclear physics, because students have information from other means of information and these knowledge are stereotyped and mistaken, damaging the world's reading and exercising full citizenship.

  18. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for previously untreated malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kenji; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Matsushita, Haruo; Takeda, Ken; Takai, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Shogo; Kumabe, Toshihiro

    2002-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is one of the methods used to deliver a large single dose to the tumor tissue while reducing the exposure of normal surrounding tissue. However, the usefulness of intraoperative electron therapy for malignant gliomas has not been established. During the period from 1987 to 1997, 32 patients with malignant gliomas were treated with IORT. The histological diagnoses were anaplastic astrocytoma in 11 patients and glioblastoma in 21 patients. Therapy consisted of surgical resection and intraoperative electron therapy using a dose of 12–15 Gy (median, 15 Gy). The patients later underwent postoperative external radiation therapy (EXRT) with a median total dose of 60 Gy. Each of the 32 patients treated with IORT was randomly matched with patients who had been treated with postoperative EXRT alone (control). Patients were matched according to histological grade, age, extent of tumor removal, and tumor location. In the anaplastic astrocytoma group, the one-, two- and five-year survival rates were 81%, 51% and 15%, respectively in the IORT patients and 54%, 43% and 21%, respectively in the control patients. In the glioblastoma group, one-, two- and five-year survival rates were 63%, 26% and 0%, respectively in the IORT patients and 70%, 18% and 6%, respectively in the control patients. There was no significant difference between survival rates in the IORT patients and control patients in either the anaplastic astrocytoma group or glioblastoma group. IORT dose not improve survival of patients with malignant gliomas compared to that of patients who have received EXRT alone

  19. Monitoring process hygiene in Serbian retail establishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesković Moračanin, S.; Baltić, T.; Milojević, L.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the effectiveness of sanitary procedures on food contact surfaces and food handlers’ hands in Serbian retail establishments. For that purpose, a total of 970 samples from food contact surfaces and 525 samples from workers’ hands were microbiologically analyzed. Results of total aerobic plate count and total Enterobacteriaceae count showed that the implemented washing and disinfection procedures, as a part of HACCP plans, were not effective enough in most retail facilities. Constant and intensive education of employees on proper implementation of sanitation procedures are needed in order to ensure food safety in the retail market.

  20. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  1. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  2. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  3. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  4. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  5. Upon Further Review: V. An Examination of Previous Lightcurve Analysis from the Palmer Divide Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Updated results are given for nine asteroids previously reported from the Palmer Divide Observatory (PDO). The original images were re-measured to obtain new data sets using the latest version of MPO Canopus photometry software, analysis tools, and revised techniques for linking multiple observing runs covering several days to several weeks. Results that were previously not reported or were moderately different were found for 1659 Punkajarju, 1719 Jens, 1987 Kaplan, 2105 Gudy, 2961 Katsurahama, 3285 Ruth Wolfe, 3447 Burckhalter, 7816 Hanoi, and (34817) 2000 SE116. This is one in a series of papers that will examine results obtained during the initial years of the asteroid lightcurve program at PDO.

  6. Establishment of nuclear equipment qualification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Po Kook; Lim, Nam Jin; Lee, Young Gun

    2003-04-01

    This study is carried out by KEARI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) as the lead organization in cooperation with KIMM(Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials), KTL(Korea Testing Laboratory) and KRISS(Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science) to construct a basis of efficient management of nuclear equipment qualification business by expanding test equipment of each of participating organization, and developing qualification technologies. As for KIMM, control system of large scale shaker was replaced with advanced system, and LOCA(Loss of Coolant Accident) test facility was installed. KTL is now capable of conducting seismic tests of nuclear I and C as a result of installation of seismic test equipment during the first two project years. KRISS participated in the Project with a view to have large scale EMI test equipment and related technologies. In parallel with expansion of test equipment, a industrial-educational-research cooperation committee, as an intermediate step toward integrated equipment qualification system to maximize the usage of test equipment, was established and cooperation methods were investigated. As a result, Korea Nuclear Equipment Qualification Association, an corporate juridical person, was established. Research on development of thermal and radiation aging test technology of nuclear materials was carried out by Hanyang University and SECO(Saehan Engineering and Qualification Co., Ltd.). Integrated Equipment Qualification Database was developed which contains material test data, equipment qualification data and other EQ related informations. Standard qualification procedures were developed in order for test laboratories and manufacturers to establish design requirements and to efficiently perform tests

  7. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoyan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  8. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  9. Establishment for Nuclear Equipment: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracz, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The activity of ZdAJ in 2000 was focused on realisation of the Government-Ordered Project - 6/15 MeV Accelerator. The realisation was accomplished in two stages: - stage I should result in deriving principal operational parameters of the accelerator - stage 2 will result in full implementation of the control system providing optimum control of the equipment and automatic maintaining of its parameters. Within the frames of the first stage, a klystron modulator panel was finished and the design documentation of the mechanical supporting structure, the arm, accelerating structure, collimator and control panel were advanced. Manufacturing of the above sub-units in the workshop has started. In the frames of the Specific Project of the State Committee for Scientific Research, the improvement of Neptun lOPC accelerator was undertaken. The read-out of the monitor dose with atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature compensation has been introduced. New filters for equalising the photon and electron beam and new wedge filters have been designed. Changes in programming have been introduced, which improve the patient's safety by eliminating possible personnel errors and increase the accuracy of radiation fields read-out. In 2000 ZdAJ progressed in development of the Quality System conforming EN-ISO 9001 Standard by including the provisions of EN 46001 Standard. The Standard EN 46001: ''Quality Systems - Medical Equipment''. Detailed requirements related to application of EN ISO 9001 is an European Quality Standard extending the provisions of EN ISO 9001 Standard over the manufacturers of medical equipment. (author)

  10. Libraries in Finland Establish Consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Häkli

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available I will discuss the development of organized consortia, which are based on a charter or a written contract. I will also deal with some issues related to the organization of the consortia. I would already here like to stress, that if a consortium wants to achieve results it, in addition to a charter or a contract, also needs an executive body that carries out the work and makes sure that the plans and decisions are not only prepared but also put into practice. One of the main weaknesses of many cooperative arrangements between libraries has been the absence of a common executive not only taking care of the practicalities but also safeguarding the continuity. A committee can never fulfill the tasks of an executive body because running a consortium successfully requires much more effort than what is normally anticipated. In Finland the National Library has been given the task to enhance the cooperation between the research libraries of the country and to support their consortia . According to the National Library Strategy (adopted in November 1999 the Library is functioning as a common resource of the country’s research libraries. In this capacity it has been instrumental in creating the comprehensive consortia described below and is also responsible for running their daily business. It is possible that an arrangement of this kind is more typical for a small country than for a bigger one.

  11. Establishment of nuclear data system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Kim, J. D.; Oh, S. Y.; Lee, Y. O.; Gil, C. S.; Cho, Y. S.

    1997-01-01

    Fission fragment data have been collected and added to the existing nuclear database system. A computer program was written for generating on-line graphs of energy-dependent neutron reaction cross section. This program deals with about 300 major nuclides and serves on the internet. As a part of nuclear data evaluation works, the covariance data for neutron cross section of structural nuclides were evaluated. Also the elastic and inelastic cross sections were evaluated by using ABAREX and EGNASH2 code. In the field of nuclear data processing, a cross section library for TWODANT code for liquid metal reactor was generated and validated against Russian and French critical reactors. The resonance data for Pu-242 in CASMO-3 library were updated. In addition, continuous-energy libraries for MCNP were generated from ENDF/B-VI.2, JEF-2.2 and JENDL-3.2. These libraries were validated against the results from a series of critical experiments at HANARO. (author). 87 refs., 29 tabs., 23 figs.

  12. Perceived parental rejection mediates the effects of previous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study found that perceived maternal rejection partially mediated the association between abuse and internalising behaviours in the male cohort, whereas perceived father's rejection partially mediated this association in the female cohort. However, mental illness had no moderating effect on these relationships.

  13. Charged-particle thermonuclear reaction rates: IV. Comparison to previous work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadis, C.; Longland, R.; Champagne, A.E.; Coc, A.

    2010-01-01

    We compare our Monte Carlo reaction rates (see Paper II of this issue) to previous results that were obtained by using the classical method of computing thermonuclear reaction rates. For each reaction, the comparison is presented using two types of graphs: the first shows the change in reaction rate uncertainties, while the second displays our new results normalized to the previously recommended reaction rate. We find that the rates have changed significantly for almost all reactions considered here. The changes are caused by (i) our new Monte Carlo method of computing reaction rates (see Paper I of this issue), and (ii) newly available nuclear physics information (see Paper III of this issue).

  14. Weaning and establishment of pineapple (Ananas Comosus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -vitro propagation). The paper reports on establishment after treatment with two different auxins in-vitro. About ninety-nine (99) percent of the transported plantlets successfully established in compost. Spiny individuals increased with higher ...

  15. Out Come Of Trial Of Scar In Patients With Previous Caesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bushra; Deeba, Farhat; Bashir, Rubina; Khan, Wajiha

    2016-01-01

    Patients who had one caesarean section were previously not given a trial of scar due to fear of increased morbidity. However, recently there has been a trend to give a trial of labour to patients with a previous caesarean section for a non-recurrent cause. Medical evidence indicates that 60-80% of women can achieve vaginal delivery after a previous lower segment caesarean section. Proper selection of patients for trial of scar and vigilant monitoring during labour will achieve successful maternal and perinatal outcome. The objective of our study is to establish the fact that vaginal delivery after one caesarean section has a high success rate in patients with previous one caesarean section for non-recurrent cause. The study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Abbottabad, Gynae-B Unit. All labouring patients, during the study period of five years, with previous one caesarean section and between 37 weeks to 41 weeks of gestation for a non-recurrent cause were included in the study. Data was recorded on special pro forma designed for the purpose. Patients who had previous classical caesarean section, more than one caesarean section, and previous caesarean section with severe wound infection, transverse lie and placenta previa in present pregnancy were excluded. Foetal macrosomia (wt>4 kg) and severe IUGR with compromised blood flow on Doppler in present pregnancy were also not considered suitable for the study. Patients who had any absolute contraindication for vaginal delivery were also excluded. There were 12505 deliveries during the study period. Total vaginal deliveries were 8790 and total caesarean sections were 3715. Caesarean section rate was 29.7%. Out of these 8790 patients, 764 patients were given a trial of scar and 535 patients delivered successfully vaginally (70%). Women who presented with spontaneous onset of labour were more likely to deliver vaginally (74.8%) as compared to induction group (27.1%). Trial of vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) in selected

  16. Establishing pneumoperitoneum: Verres or Hasson? The debate continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, N; Booth, M I; Dehn, T C B

    2011-01-01

    The technique of establishing pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery remains contentious, with various different techniques available and each having its own advocates. The Verres needle approach has attracted much criticism and is seen to entail more risk, but is this view justified in the era of evidence-based medicine? Over a 6-year period, a prospective study was undertaken of 3126 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery performed by two upper gastrointestinal surgeons. One surgeon preferred the Verres needle and the other an open technique. A database was created of all cases and complication rates of the different techniques ascertained. Peri-umbilical Verres needle was used in 1887 cases (60.4%) with two complications encountered, both of which were colonic injuries, with an incidence of 0.1%. Open port insertion was used in 1200 cases (38.4%) with one complication, a small bowel perforation, to give an incidence of 0.08%. The Verres needle was used in alternative positions in 22 cases (0.75%) and, when used in the left upper quadrant (19 cases), there was one complication, a left hepatic lobe puncture, with an incidence of 5.26%. Our overall incidence of intra-abdominal injury was 0.13%, all in patients who had undergone previous abdominal surgery, and in the subgroup of patients with previous surgery the rate was 0.78%. There was no mortality. Practice varies as to the method chosen to induce pneumoperitoneum, but our results show there is no significant difference between the technique chosen and incidence of complications, and this is supported in the literature.

  17. Establishment of a Methanogenic Benzene-Degrading Culture and its Implication in Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, W.; Luo, F.; Bawa, N.; Guo, S.; Ye, S.; Edwards, E.

    2017-12-01

    Benzene is a known human carcinogen and it is a common pollutant in groundwater, mainly resulting from petrochemical industry. Anaerobic degradation of benzene has significant advantages over aerobic processes for in situ bioremediation. In this study, new methanogenic and sulfate-reducing benzene degrading cultures have been enriched. Microbial community composition was characterized with two other previously established benzene-degrading cultures, and their potential use in bioaugmentation is investigated. In this study, a lab microcosm study was conducted anaerobically with contaminated soil and groundwater from a former chemical plant. Benzene degradation was observed in the presence of co-contaminants and electron donor. Through repetitive amendment of benzene, two enrichment cultures have been developed under sulfate and methanogenic conditions. Results from DNA amplicon sequencing and qPCR analysis revealed that an organism similar to previously described benzene-degrading Deltaproteobacterium has been enriched. The microbial community of this culture was compared with other two methanogenic benzene-degrading enrichment cultures that were derived from an oil refinery and a decommissioned gasoline station, and have been maintained for decades. Deltaproteobacterium ORM2-like microbes were dominate in all enrichment cultures, which brought to light benzene-degrading microbes, ORM2 were enriched under different geological conditions distributed around the world. The relative abundance of methanogens was much lower compared to previously established cultures, although substantial amount of methane was produced. The peripheral organisms also vary. To investigate effectiveness of using ORM2-dominant enrichment cultures in bioremediation, microcosm studies were set up using contaminated materials, and a ORM2-dominating methanogenic benzene-degrading culture was used for bioaugmentation. Results revealed that benzene degradation was speeded up under methanogenic or

  18. Establishment of Chronic Infection: Brucella's Stealth Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Waqas; Zheng, Ke; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Brucella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes zoonotic infection known as brucellosis which results in abortion and infertility in natural host. Humans, especially in low income countries, can acquire infection by direct contact with infected animal or by consumption of animal products and show high morbidity, severe economic losses and public health problems. However for survival, host cells develop complex immune mechanisms to defeat and battle against attacking pathogens and maintain a balance between host resistance and Brucella virulence. On the other hand as a successful intracellular pathogen, Brucella has evolved multiple strategies to evade immune response mechanisms to establish persistent infection and replication within host. In this review, we mainly summarize the “Stealth” strategies employed by Brucella to modulate innate and the adaptive immune systems, autophagy, apoptosis and possible role of small noncoding RNA in the establishment of chronic infection. The purpose of this review is to give an overview for recent understanding how this pathogen evades immune response mechanisms of host, which will facilitate to understanding the pathogenesis of brucellosis and the development of novel, more effective therapeutic approaches to treat brucellosis. PMID:27014640

  19. Establishment of Health Technology Assessment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Doaee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Health Technology Assessment (HTA aims at informing healthcare policymakers, managers and practitioners of the "clinical consequences, but also the economic, ethical, and other social implications of the diffusion and use of a specific procedure or technique on medical practice". So considering the policy-oriented nature of HTA that calls for a close integration into the functioning and governance of health systems the present study focuses on executive processes and function of the HTA office of Iran.Materials and methods: Data of this review study were collected through documented sources and observations from 2007 to 2010.Results: Health Technology Assessment began its activities as a secretariat in the Deputy of Health in 2007 and it continues as a Health Technology Assessment Office at the Management of Health Technology Assessment, Standardization, and Tariff at the Deputy of curative affairs of MOHME in the beginning of 2010.14 Technology of modern medical equipment and 8 pharmaceutical medicine are assessed, Now many of measures for HTA establishment  such as cooperation National Institute of Health Research (NIHR, Holding scientific committee meetings, Establishing  the  Master's degree of  health technology assessment ,Building capacities for health technology assessment through education in major universities of the country.Conclusion: pay attention to health technology assessment, selection and application of proper technologies in the frameworks of policy-making and managerial strategies and make efforts to develop it with the support of the governmental in Iran is necessary.

  20. Mosquitoes established in Lhasa city, Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, residents of Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China reported large numbers of mosquitoes and bites from these insects. It is unclear whether this was a new phenomenon, which species were involved, and whether these mosquitoes had established themselves in the local circumstances. Methods The present study was undertaken in six urban sites of Chengguan district Lhasa city, Tibet. Adult mosquitoes were collected by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in August 2009 and August 2012. The trapped adult mosquitoes were initially counted and identified according to morphological criteria, and a proportion of mosquitoes were examined more closely using a multiplex PCR assay. Results 907 mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were collected in this study. Among them, 595 were females and 312 were males. There was no significant difference in mosquito density monitored by bed net trap and labor hour method in 2009 and 2012. Of 105 mosquitoes identified by multiplex PCR, 36 were pure mosquitoes (34.29%) while 69 were hybrids (65.71%). The same subspecies of Culex pipiens complex were observed by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in 2009 and 2012. Conclusion The local Culex pipiens complex comprises the subspecies Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and its hybrids. Mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex, known to be, potentially, vectors of periodic filariasis and encephalitis, are now present from one season to the next, and appear to be established in Lhasa City, TAR. PMID:24060238

  1. Erlotinib in previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrdel, U.; Kovac, V.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Erlotinib is a novel biological anti-tumour agent in the treatment of advanced non small cell lung cancer. It represents the molecularly-targeted therapy which has been studied extensively. Case report. We present a case of a patient who suffered from advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. After the progress of disease following a prior chemotherapy he was treated with erlotinib with remarkable effect which was shown at chest x ray and symptoms were quite reduced. Conclusions. In selected patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer Erlotinib improves survival and symptom control as it results in presented case. (author)

  2. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  3. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  4. Advances in the phylogenesis of Agaricales and its higher ranks and strategies for establishing phylogenetic hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui-Lin; Desjardin, Dennis E; Soytong, Kasem; Hyde, Kevin D

    2008-10-01

    We present an overview of previous research results on the molecular phylogenetic analyses in Agaricales and its higher ranks (Agaricomycetes/Agaricomycotina/Basidiomycota) along with the most recent treatments of taxonomic systems in these taxa. Establishing phylogenetic hypotheses using DNA sequences, from which an understanding of the natural evolutionary relationships amongst clades may be derived, requires a robust dataset. It has been recognized that single-gene phylogenies may not truly represent organismal phylogenies, but the concordant phylogenetic genealogies from multiple-gene datasets can resolve this problem. The genes commonly used in mushroom phylogenetic research are summarized.

  5. Effect of a public relations staff member on new patient visits in an established private practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacht, E S; Trupkin, D; Trilnik, E

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to relate the short-term effect of implementation of a public relations program (internal marketing), utilizing a public relations staff member (PRSM) in an established pediatric dental private practice. The public relations staff member performed numerous duties previously performed by many staff members. The results showed an increase in new patients for the six months studied between 22 percent to 111 percent. The number of Hispanic new patients was also compared and also increased significantly. Consideration should be given to having a public relations staff member to handle all incoming calls.

  6. Wheat Response to a Soil Previously Irrigated with Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Sardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted aimed at assessing the response of rainfed, lysimeter-grown wheat to various levels of soil salinity, in terms of dry mass production, inorganic and organic components, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SS activity. One additional scope was the assessment of soil ability to recover from applied salts by means of winter precipitations. The results confirmed the relatively high salt tolerance of wheat, as demonstrated by the mechanisms enacted by plants to contrast salinity at root and leaf level. Some insight was gained in the relationships between salinity and the various inorganic and organic components, as well as with SPS and SS activity. It was demonstrated that in a year with precipitations well below the average values (305 mm vs 500 the leaching action of rain was sufficient to eliminate salts accumulated during summer irrigation with saline water.

  7. Establishing the proteome of normal human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Schutzer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the entire protein content, the proteome, of normal human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF would enable insights into neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Until now technologic hurdles and access to true normal samples hindered attaining this goal.We applied immunoaffinity separation and high sensitivity and resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to examine CSF from healthy normal individuals. 2630 proteins in CSF from normal subjects were identified, of which 56% were CSF-specific, not found in the much larger set of 3654 proteins we have identified in plasma. We also examined CSF from groups of subjects previously examined by others as surrogates for normals where neurologic symptoms warranted a lumbar puncture but where clinical laboratory were reported as normal. We found statistically significant differences between their CSF proteins and our non-neurological normals. We also examined CSF from 10 volunteer subjects who had lumbar punctures at least 4 weeks apart and found that there was little variability in CSF proteins in an individual as compared to subject to subject.Our results represent the most comprehensive characterization of true normal CSF to date. This normal CSF proteome establishes a comparative standard and basis for investigations into a variety of diseases with neurological and psychiatric features.

  8. Biotin IgM Antibodies in Human Blood: A Previously Unknown Factor Eliciting False Results in Biotinylation-Based Immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Hedman, Lea; Mattila, Petri S.; Jartti, Laura; Jartti, Tuomas; Ruuskanen, Olli; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Hedman, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Biotin is an essential vitamin that binds streptavidin or avidin with high affinity and specificity. As biotin is a small molecule that can be linked to proteins without affecting their biological activity, biotinylation is applied widely in biochemical assays. In our laboratory, IgM enzyme immuno assays (EIAs) of µ-capture format have been set up against many viruses, using as antigen biotinylated virus like particles (VLPs) detected by horseradish peroxidase-conjugated streptavidin. We recently encountered one serum sample reacting with the biotinylated VLP but not with the unbiotinylated one, suggesting in human sera the occurrence of biotin-reactive antibodies. In the present study, we search the general population (612 serum samples from adults and 678 from children) for IgM antibodies reactive with biotin and develop an indirect EIA for quantification of their levels and assessment of their seroprevalence. These IgM antibodies were present in 3% adults regardless of age, but were rarely found in children. The adverse effects of the biotin IgM on biotinylation-based immunoassays were assessed, including four inhouse and one commercial virus IgM EIAs, showing that biotin IgM do cause false positivities. The biotin can not bind IgM and streptavidin or avidin simultaneously, suggesting that these biotin-interactive compounds compete for the common binding site. In competitive inhibition assays, the affinities of biotin IgM antibodies ranged from 2.1×10−3 to 1.7×10−4 mol/L. This is the first report on biotin antibodies found in humans, providing new information on biotinylation-based immunoassays as well as new insights into the biomedical effects of vitamins. PMID:22879954

  9. Do alcohol compliance checks decrease underage sales at neighboring establishments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J; Smolenski, Derek J; Toomey, Traci L; Carlin, Bradley P; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2013-11-01

    Underage alcohol compliance checks conducted by law enforcement agencies can reduce the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales at checked alcohol establishments, and theory suggests that an alcohol establishment that is checked may warn nearby establishments that compliance checks are being conducted in the area. In this study, we examined whether the effects of compliance checks diffuse to neighboring establishments. We used data from the Complying with the Minimum Drinking Age trial, which included more than 2,000 compliance checks conducted at more than 900 alcohol establishments. The primary outcome was the sale of alcohol to a pseudo-underage buyer without the need for age identification. A multilevel logistic regression was used to model the effect of a compliance check at each establishment as well as the effect of compliance checks at neighboring establishments within 500 m (stratified into four equal-radius concentric rings), after buyer, license, establishment, and community-level variables were controlled for. We observed a decrease in the likelihood of establishments selling alcohol to underage youth after they had been checked by law enforcement, but these effects quickly decayed over time. Establishments that had a close neighbor (within 125 m) checked in the past 90 days were also less likely to sell alcohol to young-appearing buyers. The spatial effect of compliance checks on other establishments decayed rapidly with increasing distance. Results confirm the hypothesis that the effects of police compliance checks do spill over to neighboring establishments. These findings have implications for the development of an optimal schedule of police compliance checks.

  10. [Establishment of beta block matching technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fa-Ming; Lü, Qin-Feng; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Hai-Qin; Fu, Qi-Hua; Yan, Li-Xing

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish beta block matching technique. DNA was extracted from whole blood by salting-out method, beta block matching was performed by PCR and GeneScan technique. The results showed that the length of fragments amplificated in 100 samples was different and the range of them was 91-197 bp. Amplification fragments could be divided into four regions: 91-93, 105-113, 125-139 and 177-197 bp respectively. 91 bp DNA fragments could be found in all of samples. The numbers of DNA fragments with different length have been shown high polymorphism and they focused on the range of seven to twenty four. In conclusion, the beta block matching technique is reliable and applicable to the selection of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation donors.

  11. [Establishment of delta block matching technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qin-Feng; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Yan, Li-Xing

    2006-04-01

    To establish delta block HLA-matching technique, DNA was extracted from whole blood by salting-out method, delta block was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR product was detected by GeneScan. The results showed that delta block had polymorphism in 104 samples without sibship of the Han people from Zhejiang province. The range of DNA fragment length was 81-393 bp and could be divided into 4 groups: 81-118 bp, 140-175 bp, 217-301 bp, 340-393 bp. The numbers of DNA fragments were 6-32. It is concluded that the method of delta block matching is reliable and can be applied to select donors for the patients to be transplanted. It is the first time to get delta block data of the Han people in China.

  12. Resourcefulness Training for Dementia Caregivers: Establishing Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.; Lekhak, Nirmala; Burant, Christopher J.; Underwood, Patricia W.; Morris, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    Providing care for an elder with dementia can produce extreme stress that adversely affects caregiver health. Learning to be resourceful, which involves practicing resourcefulness skills using a journal or voice recorder, may reduce caregiver stress. However, before testing the effectiveness of journaling and voice recording as resourcefulness training (RT) practice methods, intervention fidelity should first be established. This pilot trial with 63 women dementia caregivers examined the fidelity of journaling and voice recording and whether allowing a choice between the methods affected RT intervention fidelity. Following RT, Resourcefulness Scale scores were similar for journal and recorder methods but higher for caregivers in the choice versus random condition. Patterns of RT skill use documented in journals or recordings were similar for choice and random conditions and for journal and recorder methods. The results support the implementation fidelity of RT that allows caregivers to choose a method to reinforce their resourcefulness skills. PMID:27338751

  13. Ultrastructural analyses of somatic embryo initiation, development and polarity establishment from mesophyll cells of Dactylis glomerata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, A.; McDaniel, J. K.; Conger, B. V.

    2000-01-01

    Somatic embryos initiate and develop directly from single mesophyll cells in in vitro-cultured leaf segments of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Embryogenic cells establish themselves in the predivision stage by formation of thicker cell walls and dense cytoplasm. Electron microscopy observations for embryos ranging from the pre-cell-division stage to 20-cell proembryos confirm previous light microscopy studies showing a single cell origin. They also confirm that the first division is predominantly periclinal and that this division plane is important in establishing embryo polarity and in determining the embryo axis. If the first division is anticlinal or if divisions are in random planes after the first division, divisions may not continue to produce an embryo. This result may produce an embryogenic cell mass, callus formation, or no structure at all. Grant numbers: NAGW-3141, NAG10-0221.

  14. Effect of Previous Gastrectomy on the Performance of Postoperative Colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Choi, Jeongmin; Kim, Tae Han; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Im, Jong Pil; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Sang Gyun; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Kim, Joo Sung; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a prior gastrectomy on the difficulty of subsequent colonoscopy, and to identify the surgical factors related to difficult colonoscopies. Materials and Methods Patients with a prior gastrectomy who had undergone a colonoscopy between 2011 and 2014 (n=482) were matched (1:6) to patients with no history of gastrectomy (n=2,892). Cecal insertion time, intubation failure, and bowel clearance score were compared between the gastrectomy and control groups, as was a newly generated comprehensive parameter for a difficult/incomplete colonoscopy (cecal intubation failure, cecal insertion time >12.9 minutes, or very poor bowel preparation scale). Surgical factors including surgical approach, extent of gastrectomy, extent of lymph node dissection, and reconstruction type, were analyzed to identify risk factors for colonoscopy performance. Results A history of gastrectomy was associated with prolonged cecal insertion time (8.7±6.4 vs. 9.7±6.5 minutes; P=0.002), an increased intubation failure rate (0.1% vs. 1.9%; P<0.001), and a poor bowel preparation rate (24.7 vs. 29.0; P=0.047). Age and total gastrectomy (vs. partial gastrectomy) were found to be independent risk factors for increased insertion time, which slowly increased throughout the postoperative duration (0.35 min/yr). Total gastrectomy was the only independent risk factor for the comprehensive parameter of difficult/incomplete colonoscopy. Conclusions History of gastrectomy is related to difficult/incomplete colonoscopy performance, especially in cases of total gastrectomy. In any case, it may be that a pre-operative colonoscopy is desirable in selected patients scheduled for gastrectomy; however, it should be performed by an expert endoscopist each time. PMID:27752394

  15. The establishment of the safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The first step in the establishment of the Safety Culture is splitting this concept into the elements involved in the same, so as to facilitate and approach to the issue. Then, two methodologies must be introduced, which shall perform independently, although synergically: (1) an 'updated' Quality Assurance Program and (2) a Program of Non-Technical (psychological and social) Activities aimed at stimulating motivation among the individuals in the Organization and at facilitating team work. Later on, once the necessary experience has been gained, the management of the organization must be based, essentially, on continuous development and on making full use of the skills of the individuals involved. In order to be successful, the establishment of a new culture of business management requires three key elements: 1) a working method containing the adequate indicators for measuring progress; 2) the commitment of the managers and the participation of all the staff; 3) the attainment of a net economical benefit that is made evident through an increase in productivity. However, all these actions refer only to one of the components of the system: the Operator of a Nuclear Power Plant, while Safety Culture must involve the whole National System, including the Government and the Regulatory Authority. The introduction of a new culture must necessarily bring along the acceptance of new concepts, new criteria and new methodologies among all the decision makers in the National System. Therefore, a change in culture must include a change in the culture of the Regulatory Authority. For instance, an evaluation of the Safety Culture is not workable by means of a conventional audit or a regulatory inspection. The fact is that what is easy to measure is not the main thing and what is difficult to measure is the only thing that actually matters. Summarizing: 'The Regulatory Authority shall be unable to verify the results because the evidences are intangible', but it shall indeed be able

  16. Practices of Selected Foodservice Establishments in Iloilo City, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund B. Moreno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the practices of foodservice establishments in Iloilo City. The subjects of this study were selected foodservice establishments in Iloilo City which were selected purposively. The findings of the study showed that the number of foodservice establishments as respondents was equally divided into fast foods and specialty foodservice establishments in Iloilo City. Majority of the foodservice establishment was located uptown or outside of the City of Iloilo and has operated for more than five years. All specialty establishments have undergone accreditation by the Department of Tourism. Since the foodservice establishments practiced all times the different foodservice practices in purchasing, receiving, storage, inventory and safety it is recommended that the owners and managers should continue to perform the different practices to ensure quality service and satisfaction to the customers. It is recommended that the hotel and restaurant management teachers should disseminate the result of the study through their lecture and discussion so that the students could be aware of the good practices employed in the foodservice establishments and enable them to apply this in their future career as effective and productive foodservice worker. Similar study can be conducted to validate the results of this study using other variables and respondents.

  17. Clinical observation of phacoemulsification in patients with previous trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of transparent corneal incision phacoemulsification in cataract patients who had undergone different kinds of glaucoma filtration surgeries.METHODS: Totally 43 cases(50 eyes, in which 23 patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma(group A, 26 eyesand 20 patients with primary open angle glaucoma(group B, 24 eyes, all had undergone glaucoma filtration surgery for more than 6 months. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, slit lamp, gonioscope, corneal endothelial cell counts, etc., were done before surgery.And transparent corneal incision phacoemulsification combined with artificial lens implantation operation were preformed, postoperative follow-up of 3 to 12 months, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, corneal endothelial cell counts and vision field, etc. were observed and recorded.RESULTS: The visual acuity of 50 eyes(100%increased with different degree postoperatively, 41 eyes(82%with postoperative visual acuity ≥0.3; average preoperative intraocular pressure: group A 18.08±5.08mmHg(1mmHg=0.133kpa, group B 14.48±3.52mmHg; Postoperative follow-up average intraocular pressure: group A 13.65±3.51mmHg, group B 14.28±3.41 mmHg, intraocular pressure changed significantly pre and post-operation in group A(PP>0.05; Postoperative intraocular pressure of 1 eye in group A and 3 eyes in group B rose within three days post-operation, the intraocular pressure fluctuated between 21-33mmHg, with drug therapy and drug withdral when intraocular pressure epistrophy; Intraocular pressure was stable in the follow-up process.Corneal endothelial cell density: pre-operation group A was 2 293.57±352.24(cells/mm2, group B 2 658.14±458.69(cells/mm2, post- operation group A 2 175.95±379.16(cells/mm2, group B 2 442.97±477.30(cells/mm2, cell loss rate: 5.13% in group A, and 8.10% in group B. Postoperative visual acuity was related to vision field damage in patients, the more visual field damage, the longer the duration

  18. The pathogenicity of genetic variants previously associated with left ventricular non-compaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Yeganeh; Jabbari, Javad; Jabbari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    an updated list of previously reported LVNC-associated variants with biologic description and investigate the prevalence of LVNC variants in healthy general population to find false-positive LVNC-associated variants. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Human Gene Mutation Database and PubMed were systematically...... searched to identify all previously reported LVNC-associated variants. Thereafter, the Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC), that both represent the background population, was searched for all variants. Four in silico prediction tools were assessed to determine...

  19. Non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and previous undetermined acute cerebellar injury: a mysterious clinical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide group of neurological diseases secondary to dysfunctions of cerebellum or its associated pathways, rarely coursing with acute-onset acquired etiologies and chronic non-progressive presentation. We evaluated patients with acquired non-progressive cerebellar ataxia that presented previous acute or subacute onset. Clinical and neuroimaging characterization of adult patients with acquired non-progressive ataxia were performed. Five patients were identified with the phenotype of acquired non-progressive ataxia. Most patients presented with a juvenile to adult-onset acute to subacute appendicular and truncal cerebellar ataxia with mild to moderate cerebellar or olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Establishing the etiology of the acute triggering events of such ataxias is complex. Non-progressive ataxia in adults must be distinguished from hereditary ataxias.

  20. Non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and previous undetermined acute cerebellar injury: a mysterious clinical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide group of neurological diseases secondary to dysfunctions of cerebellum or its associated pathways, rarely coursing with acute-onset acquired etiologies and chronic non-progressive presentation. We evaluated patients with acquired non-progressive cerebellar ataxia that presented previous acute or subacute onset. Clinical and neuroimaging characterization of adult patients with acquired non-progressive ataxia were performed. Five patients were identified with the phenotype of acquired non-progressive ataxia. Most patients presented with a juvenile to adult-onset acute to subacute appendicular and truncal cerebellar ataxia with mild to moderate cerebellar or olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Establishing the etiology of the acute triggering events of such ataxias is complex. Non-progressive ataxia in adults must be distinguished from hereditary ataxias.

  1. Functional MRI of the visual cortex and visual testing in patients with previous optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Frederiksen, J.L.; Rostrup, Egill

    2002-01-01

    of the activated area and the signal change following ON, and compared the results with results of neuroophthalmological testing. We studied nine patients with previous acute ON and 10 healthy persons served as controls using fMRI with visual stimulation. In addition to a reduced activated volume, patients showed...... to both the results of the contrast sensitivity test and to the Snellen visual acuity. Our results indicate that fMRI is a useful method for the study of ON, even in cases where the visual acuity is severely impaired. The reduction in activated volume could be explained as a reduced neuronal input......The volume of cortical activation as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the visual cortex has previously been shown to be reduced following optic neuritis (ON). In order to understand the cause of this change, we studied the cortical activation, both the size...

  2. Emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis: computed tomography features and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin J

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jianmin Jin,1 Shuling Li,2 Wenling Yu,2 Xiaofang Liu,1 Yongchang Sun1,3 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 2Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB is a risk factor for COPD, but the clinical characteristics and the chest imaging features (emphysema and bronchiectasis of COPD with previous PTB have not been studied well.Methods: The presence, distribution, and severity of emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with and without previous PTB were evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT and compared. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sputum culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also compared between patients with and without previous PTB.Results: A total of 231 COPD patients (82.2% ex- or current smokers, 67.5% male were consecutively enrolled. Patients with previous PTB (45.0% had more severe (p=0.045 and longer history (p=0.008 of dyspnea, more exacerbations in the previous year (p=0.011, and more positive culture of P. aeruginosa (p=0.001, compared with those without PTB. Patients with previous PTB showed a higher prevalence of bronchiectasis (p<0.001, which was more significant in lungs with tuberculosis (TB lesions, and a higher percentage of more severe bronchiectasis (Bhalla score ≥2, p=0.031, compared with those without previous PTB. The overall prevalence of emphysema was not different between patients with and without previous PTB, but in those with previous PTB, a higher number of subjects with middle (p=0.001 and lower (p=0.019 lobe emphysema, higher severity score (p=0.028, higher prevalence of panlobular emphysema (p=0.013, and more extensive centrilobular emphysema (p=0.039 were observed. Notably, in patients with

  3. Investigating the effect of previous treatments on wheat biomass over multiple spatial frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, A. E.; Castellanos, M. T.; Cartagena, M. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Lark, R. M.

    2010-09-01

    In this study we use the maximum overlap discrete packet transform (MODWPT) to investigate residual effects on wheat biomass of fertigation treatments applied to a previous crop. The wheat crop covered nine subplots from a previous experiment on melon response to fertigation. Each subplot had previously received a different level of applied nitrogen. Many factors affect wheat biomass, causing it to vary at different spatial frequencies. We hypothesize that these will include residual effects from fertilizer application (at relatively low spatial frequencies) and the local influence of individual plants from the previous melon crop (at high frequency). To test this hypothesis we use the MODWPT to identify the dominant spatial frequencies of wheat biomass variation, and analyse the relationship to both the previous fertilizer application and the location of individual melon plants in the previous crop. The MODWPT is particularly appropriate for this because it allows us first to identify the key spatial frequencies in the wheat biomass objectively and to analyse them, and their relationship to hypothesized driving factors without any assumptions of uniformity (stationarity) of wheat-biomass variation. The results showed that the applied nitrogen dominated the wheat biomass response, and that there was a noticeable component of wheat-biomass variation at the spatial frequency that corresponds to the melon cropping. We expected wheat biomass to be negatively correlated with the position of melons in the previous crop, due to uptake of the applied nitrogen. The MODWPT, which allows us to detect changes in correlation between variables at different frequencies, showed that such a relationship was found across part of the experiment but not uniformly.

  4. VBAC Scoring: Successful vaginal delivery in previous one caesarean section in induced labour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, J.F.; Bangash, K.T.; Mahmud, G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop a scoring system for the prediction of successful vaginal birth after caesarean section, following induction of labour with intra-vaginal E2 gel (Glandin). Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2010 to August 2011, at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences in Islamabad. Trial of labour in previous one caesarean section, undergoing induction with intra-vaginal E2 gel, was attempted in 100 women. They were scored according to six variables; maternal age; gestation; indications of previous caesarean; history of vaginal birth either before or after the previous caesarean; Bishop score and body mass index. Multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop the scoring system. Results: Of the total, 67 (67%) women delivered vaginally, while 33 (33%) ended in repeat caesarean delivery. Among the subjects, 55 (55%) women had no history of vaginal delivery either before or after previous caesarean section; 15 (15%) had history of vaginal births both before and after the previous caesarean; while 30 (30%) had vaginal delivery only after the previous caesarean section. Rates of successful vaginal birth after caesarean increased from 38% in women having a score of 0-3 to 58% in patients scoring 4-6. Among those having a score of 7-9 and 10-12, the success rates were 71% and 86% respectively. Conclusion: Increasing scores correlated with the increasing probability of vaginal birth after caesarean undergoing induction of labour. The admission VBAC scoring system is useful in counselling women with previous caesarean for the option of induction of labour or repeat caesarean delivery. (author)

  5. Analysis of Product Buying Decision on Lazada E-commerce based on Previous Buyers’ Comments

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Aldrin

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present research are: 1) to know that product buying decision possibly occurs, 2) to know how product buying decision occurs on Lazada e-commerce’s customers, 3) how previous buyers’ comments can increase product buying decision on Lazada e-commerce. This research utilizes qualitative research method. Qualitative research is a research that investigates other researches and makes assumption or discussion result so that other analysis results can be made in order to widen idea ...

  6. Impaired insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose metabolism in glucose-tolerant women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Vestergaard, H; Kühl, C

    1996-01-01

    euglycemic clamp including indirect calorimetry. All women were lean and had normal oral glucose tolerance test results. Activities of glycogen synthase, phosphofructokinase, and hexokinase were measured in vastus lateralis muscle biopsy specimens obtained in the basal state and after insulin stimulation....... RESULTS: Women with previous gestational diabetes had a decreased glucose disposal rate (pmetabolism (6.63 +/- 0.47 vs 9.04 +/- 0.57 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, p

  7. Further analysis of previously implicated linkage regions for Alzheimer's disease in affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lannfelt Lars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide linkage studies for Alzheimer's disease have implicated several chromosomal regions as potential loci for susceptibility genes. Methods In the present study, we have combined a selection of affected relative pairs (ARPs from the UK and the USA included in a previous linkage study by Myers et al. (Am J Med Genet, 2002, with ARPs from Sweden and Washington University. In this total sample collection of 397 ARPs, we have analyzed linkage to chromosomes 1, 9, 10, 12, 19 and 21, implicated in the previous scan. Results The analysis revealed that linkage to chromosome 19q13 close to the APOE locus increased considerably as compared to the earlier scan. However, linkage to chromosome 10q21, which provided the strongest linkage in the previous scan could not be detected. Conclusion The present investigation provides yet further evidence that 19q13 is the only chromosomal region consistently linked to Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Relationship between the public's belief in recovery, level of mental illness stigma, and previous contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Amanda N

    2015-01-01

    Disbelief exits that individuals who have a mental health condition are able to recover and fully function in life. This study analyzed 1,437 adults from the 2006 General Social Survey. Structural equation modeling (1) examined the relationship between respondents' level of prejudicial attitudes and social distance (i.e., stigma) toward individuals who have a mental health condition and their belief in the potential of recovery (2) tested whether previous contact with an individual who received treatment was a mediator. Findings indicated that the belief in recovery led to lower levels of social distance. Prejudicial attitudes were found to be a predictor of one's level of social distance. Previous contact was not a mediator however; males, minorities and those with less education were less likely to have had previous contact. Results indicated a need to emphasize the probability of recovering from a mental health condition when developing target-specific stigma reducing strategies.

  9. Female and male moths display different reproductive behavior when facing new versus previous mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Ying; Yu, Jin-Feng; Lu, Qin; Xu, Jin; Ye, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient) and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study.

  10. Female and male moths display different reproductive behavior when facing new versus previous mates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ying Li

    Full Text Available Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study.

  11. Predicting fruit consumption: the role of habits, previous behavior and mediation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Eggers, Sander M; Lechner, Lilian; van Osch, Liesbeth; van Stralen, Maartje M

    2014-07-18

    This study assessed the role of habits and previous behavior in predicting fruit consumption as well as their additional predictive contribution besides socio-demographic and motivational factors. In the literature, habits are proposed as a stable construct that needs to be controlled for in longitudinal analyses that predict behavior. The aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence for the inclusion of either previous behavior or habits. A random sample of 806 Dutch adults (>18 years) was invited by an online survey panel of a private research company to participate in an online study on fruit consumption. A longitudinal design (N = 574) was used with assessments at baseline and after one (T2) and two months (T3). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the differential value of habit and previous behavior in the prediction of fruit consumption. Eighty percent of habit strength could be explained by habit strength one month earlier, and 64% of fruit consumption could be explained by fruit consumption one month earlier. Regression analyses revealed that the model with motivational constructs explained 41% of the behavioral variance at T2 and 38% at T3. The addition of previous behavior and habit increased the explained variance up to 66% at T2 and to 59% at T3. Inclusion of these factors resulted in non-significant contributions of the motivational constructs. Furthermore, our findings showed that the effect of habit strength on future behavior was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior. Both habit and previous behavior are important as predictors of future behavior, and as educational objectives for behavior change programs. Our results revealed less stability for the constructs over time than expected. Habit strength was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior and our results do not strongly suggest a need for the inclusion of both constructs. Future research needs to assess the conditions that determine direct

  12. Beyond EICA: understanding post-establishment evolution requires a broader evaluation of potential selection pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Atwood

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on post-establishment evolution in nonnative plant populations has focused almost exclusively on testing the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA hypothesis, which posits that the lack of specialized herbivores in the invaded range drives evolution in nonnative plant populations. Fifteen years of conflicting EICA test results suggest that selection pressures other than specialized herbivory are important in driving post-establishment evolution in invasive species. Alternative hypotheses, such as the Evolution of Reduced Competitive Ability (ERCA hypothesis, have been proposed but have received little attention or testing. We argue that the lack of consensus across studies that test EICA may be due in part to the lack of consistent definitions and varying experimental design parameters, and that future research in this field would benefit from new methodological considerations. We examined previous work evaluating post-establishment evolution and evaluated the range of study systems and design parameters used in testing the EICA hypothesis. Our goal was to identify where different uses of ecological terms and different study parameters have hindered consensus and to suggest a path forward to move beyond EICA in post-establishment evolution studies. We incorporated these methods into a design framework that will increase data harmony across future studies and will facilitate examinations of any potential selection pressure driving evolution in the invaded range.

  13. Analytical method for establishing indentation rolling resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gładysiewicz, Lech; Konieczna, Martyna

    2018-01-01

    Belt conveyors are highly reliable machines able to work in special operating conditions. Harsh environment, long distance of transporting and great mass of transported martials are cause of high energy usage. That is why research in the field of belt conveyor transportation nowadays focuses on reducing the power consumption without lowering their efficiency. In this paper, previous methods for testing rolling resistance are described, and new method designed by authors was presented. New method of testing rolling resistance is quite simple and inexpensive. Moreover it allows to conduct the experimental tests of the impact of different parameters on the value of indentation rolling resistance such as core design, cover thickness, ambient temperature, idler travel frequency, or load value as well. Finally results of tests of relationship between rolling resistance and idler travel frequency and between rolling resistance and idler travel speed was presented.

  14. Establishment of Database System for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Sup; Lee, Chang Ju; Yoo, Soon Mi; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Woo Seok; Kang, Tae Young; Back, Geum Mun; Hong, Dong Ki; Kwon, Kyung Tae

    2008-01-01

    To enlarge the efficiency of operation and establish a constituency for development of new radiotherapy treatment through database which is established by arranging and indexing radiotherapy related affairs in well organized manner to have easy access by the user. In this study, Access program provided by Microsoft (MS Office Access) was used to operate the data base. The data of radiation oncology was distinguished by a business logs and maintenance expenditure in addition to stock management of accessories with respect to affairs and machinery management. Data for education and research was distinguished by education material for department duties, user manual and related thesis depending upon its property. Registration of data was designed to have input form according to its subject and the information of data was designed to be inspected by making a report. Number of machine failure in addition to its respective repairing hours from machine maintenance expenditure in a period of January 2008 to April 2009 was analyzed with the result of initial system usage and one year after the usage. Radiation oncology database system was accomplished by distinguishing work related and research related criteria. The data are arranged and collected according to its subjects and classes, and can be accessed by searching the required data through referring the descriptions from each criteria. 32.3% of total average time was reduced on analyzing repairing hours by acquiring number of machine failure in addition to its type in a period of January 2008 to April 2009 through machine maintenance expenditure. On distinguishing and indexing present and past data upon its subjective criteria through the database system for radiation oncology, the use of information can be easily accessed to enlarge the efficiency of operation, and in further, can be a constituency for improvement of work process by acquiring various information required for new radiotherapy treatment in real time.

  15. Repetition of previously novel melodies sometimes increases both remember and know responses in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, J M; Kaminska, Z; Dixon, M; Java, R I

    1996-09-01

    Recognition memory for previously novel melodies was tested in three experiments in which subjects usedremember andknow responses to report experiences of recollection, or of familiarity in the absence of recollection, for each melody they recognized. Some of the melodies were taken from Polish folk songs and presented vocally, but without the words. Others were taken from obscure pieces of classical music, presented as single-line melodies. Prior to the test, the melodies were repeated for varying numbers of study trials. Repetition of the Polish melodies increased both remember and know responses, while repetition of classical melodies increased remember but not know responses. When subjects were instructed to report guesses, guess responses were inversely related to remember and know responses and there were more guesses to lures than to targets. These findings establish that remembering and knowing are fully independent functionally and, by the same token, they provide further evidence against the idea that response exclusivity causes increases in remembering to force decreases in knowing. The findings also suggest that simultaneous increases in remembering and knowing occurred because the Polish melodies came from a genre for which the subjects had relatively little previous experience.

  16. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorder...

  17. Functional MRI of the visual cortex and visual testing in patients with previous optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Frederiksen, J.L.; Rostrup, Egill

    2002-01-01

    of the activated area and the signal change following ON, and compared the results with results of neuroophthalmological testing. We studied nine patients with previous acute ON and 10 healthy persons served as controls using fMRI with visual stimulation. In addition to a reduced activated volume, patients showed...... a reduced blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal increase and a greater asymmetry in the visual cortex, compared with controls. The volume of visual cortical activation was significantly correlated to the result of the contrast sensitivity test. The BOLD signal increase correlated significantly......The volume of cortical activation as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the visual cortex has previously been shown to be reduced following optic neuritis (ON). In order to understand the cause of this change, we studied the cortical activation, both the size...

  18. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... (previously Precision Helicopters, LLC); Robinson Air Crane, Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins... (Previously Hawkins & Powers Aviation); S.M. &T. Aircraft (Previously Us Helicopter Inc., UNC Helicopters, Inc...

  19. Biochemical effectiveness of allopurinol and allopurinol-probenecid in previously benzbromarone-treated gout patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Mattheus K; van Roon, Eric N; Houtman, Pieternella M; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; Jansen, Tim L Th A

    2007-09-01

    In 2003, the uricosuric drug benzbromarone was withdrawn from the market. The first alternative drug of choice was the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. The purpose was to (1) investigate the efficacy of allopurinol (standard dosage) compared with previous treatment with benzbromarone; and (2) investigate the combination therapy allopurinol-probenecid as an effective alternative treatment compared with previous benzbromarone treatment. A prospective, open study was carried out in a cohort of 51 gout patients who discontinued benzbromarone therapy because of market withdrawal. Patients were given 200-300 mg allopurinol (stage 1). When allopurinol failed to attain the target serum urate (sUr) levels probenecid 1,000 mg/day was added (stage 2). Treatment with benzbromarone monotherapy (range: 100-200 mg/day; mean 138 mg/day) resulted in 92% of patients reaching target levels sUr probenecid combination therapy, which resulted in 86% of patients attaining target sUr levels (after failure on allopurinol monotherapy), which was comparable to previous treatment with benzbromarone (p = 0.81). Decrease in sUr levels was 53[9]% (CI 95%: 48-58%), which was a non-significant difference compared to previous treatment with benzbromarone (p = 0.23). Benzbromarone is a very effective antihyperuricemic drug with 91% success in attainment of target sUr levels probenecid proves to be an effective treatment strategy for attaining sUr target levels (86% success).

  20. Homicide and domestic violence. Are there different psychological profiles mediated by previous exerted on the victim?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Yepes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 46 men was evaluated with the DAPP (Questionnaire of Domestic Aggressor Psychological Profile. All were inmates convicted for various degrees of violence against their wives in different prisons. The sample was divided into three groups: homicides without previous violence against their wives (H (n=11, homicides with previous violence (VH (n=9 and domestic batterers without previous homicide attempts against their partners (B (n=26. The aim of the study was to analyze the possible existence of three different kinds of profiles and more specifically if it’s possible to obtain an independent profile for domestic homicides with previous episodes of violence against their wives. The results neither confirm the hypothesis as whole nor for the violent homicides. However, differences between groups were obtained in the admission and description of the facts, in the risk of future violence, in some sociodemographical characteristics (i.e., level of education, social status, in the couple relationship, in the dissatisfaction concerning the unachieved ideal woman, in the use of extreme physical force during the aggression, the time of the first aggression, the use of verbal threats during the aggression, explanation of the events to the family and the period of time between the beginning of the romantic relationship and the manifestation of violence. The implications of the results for the theoretical frameworks proposed and future research are discussed.

  1. Long- term effects of previous experience determine nutrient discrimination abilities in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Kathrin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foraging behaviour is an essential ecological process linking different trophic levels. A central assumption of foraging theory is that food selection maximises the fitness of the consumer. It remains unknown, however, whether animals use innate or learned behaviour to discriminate food rewards. While many studies demonstrated that previous experience is a strong determinant of complex food choices such as diet mixing, the response to simple nutritional stimuli, such as sugar concentrations, is often believed to be innate. Results Here we show that previous experience determines the ability to track changes in sugar composition in same-aged individuals of a short-lived migratory songbird, the garden warbler (Sylvia borin. Although birds received identical foods for seven months prior to the experiment, wild-caught birds achieved higher sugar intake rates than hand-raised birds when confronted with alternative, differently coloured, novel food types. Hand-raised and wild birds did not differ in their initial colour selection or overall food intake, but wild birds were quicker to adjust food choice to varying sugar intake. Conclusion Over a period of at least seven months, broader previous experience translates into a higher plasticity of food choice leading to higher nutrient intake. Our results thus highlight the need to address previous long-term experience in foraging experiments. Furthermore, they show that hand-raised animals are often poor surrogates for testing the foraging behaviour of wild animals.

  2. Validation of the Online version of the Previous Day Food Questionnaire for schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel ENGEL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the validity of the web-based version of the Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online for schoolchildren from the 2nd to 5th grades of elementary school. Methods Participants were 312 schoolchildren aged 7 to 12 years of a public school from the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Validity was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, as well as by agreement rates (match, omission, and intrusion rates of food items reported by children on the Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online, using direct observation of foods/beverages eaten during school meals (mid-morning snack or afternoon snack on the previous day as the reference. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of participants’ characteristics on omission and intrusion rates. Results The results showed adequate sensitivity (67.7% and specificity (95.2%. There were low omission and intrusion rates of 22.8% and 29.5%, respectively when all food items were analyzed. Pizza/hamburger showed the highest omission rate, whereas milk and milk products showed the highest intrusion rate. The participants who attended school in the afternoon shift presented a higher probability of intrusion compared to their peers who attended school in the morning. Conclusion The Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online possessed satisfactory validity for the assessment of food intake at the group level in schoolchildren from the 2nd to 5th grades of public school.

  3. Analysis of previous perceptual and motor experience in breaststroke kick learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Bettina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the variables that influence motor learning is the learner’s previous experience, which may provide perceptual and motor elements to be transferred to a novel motor skill. For swimming skills, several motor experiences may prove effective. Purpose. The aim was to analyse the influence of previous experience in playing in water, swimming lessons, and music or dance lessons on learning the breaststroke kick. Methods. The study involved 39 Physical Education students possessing basic swimming skills, but not the breaststroke, who performed 400 acquisition trials followed by 50 retention and 50 transfer trials, during which stroke index as well as rhythmic and spatial configuration indices were mapped, and answered a yes/no questionnaire regarding previous experience. Data were analysed by ANOVA (p = 0.05 and the effect size (Cohen’s d ≥0.8 indicating large effect size. Results. The whole sample improved their stroke index and spatial configuration index, but not their rhythmic configuration index. Although differences between groups were not significant, two types of experience showed large practical effects on learning: childhood water playing experience only showed major practically relevant positive effects, and no experience in any of the three fields hampered the learning process. Conclusions. The results point towards diverse impact of previous experience regarding rhythmic activities, swimming lessons, and especially with playing in water during childhood, on learning the breaststroke kick.

  4. Stockholm: Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment accepted by acclamation - although with some reservations - a declaration on the Human Environment, and recommended for approval by the General Assembly of the United Nations an action plan and the establishment of a 54-member Governing Council for Environmental Programmes, which would report annually to the General Assembly through the Economic and Social Council. It further recommended that a small secretariat be established, to be headed by an Executive Director to be elected by the General Assembly on the nomination of the Secretary-General. (author)

  5. Bases for establishing radiation exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    It is an essential requirement of good radiation protection that all unnecessary exposure of people should be avoided and that any necessary exposure, whether of workers or of members of the general public, should be minimized. It is, however, an additional requirement that such necessary exposures should not exceed certain stated limits. These principles are based on the possibility that even the smallest exposures may involve some risk of harm, that any risk of harm should be justifiable by the circumstances necessitating it, and that risk should always be limited to an appropriately low level. The bases for establishing exposure limits must therefore involve an assessment of the risk involved in any form of radiation exposure, and an opinion as to the degree of safety that should be ensured in circumstances which necessitate any occupational or public exposure to radiation. There is increasing quantitative evidence on the frequency on which harm, and particularly the induction of malignancies, may be caused in people exposed to radiation at high doses; and somewhat clearer bases than previously for inferring the possible frequencies at low doses. It is therefore easier to assess the degree of safety ensured by restricting radiation exposure to particular levels. It is clear also that a comparable degree of safety should be ensured whether the radiation exposure involves the whole body more of less uniformly, or individual tissues or organs selectively. The ''weighting'' factors appropriate to irradiation of particular tissues from internal emitters can thus be defined in terms of their likely individual contributions to the harm of whole-body irradiation. In this way the limits for different modes of exposure by external or internal radiation can be related so as to ensure that protection should be equally effective for different distributions of absorbed dose in the body. In particular, the over-simplified concept of a single critical organ determining the

  6. Collision vulnerability of vultures at established windfarms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Vulture News 65. November 2013. Collision vulnerability of vultures at established windfarms. Warren Goodwin. 177 Fraser Road North, Canning vale, WA 6155, Australia. shikra_g@yahoo.com. Established wind farms are commonly situated on mountain ridges or hillsides, in order to make optimal use of prevailing winds,.

  7. Improving tree establishment with forage crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Holzmueller; Carl W. Mize

    2003-01-01

    Tree establishment in Iowa can be difficult without adequate weed control. Although herbicides are effective at controlling weeds, they may not be desirable in riparian settings and some landowners are opposed to using them. An alternative to herbicides is the use of forage crops to control weeds. A research project was established in 1998 to evaluate the influence of...

  8. VAT and Fixed Establishment : Mysteries Solved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Schippers (Martijn); Boender, J.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe Sixth Value Added Tax (VAT) Directive introduced the concept of the fixed establishment in VAT. For a long time, the criteria for classifying activities as a fixed establishment seemed relatively clear. However the introduction in 2011 of the VAT Implementing Regulation3

  9. 39 CFR 11.1 - Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment. 11.1 Section 11.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE ADVISORY BOARDS (ARTICLE XI) § 11.1 Establishment. The Board of Governors may create such advisory boards as it may deem...

  10. Biogeography of wood-boring crustaceans (Isopoda: Limnoriidae established in European coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa M S Borges

    Full Text Available Marine wood-borers of the Limnoriidae cause great destruction to wooden structures exposed in the marine environment. In this study we collated occurrence data obtained from field surveys, spanning over a period of 10 years, and from an extensive literature review. We aimed to determine which wood-boring limnoriid species are established in European coastal waters; to map their past and recent distribution in Europe in order to infer species range extension or contraction; to determine species environmental requirements using climatic envelopes. Of the six species of wood-boring Limnoria previously reported occurring in Europe, only Limnoria lignorum, L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are established in European coastal waters. L. carinata and L. tuberculata have uncertain established status, whereas L. borealis is not established in European waters. The species with the widest distribution in Europe is Limnoria lignorum, which is also the most tolerant species to a range of salinities. L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata appear to be stenohaline. However, the present study shows that both L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are more widespread in Europe than previous reports suggested. Both species have been found occurring in Europe since they were described, and their increased distribution is probably the results of a range expansion. On the other hand L. lignorum appears to be retreating poleward with ocean warming. In certain areas (e.g. southern England, and southern Portugal, limnoriids appear to be very abundant and their activity is rivalling that of teredinids. Therefore, it is important to monitor the distribution and destructive activity of these organisms in Europe.

  11. Development of a marketing strategy for the Coal Research Establishment`s emissions monitoring database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, A.D.; Hughes, I.S.C. [British Coal Corporation, Stoke Orchard (United Kingdom). Coal Research Establishment

    1995-06-01

    A summary is presented of the results of work conducted by the UK`s Coal Research Establishment (CRE) between April 1994 and December 1994 following the completion of a project on the utilisation and publication of an emissions monitoring database. The database contains emissions data for most UK combustion plant, gathered over the past 10 years. The aim of this further work was to identify the strengths and weaknesses of CRE`s database, to investigate potential additional sources of data, and to develop a strategy for marketing the information contained within the database to interested parties. 3 figs.

  12. Study of functional-performance deficits in athletes with previous ankle sprains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Babaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.

  13. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl

    2008-01-01

    and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC......INTRODUCTION: Treatment with a topoisomerase I inhibitor in combination with a platinum results in superior or equal survival compared with etoposide-based treatment in extensive disease small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Five-day topotecan is inconvenient and therefore shorter schedules of topotecan......, adequate organ functions and performance status less than 3 were eligible. Topotecan (2.0 mg/m, intravenously) was administered on days 1 to 3 with cisplatin (50 mg/m, intravenously) on day 3 every 3 weeks for a total of six cycles. RESULTS: Forty-three patients received 219 cycles of chemotherapy. Median...

  14. Low-dose computed tomography image restoration using previous normal-dose scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianhua; Huang, Jing; Feng, Qianjin; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong; Chen, Wufan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In current computed tomography (CT) examinations, the associated x-ray radiation dose is of a significant concern to patients and operators. A simple and cost-effective means to perform the examinations is to lower the milliampere-seconds (mAs) or kVp parameter (or delivering less x-ray energy to the body) as low as reasonably achievable in data acquisition. However, lowering the mAs parameter will unavoidably increase data noise and the noise would propagate into the CT image if no adequate noise control is applied during image reconstruction. Since a normal-dose high diagnostic CT image scanned previously may be available in some clinical applications, such as CT perfusion imaging and CT angiography (CTA), this paper presents an innovative way to utilize the normal-dose scan as a priori information to induce signal restoration of the current low-dose CT image series.Methods: Unlike conventional local operations on neighboring image voxels, nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm utilizes the redundancy of information across the whole image. This paper adapts the NLM to utilize the redundancy of information in the previous normal-dose scan and further exploits ways to optimize the nonlocal weights for low-dose image restoration in the NLM framework. The resulting algorithm is called the previous normal-dose scan induced nonlocal means (ndiNLM). Because of the optimized nature of nonlocal weights calculation, the ndiNLM algorithm does not depend heavily on image registration between the current low-dose and the previous normal-dose CT scans. Furthermore, the smoothing parameter involved in the ndiNLM algorithm can be adaptively estimated based on the image noise relationship between the current low-dose and the previous normal-dose scanning protocols.Results: Qualitative and quantitative evaluations were carried out on a physical phantom as well as clinical abdominal and brain perfusion CT scans in terms of accuracy and resolution properties. The gain by the use of

  15. Orchidopexy in late childhood often associated with previously normal testicular position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Evelyn; Zijp, Gerda; Froeling, Frank; de Wilde, Jeroen; van der Voort, Laszla; Hack, Wilfried

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine retrospectively, the prevalence of acquired undescended testis (UDT) in boys who underwent late orchidopexies, that is, performed after the age of 2 years. We included all patients who were 2 years or older when they underwent orchidopexy (ORP) for UDT at the Juliana Children's Hospital during 1996 to 2009. Previous testis position from birth until the date of ORP was obtained from youth health care records. We identified 660 boys who underwent ORP after the age of 2 years for undescended testis. For 421 of these 660 boys, the previous testicular position could be retrieved from the health records. In 143 of these 421 boys (34%), the operated testis had never been scrotal (congenital UDT), whereas in the other 278 boys (66%), a previous scrotal position had been documented twice or more (acquired UDT). Our results show that two-thirds of the boys that underwent ORP after the age of 2 had previously normal descended testes. This finding may offer an additional explanation for the discrepancy between the incidence of congenital UDT and the high rate of ORP in mid and late childhood. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Numerical simulation of the shot peening process under previous loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Ángeles, B; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Torres-San Miguel, C R; Molina-Ballinas, A; Benítez-García, H A; Vargas-Bustos, J A; Urriolagoitia-Calderón, G

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a numerical simulation of the shot peening process and determines the residual stress field induced into a component with a previous loading history. The importance of this analysis is based on the fact that mechanical elements under shot peening are also subjected to manufacturing processes, which convert raw material into finished product. However, material is not provided in a virgin state, it has a previous loading history caused by the manner it is fabricated. This condition could alter some beneficial aspects of the residual stress induced by shot peening and could accelerate the crack nucleation and propagation progression. Studies were performed in beams subjected to strain hardening in tension (5ε y ) before shot peening was applied. Latter results were then compared in a numerical assessment of an induced residual stress field by shot peening carried out in a component (beam) without any previous loading history. In this paper, it is clearly shown the detrimental or beneficial effect that previous loading history can bring to the mechanical component and how it can be controlled to improve the mechanical behavior of the material

  17. Association between obstetric complications & previous pregnancy outcomes with current pregnancy outcomes in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepti; Goli, Srinivas; Parsuraman, Sulabha

    2014-01-01

    A substantial proportion of pregnant women in India are at the risk of serious obstetric complications and reliable information on obstetric morbidity is scanty, particularly in socio-economically disadvantaged society. We studied the association between the obstetric complications in women in their current pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous pregnancies in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data from District Level Household Survey (2007-2008) were used for empirical assessment. Bivariate, trivariate and Cox proportional hazard regression model analyses were applied to examine the effect of obstetric complications and previous pregnancy outcome on current pregnancy outcome among currently married women (age group 15-49 yr) in Uttar Pradesh, India. The results of this study showed that the obstetric complications in the current pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous pregnancies were associated with the outcome of the current pregnancy. Cox proportional hazard regression model estimates revealed that the hazard ratio of having stillbirths were significantly higher among women with any obstetric complications compared to women with no obstetric complications. The adverse pregnancy outcome in a previous pregnancy was the largest risk factor for likelihood of developing similar type of adverse pregnancy outcome in the current pregnancy. The findings provided key insights for health policy interventions in terms of prevention of obstetric complications to avoid the adverse pregnancy outcome in women.

  18. Systemic therapy with oncolytic myxoma virus cures established residual multiple myeloma in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Bartee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is an incurable malignancy of plasma B-cells. Traditional chemotherapeutic regimes often induce initial tumor regression; however, virtually all patients eventually succumb to relapse caused by either reintroduction of disease during autologous transplant or expansion of chemotherapy resistant minimal residual disease. It has been previously demonstrated that an oncolytic virus known as myxoma can completely prevent myeloma relapse caused by reintroduction of malignant cells during autologous transplant. The ability of this virus to treat established residual disease in vivo, however, remained unknown. Here we demonstrate that intravenous administration of myxoma virus into mice bearing disseminated myeloma results in the elimination of 70–90% of malignant cells within 24 hours. This rapid debulking was dependent on direct contact of myxoma virus with residual myeloma and did not occur through destruction of the hematopoietic bone marrow niche. Importantly, systemic myxoma therapy also induced potent antimyeloma CD8+ T cell responses which localized to the bone marrow and were capable of completely eradicating established myeloma in some animals. These results demonstrate that oncolytic myxoma virus is not only effective at preventing relapse caused by reinfusion of tumor cells during stem cell transplant, but is also potentially curative for patients bearing established minimal residual disease.

  19. Preschool Needle Pain Responding: Establishing 'Normal'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Jordana A; DiLorenzo, Miranda G; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Flora, David B; Greenberg, Saul; Garfield, Hartley

    2017-06-01

    The current study sets forth to provide descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examine longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Growth mixture modeling was first used to describe stable subgroups of preschoolers on the basis of their pain response patterns over 2-minutes post-needle. Secondly, a parallel-process growth curve model was used to assess the stability of acute pain responding from 12 months of age to preschool age. Specifically, we examined whether preschool pain-related distress or regulation could be predicted from 12-month acute pain responding. Preschool participants were part of a Canadian longitudinal cohort (The Opportunities to Understand Childhood Hurt [OUCH] cohort; N = 302). Growth mixture modeling analyses discerned 3 distinct groups of preschoolers, with an important minority not regulating to low-no pain by 2 minutes post-needle. There were no significant associations between 12-month and preschool pain responding. These results highlight the steep trajectory of development between these different stages of early childhood and the variability of pain responding at the preschool vaccination. This study provides descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examines longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Demonstrating significantly different pain patterns from infancy, 25% of preschoolers are displaying suboptimal regulation trajectories. This considerable minority poses a significant concern because of the established trajectory of phobia onset in middle childhood. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Establishing reference intervals in the coagulation laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellone, D D

    2017-05-01

    Obtaining a reference interval (RI) is a challenge for any laboratory and becomes more complicated in the coagulation laboratory due to testing on samples with limited stability on reagents that are poorly standardized. Reference intervals are required to be able to evaluate results in relation to a patients' hemostatic disorder. This becomes one of the most important tasks conducted in the coagulation laboratory. However, many laboratories lack the time, finances and in many cases the expertise to conduct this study. Many RI are obtained from package inserts, or from publications written by experts in lieu of laboratories conducting their own studies. An overview of validating reference intervals and options for verifying or transference of reference intervals is discussed. Based on the confidence interval and the acceptability of risk laboratories are willing to accept, coagulation laboratories have options to conduct robust studies for their RI. Data mining or global reference studies may help to provide data for age specific ranges. Pre-analytical variables and selection of healthy subjects have the largest impact on coagulation testing outcomes and need to be well controlled during the establishment of reference intervals. Laboratories have options in lieu of conducting a full validation on how to verify RI based on smaller RI studies or transference of RI after determining compatibility of the original RI study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Occupational psychophysics to establish vision requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris A

    2008-10-01

    To develop and implement a comprehensive procedure for determining vision requirements for different vocational and occupational tasks. Evaluations performed for more than 10 state agencies and businesses were conducted over a period of approximately 9 years. The procedure included a literature review, an assessment of potential visual functions to address, a formal job analysis, interviews with incumbent workers, obtaining advice and recommendations from subject matter experts (experienced incumbents and administrators), development of job-related simulation studies, linkage of simulation results to the job analysis, a review of appeals and critical incidents, a thorough assessment of work environments and conditions, and final recommendations. Examples of occupational simulations for quantitative job-related task performance for best-corrected visual acuity, uncorrected visual acuity, color vision, peripheral vision, the use of one vs. two eyes, naïve vs. experienced incumbents, and impoverished visual conditions are presented. Changes in task performance and confidence ratings were obtained for various levels of degraded vision. This procedure, referred to as "occupational psychophysics," provides a quantitative systematic method of defining the vision requirements for various essential job functions. In conjunction with the frequency of performance, requirements at entry to the job, safety, reasonable accommodation, alteration of the work environment, and administrative issues, this approach provides a quantitative, rational basis for establishing job-related vision requirements.

  2. Establishment of a Learning Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K. W.; Kim, Y. T.; Lee, E. J.; Min, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    A web-based learning management system (LMS) has been established to address the need of customized education and training of Nuclear Training Center (NTC) of KAERI. The LMS is designed to deal with various learning types (e.g. on-line, off-line and blended) and a practically comprehensive learning activity cycle (e.g. course preparation, registration, learning, and postlearning) as well as to be user-friendly. A test with an example course scenario on the established system has shown its satisfactory performance. This paper discusses details of the established webbased learning management system in terms of development approach and functions of the LMS

  3. A reproducible brain tumour model established from human glioblastoma biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing clinically relevant animal models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains a challenge, and many commonly used cell line-based models do not recapitulate the invasive growth patterns of patient GBMs. Previously, we have reported the formation of highly invasive tumour xenografts in nude rats from human GBMs. However, implementing tumour models based on primary tissue requires that these models can be sufficiently standardised with consistently high take rates. Methods In this work, we collected data on growth kinetics from a material of 29 biopsies xenografted in nude rats, and characterised this model with an emphasis on neuropathological and radiological features. Results The tumour take rate for xenografted GBM biopsies were 96% and remained close to 100% at subsequent passages in vivo, whereas only one of four lower grade tumours engrafted. Average time from transplantation to the onset of symptoms was 125 days ± 11.5 SEM. Histologically, the primary xenografts recapitulated the invasive features of the parent tumours while endothelial cell proliferations and necrosis were mostly absent. After 4-5 in vivo passages, the tumours became more vascular with necrotic areas, but also appeared more circumscribed. MRI typically revealed changes related to tumour growth, several months prior to the onset of symptoms. Conclusions In vivo passaging of patient GBM biopsies produced tumours representative of the patient tumours, with high take rates and a reproducible disease course. The model provides combinations of angiogenic and invasive phenotypes and represents a good alternative to in vitro propagated cell lines for dissecting mechanisms of brain tumour progression.

  4. 21 CFR 1.337 - What information must nontransporters establish and maintain to identify the nontransporter and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must nontransporters establish and maintain to identify the nontransporter and transporter immediate previous sources of food? 1.337... Previous Sources of Food § 1.337 What information must nontransporters establish and maintain to identify...

  5. Establishment of mesenchymal cell line derived from human developing odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, H; Kudo, Y; Ogawa, I; Shimasue, H; Shigeishi, H; Ohta, K; Higashikawa, K; Takechi, M; Takata, T; Kamata, N

    2012-11-01

    An odontoma, which shows proliferating odontogenic epithelium and mesenchymal tissue, is one of the most common odontogenic tumors encountered. These are commonly found in tooth-bearing regions, although the etiology remains unknown. There are no previous reports of an established line of immortalized human odontoma cells. Using odontoma fragments obtained from a girl treated at our department, we established an immortalized human odontoma cell line and investigated cell morphology, dynamic proliferation, the presence of contamination, and karyotype. Moreover, cell characterization was examined using osteogenic and odontogenic markers. We successfully established a mesenchymal odontoma cell (mOd cells). The cells were found to be fibroblastic and had a high level of telomerase activity. Cell growth was confirmed after more than 200 population doublings without significant growth retardation. mOd cells expressed mRNA for differentiation markers, including collagen type I (COLI), alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteocalcin, cementum-derived protein (CP-23), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and distal-less homeobox 3 (DLX3), as well as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In addition, they showed a high level of calcified nodule formation activity in vitro. We successfully established a cell line that may be useful for investigating the mechanisms of normal odontogenesis as well as characteristics of odontoma tumors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Principles for Establishing Ecologically Successful Riparian Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principles for establishing riparian areas. Riparian areas are three‐dimensional ecotones of interaction that include terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, that extend down into the groundwater, up above the canopy, outward across the floodplain.

  7. Establishments of scientific radiation protection management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1988-01-01

    Some aspects for establishing the radiation protection management program have been discussed. Radiation protection management program includes: definite aims of management, complete data register, strict supervision system, and scientific management methodology

  8. Personnel fluctuations in large research establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, S.; Schwarz, W.

    1975-12-01

    The present personnel situation in large West Germany research establishments, reasons for and direction of mobility, a so-called status-quo-projection, and the influenceability of the situation are discussed. (HK/AK) [de

  9. Learning and Action Alliances: defining and establishing

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Emily; Lamond, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    A factsheet describing how you define and establish a Learning and Action Alliance (LAA) using a demonstration example in Newcastle, UK, as part of the research being conducted by the Blue-Green Cities Research Project

  10. Use of Intracervical Foley Catheter for Induction of Labour in Cases of Previous Caesarean Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Hazel; Al-Riyami, Nihal; Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Gowri, Vaidayanathan; Al-Azri, Mohammed; Salahuddin, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate rates of success and perinatal complications of labour induction using an intracervical Foley catheter among women with a previous Caesarean delivery at a tertiary centre in Oman. Methods This retrospective cohort study included 68 pregnant women with a history of a previous Caesarean section who were admitted for induction via Foley catheter between January 2011 and December 2013 to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Patient data were collected from electronic and delivery ward records. Results Most women were 25–35 years old (76.5%) and 20 women had had one previous vaginal delivery (29.4%). The most common indication for induction of labour was intrauterine growth restriction with oligohydramnios (27.9%). Most women delivered after 40 gestational weeks (48.5%) and there were no neonatal admissions or complications. The majority experienced no complications during the induction period (85.3%), although a few had vaginal bleeding (5.9%), intrapartum fever (4.4%), rupture of the membranes (2.9%) and cord prolapse shortly after insertion of the Foley catheter (1.5%). However, no cases of uterine rupture or scar dehiscence were noted. Overall, the success rate of vaginal birth after a previous Caesarean delivery was 69.1%, with the remaining patients undergoing an emergency Caesarean section (30.9%). Conclusion The use of a Foley catheter in the induction of labour in women with a previous Caesarean delivery appears a safe option with a good success rate and few maternal and fetal complications. PMID:28003890

  11. Urinary tract infections in hospital pediatrics: many previous antibiotherapy and antibiotics resistance, including fluoroquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffo, A; Marguet, C; Checoury, A; Boyer, S; Gardrat, A; Houivet, E; Caron, F

    2014-02-01

    We studied antibiotic resistance in pediatric UTIs and we evaluated the impact of antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months, very little French data being available for this population. We conducted a multicenter prospective study including children consulting for, or admitted in 2 hospitals. Prior antibiotic exposure was documented from their health record. One hundred and ten patients (73 girls), 11 days to 12 years of age, were included in 10 months. Ninety-six percent presented with pyelonephritis, associated to uropathy for 25%. Escherichia coli was predominant (78%), followed by Proteus spp. and Enterococcus spp. The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli was high and close to that reported for adults with complicated UTIs: amoxicillin 60%, amoxicillin-clavulanate 35%, cefotaxim 5%, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole 26%, nalidixic acid 9%, ciprofloxacin 7%, gentamycin 1%, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin 0%. The antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months involved 62 children (56%) most frequently with β-lactams (89%) for a respiratory tract infection (56%). A clear relationship between exposure and resistance was observed for amoxicillin (71% vs. 46%), first generation (65% vs. 46%) and third generation (9% vs. 3%) cephalosporins, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36% vs. 15%). However, antibiotic exposure could not account alone for the results, as suggested by the 7% of ciprofloxacin resistance, observed without any identified previous treatment. Bacterial species and antibiotic resistance level in children are similar to those reported for adults. Antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months increases the risk of resistance but other factors are involved (previous antibiotic therapies and fecal-oral or mother-to-child transmission). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The Risk of Uterine Rupture in Labour Induction of Women With Previous Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurdoglu Zehra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the increased number of labour inductions in women with previous cesarean section, the risk of uterine rupture leading to maternal and fetal mortality is also increasing. In this manuscript, we aimed to review the risk of uterine rupture in labour induction of women with prior cesarean section. Materials and Methods: Data from 48 reports belonging to the years 1994 through 2015, obtained via a search on various internet sources by the words "labour induction", "previous cesarean", "uterine scar", "uterine rupture" were used to characterize the risk factors, methods and complications of labour induction in women with previous cesarean section. Results: The success of labour induction after a previous cesarean section is related to a history of prior vaginal delivery, the indication of prior cesarean delivery, age, body mass index and ethnicity. The risk of uterine rupture is lower with mechanical dilatators compared to prostaglandins when they are used for cervical ripening. Oxytocin is associated with an increased risk of uterine rupture in such women but induction and augmentation of labor is an option for all women undergoing a trial of labor after cesarean section. Although some guidelines discourage the use of prostaglandin E1, some others support the use of prostaglandin E1 or E2 for induction of labor in rare situations provided that the women be informed of the higher risk of uterine rupture. Conclusions: Previous uterine surgery is the most common underlying reason for an increased risk of uterine rupture in subsequent trial of labour. When indicated, before considering a labour induction in these patients, a risk assessment should be performed based on various parameters. For prediction of uterine rupture, lower uterine segment may be measured by ultrasonography. Individually selected methods for labour induction should be discussed with the patients since they are mostly associated with increased risk of uterine

  13. Genetic modifications of established varieties of potato through mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Owing to the high intercrossability of improved clones with primitive cultivars and many wild species there is little justification for use of induced mutations in potato to increase variability per se. Modification of certain traits while leaving the genotype basically intact is a promising use of mutagenesis in potato. The successful curing of defects in clones will depend on the establishment a priori of three principles. First, the clones undergoing mutagenesis should be well established varieties tolerant or resistant to the major biotic and abiotic stresses in the area of cultivation. The yield and culinary quality should also be considered high. Second, there should exist some indication that the variation desired is induceable, either through reports of natural intra-clone variation or previous mutagenesis studies. Third, initial screening should be done in virus-free materials

  14. Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Noor Azuin; Mat Taib, Che Norma; Mohd Moklas, Mohamad Aris; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik; Basir, Rusliza

    2016-01-01

    Nootropics or smart drugs are well-known compounds or supplements that enhance the cognitive performance. They work by increasing the mental function such as memory, creativity, motivation, and attention. Recent researches were focused on establishing a new potential nootropic derived from synthetic and natural products. The influence of nootropic in the brain has been studied widely. The nootropic affects the brain performances through number of mechanisms or pathways, for example, dopaminergic pathway. Previous researches have reported the influence of nootropics on treating memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Those disorders are observed to impair the same pathways of the nootropics. Thus, recent established nootropics are designed sensitively and effectively towards the pathways. Natural nootropics such as Ginkgo biloba have been widely studied to support the beneficial effects of the compounds. Present review is concentrated on the main pathways, namely, dopaminergic and cholinergic system, and the involvement of amyloid precursor protein and secondary messenger in improving the cognitive performance.

  15. Data from studies of previous radioactive waste disposal in Massachusetts Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, W.R.; Mardis, H.M.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies conducted in Massachusetts Bay during 1981 and 1982. Included are data from: (1) a side scan sonar survey of disposal areas in the Bay that was carried out by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for EPA; (2) Collections of sediment and biota by NOAA for radiochemical analysis by EPA; (3) collections of marketplace seafood samples by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for radioanalysis by both FDA and EPA; and (4) a radiological monitoring survey of LLW disposal areas by EPA to determine whether there should be any concern for public health resulting from previous LLW disposals in the Bay

  16. Establishing community trust at radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, E.

    1999-01-01

    Establishing community trust is an essential element in the successful remediation of a radioactively contaminated site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 2 has been involved in the clean up of numerous radioactively contaminated Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), and Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites in New Jersey and New York. Each site presented a unique challenge which centered around establishing and, often, re-establishing the trust of the surrounding community. Thanks to the United States government's history regarding the use of radioactive materials, people question whether governmental regulators could possibly have the public's best interests in mind when it comes to addressing radioactively contaminated sites. It has been our experience that EPA can use its position as guardian of the environment to help establish public confidence in remedial actions. The EPA can even use its position to lend credibility to remedial activities in situations where it is not directly responsible for the clean-up. Some ways that we have found to instill community confidence are: establishing radioanalytical cross-check programs using EPA's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory to provide analytical quality assurance; and establishing an environmental radiation monitoring program for the contaminated site and surrounding community. (author)

  17. Improvements to previous algorithms to predict gene structure and isoform concentrations using Affymetrix Exon arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramburu Ander

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exon arrays provide a way to measure the expression of different isoforms of genes in an organism. Most of the procedures to deal with these arrays are focused on gene expression or on exon expression. Although the only biological analytes that can be properly assigned a concentration are transcripts, there are very few algorithms that focus on them. The reason is that previously developed summarization methods do not work well if applied to transcripts. In addition, gene structure prediction, i.e., the correspondence between probes and novel isoforms, is a field which is still unexplored. Results We have modified and adapted a previous algorithm to take advantage of the special characteristics of the Affymetrix exon arrays. The structure and concentration of transcripts -some of them possibly unknown- in microarray experiments were predicted using this algorithm. Simulations showed that the suggested modifications improved both specificity (SP and sensitivity (ST of the predictions. The algorithm was also applied to different real datasets showing its effectiveness and the concordance with PCR validated results. Conclusions The proposed algorithm shows a substantial improvement in the performance over the previous version. This improvement is mainly due to the exploitation of the redundancy of the Affymetrix exon arrays. An R-Package of SPACE with the updated algorithms have been developed and is freely available.

  18. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain: Findings From 19 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    2018-01-01

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders

  19. The Relationship Between Functional Movement, Balance Deficits, and Previous Injury History in Deploying Marine Warfighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Motte, Sarah J; Lisman, Peter; Sabatino, Marc; Beutler, Anthony I; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-06-01

    Screening for primary musculoskeletal injury (MSK-I) is costly and time-consuming. Both the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Y-Balance Test (YBT) have been shown to predict future MSK-I. With a goal of optimizing the efficiency of primary MSK-I screening, we studied associations between performance on the FMS and YBT and whether history of MSK-I influenced FMS and YBT scores. In total, 365 deploying Marines performed the FMS and YBT as prescribed. Composite and individual scores were each categorized as high risk or low risk using published injury thresholds: High-risk FMS included composite scores ≤14 and right-to-left (R/L) asymmetry for Shoulder Mobility, In-Line Lunge, Straight Leg Raise, Hurdle Step, or Rotary Stability. High-risk YBT consisted of anterior, posteromedial, and/or posterolateral R/L differences >4 cm and/or composite differences ≥12 cm. Pearson's χ tests evaluated associations between: (a) all FMS and YBT risk groups and (b) previous MSK-I and all FMS and YBT risk groups. Marines with high-risk FMS were twice as likely to have high-risk YBT posteromedial scores (χ = 10.2, p = 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-3.2). History of any MSK-I was not associated with high-risk FMS or high-risk YBT. However, previous lower extremity MSK-I was associated with In-Line Lunge asymmetries (χ = 9.8, p = 0.002, OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6). Overall, we found limited overlap in FMS and YBT risk. Because both methods seem to assess different risk factors for injury, we recommend FMS and YBT continue to be used together in combination with a thorough injury history until their predictive capacities are further established.

  20. Global Distribution of Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides in 2010 Relative to Previous Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Adler, David; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Huffman, George

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides worldwide. While research has evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local or regional scales using in situ data, few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This study uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from TRMM data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurrence of precipitation and landslides globally. Evaluation of the GLC indicates that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This study characterizes the variability of satellite precipitation data and reported landslide activity at the globally scale in order to improve landslide cataloging, forecasting and quantify potential triggering sources at daily, monthly and yearly time scales.

  1. Stress and blood donation: effects of music and previous donation experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, E; Singh, A P; Cunningham-Snell, N

    1997-05-01

    Making a blood donation, especially for first-time donors, can be a stressful experience. These feelings of stress may inhibit donors from returning. This paper applies stress theory to this particular problem. The effects of a stress management intervention (the provision of music) and previous donor experience were examined in relation to pre- and post-donation mood, environmental appraisals and coping behaviour. Results indicated that the provision of music had detrimental effects on environmental appraisals for those who have donated up to two times previously, but beneficial effects for those who had donated three times before. These effects were, to an extent, moderated by coping processes but not perceived control. It is recommended that the provision of music is not used as a stress management technique in the context of blood donation.

  2. Visual and anatomical outcomes of macular epiretinal membrane peeling after previous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Christina Y; Gregori, Ninel Z; Moysidis, Stavros N; Shi, Wei; Smiddy, William E; Flynn, Harry W

    2015-01-01

    To report outcomes and prognostic factors after epiretinal membrane peeling in patients with previous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair. A consecutive case series. Best-corrected visual acuity and optical coherence tomography characteristics were analyzed before and after epiretinal membrane surgery. Fifty-three eyes were analyzed. Best-corrected visual acuity improved by a mean of 10 letters at 1 month (N = 45; P = 0.001), 15 at 3 months (N = 42; P detachment repair resulted in significant improvements in visual acuity and optical coherence tomography thickness, even in eyes with previous macula-involving rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Better preoperative visual acuity and intact outer retinal layers by optical coherence tomography were the main prognostic factors for visual outcomes.

  3. Previous encapsulation response enhances within individual protection against fungal parasite in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Daukste, Janina; Kivleniece, Inese; Krama, Tatjana; Rantala, Markus J

    2013-12-01

    Immune defenses of insects show either broad reactions or specificity and durability of induced protection against attacking parasites and pathogens. In this study, we tested whether encapsulation response against nylon monofilament increases between two attempts of activation of immune system in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor, and whether previous exposure to nylon monofilament may also increase protection against an entomopathogenic fungus. We found that survival of beetles subjected to immune activation by nylon implant and subsequent fungal exposure a week later was significantly higher than survival of beetles which had been subjected to fungal infection only. This result suggests that previous immune activation by the nylon implant may be considered as broad spectrum "immune priming" which helps to fight not only the same intruder but also other parasites. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Medication abortion failure in women with and without previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlendorf, Christine E; Fox, Edith E; Ali, Rose F; Anderson, Nora C; Reed, Reiley D; Lichtenberg, E Steve

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the association between previous cesarean delivery and medication abortion failure and the association between parity and failure. Data were abstracted from 2035 consecutive charts of women who underwent medication abortion in 2011. All women were at 63 days gestation or less and received mifepristone 200mg orally and misoprostol 800 mcg buccally. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the relationship between failure, defined as requiring either curettage or additional medication, and prior cesarean delivery. We also examined the relationship between failure and parity. Follow-up was available on 1609 (79%) patients. Overall, 4.5% of patients experienced failure. Neither cesarean delivery nor parity was associated with failure; 6.5% of women with prior cesarean delivery experienced failure, compared to 3.7% of nulliparous women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-3.87]. With regard to parity, 4.7% of women with two or more previous births experienced failure, compared to 3.7% of nulliparous women (aOR, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.54-2.14). We did not find significant associations between prior cesarean delivery and failure or parity and failure. A previous study of patients who had received a less effective regimen reported significant associations between cesarean delivery and failure and parity and failure. While our results do not rule out the possibility of modest associations due to our limited statistical power, they are reassuring relative to previous findings. Our results suggest that if there are differences in women's odds of medication abortion failure by obstetric history, such differences are unlikely to be large. Providers and patients may factor this information into decision making about methods of pregnancy termination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 207.40 - Establishment registration and drug listing requirements for foreign establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the English language. (c) Each foreign drug establishment required to register under paragraph (a... requirements for foreign establishments. 207.40 Section 207.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL DISTRIBUTION Procedure for Foreign Drug Establishments § 207.40...

  6. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohm, H.; Angioni, C.; Arslanbekov, R.

    2003-01-01

    Recent results from ASDEX Upgrade are presented. An improved understanding of energy and particle transport emerges in terms of a 'critical gradient' model for the temperature gradients. Coupling this to particle diffusion explains most of the observed behaviour of the density profiles, in particular the finding that strong central heating reduces the tendency for density profile peaking. Internal transport barriers with T e and T i in excess of 20 keV (but not simultaneously) have been achieved. By shaping the plasma, a regime with small type II ELMs has been established. Here, the maximum power deposited on the target plates was greatly reduced at constant average power. Also, an increase of the ELM frequency by injection of shallow pellets was demonstrated. ELM free operation is possible in the QH-mode regime previously found in DIII-D which has also been established on ASDEX Upgrade. Regarding stability, a regime with benign NTMs was found. During ECCD stabilisation of NTMs, β N could be increased well above the usual onset level without a reappearance of the NTM. ECRH and ECCD have also been used to control the sawtooth repetition frequency at a moderate fraction of the total heating power. The inner wall of the ASDEX Upgrade vessel has increasingly been covered with tungsten without detrimental effects on plasma performance. Regarding scenario integration, a scenario with a large fraction of non inductively driven current (≥ 50%), but without internal transport barrier has been established. It combines improved confinement (τ E =τ ITER98 ∼ 1:2) and stability (β N ≤ 3:5) at high Greenwald fraction (n e =n GW ∼ 0:85) in steady state and with type II ELMy edge. (author)

  7. 75 FR 20933 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US Helicopters, Inc., UNC Helicopter, Inc... Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US...

  8. Establishing the irradiation dose for paper decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moise, Ioan Valentin; Virgolici, Marian; Negut, Constantin Daniel; Manea, Mihaela; Alexandru, Mioara; Trandafir, Laura; Zorila, Florina Lucica; Talasman, Catalina Mihaela; Manea, Daniela; Nisipeanu, Steluta; Haiducu, Maria; Balan, Zamfir

    2012-01-01

    Museums, libraries and archives are preserving documents that are slowly degrading due to the inherent ageing of the cellulose substrate or to the technological errors of the past (acid paper, iron gall ink). Beside this, large quantities of paper are rapidly damaged by biological attacks following natural disasters and improper storage conditions. The treatment of paper documents with ionizing radiation can be used for mass decontamination of cultural heritage items but conservators and restaurators are still reserved because of the radiation induced degradation. We conducted a study for establishing the dose needed for the effective treatment of paper documents, taking into account the biological burden and the irradiation effects on paper structure. We used physical testing specific to paper industry and less destructive analytical methods (thermal analysis). Our results show that an effective treatment can be performed with doses lower than 10 kGy. Old paper appears to be less affected by gamma radiation than recent paper but the sampling is highly affected by the non-uniform degree of the initial degradation status. The extent of testing for degradation and the magnitude of acceptable degradation should take into account the biological threat and the expected life time of the paper documents. - RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: ► For doses <15 kGy, the measurement uncertainty of mechanical properties is higher than the radiation induced degradation. ► The statistics of measuring induced degradation may be improved by testing both mechanical properties and thermal decomposition of paper. ►Because of the large variability of paper samples, testing to only one irradiation dose has no or reduced relevance. ►It was choused for the irradiation of paper items from archives and collections a dose range of 5–7 kGy.

  9. Validation of SWAT+ at field level and comparison with previous SWAT models in simulating hydrologic quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAO, J.; White, M. J.; Bieger, K.; Yen, H.; Arnold, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been adopted by many researches to assess water quantity and quality in watersheds around the world. As the demand increases in facilitating model support, maintenance, and future development, the SWAT source code and data have undergone major modifications over the past few years. To make the model more flexible in terms of interactions of spatial units and processes occurring in watersheds, a completely revised version of SWAT (SWAT+) was developed to improve SWAT's ability in water resource modelling and management. There are only several applications of SWAT+ in large watersheds, however, no study pays attention to validate the new model at field level and assess its performance. To test the basic hydrologic function of SWAT+, it was implemented in five field cases across five states in the U.S. and compared the SWAT+ created results with that from the previous models at the same fields. Additionally, an automatic calibration tool was used to test which model is easier to be calibrated well in a limited number of parameter adjustments. The goal of the study was to evaluate the performance of SWAT+ in simulating stream flow on field level at different geographical locations. The results demonstrate that SWAT+ demonstrated similar performance with previous SWAT model, but the flexibility offered by SWAT+ via the connection of different spatial objects can result in a more accurate simulation of hydrological processes in spatial, especially for watershed with artificial facilities. Autocalibration shows that SWAT+ is much easier to obtain a satisfied result compared with the previous SWAT. Although many capabilities have already been enhanced in SWAT+, there exist inaccuracies in simulation. This insufficiency will be improved with advancements in scientific knowledge on hydrologic process in specific watersheds. Currently, SWAT+ is prerelease, and any errors are being addressed.

  10. [Consensus on the establishment of urban trauma rescue system in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid economic development in China, the incidence of all sorts of accidental injury, such as traffic injuries and fall-induced injuries, increased significantly. Trauma, particularly severe trauma, often involves multiple organs and multiple system damage, and needs a scientific, standardized comprehensive multidisciplinary approach for treatment. Due to meticulous sub-division of clinical department sand lack of professional trauma treatment team in general hospitals in China's major cities, the overall level of trauma rescue in China is much lower than the developed countries. So the urgent need is to establish and form an efficient and standardized urban trauma treatment system. In order to further guarantee the establishment of urban trauma rescue system, and to further improve the success rate of trauma rescue in China, nationally well-known trauma experts of China developed the "Expert consensus document on the establishment of urban trauma rescue system in China" based on its previous research results, foreign countries' successful experience and China's national conditions. This document would be an important reference for our local governments at all levels to create urban trauma rescue system.

  11. Perception and Interpretation of Sustainability Among the Largest Corporations Established in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Petera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses perception and interpretation of sustainability among the largest corporations established in the Czech Republic. Despite the fact that the amount of literature on sustainability is substantial, there is lack of empirical investigation into understanding sustainability among corporations established in the Czech Republic. We used qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews to investigate how the largest corporations established in the Czech Republic understand and deal with sustainability-related issues. Key sustainability-related themes are identified and discussed in the paper. On the basis of comparison of our results with the prior literature it is possible to sum up that our findings are mostly in accordance with previous research. Majority of our respondents perceive sustainability as containing economic, environmental and social dimension and their sustainability-related initiatives are both internally and externally oriented. Reporting on sustainability is relatively new topic for respondents, but its importance is growing. The key future challenges include better integration of sustainability-related initiatives into the core business activities, implementation of sustainability accounting and standardization of sustainability reporting (probably on the basis of the Global Reporting Initiative guidelines.

  12. Comparative thermal cyclic test of different beryllium grades previously subjected to simulated disruption loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervash, A.; Giniyatulin, R.; Mazul, I.

    1999-01-01

    Considering beryllium as plasma facing armour this paper presents recent results obtained in Russia. A special process of joining beryllium to a Cu-alloy material structure is described and recent results of thermal cycling tests of such joints are presented. Summarizing the results, the authors show that a Cu-alloy heat sink structure armoured with beryllium can survive high heat fluxes (≥10 MW/m 2 ) during 1000 heating/cooling cycles without serious damage to the armour material and its joint. The principal feasibility of thermal cycling of beryllium grades and their joints directly in the core of a nuclear reactor is demonstrated and the main results of this test are presented. The paper also describes the thermal cycling of different beryllium grades having cracks initiated by previously applied high heat loads simulating plasma disruptions. (orig.)

  13. Impacts of Current and Previous Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes for Biofuel Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W.; Adler, P.; Ogle, S.; West, T.

    2008-12-01

    Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land use change. However, improved land management can increase soil carbon levels and decrease N2O emissions, thus complementing the CO2 sink from displaced fossil fuel combustion. Previously cropped land, grazed land, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land is being converted to biofuel cropping. We report results for the central US because most of the land used for biofuel cropping is in the central region of the country (corn/soy belt). The primary tool for this analysis is the DAYCENT ecosystem model. The ability of the model to simulate soil GHG fluxes and crop yields is demonstrated and results from simulations of different land management scenarios are presented. Our analyses suggest that conversion of CRP or grazed land to corn ethanol cropping under conventional management leads to a net source of GHG, but that converting these lands to perennial cellulosic biofuel cropping results in a GHG sink. Previously cropped land converted to corn ethanol under conventional management is a small GHG sink, but improved management and conversion to cellulosic based crops can greatly increase this sink strength.

  14. [The role of heterochrony in the establishment of archetype in higher Echinoderm taxa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnov, S V

    2009-01-01

    The analysis based on paleontological data shows that the body plans of higher echinoderm taxa were established through the combination of previously developed characters. These combinations appeared due to various heterochronies and resulted in more or less complete filling of the morphological space of logical capabilities. The maximum rank of new taxa decreased with time. New body plans of higher taxa did not replace the old plans but rather overlay them, extending the hierarchy of body plans and the respective hierarchy of taxa. The macroevolution of echinoderms and other metazoans progressed from the formation of an archetype (a general body plan) to individual details, the development of structural plans of lower levels. Heterochrony resulted in mosaic evolution and obscurity of intermediate forms.

  15. Green Marine: An environmental program to establish sustainability in marine transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R

    2016-04-15

    European maritime companies have adopted programs to limit operational impacts on the environment. For maritime companies in North America, the Green Marine Environmental Program (GMEP) offers a framework to establish and reduce environmental footprints. Green Marine (GM) participants demonstrate annual improvements of specific environmental performance indicators (e.g., reductions in air pollution emissions) to maintain certification. Participants complete annual self-evaluations with results determining rankings for performance indicators on a 1-to-5 scale. Self-evaluations are independently verified every two years to ensure rigor and individual results are made publicly available annually to achieve transparency. GM benefits the marine industry across North America by encouraging sustainable development initiatives. GM's credibility is reflected through a diverse network of environmental groups and government agencies that endorse and help shape the program. Merits of this relatively new maritime certification (not previously described in the academic literature), are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Misoprostol use for second-trimester termination of pregnancy among women with one or more previous cesarean deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar Torriente, Martin; Steinberg, Wilhelm J; Joubert, Gina

    2017-07-01

    To establish the safety and efficacy of misoprostol for second-trimester termination of pregnancy among women with one or more previous cesarean deliveries. In a retrospective study, data were reviewed from women attending a reproductive health clinic in Bloemfontein, South Africa, for second-trimester termination between 2010 and 2013. The study group, comprising women with one or more previous cesareans, was compared with a control group, comprising women with no previous cesarean or uterine scarring. Procedure-specific information was compared, including misoprostol use, termination duration, need for other methods (e.g. oxytocin), placenta delivery, termination outcome, and bleeding. The study group comprised 268 women: 231 (86.2%) with one and 37 (13.8%) with two previous cesareans. The control group comprised 266 women. Incomplete abortion was recorded in 223 (85.4%) of 261 women in the study group and 213 (80.4%) of 265 in the control group. The number of women with retained placenta was higher in the study than in the control group (158/261 [60.5%] vs 146/265 [55.1%]; PMisoprostol was safe for second-trimester termination among women with previous cesareans; however, the efficacy of the local regimen was reduced owing to high placental retention. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  17. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. Methods: The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years, and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire of parents (during childhood and adolescence and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents. Results: The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p < 0.001. The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR = 6.67 [CI = 1.94-22.79] more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. Conclusions: The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors.

  18. Participation in physical activity: perceptions of women with a previous history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graco, Marnie; Garrard, Jan; Jasper, Andrea E

    2009-04-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Regular physical activity plays an important role in preventing T2DM. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of physical activity among women with previous GDM, in the context of preventing T2DM. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women with previous GDM who had not been diagnosed with T2DM. Data were analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Women perceived diet to be significantly more important for the prevention of T2DM than physical activity. They underestimated the role of physical activity in preventing diabetes, which may have resulted from the lack of information they received following their pregnancy. Women consistently placed the needs of their families before their own, despite acknowledging their future health risks. The most commonly cited constraints on physical activity participation were lack of time, partner support, and appropriate childcare. They identified a need for 'family-friendly' community-based physical activity programs for mothers, more accessible childcare, and more information about the role of physical activity in diabetes prevention. Awareness of the role of physical activity for the prevention of diabetes was low. Physical activity promotion for women with previous GDM needs to be shaped around the opportunities and constraints identified by this population group.

  19. Vaginal misoprostol for second-trimester pregnancy termination after one previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Ahmad H; Morsi, Hassan M; Borg, Tamer F; Fayed, Salah T; Hemeda, Hosam M

    2010-01-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of using misoprostol vaginally for second-trimester abortion in women with a single previous cesarean delivery. This prospective observational study was carried out at a university hospital in Egypt with 50 pregnant women with 1 previous cesarean delivery; a gestation of at least 16 weeks but less than 20 weeks (group 1) or 20 or more weeks (group 2); and a need to terminate the pregnancy. The regimen was 4 doses of 200 microg of misoprostol applied vaginally every 4 hours daily, with a 12-hour nightly rest from misoprostol applications, until contractions appeared but not for more than 72 hours. The primary outcome was the induction-to-abortion interval. There were no cases of uterine rupture. Abortion within the study protocol occurred in 45 of the 50 women, for a 90% success rate. There was no significant difference in the induction-to-abortion interval between the 2 groups. Inducing abortion with lower misoprostol doses appear to be safe and effective throughout the second trimester in women with a single previous cesarean delivery. Larger randomized trials are needed to validate these results.

  20. Differences between previously married and never married 'gay' men: family background, childhood experiences and current attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Daryl J

    2004-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature on the development of sexual orientation, little is known about why some gay men have been (or remain) married to a woman. In the current study, a self-selected sample of 43 never married gay men ('never married') and 26 gay men who were married to a woman ('previously married') completed a self-report questionnaire. Hypotheses were based on five possible explanations for gay men's marriages: (a) differences in sexual orientation (i.e., bisexuality); (b) internalized homophobia; (c) religious intolerance; (d) confusion created because of childhood/adolescent sexual experiences; and/or (e) poor psychological adjustment. Previously married described their families' religious beliefs as more fundamentalist than never married. No differences were found between married' and never married' ratings of their sexual orientation and identity, and levels of homophobia and self-depreciation. Family adaptability and family cohesion and the degree to which respondents reported having experienced child maltreatment did not distinguish between previously married and never married. The results highlight how little is understood of the reasons why gay men marry, and the need to develop an adequate theoretical model.

  1. Establishing a Comprehensive Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleeter, Sanford [Purdue University

    2012-09-30

    This project was directed at establishing a comprehensive wind energy program in Indiana, including both educational and research components. A graduate/undergraduate course ME-514 - Fundamentals of Wind Energy has been established and offered and an interactive prediction of VAWT performance developed. Vertical axis wind turbines for education and research have been acquired, instrumented and installed on the roof top of a building on the Calumet campus and at West Lafayette (Kepner Lab). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have been performed to simulate these urban wind environments. Also, modal dynamic testing of the West Lafayette VAWT has been performed and a novel horizontal axis design initiated. The 50-meter meteorological tower data obtained at the Purdue Beck Agricultural Research Center have been analyzed and the Purdue Reconfigurable Micro Wind Farm established and simulations directed at the investigation of wind farm configurations initiated. The virtual wind turbine and wind turbine farm simulation in the Visualization Lab has been initiated.

  2. Establishing diagnostic reference levels in digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bana, Remy Wilson

    2016-04-01

    Medical application of radiation has gained wider study since diagnostic radiology plays a very important role in modern medicine. The need of the service seems to increase since the invention of digital radiology as a new technology that promises greater accuracy while minimizing patient dose. However, it is not exempted in the harmonization of doses delivered to the patient undergoing same radiologic examination in different institutions either regional or nationwide. The objective of this project was to review the establishment of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) in digital radiology at National level with the aim to reduce patient dose while maintaining appropriate image quality. A general discussion on digital radiology has been presented focusing on the optimization of patient dose as well as dosimetric quantities used for the establishment of DRLs. Recommendations have been provided for Rwanda to initiate steps to establish National Diagnostic Reference Levels for common procedures in digital radiology. (au)

  3. Memory of opponents is more potent than visual sign stimuli after social hierarchy has been established.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzan, Wayne J; Höglund, Erik; Watt, Michael J; Forster, Gina L; Øverli, Øyvind; Lukkes, Jodi L; Summers, Cliff H

    2007-10-01

    During agonistic interactions between male Anolis carolinensis, perception of a visual sign stimulus (darkened eyespots) not only inhibits aggression and promotes initial attainment of dominant social status, but also evokes distinct neuroendocrine responses in each opponent. This study was designed to examine the effect of eyespot manipulation on behavior and social rank during a second interaction between opponents that had previously established a natural dyadic social hierarchy. Prior to a second interaction, eyespots of familiar size-matched combatants were manipulated to reverse information conveyed by this visual signal. Eyespots on the previously dominant male were masked with green paint to indicate low aggression and social status. Previously subordinate males had their eyespots permanently marked with black paint to convey high aggression and status. Opponents were then re-paired for a second 10 min interaction following either 1 or 3 days of separation. Aggression was generally decreased and social status between pairs remained reasonably consistent. Unlike rapidly activated monoaminergic activity that occurs following the initial pairing, most brain areas sampled were not affected when animals were re-introduced, regardless of visual signal reversal or length of separation between interactions. However in males with "normal" eyespot color, dominant males had reduced serotonergic activity in CA(3) and raphé, while subordinate males exhibited elevated CA(3) dopaminergic activity. Reversing eyespot color also reversed serotonergic activity in raphé and dopaminergic activity in CA(3) after 3 days of separation. The results suggest that males remember previous opponents, and respond appropriately to their previous social rank in spite of eyespot color.

  4. Patients with a Previous History of Malignancy Undergoing Lung Cancer Screening: Clinical Characteristics and Radiologic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Darragh F; Cunningham, Jane D; Long, Niamh M; Sosa, Ramon E; Ginsberg, Michelle S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and radiologic findings in patients with a previous history of malignancy who underwent computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer. Patients with a previous history of malignancy and a life expectancy of at least 5 years who were referred for lung cancer screening between May 2, 2011, and September 24, 2014, were included. CT scan features assessed included nodule size, morphologic features, and number. The Lung-CT Reporting and Data System scoring system was retrospectively applied to all studies. A total of 139 patients were studied (mean age of 66 years and median smoking history of 50 pack-years). All had a previous history of cancer, most often breast cancer (60 patients [43%]), head or neck cancer (26 patients [19%]), and lung cancer (16 patients [12%]). Of these patients, 42 (30%) had a positive screening study result. Lung cancer was diagnosed in seven patients (5%), and a radiation-induced chest wall sarcoma was diagnosed in one patient (1%); 42 patients (30%) had a positive chest CT scan per the National Comprehensive Cancer Network lung cancer screening nodule follow-up algorithm. The rate of diagnosis of lung cancer in our patient population is higher than in several previously published studies. Smokers with a history of malignancy may be a group at particularly high risk for the development of subsequent lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Retrospective analysis on malignant calcification previously misdiagnosed as benign on screening mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Su Min [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Chung Ang University Hospital, Seoul(Korea, Republic of); Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Chae, Eun Young; Choi, Woo Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the morphology and distribution of calcifications initially interpreted as benign or probably benign, but proven to be malignant by subsequent stereotactic biopsy, and to identify the reason for misinterpretation or underestimation at the initial diagnosis. Out of 567 women who underwent stereotactic biopsy for calcifications at our hospital between January 2012 and December 2014, 167 women were diagnosed with malignancy. Forty-six of these 167 women had previous mammography assessed as benign or probably benign which was changed to suspicious malignancy on follow-up mammography. Of these 46 women, three women with biopsy-proven benign calcifications at the site of subsequent cancer were excluded, and 43 patients were finally included. The calcifications (morphology, distribution, extent, associated findings) in the previous and follow-up mammography examinations were analyzed according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon and assessment category. We classified the patients into two groups: 1) group A patients who were still retrospectively re-categorized as less than or equal to BI-RADS 3 and 2) group B patients who were re-categorized as equal to or higher than BI-RADS 4a and whose results should have prompted previous diagnostic assessment. In the follow-up mammography examinations, change in calcification morphology (n = 27, 63%) was the most frequent cause of assessment change. The most frequent previous mammographic findings of malignant calcification were amorphous morphology (n = 26, 60%) and grouped distribution (n = 36, 84%). The most frequent calcification findings at reassessment were amorphous morphology (n = 4, 9%), fine pleomorphic calcification (n = 30, 70%), grouped distribution (n = 23, 53%), and segmental calcification (n = 12, 28%). There were 33 (77%) patients in group A, and 10 patients (23%) in group B. Amorphous morphology and grouped distribution were the most frequent

  6. Exercise induced ST elevation and residual myocardial ischemia in previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonagata, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of stress induced ST elevation on infarcted area in 65 patients with previous myocardial infarction (single vessel disease) who had stress thallium scan. Stress induced ST changes on infarcted area were compared with quantitative assessment of myocardial ischemia (thallium ischemic score; TIS) and extent of myocardial infarction (defect score; DS) derived from circumferential profile analysis. In patients with previous myocardial infarction in less than 3 month from the onset (n = 36), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and extent of abnormal LV wall motion were not significantly different between patients with stress induced ST elevation ( ≥ 2 mm, n = 26) and those with stress induced ST elevation ( < 2 mm, n = 10), while, in patients with previous myocardial infarction in more than 3 month (n = 29), patients with stress induced ST elevation ( ≥ 2 mm, n = 15) showed left ventricular dyskinesis more frequently than those with ST elevation ( < 2 mm, n = 14). In addition, the former showed significantly higher DS and significantly lower TIS than the latter. In patients with previous myocardial infarction in less than 3 month, patients with ST elevation ( ≥ 2 mm, n = 15) with prominent upright T wave (n = 15) had transient thallium defect in infarcted area in 73 % and they had significantly higher LVEF and TIS than those with ST elevation ( < 2 mm, n = 11). These results indicated that ST elevation in infarcted area reflect different significance according to the recovery of injured myocardium and stress induced ST elevation with prominent upright T wave in infarcted area reflect residual myocardial ischemia in less than 3 month from the onset of myocardial infarction. (author)

  7. Establishing soil loss tolerance: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Di Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss tolerance is a criterion for establishing if a soil is potentially subjected to erosion risk, productivity loss and if a river presents downstream over-sedimentation or other off-site effects are present at basin scale. At first this paper reviews the concept of tolerable soil loss and summarises the available definitions and the knowledge on the recommended values and evaluating criteria. Then a threshold soil loss value, at the annual temporal scale, established for limiting riling was used for defining the classical soil loss tolerance. Finally, some research needs on tolerable soil loss are listed.

  8. Manuscripts on establishment of Korea nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik Su

    1999-12-01

    This book mentions establishment of Korea nuclear power with twelve manuscripts. It is comprised of twelve documents with conversation and recollection the contents of this book are summary, conversation with Yoon, Se Won, conversation with Choe, Paeng Seop, conversation with Lee, Dong Jip, conversation with Lee, Sang Su, conversation with Kim, Jong Ju, conversation with Lee, Jong Hun, conversation with Youn, Young Ryeok, conversation with Han, Pil Sun, recollection on my nuclear energy by Kim, Dong Hun, recollection on my nuclear power by Lee, Chang Gun, I and nuclear power by Park, Ik Su. It reports the establishment on history and process of Korea nuclear power plant through dialogue with twelve people.

  9. HIV-related neuropsychological impairment in patients with previous substance use: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    García-Torres, Amalia; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza (UNIR); Piñón-Blanco, Adolfo; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can result in cognitive disorders that significantly interfere with the daily activities of HIV patients. These disorders may be worse when there is a history of psychoactive substance use. Our objective is to assess the neuropsychological profile in a group of HIV patients with previous drug use compared to a group of HIV-negative patients with a history of drug use. The study included a total of 28 Spanish adult subjects, of which 14 were HIV-infected and ...

  10. New and previously known species of Oenonidae (Polychaeta: Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanol, Joana; Ruta, Christine

    2015-09-18

    The family Oenonidae consists of Eunicida species with prionognath jaws. Its Australian fauna had been reported to comprise six species belonging to Arabella, Drilonereis, and Oenone. This study provides descriptions for four new species, redescriptions for three species (two previously recorded and a new record, Drilonereis cf. logani) and diagnoses for the genera recorded from Australia. Currently, eleven species of oenonids, distributed in three genera, are known for the Australian coast. On Lizard Island, this family shows low abundance (19 specimens collected) and high richness (seven species). Our results suggest that despite the increasing accumulation of information, the biodiversity of the family is still poorly estimated.

  11. Cystic echinococcosis in Jordan: A review of causative species, previous studies, serological and radiological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijjawi, Nawal S; Al-Radaideh, Ali M; Rababah, Eman M; Al-Qaoud, Khaled M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E

    2018-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE)/hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease which occur in human and herbivore animals as a result of infection with the larval stage of the taeniid cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.). In human, CE is a serious public health concern in many parts of the world including Jordan. The present review will cover CE causative agent: E. granulosus species/genotypes; life cycle of E. granulosus parasite, all published previous studies on CE in Jordan (humans, intermediate hosts, definitive host) as well as its diagnostic methods in human. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Congenital costo-vertebral fibrous band and congenital kyphoscoliosis: a previously unreported combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Tony; Ghostine, Bachir; Kreichaty, Gaby; Daher, Paul; Ghanem, Ismat

    2013-05-01

    Congenital kyphoscoliosis (CKS) results from abnormal vertebral chondrification. Congenital fibrous bands occur in several locations with variable impact on vertebral development. We report a previously unreported case of a female infant with CKS presenting with an L2 hypoplastic vertebra and a costo-vertebral fibrous band extending to the skin in the form of a dimple. We also describe the therapeutic approach, consisting of surgical excision of the fibrous band and postoperative fulltime bracing, with a 7-year follow-up. We recommend a high index of suspicion in any unusual presentation of CKS and insist on case by case management in such cases.

  13. Analysis of Product Buying Decision on Lazada E-commerce based on Previous Buyers’ Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Aldrin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present research are: 1 to know that product buying decision possibly occurs, 2 to know how product buying decision occurs on Lazada e-commerce’s customers, 3 how previous buyers’ comments can increase product buying decision on Lazada e-commerce. This research utilizes qualitative research method. Qualitative research is a research that investigates other researches and makes assumption or discussion result so that other analysis results can be made in order to widen idea and opinion. Research result shows that product which has many ratings and reviews will trigger other buyers to purchase or get that product. The conclusion is that product buying decision may occur because there are some processes before making decision which are: looking for recognition and searching for problems, knowing the needs, collecting information, evaluating alternative, evaluating after buying. In those stages, buying decision on Lazada e-commerce is supported by price, promotion, service, and brand.

  14. Report on Results 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    base regarding new renewable energy sources that is available through Nordic cooperation. During the course of the year a new energy body will be established to assume responsibility for initiatives encouraging more rational energy usage and more environment-friendly energy production. When this energy body commences operations next year, it will have a solid foundation on which to build further. It will inherit a well-founded system and an efficient structure. The results achieved during the year 2000 show savings in energy efficiency and the production of new renewable energy of 720 GWh. The gains could be even greater with clearly defined target-driven management. Due to internationalisation, Norway now has to deal with problems to which little attention was previously paid. All energy production has negative environmental co sequences. It is becoming increasingly obvious that we all need to contribute to limiting the damaging effects, while at the same time the international community needs to take the initiative in harmonizing measures which can result in a more sustainable and environment-friendly direction.

  15. Procedures to establish National Rules of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this procedure is to establish the EPA National Rules of Behavior to comply with OMB Circular A-130, regarding rules of behavior for users of information systems applicable to all users of EPA information and information systems for users.

  16. Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study are presumed to be of paramount importance in providing input information for policy makers towards establishing financial markets in Ethiopia. As a way forward the Government of ... addressing the direct challenges. Keywords: Financial Market, Securities Market, Environment, Governance ...

  17. Establishing And Managing Development Networks In Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishing And Managing Development Networks In Africa: Perspectives On The African Virtual Library And Information Network (Avlin) ... In times like this when libraries are facing problems with access and acquisition of materials, networking becomes very important. This paper discusses issues relating to networking in ...

  18. Establishment of an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd) is a medicinally and economically important plant and also used as vegetable. In this study, we established an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation procedure for M. dioica. Leaf explants were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing a binary ...

  19. Waste management in healthcare establishments within Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Poor management of healthcare waste exposes health workers and the public to the toxic effects of wastes generated from health establishments. The disposal of these wastes could also lead to environmental problems if not done properly. This study has assessed the waste management practices in hospitals and ...

  20. Establishing and agreeing on research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian de Ia Roche

    1999-01-01

    The organizers asked me to share with you my experiences in developing and implementing a process for establishing and agreeing on research priorities in a multi-stakeholder research institute such as Forintek. The mechanism we have in place has been well received by Forintek's membership and certain aspects have been adopted by other research organizations. While...

  1. Polystoma umthakathi (Monogenea): establishment, mortality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of Polystoma umthakathi oncomiracidia were studied in experimentally infected Natalobatrachus boneberg tadpoles to establish a normal reference of parasite performance in the natural host. The anteroventral body wall is transparent in these tadpoles and it was possible to follow the destiny of each ...

  2. 45 CFR 1620.3 - Establishing priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... should address the need for outreach, training of the recipient's employees, and support services. (c... IN USE OF RESOURCES § 1620.3 Establishing priorities. (a) The governing body of a recipient must... the cases and matters which may be undertaken by the recipient. (b) The procedures adopted must...

  3. Establishing a Center for Instructional Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, George H.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews how the University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin) established a center to support its faculty. Addresses key questions related to the development of instructional technology (IT) centers through examples from UT-Austin. Discusses funding, fees, types of services and support, staffing, facilities provided, and training philosophy.…

  4. Establishment of high effective regeneration and propagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to establish efficient regeneration system for ornamental tissue culture, we used Malus spp. 'Indian Magic as the experimental materials and investigated the effects of disinfection and antibrowning agents, culture mediums and hormones proportion on differentiation, multiplication, callus induction and rooting, and ...

  5. Attitudes of Children Established by Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabei, Fred; And Others

    This study examined the attitudes of children established by classical conditioning. Subjects were 4th graders (26 males and 31 females). Each child was randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. A posttest-only design was used with positive and negative word associations presented to the experimental group, and neutral word…

  6. Optimization of micropropagation and establishment of cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... those established conditions to produce useful essential oil. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Seed sterilization procedure. Viable seeds of M. officinalis ..... technology. UK: Butler and Tammer. Gopi C, Vatsala TM (2006) In vitro studies on effects of plant growth regulators on callus and suspension culture ...

  7. ESTABLISHING A PUBLISHING OUTFIT IN NIGERIA EMENYONU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CIU

    undertake, steps to follow in establishing a publishing company, networking with stakeholders in the publishing industry,the legal .... should network with the following stakeholders. The book industry,like any other industry, needs ..... Author, publisher and bookseller: a tripartite synergy in book development in Nigeria.

  8. Polystoma umthakathi (Monogenea): establishment, mortality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-02-28

    Feb 28, 1989 ... at 23°C (± 1°C), and were fed on pulverized alfalfa and goldfish flakes. N. bonebergi tadpoles infected with P. umthakathi were c()llected from streams ... the complete history of each parasite present can be followed. For each tadpole the numbers and locations of established parasites were determined on ...

  9. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, F.J.; Yielder, J.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  10. innovation platforms for establishment and management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    designed to document important processes, lessons and challenges encountered from the participatory nursery ... The processes of establishing nurseries were started by forming Innovation Platforms (IPs). The IPs in each watershed consisted of local community, a local administrator, ..... would share that money equally.

  11. 36 CFR 901.2 - Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States subject to the Government Corporation Control Act (31 U.S.C. 841 et seq.), was established by the Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-578, 86 Stat. 1266 (40 U.S.C. 871 et seq.)), as amended, hereinafter referred to as the Act. (b) Purposes. The purposes for which this Corporation...

  12. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, F.J. [School of Healthcare Professions, University of Salford, Salford M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.j.murphy@salford.ac.uk; Yielder, J. [Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Unitec, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-02-15

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  13. Introduction, establishment and spread of the Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... native fishes and predation on fish larvae. Pseudocrenilabrus philander in the Baakens River therefore satisfies all criteria for an invasive species in this river and was categorised as invasive using a unified framework for biological invasions. Keywords: abundance, cichlid, electrofishing, establishment, invasion, spread ...

  14. Establishment of human cell lines showing circadian rhythms of bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Aki; Shimada, Hiroko; Numazawa, Kahori; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Ikeda, Masaaki; Kawashima, Minae; Kato, Nobumasa; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Ebisawa, Takashi

    2008-11-28

    We have established human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines stably expressing the luciferase gene, driven by the human Bmal1 promoter, to obtain human-derived cells that show circadian rhythms of bioluminescence after dexamethasone treatment. The average circadian period of bioluminescence for the obtained clones was 24.07+/-0.48 h. Lithium (10 mM) in the medium significantly lengthened the circadian period of bioluminescence, which is consistent with previous reports, while 2 mM or 5 mM lithium had no effect. This is the first report on the establishment of human-derived cell lines that proliferate infinitely and show circadian rhythms of bioluminescence, and also the first to investigate the effects of low-dose lithium on the circadian rhythms of human-derived cells in vitro. The established cells will be useful for various in vitro studies of human circadian rhythms and for the development of new therapies for human disorders related to circadian rhythm disturbances.

  15. Abstract: Notes from the Field: Establishing Baseline Data for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In light of resource limitations and short-staffing, these results are quite positive. Once baseline data is established with further study, the ICU will be able to evaluate the efficacy of future nursing practice changes designed to reduce pressure ulcer incidence and severity in the ICU setting. Key words: pressure ulcer, ICU, ...

  16. Rapid establishment of polymerase chain reaction-restriction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RFLP) optimization reaction system for cpDNA in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] was rapidly established. Results show that the optimal PCR reaction system was 100 ng template DNA, 200 μmolL-1 dNTPs, 1.5 mmolL-1 MgCl2, 50 ng primer, ...

  17. Establishing a quality assurance baseline for radiological protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The wide use of ionising radiation in medical care has resulted in the largest man-made cause of radiation exposure. In recent years, diagnostic departments in Kenya have adapted the high-speed film/screen combination without well-established quality control, objective image quality criteria, and assessment ...

  18. Verbal autopsy in establishing cause of perinatal death | Iriya | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: Hai district of Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania. Subjects: All perinatal deaths within one year. Results: The perinatal mortality was 58 per 1000 (121 deaths and 2088 live births). Verbal autopsy could establish the cause of death in 105 of the 121 deaths. Hospital records showed 79 deaths indicating that 42 deaths ...

  19. Establishing Local Reference Dose Values and Optimisation Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, P.; Moores, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    The revised EC Patient Directive 97/43 EURATOM introduces the concepts of clinical audit, diagnostic reference levels and optimisation of radiation protection in diagnostic radiology. The application of reference dose levels in practice involves the establishment of reference dose values as actual measurable operational quantities. These values should then form part of an ongoing optimisation and audit programme against which routine performance can be compared. The CEC Quality Criteria for Radiographic Images provides guidance reference dose values against which local performance can be compared. In many cases these values can be improved upon quite considerably. This paper presents the results of a local initiative in the North West of the UK aimed at establishing local reference dose values for a number of major hospital sites. The purpose of this initiative is to establish a foundation for both optimisation strategies and clinical audit as an ongoing and routine practice. The paper presents results from an ongoing trial involving patient dose measurements for several radiological examinations upon the sites. The results of an attempt to establish local reference dose values from measured dose values and to employ them in optimisation strategies are presented. In particular emphasis is placed on the routine quality control programmes necessary to underpin this strategy including the effective data management of results from such programmes and how they can be employed to optimisation practices. (author)

  20. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  1. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

  2. Pituitary-adrenocortical adjustments to transport stress in horses with previous different handling and transport conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fazio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The changes of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis response to a long distance transportation results in increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels. The purpose of the study was to quantify the level of short-term road transport stress on circulating ACTH and cortisol concentrations, related to the effect of previous handling and transport experience of horses. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 56 healthy horses after short-term road transport of 30 km. The horses were divided into four groups, Groups A, B, C, and D, with respect to the handling quality: Good (Groups A and B, bad (Group D, and minimal handling (Group C conditions. According to the previous transport, experience horses were divided as follows: Horses of Groups A and D had been experienced long-distance transportation before; horses of Groups B and C had been limited experience of transportation. Results: One-way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of transport on ACTH changes in Groups B and C and on cortisol changes in both Groups A and B. Groups A and B showed lower baseline ACTH and cortisol values than Groups C and D; Groups A and B showed lower post-transport ACTH values than Groups C and D. Groups A, B, and C showed lower post-transport cortisol values than Group D. Only Groups A and B horses have shown an adequate capacity of stress response to transportation. Conclusion: The previous transport experience and quality of handling could influence the HPA axis physiological responses of horses after short-term road transport.

  3. The Effects of the Previous Outcome on Probabilistic Choice in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew T.; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of previous outcomes on subsequent choices in a probabilistic-choice task. Twenty-four rats were trained to choose between a certain outcome (1 or 3 pellets) versus an uncertain outcome (3 or 9 pellets), delivered with a probability of .1, .33, .67, and .9 in different phases. Uncertain outcome choices increased with the probability of uncertain food. Additionally, uncertain choices increased with the probability of uncertain food following both certain-choice outcomes and unrewarded uncertain choices. However, following uncertain-choice food outcomes, there was a tendency to choose the uncertain outcome in all cases, indicating that the rats continued to “gamble” after successful uncertain choices, regardless of the overall probability or magnitude of food. A subsequent manipulation, in which the probability of uncertain food varied within each session as a function of the previous uncertain outcome, examined how the previous outcome and probability of uncertain food affected choice in a dynamic environment. Uncertain-choice behavior increased with the probability of uncertain food. The rats exhibited increased sensitivity to probability changes and a greater degree of win–stay/lose–shift behavior than in the static phase. Simulations of two sequential choice models were performed to explore the possible mechanisms of reward value computations. The simulation results supported an exponentially decaying value function that updated as a function of trial (rather than time). These results emphasize the importance of analyzing global and local factors in choice behavior and suggest avenues for the future development of sequential-choice models. PMID:23205915

  4. Is the fibrotic parietal thickening a reliable parameter for diagnosing previous asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, Gennaro; Genovese, Giuseppe; Apperti, Marco; Amato, Bruno; Benassai, Giacomo; Furino, Ermenegildo

    2015-01-01

    Research of a starting point to debate about the possibility of identifying a unique sign of previous DVT. A retrospective study involving 202 outpatients with venous insufficiency of the lower limbs (CEAP classes C 4/6), classified according to the affected venous district. Patients positive for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were subjected to Compression Ultra Sound test (CUS test) with measurement of the wall thickness at the point of formation of the thrombus and at fixed points of common femoral and popliteal veins used also in the patients with negative history of DVT RESULTS: Among total group, only 19 patients (9.40%) had an history of DVT. No one of them had a superficial incontinence. The measurement of wall thickness in positive DVT history patients (group A) resulted in an average value of 1.10 mm (s.d=0.06), while the average value obtained in negative DVT history (group B) was 0.55 mm (s.d.= 0.20). However, in 13 patients wall thickness was > 1mm (mean: 1.04 mm). The difference between the averages of group A and B was statistically significant (p 1 mm. Can the wall thickening more than 1 mm be considered an indicator of previous DVT? Can it be considered a "marker" for thrombophilia status? The usefulness of a sign of previous DVT (even if asymptomatic), detected during a routine Doppler ultrasound check of lower limbs, could be a warning bell to investigate thrombophilia status. Chronic Venous Insufficiency, Duplex ultrasound, Hypercoagulability, Post-thrombotic Syndrome, Venous Thromboembolism.

  5. Clinical outcomes of Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy at patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riza Odabasi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical outcomes of Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy (LAVH at patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery.\tDesign: A clinical observational, prospective, non randomised trial comparing outcomes of 13 patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery with outcomes of 19 patients who had not surgery.\tSetting: Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.\tPatients: Thirty-two subjects [average age 51,1±6,9 (37-66] who had indication of total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral\tsalpingooferectomy due to benign pathologies.\tInterventions: According to ACOG, LAVH was performed by using the Garry technique at the trocar insertions, the Reich technique\tat the laparoscopic phase and the Heaney technique at the vaginal phase by the same operator. After adhesiolysis and diagnostic procedures, ureters were dissected medially. By coagulating, bilateral round and infundibulopelvic ligaments were cut after the\tmobilisation of bladder. The operation was completed by the same operation team by vaginal approach consequently. At all operations, 80 W unipolar or 150 W bipolar diathermic dissection and 25-35 W unipolar diathermic cutting were performed.\tMain outcome measures: Age, parity, menopausal status, preoperative indications, type of previous abdominopelvic surgey and incision, intraoperative indications, adhesion scores, rate of unintended laparotomy, operative time, uterus weight, loss of blood,\tcomplications, postoperative pain scores and analgesic requirements, time necessary for returning to normal intestinal function, length of hospitalisation and rate of readmission to hospital.\tRESULTS: When compared with the patients who had not previous abdominopelvic surgery, all adhesion scores, uterus weight, operative time and the number of total postoperative complications were found significantly high at patients who had previous\tsurgery. Loss of blood, the rate

  6. Empirical Study Regarding the Trust Relationships Established in a Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina-Valentina NICOLAE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper that we present aims to address the issue of relationships naturally established in a community through some items that we consider relevant to the proposed topic. In this purpose, we have initiated a quantitative research, developed through a survey, based on questionnaire, self-managed and on line. The recorded answers are statistically interpreted, using IBM SPSS application. The results suggests that the perception of the subjects participating in the study on the relationships established with their communities, on the date of the study, is not clearly contoured.

  7. Establishment and initial experiences from the Danish Ventral Hernia Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, F; Rosenberg, J; Bay-Nielsen, M

    2010-01-01

    , use of mesh or no mesh, type of suture material, and placement of the mesh. A total of 5,629 elective and 661 acute ventral hernia repairs were registered. After the first 2 years the registration rate was 70%. CONCLUSION: The first national ventral hernia database has been established. Preliminary...... of the Danish Ventral Hernia Database (DVHD). Furthermore, the first 2-year data from 2007 to 2008 are presented. METHODS: Registrations were based on surgeons' web registrations and validated by cross checking with data from the Danish National Patient Register. RESULTS: The DVHD was established in June 2006......% of all hernia repairs as in the Danish Inguinal Hernia Database....

  8. Sexual Liberalism-Conservatism: the effect of human values, gender, and previous sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Valeschka M; Gouveia, Valdiney V; Sousa, Deliane M; Lima, Tiago J; Freires, Leogildo A

    2012-08-01

    Despite theoretical associations, there is a lack of empirical studies on the axiological basis of sexual liberalism-conservatism. Two studies demonstrated important associations between these constructs for young adults. In Study 1, participants were 353 undergraduate students with a mean age of 20.13 (SD = 1.84), who completed the Sexual Liberalism-Conservatism Scale and the Basic Values Survey. In Study 2, participants were 269 undergraduate students, with a mean age of 20.3 (SD = 1.82), who completed a social desirability scale in addition to Study 1 instruments. Results showed how values can predict sexual liberalism-conservatism after controlling for social desirability. Attitudes towards one's own sexual behavior were more conservative whereas attitudes towards other's sexual behavior were more liberal. Gender was not a significant predictor of sexual attitudes whereas previous sexual experience showed a significant association to this construct. In general, results corroborated previous findings, showing that participants with a tendency to present socially desirable answers also tended to present themselves as sexually conservative.

  9. Insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotsikoris, Ioannis; Zygomalas, Apollon; Papas, Theofanis; Maras, Dimitris; Pavlidis, Polyvios; Andrikopoulou, Maria; Tsanis, Antonis; Alivizatos, Vasileios; Bessias, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Central venous catheter placement is an effective alternative vascular access for dialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations in terms of efficacy of the procedure and early complications. Materials and methods: Between 2008 and 2010, the vascular access team of our hospital placed 409 central venous catheters in patients with chronic renal failure. The procedure was performed using the Seldinger blind technique. In 18 (4.4%) cases it was impossible to advance the guidewire, and so the patients were transported to the angiography suite. Results: Using the angiographic technique, the guidewire was advanced in order to position the central venous catheter. The latter was inserted into the subclavian vein in 12 (66.6%) cases, into the internal jugular vein in 4 (22.2%) and into the femoral vein in 2 (11.1%) cases. There was only one complicated case with severe arrhythmia in 1 (5.5%) patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that insertion of central venous catheters using angiographic techniques in hemodialysis patients with previous multiple catheterizations is a safe and effective procedure with few complications and high success rates

  10. Insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsikoris, Ioannis, E-mail: gkotsikoris@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Zygomalas, Apollon, E-mail: azygomalas@upatras.gr [Department of General Surgery, University Hospital of Patras (Greece); Papas, Theofanis, E-mail: pfanis@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Maras, Dimitris, E-mail: dimmaras@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Pavlidis, Polyvios, E-mail: polpavlidis@yahoo.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Andrikopoulou, Maria, E-mail: madric@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Tsanis, Antonis, E-mail: atsanis@gmail.com [Department of Interventional Radiology, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Alivizatos, Vasileios, E-mail: valiviz@hol.gr [Department of General Surgery and Artificial Nutrition Unit, “Agios Andreas” General Hospital of Patras (Greece); Bessias, Nikolaos, E-mail: bessias@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece)

    2012-09-15

    Introduction: Central venous catheter placement is an effective alternative vascular access for dialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations in terms of efficacy of the procedure and early complications. Materials and methods: Between 2008 and 2010, the vascular access team of our hospital placed 409 central venous catheters in patients with chronic renal failure. The procedure was performed using the Seldinger blind technique. In 18 (4.4%) cases it was impossible to advance the guidewire, and so the patients were transported to the angiography suite. Results: Using the angiographic technique, the guidewire was advanced in order to position the central venous catheter. The latter was inserted into the subclavian vein in 12 (66.6%) cases, into the internal jugular vein in 4 (22.2%) and into the femoral vein in 2 (11.1%) cases. There was only one complicated case with severe arrhythmia in 1 (5.5%) patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that insertion of central venous catheters using angiographic techniques in hemodialysis patients with previous multiple catheterizations is a safe and effective procedure with few complications and high success rates.

  11. Establishing a normative atlas of the human lung: computing the average transformation and atlas construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baojun; Christensen, Gary E; Hoffman, Eric A; McLennan, Geoffrey; Reinhardt, Joseph M

    2012-11-01

    To establish the range of normal for quantitative computed tomography (CT)-based measures of lung structure and function, we seek to develop methods for matching pulmonary structures across individuals and establishing a normative human lung atlas. In our previous work, we have presented a three-dimensional (3D) image registration method suitable for pulmonary atlas construction based on CT datasets. The method has been applied to a population of normative lungs in multiple experiments and, in each instance, has resulted in significant reductions in registration errors. This study is a continuation to our previous work by presenting a method for synthesizing a computerized human lung atlas from previously registered and matched 3D pulmonary CT datasets from a population of normative subjects. Our method consists of defining the origin of the atlas coordinate system; defining the nomenclature and labels for anatomical structures within the atlas system; computing the average transformation based on the displacement fields to register individual subject to the common template subject; constructing the atlas by deforming the template with the average transformation; and calculating shape variations within the population. The feasibility of pulmonary atlas construction was evaluated using CT datasets from 20 normal volunteers. Substantial reductions in shape variability were demonstrated. In addition, the constructed atlas depends only slightly on a specific subject being selected as the template. These results indicate the framework is a robust and valid method for pulmonary atlas construction based on CT scans. The atlas consists of a grayscale CT dataset of the template, a labeled mask dataset of the template (ie, lungs, lobes, and lobar fissures are labeled with different gray levels), a data set representing the population's average shape, datasets representing the population's shape variations (ie, the magnitude of standard deviation), a data structure to contain

  12. [Establishement for regional pelvic trauma database in Hunan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Zhu, Yong; Long, Haitao; Yang, Junxiao; Sun, Buhua; Li, Kanghua

    2017-04-28

    To establish a database for pelvic trauma in Hunan Province, and to start the work of multicenter pelvic trauma registry.
 Methods: To establish the database, literatures relevant to pelvic trauma were screened, the experiences from the established trauma database in China and abroad were learned, and the actual situations for pelvic trauma rescue in Hunan Province were considered. The database for pelvic trauma was established based on the PostgreSQL and the advanced programming language Java 1.6.
 Results: The complex procedure for pelvic trauma rescue was described structurally. The contents for the database included general patient information, injurious condition, prehospital rescue, conditions in admission, treatment in hospital, status on discharge, diagnosis, classification, complication, trauma scoring and therapeutic effect. The database can be accessed through the internet by browser/servicer. The functions for the database include patient information management, data export, history query, progress report, video-image management and personal information management.
 Conclusion: The database with whole life cycle pelvic trauma is successfully established for the first time in China. It is scientific, functional, practical, and user-friendly.

  13. Development and Establishment of Detection Method of Irradiated Foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Jo, Cheo Run; Kim, Jang Ho; Kim, Kyong Su

    2004-12-15

    The present project was related to the development and establishment of the detection techniques for the safety management of gamma-irradiated food and particularly conducted for the establishment of standard detection method for gamma-irradiated dried spices and raw materials, dried meat and fish powder for processed foods, bean paste powder, red pepper paste powder, soy sauce powder, and starch for flavoring ingredients described in 3, 6, 7 section of Korean Food Standard. Since the approvement of gamma-irradiated food items will be enlarged due to the international tendency for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded that the establishment of detailed detection methods for each food group is not efficient for the enactment and enforcement of related regulations. For this reason, in order to establish the standard detection method, a detection system for gamma-irradiated food suitable for domestic operation was studied using comparative analysis of domestic and foreign research data classified by items and methods and European Standard as a reference. According to the comparative analyses of domestic and foreign research data and regulations of detection for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded to be desirable that the optimal detection method should be decided after principal detection tests such as physical, chemical, and biological detection methods are established as standard methods and that the specific descriptions such as pre-treatment of raw materials, test methods, and the evaluation of results should be separately prescribed.

  14. Evaluating Competitiveness of Faculties of Higher Educational Establishments in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayevnyeva Olena V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of competitiveness of higher education, efficiency of its functioning and training graduates of higher educational establishments according to the current and future needs of the market are among the key issues of socio-economic development strategy in EU countries. The aim of the study is to determine the competitiveness of faculties of major higher educational establishments based on the use of the cluster analysis and rating evaluations provided by national experts. The paper describes the methodology of rating evaluation of faculties of higher educational establishments in Slovakia on the basis of such components as: educational process; attractiveness of the program; science and research activities; doctoral studies; attracted grants. Shortcomings of the approach to faculty rating evaluations based on the averaged value have been determined. In order to improve analysis of the competitive positions of individual faculties of higher educational establishments in Slovakia, the cluster analysis was used and the results of breaking the faculties into five groups were presented. To forecast changes in the competitive positions of faculties of higher educational establishments in Slovakia, discriminant functions enabling to determine possible qualitative changes in the state of the faculties’ competitiveness due to external or internal factors have been built.

  15. Development and Establishment of Detection Method of Irradiated Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Jo, Cheo Run; Kim, Jang Ho; Kim, Kyong Su

    2004-12-01

    The present project was related to the development and establishment of the detection techniques for the safety management of gamma-irradiated food and particularly conducted for the establishment of standard detection method for gamma-irradiated dried spices and raw materials, dried meat and fish powder for processed foods, bean paste powder, red pepper paste powder, soy sauce powder, and starch for flavoring ingredients described in 3, 6, 7 section of Korean Food Standard. Since the approvement of gamma-irradiated food items will be enlarged due to the international tendency for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded that the establishment of detailed detection methods for each food group is not efficient for the enactment and enforcement of related regulations. For this reason, in order to establish the standard detection method, a detection system for gamma-irradiated food suitable for domestic operation was studied using comparative analysis of domestic and foreign research data classified by items and methods and European Standard as a reference. According to the comparative analyses of domestic and foreign research data and regulations of detection for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded to be desirable that the optimal detection method should be decided after principal detection tests such as physical, chemical, and biological detection methods are established as standard methods and that the specific descriptions such as pre-treatment of raw materials, test methods, and the evaluation of results should be separately prescribed

  16. Emergent aquatics: stand establishment, management, and species screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, D.C.; Andrews, N.J.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Penko, M.; Read, P.E.; Zimmerman, E.S.

    1982-11-01

    Several emergent aquatic species have been identified as potential biomass crops, including Typha spp. (cattail), Scirpus spp. (rush), Sparganium spp. (bur reed), and Phragmites (reed). This report discusses first year results from studies of stand establishment and management, Typha nutrient requirements, wetland species yield comparisons, and Typha micropropagation. In a comparison of the relative effectiveness of seed, seedlings, and rhizomes for stand establishment, rhizomes appeared to be more consistent and productive under a wire variety of conditions. Both rhizomes and seedling established plots grew successfully on excavated peatland sites. First season results from a multiyear fertilizer rate experiment indicate that fertilizer treatment resulted in significantly increased tissue nutrient concentrations which should carry over into subsequent growing seasons. Shoot density and belowground dry weight were also significantly increased by phosphorus + potassium and potassium applications, respectively. First season yields of selected wetland species from managed paddies generally were comparable to yields reported from natural stands. Several particularly productive clones of Typha spp. have been identified. A method of establishing Typha in tissue culture is described.

  17. Developing criteria to establish Trusted Digital Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper details the drivers, methods, and outcomes of the U.S. Geological Survey’s quest to establish criteria by which to judge its own digital preservation resources as Trusted Digital Repositories. Drivers included recent U.S. legislation focused on data and asset management conducted by federal agencies spending $100M USD or more annually on research activities. The methods entailed seeking existing evaluation criteria from national and international organizations such as International Standards Organization (ISO), U.S. Library of Congress, and Data Seal of Approval upon which to model USGS repository evaluations. Certification, complexity, cost, and usability of existing evaluation models were key considerations. The selected evaluation method was derived to allow the repository evaluation process to be transparent, understandable, and defensible; factors that are critical for judging competing, internal units. Implementing the chosen evaluation criteria involved establishing a cross-agency, multi-disciplinary team that interfaced across the organization. 

  18. Previous bacterial infection affects textural quality parameters of heat-treated fillets from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Hyldig, Grethe; Przybylska, Dominika Alicja

    2012-01-01

    fillets were sensory examined as heat-treated and cold-smoked. Heat-treated fillets from nonvaccinated fish previously infected by V. anguillarum had changed textural characteristics and were less flaky, had a lower oiliness and a higher toughness and fibrousness in comparison with control fish....... This article was the first to describe a correlation between previous infections in fish and changes in sensory-quality parameters. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS. This work contributes with knowledge about sensory-quality parameters of fish meat after recovery from infections and physical-tissue damage. Because...... the results demonstrate an influence on the texture from previous disease, the practical potentials of the results are valuable for the aquaculture industry. In order to minimize the effects of previous diseases on the sensory quality regarding the texture, these fishes should be processed as cold-smoked...

  19. Toothbrushing procedure in schoolchildren with no previous formal instruction: variables associated to dental biofilm removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Glenda N; Sorazabal, Ana L; Salgado, Pablo A; Squassi, Aldo F; Klemonskis, Graciela L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the association between features regarding brushing procedure performed by schoolchildren without previous formal training and the effectiveness of biofilm removal. Out of a population of 8900 6- and 7-year-old schoolchildren in Buenos Aires City, 600 children were selected from schools located in homogeneous risk areas. Informed consent was requested from parents or guardians and formal assent was obtained from children themselves. The final sample consisted of 316 subjects. The following tooth brushing variables were analyzed: toothbrush-gripping, orientation of active part of bristles with respect to the tooth, type of movement applied, brushing both jaws together or separately, including all 6 sextants and duration of brushing. The level of dental biofilm after brushing was determined by O'Leary's index, acceptable cut-off point = 20%. Four calibrated dentists performed observations and clinical examinations. Frequency distribution, central tendency and dispersion measures were calculated. Cluster analyses were performed; proportions of variables for each cluster were compared with Bonferroni's correction and OR was obtained. The most frequent categories were: palm gripping (71.51%); perpendicular orientation (85.8%); horizontal movement (95.6%); separate addressing of jaws (68%) and inclusion of all 6 sextants (50.6%). Mean duration of brushing was 48.78 ± 27.36 seconds. 42.7% of the children achieved an acceptable biofilm level. The cluster with the highest proportion of subjects with acceptable post-brushing biofilm levels (p<0.05) differed significantly from the rest for the variable "inclusion of all 6 sextants in brushing procedure". OR was 2.538 (CI 95% 1.603 - 4.017). Inclusion of all six sextants could be a determinant variable for the removal of biofilm by brushing in schoolchildren, and should be systematized as a component in oral hygiene education. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  20. Aortic root replacement after previous surgical intervention on the aortic valve, aortic root, or ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, E W Matthias; Radu, N Costin; Mekontso-Dessap, Armand; Hillion, Marie-Line; Loisance, Daniel

    2006-03-01

    Aortic root replacement after a previous operation on the aortic valve, aortic root, or ascending aorta remains a major challenge. Records of 56 consecutive patients (44 men; mean age, 56.4 +/- 13.6 years) undergoing reoperative aortic root replacement between June 1994 and June 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Reoperation was performed 9.4 +/- 6.7 years after the last cardiac operation. Indications for reoperation were true aneurysm (n = 14 [25%]), false aneurysm (n = 10 [18%]), dissection or redissection (n = 9 [16%]), structural or nonstructural valve dysfunction (n = 10 [18%]), prosthetic valve-graft infection (n = 12 [21%]), and miscellaneous (n = 1 [2%]). Procedures performed were aortic root replacement (n = 47 [84%]), aortic root replacement plus mitral valve procedure (n = 5 [9%]), and aortic root replacement plus arch replacement (n = 4 [7%]). In 14 (25%) patients coronary artery bypass grafting had to be performed unexpectedly during the same procedure or immediately after the procedure to re-establish coronary perfusion. Hospital mortality reached 17.9% (n = 10). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the need for unplanned perioperative coronary artery bypass grafting as the sole independent risk factor for hospital death (P = .005). Actuarial survival was 83.8% +/- 4.9% at 1 month, 73.0% +/- 6.3% at 1 year, and 65.7% +/- 9.0% at 5 years after the operation. One patient had recurrence of endocarditis 6.7 months after the operation and required repeated homograft aortic root replacement. Reoperative aortic root replacement remains associated with a high postoperative mortality. The need to perform unplanned coronary artery bypass grafting during reoperative aortic root replacement is a major risk factor for hospital death. The optimal technique for coronary reconstruction in this setting remains to be debated.

  1. Late preterm birth and previous cesarean section: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen Iii, Abdool S; Bassil, Kate; Sprague, Ann; Urquia, Marcelo; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2018-02-21

    Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. We use population-based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers. PCS was the primary exposure, LPB (34-36 weeks) was the primary outcome, and an unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was the potential mediator. Associations were quantified using propensity weighted multivariable Poisson regression, and mediating associations were explored using the Baron-Kenny approach. The cohort included 481,531 births, 21,893 (4.5%) were LPB, and 119,983 (24.9%) were predated by at least one PCS. Among mothers with at least one PCS, 6307 (5.26%) were LPB. There was increased risk of LPB among women with at least one PCS (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 1.20 (95%CI [1.16, 1.23]). Unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was identified as a strong mediator to this relationship (mediation ratio = 97%). PCS was associated with higher risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. This may be due to an increased risk of subsequent unplanned or emergency preterm cesarean sections. Efforts to minimize index cesarean sections may reduce the risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies.

  2. Streptococcus oralis previously identified as uncommon 'Streptococcus sanguis' in Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narikawa, S; Suzuki, Y; Takahashi, M; Furukawa, A; Sakane, T; Mizushima, Y

    1995-08-01

    The relation between the biochemical and serological properties of 'Streptococcus sanguis' was studied to characterize the strains isolated from dental plaque of patients with Behçet's disease and controls. Seven reference and 100 clinical strains preserved by the Behçet's Disease Research Committee of Japan were identified using established criteria and differentiated with antisera against Strep. oralis ATCC 10557, Strep. sanguis ATCC 10556 and 'Strep. sanguis' ST7, compatible with the criteria. Uncommon serovars (serotypes) KTH-1 (= ATCC 49298), KTH-2 (= ATCC 49296), KTH-3 (= ATCC KTH-4 (= ATCC 49297) and B220 (serovar KTH-1) with both IgA1 protease and neuraminidase (sialidase) were identified as Strep. oralis, whereas common serovars ST3 with IgA1 protease alone and ST7 without both enzymes were identified as Strep. sanguis and Strep. gordonii, respectively. Isolates previously ranked as uncommon serovars were identified as Strep. oralis, whereas the rest ranked as common serovars were identified as the same species as those of the grouping strains. A soft-agar technique was available for species identification except for Strep. oralis serovar KTH-1 reacting with the antiserum against Strep. gordonii ST7. The frequency of isolation of Strep. oralis was higher in Behçet's disease (52%) than in controls (38%), but no difference was observed between the properties of the two groups of isolates. Strep. oralis virulence factors may be involved in breach the mucosal barrier in patients with specific reactivity to these antigens and inducing Behçet's disease.

  3. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE SERBIAN FADN INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Ivkov, Ivana; Vasiljevic, Zorica; Ghelfi, Rino

    2013-01-01

    While the Republic of Serbia is increasingly moving towards EU integration, and while one of the many EU requirements is the yearly transmission of the accountancy data that are important for the annual determination of the incomes of agricultural holdings and analysis of their business operation, the need to establish and develop Serbian Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) system becomes a crucial strategic option. This research paper describes how this requirement has been fulfilled for th...

  4. Establishing Key Performance Indicators : Case company X

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jatinder

    2015-01-01

    The key performance indicators serve as the navigational tools for a business organization to monitor its performance. They enable the management team to take real time decisions to keep organization’s resources aligned to its business strategy to accomplish its strategic objec-tives. This research was conducted to analyse the process of establishing successful key per-formance indicators for a business organization. The research was conducted to recommend key performance indicators developme...

  5. Post Gliphosate treatments establishment of some grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan ROTAR; Mariana RUSU; Fl. PRICA

    1997-01-01

    The sward dominated by Festuca rubra/Agrostis tenuis was treated to reduce the Nardus component and others weed by spraying with Gliphosate. Treatments were applied in the autumn of 1993. In the spring of 1994 a mixture of Phleum pratense, Fesuca rubra, Dactylis glomerata, Trifolium repens and Lotus corniculatus was oversown. Establishment of each species and botanical composition of the pasture were measured over the next three years. Nardus and weed was largely replaced by Phleum/Festuca mi...

  6. Joint Research Centre. Ispra establishment-Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, Antonio

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the work carried out during 1974 and 1975 in the Ispra establishment of the Joint Research Centre is presented. A description of the activity carried out within the context of the running programmes is given. Some of the most relevant scientific and technical achievement are described from the viewpoints of the Scientific Departments of the Centre. The technical and administrative support activities are also presented. A list of publications issued by the Ispra Scientific staff is given

  7. Establishing a green lights revolving fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The report details the experiences of the City of Houston in establishing a Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides examples of key documents and guidelines which can be used in other jurisdictions to establish an internal revolving fund to provide continuing monies through recapture of cost savings for an ongoing program of energy improvements in governmental facilities. It provides guidelines on how to establish a continuing source of funds for governmental facility energy improvements. The report provides background information on the ongoing energy improvement programs in the City of Houston, including its participation in the Environmental Protection Agency`s Green Lights Program. It reviews the steps required to establish a Green Lights Revolving Fund, including the administrative, legal, budgetary, accounting, interdepartmental, mayoral, and governing body approvals and actions needed to create a self-sustaining revolving fund devoted to energy improvements. The report also describes two funding sources in addition to the grant seed funds which were used to increase the initial funds available in the Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides sample documents for modification and use in other jurisdictions that want to use similar funding sources. It reports the initial project submission and selection procedure and criteria, and provides a transferable project application kit based on the criteria specified. It also details a sample repayment memorandum of understanding between departments, which can be used in other governments. Other transferable products provided in the report are sample energy audit summaries which were conducted by qualified, independent staff to determine the accuracy of the departmental project costs and savings payback calculations.

  8. For establishment on nuclear disaster prevention system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    For increasing requirement of peoples for review of nuclear disaster countermeasure at a chance of the JCO critical accident, the Japanese Government newly established the 'Special Measure Act on Nuclear Disaster Countermeasure', which was enacted on July 16, 2000. The nuclear business relatives such as electric power company and so forth established the Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives' after their consultation with local communities at their construction, under their co-operation. Simultaneously, the electric power industry field decided to intend to provide some sufficient countermeasures to incidental formation of nuclear accident such as start of the Co-operative agreement on nuclear disaster prevention among the nuclear business relatives' and so forth. Here were described on nuclear safety and disaster prevention, nuclear disaster prevention systems at the electric power industry field, abstract on 'Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives', preparation of technical assistance system for nuclear disaster prevention, executive methods and subjects on nuclear disaster prevention at construction areas, recent business on nuclear disaster prevention at the Nuclear Technical Center, and subjects on establishment of nuclear disaster prevention system. (G.K.)

  9. Advances in the phylogenesis of Agaricales and its higher ranks and strategies for establishing phylogenetic hypotheses§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui-lin; Desjardin, Dennis E.; Soytong, Kasem; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of previous research results on the molecular phylogenetic analyses in Agaricales and its higher ranks (Agaricomycetes/Agaricomycotina/Basidiomycota) along with the most recent treatments of taxonomic systems in these taxa. Establishing phylogenetic hypotheses using DNA sequences, from which an understanding of the natural evolutionary relationships amongst clades may be derived, requires a robust dataset. It has been recognized that single-gene phylogenies may not truly represent organismal phylogenies, but the concordant phylogenetic genealogies from multiple-gene datasets can resolve this problem. The genes commonly used in mushroom phylogenetic research are summarized. PMID:18837104

  10. A proposed framework for establishing integrated cost and performance criteria for environmental technologies: A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This document presents a summary of results of a joint EPA/DOE project aimed at establishing a suite of standard cost and performance criteria for evaluating environmental cleanup technologies for DOE sites. Project findings include: (1) decisionmakers have quite different perspectives with interests and information needs varying among decisionmaker groups, (2) previous criteria development efforts may be too narrowly focused to apply to all decisionmakers, (3) criteria must include social/political/economic interests of decisionmakers as well as site-specific variations, and (4) there are 5 core questions that all decisionmakers are likely to ask when considering a technology for use at a site. The resource developed in the project offers decisionmakers a first-time comprehensive assessment of major technology evaluation issues

  11. Effect of Acupressure, Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Women With Pregnancy-Related Anxiety and Previous Depression: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Shunji; Tobe, Chiharu

    2017-01-01

    Background In this preliminary study, we examined the effect of acupressure, acupuncture and moxibustion (oriental treatments) to prevent of the relapse/deterioration of perinatal depression in women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression. Methods and results Between 2014 and 2016, there were 48 women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression who had delivery at ? 22 weeks? gestation in our institute. Of these, oriental treatments were performed in eight and two w...

  12. Chronic impairments in spatial learning and memory in rats previously exposed to chlorpyrfos or diisopropylfluorophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, A V; Beck, W D; Warner, S; Vandenhuerk, L; Callahan, P M

    2012-01-01

    The acute toxicity of organophosphates (OPs) has been studied extensively; however, much less attention has been given to the subject of repeated exposures that are not associated with overt signs of toxicity (i.e., subthreshold exposures). The objective of this study was to determine if the protracted spatial learning impairments we have observed previously after repeated subthreshold exposures to the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) or the alkylphosphate OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) persisted for longer periods after exposure. Male Wistar rats (beginning at two months of age) were initially injected subcutaneously with CPF (10.0 or 18.0mg/kg) or DFP (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg) every other day for 30 days. After an extended OP-free washout period (behavioral testing begun 50 days after the last OP exposure), rats previously exposed to CPF, but not DFP, were impaired in a radial arm maze (RAM) win-shift task as well as a delayed non-match to position procedure. Later experiments (i.e., beginning 140 days after the last OP exposure) revealed impairments in the acquisition of a water maze hidden platform task associated with both OPs. However, only rats previously exposed to DFP were impaired in a second phase of testing when the platform location was changed (indicative of deficits of cognitive flexibility). These results indicate, therefore, that repeated, subthreshold exposures to CPF and DFP may lead to chronic deficits in spatial learning and memory (i.e., long after cholinesterase inhibition has abated) and that insecticide and alkylphosphate-based OPs may have differential effects depending on the cognitive domain evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Female Sexual Dysfunction in the Late Postpartum Period Among Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargin, M. A.; Yassa, M.; Taymur, B. D.; Akca, G.; Tug, N.; Taymur, B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the status of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) between women with a history of previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and those with follow-up of a healthy pregnancy, using the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from September to December 2015. Methodology: Healthy sexually active adult parous females were included. Participants were asked to complete the validated Turkish versions of the FSFI and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaires. Student's t-test was used for two-group comparisons of normally distributed variables and quantitative data. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for two-group comparisons of non-normally distributed variables. Pearson's chi-squared test, the Fisher-Freeman-Halton test, Fisher's exact test, and Yates' continuity correction test were used for comparison of qualitative data. Results: The mean FSFI scores of the 179 participants was 23.50 +- 3.94. FSFI scores and scores of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were not statistically significantly different (p>0.05), according to a history of GDM and types of FSD (none, mild, severe). HADS scores and anxiety and depression types did not statistically significantly differ according to the history of GDM (p>0.05). Conclusion: An association could not be found in FSFI scores between participants with both the history of previous GDM and with healthy pregnancy; subclinical sexual dysfunction may be observed in the late postpartum period among women with a history of previous GDM. This may adversely affect their sexual health. (author)

  14. Effect of previous exposure to hbv on liver histology and treatment response in chc patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the influence of previous exposure to HBV on liver histology and treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Rawalian Liver Clinic, Department of Medicine, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2011 to December 2012. Methodology: Medical records of CHC patients attending the Rawalian Liver Clinic were retrospectively analyzed. Virological and treatment responses along with histological changes were compared between cases (anti-HBc positive) and controls (anti-HBc negative). Significance was determined through chi-square test at p < 0.05. Results: Among the 592 CHC patients, 254 (42.9%) had serological evidence of a positive anti-HBc (cases) and 338 (57.1%), patients had negative anti-HBc (controls). No significant difference was found between ETR, SVR and treatment responses (n=220) between the two groups. Out of 65 patients whose liver biopsy data was available, cases were more likely to respond in the absence of fibrosis (63.2%, (n=24) vs. 36.8%, (n=14), p=0.001). The controls responded more in the presence of fibrosis (100% (n=9) vs. 0, p=0.001). There was no significant effect of anti-HBc positivity on grades of inflammation and consequent treatment response (p=0.14). Conclusion: There are a significant number of CHC patients with markers of previous HBV infection in Pakistani population. Previous HBV (anti-HBc positive) does not seem to have an adverse effect on liver histology and treatment responses in HBV infection. (author)

  15. Treatment response with mepolizumab in severe eosinophilic asthma patients with previous omalizumab treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, A; Bourdin, A; Prazma, C M; Albers, F C; Price, R G; Yancey, S W; Ortega, H

    2016-09-01

    We performed post hoc analyses to evaluate the effect of humanized monoclonal antibody mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma previously treated with omalizumab. Data were collected from two randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled studies: MENSA (NCT01691521: 32-week treatment phase) and SIRIUS (NCT01691508: 24-week treatment phase). Active treatment was 75 mg intravenous mepolizumab (MENSA) or 100 mg subcutaneous mepolizumab (MENSA, SIRIUS). Patients had evidence of eosinophilic inflammation ≥150 cells/μl (at screening) or ≥300 cells/μl (during the previous year). Primary outcomes were the rate of exacerbations (MENSA) and the percentage reduction in oral corticosteroid (OCS) dose (SIRIUS). Other outcomes included lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s and morning peak expiratory flow), Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-5), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores, and safety. Overall, 576 patients were included from MENSA and 135 from SIRIUS, with 13% and 33% previously receiving omalizumab, respectively. In MENSA, mepolizumab reduced the rate of exacerbations by 57% (prior omalizumab) and 47% (no prior omalizumab) vs placebo. In SIRIUS, reductions in OCS use were comparable regardless of prior omalizumab use. Despite reducing chronic OCS use, mepolizumab also resulted in similar reductions in exacerbation rate relative to placebo in both subgroups. Asthma control and quality of life improved with mepolizumab vs placebo in both studies independent of prior omalizumab use, as shown by ACQ-5 and SGRQ scores. Adverse events were also comparable irrespective of prior omalizumab use. These post hoc analyses indicate that patients with severe eosinophilic asthma respond positively to mepolizumab regardless of prior use of omalizumab. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Revision and simplification of the boarding previous minimum of the lumbar column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazannec, JY; Del Vecchio, R; Ramare, S; Saillant, G

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the boarding retroperineal previous minimum, which provides access at any level discal and vertebral between T12 and S1. It is carried out a technique of dissection retroperineal that facilitates the renal and duodenum-pancreatic mobilization to consent to the face previous left of the whole lumbar column and of the thoracic-lumbar union. They were carried out careful anatomical dissections in fresh cadavers and preserved to determine the topography and the anatomical relationships of interest and this way to develop a sure boarding and easily reproducible. Special attention has been paid to the description of the lumbar veins and the anastomosis between the vein renal left and the hemiacigos system for the exhibition of the expensive left anterolateral of T12 and L1. A series of 94 patients is reported with lesions caused by traumas or degenerative processes. For all the lumbar levels, even in-patient with antecedents of surgery intraperitoneal, the boarding minimum retroperitoneal, was safe for the kidneys, ureters, spleen, hypo gastric plexus and duodenum-pancreatic union. Better cosmetic results are reported, decrease of the time surgical, scarce bled intraoperatory and easiness for the decortications and placement of implants. The previous boarding minimum retro peritoneal of the column developed starting from the boarding classic retroperineals, offers significant advantages on the endoscopic techniques, which require sophisticated machinery and they are technically plaintiffs. The exhibition of all the lumbar levels, as well as the reduction maneuvers and placement of implants, they can be carried out with easiness without causing muscular damage

  17. Modified Latarjet Procedure Without Capsulolabral Repair for the Treatment of Failed Previous Operative Stabilizations in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalletta, Maximiliano; Rossi, Luciano A; Bertona, Agustin; Tanoira, Ignacio; Maignon, Gastón D; Bongiovanni, Santiago L

    2018-02-03

    To analyze time to return to sport, functional outcomes, and recurrences of the modified Latarjet procedure without capsulolabral repair in athletes with recurrent anterior shoulder instability after a failed previous operative stabilization. We included athletes with recurrent anterior shoulder instability with a previous failed operative stabilization treated with the modified Latarjet procedure without capsulolabral repair with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Return to sports, range of motion, the Rowe score, a visual analog scale for pain in sport activity, and the Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System were used to assess functional outcomes. Recurrences were also evaluated. The postoperative bone block position and consolidation were assessed with computed tomography. Between June 2008 and June 2015, 68 athletes were treated with the modified Latarjet procedure without capsulolabral reconstruction for recurrent shoulder instability after a previous failed stabilization surgery. The mean follow-up was 44 months (range, 24-108 months), and the mean age at the time of operation was 26.8 years (range, 17-35 years). All the patients returned to sports, and 95% returned to the same sport they practiced before the surgery, all to the same level. No significant difference in shoulder range of motion was found between preoperative and postoperative results. The Rowe score, visual analog scale, and Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System showed statistical improvement after operation (P Latarjet without capsulolabral repair produced excellent functional outcomes with most athletes returning to sport at the same level they had before the surgery without recurrences. Level IV, therapeutic, case series study. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Previous Preterm Birth and Current Maternal Complications as a Risk Factor of Subsequent Stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubakari Ibrahimou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the association between previous preterm birth and the risk of stillbirth. Methods. This population-based retrospective cohort study analyzed live births and stillbirth records in Missouri (1989–1997. The main outcome of interest was stillbirth occurrence while the exposures were prior preterm birth. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using logistic regression. Results. Women who had a previous preterm birth have 63% increased odds of stillbirth in singleton pregnancies and 75% increased odds in twins as compared to those who did not have a preterm birth in a prior pregnancy (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.41–1.88 and AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.20–2.56, respectively. The most significant risk factor for stillbirth in singleton pregnancies was uterine bleeding (AOR = 5.89, 95% CI = 5.13–6.76. In twin pregnancies, it was the condition hydramnios/oligohydramnios (AOR = 4.72, 95% CI = 3.70–6.02. Eclampsia was associated with a heightened risk of stillbirth in singletons (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.41–4.12, but not in twins (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.13–7.00. Black mothers were more likely than white to experience stillbirth (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.99–2.22 for singletons and AOR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.27–1.79 for twins. Conclusion. Stillbirth is a vital public health issue and its etiology is not well understood. Previous history of preterm birth was found to be associated with future stillbirth. Targeted early medical and obstetric care and interventions among women with preterm birth history may potentially reduce the likelihood of stillbirth.

  19. 29 CFR 779.369 - Funeral home establishments may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., long distance calls, newspaper notices, flowers, livery service, honoraria to participating personnel... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Funeral Homes § 779.369 Funeral home establishments may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2...

  20. Somatostatin receptor gene transfer inhibits established pancreatic cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celinski, Scott A; Fisher, William E; Amaya, Felipe; Wu, Yuan Qing; Yao, Q; Youker, Keith A; Li, Min

    2003-11-01

    Most human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells do not express somatostatin receptors, and somatostatin does not inhibit the growth of these cancers. We have demonstrated previously that somatostatin inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancers expressing somatostatin receptor subtype-2 (SSTR2), but not receptor-negative cancers. SSTR2 expression may be an important tumor-suppressor pathway that is lost in human pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that SSTR2 gene transfer would restore the growth-inhibitory response of human pancreatic cancer to somatostatin. Palpable human pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors were established on the backs of nude mice by subcutaneous injection of cultured cells (Panc-1). The animals were divided into 5 groups (n = 10/group). Group I served as an untreated control. Group II received an intramuscular injection of the long-acting somatostatin analogue Sandostatin LAR. Group III received Lac-Z expressing adenovirus via intraperitoneal injection. Group IV received SSTR2 expressing adenovirus via intraperitoneal injection. Group V received SSTR2 expressing adenovirus via intraperitoneal injection and an intramuscular injection of Sandostatin LAR. The rate of tumor growth was assessed with calipers. After 28 days, the animals were anesthetized and exsanguanated, and the tumors were excised and weighed. Plasma somatostatin and octreotide levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Expression of cell-surface somatostatin-receptor protein and known tumor-suppressor proteins was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Systemic delivery of SSTR2-expressing adenovirus by intraperitoneal injection resulted in expression of SSTR2 protein in the subcutaneous human pancreatic cancers. Final tumor weight was significantly decreased in the groups expressing SSTR2 receptors compared to the other 3 groups. Treatment with Sandostatin LAR increased plasma octreotide levels as determined by radioimmunoassay

  1. Adolescents' awareness and use of menu labels in eating establishments: results from a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra E; Weiss, Samantha R; Meath, Kerry J; Chow, Sherman; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Ness, Roberta B

    2016-04-01

    Menu labelling has been identified as a potential strategy to help individuals make healthier choices when eating out. Although adolescents eat out often, little research involving menu labelling has been conducted with this population. The objectives of the present study were to: (i) gather qualitative information from adolescents regarding use of menu labels when eating out; (ii) gather adolescents' suggestions for optimal ways to design menu labels; and (iii) examine differences between adolescents living in communities of different socio-economic status. Qualitative. Five focus groups of five to ten participants. Austin, TX, USA, 2012. Forty-one adolescents living in diverse communities recruited using a snowballing technique at public and private recreation centres (twenty-four females; twenty-two African American). Participants reported that menu labelling, in general, does not influence food selections when eating out. Among participants living in low-income communities, food purchases were based on price, taste and familiarity. Among participants living in high-income areas, food purchases were based on quality and ability to satiate (among boys). According to participants, effective ways to present menu labels are by matching calorie levels with physical activity equivalents or through simple graphics. For adolescents, providing menu labels in their current format may not be an effective strategy to increase healthy food selection. Given that the current menu label format has been set by federal policy in the USA cannot be easily changed, research to determine how this format can be best presented or enhanced so that it can have an impact on all US sub-populations is warranted.

  2. Usefullness of palatal rugae patterns in establishing identity: Preliminary results from Bengaluru city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Indira, AP; Gupta, Manish; David, Maria Priscilla

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Palatal rugoscopy is the name given to the study of palatal rugae. Rugae pattern are widely considered to remain unchanged during an individual′s lifetime. The rugae pattern has the potential to remain intact by virtue of their internal position in the head when most other anatomical structures are destroyed or burned. Moreover, rugae pattern are considered to be unique similar to fingerprints and are advocated in personal identification. Objectives: The purpose of the study is ...

  3. Department of Defense Plan to Establish Public Access to the Results of Federally Funded Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    industrial base and commercialization of DoD technologies will also benefit entrepreneurship , and enhance economic growth and job creation. Through...formatted scientific data.  Will coordinate a sustainable funding strategy to implement the projected policy.  Will coordinate the implementation of...will design, implement, and maintain a sustainable network of data management capabilities to enable discovery, appropriate use, and long term

  4. 75 FR 39192 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (Previously Utah State University), et al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    .... (Previously Jamie R. Hill and Southwest Florida Aviation); Tamarack Helicopters, Inc. (Previously Ranger... 6220: Main Rotor Head. Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on June 5, 2010. Mark R. Schilling, Acting Manager...

  5. Association of Aortic Valve Sclerosis with Previous Coronary Artery Disease and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Carvalho Marmelo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aortic valve sclerosis (AVS is characterized by increased thickness, calcification and stiffness of the aortic leaflets without fusion of the commissures. Several studies show an association between AVS and presence of coronary artery disease. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between presence of AVS with occurrence of previous coronary artery disease and classical risk factors. Methods: The sample was composed of 2,493 individuals who underwent transthoracic echocardiography between August 2011 and December 2012. The mean age of the cohort was 67.5 ± 15.9 years, and 50.7% were female. Results: The most frequent clinical indication for Doppler echocardiography was the presence of stroke (28.8%, and the most common risk factor was hypertension (60.8%. The most prevalent pathological findings on Doppler echocardiography were mitral valve sclerosis (37.1% and AVS (36.7%. There was a statistically significant association between AVS with hypertension (p < 0.001, myocardial infarction (p = 0.007, diabetes (p = 0.006 and compromised left ventricular systolic function (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Patients with AVS have higher prevalences of hypertension, stroke, hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction, diabetes and compromised left ventricular systolic function when compared with patients without AVS. We conclude that there is an association between presence of AVS with previous coronary artery disease and classical risk factors.

  6. Prevalence and titers of yellow fever virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Karina Takesaki; Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Simões, Marisol; Freire, Marcos da Silva; de Medeiros, Carlos Roberto; Braga, Patrícia Emilia; Neves, Maria Angélica Acalá; Lopes, Marta Heloisa; Kallas, Esper Georges; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends one single dose of the Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine based on studies of antibody persistency in healthy adults. We assessed the prevalence and titers of YF virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated persons aged ≥ 60 years, in comparison to younger adults. We also evaluated the correlation between antibody titers and the time since vaccination among participants who received one vaccine dose, and the seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. Methods: previously vaccinated healthy persons aged ≥ 18 years were included. YF virus neutralizing antibody titers were determined by means of the 50% Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. Results: 46 persons aged ≥ 60 years and 48 persons aged 18 to 59 years were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of YF virus neutralizing antibodies between the two groups (p = 0.263). However, titers were significantly lower in the elderly (p = 0.022). There was no correlation between YF virus neutralizing antibody titers and the time since vaccination. There was no significant difference in seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. Conclusions: the clinical relevance of the observed difference in YF virus neutralizing antibody titers between the two groups is not clear. PMID:28380113

  7. Type I Thyroplasty in Previously Irradiated Patients: Assessing Safety and Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosow, David E; Al-Bar, Mohammad H

    2015-10-01

    (1) Review and report our experience performing medialization thyroplasty (MT) in previously irradiated patients and (2) compare complications and voice outcomes in 2 cohorts (irradiated vs nonradiated) to evaluate safety and efficacy. Case series with chart review. Academic medical center. All patients (44 total) who underwent MT from 2011 to 2015. Demographic data, complications, and acoustic and subjective voice outcome parameters were collected. The complication rates and voice outcome results were compared between 2 cohorts: patients with a history of radiation to the neck versus those with no radiation history. There were 7 previously irradiated patients and 37 nonradiated patients, with median follow-up of 314 and 538 days, respectively. One complication was noted in each group, and this complication rate was not significantly different (P = .26). Both cohorts demonstrated significant postoperative improvement in subjective voice assessment (P = .04, P < .0001) as well as maximum phonation time (P = .02, .001) when compared with preoperative data. Our study suggests that MT can be safely and effectively performed in irradiated patients. We found no statistically significant difference in the safety of performing MT in irradiated versus nonradiated patients, and there was significant improvement in subjective voice parameters and maximum phonation time in both groups. A larger prospective study is required to statistically determine whether the significant improvements in objective parameters seen in the nonradiated group are present in irradiated patients as well. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  8. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. Methods: One hundred forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis. PMID:27975009

  9. Spinal Arachnoiditis as a Complication of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in Non-HIV Previously Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Mika; Kosa, Peter; Khan, Omar; Hammoud, Dima A.; Rosen, Lindsey B.; Browne, Sarah K.; Lin, Yen-Chih; Romm, Elena; Ramaprasad, Charu; Fries, Bettina C.; Bennett, John E.; Bielekova, Bibiana; Williamson, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology. Methods. We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. We performed detailed neurological exams, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunophenotyping and biomarker analysis before and after adjunctive immunomodulatory intervention with high dose pulse corticosteroids, affording causal inference into pathophysiology. Results. All 6 exhibited severe lower motor neuron involvement in addition to cognitive changes and gait disturbances from meningoencephalitis. Spinal involvement was associated with asymmetric weakness and urinary retention. Diagnostic specificity was improved by MRI imaging which demonstrated lumbar spinal nerve root enhancement and clumping or lesions. Despite negative fungal cultures, CSF inflammatory biomarkers, sCD27 and sCD21, as well as the neuronal damage biomarker, neurofilament light chain (NFL), were elevated compared to healthy donor (HD) controls. Elevations in these biomarkers were associated with clinical symptoms and showed improvement with adjunctive high dose pulse corticosteroids. Conclusions. These data suggest that a post-infectious spinal arachnoiditis is an important complication of CM in previously healthy individuals, requiring heightened clinician awareness. Despite microbiological control, this syndrome causes significant pathology likely due to increased inflammation and may be amenable to suppressive therapeutics. PMID:28011613

  10. Clinical outcomes of the addition of eccentrics for rehabilitation of previously failed treatments of golfers elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Timothy F; Nicholas, Stephen J; Schmitt, Brandon M; Mullaney, Michael; Hogan, Daniel E

    2014-05-01

    subject (15 full, 3 mostly, 1 occasionally, 1 none). The outcome measure for chronic medial epicondylosis was markedly improved with the addition of an eccentric wrist flexor exercise to standard physical therapy. Given the inconsistent outcomes for patients previously treated with chronic medial epicondylosis the addition of isolated eccentrics seems warranted based on the results of this study. This novel exercise, using an inexpensive rubber bar, provides a practical means of adding isolated eccentric training to the treatment of chronic medial epicondylosis. 2b.

  11. Intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy for previously irradiated advanced head and neck malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Subir; Schuller, David E.; Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Rodriguez-Villalba, Silvia; Grecula, John; Bauer, Constance

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: This is a retrospective review to evaluate the role of surgery and intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IOERT) in the treatment of patients with previously irradiated advanced head and neck cancers. Methods and Materials: Between January 1992 and March 1997, 38 patients (31 males, 7 females; median age of 62 years) with recurrent head and neck cancer were treated with maximal resection and IOERT at the Ohio State University (OSU). All had been previously treated with full-course radiotherapy (median 65.1 Gy, range 50-74.4 Gy). Twenty-nine patients (76%) had previously undergone one or more surgical procedures. After maximal surgery the tumor bed was treated with IOERT (single field in 36 patients and 2 fields in 2 patients), most commonly with 6 MeV electrons (87%). The dose administered (at 90% isodose line) was 15 Gy for close or microscopically positive margins in 34 patients and 20 Gy for gross disease in 1 patient. Further external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) was not given. Results: After a median follow-up of 30 months (range 8-39 months), 24 of the 38 patients (66%) recurred within the IOERT field. Median time to IOERT failure was 6 months (95% CI: 4.3-7.7). The 6-month, 1-, and 2-year control rates within the IOERT volume were 41%, 19%, and 13 %, respectively. Thirty of the 38 patients (79%) recurred in locoregional areas. Median time to locoregional failure was 4 months (95% CI: 3.3-4.7). The 6-month, 1-, and 2-year locoregional control rates were 33%, 11%, and 4%, respectively. Distant metastases occurred in 7 patients, 5 in association with IOERT failure and 2 with locoregional failure. Median overall survival was 7 months (95% CI: 4.7-9.3). The 6-month, 1-, 2-, and 3-year actuarial survival rates were 51%, 21%, 21%, and 8%, respectively. Major treatment-related complications occurred in 6 patients (16%). Conclusion: IOERT alone, at the dose used, is not sufficient for control of recurrent, previously irradiated head and neck cancers

  12. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disparate treatment of previously excluded or restricted groups or leave uncorrected the effects of prior... limited, (2) Leave uncorrected the effects of prior discrimination, or (3) Result in disparate treatment... treatment, or effect or past discrimination by providing opportunities for members of groups which have been...

  13. 12 CFR 563b.260 - May I use previously executed proxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I use previously executed proxies? 563b.260... FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Proxy Solicitation § 563b.260 May I use previously executed proxies? You may not use previously executed proxies for the plan of conversion vote. If members...

  14. 22 CFR 40.93 - Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present after previous... TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.93 Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation. An alien described...

  15. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of a previously submitted... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may... the citation is necessary. (b) Study previously submitted by another person. If the applicant is not...

  16. Establishment of a Nuclear Cooperation Network between Korea and Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Sohn, Dong Seong; Song, Kee Chan (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The objective of this study is to establish a personnel network and to identify potential complementary areas for technical cooperation in the future to advance Korean-Brazilian nuclear cooperation activities. To this end, current status of the cooperation in the areas of economy, energy resources and S and T between the two countries was surveyed, and the history of the nuclear development program and the current nuclear R and D status in Brazil, as well as the bilateral nuclear cooperation activities of both countries were analyzed. In addition, areas of mutual interest were identified by both countries' focal points and a personnel network was established. Based on the aforementioned preliminary activities, bilateral joint seminars were held in Brazil. At the joint seminars, possible areas of cooperation were discussed and joint research collaboration areas were surveyed and identified while both sides made efforts to expand the information and experts exchanges in specific areas. Through this study, possible specific areas of cooperation in which both sides have a common interest were identified in such areas as radiation technology application, post irradiation examination, radioactive waste management, I and C, and advanced nuclear fuel, and also concrete implementation methods were proposed. These results will be effectively utilized in establishing a basic direction for expanding bilateral nuclear cooperation activities in the future. Consistent establishment of a foundation for promoting cooperation could be established and maintained through the operation of a focal point in charge of coordinating bilateral technical cooperation, and then a long-term and stable human network could be established.

  17. Establishment of a Nuclear Cooperation Network between Korea and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Sohn, Dong Seong; Song, Kee Chan

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study is to establish a personnel network and to identify potential complementary areas for technical cooperation in the future to advance Korean-Brazilian nuclear cooperation activities. To this end, current status of the cooperation in the areas of economy, energy resources and S and T between the two countries was surveyed, and the history of the nuclear development program and the current nuclear R and D status in Brazil, as well as the bilateral nuclear cooperation activities of both countries were analyzed. In addition, areas of mutual interest were identified by both countries' focal points and a personnel network was established. Based on the aforementioned preliminary activities, bilateral joint seminars were held in Brazil. At the joint seminars, possible areas of cooperation were discussed and joint research collaboration areas were surveyed and identified while both sides made efforts to expand the information and experts exchanges in specific areas. Through this study, possible specific areas of cooperation in which both sides have a common interest were identified in such areas as radiation technology application, post irradiation examination, radioactive waste management, I and C, and advanced nuclear fuel, and also concrete implementation methods were proposed. These results will be effectively utilized in establishing a basic direction for expanding bilateral nuclear cooperation activities in the future. Consistent establishment of a foundation for promoting cooperation could be established and maintained through the operation of a focal point in charge of coordinating bilateral technical cooperation, and then a long-term and stable human network could be established

  18. Enceladus Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Here are some results from the Spectra Decomposition Algorithm on infrared spectral images of Saturn's moon Enceladus. Figure 1 is the spatial contribution of the...

  19. 1998 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the financial and commercial results of Gaz de France (GdF) company for 1998. The following points are presented successively: financial results (budget results, turnover, self-financing capacity, investments, debt situation), commercial results (some remarkable numbers and records, the tertiary and residential market, the industrial market, cogeneration and natural gas for vehicles), the strategy, 1998 realizations and perspectives (the natural gas energy in the 21. century, the development of GdF, the gas distribution and services (development of the French distribution system, export of the know-how, development of services), the transportation and storage systems threw Europe (densification of the pipeline network, the key-position of France, the north-south equilibrium of the distribution network), the natural gas production by GdF, the diversification of supplies, and the main daughter companies abroad). (J.S.)

  20. Predicting invasiveness of species in trade: Climate match, trophic guild and fecundity influence establishment and impact of non-native freshwater fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howeth, Jennifer G.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Angermeier, Paul; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Hoff, Michael H.; Keller, Reuben P.; Mandrak, Nicholas E.; Marchetti, Michael P.; Olden, Julian D.; Romagosa, Christina M.; Lodge, David M.

    2016-01-01

    AimImpacts of non-native species have motivated development of risk assessment tools for identifying introduced species likely to become invasive. Here, we develop trait-based models for the establishment and impact stages of freshwater fish invasion, and use them to screen non-native species common in international trade. We also determine which species in the aquarium, biological supply, live bait, live food and water garden trades are likely to become invasive. Results are compared to historical patterns of non-native fish establishment to assess the relative importance over time of pathways in causing invasions.LocationLaurentian Great Lakes region.MethodsTrait-based classification trees for the establishment and impact stages of invasion were developed from data on freshwater fish species that established or failed to establish in the Great Lakes. Fishes in trade were determined from import data from Canadian and United States regulatory agencies, assigned to specific trades and screened through the developed models.ResultsClimate match between a species’ native range and the Great Lakes region predicted establishment success with 75–81% accuracy. Trophic guild and fecundity predicted potential harmful impacts of established non-native fishes with 75–83% accuracy. Screening outcomes suggest the water garden trade poses the greatest risk of introducing new invasive species, followed by the live food and aquarium trades. Analysis of historical patterns of introduction pathways demonstrates the increasing importance of these trades relative to other pathways. Comparisons among trades reveal that model predictions parallel historical patterns; all fishes previously introduced from the water garden trade have established. The live bait, biological supply, aquarium and live food trades have also contributed established non-native fishes.Main conclusionsOur models predict invasion risk of potential fish invaders to the Great Lakes region and could help managers