WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously discovered li2cu3si4o12

  1. Kanyawara Virus: A Novel Rhabdovirus Infecting Newly Discovered Nycteribiid Bat Flies Infesting Previously Unknown Pteropodid Bats in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Tony L; Bennett, Andrew J; Kityo, Robert; Kuhn, Jens H; Chapman, Colin A

    2017-07-13

    Bats are natural reservoir hosts of highly virulent pathogens such as Marburg virus, Nipah virus, and SARS coronavirus. However, little is known about the role of bat ectoparasites in transmitting and maintaining such viruses. The intricate relationship between bats and their ectoparasites suggests that ectoparasites might serve as viral vectors, but evidence to date is scant. Bat flies, in particular, are highly specialized obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that incidentally bite humans. Using next-generation sequencing, we discovered a novel ledantevirus (mononegaviral family Rhabdoviridae, genus Ledantevirus) in nycteribiid bat flies infesting pteropodid bats in western Uganda. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that both the bat flies and their bat hosts belong to putative new species. The coding-complete genome of the new virus, named Kanyawara virus (KYAV), is only distantly related to that of its closest known relative, Mount Elgon bat virus, and was found at high titers in bat flies but not in blood or on mucosal surfaces of host bats. Viral genome analysis indicates unusually low CpG dinucleotide depletion in KYAV compared to other ledanteviruses and rhabdovirus groups, with KYAV displaying values similar to rhabdoviruses of arthropods. Our findings highlight the possibility of a yet-to-be-discovered diversity of potentially pathogenic viruses in bat ectoparasites.

  2. Discovering Wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Aboufadel, Edward

    1999-01-01

    An accessible and practical introduction to wavelets. With applications in image processing, audio restoration, seismology, and elsewhere, wavelets have been the subject of growing excitement and interest over the past several years. Unfortunately, most books on wavelets are accessible primarily to research mathematicians. Discovering Wavelets presents basic and advanced concepts of wavelets in a way that is accessible to anyone with only a fundamental knowledge of linear algebra. The basic concepts of wavelet theory are introduced in the context of an explanation of how the FBI uses wavelets

  3. Discovering Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Andersen, J.; Antipin, O.; Azuelos, G.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a pedagogical introduction to extensions of the Standard Model in which the Higgs is composite. These extensions are known as models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking or, in brief, Technicolor. Material covered includes: motivations for Technicolor, the construction of underly...... the relevant experimental benchmarks for Vanilla, Running, Walking, and Custodial Technicolor, and a natural fourth family of leptons, by laying out the framework to discover these models at the Large Hadron Collider....... of underlying gauge theories leading to minimal models of Technicolor, the comparison with electroweak precision data, the low energy effective theory, the spectrum of the states common to most of the Technicolor models, the decays of the composite particles and the experimental signals at the Large Hadron...... Collider. The level of the presentation is aimed at readers familiar with the Standard Model but who have little or no prior exposure to Technicolor. Several extensions of the Standard Model featuring a composite Higgs can be reduced to the effective Lagrangian introduced in the text. We establish...

  4. Chandra Discovers Cosmic Cannonball

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    One of the fastest moving stars ever seen has been discovered with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This cosmic cannonball is challenging theories to explain its blistering speed. Astronomers used Chandra to observe a neutron star, known as RX J0822-4300, over a period of about five years. During that span, three Chandra observations clearly show the neutron star moving away from the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. This remnant is the stellar debris field created during the same explosion in which the neutron star was created about 3700 years ago. Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A By combining how far it has moved across the sky with its distance from Earth, astronomers determined the neutron star is moving at over 3 million miles per hour. At this rate, RX J0822-4300 is destined to escape from the Milky Way after millions of years, even though it has only traveled about 20 light years so far. "This star is moving at 3 million miles an hour, but it's so far away that the apparent motion we see in five years is less than the height of the numerals in the date on a penny, seen from the length of a football field," said Frank Winkler of Middlebury College in Vermont. "It's remarkable, and a real testament to the power of Chandra, that such a tiny motion can be measured." Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A "Just after it was born, this neutron star got a one-way ticket out of the Galaxy," said co-author Robert Petre of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "Astronomers have seen other stars being flung out of the Milky Way, but few as fast as this." So-called hypervelocity stars have been previously discovered shooting out of the Milky Way with speeds around one million miles per hour. One key difference between RX J0822-4300 and these other reported galactic escapees is the source of their speed. The hypervelocity stars are

  5. Lightest exoplanet yet discovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Well-known exoplanet researcher Michel Mayor today announced the discovery of the lightest exoplanet found so far. The planet, "e", in the famous system Gliese 581, is only about twice the mass of our Earth. The team also refined the orbit of the planet Gliese 581 d, first discovered in 2007, placing it well within the habitable zone, where liquid water oceans could exist. These amazing discoveries are the outcome of more than four years of observations using the most successful low-mass-exoplanet hunter in the world, the HARPS spectrograph attached to the 3.6-metre ESO telescope at La Silla, Chile. ESO PR Photo 15a/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Photo 15b/09 A planet in the habitable zone ESO PR Video 15a/09 ESOcast 6 ESO PR Video 15b/09 VNR A-roll ESO PR Video 15c/09 Zoom-in on Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15d/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15e/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 d ESO PR Video 15f/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 system ESO PR Video 15g/09 The radial velocity method ESO PR Video 15h/09 Statement in English ESO PR Video 15i/09 Statement in French ESO PR Video 15j/09 La Silla Observatory "The holy grail of current exoplanet research is the detection of a rocky, Earth-like planet in the ‘habitable zone' -- a region around the host star with the right conditions for water to be liquid on a planet's surface", says Michel Mayor from the Geneva Observatory, who led the European team to this stunning breakthrough. Planet Gliese 581 e orbits its host star - located only 20.5 light-years away in the constellation Libra ("the Scales") -- in just 3.15 days. "With only 1.9 Earth-masses, it is the least massive exoplanet ever detected and is, very likely, a rocky planet", says co-author Xavier Bonfils from Grenoble Observatory. Being so close to its host star, the planet is not in the habitable zone. But another planet in this system appears to be. From previous observations -- also obtained with the HARPS spectrograph

  6. Students Discover Unique Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Three undergraduate students, from Leiden University in the Netherlands, have discovered an extrasolar planet. The extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is also the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 45a/08 A planet around a hot star The students were testing a method of investigating the light fluctuations of thousands of stars in the OGLE database in an automated way. The brightness of one of the stars was found to decrease for two hours every 2.5 days by about one percent. Follow-up observations, taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, confirmed that this phenomenon is caused by a planet passing in front of the star, blocking part of the starlight at regular intervals. According to Ignas Snellen, supervisor of the research project, the discovery was a complete surprise. "The project was actually meant to teach the students how to develop search algorithms. But they did so well that there was time to test their algorithm on a so far unexplored database. At some point they came into my office and showed me this light curve. I was completely taken aback!" The students, Meta de Hoon, Remco van der Burg, and Francis Vuijsje, are very enthusiastic. "It is exciting not just to find a planet, but to find one as unusual as this one; it turns out to be the first planet discovered around a fast rotating star, and it's also the hottest star found with a planet," says Meta. "The computer needed more than a thousand hours to do all the calculations," continues Remco. The planet is given the prosaic name OGLE2-TR-L9b. "But amongst ourselves we call it ReMeFra-1, after Remco, Meta, and myself," says Francis. The planet was discovered by looking at the brightness variations of about 15 700 stars, which had been observed by the OGLE survey once or twice per night for about four years between 1997 and 2000. Because the data had been made public

  7. Discovering Phonemes of Bidayuh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jecky Misieng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are generally three views of the notion of a phoneme. The structuralist view of the phoneme focuses on this language phenomenon as a phonetic reality. In discovering phonemes of a language, phonologists who hold this view will look for minimal contrasting pairs as a way to determine contrasting sounds of that language. They will also look for allophones or two sounds of the same phoneme which may appear in complementary distribution. This paper will discuss the possible application of the structuralist approach to analyzing the phonemes of a dialect of Bidayuh, one of the Malayo-Polynesian languages spoken in the northern region of Borneo.

  8. Discovering system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  9. Discovering hidden viral piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eddo; Kliger, Yossef

    2005-12-01

    Viruses and developers of anti-inflammatory therapies share a common interest in proteins that manipulate the immune response. Large double-stranded DNA viruses acquire host proteins to evade host defense mechanisms. Hence, viral pirated proteins may have a therapeutic potential. Although dozens of viral piracy events have already been identified, we hypothesized that sequence divergence impedes the discovery of many others. We developed a method to assess the number of viral/human homologs and discovered that at least 917 highly diverged homologs are hidden in low-similarity alignment hits that are usually ignored. However, these low-similarity homologs are masked by many false alignment hits. We therefore applied a filtering method to increase the proportion of viral/human homologous proteins. The homologous proteins we found may facilitate functional annotation of viral and human proteins. Furthermore, some of these proteins play a key role in immune modulation and are therefore therapeutic protein candidates.

  10. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanavichit, Apichart [Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen, Nakorn Pathom (Thailand)

    2002-02-01

    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  11. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanavichit, Apichart

    2002-01-01

    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  12. Discovering Potential Correlations via Hypercontractivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeji; Gao, Weihao; Kannan, Sreeram; Oh, Sewoong; Viswanath, Pramod

    2017-11-01

    Discovering a correlation from one variable to another variable is of fundamental scientific and practical interest. While existing correlation measures are suitable for discovering average correlation, they fail to discover hidden or potential correlations. To bridge this gap, (i) we postulate a set of natural axioms that we expect a measure of potential correlation to satisfy; (ii) we show that the rate of information bottleneck, i.e., the hypercontractivity coefficient, satisfies all the proposed axioms; (iii) we provide a novel estimator to estimate the hypercontractivity coefficient from samples; and (iv) we provide numerical experiments demonstrating that this proposed estimator discovers potential correlations among various indicators of WHO datasets, is robust in discovering gene interactions from gene expression time series data, and is statistically more powerful than the estimators for other correlation measures in binary hypothesis testing of canonical examples of potential correlations.

  13. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  14. Discovering Hands - México

    OpenAIRE

    Salamanca Cárdenas, Daniela; Castelblanco Domínguez, Junio Andrés; Aguilar Ardila, Laura Andrea

    2016-01-01

    El modelo de Discovering Hands ha sido reconocido internacionalmente como un proyecto innovador que se ha expandido por diferentes países del mundo, como Austria, y se ha empezado a estudiar la propuesta en países como República Checa, India y Colombia. (Discovering Hands, 2016). Esto se debe a que no solo mejora el tratamiento de cáncer de mama, sino que también reduce los costos totales de tratamiento de la enfermedad y aumenta la fuerza laborar de los países donde esté presente. Al represe...

  15. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  16. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  17. Discovering evolution equations with applications

    CERN Document Server

    McKibben, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Most existing books on evolution equations tend either to cover a particular class of equations in too much depth for beginners or focus on a very specific research direction. Thus, the field can be daunting for newcomers to the field who need access to preliminary material and behind-the-scenes detail. Taking an applications-oriented, conversational approach, Discovering Evolution Equations with Applications: Volume 2-Stochastic Equations provides an introductory understanding of stochastic evolution equations. The text begins with hands-on introductions to the essentials of real and stochast

  18. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  19. Who discovered the sylvian fissure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collice, Massimo; Collice, Rosa; Riva, Alessandro

    2008-10-01

    Cerebral convolutions were unknown until the 17th century. A constant sulcus was not recognized until the mid-1600s; it was named "the fissure of Sylvius," after the person who had always been considered as the one who discovered it. It is commonly asserted that the first description of the lateral scissure was made by Caspar Bartholin, who attributed its discovery to Sylvius. However, this was not actually the case, as Caspar Bartholin died in 1629, whereas Sylvius started studying medicine in 1632. The description could have been made either by Caspar Bartholin's son Thomas or by Sylvius himself. Irrespective of the description's author, the key to the history of the lateral fissure is that it was first identified by Fabrici d'Acquapendente in 1600, 40 years before Sylvius' description. In one of the 300 colored plates (Tabulae Pictae) by Fabrici, the lateral fissure is perfectly depicted, as are the temporal convolutions. Therefore, even if it was an accidental discovery, Fabrici should be the one noted as having discovered the fissure. This article ends with a short history of the plates. They were painted in oil on paper and were thought to further a great work, the Theatrum Totius Animalis Fabricae, which was begun in 1591 and never completed or published. Only the colored illustrations of this project remain. These plates were forgotten for more than 200 years, until they were rediscovered by Giuseppe Sterzi in 1909. They are among the best examples of anatomic iconography in terms of innovation, accuracy, and artistic accomplishment.

  20. Discovering Hidden Analogies in an Online Humanities Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing upon an efficacious method for discovering previously unknown causes of medical syndromes and searching in the Humanities Index, an illuminating new humanities analogy between the epistemological ideas of Robert Frost and the ancient Greek philosopher Carneades was found by constructing a search statement in which proper names were coupled…

  1. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  2. Decision mining revisited - Discovering overlapping rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, Felix; De Leoni, Massimiliano; Reijers, Hajo A.; Van Der Aalst, Wil M P

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  3. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar

  4. The discovered preference hypothesis - an empirical test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Using stated preference methods for valuation of non-market goods is known to be vulnerable to a range of biases. Some authors claim that these so-called anomalies in effect render the methods useless for the purpose. However, the Discovered Preference Hypothesis, as put forth by Plott [31], offe...

  5. Did Viking discover life on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible.

  6. Discovering Science through Art-Based Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Art and science are intrinsically linked; the essence of art and science is discovery. Both artists and scientists work in a systematic but creative way--knowledge and understanding are built up through pieces of art or a series of labs. In the classroom, integrating science and visual art can provide students with the latitude to think, discover,…

  7. Discovering English with the Sketch Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    "Discovering English with the Sketch Engine" is the title of a new book (Thomas, 2014) which introduces the use of corpora in language study, teaching, writing and translating. It focuses on using the Sketch Engine to identify patterns of normal usage in many aspects of English ranging from morphology to discourse and pragmatics. This…

  8. Fine-mapping of lipid regions in global populations discovers ethnic-specific signals and refines previously identified lipid loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Niha; Luis Ambite, Jose; Bush, William S.; Kichaev, Gleb; Lu, Yingchang; Manichaikul, Ani; Sheu, Wayne H-H.; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Buzkova, Petra; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chung, Ren-Hua; Cochran, Barbara; Dumitrescu, Logan; Gottesman, Omri; Haessler, Jeffrey W.; Haiman, Christopher; Heiss, Gerardo; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hung, Yi-Jen; Hwu, Chii-Min; Juang, Jyh-Ming J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lin, Li-An; Lin, Danyu; Lin, Shih-Yi; Mackey, Rachel H.; Martin, Lisa W.; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Peters, Ulrike; Predazzi, Irene; Quertermous, Thomas; Reiner, Alex P.; Robinson, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I.; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Stahl, Eli; Tao, Ran; Tsai, Michael Y.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Buyske, Steven; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Cheng, Iona; Crawford, Dana C.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Rich, Stephen S.; Fornage, Myriam; North, Kari E.; Kooperberg, Charles; Carty, Cara L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Genome-wide association studies have identified over 150 loci associated with lipid traits, however, no large-scale studies exist for Hispanics and other minority populations. Additionally, the genetic architecture of lipid-influencing loci remains largely unknown. We performed one of the most racially/ethnically diverse fine-mapping genetic studies of HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides to-date using SNPs on the MetaboChip array on 54,119 individuals: 21,304 African Americans, 19,829 Hispanic Americans, 12,456 Asians, and 530 American Indians. The majority of signals found in these groups generalize to European Americans. While we uncovered signals unique to racial/ethnic populations, we also observed systematically consistent lipid associations across these groups. In African Americans, we identified three novel signals associated with HDL-C (LPL, APOA5, LCAT) and two associated with LDL-C (ABCG8, DHODH). In addition, using this population, we refined the location for 16 out of the 58 known MetaboChip lipid loci. These results can guide tailored screening efforts, reveal population-specific responses to lipid-lowering medications, and aid in the development of new targeted drug therapies. PMID:28426890

  9. Discovering Recurrent Image Semantics from Class Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Jesse S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supervised statistical learning has become a critical means to design and learn visual concepts (e.g., faces, foliage, buildings, etc. in content-based indexing systems. The drawback of this approach is the need of manual labeling of regions. While several automatic image annotation methods proposed recently are very promising, they usually rely on the availability and analysis of associated text descriptions. In this paper, we propose a hybrid learning framework to discover local semantic regions and generate their samples for training of local detectors with minimal human intervention. A multiscale segmentation-free framework is proposed to embed the soft presence of discovered semantic regions and local class patterns in an image independently for indexing and matching. Based on 2400 heterogeneous consumer images with 16 semantic queries, both similarity matching based on individual index and integrated similarity matching have outperformed a feature fusion approach by 26% and 37% in average precisions, respectively.

  10. Discovering More Accurate Frequent Web Usage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Murat Ali; Toroslu, Ismail Hakki; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven

    2008-01-01

    Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns disc...

  11. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst. Seem. (Scrophulariaceae, native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L. E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae, native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  12. Tools and strategies for discovering novel enzymes and metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Gerlt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of entries in the sequence databases continues to increase exponentially – the UniProt database is increasing with a doubling time of ∼4 years (2% increase/month. Approximately 50% of the entries have uncertain, unknown, or incorrect function annotations because these are made by automated methods based on sequence homology. If the potential in complete genome sequences is to be realized, strategies and tools must be developed to facilitate experimental assignment of functions to uncharacterized proteins discovered in genome projects. The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI; previously supported by U54GM093342 from the National Institutes of Health, now supported by P01GM118303 developed web tools for visualizing and analyzing (1 sequence and function space in protein families (EFI-EST and (2 genome neighbourhoods in microbial and fungal genomes (EFI-GNT to assist the design of experimental strategies for discovering the in vitro activities and in vivo metabolic functions of uncharacterized enzymes. The EFI developed an experimental platform for large-scale production of the solute binding proteins (SBPs for ABC, TRAP, and TCT transport systems and their screening with a physical ligand library to identify the identities of the ligands for these transport systems. Because the genes that encode transport systems are often co-located with the genes that encode the catabolic pathways for the transported solutes, the identity of the SBP ligand together with the EFI-EST and EFI-GNT web tools can be used to discover new enzyme functions and new metabolic pathways. This approach is demonstrated with the characterization of a novel pathway for ethanolamine catabolism.

  13. Discovering Data in the Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Tom; Hinshaw, D.; Rogers, A.; Wallace, G.

    2013-01-01

    We present the VAO Data Discovery Tool, a web-based application for discovering data from thousands of astronomical collections and archives around the world. Using protocols defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), the Data Discovery Tool can search those widely distributed resources and present the results in a single unified web page. A powerful filtering mechanism allows the user to quickly narrow the initial results to a short list of likely applicable data. Guidance on choosing appropriate data sets is provided by a variety of integrated displays, including an interactive data table, basic histograms and scatter plots, and an all-sky browser/visualizer with observation and catalog overlays. Data discovered through the tool can be downloaded or exported directly to other VO-aware tools for further analysis. The VAO Data Discovery Tool is being developed as a joint effort between the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) and the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO). MAST is a NASA funded project to support and provide to the astronomical community a variety of astronomical data archives, and is located at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). The VAO was established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  14. The Universe for all to discover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Ballesteros, F.; Espinós, H.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Lanzara, M.; Moya, M. J.; Navarro, J.

    2015-05-01

    In the title of this paper, we have changed the slogan of the International Year of Astronomy, ``The Universe yours to discover" to ``The Universe for all to discover" in order to emphasize the need to think about broader audiences when we plan astronomical activities at school or during outreach events. The strategy we propose follows what is known as the Universal Design for Learning (UDL). UDL allows to reach to the general public as well as to audiences which might be regarded as ``special" because they have some disability. It has been shown that everybody has a preferred style of learning (some remember better what they see, others what they hear or what they touch) and therefore, everybody is more or less able under the different styles of learning. Through this talk I am going to outline some of the principles of the UDL that can be applied in the teaching and communication of Astronomy, along with an example of its implementation in the project ``A Touch of the Universe".

  15. More Far-Side Deep Moonquake Nests Discovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Jackson, John A.; Jackson, Katherine G.

    2004-01-01

    As reported last year, we started to reanalyze the seismic data acquired from 1969 to 1977 with a network of stations established on the Moon during the Apollo mission. The reason for the reanalysis was because recent advances in computer technology make it possible to employ much more sophisticated analysis techniques than was possible previously. The primary objective of the reanalysis was to search for deep moonquakes on the far side of the Moon and, if found, to use them to infer the structure of the Moon's deep interior, including a possible central core. The first step was to identify any new deep moonquakes that escaped our earlier search by applying a combination of waveform cross-correlation and single-link cluster analysis, and then to see if any of them are from previously unknown nests of deep moonquakes. We positively identified 7245 deep moonquakes, more than a five-fold increase from the previous 1360. We also found at least 88 previously unknown deep-moonquake nests. The question was whether any of these newly discovered nets were on the far side of the Moon, and we now report that our analysis of the data indicates that some of them are indeed on the far side.

  16. Cooperative transcription factor associations discovered using regulatory variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewski, Konrad J; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Landt, Stephen G; Yang, Xinqiong; Slifer, Teri; Altman, Russ B; Snyder, Michael

    2011-08-09

    Regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level is achieved by complex interactions of transcription factors operating at their target genes. Dissecting the specific combination of factors that bind each target is a significant challenge. Here, we describe in detail the Allele Binding Cooperativity test, which uses variation in transcription factor binding among individuals to discover combinations of factors and their targets. We developed the ALPHABIT (a large-scale process to hunt for allele binding interacting transcription factors) pipeline, which includes statistical analysis of binding sites followed by experimental validation, and demonstrate that this method predicts transcription factors that associate with NFκB. Our method successfully identifies factors that have been known to work with NFκB (E2A, STAT1, IRF2), but whose global coassociation and sites of cooperative action were not known. In addition, we identify a unique coassociation (EBF1) that had not been reported previously. We present a general approach for discovering combinatorial models of regulation and advance our understanding of the genetic basis of variation in transcription factor binding.

  17. Discovering Multidimensional Structure in Relational Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikael Rune; Holmgren, Thomas; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2004-01-01

    tools are available. In this paper we present an approach for the automatic construction of multidimensional OLAP database schemas from existing relational OLTP databases, enabling easy OLAP design and analysis for most existing data sources. This is achieved through a set of practical and effective......On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) systems based on multidimensional databases are essential elements of decision support. However, most existing data is stored in “ordinary” relational OLTP databases, i.e., data has to be (re-) modeled as multidimensional cubes before the advantages of OLAP...... algorithms for discovering multidimensional schemas from relational databases. The algorithms take a wide range of available metadata into account in the discovery process, including functional and inclusion dependencies, and key and cardinality information....

  18. Discovering new information in bibliographic databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Hudomalj

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Databases contain information that can usually not be revealed by standard query systems. For that purpose, the methods for knowledge discovery from databases can be applied, which enable the user to browse aggregated data, discover trends, produce online reports, explore possible new associations within the data etc. Such methods are successfully employed in various fields, such as banking, insurance and telecommunications, while they are seldom used in libraries. The article reviews the development of query systems for bibliographic databases, including some early attempts to apply modern knowledge discovery methods. Analytical databases are described in more detail, since they usually serve as the basis for knowledge discovery. Data mining approaches are presented, since they are a central step in the knowledge discovery process. The key role of librarians who can play a key part in developing systems for finding new information in existing bibliographic databases is stressed.

  19. Newly discovered insect RNA viruses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yang; Wang, ZhaoWei; Liu, YongXiang; Qi, Nan; Si, Jie; Xiang, Xue; Xia, XiaoLing; Hu, YuanYang; Zhou, Xi

    2013-08-01

    Insects are a group of arthropods and the largest group of animals on Earth, with over one million species described to date. Like other life forms, insects suffer from viruses that cause disease and death. Viruses that are pathogenic to beneficial insects cause dramatic economic losses on agriculture. In contrast, viruses that are pathogenic to insect pests can be exploited as attractive biological control agents. All of these factors have led to an explosion in the amount of research into insect viruses in recent years, generating impressive quantities of information on the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses. Due to the wide variety of insect viruses, a better understanding of these viruses will expand our overall knowledge of their virology. Here, we review studies of several newly discovered RNA insect viruses in China.

  20. Discovering, Indexing and Interlinking Information Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Fabrizio; Keizer, Johannes; Jaques, Yves; Konstantopoulos, Stasinos; Vudragović, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    The social media revolution is having a dramatic effect on the world of scientific publication. Scientists now publish their research interests, theories and outcomes across numerous channels, including personal blogs and other thematic web spaces where ideas, activities and partial results are discussed. Accordingly, information systems that facilitate access to scientific literature must learn to cope with this valuable and varied data, evolving to make this research easily discoverable and available to end users. In this paper we describe the incremental process of discovering web resources in the domain of agricultural science and technology. Making use of Linked Open Data methodologies, we interlink a wide array of custom-crawled resources with the AGRIS bibliographic database in order to enrich the user experience of the AGRIS website. We also discuss the SemaGrow Stack, a query federation and data integration infrastructure used to estimate the semantic distance between crawled web resources and AGRIS.

  1. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two months, so a new course of action can be taken. Hereby, we expand the window of opportunity for organizations and facilitate successful navigation even though the world behaves chaotically. Since sentinel rules are at the schema level as opposed to the data level, and operate on data changes as opposed to absolute data values, we are able to discover strong and useful sentinel rules that would otherwise be hidden when using sequential pattern mining or correlation techniques. We present a method for sentinel rule discovery and an implementation of this method that scales linearly on large data volumes.

  2. Discovering the Library with Google Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Brenner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Libraries need to provide attractive and exciting discovery tools to draw patrons to the valuable resources in their catalogs. The authors conducted a pilot project to explore the free version of Google Earth as such a discover tool for Portland State Library’s digital collection of urban planning documents. They created eye-catching placemarks with links to parts of this collection, as well as to other pertinent materials like books, images, and historical background information. The detailed how-to-do part of this article is preceded by a discussion about discovery of library materials and followed by possible applications of this Google Earth project.

  3. Discovering Self: Childbearing Adolescents' Maternal Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Janelle; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and motherhood have long been a topic of interest for many healthcare professionals. However, there are limited data on how childbearing adolescents incorporate motherhood identity into their sense of self. The purpose of this study was to explore how childbearing adolescents perceive motherhood as becoming part of their personal identity. This qualitative study using ethnographic data collection involved 7 months of observation, interaction, and interviews. Data were collected from nine expectant adolescents during in-depth interviews. All participants were patients at a teen mother and child clinic staffed by certified nurse midwives and a pediatrician. Narrative content analysis revealed the overall theme of discovering self, with three major themes: confirming the pregnancy, the loss of my body, and imagining my child in my arms. Adolescent mothers may need assistance to construct their maternal identity in order to strengthen self-perceptions and improve maternal/child outcomes.

  4. How did Archimedes discover the law of buoyancy by experiment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Hidetaka

    2016-03-01

    After Archimedes and Vitruvius era, for more than 2000 years, it has been believed that the displaced water measurement of golden crown is impossible, and at his Eureka moment, Archimedes discovered the law of buoyancy (Proposition 7 of his principles) and proved the theft of a goldsmith by weighing the golden crown in water. A previous study showed that a small amount of displaced water was able to be measured with enough accuracy by the introduced method. Archimedes measured the weight of displaced water. He did not find the law of buoyancy but rather specific gravity of things at the moment. After which, Archimedes continued to measure the specific gravity of various solids and fluids. Through these measurements, he reached the discovery of the law of buoyancy directly by experiment. In this paper, the process to the discovery of Archimedes' principle (Proposition 5) is presented.

  5. Imminent science what remains to be discovered

    CERN Document Server

    Bignami, Giovanni F

    2014-01-01

    This is not science fiction. It’s a voyage on the arrow of time to the coming fifty years. The legendary palindromic character Mr. Qfwfq from Italo Calvino’s collection of short stories, The Cosmicomics, will go with us – he who knows all the answers but will give out no hints. He will help us to discover the innovations that will have changed our lives by 2062, when, riding astride Halley’s Comet, our omniscient extraterrestrial will return to visit us.In this book, we shall learn how astronomers will devote themselves to the study of the mysterious force of dark energy, which makes up some three-quarters of the Universe. We shall also delve deeply into the study of our Earth, to exploit the immense thermal energy that lies beneath our feet. We shall solve another enigma in today’s science: the origin of life. We shall come to understand how to develop direct contacts between our brains and the rest of the world. We shall learn about the future of genetics, the reason for the longevity of Methusela...

  6. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  7. Discovering Alzheimer Genetic Biomarkers Using Bayesian Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayroz F. Sherif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs contribute most of the genetic variation to the human genome. SNPs associate with many complex and common diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Discovering SNP biomarkers at different loci can improve early diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Bayesian network provides a comprehensible and modular framework for representing interactions between genes or single SNPs. Here, different Bayesian network structure learning algorithms have been applied in whole genome sequencing (WGS data for detecting the causal AD SNPs and gene-SNP interactions. We focused on polymorphisms in the top ten genes associated with AD and identified by genome-wide association (GWA studies. New SNP biomarkers were observed to be significantly associated with Alzheimer’s disease. These SNPs are rs7530069, rs113464261, rs114506298, rs73504429, rs7929589, rs76306710, and rs668134. The obtained results demonstrated the effectiveness of using BN for identifying AD causal SNPs with acceptable accuracy. The results guarantee that the SNP set detected by Markov blanket based methods has a strong association with AD disease and achieves better performance than both naïve Bayes and tree augmented naïve Bayes. Minimal augmented Markov blanket reaches accuracy of 66.13% and sensitivity of 88.87% versus 61.58% and 59.43% in naïve Bayes, respectively.

  8. Translating Others, Discovering Himself: Beckett as Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Gribben

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the work of Samuel Beckett in the light of his early work as a translator of the works of other writers.  In his translations for Negro: An Anthology (1934, the Anthology of Mexican Poetry (1958, or commissioned translations for journals such as “This Quarter”, early pre-figurings of Beckett’s own thematic and linguistic concerns abound.  Rarely viewed as more than acts of raising money for himself, Beckett’s acts of translation, examined chronologically, demonstrate a writer discovering his craft, and developing his unique voice, unencumbered by the expectations of originality.  This essay posits that Beckett’s works, with their distinctive voice and characterisation, owe much to the global perspective he gained through translating across cultural, continental divides, as well as experimenting with form, which became a staple of Beckett’s own work.  Without formal training or theoretical grounding in translation, Beckett utilises the act of translation as a means of finding himself, revisiting it as a means of shaping his own unique literary voice.

  9. CORNELL: CLEO discovers B meson penguins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The CLEO collaboration at Cornell's CESR electron-positron storage ring has discovered a rare type of B meson decay in which only a high energy photon and a K* meson are produced. These decays provide the first unambiguous evidence for an alternative route for heavy quark decay that has been given the whimsical name ''penguin diagram''. In the mid-1970s penguin diagrams were proposed to explain the puzzling strangeness quantum number selection rules in the decay of K mesons. At the same time it was realized that penguin diagrams could also be important in the CP violation seen in neutral K meson decay. CP violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is an essential ingredient in understanding why there is much more matter than antimatter in the universe. CP violation introduces a definite direction to the arrow of time, which could otherwise point equally forwards or backwards. In addition, penguin decays are very sensitive to some extensions of the Standard Model of weak decay. Although penguin diagrams were first proposed to explain an effect in K meson decay, the K system gives no unique signature for them, and verification of penguin processes meant looking elsewhere. In the Standard Model, quarks decay under the influence of the weak force, emitting a W boson. Since the W is charged, the charge of the initial quark differs from that of the final quark, so the charge of the quark changes as well as its flavour

  10. Discovering biological progression underlying microarray samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qiu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In biological systems that undergo processes such as differentiation, a clear concept of progression exists. We present a novel computational approach, called Sample Progression Discovery (SPD, to discover patterns of biological progression underlying microarray gene expression data. SPD assumes that individual samples of a microarray dataset are related by an unknown biological process (i.e., differentiation, development, cell cycle, disease progression, and that each sample represents one unknown point along the progression of that process. SPD aims to organize the samples in a manner that reveals the underlying progression and to simultaneously identify subsets of genes that are responsible for that progression. We demonstrate the performance of SPD on a variety of microarray datasets that were generated by sampling a biological process at different points along its progression, without providing SPD any information of the underlying process. When applied to a cell cycle time series microarray dataset, SPD was not provided any prior knowledge of samples' time order or of which genes are cell-cycle regulated, yet SPD recovered the correct time order and identified many genes that have been associated with the cell cycle. When applied to B-cell differentiation data, SPD recovered the correct order of stages of normal B-cell differentiation and the linkage between preB-ALL tumor cells with their cell origin preB. When applied to mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation data, SPD uncovered a landscape of ESC differentiation into various lineages and genes that represent both generic and lineage specific processes. When applied to a prostate cancer microarray dataset, SPD identified gene modules that reflect a progression consistent with disease stages. SPD may be best viewed as a novel tool for synthesizing biological hypotheses because it provides a likely biological progression underlying a microarray dataset and, perhaps more importantly, the

  11. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  12. THE MOST LUMINOUS GALAXIES DISCOVERED BY WISE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad deIngeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Blain, Andrew W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bridge, Carrie R.; Sayers, Jack [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, David T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cutri, Roc M.; Masci, Frank J.; Yan, Lin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jarrett, Thomas H. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Lonsdale, Carol J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Petty, Sara M. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam, E-mail: Chao-Wei.Tsai@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2015-06-01

    We present 20 Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}, including five with infrared luminosities L{sub IR} ≡ L{sub (rest} {sub 8–1000} {sub μm)} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}. These “extremely luminous infrared galaxies,” or ELIRGs, were discovered using the “W1W2-dropout” selection criteria which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 μm (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 μm in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4–10 μm, suggesting that hot dust with T{sub d} ∼ 450 K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L{sub bol} level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 μm luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%–80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. The existence of AGNs with L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉} at z > 3 suggests that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly. For black hole seed masses ∼10{sup 3} M{sub ☉}, either sustained super-Eddington accretion is needed, or the radiative efficiency must be <15%, implying a black hole with slow spin, possibly due to chaotic accretion.

  13. The Impact of Discovering Life beyond Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: astrobiology and society Steven J. Dick; Part I. Motivations and Approaches. How Do We Frame the Problems of Discovery and Impact?: Introduction; 1. Current approaches to finding life beyond earth, and what happens if we do Seth Shostak; 2. The philosophy of astrobiology: the Copernican and Darwinian presuppositions Iris Fry; 3. History, discovery, analogy: three approaches to the impact of discovering life beyond earth Steven J. Dick; 4. Silent impact: why the discovery of extraterrestrial life should be silent Clément Vidal; Part II. Transcending Anthropocentrism. How Do We Move beyond our Own Preconceptions of Life, Intelligence and Culture?: Introduction; 5. The landscape of life Dirk Schulze-Makuch; 6. The landscape of intelligence Lori Marino; 7. Universal biology: assessing universality from a single example Carlos Mariscal; 8. Equating culture, civilization, and moral development in imagining extraterrestrial intelligence: anthropocentric assumptions? John Traphagan; 9. Communicating with the other: infinity, geometry, and universal math and science Douglas Vakoch; Part III. Philosophical, Theological, and Moral Impact. How Do We Comprehend the Cultural Challenges Raised by Discovery?: Introduction; 10. Life, intelligence and the pursuit of value in cosmic evolution Mark Lupisella; 11. 'Klaatu barada nikto' - or, do they really think like us? Michael Ruse; 12. Alien minds Susan Schneider; 13. The moral subject of astrobiology: guideposts for exploring our ethical and political responsibilities towards extraterrestrial life Elspeth Wilson and Carol Cleland; 14. Astrobiology and theology Robin Lovin; 15. Would you baptize an extraterrestrial? Guy Consolmagno, SJ; Part IV. Practical Considerations: How Should Society Prepare for Discovery - and Non-Discovery?: Introduction; 16. Is there anything new about astrobiology and society? Jane Maienschein; 17. Evaluating preparedness for the discovery of extraterrestrial life: considering potential

  14. Discovering Extrasolar Planets with Microlensing Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambsganss, J.

    2016-06-01

    An astronomical survey is commonly understood as a mapping of a large region of the sky, either photometrically (possibly in various filters/wavelength ranges) or spectroscopically. Often, catalogs of objects are produced/provided as the main product or a by-product. However, with the advent of large CCD cameras and dedicated telescopes with wide-field imaging capabilities, it became possible in the early 1990s, to map the same region of the sky over and over again. In principle, such data sets could be combined to get very deep stacked images of the regions of interest. However, I will report on a completely different use of such repeated maps: Exploring the time domain for particular kinds of stellar variability, namely microlens-induced magnifications in search of exoplanets. Such a time-domain microlensing survey was originally proposed by Bohdan Paczynski in 1986 in order to search for dark matter objects in the Galactic halo. Only a few years later three teams started this endeavour. I will report on the history and current state of gravitational microlensing surveys. By now, routinely 100 million stars in the Galactic Bulge are monitored a few times per week by so-called survey teams. All stars with constant apparent brightness and those following known variability patterns are filtered out in order to detect the roughly 2000 microlensing events per year which are produced by stellar lenses. These microlensing events are identified "online" while still in their early phases and then monitored with much higher cadence by so-called follow-up teams. The most interesting of such events are those produced by a star-plus-planet lens. By now of order 30 exoplanets have been discovered by these combined microlensing surveys. Microlensing searches for extrasolar planets are complementary to other exoplanet search techniques. There are two particular advantages: The microlensing method is sensitive down to Earth-mass planets even with ground-based telecopes, and it

  15. Scientix in our school- discovering STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcu, Cornelia

    2017-04-01

    My name is Cornelia Melcu and I am a primary school teacher in Brasov. Additionally, I am a teacher trainer of Preparatory Class Curriculum, Google Application in Education Course and European Projects Course and a mentor to new teachers and students in university. I am an eTwinning, Scientix and ESERO ambassador too. During the last three school years my school was involved in several STEM projects, part of Scientix community. The main goal of those projects was to develop basic STEM skills of our students based on project work integrated into the curriculum. Open the Gates to the Universe (http://gatestotheuniverse.blogspot.ro; https://twinspace.etwinning.net/12520/home) is an eTwinning project for primary school students started on September 2015 and finished on September 2016. Some of our partners were from the Mediterranean area. The students discovered different aspects of space science and astronomy working on international groups. They explored some aspects of Science included in their curriculum using resources from ESERO, ROEDUSEIS and Space Awareness (e.g. Calculate with Rosetta, Writing the travel diary, Build Rosetta, How to become an astronaut, etc.) The project was a great opportunity to apply integrated learning methods for developing competencies which are a part of the primary school curriculum in Romania. In Language and Communication classes the students talked about their partners living places and their traditions and habits. They learnt some basic words in their partners language related to the weather. They created stories- both in Romanian and English; they described life in space and astronomical phenomena. They talked to the other partners during the several online meetings we organized and wrote short stories in English. In Mathematics and Science they found out about the Milky Way, the Solar System, the weather, famous astronauts and astronomers. They calculated, solved problems, made experiments and explained specific natural phenomena

  16. PSLQ: An Algorithm to Discover Integer Relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J. M.

    2009-04-03

    Let x = (x{sub 1}, x{sub 2} {hor_ellipsis}, x{sub n}) be a vector of real or complex numbers. x is said to possess an integer relation if there exist integers a{sub i}, not all zero, such that a{sub 1}x{sub 1} + a{sub 2}x{sub 2} + {hor_ellipsis} + a{sub n}x{sub n} = 0. By an integer relation algorithm, we mean a practical computational scheme that can recover the vector of integers ai, if it exists, or can produce bounds within which no integer relation exists. As we will see in the examples below, an integer relation algorithm can be used to recognize a computed constant in terms of a formula involving known constants, or to discover an underlying relation between quantities that can be computed to high precision. At the present time, the most effective algorithm for integer relation detection is the 'PSLQ' algorithm of mathematician-sculptor Helaman Ferguson [10, 4]. Some efficient 'multi-level' implementations of PSLQ, as well as a variant of PSLQ that is well-suited for highly parallel computer systems, are given in [4]. PSLQ constructs a sequence of integer-valued matrices B{sub n} that reduces the vector y = xB{sub n}, until either the relation is found (as one of the columns of B{sub n}), or else precision is exhausted. At the same time, PSLQ generates a steadily growing bound on the size of any possible relation. When a relation is found, the size of smallest entry of the vector y abruptly drops to roughly 'epsilon' (i.e. 10{sup -p}, where p is the number of digits of precision). The size of this drop can be viewed as a 'confidence level' that the relation is real and not merely a numerical artifact - a drop of 20 or more orders of magnitude almost always indicates a real relation. Very high precision arithmetic must be used in PSLQ. If one wishes to recover a relation of length n, with coefficients of maximum size d digits, then the input vector x must be specified to at least nd digits, and one must employ nd

  17. Metallic lead nanospheres discovered in ancient zircons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusiak, Monika A; Dunkley, Daniel J; Wirth, Richard; Whitehouse, Martin J; Wilde, Simon A; Marquardt, Katharina

    2015-04-21

    Zircon (ZrSiO4) is the most commonly used geochronometer, preserving age and geochemical information through a wide range of geological processes. However, zircon U-Pb geochronology can be affected by redistribution of radiogenic Pb, which is incompatible in the crystal structure. This phenomenon is particularly common in zircon that has experienced ultra-high temperature metamorphism, where ion imaging has revealed submicrometer domains that are sufficiently heterogeneously distributed to severely perturb ages, in some cases yielding apparent Hadean (>4 Ga) ages from younger zircons. Documenting the composition and mineralogy of these Pb-enriched domains is essential for understanding the processes of Pb redistribution in zircon and its effects on geochronology. Using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, we show that Pb-rich domains previously identified in zircons from East Antarctic granulites are 5-30 nm nanospheres of metallic Pb. They are randomly distributed with respect to zircon crystallinity, and their association with a Ti- and Al-rich silica melt suggests that they represent melt inclusions generated during ultra-high temperature metamorphism. Metallic Pb is exceedingly rare in nature and previously has not been reported in association with high-grade metamorphism. Formation of these metallic nanospheres within annealed zircon effectively halts the loss of radiogenic Pb from zircon. Both the redistribution and phase separation of radiogenic Pb in this manner can compromise the precision and accuracy of U-Pb ages obtained by high spatial resolution methods.

  18. Discovering and avoiding self-contradiction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents an innovative method to teach ethics, which has so far been implemented amongst Danish students. The method focuses on developing skills to conduct a methodical, ethical dialogue by teaching students to become aware of self-contradictions and learning to avoid them. This method......, this method focuses not so much on teaching what other people think, but rather starts by finding out what the students think, and to which degree they contradict themselves. In addition the method focuses on how students argue for their positions when entering an ethical dialogue. The method focuses on two...... (learning the skills to conduct an ethical dialogue) builds on the previous ability to identify contradictions. This is done by focusing in 4 basic rules that introduce the basic principles of a dialectical dialogue. These rules allow them to avoid fundamental mistakes which otherwise hinder an ethical...

  19. Animal pigment bilirubin discovered in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Cary; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David W

    2009-03-04

    The bile pigment bilirubin-IXalpha is the degradative product of heme, distributed among mammals and some other vertebrates. It can be recognized as the pigment responsible for the yellow color of jaundice and healing bruises. In this paper we present the first example of the isolation of bilirubin in plants. The compound was isolated from the brilliant orange-colored arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the white bird of paradise tree, and characterized by HPLC-ESMS, UV-visible, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as comparison with an authentic standard. This discovery indicates that plant cyclic tetrapyrroles may undergo degradation by a previously unknown pathway. Preliminary analyses of related plants, including S. reginae, the bird of paradise, also revealed bilirubin in the arils and flowers, indicating that the occurrence of bilirubin is not limited to a single species or tissue type.

  20. Inside a plant nucleus: discovering the proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovská, Beáta; Šebela, Marek; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear proteins are a vital component of eukaryotic cell nuclei and have a profound effect on the way in which genetic information is stored, expressed, replicated, repaired, and transmitted to daughter cells and progeny. Because of the plethora of functions, nuclear proteins represent the most abundant components of cell nuclei in all eukaryotes. However, while the plant genome is well understood at the DNA level, information on plant nuclear proteins remains scarce, perhaps with the exception of histones and a few other proteins. This lack of knowledge hampers efforts to understand how the plant genome is organized in the nucleus and how it functions. This review focuses on the current state of the art of the analysis of the plant nuclear proteome. Previous proteome studies have generally been designed to search for proteins involved in plant response to various forms of stress or to identify rather a modest number of proteins. Thus, there is a need for more comprehensive and systematic studies of proteins in the nuclei obtained at individual phases of the cell cycle, or isolated from various tissue types and stages of cell and tissue differentiation. All this in combination with protein structure, predicted function, and physical localization in 3D nuclear space could provide much needed progress in our understanding of the plant nuclear proteome and its role in plant genome organization and function. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

    2012-12-23

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted.

  2. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  3. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  4. Classifying transcription factor targets and discovering relevant biological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeLisi Charles

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important goal in post-genomic research is discovering the network of interactions between transcription factors (TFs and the genes they regulate. We have previously reported the development of a supervised-learning approach to TF target identification, and used it to predict targets of 104 transcription factors in yeast. We now include a new sequence conservation measure, expand our predictions to include 59 new TFs, introduce a web-server, and implement an improved ranking method to reveal the biological features contributing to regulation. The classifiers combine 8 genomic datasets covering a broad range of measurements including sequence conservation, sequence overrepresentation, gene expression, and DNA structural properties. Principal Findings (1 Application of the method yields an amplification of information about yeast regulators. The ratio of total targets to previously known targets is greater than 2 for 11 TFs, with several having larger gains: Ash1(4, Ino2(2.6, Yaf1(2.4, and Yap6(2.4. (2 Many predicted targets for TFs match well with the known biology of their regulators. As a case study we discuss the regulator Swi6, presenting evidence that it may be important in the DNA damage response, and that the previously uncharacterized gene YMR279C plays a role in DNA damage response and perhaps in cell-cycle progression. (3 A procedure based on recursive-feature-elimination is able to uncover from the large initial data sets those features that best distinguish targets for any TF, providing clues relevant to its biology. An analysis of Swi6 suggests a possible role in lipid metabolism, and more specifically in metabolism of ceramide, a bioactive lipid currently being investigated for anti-cancer properties. (4 An analysis of global network properties highlights the transcriptional network hubs; the factors which control the most genes and the genes which are bound by the largest set of regulators. Cell-cycle and

  5. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  6. Discovering relational-based association rules with multiple minimum supports on microarray datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Chun-Pei; Tseng, Vincent S

    2011-11-15

    Association rule analysis methods are important techniques applied to gene expression data for finding expression relationships between genes. However, previous methods implicitly assume that all genes have similar importance, or they ignore the individual importance of each gene. The relation intensity between any two items has never been taken into consideration. Therefore, we proposed a technique named REMMAR (RElational-based Multiple Minimum supports Association Rules) algorithm to tackle this problem. This method adjusts the minimum relation support (MRS) for each gene pair depending on the regulatory relation intensity to discover more important association rules with stronger biological meaning. In the actual case study of this research, REMMAR utilized the shortest distance between any two genes in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene regulatory network (GRN) as the relation intensity to discover the association rules from two S.cerevisiae gene expression datasets. Under experimental evaluation, REMMAR can generate more rules with stronger relation intensity, and filter out rules without biological meaning in the protein-protein interaction network (PPIN). Furthermore, the proposed method has a higher precision (100%) than the precision of reference Apriori method (87.5%) for the discovered rules use a literature survey. Therefore, the proposed REMMAR algorithm can discover stronger association rules in biological relationships dissimilated by traditional methods to assist biologists in complicated genetic exploration.

  7. The pearls of using real-world evidence to discover social groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Raymond A.; Salerno, John J.

    2005-03-01

    In previous work, we introduced a new paradigm called Uni-Party Data Community Generation (UDCG) and a new methodology to discover social groups (a.k.a., community models) called Link Discovery based on Correlation Analysis (LDCA). We further advanced this work by experimenting with a corpus of evidence obtained from a Ponzi scheme investigation. That work identified several UDCG algorithms, developed what we called "Importance Measures" to compare the accuracy of the algorithms based on ground truth, and presented a Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that criminal investigators could use to discover social groups. However, that work used a rather small random sample of manually edited documents because the evidence contained far too many OCR and other extraction errors. Deferring the evidence extraction errors allowed us to continue experimenting with UDCG algorithms, but only used a small fraction of the available evidence. In attempt to discover techniques that are more practical in the near-term, our most recent work focuses on being able to use an entire corpus of real-world evidence to discover social groups. This paper discusses the complications of extracting evidence, suggests a method of performing name resolution, presents a new UDCG algorithm, and discusses our future direction in this area.

  8. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  9. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  10. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  11. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  12. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  13. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  14. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  15. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  16. Investigations of Escherichia coli promoter sequences with artificial neural networks: new signals discovered upstream of the transcriptional startpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Engelbrecht, Jacob

    1995-01-01

    We present a novel method for using the learning ability of a neural network as a measure of information in local regions of input data. Using the method to analyze Escherichia coli promoters, we discover all previously described signals, and furthermore find new signals that are regularly spaced...

  17. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  18. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  19. Data mining algorithm for discovering matrix association regions (MARs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gautam B.; Krawetz, Shephan A.

    2000-04-01

    Lately, there has been considerable interest in applying Data Mining techniques to scientific and data analysis problems in bioinformatics. Data mining research is being fueled by novel application areas that are helping the development of newer applied algorithms in the field of bioinformatics, an emerging discipline representing the integration of biological and information sciences. This is a shift in paradigm from the earlier and the continuing data mining efforts in marketing research and support for business intelligence. The problem described in this paper is along a new dimension in DNA sequence analysis research and supplements the previously studied stochastic models for evolution and variability. The discovery of novel patterns from genetic databases as described is quite significant because biological patterns play an important role in a large variety of cellular processes and constitute the basis for gene therapy. Biological databases containing the genetic codes from a wide variety of organisms, including humans, have continued their exponential growth over the last decade. At the time of this writing, the GenBank database contains over 300 million sequences and over 2.5 billion characters of sequenced nucleotides. The focus of this paper is on developing a general data mining algorithm for discovering regions of locus control, i.e. those regions that are instrumental for determining cell type. One such type of element of locus control are the MARs or the Matrix Association Regions. Our limited knowledge about MARs has hampered their detection using classical pattern recognition techniques. Consequently, their detection is formulated by utilizing a statistical interestingness measure derived from a set of empirical features that are known to be associated with MARs. This paper presents a systematic approach for finding associations between such empirical features in genomic sequences, and for utilizing this knowledge to detect biologically interesting

  20. MICRO-STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATION OF SOME ARTIFACTS DISCOVERED AT POROLISSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU Mihai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available the paper presents the investigation of two fragments of roman bronze artefacts, discovered during archaeological works performed at Porolissum, an important military and economical point on the northern limes of Dacia Province. One of the analyzed fragments (Mi1 was taken from a consistent fragment of a Roman bronze statue, while the second (Mi2 was among a lot of small metal pieces, discovered in the same investigated area. Using highly sophisticated micro-structural analysing techniques – X-Ray diffraction, the paper investigates the possibility that the Mi2 fragment may have belonged to the same statue from which the sample Mi1 was taken

  1. The Magic of Mathematics Discovering the Spell of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    2011-01-01

    Delves into the world of ideas, explores the spell mathematics casts on our lives, and helps you discover mathematics where you least expect it. Be spellbound by the mathematical designs found in nature. Learn how knots may untie the mysteries of life. Be mesmerized by the computer revolution. Discover how the hidden forces of mathematics hold architectural structures together connect your telephone calls help airplanes get off the ground solve the mysteries of the living cell. See how some artists use a mathematical palette in their works and how many writers draw upon the wealth of its ideas

  2. Ontology Building Using Classification Rules and Discovered Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorskis Henrihs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Building an ontology is a difficult and time-consuming task. In order to make this task easier and faster, some automatic methods can be employed. This paper examines the feasibility of using rules and concepts discovered during the classification tree building process in the C4.5 algorithm, in a completely automated way, for the purposes of building an ontology from data. By building the ontology directly from continuous data, concepts and relations can be discovered without specific knowledge about the domain. This paper also examines how this method reproduces the classification capabilities of the classification three within an ontology using concepts and class expression axioms.

  3. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2016-07-26

    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a

  4. How did Cantor Discover Set Theory and Topology?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 11. How did Cantor Discover Set Theory and Topology? S M Srivastava. General Article Volume 19 Issue 11 November 2014 pp 977-999. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Discover Summer School: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, David; Torgerson, Carole; Jefferson, Laura; Buckley, Hannah; Ainsworth, Hannah; Heaps, Clare; Mitchell, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    The Discover Summer School was a four-week programme which aimed to improve the reading and writing skills of children during the summer between Year 6 and Year 7. The programme was targeted at pupils who had been predicted to achieve below Level 4b in English by the end of Key Stage 2. Pupils meeting the eligibility criteria for the study, and…

  6. Discover 4-H Clubs: The Essential Resource for 4-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Stacey; Nelson, Cindy; Brower, Naomi; Memmott, Margie; Peterson, Gaelynn

    2016-01-01

    Obstacles facing new 4-H volunteers include time constraints and difficulty finding project-specific information, resources, and opportunities available for club members. As a solution to these obstacles and an aid for assisting volunteers in becoming confident in delivering information to youth, content experts produced Discover 4-H Clubs, a…

  7. New Pulsars Discovered in Arecibo Drift-Scan Searches

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Champion, D. J.; Xilouris, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Backer, D. C.; Cordes, J. M.; Lommen, A. N.; Fruchter, A. S.

    2003-01-01

    We report on new pulsars discovered in Arecibo drift-scan data. Processing of 2200 square degrees of data has resulted in the detection of 41 known and 12 new pulsars. New pulsars include two millisecond pulsars, one solitary and one binary recycled pulsar, and one pulsar with very unusual pulse profile morphology and complex drifting subpulse behavior.

  8. Let Students Discover an Important Physical Property of a Slinky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gash, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simple experiment that lets first-year physics and engineering students discover an important physical property of a Slinky. The restoring force for the fundamental oscillation frequency is provided only by those coils between the support and the Slinky center of mass.

  9. Re-discovering indigenous knowledge – Ulwazi Lwemveli for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the imperative to re-discover and re-store IK cannot be underestimated since building on this knowledge is particularly effective in helping to reach those living in rural communities. This knowledge is often the main asset they control, and certainly one with which they are more familiar. The case studies discussed ...

  10. The Spy VI child : A newly discovered Neandertal infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Rougier, Helene; Maureille, Bruno; Higham, Thomas; van der Plicht, Johannes; De Clerck, Nora; Semal, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Spy cave (Jemeppe-sur-Sambre Belgium) is reputed for the two adult Neandertal individuals discovered in situ in 1886 Recent reassessment of the Spy collections has allowed direct radiocarbon dating of these individuals The sorting of all of the faunal collections has also led to the discovery of the

  11. Discovering How a Communicative Notion Is Expressed in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Graeme D.

    A study to develop a methodology for discovering how one important notion or semantic category, "frequency of occurrence," is expressed in words, phrases, or other linguistic devices in academic English began with a search for devices expressing that notion, by analyzing text from a news magazine, a New Zealand geography textbook, and a…

  12. Scientists discover planetary system similar to our own

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'An international team of scientists has discovered a planet and star that may share the same relationship as Jupiter and our Sun, the closest comparison that researchers have found since they began their search for extra-solar planets nearly a decade ago' (1 page).

  13. US NSF: scientists discover planetary system similar to our own

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An international team of scientists has discovered a planet and star that may share the same relationship as Jupiter and our Sun, the closest comparison that researchers have found since they began their search for extra-solar planets nearly a decade ago (1 page).

  14. Internal Structure of DISCOVER: A Performance-based Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2000-01-01

    A study involving 257 Navajo and Mexican-American elementary students investigated the internal structure of the DISCOVER assessment, a performance-based assessment grounded in Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence. Results showed low interrating correlations among the five assessment activities, indicating students gifted in one intelligence…

  15. How to Discover the Rogers–Ramanujan Identities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Ramanujan, q-series, basic hy- pergeometric series, Rogers–. Ramanujan identities. Gaurav Bhatnagar heads the team in Educomp. Solutions Ltd that develops multimedia learning materials for teachers to use in schools. He is interested in q-series, and thinking about how. Ramanujan could possibly discover his amazing.

  16. How Einstein Discovered the Special Theory of Relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 2. How Einstein Discovered the Special Theory of Relativity. Sriranjan Banerji. General Article Volume 11 Issue 2 February 2006 pp 27-42. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. REVIEW: Discovering Statistics Using SPSS for Windows ANDY FIELD (2000)

    OpenAIRE

    SHARMA, Reviewed By Ashok

    2002-01-01

    The book "Discovering Statistics Using SPSS for Windows" is exactly that! Since it calculates amazingly fast, in the recent years, the computer has become the most useful and helpful tool for the researchers in almost every field of knowledge - be it open and distance education, psychology, sociology, management or else.

  18. A new screening method for discovering antibacterial agents from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since high-throughput screening (HTS) that selects antibacterial agents according to targets in vitro rather than whole-cell have not proven effective in the discovery of new antibiotics; new approaches for discovering the next generation of antibiotics are urgently needed. Filamentous fungi are an important source for many ...

  19. Discovering Land Cover Web Map Services from the Deep Web with JavaScript Invocation Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Hou

    2016-06-01

    -based approach. This result shows that the proposed crawler has the ability to discover WMSs hidden in JavaScript code. The second experiment uses 4842 seed URLs updated daily. The crawler found a total of 17,874 available WMSs, of which 11,901 were LCWMSs. Our approach discovered a greater number of services than those found using previous approaches. It indicates that the proposed crawler has a large advantage in discovering LCWMSs from the surface web and from JavaScript code. Furthermore, a simple case study demonstrates that the designed LCWMS search engine represents an important step towards realizing land cover information integration for global mapping and monitoring purposes.

  20. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  1. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  2. Astronomers Discover First Negatively-charged Molecule in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Cambridge, MA - Astronomers have discovered the first negatively charged molecule in space, identifying it from radio signals that were a mystery until now. While about 130 neutral and 14 positively charged molecules are known to exist in interstellar space, this is the first negative molecule, or anion, to be found. "We've spotted a rare and exotic species, like the white tiger of space," said astronomer Michael McCarthy of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). By learning more about the rich broth of chemicals found in interstellar space, astronomers hope to explain how the young Earth converted these basic ingredients into the essential chemicals for life. This new finding helps to advance scientists' understanding of the chemistry of the interstellar medium, and hence the birthplaces of planets. McCarthy worked with CfA colleagues Carl Gottlieb, Harshal Gupta (also from the Univ. of Texas), and Patrick Thaddeus to identify the molecular anion known as C6H-: a linear chain of six carbon atoms with one hydrogen atom at the end and an "extra" electron. Such molecules were thought to be extremely rare because ultraviolet light that suffuses space easily knocks electrons off molecules. The large size of C6H-, larger than most neutral and all positive molecules known in space, may increase its stability in the harsh cosmic environment. "The discovery of C6H- resolves a long-standing enigma in astrochemistry: the apparent lack of negatively charged molecules in space," stated Thaddeus. The team first conducted laboratory experiments to determine exactly what radio frequencies to use in their search. Then, they used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope to hunt for C6H- in celestial objects. In particular, they targeted locations in which previous searches had spotted unidentified radio signals at the appropriate frequencies. They found C6H- in two very different locations-a shell of gas surrounding the evolved red giant

  3. Metagenomic approach for discovering new pathogens in infection disease outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Giombini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses represent the most abundant biological components on earth.They can be found in every environment, from deep layers of oceans to animal bodies.Although several viruses have been isolated and sequenced, in each environment there are millions of different types of viruses that have not been identified yet.The advent of nextgeneration sequencing technologies with their high throughput capabilities make possible to study in a single experiment all the community of microorganisms present in a particular sample “microbioma”.They made more feasible the application of the metagenomic approach, by which it is also possible to discover and identify new pathogens, that may pose a threat to public health.This paper summarizes the most recent applications of nextgeneration sequencing to discover new viral pathogens during the occurrence of infection disease outbreaks.

  4. Possible origin of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    Within a planetogonic model the self-gravitationally caused formation of pre-planetary and pre-satellite rings from an earlier thin disk is reported. The theoretically derived orbital radii of these rings are compared with the orbital levels in the planetary system and the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. From this comparison it is concluded that at the radial position of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring an early pre-satellite ring of more or less evolved satellites could have existed. These satellites should have been disturbed in their evolution by the gravitation of the neighbouring massive satellite Titan. The comparison also may indicate similarities between the asteroidal belt and the newly discovered outer ring of Saturn

  5. Discovering the quantum universe the role of particle colliders

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    What does "Quantum Universe" mean? To discover what the universe is made of and how it works is the challenge of particle physics. "Quantum Universe" defines the quest to explain the universe in terms of quantum physics, which governs the behavior of the microscopic, subatomic world. It describes a revolution in particle physics and a quantum leap in our understanding of the mystery and beauty of the universe.

  6. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative.

  7. Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Paul

    Full Text Available By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM, as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689 and allergies (r = 0.810 temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r =  .534 and obesity (r =  -.631 related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media.

  8. Scientists discover massive jet streams flowing inside the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-01

    the Earth. The Stanford research team has been viewing the Sun's surface with one of these instruments called a Michelson Doppler Imager that can measure the vertical motion of the Sun's surface at one million different points once per minute. The measurements show the effects of sound waves that permeate the interior. The researchers then apply techniques similar to Earth based seismology and computer aided tomography to infer and map the flow patterns and temperature beneath the Sun's roiling surface. "These techniques allow us to peer inside the Sun using sound waves, much like a doctor can look inside a pregnant woman with a sonogram," said Dr. Schou. Currently, the Stanford scientists have both identified new structures in the interior of the Sun and clarified the form of previously discovered ones. Understanding their relationship to solar activity will require more observations and time for analysis. "At this point, we do not know whether the plasma streams snake around like the jet stream on Earth, or whether it is a less dynamic feature," said Dr. Douglas Gough, of Cambridge University, UK. "It is intriguing to speculate that these streams may affect solar weather like the terrestrial jetstream impacts weather patterns on Earth, but this is completely unclear right now. The same speculation may apply to the other flows we've observed, or they may act in concert. It will be especially helpful to make observations as the Sun enters its next active cycle, expected to peak around the year 2001." NOTE TO EDITORS: Images to support this story and further information are available from : ESA Public Relations Division Tel: +33.1(0)53.69.7155 Fax: +33.1(0)53.69.7690 The images also can be found at the following Internet address: http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/

  9. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  10. Aplicación del modelo Discovering Hands en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Infante Rasch, Oriana; Urbina Hueso, Jhoan Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Discovering Hands (DH) es un proyecto que nace en Alemania en el 2006, liderado por el doctor Frank Hoffmann. El programa se desarrolla pensando en el importante problema de salud pública en el cual se ha convertido en el cáncer de mama, pues según la Organización Mundial de la Salud es el mayor causal de muerte en mujeres, tanto en países desarrollados como en vía de desarrollo, y en Alemania esta enfermedad acaba con la vida de aproximadamente 18.000 mujeres cada año. (The Global Journal, ...

  11. Very Bright CV discovered by MASTER-ICATE (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffe, C.; Levato, H.; Mallamaci, C.; Lopez, C.; Lipunov, F. Podest V.; Denisenko, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Belinski, A.; Shatskiy, N.; Chazov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Yecheistov, V.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Y.; Varda, D.; Sinyakov, E.; Gabovich, A.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S.; Budnev, N.; Konstantinov, E.; Chuvalaev, O.; Poleshchuk, V.; Gress, O.; Frolova, A.; Krushinsky, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Bourdanov, A.; Parkhomenko, A.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Senik, V.; Podvorotny, P.; Shumkov, V.; Shurpakov, S.

    2013-06-01

    MASTER-ICATE very wide-field camera (d=72mm f/1.2 lens + 11 Mpix CCD) located near San Juan, Argentina has discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 14h 20m 23.5s -48d 55m 40s on the combined image (exposure 275 sec) taken on 2013-06-08.048 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 12.1m (limit 13.1m). There is no minor planet at this place. The OT is seen in more than 10 images starting from 2013-06-02.967 UT (275 sec exposure) when it was first detected at 12.4m.

  12. NLRC5: a newly discovered MHC class I transactivator (CITA)

    OpenAIRE

    Meissner, Torsten B.; Li, Amy; Kobayashi, Koichi S.

    2011-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II are crucial for the function of the human adaptive immune system. An NLR protein, CIITA (MHC class II transactivator), is a master regulator of MHC class II gene expression as well as of some of the genes involved in MHC class II antigen presentation. It has recently been discovered that another member of the NLR protein family, NLRC5, transcriptionally activates MHC class I genes, and thus acts as “CITA” (MHC class I transactivator)...

  13. An approach for discovering keywords from Spanish tweets using Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel AYALA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most approaches to keywords discovery when analyzing microblogging messages (among them those from Twitter are based on statistical and lexical information about the words that compose the text. The lack of context in the short messages can be problematic due to the low co-occurrence of words. In this paper, we present a new approach for keywords discovering from Spanish tweets based on the addition of context information using Wikipedia as a knowledge base. We present four different ways to use Wikipedia and two ways to rank the new keywords. We have tested these strategies using more than 60000 Spanish tweets, measuring performance and analyzing particularities of each strategy.

  14. Growing Self-Estemm and Discovering Intelligences through Oral Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa Dora Liliana

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available After having applied a needs analysis in an eleventh grade course of English, I could notice that there was a big lack of security and self-confidence in the students. They expressed in different data-gathering instruments their fear when speaking in front of the class. Also, they talked about their insecurity when pronouncing English and the need for more opportunities for developing speaking. Therefore, the implementation of an innovation in class was carried out in order to respond to the students¿ needs and make them discover their talents. The implementation was successful and students improved some areas of their communicative competence.

  15. Knots and surfaces a guide to discovering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, David W

    1995-01-01

    In most mathematics textbooks, the most exciting part of mathematics-the process of invention and discovery-is completely hidden from the reader. The aim of Knots and Surfaces is to change all that. By means of a series of carefully selected tasks, this book leads readers to discover some real mathematics. There are no formulas to memorize; no procedures to follow. The book is a guide: its job is to start you in the right direction and to bring you back if you stray too far. Discovery is left to you. Suitable for a one-semester course at the beginning undergraduate level, there are no prerequi

  16. Newly discovered Neanderthal remains from Shanidar Cave, Iraqi Kurdistan, and their attribution to Shanidar 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Crivellaro, Federica; Farr, Lucy; Reynolds, Tim; Hunt, Chris O; Barker, Graeme

    2017-10-01

    The Neanderthal remains from Shanidar Cave, excavated between 1951 and 1960, have played a central role in debates concerning diverse aspects of Neanderthal morphology and behavior. In 2015 and 2016, renewed excavations at the site uncovered hominin remains from the immediate area where the partial skeleton of Shanidar 5 was found in 1960. Shanidar 5 was a robust adult male estimated to have been aged over 40 years at the time of death. Comparisons of photographs from the previous and recent excavations indicate that the old and new remains were directly adjacent to one another, while the disturbed arrangement and partial crushing of the new fossils is consistent with descriptions and photographs of the older discoveries. The newly discovered bones include fragments of several vertebrae, a left hamate, part of the proximal left femur, a heavily crushed partial pelvis, and the distal half of the right tibia and fibula and associated talus and navicular. All these elements were previously missing from Shanidar 5, and morphological and metric data are consistent with the new elements belonging to this individual. A newly discovered partial left pubic symphysis indicates an age at death of 40-50 years, also consistent with the age of Shanidar 5 estimated previously. Thus, the combined evidence strongly suggests that the new finds can be attributed to Shanidar 5. Ongoing analyses of associated samples, including for sediment morphology, palynology, and dating, will therefore offer new evidence as to how this individual was deposited in the cave and permit new analyses of the skeleton itself and broader discussion of Neanderthal morphology and variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  18. Discovering Plate Boundaries, a data rich classroom exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D. S.; Henning, A. T.; Shipp, S.

    2002-12-01

    I have developed an exercise called "Discovering Plate Boundaries" that is getting increasing use in the Houston area, via teacher workshop sessions I give, and nationally through my web page and teacher workshops lead by colleagues. The exercise is based on 5 world maps containing earthquake, volcano, topography, satellite gravity, and seafloor age data. The novel aspect of the exercise is the "jigsaw" manner in which student groups access the maps and use them to discover, classify, and describe plate boundary types. The exercise is based only on observation and description, which makes it useful at a wide variety of levels; I have used it successfully in 5th grade classes, 8th grade classes, as well as in high school and earth science classes at Rice University. The exercise is based on a set of wall maps that are not consumed during the exercise. The consumables are inexpensive: two 11x17 in. B&W copies per student and some colored pencils. Because the exercise is not based on student access to the web, it is not dependent on classroom technology equipment. The exercise takes three 50 minute class periods to complete and involves the students in making presentations to one another in small groups as well as to the whole class. The students come away from the exercise with knowledge of the key features of each type of plate boundary and a sense of why each looks/acts the way it does.

  19. Discovering the cosmos with small spacecraft the American explorer program

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Explorer was the original American space program and Explorer 1 its first satellite, launched in 1958. Sixty years later, it is the longest continuously running space program in the world, demonstrating to the world how we can explore the cosmos with small spacecraft. Almost a hundred Explorers have already been launched.  Explorers have made some of the fundamental discoveries of the Space Age.Explorer 1 discovered Earth’s radiation belts. Later Explorers surveyed the Sun, the X-ray and ultraviolet universes, black holes, magnetars and gamma ray bursts. An Explorer found the remnant of the Big Bang. One Explorer chased and was the first to intercept a comet. The program went through a period of few launches during the crisis of funding for space science in the 1980s. However, with the era of ‘faster, cheaper, better,’ the program was reinvented, and new exiting missions began to take shape, like Swift and the asteroid hunter WISE.  Discovering the Cosmos with Small Spacecraft gives an account of ...

  20. Novel virophages discovered in a freshwater lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaowen eGong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Virophages are small double-stranded DNA viruses that are parasites of giant DNA viruses that infect unicellular eukaryotes. Here we identify a novel group of virophages, named Dishui Lake virophages (DSLVs that were discovered in Dishui Lake (DSL: an artificial freshwater lake in Shanghai, China. Based on PCR and metagenomic analysis, the complete genome of DSLV1 was found to be circular and 28,788 base pairs in length, with a G+C content 43.2%, and 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs. Fifteen of the DSLV1 ORFs have sequence similarity to known virophages. Two DSLV1 ORFs exhibited sequence similarity to that of prasinoviruses (Phycodnaviridae and chloroviruses (Phycodnaviridae, respectively, suggesting horizontal gene transfer occurred between these large algal DNA viruses and DSLV1. 46 other virophages-related contigs were also obtained, including six homologous major capsid protein (MCP gene. Phylogenetic analysis of these MCPs showed that DSLVs are closely related to OLV (Organic Lake virophage and YSLVs (Yellowstone Lake virophages, especially to YSLV3, except for YSLV7. These results indicate that freshwater ecotopes are the hotbed for discovering novel virophages as well as understanding their diversity and properties.

  1. Learning Faster by Discovering and Exploiting Object Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Janež

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the question: “Is it possible to speed up the learning process of an autonomous agent by performing experiments in a more complex environment (i.e., an environment with a greater number of different objects?” To this end, we use a simple robotic domain, where the robot has to learn a qualitative model predicting the change in the robot's distance to an object. To quantify the environment's complexity, we defined cardinal complexity as the number of objects in the robot's world, and behavioural complexity as the number of objects' distinct behaviours. We propose Error reduction merging (ERM, a new learning method that automatically discovers similarities in the structure of the agent's environment. ERM identifies different types of objects solely from the data measured and merges the observations of objects that behave in the same or similar way in order to speed up the agent's learning. We performed a series of experiments in worlds of increasing complexity. The results in our simple domain indicate that ERM was capable of discovering structural similarities in the data which indeed made the learning faster, clearly superior to conventional learning. This observed trend occurred with various machine learning algorithms used inside the ERM method.

  2. Semantic interestingness measures for discovering association rules in the skeletal dysplasia domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Razan; Groza, Tudor; Hunter, Jane; Zankl, Andreas

    2014-02-05

    Lately, ontologies have become a fundamental building block in the process of formalising and storing complex biomedical information. With the currently existing wealth of formalised knowledge, the ability to discover implicit relationships between different ontological concepts becomes particularly important. One of the most widely used methods to achieve this is association rule mining. However, while previous research exists on applying traditional association rule mining on ontologies, no approach has, to date, exploited the advantages brought by using the structure of these ontologies in computing rule interestingness measures. We introduce a method that combines concept similarity metrics, formulated using the intrinsic structure of a given ontology, with traditional interestingness measures to compute semantic interestingness measures in the process of association rule mining. We apply the method in our domain of interest - bone dysplasias - using the core ontologies characterising it and an annotated dataset of patient clinical summaries, with the goal of discovering implicit relationships between clinical features and disorders. Experimental results show that, using the above mentioned dataset and a voting strategy classification evaluation, the best scoring traditional interestingness measure achieves an accuracy of 57.33%, while the best scoring semantic interestingness measure achieves an accuracy of 64.38%, both at the recall cut-off point 5. Semantic interestingness measures outperform the traditional ones, and hence show that they are able to exploit the semantic similarities inherently present between ontological concepts. Nevertheless, this is dependent on the domain, and implicitly, on the semantic similarity metric chosen to model it.

  3. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases.

  4. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Ganesan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases.

  5. Communication Boot Camp: Discover the Speaker in You!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraidah Binti Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning can take place almost anywhere, and this is especially true for our undergraduates who wish to become public speakers. Besides university course and public speaking workshops on campus grounds, undergraduates are now looking for a different learning environment – communication boot camps!! This study presents a compilation of learners’ experience, fun-filled activities, insightful feedback and memorable boot camp moments as captured in camp photos and feedback surveys. It involves a total of thirty seven undergraduates who enrolled in a Communication Boot Camp at Janda Baik, Pahang. Results show that Communication Boot Camp is a successful strategy to groom public speakers with a positive correlation between camp success and camp objectives, particularly in reducing shyness, motivating participants to become public speakers and discovering their talent and skills. In short, the study adds to the promise of zest and delight in public speaking.

  6. A new hard X-ray transient discovered by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibaud, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.

    2011-01-01

    INTEGRAL discovered a new hard X-ray transient, IGR J17498-2921, during the observations performed from 2011-08-11 22:45 to 2011-08-12 05:54 UTC. The source is detected in the IBIS/ISGRI mosaic at a preliminary significance level of 11 and 9 sigma in the 20-40 keV and 40-80 keV energy bands......, respectively. The corresponding fluxes are 19+/-2 and 23+/-3 mCrab (68% c.l., only statistical). The best determined source position is at RA=17:49:49; DEC=-29:21:14 (J2000) with a 90% confinement radius of 2.3 arcmin. The IBIS/ISGRI spectrum (exposure time 15.9 ks) can be well described by a a power...

  7. Re-discovering Mendel: The Case of Carl Correns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Carl Erich Correns (1864-1933) is remembered in the annals of science as one of the three botanists who re-discovered Mendel's laws. He can also, however, be regarded as one of the founding figures of classical genetics in Germany. Between 1894 and 1899 he carried out the crossing experiments with corn and peas that led to the re-statement of Gregor Mendel's (1822-1884) results. Between 1900 and 1910, he explored the complications of these laws, including the coupling of factors due to their chromosomal location and the inheritance of sex, in a great number of plant species. In later years Correns became interested in and experimented on phenomena of extra-nuclear inheritance.

  8. Cassini discovers a kinematic spiral ring around Saturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnoz, S; Porco, C C; Déau, E; Brahic, A; Spitale, J N; Bacques, G; Baillie, K

    2005-11-25

    Since the time of the Voyager flybys of Saturn in 1980-1981, Saturn's eccentric F ring has been known to be accompanied on either side by faint strands of material. New Cassini observations show that these strands, initially interpreted as concentric ring segments, are in fact connected and form a single one-arm trailing spiral winding at least three times around Saturn. The spiral rotates around Saturn with the orbital motion of its constituent particles. This structure is likely the result of differential orbital motion stretching an initial cloud of particles scattered from the dense core of the F ring. Different scenarios of formation, implying ringlet-satellite interactions, are explored. A recently discovered moon candidate, S/2004 S6, is on an orbit that crosses the F-ring core at the intersection of the spiral with the ring, which suggests a dynamical connection between S/2004 S6 and the spiral.

  9. Risk of appendicitis in patients with incidentally discovered appendicoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Sohaib; Chaudhry, Mustafa Belal Hafeez; Shahzad, Noman; Tariq, Marvi; Memon, Wasim Ahmed; Alvi, Abdul Rehman

    2018-01-01

    An appendicolith-related appendiceal obstruction leading to appendicitis is a commonly encountered surgical emergency that has clear evidence-based management plans. However, there is no consensus on management of asymptomatic patients when appendicoliths are found incidentally. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of appendicitis in patients with an incidental finding of the appendicolith. A retrospective matched cohort study of patients with appendicolith discovered incidentally on computed tomographic scan from January 2008 to December 2014 at our institution was completed. The size and position of the appendicolith were ascertained. The study group was matched by age and gender to a control group. Both groups were contacted and interviewed regarding development of appendicitis. In total, 111 patients with appendicolith were successfully contacted and included in the study. Mean age was found to be 38 ± 15 y with 36 (32%) of the study population being females. Mean length of appendix was 66 ± 16 mm, and mean width was 5.8 ± 0.9 mm. Mean size of the appendicolith was 3.6 ± 1.1 mm (1.4-7.8 mm). Fifty-eight percent of appendicoliths was located at the proximal end or whole of appendix, 31% at mid area, and 11% at the distal end of appendix. All patients of the study and control groups were contacted, and at a mean follow-up of 4.0 ± 1.7 y, there was no occurrence of acute appendicitis in either group. Patients with incidentally discovered appendicolith on radiological imaging did not develop appendicitis. Hence, the risk of developing acute appendicitis for these patients does not seem higher than the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Occult carcinoma discovered after simple hysterectomy treated with postoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Christopher H.; Schneider, Bernard F.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment of patients with occult carcinoma of the cervix discovered after simple hysterectomy is controversial. The purpose of this review is to examine our results with postoperative radiotherapy and to compare them to similar reports and to reports of treatment with radical parametrectomy. Methods and Materials: Between November 1979 and April:, 18 patients were treated with radiotherapy at the University of Virginia for invasive carcinoma of the cervix discovered after simple hysterectomy. Simple hysterectomy was performed in all 18 patients for a variety of indications. After surgery gross residual carcinoma remained in four patients; and microscopic disease was present at the surgical margins in two patients. The remaining patients had no evidence of residual disease. All 18 patients had postoperative radiotherapy with or without brachytherapy. The endpoints for this study were local control, survival, and treatment-related toxicity. Actuarial rates were calculated using the Life method. Results: Median follow-up for all 18 patients was 42 months (range 2-202 months). Both the 5 and the 10-year actuarial local control rates were 88%. Five and 10-year actuarial overall survival rates were both 93%. Two patients had both local and distant cancer recurrences. There were no recurrences among the six patients treated with external beam alone. The remaining patients are all alive without evidence of disease, including two patients who had gross residual disease after surgery, and one patient with both microscopic positive margin and a positive lymph node (the only patient to undergo lymph node sampling). There was no severe acute morbidity and only one patient had severe late morbidity. Conclusions: Invasive carcinoma found after simple hysterectomy may be treated safely and effectively with postoperative radiotherapy. Patients with known residual disease following surgery do poorly with either radiotherapy or reoperation, but treatment with radiotherapy

  11. Discovering opinion leaders for medical topics using news articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Peeler, Ryan; Topham, Philip

    2012-03-15

    Rapid identification of subject experts for medical topics helps in improving the implementation of discoveries by speeding the time to market drugs and aiding in clinical trial recruitment, etc. Identifying such people who influence opinion through social network analysis is gaining prominence. In this work, we explore how to combine named entity recognition from unstructured news articles with social network analysis to discover opinion leaders for a given medical topic. We employed a Conditional Random Field algorithm to extract three categories of entities from health-related new articles: Person, Organization and Location. We used the latter two to disambiguate polysemy and synonymy for the person names, used simple rules to identify the subject experts, and then applied social network analysis techniques to discover the opinion leaders among them based on their media presence. A network was created by linking each pair of subject experts who are mentioned together in an article. The social network analysis metrics (including centrality metrics such as Betweenness, Closeness, Degree and Eigenvector) are used for ranking the subject experts based on their power in information flow. We extracted 734,204 person mentions from 147,528 news articles related to obesity from January 1, 2007 through July 22, 2010. Of these, 147,879 mentions have been marked as subject experts. The F-score of extracting person names is 88.5%. More than 80% of the subject experts who rank among top 20 in at least one of the metrics could be considered as opinion leaders in obesity. The analysis of the network of subject experts with media presence revealed that an opinion leader might have fewer mentions in the news articles, but a high network centrality measure and vice-versa. Betweenness, Closeness and Degree centrality measures were shown to supplement frequency counts in the task of finding subject experts. Further, opinion leaders missed in scientific publication network analysis

  12. Newly discovered hepatitis C virus minicores circulate in human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Francis J.; El‐Shamy, Ahmed; Doyle, Erin H.; Klepper, Arielle; Muerhoff, A. Scott

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most prevalent causes of chronic blood‐borne infections worldwide. Despite developments of highly effective treatments, most infected individuals are unaware of their infection. Approximately 75% of infections are in low‐ and middle‐income countries; therefore, continuing research in HCV molecular virology and the development of vaccines and affordable diagnostics is required to reduce the global burden. Various intracellular forms of the HCV nucleocapsid (core) protein are produced in cell culture; these comprise the conventional p21 core and the newly discovered shorter isoforms (minicores). Minicores lack the N‐terminus of p21 core. This study was conducted to determine if minicores are secreted in cell culture and more importantly if they circulate in the blood of individuals infected with HCV. We also developed a new monoclonal antibody that detects minicores targeting a C‐terminal region common to p21 core and minicores. Direct evidence of minicores requires western blot analysis to distinguish the detection of p21 core from minicores. However, the sensitivity for western blot detection of HCV proteins from blood is nil without their prior purification/enrichment from blood. Therefore, we developed a purification method based on a heparin/Mn+2 precipitation of apolipoprotein B‐containing lipoproteins because HCV is thought to circulate as a hybrid lipoviral particle. Minicores are secreted in culture when cells are grown in the presence of human serum. The heparin/Mn+2 precipitate from HCV‐infected cell culture supernatants and from the blood of 4 patients with high‐titer genotype‐1 HCV contained minicores. Conclusion: Minicores are major newly discovered HCV proteins that are secreted and circulate in blood during natural infections. Minicore proteins have translational potential as targets in diagnostic assays and in vaccine development. (Hepatology Communications 2018;2:21–28) PMID:29404509

  13. Discovering opinion leaders for medical topics using news articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnalagadda Siddhartha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid identification of subject experts for medical topics helps in improving the implementation of discoveries by speeding the time to market drugs and aiding in clinical trial recruitment, etc. Identifying such people who influence opinion through social network analysis is gaining prominence. In this work, we explore how to combine named entity recognition from unstructured news articles with social network analysis to discover opinion leaders for a given medical topic. Methods We employed a Conditional Random Field algorithm to extract three categories of entities from health-related new articles: Person, Organization and Location. We used the latter two to disambiguate polysemy and synonymy for the person names, used simple rules to identify the subject experts, and then applied social network analysis techniques to discover the opinion leaders among them based on their media presence. A network was created by linking each pair of subject experts who are mentioned together in an article. The social network analysis metrics (including centrality metrics such as Betweenness, Closeness, Degree and Eigenvector are used for ranking the subject experts based on their power in information flow. Results We extracted 734,204 person mentions from 147,528 news articles related to obesity from January 1, 2007 through July 22, 2010. Of these, 147,879 mentions have been marked as subject experts. The F-score of extracting person names is 88.5%. More than 80% of the subject experts who rank among top 20 in at least one of the metrics could be considered as opinion leaders in obesity. Conclusion The analysis of the network of subject experts with media presence revealed that an opinion leader might have fewer mentions in the news articles, but a high network centrality measure and vice-versa. Betweenness, Closeness and Degree centrality measures were shown to supplement frequency counts in the task of finding subject experts. Further

  14. Discovering the plates boundaries in the Mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    During the 8th class the students learn geology. We analyze the earth's layers, the earthquakes, the volcanoes and other natural phenomena like subduction and orogeny. We start with a global study but our goal is to focus on the crust to discover the plates boundaries, particularly the boundary between Eurasian and African Plate in the Mediterranean sea. It's very simple for the students to discover all the information using the Internet or the science book, but I want to make with them an exploration of earth science with the help of the natural phenomena we studied during the year. We connect with Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia ( http://www.ingv.it/en/ ) where we can find a map with the earthquakes happened in the last years in Italy and in the Mediterranean sea and the list of the main volcanoes. In this way we can draw a map of the mediterranean plates and we can talk about the past and the future of the Mediterranean sea, Europe and Africa based on our maps and on the Alps orogeny. Using youtube we can have a confirm of our hypothesis about the future of the Mediterranean sea (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uGcDed4xVD4 ). A good observation for the students is given by the fact that we live in Europe but actually we stay on the African plate. The boundary is 5 km north of our school and we can go and visit the place where it is possible to see the different height of the two plates.

  15. Discovering Neural Nets with Low Kolmogorov Complexity and High Generalization Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidhuber, Jurgen

    1997-07-01

    Many neural net learning algorithms aim at finding "simple" nets to explain training data. The expectation is that the "simpler" the networks, the better the generalization on test data (--> Occam's razor). Previous implementations, however, use measures for "simplicity" that lack the power, universality and elegance of those based on Kolmogorov complexity and Solomonoff's algorithmic probability. Likewise, most previous approaches (especially those of the "Bayesian" kind) suffer from the problem of choosing appropriate priors. This paper addresses both issues. It first reviews some basic concepts of algorithmic complexity theory relevant to machine learing, and how the Solomonoff-Levin distribution (or universal prior) deals with the prior problem. The universal prior leads to a probabilistic method for finding "algorithmically simple" problem solutions with high generalization capability. The method is based on Levin complexity (a time-bounded generalization of Kolmogorov complexity) and inspired by Levin's optimal universal search algorithm. For a given problem, solution candidates are computed by efficient "self-sizing" programs that influence their own runtime and storage size. The probabilistic search algorithm finds the "good" programs (the ones quickly computing algorithmically probable solutions fitting the training data). Simulations focus on the task of discovering "algorithmically simple" neural networks with low Kolmogorov complexity and high generalization capability. It is demonstrated that the method, at least with certain toy problems where it is computationally feasible, can lead to generalization results unmatchable by previous neural network algorithms. Much remains to be done, however, to make large scale applications and "incremental learning" feasible. Copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Data Recommender: An Alternative Way to Discover Open Scientific Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Devaraju, A.; Williams, G.; Hogan, D.; Davy, R.; Page, J.; Singh, D.; Peterson, N.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few years, institutions and government agencies have adopted policies to openly release their data, which has resulted in huge amounts of open data becoming available on the web. When trying to discover the data, users face two challenges: an overload of choice and the limitations of the existing data search tools. On the one hand, there are too many datasets to choose from, and therefore, users need to spend considerable effort to find the datasets most relevant to their research. On the other hand, data portals commonly offer keyword and faceted search, which depend fully on the user queries to search and rank relevant datasets. Consequently, keyword and faceted search may return loosely related or irrelevant results, although the results may contain the same query. They may also return highly specific results that depend more on how well metadata was authored. They do not account well for variance in metadata due to variance in author styles and preferences. The top-ranked results may also come from the same data collection, and users are unlikely to discover new and interesting datasets. These search modes mainly suits users who can express their information needs in terms of the structure and terminology of the data portals, but may pose a challenge otherwise. The above challenges reflect that we need a solution that delivers the most relevant (i.e., similar and serendipitous) datasets to users, beyond the existing search functionalities on the portals. A recommender system is an information filtering system that presents users with relevant and interesting contents based on users' context and preferences. Delivering data recommendations to users can make data discovery easier, and as a result may enhance user engagement with the portal. We developed a hybrid data recommendation approach for the CSIRO Data Access Portal. The approach leverages existing recommendation techniques (e.g., content-based filtering and item co-occurrence) to produce

  17. Discovering EEG resting state alterations of semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Matthias; Koenig, Thomas; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Utsunomiya, Keita; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Dierks, Thomas; Nishida, Keiichiro

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of semantic dementia relies on cost-intensive MRI or PET, although resting EEG markers of other dementias have been reported. Yet the view still holds that resting EEG in patients with semantic dementia is normal. However, studies using increasingly sophisticated EEG analysis methods have demonstrated that slightest alterations of functional brain states can be detected. We analyzed the common four resting EEG microstates (A, B, C, and D) of 8 patients with semantic dementia in comparison with 8 healthy controls and 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Topographical differences between the groups were found in microstate classes B and C, while microstate classes A and D were comparable. The data showed that the semantic dementia group had a peculiar microstate E, but the commonly found microstate C was lacking. Furthermore, the presence of microstate E was significantly correlated with lower MMSE and language scores. Alterations in resting EEG can be found in semantic dementia. Topographical shifts in microstate C might be related to semantic memory deficits. This is the first study that discovered resting state EEG abnormality in semantic dementia. The notion that resting EEG in this dementia subtype is normal has to be revised. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Discovering Patterns in Brain Signals Using Decision Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narusci S. Bastos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even with emerging technologies, such as Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI systems, understanding how our brains work is a very difficult challenge. So we propose to use a data mining technique to help us in this task. As a case of study, we analyzed the brain’s behaviour of blind people and sighted people in a spatial activity. There is a common belief that blind people compensate their lack of vision using the other senses. If an object is given to sighted people and we asked them to identify this object, probably the sense of vision will be the most determinant one. If the same experiment was repeated with blind people, they will have to use other senses to identify the object. In this work, we propose a methodology that uses decision trees (DT to investigate the difference of how the brains of blind people and people with vision react against a spatial problem. We choose the DT algorithm because it can discover patterns in the brain signal, and its presentation is human interpretable. Our results show that using DT to analyze brain signals can help us to understand the brain’s behaviour.

  19. Discovering geothermal supercritical fluids: a new frontier for seismic exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Licciardi, Andrea; Piccinini, Davide; Mazzarini, Francesco; Musumeci, Giovanni; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Chiarabba, Claudio

    2017-11-06

    Exploiting supercritical geothermal resources represents a frontier for the next generation of geothermal electrical power plant, as the heat capacity of supercritical fluids (SCF),which directly impacts on energy production, is much higher than that of fluids at subcritical conditions. Reconnaissance and location of intensively permeable and productive horizons at depth is the present limit for the development of SCF geothermal plants. We use, for the first time, teleseismic converted waves (i.e. receiver function) for discovering those horizons in the crust. Thanks to the capability of receiver function to map buried anisotropic materials, the SCF-bearing horizon is seen as the 4km-depth abrupt termination of a shallow, thick, ultra-high (>30%) anisotropic rock volume, in the center of the Larderello geothermal field. The SCF-bearing horizon develops within the granites of the geothermal field, bounding at depth the vapor-filled heavily-fractured rock matrix that hosts the shallow steam-dominated geothermal reservoirs. The sharp termination at depth of the anisotropic behavior of granites, coinciding with a 2 km-thick stripe of seismicity and diffuse fracturing, points out the sudden change in compressibility of the fluid filling the fractures and is a key-evidence of deep fluids that locally traversed the supercritical conditions. The presence of SCF and fracture permeability in nominally ductile granitic rocks open new scenarios for the understanding of magmatic systems and for geothermal exploitation.

  20. Modern Approaches to Discovering New Hydroxynitrile Lyases for Biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Santosh Kumar

    2017-01-17

    Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) have grown in importance from laboratory to industry due to their potential to catalyze stereoselective C-C bond-formation reactions in the synthesis of several chiral intermediates, such as enantiopure α-cyanohydrins, β-nitro alcohols, and their derivatives with multiple functional groups. With these wide applications, the demand for finding new HNLs has increased, and this has led to exploration not only of new HNLs but also of new ways to discover them. An exclusive review article on HNLs by Asano et al. in 2011 described the discovery of HNLs along with their applications. Since then many scientific advancements have been seen in this area. This article aims to highlight the modern HNL discovery approaches, based mainly on 1) genome mining, 2) use of INTMSAlign software, 3) rational design (based on a millipede HNL), 4) evolution of catalytic mechanisms, 5) protein engineering guided by catalytic mechanisms, and 6) screening of plants with cyanogen glycoside (CG) content. This description is followed by future prospects. Overall this review represents the present state and the future potential of HNL discovery approaches, and so might be hoped to be instrumental not only in exploration of new HNLs but also in the invention of methods for potential biotechnological applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Discovering Patterns in Brain Signals Using Decision Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Narusci S; Adamatti, Diana F; Billa, Cleo Z

    Even with emerging technologies, such as Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) systems, understanding how our brains work is a very difficult challenge. So we propose to use a data mining technique to help us in this task. As a case of study, we analyzed the brain's behaviour of blind people and sighted people in a spatial activity. There is a common belief that blind people compensate their lack of vision using the other senses. If an object is given to sighted people and we asked them to identify this object, probably the sense of vision will be the most determinant one. If the same experiment was repeated with blind people, they will have to use other senses to identify the object. In this work, we propose a methodology that uses decision trees (DT) to investigate the difference of how the brains of blind people and people with vision react against a spatial problem. We choose the DT algorithm because it can discover patterns in the brain signal, and its presentation is human interpretable. Our results show that using DT to analyze brain signals can help us to understand the brain's behaviour.

  2. Systematic Serendipity: A Method to Discover the Anomalous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Daniel; Walkowicz, Lucianne

    2018-01-01

    One of the challenges in the era of big data astronomical surveys is identifying anomalous data, data that exhibits as-of-yet unobserved behavior. These data may result from systematic errors, extreme (or rare) forms of known phenomena, or, most interestingly, truly novel phenomena that has historically required a trained eye and often fortuitous circumstance to identify. We describe a method that uses machine clustering techniques to discover anomalous data in Kepler lightcurves, as a step towards systematizing the detection of novel phenomena in the era of LSST. As a proof of concept, we apply our anomaly detection method to Kepler data including Boyajian's Star (KIC 8462852). We examine quarters 4, 8, 11, and 16 of the Kepler data which contain Boyajian’s Star acting normally (quarters 4 and 11) and anomalously (quarters 8 and 16). We demonstrate that our method is capable of identifying Boyajian’s Star’s anomalous behavior in quarters of interest, and we further identify other anomalous light curves that exhibit a range of interesting variability.

  3. Inner solar system material discovered in the Oort cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meech, Karen J; Yang, Bin; Kleyna, Jan; Hainaut, Olivier R; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Keane, Jacqueline V; Micheli, Marco; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Wainscoat, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    We have observed C/2014 S3 (PANSTARRS), a recently discovered object on a cometary orbit coming from the Oort cloud that is physically similar to an inner main belt rocky S-type asteroid. Recent dynamical models successfully reproduce the key characteristics of our current solar system; some of these models require significant migration of the giant planets, whereas others do not. These models provide different predictions on the presence of rocky material expelled from the inner solar system in the Oort cloud. C/2014 S3 could be the key to verifying these predictions of the migration-based dynamical models. Furthermore, this object displays a very faint, weak level of comet-like activity, five to six orders of magnitude less than that of typical ice-rich comets on similar Orbits coming from the Oort cloud. For the nearly tailless appearance, we are calling C/2014 S3 a Manx object. Various arguments convince us that this activity is produced by sublimation of volatile ice, that is, normal cometary activity. The activity implies that C/2014 S3 has retained a tiny fraction of the water that is expected to be present at its formation distance in the inner solar system. We may be looking at fresh inner solar system Earth-forming material that was ejected from the inner solar system and preserved for billions of years in the Oort cloud.

  4. Decision Tree Approach to Discovering Fraud in Leasing Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Ivan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fraud attempts create large losses for financing subjects in modern economies. At the same time, leasing agreements have become more and more popular as a means of financing objects such as machinery and vehicles, but are more vulnerable to fraud attempts. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to estimate the usability of the data mining approach in discovering fraud in leasing agreements. Methods/Approach: Real-world data from one Croatian leasing firm was used for creating tow models for fraud detection in leasing. The decision tree method was used for creating a classification model, and the CHAID algorithm was deployed. Results: The decision tree model has indicated that the object of the leasing agreement had the strongest impact on the probability of fraud. Conclusions: In order to enhance the probability of the developed model, it would be necessary to develop software that would enable automated, quick and transparent retrieval of data from the system, processing according to the rules and displaying the results in multiple categories.

  5. Discovering market basket patterns using hierarchical association rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Zekić-Sušac

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Association rules are a data mining method for discovering patterns of frequent item sets, such as products in a store that are frequently purchased at the same time by a customer (market basket analysis. A number of interestingness measures for association rules have been developed to date, but research has shown that there a dominant measure does not exist. Authors have mostly used objective measures, whereas subjective measures have rarely been investigated. This paper aims to combine objective measures such as support, confidence and lift with a subjective approach based on human expert selection in order to extract interesting rules from a real dataset collected from a large Croatian retail chain. Hierarchical association rules were used to enhance the efficiency of the extraction rule. The results show that rules that are more interesting were extracted using the hierarchical method, and that a hybrid approach of combining objective and subjective measures succeeds in extracting certain unexpected and actionable rules. The research can be useful for retail and marketing managers in planning marketing strategies, as well as for researchers investigating this field.

  6. New open cluster candidates discovered in the XSTPS-GAC survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Cheng; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Hui-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Huang, Yang; Wang, Song; Chen, Li; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Liu, Ji-Feng; Chen, Bing-Qiu; Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Tian, Zhi-Jia; Huo, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Chun

    2018-03-01

    The Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (XSTPS-GAC) is a photometric sky survey that covers nearly 6000 deg2 towards the Galactic Anti-center (GAC) in the g, r, i bands. Half of its survey field is located on the Galactic Anti-center disk, which makes XSTPS-GAC highly suitable to search for new open clusters in the GAC region. In this paper, we report new open cluster candidates discovered in this survey, as well as properties of these open cluster candidates, such as age, distance and reddening, derived by isochrone fitting in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD). These open cluster candidates are stellar density peaks detected in the star density maps by applying the method from Koposov et al. Each candidate is inspected in terms of its true color image composed from three XSTPS-GAC band images. Then its CMD is checked, in order to identify whether the central region stars have a clear isochrone-like trend differing from background stars. The parameters derived from isochrone fitting for these candidates are mainly based on three band photometry of XSTPS-GAC. Moreover, when these new candidates are able to be seen clearly in 2MASS data, their parameters are also derived based on the 2MASS (J – H, J) CMD. There are a total of 320 known open clusters rediscovered and 24 new open cluster candidates discovered in this work. Furthermore, the parameters of these new candidates, as well as another 11 previously known open clusters, are properly determined for the first time.

  7. Discovering the Role of Grain Boundary Complexions in Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmer, Martin P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2015-03-19

    in a range of materials systems, and to characterize their structures, range of stability and selected physical properties. First, an Au-based bilayer interfacial phase was discovered at a bicrystal boundary in the Si-Au system. This bilayer transitioned abruptly to an intrinsic (“clean”) grain boundary phase, suggesting first-order phase behavior. This study represents the discovery of grain boundary complexions in a completely new system, i.e., a semiconductor-metal system, giving further support to the expectation that grain boundary complexions are a general phenomenon not limited to any particular class of materials. The TiO2-CuO system exhibited four grain boundary interfacial phases: a monolayer, disordered bilayer, disordered trilayer, and non-wetting nanoscale amorphous drop (which likely resulted from dewetting of a nanoscale IGF). SiO2 contamination was discovered in the TiO2-CuO samples, and we hypothesize that this impurity may have caused an “order-disorder” transition to occur. In other words, we expect that pure TiO2-CuO may have a higher tendency to exhibit ordered bilayer and trilayer complexions, which may also exhibit a well-defined order-disorder transition temperature. In this effort we have also identified unique complexion transitions in yttria and strontium titanate.

  8. PALFA Discovers Neutron Stars on a Collision Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    Got any plans in 46 million years? If not, you should keep an eye out for PSR J1946+2052 around that time this upcoming merger of two neutron stars promises to be an exciting show!Survey SuccessAverage profile for PSR J1946+2052 at 1.43 GHz from a 2 hr observation from the Arecibo Observatory. [Stovall et al. 2018]It seems like we just wrote about the dearth of known double-neutron-star systems, and about how new surveys are doing their best to find more of these compact binaries. Observing these systems improves our knowledge of how pairs of evolved stars behave before they eventually spiral in, merge, and emit gravitational waves that detectors like the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory might observe.Todays study, led by Kevin Stovall (National Radio Astronomy Observatory), goes to show that these surveys are doing a great job so far! Yet another double-neutron-star binary, PSR J1946+2052, has now been discovered as part of the Arecibo L-Band Feed Array pulsar (PALFA) survey. This one is especially unique due to the incredible speed with which these neutron stars orbit each other and their correspondingly (relatively!) short timescale for merger.An Extreme ExampleThe PALFA survey, conducted with the enormous 305-meter radio dish at Arecibo, has thus far resulted in the discovery of 180 pulsars including two double-neutron-star systems. The most recent discovery by Stovall and collaborators brings that number up to three, for a grand total of 16 binary-neutron-star systems (confirmed and unconfirmed) known to date.The 305-m Arecibo Radio Telescope, built into the landscape at Arecibo, Puerto Rico. [NOAO/AURA/NSF/H. Schweiker/WIYN]The newest binary in this collection, PSR J1946+2052, exhibits a pulsar with a 17-millisecond spin period thatwhips around its compact companion at a terrifying rate: the binary period is just 1.88 hours. Follow-up observations with the Jansky Very Large Array and other telescopes allowed the team to identify the binarys

  9. Encoded expansion: an efficient algorithm to discover identical string motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Aqil M; Al-Ssulami, Abdulrakeeb

    2014-01-01

    A major task in computational biology is the discovery of short recurring string patterns known as motifs. Most of the schemes to discover motifs are either stochastic or combinatorial in nature. Stochastic approaches do not guarantee finding the correct motifs, while the combinatorial schemes tend to have an exponential time complexity with respect to motif length. To alleviate the cost, the combinatorial approach exploits dynamic data structures such as trees or graphs. Recently (Karci (2009) Efficient automatic exact motif discovery algorithms for biological sequences, Expert Systems with Applications 36:7952-7963) devised a deterministic algorithm that finds all the identical copies of string motifs of all sizes [Formula: see text] in theoretical time complexity of [Formula: see text] and a space complexity of [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is the length of the input sequence and [Formula: see text] is the length of the longest possible string motif. In this paper, we present a significant improvement on Karci's original algorithm. The algorithm that we propose reports all identical string motifs of sizes [Formula: see text] that occur at least [Formula: see text] times. Our algorithm starts with string motifs of size 2, and at each iteration it expands the candidate string motifs by one symbol throwing out those that occur less than [Formula: see text] times in the entire input sequence. We use a simple array and data encoding to achieve theoretical worst-case time complexity of [Formula: see text] and a space complexity of [Formula: see text] Encoding of the substrings can speed up the process of comparison between string motifs. Experimental results on random and real biological sequences confirm that our algorithm has indeed a linear time complexity and it is more scalable in terms of sequence length than the existing algorithms.

  10. A DISK MIRROR RECENTLY DISCOVERED SOUTH THE LOWER MUREȘ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalie Bârcă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is the analysis of the disk mirror discovered in 2010 during the rescue archaeological excavations carried out in occasion of the construction of the Arad-Timişoara motorway, respectively the Arad-Seceani sector. The mirror was found at  ca. 1 m north grave 1 in site B0_6, where beside other two cremation graves, poorly preserved, other 129 archaeological features were also investigated.Though not exhaustively, we attempt herein to present the origin, distribution of this mirror type in the Sarmatian world and the chronological interval of their use within said environment.The author notes that these disk mirror types from the funerary Sarmatian features of the Great Hungarian Plain count amongst the most numerous, being found within funerary contexts on the entire duration of the Sarmatian inhabitancy of this geographical area. Further, the author notes that mirrors of the type are widely spread on broad geographical areas, hence the establishment of any production centres is highly difficult, but also that very likely, they were produced in various cultural environments over several centuries. Their high numbers in the Sarmatian world proves it is possible they made them, although there is no certain substantiating evidence. The author does not exclude either the possibility of the presence of travelling artisans in the Sarmatian environment making certain item categories upon order, mirrors of the type included.In terms of the dating of G 1 at Arad (site B_06, where the mirror most definitely originates, the author concludes that together with the other two graves (G 2 and G 3 are contemporary and date sometime to the end of the 2nd century – early decades of the 3rd century AD.

  11. Discovering Higgs Bosons of the MSSM using Jet Substructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam; Roy, Tuhin S.; Spannowsky, Michael

    2010-06-01

    We present a qualitatively new approach to discover Higgs bosons of the MSSM at the LHC using jet substructure techniques applied to boosted Higgs decays. These techniques are ideally suited to the MSSM, since the lightest Higgs boson overwhelmingly decays to b{bar b} throughout the entire parameter space, while the heavier neutral Higgs bosons, if light enough to be produced in a cascade, also predominantly decay to b{bar b}. The Higgs production we consider arises from superpartner production where superpartners cascade decay into Higgs bosons. We study this mode of Higgs production for several superpartner hierarchies: m{sub {tilde q}},m{sub {tilde g}} > m{sub {tilde W}},{sub {tilde B}} > m{sub h} + {mu}; m{tilde q};m{sub {tilde q}},m{sub {tilde g}} > m{sub {tilde W}},{sub {tilde B}} > m {sub h,H,A} + {mu}; and m{sub {tilde q}},m{sub {tilde g}} > m{sub {tilde W}} > m{sub h} + {mu} with m{sub {tilde B}} {approx} {mu}. In these cascades, the Higgs bosons are boosted, with pT > 200 GeV a large fraction of the time. Since Higgs bosons appear in cascades originating from squarks and/or gluinos, the cross section for events with at least one Higgs boson can be the same order as squark/gluino production. Given 10 fb{sup -1} of 14 TeV LHC data, with m{sub {tilde q}} {approx}< 1 TeV, and one of the above superpartner mass hierarchies, our estimate of S{radical} B of the Higgs signal is sufficiently high that the b{bar b} mode can become the discovery mode of the lightest Higgs boson of the MSSM.

  12. Discovering Higgs bosons of the MSSM using jet substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kribs, Graham D.; Roy, Tuhin S.; Spannowsky, Michael; Martin, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We present a qualitatively new approach to discover Higgs bosons of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) at the LHC using jet substructure techniques applied to boosted Higgs decays. These techniques are ideally suited to the MSSM, since the lightest Higgs boson overwhelmingly decays to bb throughout the entire parameter space, while the heavier neutral Higgs bosons, if light enough to be produced in a cascade, also predominantly decay to bb. The Higgs production we consider arises from superpartner production where superpartners cascade decay into Higgs bosons. We study this mode of Higgs production for several superpartner hierarchies: m q -tilde, m g -tilde>m W -tilde ,B -tilde>m h +μ; m q -tilde, m g -tilde>m W -tilde ,B -tilde>m h,H,A +μ; and m q -tilde, m g -tilde>m W -tilde>m h +μ with m B -tilde≅μ. In these cascades, the Higgs bosons are boosted, with p T >200 GeV a large fraction of the time. Since Higgses appear in cascades originating from squarks and/or gluinos, the cross section for events with at least one Higgs can be the same order as squark/gluino production. Given 10 fb -1 of 14 TeV LHC data, with m q -tilde < or approx. 1 TeV, and one of the above superpartner mass hierarchies, our estimate of S/√(B) of the Higgs signal is sufficiently high that the bb mode can become the discovery mode of the lightest Higgs boson of the MSSM.

  13. Feature-based morphometry: discovering group-related anatomical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Wells, William; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents feature-based morphometry (FBM), a new fully data-driven technique for discovering patterns of group-related anatomical structure in volumetric imagery. In contrast to most morphometry methods which assume one-to-one correspondence between subjects, FBM explicitly aims to identify distinctive anatomical patterns that may only be present in subsets of subjects, due to disease or anatomical variability. The image is modeled as a collage of generic, localized image features that need not be present in all subjects. Scale-space theory is applied to analyze image features at the characteristic scale of underlying anatomical structures, instead of at arbitrary scales such as global or voxel-level. A probabilistic model describes features in terms of their appearance, geometry, and relationship to subject groups, and is automatically learned from a set of subject images and group labels. Features resulting from learning correspond to group-related anatomical structures that can potentially be used as image biomarkers of disease or as a basis for computer-aided diagnosis. The relationship between features and groups is quantified by the likelihood of feature occurrence within a specific group vs. the rest of the population, and feature significance is quantified in terms of the false discovery rate. Experiments validate FBM clinically in the analysis of normal (NC) and Alzheimer's (AD) brain images using the freely available OASIS database. FBM automatically identifies known structural differences between NC and AD subjects in a fully data-driven fashion, and an equal error classification rate of 0.80 is achieved for subjects aged 60-80 years exhibiting mild AD (CDR=1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High-School Student Discovers Strange Astronomical Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    A West Virginia high-school student analyzing data from a giant radio telescope has discovered a new astronomical object -- a strange type of neutron star called a rotating radio transient. Lucas Bolyard, a sophomore at South Harrison High School in Clarksburg, WV, made the discovery while participating in a project in which students are trained to scrutinize data from the National Science Foundation's giant Robert C. Byrd Green The project, called the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC), is a joint project of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University (WVU), funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Bolyard made the discovery in March, after he already had studied more than 2,000 data plots from the GBT and found nothing. "I was home on a weekend and had nothing to do, so I decided to look at some more plots from the GBT," he said. "I saw a plot with a pulse, but there was a lot of radio interference, too. The pulse almost got dismissed as interference," he added. Nonetheless, he reported it, and it went on a list of candidates for West Virginia University astronomers Maura McLaughlin and Duncan Lorimer to re-examine, scheduling new observations of the region of sky from which the pulse came. Disappointingly, the follow-up observations showed nothing, indicating that the object was not a normal pulsar. However, the astronomers explained to Bolyard that his pulse still might have come from a rotating radio transient. Confirmation didn't come until July. Bolyard was at the NRAO's Green Bank Observatory with fellow PSC students. The night before, the group had been observing with the GBT in the wee hours, and all were very tired. Then Lorimer showed Bolyard a new plot of his pulse, reprocessed from raw data, indicating that it is real, not interference, and that Bolyard is likely the discoverer of one of only about 30 rotating radio transients known. Suddenly, Bolyard said, he wasn't tired anymore. "That news made me full

  15. DISCOVER Problem Matrisinin Revize Edilmesi ve Psikometrik Özelliklerinin İncelenmesi (An Investigation on the Revision of the DISCOVER Problem Matrix and its Psychometric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Güçyeter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and significance: According to the DPM, problems can be categorized according to whether the problem, method or solution is known by the presenter and/or the solver. The DPM includes six problem types. But it is a continuum model so more types can be added to the Matrix. The purpose of this study was to search new problem possibilities to integrate into the DPM and to investigate the psychometric properties of the revised DPM. Method: Participants included 519 students from 10 schools. Of the total sample, 248 were 6th graders (141 female; 107 male and 271 were 7th graders (154 female; 117 male. In the first stage of the research study, the DPM was reviewed and a new problem type was added to the DPM. Next, a measurement instrument was developed according to the revised DPM (r-DPM. The instrument was adminis-tered to the participants to investigate its psychometric properties. Results: Reliability coefficient was found to be .75. For the validity of the r-DPM, expert’s views were used, correlations between problem types were examined and grade discrimination was investigated. Positive and statistically significant correlations were found between the problem types. Parallel to previous research, the more distant two problem types are from each other, the lower the correlation between them, and the closer the problem types are to each other, the larger the correlations between them, which is a fact that provides evidence for the validity of the Matrix. Seventh graders had higher scores than the sixth graders on the in-strument.Discussion and Conclusions: The DISCOVER Problem Matrix (DPM can be used as a theoretical framework to develop instruments for measuring problem solving skills related to different intellectual abilities as well as educational activities and tasks to develop these skills. It has been used in the assessment and education practices in gifted education. The current study extended previous studies about the DPM and

  16. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  17. Despite Appearances, Cosmic Explosions Have Common Origin, Astronomers Discover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    A Fourth of July fireworks display features bright explosions that light the sky with different colors, yet all have the same cause. They just put their explosive energy into different colors of light. Similarly, astronomers have discovered, a variety of bright cosmic explosions all have the same origin and the same amount of total energy. This is the conclusion of an international team of astronomers that used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the closest known gamma-ray burst earlier this year. Artist's conception of burst Artist's Conception of Twin Jets in Energetic Cosmic Explosion CREDIT: Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital (Click on Image for Larger Version) "For some reason we don't yet understand, these explosions put greatly varying percentages of their explosive energy into the gamma-ray portion of their output," said Dale Frail, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. That means, he said, that both strong and weak gamma-ray bursts, along with X-ray flashes, which emit almost no gamma rays, are just different forms of the same cosmic beast. The research team reported their results in the November 13 issue of the scientific journal Nature. The scientists trained the VLA on a gamma-ray burst discovered using NASA's HETE-2 satellite last March 29. This burst, dubbed GRB 030329, was the closest such burst yet seen, about 2.6 billion light-years from Earth. Because of this relative proximity, the burst was bright, with visible light from its explosion reaching a level that could be seen in amateur telescopes. As the burst faded, astronomers noted an underlying distinctive signature of a supernova explosion, confirming that the event was associated with the death of a massive star. Since 1999, astronomers have known that the strong outbursts of gamma rays, X-rays, visible light and radio waves from these bursts form beams, like those from a flashlight, rather than spreading in all directions

  18. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  19. TWENTY-FIVE SUBARCSECOND BINARIES DISCOVERED BY LUNAR OCCULTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richichi, A. [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, 191 Siriphanich Bldg., Huay Kaew Rd., Suthep, Muang, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Fors, O. [Departament Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (UB/IEEC), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cusano, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Moerchen, M., E-mail: andrea4work@gmail.com [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2013-09-15

    We report on 25 subarcsecond binaries, detected for the first time by means of lunar occultations in the near-infrared (near-IR) as part of a long-term program using the ISAAC instrument at the ESO Very Large Telescope. The primaries have magnitudes in the range K = 3.8-10.4, and the companions in the range K = 6.4-12.1. The magnitude differences have a median value of 2.8, with the largest being 5.4. The projected separations are in the range 6-748 mas and with a median of 18 mas, or about three times less than the diffraction limit of the telescope. Among our binary detections are a pre-main-sequence star and an enigmatic Mira-like variable previously suspected to have a companion. Additionally, we quote an accurate first-time near-IR detection of a previously known wider binary. We discuss our findings on an individual basis as far as made possible by the available literature, and we examine them from a statistical point of view. We derive a typical frequency of binarity among field stars of Almost-Equal-To 10%, in the resolution and sensitivity range afforded by the technique ( Almost-Equal-To 0.''003 to Almost-Equal-To 0.''5, and K Almost-Equal-To 12 mag, respectively). This is in line with previous results using the same technique but we point out interesting differences that we can trace up to sensitivity, time sampling, and average distance of the targets. Finally, we discuss the prospects for further follow-up studies.

  20. System for Contributing and Discovering Derived Mission and Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, Michael N.; Powell, Mark W.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Mickelson, Megan C.; Ohata, Darrick M.; Kurien, James A.; Abramyan, Luch

    2013-01-01

    A system was developed to provide a new mechanism for members of the mission community to create and contribute new science data to the rest of the community. Mission tools have allowed members of the mission community to share first order data (data that is created by the mission s process in command and control of the spacecraft or the data that is captured by the craft itself, like images, science results, etc.). However, second and higher order data (data that is created after the fact by scientists and other members of the mission) was previously not widely disseminated, nor did it make its way into the mission planning process.

  1. An Eustachian Tube Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Previously Undescribed Entity and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin J. le Nobel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary sinonasal and middle ear neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare malignancies of the head and neck. Owing to the rarity of these tumors, the clinical behavior and optimal management of these tumors are not well defined. We present a case of an incidentally discovered sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma that was found to originate from the Eustachian tube, which has not previously been described in the literature. This patient was treated with primary surgical resection using a combination of transnasal and transaural approaches and achieved an incomplete resection. Follow-up imaging demonstrated continued tumor growth in the Eustachian tube as well as a new growth in the ipsilateral cerebellopontine angle and findings suspicious of perineural invasion. However, the tumor exhibited a benign growth pattern and despite continued growth the patient did not receive additional treatment and he remains asymptomatic 35 months following his original surgery.

  2. Stellar Streams Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipp, N.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    We perform a search for stellar streams around the Milky Way using the first three years of multi-band optical imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We use DES data covering $\\sim 5000$ sq. deg. to a depth of $g > 23.5$ with a relative photometric calibration uncertainty of $< 1 \\%$. This data set yields unprecedented sensitivity to the stellar density field in the southern celestial hemisphere, enabling the detection of faint stellar streams to a heliocentric distance of $\\sim 50$ kpc. We search for stellar streams using a matched-filter in color-magnitude space derived from a synthetic isochrone of an old, metal-poor stellar population. Our detection technique recovers four previously known thin stellar streams: Phoenix, ATLAS, Tucana III, and a possible extension of Molonglo. In addition, we report the discovery of eleven new stellar streams. In general, the new streams detected by DES are fainter, more distant, and lower surface brightness than streams detected by similar techniques in previous photometric surveys. As a by-product of our stellar stream search, we find evidence for extra-tidal stellar structure associated with four globular clusters: NGC 288, NGC 1261, NGC 1851, and NGC 1904. The ever-growing sample of stellar streams will provide insight into the formation of the Galactic stellar halo, the Milky Way gravitational potential, as well as the large- and small-scale distribution of dark matter around the Milky Way.

  3. "Why should I?" On selecting the content of persuasive HCT messages for students at a previously disadvantaged university in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, A.; Jansen, Carel

    This study aimed to discover what specific beliefs of students at a South African university should be addressed when trying to persuade them to go for HIV counselling and testing (HCT). The participants were 113 students from a previously disadvantaged university. The students completed a

  4. How innovation commons contribute to discovering and developing new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy W.E. Allen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern economics, the institutions surrounding the creation and development of new technologies are firms, markets and governments. We propose an alternative theory that locates the institutional origin of new technologies further back in the commons when self-organizing groups of technology enthusiasts develop effective governance rules to pool distributed information resources. The ‘innovation commons’ alleviates uncertainty around a nascent technology by pooling distributed information about uses, costs, problems and opportunities. While innovation commons are mostly temporary, because the resource itself – the information about opportunities – is only temporarily valuable, they are a further addition to the Pantheon of commons, and suggest that the institutions of the commons – and the common pool resource of information about applications of the technology – may be far more important in the study of innovation than previously thought.

  5. A case series of clinically undiagnosed hematopoietic neoplasms discovered at autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podduturi, Varsha; Guileyardo, Joseph M; Soto, Luis R; Krause, John R

    2015-06-01

    In the United States, autopsy rates have diminished to less than 5% during the last half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century for a multitude of reasons. Many believe this results in unrecognized malignancies that could have explained a patient's death. We describe six deaths in which hematopoietic neoplasms were identified at autopsy but were not diagnosed clinically. The six undiagnosed hematopoietic malignancy cases discovered at autopsy include four men and two women ranging from 50 to 78 years of age. One patient was African American and five patients were white, all with multiple comorbidities. The tumors included diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, activated B-cell type, intravascular large B-cell lymphoma, ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma arising in a setting of human immunodeficiency virus, and a myeloid sarcoma. These cases illustrate the importance of the traditional postmortem examination in not only confirming clinical diagnoses but also identifying previously unknown diagnoses. Hematologic malignancies may present with nonspecific clinical manifestations, and this series of cases also emphasizes the necessity for widening the differential diagnosis in patients with unexplained lactic acidosis and hepatic failure to include hematopoietic malignancies since prompt treatment may be lifesaving. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  6. The Revolution Continues: Newly Discovered Systems Expand the CRISPR-Cas Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Karthik; Babu, Kesavan; Sundaresan, Ramya; Rajan, Rakhi; Sashital, Dipali G

    2017-10-05

    CRISPR-Cas systems defend prokaryotes against bacteriophages and mobile genetic elements and serve as the basis for revolutionary tools for genetic engineering. Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems use single Cas endonucleases paired with guide RNAs to cleave complementary nucleic acid targets, enabling programmable sequence-specific targeting with minimal machinery. Recent discoveries of previously unidentified CRISPR-Cas systems have uncovered a deep reservoir of potential biotechnological tools beyond the well-characterized Type II Cas9 systems. Here we review the current mechanistic understanding of newly discovered single-protein Cas endonucleases. Comparison of these Cas effectors reveals substantial mechanistic diversity, underscoring the phylogenetic divergence of related CRISPR-Cas systems. This diversity has enabled further expansion of CRISPR-Cas biotechnological toolkits, with wide-ranging applications from genome editing to diagnostic tools based on various Cas endonuclease activities. These advances highlight the exciting prospects for future tools based on the continually expanding set of CRISPR-Cas systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Newly discovered ebola virus associated with hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Towner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years, Zaire and Sudan ebolaviruses have been responsible for large hemorrhagic fever (HF outbreaks with case fatalities ranging from 53% to 90%, while a third species, Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus, caused a single non-fatal HF case. In November 2007, HF cases were reported in Bundibugyo District, Western Uganda. Laboratory investigation of the initial 29 suspect-case blood specimens by classic methods (antigen capture, IgM and IgG ELISA and a recently developed random-primed pyrosequencing approach quickly identified this to be an Ebola HF outbreak associated with a newly discovered ebolavirus species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus distantly related to the Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus found in western Africa. Due to the sequence divergence of this new virus relative to all previously recognized ebolaviruses, these findings have important implications for design of future diagnostic assays to monitor Ebola HF disease in humans and animals, and ongoing efforts to develop effective antivirals and vaccines.

  8. Discovering disease associations by integrating electronic clinical data and medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Antony B; Hawson, Alexander; Liu, Feng; Friedman, Carol; Khiabanian, Hossein; Rabadan, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) systems offer an exceptional opportunity for studying many diseases and their associated medical conditions within a population. The increasing number of clinical record entries that have become available electronically provides access to rich, large sets of patients' longitudinal medical information. By integrating and comparing relations found in the EHRs with those already reported in the literature, we are able to verify existing and to identify rare or novel associations. Of particular interest is the identification of rare disease co-morbidities, where the small numbers of diagnosed patients make robust statistical analysis difficult. Here, we introduce ADAMS, an Application for Discovering Disease Associations using Multiple Sources, which contains various statistical and language processing operations. We apply ADAMS to the New York-Presbyterian Hospital's EHR to combine the information from the relational diagnosis tables and textual discharge summaries with those from PubMed and Wikipedia in order to investigate the co-morbidities of the rare diseases Kaposi sarcoma, toxoplasmosis, and Kawasaki disease. In addition to finding well-known characteristics of diseases, ADAMS can identify rare or previously unreported associations. In particular, we report a statistically significant association between Kawasaki disease and diagnosis of autistic disorder.

  9. Discovering disease associations by integrating electronic clinical data and medical literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony B Holmes

    Full Text Available Electronic health record (EHR systems offer an exceptional opportunity for studying many diseases and their associated medical conditions within a population. The increasing number of clinical record entries that have become available electronically provides access to rich, large sets of patients' longitudinal medical information. By integrating and comparing relations found in the EHRs with those already reported in the literature, we are able to verify existing and to identify rare or novel associations. Of particular interest is the identification of rare disease co-morbidities, where the small numbers of diagnosed patients make robust statistical analysis difficult. Here, we introduce ADAMS, an Application for Discovering Disease Associations using Multiple Sources, which contains various statistical and language processing operations. We apply ADAMS to the New York-Presbyterian Hospital's EHR to combine the information from the relational diagnosis tables and textual discharge summaries with those from PubMed and Wikipedia in order to investigate the co-morbidities of the rare diseases Kaposi sarcoma, toxoplasmosis, and Kawasaki disease. In addition to finding well-known characteristics of diseases, ADAMS can identify rare or previously unreported associations. In particular, we report a statistically significant association between Kawasaki disease and diagnosis of autistic disorder.

  10. Astronomers Discover Most Massive Neutron Star Yet Known

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have discovered the most massive neutron star yet found, a discovery with strong and wide-ranging impacts across several fields of physics and astrophysics. "This neutron star is twice as massive as our Sun. This is surprising, and that much mass means that several theoretical models for the internal composition of neutron stars now are ruled out," said Paul Demorest, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "This mass measurement also has implications for our understanding of all matter at extremely high densities and many details of nuclear physics," he added. Neutron stars are the superdense "corpses" of massive stars that have exploded as supernovae. With all their mass packed into a sphere the size of a small city, their protons and electrons are crushed together into neutrons. A neutron star can be several times more dense than an atomic nucleus, and a thimbleful of neutron-star material would weigh more than 500 million tons. This tremendous density makes neutron stars an ideal natural "laboratory" for studying the most dense and exotic states of matter known to physics. The scientists used an effect of Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity to measure the mass of the neutron star and its orbiting companion, a white dwarf star. The neutron star is a pulsar, emitting lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as it rotates. This pulsar, called PSR J1614-2230, spins 317 times per second, and the companion completes an orbit in just under nine days. The pair, some 3,000 light-years distant, are in an orbit seen almost exactly edge-on from Earth. That orientation was the key to making the mass measurement. As the orbit carries the white dwarf directly in front of the pulsar, the radio waves from the pulsar that reach Earth must travel very close to the white dwarf. This close passage causes them to be delayed in their arrival by the distortion of

  11. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered after...

  12. A novel method to discover fluoroquinolone antibiotic resistance (qnr genes in fragmented nucleotide sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulund Fredrik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotics are central in modern health care and are used to treat and prevent a wide range of bacterial infections. The recently discovered qnr genes provide a mechanism of resistance with the potential to rapidly spread between bacteria using horizontal gene transfer. As for many antibiotic resistance genes present in pathogens today, qnr genes are hypothesized to originate from environmental bacteria. The vast amount of data generated by shotgun metagenomics can therefore be used to explore the diversity of qnr genes in more detail. Results In this paper we describe a new method to identify qnr genes in nucleotide sequence data. We show, using cross-validation, that the method has a high statistical power of correctly classifying sequences from novel classes of qnr genes, even for fragments as short as 100 nucleotides. Based on sequences from public repositories, the method was able to identify all previously reported plasmid-mediated qnr genes. In addition, several fragments from novel putative qnr genes were identified in metagenomes. The method was also able to annotate 39 chromosomal variants of which 11 have previously not been reported in literature. Conclusions The method described in this paper significantly improves the sensitivity and specificity of identification and annotation of qnr genes in nucleotide sequence data. The predicted novel putative qnr genes in the metagenomic data support the hypothesis of a large and uncharacterized diversity within this family of resistance genes in environmental bacterial communities. An implementation of the method is freely available at http://bioinformatics.math.chalmers.se/qnr/.

  13. A systems approach for discovering linoleic acid derivatives that potentially mediate pain and itch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Christopher E.; Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Yuan, Zhi-Xin; Sapio, Matthew R.; Keyes, Gregory S.; Mishra, Santosh K.; Gross, Jacklyn R.; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon; Zamora, Daisy; Horowitz, Mark S.; Davis, John M.; Sorokin, Alexander V.; Dey, Amit; LaPaglia, Danielle M.; Wheeler, Joshua J.; Vasko, Michael R.; Mehta, Nehal N.; Mannes, Andrew J.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic pain and itch are common hypersensitivity syndromes that are affected by endogenous mediators. We applied a systems-based, translational approach to predict, discover, and characterize mediators of pain and itch that are regulated by diet and inflammation. Profiling of tissue-specific precursor abundance and biosynthetic gene expression predicted that inflamed skin would be abundant in four previously unknown 11-hydroxy-epoxy-or 11-keto-epoxy-octadecenoate linoleic acid derivatives and four previously identified 9- or 13-hydroxy-epoxy- or 9- or 13-keto-epoxy-octadecenoate linoleic acid derivatives. All of these mediators were confirmed to be abundant in rat and human skin by mass spectrometry. However, only the two 11-hydroxy-epoxy-octadecenoates sensitized rat dorsal root ganglion neurons to release more calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP), which is involved in pain transmission, in response to low pH (which mimics an inflammatory state) or capsaicin (which activates ion channels involved in nociception). The two 11-hydroxy-epoxy-octadecenoates share a 3-hydroxy-Z-pentenyl-E-epoxide moiety, thus suggesting that this substructure could mediate nociceptor sensitization. In rats, intradermal hind paw injection of 11-hydroxy-12,13-trans-epoxy-(9Z)-octadecenoate elicited C-fiber–mediated sensitivity to thermal pain. In a randomized trial testing adjunctive strategies to manage refractory chronic headaches, reducing the dietary intake of linoleic acid was associated with decreases in plasma 11-hydroxy-12,13-trans-epoxy-(9Z)-octadecenoate, which correlated with clinical pain reduction. Human psoriatic skin had 30-fold higher 9-keto-12,13-trans-epoxy-(10E)-octadecenoate compared to control skin, and intradermal injection of this compound induced itch-related scratching behavior in mice. Collectively, these findings define a family of endogenous mediators with potential roles in pain and itch. PMID:28831021

  14. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  15. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  16. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  17. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  18. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  19. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  20. Distant World in Peril Discovered from La Silla

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Giant Exoplanet Orbits Giant Star Summary When, in a distant future, the Sun begins to expand and evolves into a "giant" star, the surface temperature on the Earth will rise dramatically and our home planet will eventually be incinerated by that central body. Fortunately for us, this dramatic event is several billion years away. However, that sad fate will befall another planet, just discovered in orbit about the giant star HD 47536, already within a few tens of millions of years. At a distance of nearly 400 light-years from us, it is the second-remotest planetary system discovered to date [1]. This is an interesting side-result of a major research project, now carried out by a European-Brazilian team of astronomers [2]. In the course of a three-year spectroscopic survey, they have observed about 80 giant stars in the southern sky with the advanced FEROS spectrograph on the 1.52-m telescope installed at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile). It is one of these stars that has just been found to host a giant planet. This is only the fourth such case known and with a diameter of about 33 million km (or 23.5 times that of our Sun), HD 47536 is by far the largest of those giant stars [1]. The distance of the planet from the star is still of the order of 300 million km (or twice the distance of the Earth from the Sun), a safe margin now, but this will not always be so. The orbital period is 712 days, i.e., somewhat less than two Earth years, and the planet's mass is 5 - 10 times that of Jupiter. The presence of exoplanets in orbit around giant stars, some of which will eventually perish into their central star (be "cannibalized"), provides a possible explanation of the anomalous abundance of certain chemical elements that is observed in the atmospheres of some stars, cf. ESO PR 10/01. This interesting discovery bodes well for coming observations of exoplanetary systems with new, more powerful instruments, like HARPS to be installed next year at the ESO 3.6-m telescope on

  1. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  2. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  3. LIGO Discovers the Merger of Two Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    is: how do binary black holes form? Two primary mechanisms have been proposed:A binary star system contains two stars that are each massive enough to individually collapse into a black hole. If the binary isnt disrupted during the two collapse events, this forms an isolated black-hole binary.Single black holes form in dense cluster environments and then because they are the most massive objects sink to the center of the cluster. There they form pairs through dynamical interactions.Now that were able to observe black-hole binaries through gravitational-wave detections, one way we could distinguish between the two formation mechanisms is from spin measurements. If we discover a clear preference for the misalignment of the two black holes spins, this would favor formation in clusters, where theres no reason for the original spins to be aligned.The current, single detection is not enough to provide constraints, but if we can compile a large enough sample of events, we can start to present a statistical case favoring one channel over the other.What does GW150914 mean for the future of gravitational-wave detection?The fact that Advanced LIGO detected an event even before the start of its first official observing run is certainly promising! The LIGO team estimates that the volume the detectors can probe will still increase by at least a factor of ~10 as the observing runs become more sensitive and of longer duration.Aerial view of the Virgo interferometer near Pisa, Italy. [Virgo Collaboration]In addition, LIGO is not alone in the gravitational-wave game. LIGOs counterpart in Europe, Virgo, is also undergoing design upgrades to increase its sensitivity. Within this year, Virgo should be able to take data simultaneously with LIGO, allowing for better localization of sources. And the launch of (e)LISA, ESAs planned space-based interferometer, will grant us access to a new frequency range, opening a further window to the gravitational-wave sky.The detection of GW150914 marks

  4. Discovering Multidimensional Motifs in Physiological Signals for Personalized Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Arvind; Wang, Jun; Prabhakaran, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Personalized diagnosis and therapy requires monitoring patient activity using various body sensors. Sensor data generated during personalized exercises or tasks may be too specific or inadequate to be evaluated using supervised methods such as classification. We propose multidimensional motif (MDM) discovery as a means for patient activity monitoring, since such motifs can capture repeating patterns across multiple dimensions of the data, and can serve as conformance indicators. Previous studies pertaining to mining MDMs have proposed approaches that lack the capability of concurrently processing multiple dimensions, thus limiting their utility in online scenarios. In this paper, we propose an efficient real-time approach to MDM discovery in body sensor generated time series data for monitoring performance of patients during therapy. We present two alternative models for MDMs based on motif co-occurrences and temporal ordering among motifs across multiple dimensions, with detailed formulation of the concepts proposed. The proposed method uses an efficient hashing based record to enable speedy update and retrieval of motif sets, and identification of MDMs. Performance evaluation using synthetic and real body sensor data in unsupervised motif discovery tasks shows that the approach is effective for (a) concurrent processing of multidimensional time series information suitable for real-time applications, (b) finding unknown naturally occurring patterns with minimal delay, and (c) tracking similarities among repetitions, possibly during therapy sessions. PMID:28191269

  5. At last, a Pennsylvanian stem-stonefly (Plecoptera) discovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béthoux, Olivier; Cui, Yingying; Kondratieff, Boris; Stark, Bill; Ren, Dong

    2011-08-31

    Stem-relatives of many winged insect orders have been identified among Pennsylvanian fossils (Carboniferous Period). Owing to their presumed 'basal' position in insect phylogeny, stoneflies were expected to occur at this period. However, no relative has ever been designated convincingly. In this paper, we report specimens belonging to a new fossil insect species collected from the Tupo Formation (Pennsylvanian; China). The wing venation of Gulou carpenteri gen. et sp. nov. exhibits character states diagnostic of the order Plecoptera, but lack character states shared by unequivocal representatives of the order. Derived from this identification, the delimitation of the fossil species is ascertained based on comparison of several extant stonefly species. This comparative analysis allowed a trait present in G. carpenteri gen. et sp. nov., but rarely occurring in extant species, to be documented and highlighted as atavistic. Affinities of taxa formerly proposed as putative stem-stoneflies are reconsidered in the light of the new discovery. Gulou carpenteri gen. et sp. nov. is considered the only genuine Plecoptera reported from the Pennsylvanian. Continuing efforts on the systematics of Pennsylvanian winged insects indicate a fauna more diverse than previously appreciated. It suggests that insects already had a long, yet undocumented, history by this time.

  6. TIMING OF 29 PULSARS DISCOVERED IN THE PALFA SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophys., School of Phys. and Astr., Univ. of Manchester, Manch., M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bogdanov, S. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia Univ., New York, NY 10027 (United States); Ferdman, R. D.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lynch, R. [Dept. of Physics and McGill Space Institute, McGill Univ., Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Freire, P. C. C.; Lazarus, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Knispel, B.; Allen, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Brazier, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M. [Dept. of Astronomy, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Camilo, F. [SKA South Africa, Pinelands, 7405 (South Africa); Cardoso, F. [Physics Dept., Univ. of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, 3135 N. Maryland Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Crawford, F. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17604-3003 (United States); Deneva, J. S. [National Research Council, resident at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Hessels, J. W. T.; Leeuwen, J. van [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Jenet, F. A. [Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Univ. Texas—Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); and others

    2017-01-10

    We report on the discovery and timing observations of 29 distant long-period pulsars found in the ongoing Arecibo L-band Feed Array pulsar survey. Following discovery with the Arecibo Telescope, confirmation and timing observations of these pulsars over several years at Jodrell Bank Observatory have yielded high-precision positions and measurements of rotation and radiation properties. We have used multi-frequency data to measure the interstellar scattering properties of some of these pulsars. Most of the pulsars have properties that mirror those of the previously known pulsar population, although four show some notable characteristics. PSRs J1907+0631 and J1925+1720 are young and are associated with supernova remnants or plerionic nebulae: J1907+0631 lies close to the center of SNR G40.5−0.5, while J1925+1720 is coincident with a high-energy Fermi γ -ray source. One pulsar, J1932+1500, is in a surprisingly eccentric, 199 day binary orbit with a companion having a minimum mass of 0.33 M {sub ⊙}. Several of the sources exhibit timing noise, and two, PSRs J0611+1436 and J1907+0631, have both suffered large glitches, but with very different post-glitch rotation properties. In particular, the rotational period of PSR J0611+1436 will not recover to its pre-glitch value for about 12 years, a far greater recovery timescale than seen following any other large glitches.

  7. Stereochemical insignificance discovered in Acinetobacter baumannii quorum sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Garner

    Full Text Available Stereochemistry is a key aspect of molecular recognition for biological systems. As such, receptors and enzymes are often highly stereospecific, only recognizing one stereoisomer of a ligand. Recently, the quorum sensing signaling molecules used by the nosocomial opportunistic pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified, and the primary signaling molecule isolated from this species was N-(3-hydroxydodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. A plethora of bacterial species have been demonstrated to utilize 3-hydroxy-acylhomoserine lactone autoinducers, and in virtually all cases, the (R-stereoisomer was identified as the natural ligand and exhibited greater autoinducer activity than the corresponding (S-stereoisomer. Using chemical synthesis and biochemical assays, we have uncovered a case of stereochemical insignificance in A. baumannii and provide a unique example where stereochemistry appears nonessential for acylhomoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing signaling. Based on previously reported phylogenetic studies, we suggest that A. baumannii has evolutionarily adopted this unique, yet promiscuous quorum sensing system to ensure its survival, particularly in the presence of other proteobacteria.

  8. At last, a Pennsylvanian stem-stonefly (Plecoptera discovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark Bill

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem-relatives of many winged insect orders have been identified among Pennsylvanian fossils (Carboniferous Period. Owing to their presumed 'basal' position in insect phylogeny, stoneflies were expected to occur at this period. However, no relative has ever been designated convincingly. Results In this paper, we report specimens belonging to a new fossil insect species collected from the Tupo Formation (Pennsylvanian; China. The wing venation of Gulou carpenteri gen. et sp. nov. exhibits character states diagnostic of the order Plecoptera, but lack character states shared by unequivocal representatives of the order. Derived from this identification, the delimitation of the fossil species is ascertained based on comparison of several extant stonefly species. This comparative analysis allowed a trait present in G. carpenteri gen. et sp. nov., but rarely occurring in extant species, to be documented and highlighted as atavistic. Affinities of taxa formerly proposed as putative stem-stoneflies are reconsidered in the light of the new discovery. Conclusions Gulou carpenteri gen. et sp. nov. is considered the only genuine Plecoptera reported from the Pennsylvanian. Continuing efforts on the systematics of Pennsylvanian winged insects indicate a fauna more diverse than previously appreciated. It suggests that insects already had a long, yet undocumented, history by this time.

  9. Neophobia and learning mechanisms: how captive orangutans discover medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Erik; Krief, Sabrina; Saint Jalme, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Great apes sometimes feed on items of low nutritional value with bioactive secondary compounds. These molecules may be toxic and neophobia is presumed to be an essential factor in avoiding the ingestion of noxious items. The aim of this study is to investigate, in captive orangutans, individual and social learning involved in the discovery and ingestion of new items. We presented novel aromatic plants - 11 fresh plants and 4 infused plants - to 4 captive weaned Bornean orangutans, both under isolated and group conditions, and recorded their behaviour and interactions between group members. All animals tasted by nibbling or ingested most of the plants presented. Regardless of the experimental condition, individual responses did not vary visibly across the sessions, despite numerous close observations, and food transfers between individuals were observed. Our results suggest that a low level of neophobia and a strong propensity to look to conspecifics for information allow Bornean orangutans to expand their diet after weaning. Our results also provide some evidence that olfaction is a key sense in determining food edibility based on previous experience. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Young Debris Disks With Newly Discovered Emission Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballering, N.

    2014-04-01

    We analyzed the Spitzer/IRS spectra of young A and F stars that host debris disks with previously unidentified silicate emission features. Such features probe small, warm dust grains in the inner regions of these young systems where terrestrial planet formation may be proceeding (Lisse et al. 2009). For most systems, these regions are too near their host star to be directly seen with high-contrast imaging and too warm to be imaged with submillimeter interferometers. Mid-infrared excess spectra - originating from the thermal emission of the debris disk dust - remain the best data to constrain the properties of the debris in these regions. For each target, we fit physically-motivated model spectra to the data. Typical spectra of unresolved debris disks are featureless and suffer severe degeneracies between the dust location and the grain properties; however, spectra with solid-state emission features provide significantly more information, allowing for a more accurate determination of the dust size, composition, and location (e.g. Chen et al. 2006; Olofsson et al. 2012). Our results shed light on the dynamic properties occurring in the terrestrial regions of these systems. For instance, the sizes of the smallest grains and the nature of the grain size distribution reveal whether the dust originates from steady-state collisional cascades or from stochastic collisions. The properties of the dust grains - such as their crystalline or amorphous structure - can inform us of grain processing mechanisms in the disk. The location of this debris illuminates where terrestrial planet forming activity is occurring. We used results from the Beta Pictoris - which has a well-resolved debris disk with emission features (Li et al. 2012) - to place our results in context. References: Chen et al. 2006, ApJS, 166, 351 Li et al. 2012, ApJ, 759, 81 Lisse et al. 2009, ApJ, 701, 2019 Olofsson et al. 2012, A&A, 542, A90

  11. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  12. AVID: An integrative framework for discovering functional relationships among proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keating Amy E

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the functions of uncharacterized proteins is one of the most pressing problems in the post-genomic era. Large scale protein-protein interaction assays, global mRNA expression analyses and systematic protein localization studies provide experimental information that can be used for this purpose. The data from such experiments contain many false positives and false negatives, but can be processed using computational methods to provide reliable information about protein-protein relationships and protein function. An outstanding and important goal is to predict detailed functional annotation for all uncharacterized proteins that is reliable enough to effectively guide experiments. Results We present AVID, a computational method that uses a multi-stage learning framework to integrate experimental results with sequence information, generating networks reflecting functional similarities among proteins. We illustrate use of the networks by making predictions of detailed Gene Ontology (GO annotations in three categories: molecular function, biological process, and cellular component. Applied to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AVID provides 37,451 pair-wise functional linkages between 4,191 proteins. These relationships are ~65–78% accurate, as assessed by cross-validation testing. Assignments of highly detailed functional descriptors to proteins, based on the networks, are estimated to be ~67% accurate for GO categories describing molecular function and cellular component and ~52% accurate for terms describing biological process. The predictions cover 1,490 proteins with no previous annotation in GO and also assign more detailed functions to many proteins annotated only with less descriptive terms. Predictions made by AVID are largely distinct from those made by other methods. Out of 37,451 predicted pair-wise relationships, the greatest number shared in common with another method is 3,413. Conclusion AVID provides

  13. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  14. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  15. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  16. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  17. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  18. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  19. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  20. Hydrothermal vent fields discovered in the southern Gulf of California clarify role of habitat in augmenting regional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredi, Shana K; Johnson, Shannon; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Caress, David; Clague, David; Escobar, Elva; Lundsten, Lonny; Paduan, Jennifer B; Rouse, Greg; Salcedo, Diana L; Soto, Luis A; Spelz-Madero, Ronald; Zierenberg, Robert; Vrijenhoek, Robert

    2017-07-26

    Hydrothermal vent communities are distributed along mid-ocean spreading ridges as isolated patches. While distance is a key factor influencing connectivity among sites, habitat characteristics are also critical. The Pescadero Basin (PB) and Alarcón Rise (AR) vent fields, recently discovered in the southern Gulf of California, are bounded by previously known vent localities (e.g. Guaymas Basin and 21° N East Pacific Rise); yet, the newly discovered vents differ markedly in substrata and vent fluid attributes. Out of 116 macrofaunal species observed or collected, only three species are shared among all four vent fields, while 73 occur at only one locality. Foundation species at basalt-hosted sulfide chimneys on the AR differ from the functional equivalents inhabiting sediment-hosted carbonate chimneys in the PB, only 75 km away. The dominant species of symbiont-hosting tubeworms and clams, and peripheral suspension-feeding taxa, differ between the sites. Notably, the PB vents host a limited and specialized fauna in which 17 of 26 species are unknown at other regional vents and many are new species. Rare sightings and captured larvae of the 'missing' species revealed that dispersal limitation is not responsible for differences in community composition at the neighbouring vent localities. Instead, larval recruitment-limiting habitat suitability probably favours species differentially. As scenarios develop to design conservation strategies around mining of seafloor sulfide deposits, these results illustrate that models encompassing habitat characteristics are needed to predict metacommunity structure. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Discovering time-lagged rules from microarray data using gene profile classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponzoni Ignacio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene regulatory networks have an essential role in every process of life. In this regard, the amount of genome-wide time series data is becoming increasingly available, providing the opportunity to discover the time-delayed gene regulatory networks that govern the majority of these molecular processes. Results This paper aims at reconstructing gene regulatory networks from multiple genome-wide microarray time series datasets. In this sense, a new model-free algorithm called GRNCOP2 (Gene Regulatory Network inference by Combinatorial OPtimization 2, which is a significant evolution of the GRNCOP algorithm, was developed using combinatorial optimization of gene profile classifiers. The method is capable of inferring potential time-delay relationships with any span of time between genes from various time series datasets given as input. The proposed algorithm was applied to time series data composed of twenty yeast genes that are highly relevant for the cell-cycle study, and the results were compared against several related approaches. The outcomes have shown that GRNCOP2 outperforms the contrasted methods in terms of the proposed metrics, and that the results are consistent with previous biological knowledge. Additionally, a genome-wide study on multiple publicly available time series data was performed. In this case, the experimentation has exhibited the soundness and scalability of the new method which inferred highly-related statistically-significant gene associations. Conclusions A novel method for inferring time-delayed gene regulatory networks from genome-wide time series datasets is proposed in this paper. The method was carefully validated with several publicly available data sets. The results have demonstrated that the algorithm constitutes a usable model-free approach capable of predicting meaningful relationships between genes, revealing the time-trends of gene regulation.

  2. Ozone production by corona discharges during a convective event in DISCOVER-AQ Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsakis, Alexander; Morris, Gary A.; Lefer, Barry; Jeon, Wonbae; Roy, Anirban; Minschwaner, Ken; Thompson, Anne M.; Choi, Yunsoo

    2017-07-01

    An ozonesonde launched near electrically active convection in Houston, TX on 5 September 2013 during the NASA DISCOVER-AQ project measured a large enhancement of ozone throughout the troposphere. A separate ozonesonde was launched from Smith Point, TX (∼58 km southeast of the Houston site) at approximately the same time as the launch from Houston and did not measure that enhancement. Furthermore, ozone profiles for the descent of both sondes agreed well with the ascending Smith Point profile, suggesting a highly localized event in both space and time in which an anomalously large enhancement of 70-100 ppbv appeared in the ascending Houston ozonesonde data. Compared to literature values, such an enhancement appears to be the largest observed to date. Potential sources of the localized ozone enhancement such as entrainment of urban or biomass burning emissions, downward transport from the stratosphere, photochemical production from lightning NOx, and direct ozone production from corona discharges were investigated using model simulations. We conclude that the most likely explanation for the large ozone enhancement is direct ozone production by corona discharges. Integrating the enhancement seen in the Houston ozone profile and using the number of electrical discharges detected by the NLDN (or HLMA), we estimate a production of 2.48 × 1028 molecules of ozone per flash which falls within the range of previously recorded values (9.89 × 1026-9.82 × 1028 molecules of ozone per flash). Since there is currently no parameterization for the direct production of ozone from corona discharges we propose the implementation of an equation into a chemical transport model. Ultimately, additional work is needed to further understand the occurrence and impact of corona discharges on tropospheric chemistry on short and long timescales.

  3. DETAILED ABUNDANCES OF STARS WITH SMALL PLANETS DISCOVERED BY KEPLER. I. THE FIRST SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, Simon C.; Vaz, Zachary A. [University of Tampa, Tampa, FL, 33606 (United States); Santrich, Orlando J. Katime; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V. [Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); King, Jeremy R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Teske, Johanna K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Isaacson, Howard, E-mail: sschuler@ut.edu, E-mail: zachary.vaz@spartans.ut.edu, E-mail: osantrich@on.br, E-mail: kcunha@noao.edu, E-mail: vsmith@noao.edu, E-mail: jking2@clemson.edu, E-mail: jteske@carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: lghezzi@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: steve.b.howell@nasa.gov, E-mail: hisaacson@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    We present newly derived stellar parameters and the detailed abundances of 19 elements of seven stars with small planets discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission. Each star, save one, has at least one planet with a radius ≤1.6 R{sub ⊕}, suggesting a primarily rocky composition. The stellar parameters and abundances are derived from high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution echelle spectroscopy obtained with the 10 m Keck I telescope and High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer using standard spectroscopic techniques. The metallicities of the seven stars range from −0.32 to +0.13 dex, with an average metallicity that is subsolar, supporting previous suggestions that, unlike Jupiter-type giant planets, small planets do not form preferentially around metal-rich stars. The abundances of elements other than iron are in line with a population of Galactic disk stars, and despite our modest sample size, we find hints that the compositions of stars with small planets are similar to stars without known planets and with Neptune-size planets, but not to those of stars with giant planets. This suggests that the formation of small planets does not require exceptional host-star compositions and that small planets may be ubiquitous in the Galaxy. We compare our derived abundances (which have typical uncertainties of ≲0.04 dex) to the condensation temperature of the elements; a correlation between the two has been suggested as a possible signature of rocky planet formation. None of the stars demonstrate the putative rocky planet signature, despite at least three of the stars having rocky planets estimated to contain enough refractory material to produce the signature, if real. More detailed abundance analyses of stars known to host small planets are needed to verify our results and place ever more stringent constraints on planet formation models.

  4. DETAILED ABUNDANCES OF STARS WITH SMALL PLANETS DISCOVERED BY KEPLER. I. THE FIRST SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, Simon C.; Vaz, Zachary A.; Santrich, Orlando J. Katime; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; King, Jeremy R.; Teske, Johanna K.; Ghezzi, Luan; Howell, Steve B.; Isaacson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    We present newly derived stellar parameters and the detailed abundances of 19 elements of seven stars with small planets discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission. Each star, save one, has at least one planet with a radius ≤1.6 R ⊕ , suggesting a primarily rocky composition. The stellar parameters and abundances are derived from high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution echelle spectroscopy obtained with the 10 m Keck I telescope and High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer using standard spectroscopic techniques. The metallicities of the seven stars range from −0.32 to +0.13 dex, with an average metallicity that is subsolar, supporting previous suggestions that, unlike Jupiter-type giant planets, small planets do not form preferentially around metal-rich stars. The abundances of elements other than iron are in line with a population of Galactic disk stars, and despite our modest sample size, we find hints that the compositions of stars with small planets are similar to stars without known planets and with Neptune-size planets, but not to those of stars with giant planets. This suggests that the formation of small planets does not require exceptional host-star compositions and that small planets may be ubiquitous in the Galaxy. We compare our derived abundances (which have typical uncertainties of ≲0.04 dex) to the condensation temperature of the elements; a correlation between the two has been suggested as a possible signature of rocky planet formation. None of the stars demonstrate the putative rocky planet signature, despite at least three of the stars having rocky planets estimated to contain enough refractory material to produce the signature, if real. More detailed abundance analyses of stars known to host small planets are needed to verify our results and place ever more stringent constraints on planet formation models

  5. Using Social Media and Mobile Devices to Discover and Share Disaster Data Products Derived From Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Cappelaere, Patrice; Frye, Stuart; Evans, John; Moe, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Data products derived from Earth observing satellites are difficult to find and share without specialized software and often times a highly paid and specialized staff. For our research effort, we endeavored to prototype a distributed architecture that depends on a standardized communication protocol and applications program interface (API) that makes it easy for anyone to discover and access disaster related data. Providers can easily supply the public with their disaster related products by building an adapter for our API. Users can use the API to browse and find products that relate to the disaster at hand, without a centralized catalogue, for example floods, and then are able to share that data via social media. Furthermore, a longerterm goal for this architecture is to enable other users who see the shared disaster product to be able to generate the same product for other areas of interest via simple point and click actions on the API on their mobile device. Furthermore, the user will be able to edit the data with on the ground local observations and return the updated information to the original repository of this information if configured for this function. This architecture leverages SensorWeb functionality [1] presented at previous IGARSS conferences. The architecture is divided into two pieces, the frontend, which is the GeoSocial API, and the backend, which is a standardized disaster node that knows how to talk to other disaster nodes, and also can communicate with the GeoSocial API. The GeoSocial API, along with the disaster node basic functionality enables crowdsourcing and thus can leverage insitu observations by people external to a group to perform tasks such as improving water reference maps, which are maps of existing water before floods. This can lower the cost of generating precision water maps. Keywords-Data Discovery, Disaster Decision Support, Disaster Management, Interoperability, CEOS WGISS Disaster Architecture

  6. Discovering novel enzymes by functional screening of plurigenomic libraries from alga-associated Flavobacteriia and Gammaproteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Marjolaine; Vandermies, Marie; Joyeux, Coline; Martin, Renée; Barbeyron, Tristan; Michel, Gurvan; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2016-01-01

    Alga-associated microorganisms, in the context of their numerous interactions with the host and the complexity of the marine environment, are known to produce diverse hydrolytic enzymes with original biochemistry. We recently isolated several macroalgal-polysaccharide-degrading bacteria from the surface of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. These active isolates belong to two classes: the Flavobacteriia and the Gammaproteobacteria. In the present study, we constructed two "plurigenomic" (with multiple bacterial genomes) libraries with the 5 most interesting isolates (regarding their phylogeny and their enzymatic activities) of each class (Fv and Gm libraries). Both libraries were screened for diverse hydrolytic activities. Five activities, out of the 48 previously identified in the natural polysaccharolytic isolates, were recovered by functional screening: a xylanase (GmXyl7), a beta-glucosidase (GmBg1), an esterase (GmEst7) and two iota-carrageenases (Fvi2.5 and Gmi1.3). We discuss here the potential role of the used host-cell, the average DNA insert-sizes and the used restriction enzymes on the divergent screening yields obtained for both libraries and get deeper inside the "great screen anomaly". Interestingly, the discovered esterase probably stands for a novel family of homoserine o-acetyltransferase-like-esterases, while the two iota-carrageenases represent new members of the poorly known GH82 family (containing only 19 proteins since its description in 2000). These original results demonstrate the efficiency of our uncommon "plurigenomic" library approach and the underexplored potential of alga-associated cultivable microbiota for the identification of novel and algal-specific enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Accelerated approach of discovering plant-derived drug leads for treatment of tuberculosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The bioprospecting research group at CSIR biosciences undertakes research that taps into South Africa’s plant biodiversity with the aim of discovering natural products that can be used to develop new medicines effective against tuberculosis (TB...

  8. Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. Discovering Sustainable Solutions to Power and Secure America’s Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2010-09-01

    Sustainability is fundamental to the Department of Energy’s research mission and operations as reflected in the Department’s Strategic Plan. Our overarching mission is to discover the solutions to power and secure America’s future.

  9. Discovering Your Radiant Self: A Transpersonal Approach to Expressing Your Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Paula; Canfield, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Presents a process combining a drawing experience with exercises learned in psychosynthesis training to help people discover what transpersonal qualities are attempting to manifest themselves through their personalities. (Author/BEF)

  10. ISLSCP II IGBP DISCover and SiB Land Cover, 1992-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set describes the geographic distributions of 17 classes of land cover based on the International Geosphere-Biosphere DISCover land cover legend (Loveland...

  11. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  12. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  13. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  14. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  15. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  16. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  17. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  18. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  19. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  20. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  1. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  2. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  3. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  5. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  6. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  7. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  8. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  9. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  10. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  11. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  12. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  13. Discovering astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of basic astronomical knowledge is presented with attention to the structure and dynamics of the stars and planets. Also dealt with are techniques of astronomical measurement, e.g., stellar spectrometry, radio astronomy, star catalogs, etc. Basic physical principles as they pertain to astronomy are reviewed, including the nature of light, gravitation, and electromagnetism. Finally, stellar evolution and cosmology are discussed with reference to the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe.

  14. Discovering Mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Nicole

    2010-06-01

    High-throughput imaging of genome-wide RNA interference screens and systematic analysis of protein complexes involved in mitosis yield valuable resources and reveal new subunits of well-characterized complexes.

  15. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  16. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  17. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  18. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  19. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  20. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  1. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D

    1989-05-01

    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  2. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  3. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  4. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  5. Richest Planetary System Discovered - Up to seven planets orbiting a Sun-like star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    content of its host star. All very massive planetary systems are found around massive and metal-rich stars, while the four lowest-mass systems are found around lower-mass and metal-poor stars [5]. Such properties confirm current theoretical models. The discovery is announced today at the international colloquium "Detection and dynamics of transiting exoplanets", at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France. Notes [1] Using the radial velocity method, astronomers can only estimate a minimum mass for a planet as the mass estimate also depends on the tilt of the orbital plane relative to the line of sight, which is unknown. From a statistical point of view, this minimum mass is however often close to the real mass of the planet. [2] (added 30 August 2010) HD 10180b would be the lowest mass exoplanet discovered orbiting a "normal" star like our Sun. However, lower mass exoplanets have been previously discovered orbiting the pulsar PSR B1257+12 (a highly magnetised rotating neutron star). [3] On average the planets in the inner region of the HD 10180 system have 20 times the mass of the Earth, whereas the inner planets in our own Solar System (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) have an average mass of half that of the Earth. [4] The Titius-Bode law states that the distances of the planets from the Sun follow a simple pattern. For the outer planets, each planet is predicted to be roughly twice as far away from the Sun as the previous object. The hypothesis correctly predicted the orbits of Ceres and Uranus, but failed as a predictor of Neptune's orbit. [5] According to the definition used in astronomy, "metals" are all the elements other than hydrogen and helium. Such metals, except for a very few minor light chemical elements, have all been created by the various generations of stars. Rocky planets are made of "metals". More information This research was presented in a paper submitted to Astronomy and Astrophysics ("The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXVII. Up to

  6. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  7. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....

  8. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  9. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  10. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  11. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M

    2017-04-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  13. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  14. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  15. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  16. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Fast Ss-Ilm a Computationally Efficient Algorithm to Discover Socially Important Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuz, A. S.; Celik, M.

    2017-11-01

    Socially important locations are places which are frequently visited by social media users in their social media lifetime. Discovering socially important locations provide several valuable information about user behaviours on social media networking sites. However, discovering socially important locations are challenging due to data volume and dimensions, spatial and temporal calculations, location sparseness in social media datasets, and inefficiency of current algorithms. In the literature, several studies are conducted to discover important locations, however, the proposed approaches do not work in computationally efficient manner. In this study, we propose Fast SS-ILM algorithm by modifying the algorithm of SS-ILM to mine socially important locations efficiently. Experimental results show that proposed Fast SS-ILM algorithm decreases execution time of socially important locations discovery process up to 20 %.

  18. Einstein@Home discovers a radio-quiet gamma-ray millisecond pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Colin J.; Pletsch, Holger J.; Wu, Jason; Guillemot, Lucas; Kerr, Matthew; Johnson, Tyrel J.; Camilo, Fernando; Salvetti, David; Allen, Bruce; Anderson, David; Aulbert, Carsten; Beer, Christian; Bock, Oliver; Cuéllar, Andres; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Fehrmann, Henning; Kramer, Michael; Kwang, Shawn A.; Machenschalk, Bernd; Nieder, Lars; Ackermann, Markus; Ajello, Marco; Baldini, Luca; Ballet, Jean; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Blandford, Roger D.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bonino, Raffaella; Bottacini, Eugenio; Brandt, Terri J.; Bregeon, Johan; Bruel, Philippe; Buehler, Rolf; Burnett, Toby H.; Buson, Sara; Cameron, Rob A.; Caputo, Regina; Caraveo, Patrizia A.; Cavazzuti, Elisabetta; Cecchi, Claudia; Charles, Eric; Chekhtman, Alexandre; Ciprini, Stefano; Cominsky, Lynn R.; Costantin, Denise; Cutini, Sara; D’Ammando, Filippo; De Luca, Andrea; Desiante, Rachele; Di Venere, Leonardo; Di Mauro, Mattia; Di Lalla, Niccolò; Digel, Seth W.; Favuzzi, Cecilia; Ferrara, Elizabeth C.; Franckowiak, Anna; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Funk, Stefan; Fusco, Piergiorgio; Gargano, Fabio; Gasparrini, Dario; Giglietto, Nico; Giordano, Francesco; Giroletti, Marcello; Gomez-Vargas, Germán A.; Green, David; Grenier, Isabelle A.; Guiriec, Sylvain; Harding, Alice K.; Hewitt, John W.; Horan, Deirdre; Jóhannesson, Guðlaugur; Kensei, Shiki; Kuss, Michael; La Mura, Giovanni; Larsson, Stefan; Latronico, Luca; Li, Jian; Longo, Francesco; Loparco, Francesco; Lovellette, Michael N.; Lubrano, Pasquale; Magill, Jeffrey D.; Maldera, Simone; Manfreda, Alberto; Mazziotta, Mario N.; McEnery, Julie E.; Michelson, Peter F.; Mirabal, Nestor; Mitthumsiri, Warit; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Monzani, Maria Elena; Morselli, Aldo; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Nuss, Eric; Ohsugi, Takashi; Omodei, Nicola; Orienti, Monica; Orlando, Elena; Palatiello, Michele; Paliya, Vaidehi S.; de Palma, Francesco; Paneque, David; Perkins, Jeremy S.; Persic, Massimo; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Porter, Troy A.; Principe, Giacomo; Rainò, Silvia; Rando, Riccardo; Ray, Paul S.; Razzano, Massimiliano; Reimer, Anita; Reimer, Olaf; Romani, Roger W.; Saz Parkinson, Pablo M.; Sgrò, Carmelo; Siskind, Eric J.; Smith, David A.; Spada, Francesca; Spandre, Gloria; Spinelli, Paolo; Thayer, Jana B.; Thompson, David J.; Torres, Diego F.; Troja, Eleonora; Vianello, Giacomo; Wood, Kent; Wood, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are old neutron stars that spin hundreds of times per second and appear to pulsate as their emission beams cross our line of sight. To date, radio pulsations have been detected from all rotation-powered MSPs. In an attempt to discover radio-quiet gamma-ray MSPs, we used the aggregated power from the computers of tens of thousands of volunteers participating in the Einstein@Home distributed computing project to search for pulsations from unidentified gamma-ray sources in Fermi Large Area Telescope data. This survey discovered two isolated MSPs, one of which is the only known rotation-powered MSP to remain undetected in radio observations. These gamma-ray MSPs were discovered in completely blind searches without prior constraints from other observations, raising hopes for detecting MSPs from a predicted Galactic bulge population. PMID:29503868

  19. Einstein@Home discovers a radio-quiet gamma-ray millisecond pulsar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Colin J; Pletsch, Holger J; Wu, Jason; Guillemot, Lucas; Kerr, Matthew; Johnson, Tyrel J; Camilo, Fernando; Salvetti, David; Allen, Bruce; Anderson, David; Aulbert, Carsten; Beer, Christian; Bock, Oliver; Cuéllar, Andres; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Fehrmann, Henning; Kramer, Michael; Kwang, Shawn A; Machenschalk, Bernd; Nieder, Lars; Ackermann, Markus; Ajello, Marco; Baldini, Luca; Ballet, Jean; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Blandford, Roger D; Bloom, Elliott D; Bonino, Raffaella; Bottacini, Eugenio; Brandt, Terri J; Bregeon, Johan; Bruel, Philippe; Buehler, Rolf; Burnett, Toby H; Buson, Sara; Cameron, Rob A; Caputo, Regina; Caraveo, Patrizia A; Cavazzuti, Elisabetta; Cecchi, Claudia; Charles, Eric; Chekhtman, Alexandre; Ciprini, Stefano; Cominsky, Lynn R; Costantin, Denise; Cutini, Sara; D'Ammando, Filippo; De Luca, Andrea; Desiante, Rachele; Di Venere, Leonardo; Di Mauro, Mattia; Di Lalla, Niccolò; Digel, Seth W; Favuzzi, Cecilia; Ferrara, Elizabeth C; Franckowiak, Anna; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Funk, Stefan; Fusco, Piergiorgio; Gargano, Fabio; Gasparrini, Dario; Giglietto, Nico; Giordano, Francesco; Giroletti, Marcello; Gomez-Vargas, Germán A; Green, David; Grenier, Isabelle A; Guiriec, Sylvain; Harding, Alice K; Hewitt, John W; Horan, Deirdre; Jóhannesson, Guðlaugur; Kensei, Shiki; Kuss, Michael; La Mura, Giovanni; Larsson, Stefan; Latronico, Luca; Li, Jian; Longo, Francesco; Loparco, Francesco; Lovellette, Michael N; Lubrano, Pasquale; Magill, Jeffrey D; Maldera, Simone; Manfreda, Alberto; Mazziotta, Mario N; McEnery, Julie E; Michelson, Peter F; Mirabal, Nestor; Mitthumsiri, Warit; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Monzani, Maria Elena; Morselli, Aldo; Moskalenko, Igor V; Nuss, Eric; Ohsugi, Takashi; Omodei, Nicola; Orienti, Monica; Orlando, Elena; Palatiello, Michele; Paliya, Vaidehi S; de Palma, Francesco; Paneque, David; Perkins, Jeremy S; Persic, Massimo; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Porter, Troy A; Principe, Giacomo; Rainò, Silvia; Rando, Riccardo; Ray, Paul S; Razzano, Massimiliano; Reimer, Anita; Reimer, Olaf; Romani, Roger W; Saz Parkinson, Pablo M; Sgrò, Carmelo; Siskind, Eric J; Smith, David A; Spada, Francesca; Spandre, Gloria; Spinelli, Paolo; Thayer, Jana B; Thompson, David J; Torres, Diego F; Troja, Eleonora; Vianello, Giacomo; Wood, Kent; Wood, Matthew

    2018-02-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are old neutron stars that spin hundreds of times per second and appear to pulsate as their emission beams cross our line of sight. To date, radio pulsations have been detected from all rotation-powered MSPs. In an attempt to discover radio-quiet gamma-ray MSPs, we used the aggregated power from the computers of tens of thousands of volunteers participating in the Einstein@Home distributed computing project to search for pulsations from unidentified gamma-ray sources in Fermi Large Area Telescope data. This survey discovered two isolated MSPs, one of which is the only known rotation-powered MSP to remain undetected in radio observations. These gamma-ray MSPs were discovered in completely blind searches without prior constraints from other observations, raising hopes for detecting MSPs from a predicted Galactic bulge population.

  20. FAST SS-ILM: A COMPUTATIONALLY EFFICIENT ALGORITHM TO DISCOVER SOCIALLY IMPORTANT LOCATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dokuz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Socially important locations are places which are frequently visited by social media users in their social media lifetime. Discovering socially important locations provide several valuable information about user behaviours on social media networking sites. However, discovering socially important locations are challenging due to data volume and dimensions, spatial and temporal calculations, location sparseness in social media datasets, and inefficiency of current algorithms. In the literature, several studies are conducted to discover important locations, however, the proposed approaches do not work in computationally efficient manner. In this study, we propose Fast SS-ILM algorithm by modifying the algorithm of SS-ILM to mine socially important locations efficiently. Experimental results show that proposed Fast SS-ILM algorithm decreases execution time of socially important locations discovery process up to 20 %.

  1. Multiperiodicity in the newly discovered mid-late Be star V2104 Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uytterhoeven, K.; Poretti, E.; Rodríguez, E.; De Cat, P.; Mathias, P.; Telting, J. H.; Costa, V.; Miglio, A.

    2007-08-01

    Aims:We obtained the first long, homogenous time-series of V2104 Cyg, consisting of 679 datapoints, with the uvbyβ photometers of the Sierra Nevada and San Pedro Mártir Observatories. Our aim was to detect and subsequently interpret the intrinsic frequencies of this previously unstudied variable star, which turned out to be a Be star. We evaluate its place among the variable B stars on the upper Main Sequence. To obtain additional information on physical parameters we collected a few spectra with the Elodie and FIES instruments. Methods: We searched for frequencies in the uvby passbands using 2 different frequency analysis methods and used the S/N > 4 criterion to select the significant periodicities. We obtained an estimate of the physical parameters of the underlying B star of spectral type between B5 and B7, by correcting for the presence of a circumstellar disk using a formalism based on the strength of the Hα line emission. Results: We detected 3 independent frequencies with amplitudes below 0.01 mag, ν1 = 4.7126 d-1 , ν2 = 2.2342 d-1 and ν3 = 4.671 d-1 , and discovered that V2104 Cyg is a Be star. The fast rotation (vsin i = 290±10 km s-1, and 27°< i < 45°) hampered the investigation of the associated pulsational parameters ell. Conclusions: The most plausible explanation for the observed variability of this mid-late type Be star is a non-radial pulsation model. Based on observations obtained at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional San Pedro Mártir (Mexico), Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (Spain) and Observatoire de Haute Provence (France), and on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Full Fig. 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Discovering local patterns of co - evolution: computational aspects and biological examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuller Tamir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-evolution is the process in which two (or more sets of orthologs exhibit a similar or correlative pattern of evolution. Co-evolution is a powerful way to learn about the functional interdependencies between sets of genes and cellular functions and to predict physical interactions. More generally, it can be used for answering fundamental questions about the evolution of biological systems. Orthologs that exhibit a strong signal of co-evolution in a certain part of the evolutionary tree may show a mild signal of co-evolution in other branches of the tree. The major reasons for this phenomenon are noise in the biological input, genes that gain or lose functions, and the fact that some measures of co-evolution relate to rare events such as positive selection. Previous publications in the field dealt with the problem of finding sets of genes that co-evolved along an entire underlying phylogenetic tree, without considering the fact that often co-evolution is local. Results In this work, we describe a new set of biological problems that are related to finding patterns of local co-evolution. We discuss their computational complexity and design algorithms for solving them. These algorithms outperform other bi-clustering methods as they are designed specifically for solving the set of problems mentioned above. We use our approach to trace the co-evolution of fungal, eukaryotic, and mammalian genes at high resolution across the different parts of the corresponding phylogenetic trees. Specifically, we discover regions in the fungi tree that are enriched with positive evolution. We show that metabolic genes exhibit a remarkable level of co-evolution and different patterns of co-evolution in various biological datasets. In addition, we find that protein complexes that are related to gene expression exhibit non-homogenous levels of co-evolution across different parts of the fungi evolutionary line. In the case of mammalian evolution

  3. Starlight detectives how astronomers, inventors, and eccentrics discovered the modern universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hirshfeld, Alan

    2014-01-01

    NBC News “Top Science and Tech Books of the Year" selectionScientific American/FSG “Favorite Science Books of the Year" selectionNature.com “Top Reads of the Year" selectionKirkus Reviews “Best Books of the Year" selectionDiscover magazine “Top 5 Summer Read"“A masterful balance of science, history and rich narrative." —Discover magazine“Hirshfeld tells this climactic discovery of the expanding universe with great verve and sweep, as befits a story whose scope, characters and import leave

  4. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P

    1996-06-01

    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  5. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  6. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W

    1991-04-01

    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.

  7. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  8. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  10. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  11. Barriers to early presentation of self-discovered breast cancer in Singapore and Malaysia: a qualitative multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jennifer N W; Potrata, Barbara; Simonella, Leonardo; Ng, Celene W Q; Aw, Tar-Ching; Dahlui, Maznah; Hartman, Mikael; Mazlan, Rifhan; Taib, Nur Aishah

    2015-12-21

    To explore and compare barriers to early presentation of self-discovered breast cancer in Singapore and Malaysia. A qualitative interview study with thematic analysis of transcripts. 67 patients with self-discovered breast symptoms were included in the analysis. Of these, 36% were of Malay ethnicity, 39% were Chinese and 25% Indian, with an average age of 58 years (range 24-82 years). The number of women diagnosed at early stages of cancer almost equalled those at advanced stages. Approximately three-quarters presented with a painless lump, one-quarter experienced a painful lump and 10% had atypical symptoms. University hospital setting in Singapore and Malaysia. Patients revealed barriers to early presentation not previously reported: the poor quality of online website information about breast symptoms, financial issues and the negative influence of relatives in both countries, while perceived poor quality of care and services in state-run hospitals and misdiagnosis by healthcare professionals were reported in Malaysia. The pattern of presentation by ethnicity remained unchanged where more Malay delayed help-seeking and had more advanced cancer compared to Chinese and Indian patients. There are few differences in the pattern of presentation and in the reported barriers to seek medical care after symptom discovery between Singapore and Malaysia despite their differing economic status. Strategies to reduce delayed presentation are: a need to improve knowledge of disease, symptoms and causes, quality of care and services, and quality of online information; and addressing fear of diagnosis, treatment and hospitalisation, with more effort focused on the Malay ethnic group. Training is needed to avoid missed diagnoses and other factors contributing to delay among health professionals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  13. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  14. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  15. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.

    2004-01-01

    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  16. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  17. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  18. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  19. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  20. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  1. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  2. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  3. Exploring National Parks & Monuments: Students Can Discover National Monuments, National Parks & Natural Wonders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Cynthia Light Brown, author of "Discover National Monuments, National Parks: Natural Wonders," a book that introduces readers ages 8-12 to the history and science behind some of the amazing natural sites in the United States. In this interview, Cynthia Light Brown describes how she became interested in…

  4. Review of Discovering Craven, Richard Harland Collection and Craven Museum Lithics Collections CD-Roms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Falkingham

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Discovering Craven is aimed at the general reader, and provides a beautifully illustrated and presented interactive CD-Rom, created with Illuminatus Interactive. Craven is one of the seven districts within the county of North Yorkshire, a large area of which falls within the Yorkshire Dales National Park.

  5. A Phenomenological Study to Discover Low-Income Adults' Perceptions and Expectations Regarding Financial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Brigid Ann

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the perceptions and expectations of low income adults regarding financial literacy to discover ways to increase attendance in financial literacy programs designs for this cohort. The study utilized interviews with closed-ended questions to establish the participants' backgrounds, then opened-ended questions to…

  6. Incidence of and sequels to medical problems discovered in medical students during study-related activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, J; Boendermaker, PM; Muntinghe, H

    2003-01-01

    Purpose Students often act as subjects during practical and clinical skills training sessions. This routine seems to be quite acceptable for them but may present side-effects. Disorders, sometimes of a serious nature, have been discovered in medical students during clinical skills training. Because

  7. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in abo...

  8. Discovering the Art of Mathematics: Using String Art to Investigate Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Renesse, Christine; Ecke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    One goal of our Discovering the Art of Mathematics project is to empower students in the liberal arts to become confident creators of art and imaginative creators of mathematics. In this paper, we describe our experience with using string art to guide liberal arts students in exploring ideas of calculus. We provide excerpts from our inquiry-based…

  9. The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transtilla (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) discovered in northeastern Mexico feeding on Sapindaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the navel orangeworm, is an important pest of a wide variety fruits and their seeds. We discovered and report for the first time A. transitella feeding on Sapindaceae in wild populations of U. speciosa (Endl.) in northeastern Mexico. We provid...

  10. Athlome Project Consortium: a concerted effort to discover genomic and other "omic" markers of athletic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitsiladis, Y.P.; Tanaka, M.; Eynon, N.; Bouchard, C.; North, K.N.; Williams, A.G.; Collins, M.; Moran, C.N.; Britton, S.L.; Fuku, N.; Ashley, E.A.; Klissouras, V.; Lucia, A.; Ahmetov, I.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Alsayrafi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous attempts to discover genetic variants associated with elite athletic performance, injury predisposition, and elite/world-class athletic status, there has been limited progress to date. Past reliance on candidate gene studies predominantly focusing on genotyping a limited number of

  11. Special Features of Indian longitudes discovered in the first study of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Special Features of Indian longitudes discovered in the first study of satellite imagery. Two favourable regions for TCZ: One over the heated subcontinent and another over the warm waters of the equatorial Indian Ocean. Continental TCZ is partly sustained by ...

  12. KEGS Transients Discovered by a Pan-STARRS1 Search of the Kepler Campaign 16 Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. W.; Rest, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Garnavich, P. M.; Margheim, S.; Kasen, D.; Olling, R.; Shaya, E.; Narayan, G.; Villar, A.; Forster, F.; Mushotzky, R.; Zenteno, A.; James, D.; Smith, R. Chris; Dotson, J. L.; Barentsen, G.; Gully-Santiago, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Wright, D. E.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Schultz, A.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Bulger, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.

    2018-01-01

    We report the following transients discovered by Pan-STARRS1 during a targeted search of the Kepler Campaign 16 field as part of the K2 Extragalactic Survey (KEGS) for Transients (see http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/kegs/).

  13. Communication between the right and circumflex coronary arteries discovered incidentally by multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Se Hwan; Kim, Eui Jong; Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Soo Joong; Youn, Hyo Chul; Oh, Joo Hyeong [College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Intercoronary communication is a rare congenital coronary anomaly. We present a case of a 48-year-old man with an incidentally discovered communication between the right and circumflex coronary arteries, who was admitted with chest tightness and exertional dyspnea. The initial diagnosis was made using electrocardiogram-gated multidetector computed tomography.

  14. Discovering Inexpensive, Effective Catalysts for Solar Energy Conversion: An Authentic Research Laboratory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Sarah E.; Hooker, Paul D.; Nickel, Anne-Marie; Leichtfuss, Amanda R.; Adams, Carissa S.; de la Cerda, Dionisia; She, Yuqi; Gerken, James B.; Pokhrel, Ravi; Ambrose, Nicholas J.; Khaliqi, David; Stahl, Shannon S.; Schuttlefield Christus, Jennifer D.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical water oxidation is a major focus of solar energy conversion efforts. A new laboratory experiment has been developed that utilizes real-time, hands-on research to discover catalysts for solar energy conversion. The HARPOON, or Heterogeneous Anodes Rapidly Perused for Oxygen Overpotential Neutralization, experiment allows an array of…

  15. How Einstein Discovered the Special Theory of Relativity -R-ES ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The international physics community had set aside the year 2005 as the 'World Year of Physics' to commemo- rate the miraculous year 1905 [1) when the special theory of relativity was discovered by Einstein together with the photon concept of light and the theory of Brownian motion. I assume that the readers are familiar ...

  16. Readers of Largest U.S. History Textbooks Discover a Storehouse of Misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putka, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Reports that a Texas advocacy group discovered thousands of errors in U.S. history textbooks. Notes that the books underwent the review after drawing favorable reactions from Texas education officials. Identifies possible explanations for the errors and steps being taken to reduce errors in the future. (SG)

  17. "Discovering the Cell": An Educational Game about Cell and Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Carolina N.; Alves, Gutemberg G.; Cardona, Tania da S.; Melim, Leandra M. C.; Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; Araujo-Jorge, Tania C.; Henriques-Pons, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The role of games within education becomes clearer as students become more active and are able to take decisions, solve problems and react to the results of those decisions. The educational board game "Discovering the Cell" ("Celula Adentro"), is based on problem-solving learning. This investigative game attempts to stimulate…

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: newly discovered planets from WASP-South (Turner+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Delrez, L.; Evans, D. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2017-02-01

    Lightcurves and radial velocity data of three newly discovered planets from the WASP-South survey. Discovery data come from the WASP-South telescope (SAAO, South Africa) with follow-up lightcurves from the TRAPPIST telescope and EulerCam on the Swiss telescope (La Silla, Chile). Radial velocity data are from the CORALIE spectrograph on the Swiss telescope. (6 data files).

  19. A non-parametric hierarchical model to discover behavior dynamics from tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J.F.P.; Englebienne, G.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel non-parametric Bayesian model to jointly discover the dynamics of low-level actions and high-level behaviors of tracked people in open environments. Our model represents behaviors as Markov chains of actions which capture high-level temporal dynamics. Actions may be shared by

  20. Ochthebius ( s.str .) capicola (Coleoptera) re-discovered in the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New distributional records and ecological observations are presented for the Cape endemic hydraenid Ochthebius capicola. Considered extinct on the Cape Peninsula, the species has been re-discovered at two adjacent locations as well as at a new site in Tsitsikamma National Park, Eastern Cape. New species ...

  1. CWI cryptanalyst discovers new cryptographic attack variant in Flame spy malware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. Stevens (Marc); R.J.F. Cramer (Ronald)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractCryptanalyst Marc Stevens from the Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) in Amsterdam, known for breaking the https security in 2008 using a cryptanalytic attack on MD5, analyzed the recent Flame virus this week. He discovered that for this spy malware an as yet unknown cryptographic

  2. Effective data management for the DISCOVER-AQ airborne field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Crawford, J. H.; Kleb, M. M.; Rinsland, P.; Kusterer, J.; Sorlie, S.; Perez, J.; Walter, J.

    2011-12-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is an airborne study aimed at improving the interpretation of satellite observations to diagnose near-surface conditions relating to air quality. This project will increase fundamental understanding satellite trace gas and aerosol observations and enable the application of satellite data for societal benefit, which is highly relevant to NASA's goals to study the Earth from space. Because of the nature of the project, DISCOVER-AQ is an investigation that involves a wide range of observational assets, including airborne and ground based in-situ and remote sensing observations. It is a broad collaborative study with participants from NASA centers, universities, and research partners from agencies at federal, state and local levels. Therefore, successfully achieving the DISCOVER-AQ science objectives requires a comprehensive and cohesive data management plan to facilitate the sharing and broad use of data to enable research and comply with NASA data policies. This plan governs the science data generation, data exchange between the DISCOVER-AQ science team and its partners, and data transfer to the NASA Langley Research Center's Atmospheric Science Data Center (LaRC ASDC). The DISCOVER-AQ Data Management Plan (DMP) has been developed through a broad collaboration among the DISCOVER-AQ project, NASA LaRC ASDC staff, and NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project. This DMP incorporates procedures that have evolved over more than 20 years of airborne field studies under NASA's Tropospheric Chemistry Program and draws upon experience from collaborations with NOAA, NSF, university, and international partners as well as NASA's experience in managing Earth science data from its various remote sensing missions. To be presented are highlights of the DISCOVER-AQ data management plan, including a brief description of the airborne

  3. A new species of Andean toad (Bufonidae, Osornophryne) discovered using molecular and morphological data, with a taxonomic key for the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Moscoso, Diego J.; Guayasamin, Juan M.; Yánez-Muñoz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Combining a molecular phylogeny and morphological data, we discovered a new species of Osornophryne from the Amazonian slope of the Ecuadorian Andes. Morphologically, the new taxon is distinguished from all others species in Osornophryne by having the Toes IV and V longer than Toes I–III, a short and rounded snout with a small rostral papilla, and conical pustules on flanks. The new species previously was confused with Osornophryne guacamayo. A taxonomic key is provided for all known species of Osornophryne. PMID:21852930

  4. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  5. Serratia liquefaciens Infection of a Previously Excluded Popliteal Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coelho

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs are rare in the general population, but they account for nearly 70% of peripheral arterial aneurysms. There are several possible surgical approaches including exclusion of the aneurysm and bypass grafting, or endoaneurysmorrhaphy and interposition of a prosthetic conduit. The outcomes following the first approach are favorable, but persistent blood flow in the aneurysm sac has been documented in up to one third of patients in the early post-operative setting. Complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms include aneurysm enlargement, local compression symptoms, and sac rupture. Notably infection of a previously excluded and bypassed PAA is rare. This is the third reported case of PAA infection after exclusion and bypass grafting and the first due to Serratia liquefaciens. Methods: Relevant medical data were collected from the hospital database. Results: This case report describes a 54 year old male patient, diagnosed with acute limb ischaemia due to a thrombosed PAA, submitted to emergency surgery with exclusion and venous bypass. A below the knee amputation was necessary 3 months later. Patient follow-up was lost until 7 years following surgical repair, when he was diagnosed with aneurysm sac infection with skin fistulisation. He had recently been diagnosed with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis Child–Pugh Class B. The patient was successfully treated by aneurysm resection, soft tissue debridement and systemic antibiotics. Conclusion: PAA infection is a rare complication after exclusion and bypass procedures but should be considered in any patient with evidence of local or systemic infection. When a PAA infection is diagnosed, aneurysmectomy, local debridement, and intravenous antibiotic therapy are recommended. The “gold standard” method of PAA repair remains controversial. PAA excision or endoaneurysmorrhaphy avoids complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms, but is associated with

  6. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoyan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  7. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  8. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  9. Tubal anastomosis after previous sterilization: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seeters, Jacoba A H; Chua, Su Jen; Mol, Ben W J; Koks, Carolien A M

    2017-05-01

    Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success. Two search strategies were employed. Firstly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies presenting fertility outcomes of sterilization reversal up to July 2016. Data on the following outcomes were collected: pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, cost of the procedure and operative time. Eligible study designs included prospective or retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and case series. No age restriction was applied. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from tubal infertility from any other reason (e.g. infection, endometriosis and adhesions from previous surgery) and studies including sterilization reversal procedures were then evaluated: female age, BMI and duration and method of sterilization. Secondly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies that compared reversal of sterilization to IVF and evaluated them for pregnancy outcomes and cost effectiveness. We included 37 studies that investigated a total of 10 689 women. No randomized controlled trials were found. Most studies were retrospective cohort studies of a moderate quality. The pooled pregnancy rate after sterilization reversal was 42-69%, with heterogeneity seen from the different methods utilized. The reported ectopic pregnancy rate was 4-8%. The only prognostic factor affecting the

  10. Radiation induced esophageal adenocarcinoma in a woman previously treated for breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissouni, Soundouss; Raissouni, Ferdaous; Rais, Ghizlane; Aitelhaj, Meryem; Lkhoyaali, Siham; Latib, Rachida; Mohtaram, Amina; Rais, Fadoua; Mrabti, Hind; Kabbaj, Nawal; Amrani, Naima; Errihani, Hassan

    2012-08-09

    Secondary radiation-induced cancers are rare but well-documented as long-term side effects of radiation in large populations of breast cancer survivors. Multiple neoplasms are rare. We report a case of esophageal adenocarcinoma in a patient treated previously for breast cancer and clear cell carcinoma of the kidney. A 56 year-old non smoking woman, with no alcohol intake and no familial history of cancer; followed in the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat Morocco since 1999 for breast carcinoma, presented on consultation on January 2011 with dysphagia. Breast cancer was treated with modified radical mastectomy, 6 courses of chemotherapy based on CMF regimen and radiotherapy to breast, inner mammary chain and to pelvis as castration. Less than a year later, a renal right mass was discovered incidentally. Enlarged nephrectomy realized and showed renal cell carcinoma. A local and metastatic breast cancer recurrence occurred in 2007. Patient had 2 lines of chemotherapy and 2 lines of hormonotherapy with Letrozole and Tamoxifen assuring a stable disease. On January 2011, the patient presented dysphagia. Oesogastric endoscopy showed middle esophagus stenosing mass. Biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma. No evidence of metastasis was noticed on computed tomography and breast disease was controlled. Palliative brachytherapy to esophagus was delivered. Patient presented dysphagia due to progressive disease 4 months later. Jejunostomy was proposed but the patient refused any treatment. She died on July 2011. We present here a multiple neoplasm in a patient with no known family history of cancers. Esophageal carcinoma is most likely induced by radiation. However the presence of a third malignancy suggests the presence of genetic disorders.

  11. Radiation induced esophageal adenocarcinoma in a woman previously treated for breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissouni Soundouss

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary radiation-induced cancers are rare but well-documented as long-term side effects of radiation in large populations of breast cancer survivors. Multiple neoplasms are rare. We report a case of esophageal adenocarcinoma in a patient treated previously for breast cancer and clear cell carcinoma of the kidney. Case presentation A 56 year-old non smoking woman, with no alcohol intake and no familial history of cancer; followed in the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat Morocco since 1999 for breast carcinoma, presented on consultation on January 2011 with dysphagia. Breast cancer was treated with modified radical mastectomy, 6 courses of chemotherapy based on CMF regimen and radiotherapy to breast, inner mammary chain and to pelvis as castration. Less than a year later, a renal right mass was discovered incidentally. Enlarged nephrectomy realized and showed renal cell carcinoma. A local and metastatic breast cancer recurrence occurred in 2007. Patient had 2 lines of chemotherapy and 2 lines of hormonotherapy with Letrozole and Tamoxifen assuring a stable disease. On January 2011, the patient presented dysphagia. Oesogastric endoscopy showed middle esophagus stenosing mass. Biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma. No evidence of metastasis was noticed on computed tomography and breast disease was controlled. Palliative brachytherapy to esophagus was delivered. Patient presented dysphagia due to progressive disease 4 months later. Jejunostomy was proposed but the patient refused any treatment. She died on July 2011. Conclusion We present here a multiple neoplasm in a patient with no known family history of cancers. Esophageal carcinoma is most likely induced by radiation. However the presence of a third malignancy suggests the presence of genetic disorders.

  12. Scientists Discover Supernova May Control Activity in the Center of Our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    10 January 2001 -- Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have discovered that an apparent supernova remnant in the center of our galaxy might help regulate a nearby supermassive black hole and that such relationships between supernova remnants and black holes might be common throughout the universe. The scientists studied Sagittarius A East, previously known by its ring-shaped radio emission, located nearly 26,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. Sgr A East appears to surround the black hole Sagittarius A* (denoted with an asterisk because it is a point source that emits radio waves) with its center offset by about six light years from that of the black hole. Using Chandra, scientists were able to separate Sgr A East from other complex structures for the first time in X-ray wavelengths. The properties they discovered support the long-standing hypothesis that Sgr A East is a single supernova remnant that exploded about 10,000 years ago. "With Chandra, we found hot gas concentrated within the larger radio shell of Sgr A East," said Yoshitomo Maeda, an astronomy and astrophysics research associate at Penn State who presented the research team's results at the 197th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Diego, California, on 10 January 2001. "The gas is highly enriched by heavy elements, with four times more calcium and iron than the Sun, and that confirms earlier suspicions that Sgr A East is most likely a remnant of a supernova explosion. While dozens of supernova remnants are known in our galaxy, the proximity of Sgr A East to the black hole in the center of our galaxy makes it important." After a supernova explosion, scientists believe two shock waves are formed, with one moving inward and one outward. The inward shock wave heated up the ejecta that was detected with X-rays by the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) aboard Chandra. The temperature of gas in that shock wave was measured at 20 million

  13. Discovering Pediatric Asthma Phenotypes on the Basis of Response to Controller Medication Using Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mindy K; Yoon, Jinsung; van der Schaar, Auke; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric asthma has variable underlying inflammation and symptom control. Approaches to addressing this heterogeneity, such as clustering methods to find phenotypes and predict outcomes, have been investigated. However, clustering based on the relationship between treatment and clinical outcome has not been performed, and machine learning approaches for long-term outcome prediction in pediatric asthma have not been studied in depth. Our objectives were to use our novel machine learning algorithm, predictor pursuit (PP), to discover pediatric asthma phenotypes on the basis of asthma control in response to controller medications, to predict longitudinal asthma control among children with asthma, and to identify features associated with asthma control within each discovered pediatric phenotype. We applied PP to the Childhood Asthma Management Program study data (n = 1,019) to discover phenotypes on the basis of asthma control between assigned controller therapy groups (budesonide vs. nedocromil). We confirmed PP's ability to discover phenotypes using the Asthma Clinical Research Network/Childhood Asthma Research and Education network data. We next predicted children's asthma control over time and compared PP's performance with that of traditional prediction methods. Last, we identified clinical features most correlated with asthma control in the discovered phenotypes. Four phenotypes were discovered in both datasets: allergic not obese (A + /O - ), obese not allergic (A - /O + ), allergic and obese (A + /O + ), and not allergic not obese (A - /O - ). Of the children with well-controlled asthma in the Childhood Asthma Management Program dataset, we found more nonobese children treated with budesonide than with nedocromil (P = 0.015) and more obese children treated with nedocromil than with budesonide (P = 0.008). Within the obese group, more A + /O + children's asthma was well controlled with nedocromil than with budesonide (P = 0.022) or with placebo

  14. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  15. Incidentally found and unexpected tumors discovered by MRI examination for temporomandibular joint arthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Asaumi, Jun-ichi; Maki, Yuu; Murakami, Jun; Hisatomi, Miki; Matsuzaki, Hidenobu; Konouchi, Hironobu; Honda, Yosutoshi; Kishi, Kanji

    2003-01-01

    We examined the frequency of incidentally found or unexpected tumors discovered at the time of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region for patients with suspicion of TMJ arthrosis. Five MR images (T1-weighted transverse scout image and proton density and T2-weighted oblique sagittal images at the open and closed mouth) were acquired. In 2776 MRI examinations of TMJ arthrosis, two tumors were discovered. They consisted of an adenoid cystic carcinoma in the deep portion of the parotid gland, and a malignant tumor extending from the infratemporal fossa to the parapharyngeal space. The rate of incidentally founded or unexpected tumors in TMJ examinations was low (0.072%), but the two tumors found were malignant tumors, and therefore, scout image should be carefully examined, not only used for positing the slice

  16. Incidentally found and unexpected tumors discovered by MRI examination for temporomandibular joint arthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Asaumi, Jun-ichi E-mail: asaumi@md.okayama-u.ac.jp; Maki, Yuu; Murakami, Jun; Hisatomi, Miki; Matsuzaki, Hidenobu; Konouchi, Hironobu; Honda, Yosutoshi; Kishi, Kanji

    2003-07-01

    We examined the frequency of incidentally found or unexpected tumors discovered at the time of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region for patients with suspicion of TMJ arthrosis. Five MR images (T1-weighted transverse scout image and proton density and T2-weighted oblique sagittal images at the open and closed mouth) were acquired. In 2776 MRI examinations of TMJ arthrosis, two tumors were discovered. They consisted of an adenoid cystic carcinoma in the deep portion of the parotid gland, and a malignant tumor extending from the infratemporal fossa to the parapharyngeal space. The rate of incidentally founded or unexpected tumors in TMJ examinations was low (0.072%), but the two tumors found were malignant tumors, and therefore, scout image should be carefully examined, not only used for positing the slice.

  17. HATS-1b: THE FIRST TRANSITING PLANET DISCOVERED BY THE HATSouth SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penev, K.; Bakos, G. A.; Hartman, J. D.; Csubry, Z. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Bayliss, D.; Zhou, G.; Conroy, P. [Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Jordan, A.; Suc, V.; Rabus, M.; Brahm, R.; Espinoza, N. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Mohler, M.; Mancini, L.; Henning, T.; Nikolov, N.; Csak, B. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Beky, B.; Noyes, R. W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Buchhave, L., E-mail: kpenev@astro.princeton.edu [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University (Denmark); and others

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of HATS-1b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright V = 12.05 G dwarf star GSC 6652-00186, and the first planet discovered by HATSouth, a global network of autonomous wide-field telescopes. HATS-1b has a period of P Almost-Equal-To 3.4465 days, mass of M{sub p} Almost-Equal-To 1.86 M{sub J}, and radius of R{sub p} Almost-Equal-To 1.30 R{sub J}. The host star has a mass of 0.99 M{sub Sun} and radius of 1.04 R{sub Sun }. The discovery light curve of HATS-1b has near-continuous coverage over several multi-day timespans, demonstrating the power of using a global network of telescopes to discover transiting planets.

  18. Discovering disease-associated genes in weighted protein-protein interaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Cai, Meng; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-04-01

    Although there have been many network-based attempts to discover disease-associated genes, most of them have not taken edge weight - which quantifies their relative strength - into consideration. We use connection weights in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to locate disease-related genes. We analyze the topological properties of both weighted and unweighted PPI networks and design an improved random forest classifier to distinguish disease genes from non-disease genes. We use a cross-validation test to confirm that weighted networks are better able to discover disease-associated genes than unweighted networks, which indicates that including link weight in the analysis of network properties provides a better model of complex genotype-phenotype associations.

  19. Chemical Abundance Measurements of Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies Discovered by the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Daniel; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Simon, Joshua D.; Hansen, Terese; Li, Ting; Bernstein, Rebecca; Balbinot, Eduardo; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Pace, Andrew; Strigari, Louis; Pellegrino, Craig; DePoy, Darren L.; Suntzeff, Nicholas; Bechtol, Keith; Dark Energy Suvey

    2018-01-01

    We present chemical abundance analysis results derived from high-resolution spectroscopy of ultra-faint dwarfs discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies preserve a fossil record of the chemical abundance patterns imprinted by the first stars in the Universe. High-resolution spectroscopic observations of member stars in several recently discovered Milky Way satellites reveal a range of abundance patterns among ultra-faint dwarfs suggesting that star formation processes in the early Universe were quite diverse. The chemical content provides a glimpse not only of the varied nucleosynthetic processes and chemical history of the dwarfs themselves, but also the environment in which they were formed. We present the chemical abundance analysis of these objects and discuss possible explanations for the observed abundance patterns.

  20. Discovering approximate-associated sequence patterns for protein-DNA interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Tak Ming

    2010-12-30

    Motivation: The bindings between transcription factors (TFs) and transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) are fundamental protein-DNA interactions in transcriptional regulation. Extensive efforts have been made to better understand the protein-DNA interactions. Recent mining on exact TF-TFBS-associated sequence patterns (rules) has shown great potentials and achieved very promising results. However, exact rules cannot handle variations in real data, resulting in limited informative rules. In this article, we generalize the exact rules to approximate ones for both TFs and TFBSs, which are essential for biological variations. Results: A progressive approach is proposed to address the approximation to alleviate the computational requirements. Firstly, similar TFBSs are grouped from the available TF-TFBS data (TRANSFAC database). Secondly, approximate and highly conserved binding cores are discovered from TF sequences corresponding to each TFBS group. A customized algorithm is developed for the specific objective. We discover the approximate TF-TFBS rules by associating the grouped TFBS consensuses and TF cores. The rules discovered are evaluated by matching (verifying with) the actual protein-DNA binding pairs from Protein Data Bank (PDB) 3D structures. The approximate results exhibit many more verified rules and up to 300% better verification ratios than the exact ones. The customized algorithm achieves over 73% better verification ratios than traditional methods. Approximate rules (64-79%) are shown statistically significant. Detailed variation analysis and conservation verification on NCBI records demonstrate that the approximate rules reveal both the flexible and specific protein-DNA interactions accurately. The approximate TF-TFBS rules discovered show great generalized capability of exploring more informative binding rules. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  1. Discover Earth: an earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2011-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public's understanding of Earth's physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The Space Science Institute's National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. STAR-Net includes two exhibitions: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. The Discover Earth exhibition will focus on local earth science topics-such as weather, water cycle, and ecosystem changes-as well as a global view of our changing planet. The main take-away message (or Big Idea) for this exhibition is that the global environment changes - and is changed by - the host community's local environment. The project team is testing whether this approach will be a good strategy for engaging the public, especially in rural America. This presentation will provide an overview of the Discover Earth project and how it is integrating climate change ideas into the exhibit

  2. Discovering multiple transcripts of human hepatocytes using massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yi-Xue; Zhang Xue-Gong; Li Ting-Ting; Wang Yun; Wang Xiao-Wo; Hong Yi; Deng Qing; Deng Fu-Xing; Zhang Yun-Li; Hao Pei; Huang Jian; Yang Peng-Yuan; Wang Hong-Yang; Han Ze-Guang

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The liver is the largest human internal organ – it is composed of multiple cell types and plays a vital role in fulfilling the body's metabolic needs and maintaining homeostasis. Of these cell types the hepatocytes, which account for three-quarters of the liver's volume, perform its main functions. To discover the molecular basis of hepatocyte function, we employed Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) to determine the transcriptomic profile of adult human hepatoc...

  3. Saturated Overburden Scattering and the Multiscatter Frontier: Discovering Dark Matter at the Planck Mass and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Bramante, Joseph; Broerman, Benjamin; Lang, Rafael F.; Raj, Nirmal

    2018-01-01

    We show that underground experiments like LUX/LZ, PandaX-II, XENON, and PICO could discover dark matter up to the Planck mass and beyond, with new searches for dark matter that scatters multiple times in these detectors. This opens up significant discovery potential via re-analysis of existing and future data. We also identify a new effect which substantially enhances experimental sensitivity to large dark matter scattering cross-sections: while passing through atmospheric or solid overburden...

  4. Two Types of Social Grooming discovered in Primitive and Modern Communication Data-Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) provide innovative social bonding methods known as social grooming. These have drastically decreased time and distance constraints of social grooming. Here we show two type social grooming (elaborate social grooming and lightweight social grooming) discovered in a model constructed by thirty communication data-sets including face to face, SNS, mobile phones, and Chacma baboons. This demarcation is caused by a trade-off between the number and strength of social re...

  5. Mining Low-Variance Biclusters to Discover Coregulation Modules in Sequencing Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Hu; Raj Bhatnagar

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing (CHIP-Seq) data exhibit binding events with possible binding locations and their strengths, followed by interpretation of the locations of peaks. Recent methods tend to summarize all CHIP-Seq peaks detected within a limited up and down region of each gene into one real-valued score in order to quantify the probability of regulation in a region. Applying subspace clustering techniques on these scores can help discover important knowledge such as the potential co-regu...

  6. Virtual screening on natural products for discovering active compounds and target information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianhua; Xu, Xiaoying; Cheng, Feng; Liu, Hong; Luo, Xiaomin; Shen, Jingkang; Chen, Kaixian; Zhao, Weimin; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang

    2003-11-01

    Natural products, containing inherently large-scale structural diversity than synthetic compounds, have been the major resources of bioactive agents and will continually play as protagonists for discovering new drugs. However, how to access this diverse chemical space efficiently and effectively is an exciting challenge for medicinal chemists and pharmacologists. While virtual screening, which has shown a great promise in drug discovery, will play an important role in digging out lead (active) compounds from natural products. This review focuses on the strategy of virtual screening based on molecular docking and, with successful examples from our laboratory, illustrates the efficiency of virtual screening in discovering active compounds from natural products. On the other hand, the sequencing of the human genome and numerous pathogen genomes has resulted in an unprecedented opportunity for discovering potential new drug targets. Chemogenomics has appeared as a new technology to initiate target discovery by using active compounds as probes to characterize proteome functions. Natural products are the ideal probes for such research. Binding affinity fingerprint is a powerful chemogenomic descriptor to characterize both small molecules and pharmacologically relevant proteins. Therefore, this review also discusses binding affinity fingerprint strategy for identifying target information from the genomic data by using natural products as the probes.

  7. GeoWeb Crawler: An Extensible and Scalable Web Crawling Framework for Discovering Geospatial Web Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of the World-Wide Web (WWW technology, people can easily share content on the Web, including geospatial data and web services. Thus, the “big geospatial data management” issues start attracting attention. Among the big geospatial data issues, this research focuses on discovering distributed geospatial resources. As resources are scattered on the WWW, users cannot find resources of their interests efficiently. While the WWW has Web search engines addressing web resource discovery issues, we envision that the geospatial Web (i.e., GeoWeb also requires GeoWeb search engines. To realize a GeoWeb search engine, one of the first steps is to proactively discover GeoWeb resources on the WWW. Hence, in this study, we propose the GeoWeb Crawler, an extensible Web crawling framework that can find various types of GeoWeb resources, such as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC web services, Keyhole Markup Language (KML and Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc (ESRI Shapefiles. In addition, we apply the distributed computing concept to promote the performance of the GeoWeb Crawler. The result shows that for 10 targeted resources types, the GeoWeb Crawler discovered 7351 geospatial services and 194,003 datasets. As a result, the proposed GeoWeb Crawler framework is proven to be extensible and scalable to provide a comprehensive index of GeoWeb.

  8. Incorporating Topic Assignment Constraint and Topic Correlation Limitation into Clinical Goal Discovering for Clinical Pathway Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical pathways are widely used around the world for providing quality medical treatment and controlling healthcare cost. However, the expert-designed clinical pathways can hardly deal with the variances among hospitals and patients. It calls for more dynamic and adaptive process, which is derived from various clinical data. Topic-based clinical pathway mining is an effective approach to discover a concise process model. Through this approach, the latent topics found by latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA represent the clinical goals. And process mining methods are used to extract the temporal relations between these topics. However, the topic quality is usually not desirable due to the low performance of the LDA in clinical data. In this paper, we incorporate topic assignment constraint and topic correlation limitation into the LDA to enhance the ability of discovering high-quality topics. Two real-world datasets are used to evaluate the proposed method. The results show that the topics discovered by our method are with higher coherence, informativeness, and coverage than the original LDA. These quality topics are suitable to represent the clinical goals. Also, we illustrate that our method is effective in generating a comprehensive topic-based clinical pathway model.

  9. Murine depression model and its potential applications for discovering foods and farm products with antidepressant-like effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko eGoto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Advanced societies face increased health problems related to various stresses. Chronic psychological stress is a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders such as depression. Although therapeutic agents reduce several symptoms of depression, most have side effects in a broad range of the population. Furthermore, some victims of depression do not show significant improvement with any drugs, so alternative approaches are needed. Good dietary habits may potentially reduce depressive symptoms, but there is little scientific evidence thus far. Murine depression models are useful to test nutritional approaches in vivo. Our model mice subjected to a subchronic mild social defeat stress (sCSDS paradigm show several alterations in physiological parameters and social behavior. These stress-induced symptoms in sCSDS mice can be used as cues to identify antidepressant-like natural resources including foods and farm products. We previously discovered that sCSDS mice show more vulnerability to social stress by changing dietary condition. In addition, we developed a more objective system for analyzing mouse behavior using a 3D depth-sensing camera to understand relationships between diet and behavior. The combination of sCSDS mice with 3D behavioral analysis is a powerful method for screening ingredients in foods and farm products for antidepressant-like effects.

  10. Discovering Hominins - Application of Medical Computed Tomography (CT) to Fossil-Bearing Rocks from the Site of Malapa, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilg, Jacqueline S; Berger, Lee R

    2015-01-01

    In the South African context, computed tomography (CT) has been used applied to individually prepared fossils and small rocks containing fossils, but has not been utilized on large breccia blocks as a means of discovering fossils, and particularly fossil hominins. Previous attempts at CT imaging of rocks from other South African sites for this purpose yielded disappointing results. For this study, 109 fossil- bearing rocks from the site of Malapa, South Africa were scanned with medical CT prior to manual preparation. The resultant images were assessed for accuracy of fossil identification and characterization against the standard of manual preparation. The accurate identification of fossils, including those of early hominins, that were not visible on the surface of individual blocks, is shown to be possible. The discovery of unexpected fossils is reduced, thus lowering the potential that fossils could be damaged through accidental encounter during routine preparation, or even entirely missed. This study should significantly change the way fossil discovery, recovery and preparation is done in the South African context and has potential for application in other palaeontological situations. Medical CT imaging is shown to be reliable, readily available, cost effective and accurate in finding fossils within matrix conglomerates. Improvements in CT equipment and in CT image quality are such that medical CT is now a viable imaging modality for this palaeontological application.

  11. Discovering Hominins - Application of Medical Computed Tomography (CT to Fossil-Bearing Rocks from the Site of Malapa, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline S Smilg

    Full Text Available In the South African context, computed tomography (CT has been used applied to individually prepared fossils and small rocks containing fossils, but has not been utilized on large breccia blocks as a means of discovering fossils, and particularly fossil hominins. Previous attempts at CT imaging of rocks from other South African sites for this purpose yielded disappointing results. For this study, 109 fossil- bearing rocks from the site of Malapa, South Africa were scanned with medical CT prior to manual preparation. The resultant images were assessed for accuracy of fossil identification and characterization against the standard of manual preparation. The accurate identification of fossils, including those of early hominins, that were not visible on the surface of individual blocks, is shown to be possible. The discovery of unexpected fossils is reduced, thus lowering the potential that fossils could be damaged through accidental encounter during routine preparation, or even entirely missed. This study should significantly change the way fossil discovery, recovery and preparation is done in the South African context and has potential for application in other palaeontological situations. Medical CT imaging is shown to be reliable, readily available, cost effective and accurate in finding fossils within matrix conglomerates. Improvements in CT equipment and in CT image quality are such that medical CT is now a viable imaging modality for this palaeontological application.

  12. E/V Nautilus Detection of Isolated Features in the Eastern Pacific Ocean: Newly Discovered Calderas and Methane Seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineault, N.; Irish, O.; Lubetkin, M.

    2016-02-01

    The E/V Nautilus mapped over 80,000 km2 of the seafloor in the Gulf of Mexico and Eastern Pacific Ocean during its 2015 expedition. The Nautilus used its Kongsberg EM302 multibeam system to map the seafloor prior to remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives, both for scientific purposes (site selection) and navigational safety. The Nautilus also routinely maps during transits to identify previously un-mapped or unresolved seafloor features. During its transit from the Galapagos Islands to the California Borderland, the Nautilus mapped 44,695 km2 of seafloor. Isolated features on the seafloor and in the water-column, such as calderas and methane seeps, were detected during this data collection effort. Operating at a frequency of 30 kHz in waters ranging from 1000-5500 m, we discovered caldera features off the coast of Central America. Since seamounts are known hotspots of biodiversity, locating new ones may enrich our understanding of seamounts as "stepping stones" for species distribution and ocean current pathways. Satellite altimetry datasets prior to this data either did not discern these calderas or recognized the presence of a bathymetric high without great detail. This new multibeam bathymetry data, gridded at 50 m, gives a precise look at these seamounts that range in elevation from 350 to 1400 m from abyssal depth. The largest of the calderas is circular in shape and is 10,000 m in length and 5,000 m in width, with a distinct circular depression at the center of its highest point, 1,400 m above the surrounding abyssal depth. In the California Borderland region, located between San Diego and Los Angeles, four new seeps were discovered in water depths from 400-1,020 m. ROV exploration of these seeps revealed vent communities. Altogether, these discoveries reinforce how little we know about the global ocean, indicate the presence of isolated deep-sea ecosystems that support biologically diverse communities, and will impact our understanding of seafloor habitat.

  13. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... (previously Precision Helicopters, LLC); Robinson Air Crane, Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins... (Previously Hawkins & Powers Aviation); S.M. &T. Aircraft (Previously Us Helicopter Inc., UNC Helicopters, Inc...

  14. An ensemble heterogeneous classification methodology for discovering health-related knowledge in social media messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuarob, Suppawong; Tucker, Conrad S; Salathe, Marcel; Ram, Nilam

    2014-06-01

    The role of social media as a source of timely and massive information has become more apparent since the era of Web 2.0.Multiple studies illustrated the use of information in social media to discover biomedical and health-related knowledge.Most methods proposed in the literature employ traditional document classification techniques that represent a document as a bag of words.These techniques work well when documents are rich in text and conform to standard English; however, they are not optimal for social media data where sparsity and noise are norms.This paper aims to address the limitations posed by the traditional bag-of-word based methods and propose to use heterogeneous features in combination with ensemble machine learning techniques to discover health-related information, which could prove to be useful to multiple biomedical applications, especially those needing to discover health-related knowledge in large scale social media data.Furthermore, the proposed methodology could be generalized to discover different types of information in various kinds of textual data. Social media data is characterized by an abundance of short social-oriented messages that do not conform to standard languages, both grammatically and syntactically.The problem of discovering health-related knowledge in social media data streams is then transformed into a text classification problem, where a text is identified as positive if it is health-related and negative otherwise.We first identify the limitations of the traditional methods which train machines with N-gram word features, then propose to overcome such limitations by utilizing the collaboration of machine learning based classifiers, each of which is trained to learn a semantically different aspect of the data.The parameter analysis for tuning each classifier is also reported. Three data sets are used in this research.The first data set comprises of approximately 5000 hand-labeled tweets, and is used for cross validation of the

  15. Evidence for nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation as a previously overlooked microbial methane sink in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bao-lan; Shen, Li-dong; Lian, Xu; Zhu, Qun; Liu, Shuai; Huang, Qian; He, Zhan-fei; Geng, Sha; Cheng, Dong-qing; Lou, Li-ping; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zheng, Ping; He, Yun-feng

    2014-01-01

    The process of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) was recently discovered and shown to be mediated by “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera” (M. oxyfera). Here, evidence for n-damo in three different freshwater wetlands located in southeastern China was obtained using stable isotope measurements, quantitative PCR assays, and 16S rRNA and particulate methane monooxygenase gene clone library analyses. Stable isotope experiments confirmed the occurrence of n-damo in the examined wetlands, and the potential n-damo rates ranged from 0.31 to 5.43 nmol CO2 per gram of dry soil per day at different depths of soil cores. A combined analysis of 16S rRNA and particulate methane monooxygenase genes demonstrated that M. oxyfera-like bacteria were mainly present in the deep soil with a maximum abundance of 3.2 × 107 gene copies per gram of dry soil. It is estimated that ∼0.51 g of CH4 m−2 per year could be linked to the n-damo process in the examined wetlands based on the measured potential n-damo rates. This study presents previously unidentified confirmation that the n-damo process is a previously overlooked microbial methane sink in wetlands, and n-damo has the potential to be a globally important methane sink due to increasing nitrogen pollution. PMID:24616523

  16. Genome-wide scan of healthy human connectome discovers SPON1 gene variant influencing dementia severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshad, Neda; Rajagopalan, Priya; Hua, Xue; Hibar, Derrek P.; Nir, Talia M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Green, Robert C.; Weiner, Michael W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Hansell, Narelle K.; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul M.; Weiner, Michael; Aisen, Paul; Weiner, Michael; Aisen, Paul; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Trojanowski, John Q.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Morris, John; Liu, Enchi; Green, Robert C.; Montine, Tom; Petersen, Ronald; Aisen, Paul; Gamst, Anthony; Thomas, Ronald G.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Gessert, Devon; Sather, Tamie; Beckett, Laurel; Harvey, Danielle; Gamst, Anthony; Donohue, Michael; Kornak, John; Jack, Clifford R.; Dale, Anders; Bernstein, Matthew; Felmlee, Joel; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene; DeCarli, Charles; Jagust, William; Bandy, Dan; Koeppe, Robert A.; Foster, Norm; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Mathis, Chet; Morris, John; Cairns, Nigel J.; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Trojanowki, J.Q.; Shaw, Les; Lee, Virginia M.Y.; Korecka, Magdalena; Toga, Arthur W.; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Saykin, Andrew J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven; Shen, Li; Khachaturian, Zaven; Frank, Richard; Snyder, Peter J.; Molchan, Susan; Kaye, Jeffrey; Quinn, Joseph; Lind, Betty; Dolen, Sara; Schneider, Lon S.; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Spann, Bryan M.; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Petersen, Ronald; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Morris, John C.; Ances, Beau; Carroll, Maria; Leon, Sue; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Grossman, Hillel; Mitsis, Effie; Romirowsky, Aliza; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Shah, Raj C.; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn; Onyike, Chiadi; Kielb, Stephanie; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J.; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Coleman, R. Edward; Arnold, Steven E.; Karlawish, Jason H.; Wolk, David; Smith, Charles D.; Jicha, Greg; Hardy, Peter; Lopez, Oscar L.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Goldstein, Bonnie S.; Martin, Kim; Makino, Kelly M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Brand, Connie; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; Mc-Adams-Ortiz, Catherine; Womack, Kyle; Mathews, Dana; Quiceno, Mary; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; King, Richard; Weiner, Myron; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Apostolova, Liana; Lu, Po H.; Bartzokis, George; Silverman, Daniel H.S.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Parfitt, Francine; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin R.; Hake, Ann Marie; Matthews, Brandy R.; Herring, Scott; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Carson, Richard E.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Stefanovic, Bojana; Caldwell, Curtis; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek Robin; Feldman, Howard; Mudge, Benita; Assaly, Michele; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Trost, Dick; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Kerwin, Diana; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Lipowski, Kristina; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Johnson, Nancy; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Turner, Raymond Scott; Johnson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Brigid; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Marshall, Gad; Frey, Meghan; Yesavage, Jerome; Taylor, Joy L.; Lane, Barton; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Sabbagh, Marwan; Belden, Christine; Jacobson, Sandra; Kowall, Neil; Killiany, Ronald; Budson, Andrew E.; Norbash, Alexander; Johnson, Patricia Lynn; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Wolday, Saba; Bwayo, Salome K.; Lerner, Alan; Hudson, Leon; Ogrocki, Paula; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Olichney, John; DeCarli, Charles; Kittur, Smita; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T.-Y.; Bartha, Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Fleisher, Adam; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Blank, Karen; Anderson, Karen; Saykin, Andrew J.; Santulli, Robert B.; Schwartz, Eben S.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Garg, Pradeep; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R.; Querfurth, Henry; Tremont, Geoffrey; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mintzer, Jacobo; Longmire, Crystal Flynn; Spicer, Kenneth; Finger, Elizabeth; Rachinsky, Irina; Rogers, John; Kertesz, Andrew; Drost, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant connectivity is implicated in many neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia. However, other than a few disease-associated candidate genes, we know little about the degree to which genetics play a role in the brain networks; we know even less about specific genes that influence brain connections. Twin and family-based studies can generate estimates of overall genetic influences on a trait, but genome-wide association scans (GWASs) can screen the genome for specific variants influencing the brain or risk for disease. To identify the heritability of various brain connections, we scanned healthy young adult twins with high-field, high-angular resolution diffusion MRI. We adapted GWASs to screen the brain’s connectivity pattern, allowing us to discover genetic variants that affect the human brain’s wiring. The association of connectivity with the SPON1 variant at rs2618516 on chromosome 11 (11p15.2) reached connectome-wide, genome-wide significance after stringent statistical corrections were enforced, and it was replicated in an independent subsample. rs2618516 was shown to affect brain structure in an elderly population with varying degrees of dementia. Older people who carried the connectivity variant had significantly milder clinical dementia scores and lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease. As a posthoc analysis, we conducted GWASs on several organizational and topological network measures derived from the matrices to discover variants in and around genes associated with autism (MACROD2), development (NEDD4), and mental retardation (UBE2A) significantly associated with connectivity. Connectome-wide, genome-wide screening offers substantial promise to discover genes affecting brain connectivity and risk for brain diseases. PMID:23471985

  17. A Systematic Mid-Infrared Survey of A Sample of Tidal Disruption Events Discovered by ZTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Van, Sjoert; Kulkarni, Shri; Kasliwal, Mansi; Gezari, Suvi; Cenko, Brad; Blagorodnova, Nadia; Hung, Tiara

    2017-12-01

    Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) saw its first light (press release on Nov 14, 2017) and is currently in the commissioning phase. The science operation is scheduled to start on Feb 1, 2018. Based on the data from Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), ZTF is expected to discover 30 new tidal disruption events (TDE) in the centers of galaxies containing supermassive blackholes. TDEs are rare transient events, and have only been discovered in recent years by large area transient surveys. Observations of optically discovered TDEs appear to show common characteristics, including blackbody temperatures of a few 10,000K, derived bolometric peak luminosities of several 10^43 - 10^44 erg/s, and photospheric radius of 10^15 - 10^16 cm. These properties are in conflict with the classic TDE model predictions, which suggest an order of magnitude higher temperature and peak luminosity. One proposed explanation is the possible existence of a reprocessing gas layer which absorbs X-ray, UV/optical photons and produces a cooler spectral energy distribution (SED). So far, there are only two published mid-IR light curves of TDEs, each with two epochal data. To solve this mystery, we require higher cadence Spitzer observations of a sample of uniformly selected TDEs. Next year is the only opportunity to obtain the critical observations because Spitzer is expected to operate only to March 2019. We request 24.1 hours of Spitzer time to observe 7 ZTF TDEs. This will produce a unique legacy dataset for many future studies of physics of TDEs.

  18. NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory Selected as Editor's Choice in 2000 Discover Magazine Awards for Technological Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, was launched in July 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia and deployed to a highly elliptical Earth orbit. Over the next five years, it will use the world's most powerful X-ray telescope to probe the mysteries of a universe that cannot be seen by the human eye or conventional optical telescopes. Its array of exquisite mirrors, ground and polished by Raytheon Optical Systems, Inc., and assembled and aligned by Eastman Kodak, will allow Chandra to gather and focus X-rays from celestial sources billions of light years away. Chandra's science instrument module was designed and built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., then integrated with instruments provided by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Penn State University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Space Research Organization of The Netherlands, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. Ball Aerospace also produced Chandra's aspect camera. The Discover Awards for Technological Innovation, now in their 11th year, are designed to acknowledge the creativity of men, women, corporations and institutions who have reached superior levels of ingenuity. Each year, Discover Magazine's editorial staff reviews thousands of new products and ideas presented in the scientific literature or nominated by leading technology-based companies and research organizations. The editorial staff selects semi-finalists in each of eight technology categories, then submits the nominations to an independent panel of experts. The panel then selects the finalists and the winner in each area of technology. The Editor's choice category is reserved for innovations so unique or promising that they go beyond the magazine's established innovation categories by providing a marked advance in their field. Chandra's powerful X-ray telescope can resolve distant images eight times sharper and detect X-ray sources 20 times fainter than any previous X-ray space telescope. Chandra, along with the rest of the winners

  19. Palomar Transient Factory Discovers Another Possible super- Chandrasekhar Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, P. E.; Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Suzuki, N.; Cucchiara, A.; Botyanszki, J.; Hsiao, E. Y.

    2010-10-01

    The Type Ia supernova science working group of the Palomar Transient Factory (ATEL#1964) reports the discovery of a possible super-Chandrasekhar mass supernova, PTF10xgx. The supernova is at RA = 00:12:23.15, Dec = +02:30:44.1 (J2000) in the galaxy identified as APMUKS(BJ) B000949.39+021401.7 (Maddox et al. 1990, MNRAS, 243, 692). The supernova was discovered and classified by Oarical, an autonomous software framework of the PTF collaboration, based on observations made with the Palomar 48-inch Oschin Schmidt telescope.

  20. Systemic sclerosis biomarkers discovered using mass-spectrometry-based proteomics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălănescu, Paul; Lădaru, Anca; Bălănescu, Eugenia; Băicuş, Cristian; Dan, Gheorghe Andrei

    2014-08-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease with incompletely known physiopathology. There is a great challenge to predict its course and therapeutic response using biomarkers. To critically review proteomic biomarkers discovered from biological specimens from systemic sclerosis patients using mass spectrometry technologies. Medline and Embase databases were searched in February 2014. Out of the 199 records retrieved, a total of 20 records were included, identifying 116 candidate proteomic biomarkers. Research in SSc proteomic biomarkers should focus on biomarker validation, as there are valuable mass-spectrometry proteomics studies in the literature.

  1. Building on the International Polar Year: Discovering Interdisciplinary Data Through Federated Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Yarmey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The legacy of the International Polar Year 2007–2008 (IPY includes advances in open data and meaningful progress towards interoperability of data, systems, and standards. Enabled by metadata brokering technologies and by the growing adoption of international metadata standards, federated data search welcomes diversity in Arctic data and recognizes the value of expertise in community data repositories. Federated search enables specialized data holdings to be discovered by broader audiences and complements the role of metadata registries such as the Global Change Master Directory, providing interoperability across the Arctic web-of-repositories.

  2. Swarm intelligence in bioinformatics: methods and implementations for discovering patterns of multiple sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhihua; Zhang, Yi

    2014-02-01

    As a promising and innovative research field, bioinformatics has attracted increasing attention recently. Beneath the enormous number of open problems in this field, one fundamental issue is about the accurate and efficient computational methodology that can deal with tremendous amounts of data. In this paper, we survey some applications of swarm intelligence to discover patterns of multiple sequences. To provide a deep insight, ant colony optimization, particle swarm optimization, artificial bee colony and artificial fish swarm algorithm are selected, and their applications to multiple sequence alignment and motif detecting problem are discussed.

  3. Engineering reliability and maintainability review - A regimen for discovering production deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Michael H.; Babin, Robert S.

    An engineering reliability and maintainability review (ER&MR) is a methodical disassembly, visual inspection, and physical examination of a production unit of airborne equipment by a team of reviewers from reliability, maintainability, and other technical disciplines. Established at Douglas Aircraft for the DC-10 program and recently upgraded, ER&MR facilitates detection of unit design and assembly flaws and deficiencies that traditional design reviews and inspections may fail to discover. ER&MR also verifies required circuit separation and segregation in the unit and incorporation of unit design changes authorized by the critical design review team.

  4. A gymkhana to discover and generate curves in a cooperative work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vidal Meló

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The student who access the University understands a curve as a function represented by an equality involving the Cartesian variables x and y. But he does not know another great set of curves such as those described by parametric equations and polar coordinates. We show an experience developed in two consecutive courses in the first course of a bachelor's degree, which allows the students to discover and create many curves in parametric or polar representation, working in group. Also the experience facilitate the students to achieve several generic skills.

  5. Stem-Like Memory T Cells Are Discovered | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    T cells are the white blood cells that are the body’s first line of attack against foreign invaders.  When designing immunotherapies to treat cancer the goal is to prolong the immune response of T cells a bit beyond what the body normally does when a bacterium or a virus is encountered.   Nicholas P. Restifo, M.D., working with Luca Gattinoni, M.D., and other colleagues in CCR’s Surgery Branch recently discovered a subset within the human T cell population that may help clinicians to do just  this.

  6. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J.; Rieke, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota’s only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state’s residents and helps them “Discover Health Services Near You!” A team approach and collaboration with ...

  7. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Rieke, Judith L.; Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota’s only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state’s residents and helps them “Discover Health Services Near You!” A team approach and collaboration with ...

  8. Structure homology and interaction redundancy for discovering virus–host protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chassey, Benoît; Meyniel-Schicklin, Laurène; Aublin-Gex, Anne; Navratil, Vincent; Chantier, Thibaut; André, Patrice; Lotteau, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Virus–host interactomes are instrumental to understand global perturbations of cellular functions induced by infection and discover new therapies. The construction of such interactomes is, however, technically challenging and time consuming. Here we describe an original method for the prediction of high-confidence interactions between viral and human proteins through a combination of structure and high-quality interactome data. Validation was performed for the NS1 protein of the influenza virus, which led to the identification of new host factors that control viral replication. PMID:24008843

  9. Structure homology and interaction redundancy for discovering virus-host protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chassey, Benoît; Meyniel-Schicklin, Laurène; Aublin-Gex, Anne; Navratil, Vincent; Chantier, Thibaut; André, Patrice; Lotteau, Vincent

    2013-10-01

    Virus-host interactomes are instrumental to understand global perturbations of cellular functions induced by infection and discover new therapies. The construction of such interactomes is, however, technically challenging and time consuming. Here we describe an original method for the prediction of high-confidence interactions between viral and human proteins through a combination of structure and high-quality interactome data. Validation was performed for the NS1 protein of the influenza virus, which led to the identification of new host factors that control viral replication.

  10. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka

    OpenAIRE

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from s...

  11. Discover Earth: An earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, L.; Dusenbery, P.

    2010-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public’s understanding of Earth’s physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. In spite of this relevance, there are many obstacles to achieving broad public understanding of key earth system science (ESS) concepts. Strategies for addressing climate change can only succeed with the full engagement of the general public. As reported by U.S. News and World Report in 2010, small towns in rural America are emerging as the front line in the climate change debate in the country. The Space Science Institute’s National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. There are two distinct components of STAR-Net: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The overarching goal of the project is to reach underserved youth and their families with informal STEM learning experiences. The Discover Earth part of STAR_Net will produce ESS

  12. Letting students discover the power, and the limits, of simple models: Coulomb's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohacek, Peter; Vonk, Matthew; Dill, Joseph; Boehm, Emma

    2017-09-01

    The inverse-square law pops up all over. It's a simplified model of reality that describes light, sound, gravity, and static electricity. But when it's brought up in class, students are often just handed the equations. They rarely have an opportunity to discover Coulomb's law or Newton's law of gravitation for themselves. It's not hard to understand why. A quantitative demonstration of Coulomb's law can be difficult. The forces are smaller than many force sensors can measure and static electricity tends to be finicky. In addition, off-the-shelf units are expensive or difficult to use. As a result, many instructors skip this lab in favor of qualitative demonstrations or simulations. Adolf Cortel sought to remedy this by designing a straightforward experiment for measuring Coulomb's law using charged metalized-glass spheres (Christmas ornaments) and an electronic balance. Building on Cortel's design, we've made a series of video-based experiments that students can use to discover the relationships that underlie electric force.

  13. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sajid Ali Howlader

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA. Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1-20.1% sequence divergence from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country.

  14. Discovering governing equations from data by sparse identification of nonlinear dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Steven L; Proctor, Joshua L; Kutz, J Nathan

    2016-04-12

    Extracting governing equations from data is a central challenge in many diverse areas of science and engineering. Data are abundant whereas models often remain elusive, as in climate science, neuroscience, ecology, finance, and epidemiology, to name only a few examples. In this work, we combine sparsity-promoting techniques and machine learning with nonlinear dynamical systems to discover governing equations from noisy measurement data. The only assumption about the structure of the model is that there are only a few important terms that govern the dynamics, so that the equations are sparse in the space of possible functions; this assumption holds for many physical systems in an appropriate basis. In particular, we use sparse regression to determine the fewest terms in the dynamic governing equations required to accurately represent the data. This results in parsimonious models that balance accuracy with model complexity to avoid overfitting. We demonstrate the algorithm on a wide range of problems, from simple canonical systems, including linear and nonlinear oscillators and the chaotic Lorenz system, to the fluid vortex shedding behind an obstacle. The fluid example illustrates the ability of this method to discover the underlying dynamics of a system that took experts in the community nearly 30 years to resolve. We also show that this method generalizes to parameterized systems and systems that are time-varying or have external forcing.

  15. THE ROLE OF LAPAROSCOPY IN DISCOVERING THE CAUSES OF CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Domazet Fink

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to assess the share of organic changes in patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP as well as evaluate the need for invasive CPP diagnostics – laparoscopy.Methods. The data for the analysis were gathered retrospectively from the descriptions of 287 CPP patients who were treated at the Clinic of Gynaecology in Ljubljana from 1993 to 1999. In this analysis the share of laparoscopically established organic causes of CPP was assessed and the findings of invasive (laparoscopy and non-invasive diagnostics (clinical status and ultrasound were compared.Results. Out of 287 patients, 272 underwent laparoscopy, 7 underwent laparotomy while 8 were only observed. As regards organic CPP causes, an organic cause was established in 70.7% patients through laparoscopy. The most frequently observed phenomena were adhesions, namely in 97 (35.7% patients, endometriosis in 68 (25.0% and pelvic varices in 29 (10% patients.By comparing the results of invasive and non-invasive diagnostics it was established that up to three times more organic changes – a possible cause of CPP – can be discovered through laparoscopy than through the use of non-invasive diagnostics methods.Conclusions. Laparoscopy is considered to be the most reliable method of diagnostics and detection of organic causes of CPP. An adequate psychological treatment within a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in patients in whom an organic cause of CPP can not be discovered in their genital tract.

  16. DeBi: Discovering Differentially Expressed Biclusters using a Frequent Itemset Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vingron Martin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of massive high throughput data via clustering algorithms is very important for elucidating gene functions in biological systems. However, traditional clustering methods have several drawbacks. Biclustering overcomes these limitations by grouping genes and samples simultaneously. It discovers subsets of genes that are co-expressed in certain samples. Recent studies showed that biclustering has a great potential in detecting marker genes that are associated with certain tissues or diseases. Several biclustering algorithms have been proposed. However, it is still a challenge to find biclusters that are significant based on biological validation measures. Besides that, there is a need for a biclustering algorithm that is capable of analyzing very large datasets in reasonable time. Results Here we present a fast biclustering algorithm called DeBi (Differentially Expressed BIclusters. The algorithm is based on a well known data mining approach called frequent itemset. It discovers maximum size homogeneous biclusters in which each gene is strongly associated with a subset of samples. We evaluate the performance of DeBi on a yeast dataset, on synthetic datasets and on human datasets. Conclusions We demonstrate that the DeBi algorithm provides functionally more coherent gene sets compared to standard clustering or biclustering algorithms using biological validation measures such as Gene Ontology term and Transcription Factor Binding Site enrichment. We show that DeBi is a computationally efficient and powerful tool in analyzing large datasets. The method is also applicable on multiple gene expression datasets coming from different labs or platforms.

  17. Breakthrough in neuroendocrinology by discovering novel neuropeptides and neurosteroids: 2. Discovery of neurosteroids and pineal neurosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Haraguchi, Shogo

    2014-09-01

    Bargmann-Scharrer's discovery of "neurosecretion" in the first half of the 20th century has since matured into the scientific discipline of neuroendocrinology. Identification of novel neurohormones, such as neuropeptides and neurosteroids, is essential for the progress of neuroendocrinology. Our studies over the past two decades have significantly broadened the horizons of this field of research by identifying novel neuropeptides and neurosteroids in vertebrates that have opened new lines of scientific investigation in neuroendocrinology. We have established de novo synthesis and functions of neurosteroids in the brain of various vertebrates. Recently, we discovered 7α-hydroxypregnenolone (7α-OH PREG), a novel bioactive neurosteroid that acts as a key regulator for inducing locomotor behavior by means of the dopaminergic system. We further discovered that the pineal gland, an endocrine organ located close to the brain, is an important site of production of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol (CHOL). The pineal gland secretes 7α-OH PREG and 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP; allopregnanolone) that are involved in locomotor rhythms and neuronal survival, respectively. Subsequently, we have demonstrated their mode of action and functional significance. This review summarizes the discovery of these novel neurosteroids and its contribution to the progress of neuroendocrinology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Medicinal benefits of marine invertebrates: sources for discovering natural drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2012-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are one of the major groups of organisms, which could be diversified under the major taxonomic groups of Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and many other minor phyla. To date, range of medicinal benefits and a significant number of marine natural products (MNPs) have been discovered from marine invertebrates. Seafood diet from edible marine invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans has been linked with various medicinal benefits to improve human health. Among marine invertebrates, spongers from phylum Porifera is the most dominant group responsible for discovering large number of MNPs, which have been used as template to develop therapeutic drugs. MNPs isolated from invertebrates have shown wide range of therapeutic properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anticoagulant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and immune modulator, and other medicinal effects. Therefore, marine invertebrates are rich sources of chemical diversity and health benefits for developing drug candidates, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and molecular probes that can be supported to increase the healthy life span of human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Network Biology Approach to Discover the Molecular Biomarker Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Zhuang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, high throughput technologies such as microarray platform have provided a new avenue for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC investigation. Traditionally, gene sets enrichment analysis of survival related genes is commonly used to reveal the underlying functional mechanisms. However, this approach usually produces too many candidate genes and cannot discover detailed signaling transduction cascades, which greatly limits their clinical application such as biomarker development. In this study, we have proposed a network biology approach to discover novel biomarkers from multidimensional omics data. This approach effectively combines clinical survival data with topological characteristics of human protein interaction networks and patients expression profiling data. It can produce novel network based biomarkers together with biological understanding of molecular mechanism. We have analyzed eighty HCC expression profiling arrays and identified that extracellular matrix and programmed cell death are the main themes related to HCC progression. Compared with traditional enrichment analysis, this approach can provide concrete and testable hypothesis on functional mechanism. Furthermore, the identified subnetworks can potentially be used as suitable targets for therapeutic intervention in HCC.

  20. EPIC 201585823, a rare triple-mode RR Lyrae star discovered in K2 mission data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Donald W.; Bowman, Dominic M.; Ebo, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    We have discovered a new, rare triple-mode RR Lyr star, EPIC 201585823, in the Kepler K2 mission Campaign 1 data. This star pulsates primarily in the fundamental and first-overtone radial modes, and, in addition, a third non-radial mode. The ratio of the period of the non-radial mode to that of t......We have discovered a new, rare triple-mode RR Lyr star, EPIC 201585823, in the Kepler K2 mission Campaign 1 data. This star pulsates primarily in the fundamental and first-overtone radial modes, and, in addition, a third non-radial mode. The ratio of the period of the non-radial mode...... to that of the first-overtone radial mode, 0.616 285, is remarkably similar to that seen in 11 other triple-mode RR Lyr stars, and in 260 RRc stars observed in the Galactic bulge. This systematic character promises new constraints on RR Lyr star models. We detected subharmonics of the non-radial mode frequency, which...

  1. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view) projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1-20.1% sequence divergence) from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country.

  2. Discovering governing equations from data by sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Steven

    The ability to discover physical laws and governing equations from data is one of humankind's greatest intellectual achievements. A quantitative understanding of dynamic constraints and balances in nature has facilitated rapid development of knowledge and enabled advanced technology, including aircraft, combustion engines, satellites, and electrical power. There are many more critical data-driven problems, such as understanding cognition from neural recordings, inferring patterns in climate, determining stability of financial markets, predicting and suppressing the spread of disease, and controlling turbulence for greener transportation and energy. With abundant data and elusive laws, data-driven discovery of dynamics will continue to play an increasingly important role in these efforts. This work develops a general framework to discover the governing equations underlying a dynamical system simply from data measurements, leveraging advances in sparsity-promoting techniques and machine learning. The resulting models are parsimonious, balancing model complexity with descriptive ability while avoiding overfitting. The only assumption about the structure of the model is that there are only a few important terms that govern the dynamics, so that the equations are sparse in the space of possible functions. This perspective, combining dynamical systems with machine learning and sparse sensing, is explored with the overarching goal of real-time closed-loop feedback control of complex systems. This is joint work with Joshua L. Proctor and J. Nathan Kutz. Video Abstract: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gSCa78TIldg

  3. Discover Patterns and Mobility of Twitter Users—A Study of Four US College Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Geo-tagged tweets provide useful implications for studies in human geography, urban science, location-based services, targeted advertising, and social network. This research aims to discover the patterns and mobility of Twitter users by analyzing the spatial and temporal dynamics in their tweets. Geo-tagged tweets are collected over a period of six months for four US Midwestern college cities: (1 West Lafayette, IN; (2 Bloomington, IN; (3 Ann Arbor, MI; (4 Columbus, OH. Various analytical and statistical methods are used to reveal the spatial and temporal patterns of tweets, and the tweeting behaviors of Twitter users. It is discovered that Twitter users are most active between 9:00 pm and 11:00 pm. In smaller cities, tweets aggregate at campuses and apartment complexes, while tweets in residential areas of bigger cities make up the majority of tweets. We also found that most Twitter users have two to four places of frequent visits. The mean mobility range of frequent Twitter users is linearly correlated to the size of the city, specifically, about 40% of the city radius. The research therefore confirms the feasibility and promising future for using geo-tagged microblogging services such as Twitter to understand human behavior patterns and carry out other geo-social related studies.

  4. Preparing for TESS: Precision Ground-based Light-curves of Newly Discovered Transiting Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiting; Stefansson, Gudmundur; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Monson, Andy; Hebb, Leslie; Wisniewski, John; Huehnerhoff, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), to be launched in early 2018, is expected to catalog a myriad of transiting exoplanet candidates ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants, orbiting a diverse range of stellar types in the solar neighborhood. In particular, TESS will find small planets orbiting the closest and brightest stars, and will enable detailed atmospheric characterizations of planets with current and future telescopes. In the TESS era, ground-based follow-up resources will play a critical role in validating and confirming the planetary nature of the candidates TESS will discover. Along with confirming the planetary nature of exoplanet transits, high precision ground-based transit observations allow us to put further constraints on exoplanet orbital parameters and transit timing variations. In this talk, we present new observations of transiting exoplanets recently discovered by the K2 mission, using the optical diffuser on the 3.5m ARC Telescope at Apache Point Observatory. These include observations of the mini-Neptunes K2-28b and K2-104b orbiting early-to-mid M-dwarfs. In addition, other recent transit observations performed using the robotic 30cm telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile will be presented.

  5. Prospects for Ground-Based Detection and Follow-up of TESS-Discovered Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varakian, Matthew; Deming, Drake

    2018-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will monitor over 200,000 main sequence dwarf stars for exoplanetary transits, with the goal of discovering small planets orbiting stars that are bright enough for follow-up observations. We here evaluate the prospects for ground-based transit detection and follow-up of the TESS-discovered planets. We focus particularly on the TESS planets that only transit once during each 27.4 day TESS observing window per region, and we calculate to what extent ground-based recovery of additional transits will be possible. Using simulated exoplanet systems from Sullivan et al. and assuming the use of a 60-cm telescope at a high quality observing site, we project the S/N ratios for transits of such planets. We use Phoenix stellar models for stars with surface temperatures from 2500K to 12000K, and we account for limb darkening, red atmospheric noise, and missed transits due to the day-night cycle and poor weather.

  6. New Variable Stars Discovered by Data Mining Images Taken during Recent Asteroid Photometric Observations. II. Results from July 2015 through December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, R.; Marchini, A.; Salvaggio, F.; Agnetti, D.; Bacci, P.; Banfi, M.; Bianciardi, G.; Collina, M.; Franco, L.; Galli, G.; Milani, M. G. A.; Lopresti, C.; Marino, G.; Rizzuti, L.; Ruocco, N.; Quadri, U.

    2017-12-01

    This paper follows the previous publication of new variables discovered at Astronomical Observatory, DSFTA, University of Siena, while observing asteroids in order to determine their rotational periods. Usually, this task requires time series images acquisition on a single field for as long as possible on a few nights not necessarily consecutive. Checking continually this "goldmine" allowed us to discover 57 variable stars not yet listed in catalogues or databases. While most of the new variables are eclipsing binaries, a few belong to the RR Lyrae or delta Scuti class. Since asteroid work is definitely a time-consuming activity, coordinated campaigns of follow-up with other observatories have been fundamental in order to determine the elements of the ephemeris and sometimes the right subclass of variability. Further observations of these new variables are therefore strongly encouraged in order to better characterize these stars, especially pulsating ones whose data combined with those taken during professional surveys seem to suggest the presence of light curve amplitude and period variations.

  7. CAR Discover AQ Level 1C Air Quality (CAR_DISCOVERAQ_L1C) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DISCOVER-AQ, a NASA Earth Venture program funded mission, stands for Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations...

  8. Understanding newly discovered oscillation modes in magnetically shielded Hall thrusters utilizing state of the art high speed diagnostics.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — I propose to investigate the newly discovered oscillation modes specific to Magnetically Shied (MS) Hall Effect Thrusters (HET). Although HETs are classified as a...

  9. Mutations, associated with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease, discovered in Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagyinszky E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eva Bagyinszky,1,* Young Chul Youn,2 Seong Soo A An,1 SangYun Kim3,* 1Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, 2Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 3Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Budang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common form of senile dementia, is a genetically complex disorder. In most Asian countries, the population and the number of AD patients are growing rapidly, and the genetics of AD has been extensively studied, except in Japan. However, recent studies have been started to investigate the genes and mutations associated with AD in Korea, the People’s Republic of China, and Malaysia. This review describes all of the known mutations in three early-onset AD (EOAD causative genes (APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 that were discovered in Asian countries. Most of the EOAD-associated mutations have been detected in PSEN1, and several novel PSEN1 mutations were recently identified in patients from various parts of the world, including Asia. Until 2014, no PSEN2 mutations were found in Asian patients; however, emerging studies from Korea and the People’s Republic of China discovered probably pathogenic PSEN2 mutations. Since several novel mutations were discovered in these three genes, we also discuss the predictions on their pathogenic nature. This review briefly summarizes genome-wide association studies of late-onset AD and the genes that might be associated with AD in Asian countries. Standard sequencing is a widely used method, but it has limitations in terms of time, cost, and efficacy. Next-generation sequencing strategies could facilitate genetic analysis and association studies. Genetic testing is important for the accurate diagnosis and for understanding disease-associated pathways and might also improve disease therapy and prevention. Keywords: mutation, Asia

  10. [Early effectiveness of discover cervical artificial disc replacement in treatment of cervical spondylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yufeng; Xue, Feng; Sheng, Xiaowen; Lu, Jianmin; Chen, Bingqian

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the early effectiveness of the Discover cervical artificial disc replacement in treating cervical spondylosis. Qualified for the selective standard, 24 patients with cervical spondylosis were treated between March 2010 and March 2011. Of 24 patients, 13 patients underwent anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) (ACDF group, between March 2010 and September 2010) and 11 patients underwent Discover cervical artificial disc replacement (CADR group, between September 2010 and March 2011). There was no significant difference in gender, age, disease duration, lesions typing, and affected segments between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The operative time, blood loss, and complications were recorded. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, and Odom's scores were used to evaluate the postoperative effectiveness. In CADR group, the cervical range of motion (ROM) in all directions, and prosthesis eccentricity were measured before and after operation. Symptoms disappeared and no complication occurred after operation in the patients of 2 groups. The patients were followed up 12 to 18 months (mean, 15.3 months) in ACDF group and 6 to 12 months (mean, 9.6 months) in CADR group. The NDI scores in CADR group were significantly higher than those in ACDF group at 1, 3, and 6 months (P 0.05). According to Odom's score at last follow-up, the results were excellent in 6 cases, good in 4 cases, and fair in 3 cases with an excellent and good rate of 76.92% in ACDF group, and were excellent in 9 cases, good in 1 case, and poor in 1 case with an excellent and good rate of 90.91% in CADR group, showing no significant difference (chi2 = 3.000, P = 0.223). The patients in CADR group had significant limit of cervical joint ROM in flexion and extension and right bending at 1 month (P value (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, ROM in left bending were bigger than that in right bending in replaced segment and upper segment (P < 0.05), and the ROM

  11. 75 FR 20933 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US Helicopters, Inc., UNC Helicopter, Inc... Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US...

  12. Enterobius vermicularis eggs discovered in coprolites from a medieval Korean mummy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Oh, Chang Seok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Hye-Jung; Seo, Min

    2011-09-01

    While the presence of pinworm eggs in archaeological samples has been reported by many researchers in the New World, those have been detected very scarcely in the Old World, especially in East Asian countries. In fact, many parasite species were recovered from the archeological remains in Korea, eggs of Enterobius vermicularis had not been found. Recently, a female mummy buried in the 17th century was discovered in the Joseon tomb from Dangjin-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. After rehydration process for 12 days, investigations were carried on the luminal surface of the colon. From them, 3 eggs of E. vermicularis were recovered. They were elliptical, transparent with a thin egg shell, 50.3±5.2 µm (length) and 28.2±3.9 µm (width) in size. This is the first discovery of E. vermicularis eggs in East Asia.

  13. Using electronic patient records to discover disease correlations and stratify patient cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S Roque

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Electronic patient records remain a rather unexplored, but potentially rich data source for discovering correlations between diseases. We describe a general approach for gathering phenotypic descriptions of patients from medical records in a systematic and non-cohort dependent manner. By extracting phenotype information from the free-text in such records we demonstrate that we can extend the information contained in the structured record data, and use it for producing fine-grained patient stratification and disease co-occurrence statistics. The approach uses a dictionary based on the International Classification of Disease ontology and is therefore in principle language independent. As a use case we show how records from a Danish psychiatric hospital lead to the identification of disease correlations, which subsequently can be mapped to systems biology frameworks.

  14. THE MASSIVE DISTANT CLUSTERS OF WISE SURVEY: THE FIRST DISTANT GALAXY CLUSTER DISCOVERED BY WISE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, Daniel P.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Zeimann, Gregory R. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Masci, Frank J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Papovich, Casey [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843-4242 (United States); Tanaka, Ichi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Wright, Edward L. [UCLA Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We present spectroscopic confirmation of a z = 0.99 galaxy cluster discovered using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). This is the first z {approx} 1 cluster candidate from the Massive Distant Clusters of WISE Survey to be confirmed. It was selected as an overdensity of probable z {approx}> 1 sources using a combination of WISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 photometric catalogs. Deeper follow-up imaging data from Subaru and WIYN reveal the cluster to be a rich system of galaxies, and multi-object spectroscopic observations from Keck confirm five cluster members at z = 0.99. The detection and confirmation of this cluster represents a first step toward constructing a uniformly selected sample of distant, high-mass galaxy clusters over the full extragalactic sky using WISE data.

  15. The Massive Distant Clusters of WISE Survey: The First Distant Galaxy Cluster Discovered by WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettings, Daniel P.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Stanford, S. Adam; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Brodwin, Mark; Mancone, Conor; Stern, Daniel; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Masci, Frank J.; Papovich, Casey; Tanaka, Ichi; Wright, Edward L.

    2012-11-01

    We present spectroscopic confirmation of a z = 0.99 galaxy cluster discovered using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). This is the first z ~ 1 cluster candidate from the Massive Distant Clusters of WISE Survey to be confirmed. It was selected as an overdensity of probable z >~ 1 sources using a combination of WISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 photometric catalogs. Deeper follow-up imaging data from Subaru and WIYN reveal the cluster to be a rich system of galaxies, and multi-object spectroscopic observations from Keck confirm five cluster members at z = 0.99. The detection and confirmation of this cluster represents a first step toward constructing a uniformly selected sample of distant, high-mass galaxy clusters over the full extragalactic sky using WISE data.

  16. Dealing with Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Through Discovering Separate Routes Between Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rezaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common attacks against Wireless Sensor Networks is the wormhole attack. In this attack, the enemy deploys two malicious nodes in two different areas of the network and establishes a high-speed dedicated channel between these two. This will cause the normal nodes in two different areas wrongly think that they are two-hop neighbors. Therefore, this attack will greatly affect the routing algorithms. In this paper, a new distributed algorithm is provided to deal with the wormhole attack. The main idea of the proposed algorithm is to discover separate routes between pairs of two-hop neighboring nodes. The proposed algorithm was implemented and evaluated in terms of true and false detection rate by performing a series of experiments and the results were compared with the base algorithm. The test results showed that the proposed algorithm has desirable efficacy.

  17. Comparability of a short food frequency questionnaire to assess diet quality: the DISCOVER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mahshid; Ge, Yipeng; El Sheikh, Wala; Bawor, Monica; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Dennis, Brittany; Vair, Judith; Sholer, Heather; Hutchinson, Nichole; Iordan, Elizabeth; Mackie, Pam; Samaan, Zainab

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to assess comparability of a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) used in the Determinants of Suicide: Conventional and Emergent Risk Study (DISCOVER Study) with a validated comprehensive FFQ (CFFQ). A total of 127 individuals completed SFFQ and CFFQ. Healthy eating was measured using Healthy Eating Score (HES). Estimated food intake and healthy eating assessed by SFFQ was compared with the CFFQ. For most food groups and HES, the highest Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the two FFQs were r > .60. For macro-nutrients, the correlations exceeded 0.4. Cross-classification of quantile analysis showed that participants were classified between 46% and 81% into the exact same quantiles, while 10% or less were misclassified into opposite quantiles. The Bland-Altman plots showed an acceptable level of agreement between the two dietary measurement methods. The SFFQ can be used for Canadian with psychiatric disorders to rank them based on their dietary intake.

  18. Young children discover how to deceive in 10 days: a microgenetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao Pan; Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Zhu, Bo; Lee, Kang

    2018-05-01

    We investigated how the ability to deceive emerges in early childhood among a sample of young preschoolers (Mean age = 34.7 months). We did this via a 10-session microgenetic method that took place over a 10-day period. In each session, children played a zero-sum game against an adult to win treats. In the game, children hid the treats and had opportunities (10 trials) to win them by providing deceptive information about their whereabouts to the adult. Although children initially showed little or no ability to deceive, most spontaneously discovered deception and systematically used it to win the game by the tenth day. Both theory of mind and executive function skills were predictive of relatively faster patterns of discovery. These results are the first to provide evidence for the importance of cognitive skills and social experience in the discovery of deception over time in early childhood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. THE SACRED IN THE EVERY-DAY WORLD: DISCOVERING THE POSSIBILITIES OF NATURAL THEOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. MIKHAYLOV

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article attempts to defi ne the parameters of competency of natural theology and the ways this theological information may be applied. The author demonstrates the fact that the natural knowledge of God, the prototype of this branch of theology, is the invariable basis and starting point of religious consciousness. In order to better understand this fact, the antithesis of this principle is examined in the work of Kant and Barth both of whom sought to destroy the basis of natural theology proceeding respectively from a philosophical and a theological standpoint. Finally, the author reviews the methods explored by Orthodox theology of the patristic period which defi ned more clearly the concept of natural theology and sought to discover the limits of its use

  20. A new hard X-ray transient discovered by INTEGRAL: IGR J17559-2612

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Bozzo, E.

    2012-01-01

    INTEGRAL discovered a new hard X-ray transient, IGR J17559-2612, during the Galactic center observations performed from 2012-08-14 00:02:14 to 2012-08-14 14:45:54 UTC. The source is detected in the IBIS/ISGRI mosaic at a significance level of 8 σ (observation good time: 50 ks) both in the 20-40 ke....../ISGRI spectrum can be described (χ2red/d.o.f.=0.4 for 8 d.o.f.) by a power-law (Γ=1.6 ± 0.3, uncertainty at 90% c.l.). The 20-100 keV flux estimated from the spectral fit is 3.0 × 10-10 erg/s/cm2 (18 mCrab). Multi-wavelength follow-up observations are encouraged to unveil the nature of this transient....

  1. INTEGRAL discovered a new hard X-ray source: IGRJ17511-3057

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldovin, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Ferrigno, C.

    2009-01-01

    During the latest observations of the Galactic Bulge monitoring (see ATel #438), carried out between 2009-09-12 03:21:34 and 2009-09-12 05:27:22 (UTC), INTEGRAL discovered a new bright hard X-ray source, which we designate IGRJ17511-3057. The source is detected in the INTEGRAL/IBIS mosaic image...... by a single power-law with photon index 2.0+/-0.2. The source flux is 5.7e-10 erg/cm2/s in the 3-20 keV energy band and 4.8e-10 erg/cm2/s in the 20-100 keV energy band....

  2. Newly discovered portraits of rulers and the dating of the oldest frescoes in Lipljan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the façade of the church of the Presentation of the Virgin, in Lipljan, the damaged depictions of two rulers were discovered under a more recent layer of fresco mortar. The depictions can be identified as portraits of the Serbian king and the emperor Stefan Dušan (1331-1355 and his wife Jelena. That provides the basis for the more reliable dating of the original wall painting in the interior of the church. For their part, the stylistic characteristics of that expressionistic painting suggest that the original Lipljan frescoes came into being around the mid-fourteenth century. Probably, they were executed by the same workshop that did the frescoes in the Church of St. Peter near Unjemir in Metohia, not very far from Lipljan.

  3. Strategy to discover diverse optimal molecules in the small molecule universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupakheti, Chetan; Virshup, Aaron; Yang, Weitao; Beratan, David N

    2015-03-23

    The small molecule universe (SMU) is defined as a set of over 10(60) synthetically feasible organic molecules with molecular weight less than ∼500 Da. Exhaustive enumerations and evaluation of all SMU molecules for the purpose of discovering favorable structures is impossible. We take a stochastic approach and extend the ACSESS framework ( Virshup et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013 , 135 , 7296 - 7303 ) to develop diversity oriented molecular libraries that can generate a set of compounds that is representative of the small molecule universe and that also biases the library toward favorable physical property values. We show that the approach is efficient compared to exhaustive enumeration and to existing evolutionary algorithms for generating such libraries by testing in the NKp fitness landscape model and in the fully enumerated GDB-9 chemical universe containing 3 × 10(5) molecules.

  4. Enterobius vermicularis Eggs Discovered in Coprolites from a Medieval Korean Mummy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Oh, Chang Seok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Hye-Jung

    2011-01-01

    While the presence of pinworm eggs in archaeological samples has been reported by many researchers in the New World, those have been detected very scarcely in the Old World, especially in East Asian countries. In fact, many parasite species were recovered from the archeological remains in Korea, eggs of Enterobius vermicularis had not been found. Recently, a female mummy buried in the 17th century was discovered in the Joseon tomb from Dangjin-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. After rehydration process for 12 days, investigations were carried on the luminal surface of the colon. From them, 3 eggs of E. vermicularis were recovered. They were elliptical, transparent with a thin egg shell, 50.3±5.2 µm (length) and 28.2±3.9 µm (width) in size. This is the first discovery of E. vermicularis eggs in East Asia. PMID:22072838

  5. G306.3-0.9: A Newly Discovered Young Galactic Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark T.; Loi, Syheh T.; Murphy, Tara; Miller, Jon M.; Maitra, Dipankar; Gueltekin, Kayhan; Gehrels, Neil; Kennea, Jamie A.; Siegel, Michael H.; Gelbord, Jonathan; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present X-ray and radio observations of the new Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G306.3-0.9, recently discovered by Swift. Chandra imaging reveals a complex morphology, dominated by a bright shock. The X-ray spectrum is broadly consistent with a young SNR in the Sedov phase, implying an age of 2500 yr for a distance of 8 kpc, plausibly identifying this as one of the 20 youngest Galactic SNRs. Australia Telescope Compact Array imaging reveals a prominent ridge of radio emission that correlates with the X-ray emission. We find a flux density of 160 mJy at 1 GHz, which is the lowest radio flux recorded for a Galactic SNR to date. The remnant is also detected at 24µm, indicating the presence of irradiated warm dust. The data reveal no compelling evidence for the presence of a compact stellar remnant.

  6. THE MASSIVE DISTANT CLUSTERS OF WISE SURVEY: THE FIRST DISTANT GALAXY CLUSTER DISCOVERED BY WISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettings, Daniel P.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor; Stanford, S. Adam; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Masci, Frank J.; Papovich, Casey; Tanaka, Ichi; Wright, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    We present spectroscopic confirmation of a z = 0.99 galaxy cluster discovered using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). This is the first z ∼ 1 cluster candidate from the Massive Distant Clusters of WISE Survey to be confirmed. It was selected as an overdensity of probable z ∼> 1 sources using a combination of WISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 photometric catalogs. Deeper follow-up imaging data from Subaru and WIYN reveal the cluster to be a rich system of galaxies, and multi-object spectroscopic observations from Keck confirm five cluster members at z = 0.99. The detection and confirmation of this cluster represents a first step toward constructing a uniformly selected sample of distant, high-mass galaxy clusters over the full extragalactic sky using WISE data.

  7. Restoration and Preservation of Engraved Limestone Blocks Discovered in Abu Mousa Excavation, Suez - Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil A. Abd El-Tawab BADER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A lot of engraved limestone blocks were discovered at Awlad Abu Musa (east of Suez, Egypt in 1995/2007 by Supreme Council of Antiquities. The stone blocks were seriously affected by archaeological environments during burial environment in agriculture land. They were covered with thick clay layer with soil particles that disfigured them and hid their inscriptions. Prior to the conservation intervention, the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Chemical analyses of ground water and microbiological study. After the material characterization, the conservation and restoration of the stone blocks were carried out including cleaning, consolidation, reduction of salts, Re-jointing, restoration and completion of lost parts. After that the blocks were exhibited in Suez museum.

  8. Discovering, Indexing and Interlinking Information Resources [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Celli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The social media revolution is having a dramatic effect on the world of scientific publication. Scientists now publish their research interests, theories and outcomes across numerous channels, including personal blogs and other thematic web spaces where ideas, activities and partial results are discussed. Accordingly, information systems that facilitate access to scientific literature must learn to cope with this valuable and varied data, evolving to make this research easily discoverable and available to end users. In this paper we describe the incremental process of discovering web resources in the domain of agricultural science and technology. Making use of Linked Open Data methodologies, we interlink a wide array of custom-crawled resources with the AGRIS bibliographic database in order to enrich the user experience of the AGRIS website. We also discuss the SemaGrow Stack, a query federation and data integration infrastructure used to estimate the semantic distance between crawled web resources and AGRIS.

  9. Supercomputing in the Age of Discovering Superearths, Earths and Exoplanet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Kepler Mission was launched in March 2009 as NASA's first mission capable of finding Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, that range of distances for which liquid water would pool on the surface of a rocky planet. Kepler has discovered over 1000 planets and over 4600 candidates, many of them as small as the Earth. Today, Kepler's amazing success seems to be a fait accompli to those unfamiliar with her history. But twenty years ago, there were no planets known outside our solar system, and few people believed it was possible to detect tiny Earth-size planets orbiting other stars. Motivating NASA to select Kepler for launch required a confluence of the right detector technology, advances in signal processing and algorithms, and the power of supercomputing.

  10. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in above...... sea level, as determined by airborne laser scanning. High-quality geodetic GPS measurements determine the position of a small cairn erected on the island to 79 degrees 20'34.48" N, 15 degrees 46'31.23" W. Minor parts of the island are ice free, with small hills of gravel. Late Holocene shells...... of marine bivalves have been found and were presumably brought up by ice floe push. Shell fragments of southern extralimital marine invertebrates point to the presence of pre-Holocene deposits. Three species of moss are the only land plants that have been found on the island....

  11. Clinical impact of renography in antenatally discovered pelviureteric stenosis: a short review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froekiaer, J.; Eskild-Jensen, A.

    2003-01-01

    Congenital unilateral hydronephrosis is a relatively frequent and often asymptomatic condition diagnosed in utero. The natural history and significance of congenital hydronephrosis on the development and long-term consequences on renal function is not sufficiently known. The present diagnostic methods do not provide prediction of the functional consequences of a potential presence of an obstruction. However, renography is an important method affecting the clinical treatment of children with prenatal unilateral hydronephrosis, and is the only method that satisfactory can provide serial accurate measurements of differential renal function. The present review briefly summarizes the clinical impact of renography in neonatally discovered hydronephrosis in relation to the pathophysiological characteristics of congenital unilateral hydronephrosis. (orig.) [de

  12. Caught in the act: discovering secreted proteins from fungi and oomycetes in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Doris; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    Host-microbe relationships largely rely on secreted proteins like enzymes, virulence factors and antimicrobial peptides. To discover proteins secreted by microbe and host during the interaction with each other, we produced dual-organism cDNA libraries from three different fungus- or oomycete......-infected host systems. By methods such as TAST (transposon-assisted signal trapping) and PCR with degenerated primers, the libraries are screened for secreted proteins, especially enzymes, which are then further characterized. We investigate a fourth system, the mycorrhizal fungus Paxillus convolutus......, by applying a similar strategy with a fungus-only library. As a result, we will show that our approach is widely applicable and allows us to deepen the understanding a variety of different host-microbe systems....

  13. Function and application of a non-ester-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase discovered in tulip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taiji

    2017-01-01

    Plants have evolved secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways of immense rich diversity. The genes encoding enzymes for secondary metabolite biosynthesis have evolved through gene duplication followed by neofunctionalization, thereby generating functional diversity. Emerging evidence demonstrates that some of those enzymes catalyze reactions entirely different from those usually catalyzed by other members of the same family; e.g. transacylation catalyzed by an enzyme similar to a hydrolytic enzyme. Tuliposide-converting enzyme (TCE), which we recently discovered from tulip, catalyzes the conversion of major defensive secondary metabolites, tuliposides, to antimicrobial tulipalins. The TCEs belong to the carboxylesterase family in the α/β-hydrolase fold superfamily, and specifically catalyze intramolecular transesterification, but not hydrolysis. This non-ester-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase is an example of an enzyme showing catalytic properties that are unpredictable from its primary structure. This review describes the biochemical and physiological aspects of tulipalin biogenesis, and the diverse functions of plant carboxylesterases in the α/β-hydrolase fold superfamily.

  14. A case of radiation-induced cutaneous angiosarcoma 15 years after simultaneously occurring uterine cervical and gastric cancers discovered by autopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, T.; Enomoto, Yasunori; Yoshikawa, Takafumi; Nonomura, Akitaka; Ichijima, Kunio

    2005-01-01

    A case of cutaneous angiosarcoma in the skin on the left hip previously irradiated for cervical uterine squamous cell carcinoma is discovered by autopsy. The patient, a 79-year-old woman, at age 64 had been then underwent radiotherapy for the cervical uterine carcinoma. A total dose of 50 Gy was administrated. At 79 years of age, she noticed multiple purple black nodular skin lesions on the left hip and thigh. She was hospitalized for 8 days, but her general condition rapidly deteriorated and she died. An autopsy revealed that the skin lesion was composed of atypical polygonal cell proliferation forming irregularly anastomosing vascularity, together with hemorrhage and necrosis. The tumor cells were positive for both CD34 and factor 8-related antigens. The final diagnosis was angiosarcoma. (author)

  15. Maar-diatreme volcanism relating to the pyroclastic sequence of a newly discovered high-alumina basalt in the Maroa Volcanic Centre, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kósik, S.; Németh, K.; Procter, J. N.; Zellmer, G. F.

    2017-07-01

    Diatreme sequences have previously been described from drill holes within the Taupo Volcanic Zone. The newly discovered Te Hukui Basalt exhibits deep excavation of country rocks that do not appear elsewhere at the surface. The basalt is characterized by proximal deposition of pyroclastic deposits relating to phreatomagmatism. The geochemical composition classifies these rocks as high-alumina basalts. They erupted along the Orakeikorako Fault at the same location where rhyolitic activity of Puketerata occurred at a later point in time. The petrological characteristics of the basalts indicate the mixing of mafic melt with crystalline mush relating to more evolved magmas. The new basaltic occurrence supports frequent mafic recharge of shallow magma reservoirs, inducing basaltic eruptions, in this case the mafic magma intruding into highly crystallized mush zones. This may explain why basaltic eruptions mostly occur on the edge of the central extensional part of the Taupo Volcanic Zone.

  16. What has been discovered at 125 GeV by the CMS and the ATLAS experiments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Syed Afsar [Jafar Sadiq Research Institute, New Sir Syed Nagar, AGMEC, 1173 (T-1), Aligarh (India)

    2013-06-15

    While looking for the putative Higgs boson of the Standard Model of particle physics, recently, the CMS and the ATLAS experiments at CERN have found strong signals of a new particle at about 125GeV. However in July 2012 the decay channels of this particle had some unexpected and puzzling anomalies not explainable by the Standard Model. By March 2013 they had seen these signals at about well less than 3 {sigma} confidence level. It is expected that the final definitive analysis shall still take quite some time. Here we show that what they may have found at 125GeV is the long sought for and missing ingredient of the strong interaction: the sigma-meson of the Chiral Sigma Model, within the framework of the Skyrme model with a topological interpretation of the baryons. Just like a massless gauge boson is a requirement, and hence a prediction of the local gauge theories, in the the same manner, a very heavy scalar meson is a requirement and hence a prediction of the Skyrme model of the hadrons. The 125GeV particle discovered by the CMS and the ATLAS groups may be an experimental confirmation of this unique prediction of the topological Skyrme model. However the bottom line is that even if the experimentalists finally confirm that this 125GeV entity is the expected Higgs boson, then there still remains to discover another heavier scalar particle as the sigma-meson of the chiral sigma model/Skyrme model, which remains its unique prediction, as shown in this paper. (orig.)

  17. Discovering affordances that determine the spatial structure of reach-to-grasp movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2011-05-01

    Extensive research has identified the affordances used to guide actions, as originally conceived by Gibson (Perceiving, acting, and knowing: towards an ecological psychology. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1977; The ecological approach to visual perception. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1979/1986). We sought to discover the object affordance properties that determine the spatial structure of reach-to-grasp movements--movements that entail both collision avoidance and targeting. First, we constructed objects that presented a significant collision hazard and varied properties relevant to targeting, namely, object width and size of contact surface. Participants reached-to-grasp objects at three speeds (slow, normal, and fast). In Experiment 1, we explored a "stop" task where participants grasped the objects without moving them. In Experiment 2, we studied "fly-through" movements where the objects were lifted. We discovered the object affordance properties that produced covariance in the spatial structure of reaches-to-grasp. Maximum grasp aperture (MGA) reflected affordances determined by collision avoidance. Terminal grasp aperture (TGA)--when the hand stops moving but prior to finger contact--reflected affordances relevant to targeting accuracy. A model with a single free parameter predicted the prehensile spatial structure and provided a functional affordance-based account of that structure. In Experiment 3, we investigated a "slam" task where participants reached-to-grasp flat rectangular objects on a tabletop. The affordance structure of this task was found to eliminate the collision risk and thus reduced safety margins in MGA and TGA to zero for larger objects. The results emphasize the role of affordances in determining the structure and scaling of reach-to-grasp actions. Finally, we report evidence supporting the opposition vector as an appropriate unit of analysis in the study of grasping and a unit of action that maps directly to affordance properties.

  18. First Photometric Investigation of the Newly Discovered W UMa-type Binary Star MR Com

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, S.-B.; Liu, N.-P.; Liao, W.-P.; He, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Wang, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G.

    2013-08-01

    By analyzing multi-color light curves of the newly discovered W UMa-type binary, MR Com, we discovered that it is a shallow-contact binary with a degree of contact factor of f = 10.0% ± 2.1%. Photometric solutions reveal that MR Com is a W-type system with a mass ratio of q = 3.9 where the less massive component is about 90 K hotter than the more massive one. By investigating all of the available times of minimum light, we found that the general trend of the Observed-Calculated (O - C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation while it undergoes a cyclic variation with a small amplitude of 0.0031 days and a period of 10.1 yr. The downward parabolic change corresponds to a long-term decrease in the orbital period at a rate of \\dot{P}=-5.3\\times {10^{-7}} days yr-1 that may be caused by a combination of a mass transfer and an angular momentum loss (AML) via magnetic braking. Among the 16 shallow-contact systems with a decreasing orbital period, MR Com has the lowest mass ratio (e.g., 1/q = 0.26). The shallow-contact configuration, the low-mass ratio, and the long-term period decrease all suggest that systems similar to MR Com are on the AML-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. They will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and evolve into a deep contact with a higher mass ratio. The small-amplitude cyclic change in the O - C curve was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion.

  19. FIRST PHOTOMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE NEWLY DISCOVERED W UMa-TYPE BINARY STAR MR Com

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S.-B.; Liu, N.-P.; Liao, W.-P.; He, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Wang, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China)

    2013-08-01

    By analyzing multi-color light curves of the newly discovered W UMa-type binary, MR Com, we discovered that it is a shallow-contact binary with a degree of contact factor of f = 10.0% {+-} 2.1%. Photometric solutions reveal that MR Com is a W-type system with a mass ratio of q = 3.9 where the less massive component is about 90 K hotter than the more massive one. By investigating all of the available times of minimum light, we found that the general trend of the Observed-Calculated (O - C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation while it undergoes a cyclic variation with a small amplitude of 0.0031 days and a period of 10.1 yr. The downward parabolic change corresponds to a long-term decrease in the orbital period at a rate of P-dot = -5.3 x 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1} that may be caused by a combination of a mass transfer and an angular momentum loss (AML) via magnetic braking. Among the 16 shallow-contact systems with a decreasing orbital period, MR Com has the lowest mass ratio (e.g., 1/q = 0.26). The shallow-contact configuration, the low-mass ratio, and the long-term period decrease all suggest that systems similar to MR Com are on the AML-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. They will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and evolve into a deep contact with a higher mass ratio. The small-amplitude cyclic change in the O - C curve was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion.

  20. NMR-based phytochemical analysis of Vitis vinifera cv Falanghina leaves. Characterization of a previously undescribed biflavonoid with antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglione, Luciana; Gambuti, Angelita; De Cicco, Paola; Ercolano, Giuseppe; Ianaro, Angela; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Moio, Luigi; Forino, Martino

    2018-03-01

    Vitis vinifera cv Falanghina is an ancient grape variety of Southern Italy. A thorough phytochemical analysis of the Falanghina leaves was conducted to investigate its specialised metabolite content. Along with already known molecules, such as caftaric acid, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide, kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucuronide, a previously undescribed biflavonoid was identified. For this last compound, a moderate bioactivity against metastatic melanoma cells proliferation was discovered. This datum can be of some interest to researchers studying human melanoma. The high content in antioxidant glycosylated flavonoids supports the exploitation of grape vine leaves as an inexpensive source of natural products for the food industry and for both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical companies. Additionally, this study offers important insights into the plant physiology, thus prompting possible technological researches of genetic selection based on the vine adaptation to specific pedo-climatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New Spatially Resolved Observations of the T Cha Transition Disk and Constraints on the Previously Claimed Substellar Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallum, S.; Eisner, J. A.; Close, Laird M.; Hinz, Philip M.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Bailey, Vanessa; Briguglio, Runa; Follette, Katherine B.; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Puglisi, Alfio; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Xompero, Marco

    2015-03-01

    We present multi-epoch non-redundant masking observations of the T Cha transition disk, taken at the Very Large Telescope and Magellan in the H, Ks, and L' bands. T Cha is one of a small number of transition disks that host companion candidates discovered by high-resolution imaging techniques, with a putative companion at a position angle of 78°, separation of 62 mas, and contrast of ΔL' = 5.1 mag. We find comparable binary parameters in our re-reduction of the initial detection images, and similar parameters in the 2011 L', 2013 NaCo L', and 2013 NaCo Ks data sets. We find a close-in companion signal in the 2012 NaCo L' data set that cannot be explained by orbital motion, and a non-detection in the 2013 MagAO/Clio2 L' data. However, Monte Carlo simulations show that the best fits to the 2012 NaCo and 2013 MagAO/Clio2 followup data may be consistent with noise. There is also a significant probability of false non-detections in both of these data sets. We discuss physical scenarios that could cause the best fits, and argue that previous companion and scattering explanations are inconsistent with the results of the much larger data set presented here.

  2. NEW SPATIALLY RESOLVED OBSERVATIONS OF THE T Cha TRANSITION DISK AND CONSTRAINTS ON THE PREVIOUSLY CLAIMED SUBSTELLAR COMPANION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallum, S.; Eisner, J. A.; Close, Laird M.; Hinz, Philip M.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Bailey, Vanessa; Follette, Katherine B.; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Briguglio, Runa; Puglisi, Alfio; Xompero, Marco; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Weinberger, Alycia J.

    2015-01-01

    We present multi-epoch non-redundant masking observations of the T Cha transition disk, taken at the Very Large Telescope and Magellan in the H, Ks, and L' bands. T Cha is one of a small number of transition disks that host companion candidates discovered by high-resolution imaging techniques, with a putative companion at a position angle of 78°, separation of 62 mas, and contrast of ΔL' = 5.1 mag. We find comparable binary parameters in our re-reduction of the initial detection images, and similar parameters in the 2011 L', 2013 NaCo L', and 2013 NaCo Ks data sets. We find a close-in companion signal in the 2012 NaCo L' data set that cannot be explained by orbital motion, and a non-detection in the 2013 MagAO/Clio2 L' data. However, Monte Carlo simulations show that the best fits to the 2012 NaCo and 2013 MagAO/Clio2 followup data may be consistent with noise. There is also a significant probability of false non-detections in both of these data sets. We discuss physical scenarios that could cause the best fits, and argue that previous companion and scattering explanations are inconsistent with the results of the much larger data set presented here

  3. NEW SPATIALLY RESOLVED OBSERVATIONS OF THE T Cha TRANSITION DISK AND CONSTRAINTS ON THE PREVIOUSLY CLAIMED SUBSTELLAR COMPANION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallum, S.; Eisner, J. A.; Close, Laird M.; Hinz, Philip M.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Bailey, Vanessa; Follette, Katherine B.; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M. [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Briguglio, Runa; Puglisi, Alfio; Xompero, Marco [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Rodigas, Timothy J.; Weinberger, Alycia J., E-mail: ssallum@email.arizona.edu [Carnegie Institution DTM, 5241 Broad Branch Rd, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We present multi-epoch non-redundant masking observations of the T Cha transition disk, taken at the Very Large Telescope and Magellan in the H, Ks, and L' bands. T Cha is one of a small number of transition disks that host companion candidates discovered by high-resolution imaging techniques, with a putative companion at a position angle of 78°, separation of 62 mas, and contrast of ΔL' = 5.1 mag. We find comparable binary parameters in our re-reduction of the initial detection images, and similar parameters in the 2011 L', 2013 NaCo L', and 2013 NaCo Ks data sets. We find a close-in companion signal in the 2012 NaCo L' data set that cannot be explained by orbital motion, and a non-detection in the 2013 MagAO/Clio2 L' data. However, Monte Carlo simulations show that the best fits to the 2012 NaCo and 2013 MagAO/Clio2 followup data may be consistent with noise. There is also a significant probability of false non-detections in both of these data sets. We discuss physical scenarios that could cause the best fits, and argue that previous companion and scattering explanations are inconsistent with the results of the much larger data set presented here.

  4. Preliminary assessment of a previously unknown fault zone beneath the Daytona Beach sand blow cluster near Marianna, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, Jackson K.; Williams, Robert; Stephenson, William J.; Tuttle, Martitia P.; Al-Shukri, Hadar

    2016-01-01

    We collected new high‐resolution P‐wave seismic‐reflection data to explore for possible faults beneath a roughly linear cluster of early to mid‐Holocene earthquake‐induced sand blows to the south of Marianna, Arkansas. The Daytona Beach sand blow deposits are located in east‐central Arkansas about 75 km southwest of Memphis, Tennessee, and about 80 km south of the southwestern end of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). Previous studies of these sand blows indicate that they were produced between 10,500 and 5350 yr B.P. (before A.D. 1950). The sand blows are large and similar in size to those in the heart of the NMSZ produced by the 1811–1812 earthquakes. The seismic‐reflection profiles reveal a previously unknown zone of near‐vertical faults imaged in the 100–1100‐m depth range that are approximately coincident with a cluster of earthquake‐induced sand blows and a near‐linear surface lineament composed of air photo tonal anomalies. These interpreted faults are expressed as vertical discontinuities with the largest displacement fault showing about 40 m of west‐side‐up displacement at the top of the Paleozoic section at about 1100 m depth. There are about 20 m of folding on reflections within the Eocene strata at 400 m depth. Increasing fault displacement with depth suggests long‐term recurrent faulting. The imaged faults within the vicinity of the numerous sand blow features could be a causative earthquake source, although it does not rule out the possibility of other seismic sources nearby. These newly located faults add to a growing list of potentially active Pleistocene–Holocene faults discovered over the last two decades that are within the Mississippi embayment region but outside of the historical NMSZ.

  5. The CUAHSI Water Data Center: Empowering scientists to discover, use, store, and share water data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, A. L.; Hooper, R. P.; Arrigo, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    control. The WDC enables this by making both kinds of sources available in the same search interface. c. Data provenance: the appropriateness of data for use in a specific model or analysis often depends upon the exact details of how data was gathered and processed. The WDC will aid this by curating standards for metadata that are as descriptive as practical of the collection procedures. "Plug and play" sensor interfaces will fill in metadata appropriate to each sensor without human intervention. d. Contextual search: discovering data based upon geological (e.g. aquifer) or geographic (e.g., location in a stream network) features external to metadata. e. Data-driven search: discovering data that exhibit quality factors that are not described by the metadata. The WDC will partner with researchers desiring contextual and data driven search, and make results available to all. Many major data providers (e.g. federal agencies) are not mandated to provide access to data other than those they collect. The HIS project assembled data from over 90 different sources, thus demonstrating the promise of this approach. Meeting the grand challenges listed above will greatly enhance scientists' ability to discover, interpret, access, and analyze water data from across domains and sources to test Earth system hypotheses.

  6. Permeability modification by in-situ gelation with a newly discovered biopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossoughi, S.; Buller, C.S. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that, in a typical gelled polymer process, a polymer reacts with a metal ion to yield a 3D crosslinked system. The success of the process depends on monitoring a large number of variables, including the concentrations of the metal ions, polymer, and reducing agent. Controlling these variables in field-scale tests is extremely difficult, if not impossible. Devising a process with fewer variables is therefore desirable. The in-situ gelation process in this paper uses a newly discovered biopolymer produced by Cellulomonas flavigena Strain KU. The bacteria produce the biopolymer when cultured in a simple salts medium containing any one of the variety of hexoses, pentoses, disaccharides, or such inexpensive substrates as starch or molasses as the carbon and energy sources for growth. The polymer produced remains associated with the producer bacteria, causing them to aggregate and to settle out from the growth medium. The polymer is extracted from the bacteria easily by suspension in dilute alkali. Upon neutralization of such extracts, the polymer precipitates as a hydrogel. The gelation process is reversible, and the hydrogels are stable at high temperatures. A linear coreflood was performed to reveal the feasibility of using the microbial polymer for the in-situ gelation process. The core initially was waterflooded and then flushed with acid. The subsequent injection of an alkaline solution of the polymer resulted in in-situ formation of hydrogels.

  7. Discovering link communities in complex networks by an integer programming model and a genetic algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenping Li

    Full Text Available Identification of communities in complex networks is an important topic and issue in many fields such as sociology, biology, and computer science. Communities are often defined as groups of related nodes or links that correspond to functional subunits in the corresponding complex systems. While most conventional approaches have focused on discovering communities of nodes, some recent studies start partitioning links to find overlapping communities straightforwardly. In this paper, we propose a new quantity function for link community identification in complex networks. Based on this quantity function we formulate the link community partition problem into an integer programming model which allows us to partition a complex network into overlapping communities. We further propose a genetic algorithm for link community detection which can partition a network into overlapping communities without knowing the number of communities. We test our model and algorithm on both artificial networks and real-world networks. The results demonstrate that the model and algorithm are efficient in detecting overlapping community structure in complex networks.

  8. Discovering frequency sensitive thalamic nuclei from EEG microstate informed resting state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Simon; Koenig, Thomas; Morishima, Yosuke; Dierks, Thomas; Federspiel, Andrea; Jann, Kay

    2015-09-01

    Microstates (MS), the fingerprints of the momentarily and time-varying states of the brain derived from electroencephalography (EEG), are associated with the resting state networks (RSNs). However, using MS fluctuations along different EEG frequency bands to model the functional MRI (fMRI) signal has not been investigated so far, or elucidated the role of the thalamus as a fundamental gateway and a putative key structure in cortical functional networks. Therefore, in the current study, we used MS predictors in standard frequency bands to predict blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. We discovered that multivariate modeling of BOLD-fMRI using six EEG-MS classes in eight frequency bands strongly correlated with thalamic areas and large-scale cortical networks. Thalamic nuclei exhibited distinct patterns of correlations for individual MS that were associated with specific EEG frequency bands. Anterior and ventral thalamic nuclei were sensitive to the beta frequency band, medial nuclei were sensitive to both alpha and beta frequency bands, and posterior nuclei such as the pulvinar were sensitive to delta and theta frequency bands. These results demonstrate that EEG-MS informed fMRI can elucidate thalamic activity not directly observable by EEG, which may be highly relevant to understand the rapid formation of thalamocortical networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Markov random walk under constraint for discovering overlapping communities in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Di; Yang, Bo; Liu, Dayou; He, Dongxiao; Liu, Jie; Baquero, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The detection of overlapping communities in complex networks has motivated recent research in relevant fields. Aiming to address this problem, we propose a Markov-dynamics-based algorithm, called UEOC, which means 'unfold and extract overlapping communities'. In UEOC, when identifying each natural community that overlaps, a Markov random walk method combined with a constraint strategy, which is based on the corresponding annealed network (degree conserving random network), is performed to unfold the community. Then, a cutoff criterion with the aid of a local community function, called conductance, which can be thought of as the ratio between the number of edges inside the community and those leaving it, is presented to extract this emerged community from the entire network. The UEOC algorithm depends on only one parameter whose value can be easily set, and it requires no prior knowledge of the hidden community structures. The proposed UEOC has been evaluated both on synthetic benchmarks and on some real-world networks, and has been compared with a set of competing algorithms. The experimental result has shown that UEOC is highly effective and efficient for discovering overlapping communities

  10. Surface Plasmon Peak Resonance Discovered in Sulfuric Acid Treated PEDOT-PSS Conductive Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andahazy, Wil; Baber, Ashleigh; Constantin, Costel

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) is one of the most promising transparent conductors which has applications in flexible electronics including organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic photovoltaics (OPVs), and organic field transistors (OFETs). Recently, scientists discovered that post-treatment with sulfuric acid of PEDOT-PSS thin films result in electrical conductivity increase and a UV absorption decrease due to the replacement of majority of PSS with sulfate ions (SO42-). However, the optical properties of the acid treated PEDOT-PSS thin films are not very well understood. In this project, PEDOT-PSS thin films were deposited by either drop casting or spin coating onto microscopic slides, and then submerged into sulfuric acid for 10 minutes. We performed optical spectroscopy by using a HS-190 variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer with a wavelength range of 200-2500 nm, and for the electrical properties we used a homemade van der Pauw set up. Our preliminary dielectric constants measurements show the existence of a plasmon resonance peak (PRP) present at 1100 nm. We will discuss the correlation between the PRP position and film thickness.

  11. Discovering misattributed paternity in genetic counselling: different ethical perspectives in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzo, Pamela; Caenazzo, Luciana; Parker, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Misattributed paternity or 'false' paternity is when a man is wrongly thought, by himself and possibly by others, to be the biological father of a child. Nowadays, because of the progression of genetics and genomics the possibility of finding misattributed paternity during familial genetic testing has increased. In contrast to other medical information, which pertains primarily to individuals, information obtained by genetic testing and/or pedigree analysis necessarily has implications for other biologically related members in the family. Disclosing or not a misattributed paternity has a number of different biological and social consequences for the people involved. Such an issue presents important ethical and deontological challenges. The debate centres on whether or not to inform the family and, particularly, whom in the family, about the possibility that misattributed paternity might be discovered incidentally, and whether or not it is the duty of the healthcare professional (HCP) to disclose the results and to whom. In this paper, we consider the different perspectives and reported problems, and analyse their cultural, ethical and legal dimensions. We compare the position of HCPs from an Italian and British point of view, particularly their role in genetic counselling. We discuss whether the Oviedo Convention of the Council of Europe (1997) can be seen as a basis for enriching the debate.

  12. A case of von Willebrand disease discovered during treatment of a sacral pressure ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Fukaya, Sumiko; Furuya, Masaichi; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2010-12-01

    A sacral pressure ulcer developed in a patient hospitalized for cerebral infarction. Each time necrotic tissue was debrided from the ulcer, pressure hemostasis was necessary to stop the bleeding. As treatment continued, the pressure required to stop the bleeding caused the ulcer to worsen, leading to a downward spiral in the patient's condition. While trying to determine the cause of this problem, we discovered that the patient had von Willebrand disease. Medication controlled the bleeding, and the pressure ulcer began to heal at the same time. It was clear to us that conservative treatment would lead to a complete cure but that the healing process would take a long time and require continued administration of an expensive drug. We decided, therefore, to close the wound with a fasciocutaneous flap so that the patient could be quickly transferred to a rehabilitation hospital. About 1 month after surgery, epithelialization was complete, we were able to discontinue medication, and the patient was discharged. This experience demonstrates the importance of determining the cause of any deviation from the normal course of healing in pressure ulcers. It also indicates that the use of fasciocutaneous flaps, which involve little intraoperative bleeding in short surgeries, is appropriate in cases like this one.

  13. Discovering overlapped protein complexes from weighted PPI networks by removing inter-module hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, A M A; Eslahchi, Ch

    2017-06-12

    Detecting known protein complexes and predicting undiscovered protein complexes from protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks help us to understand principles of cell organization and its functions. Nevertheless, the discovery of protein complexes based on experiment still needs to be explored. Therefore, computational methods are useful approaches to overcome the experimental limitations. Nevertheless, extraction of protein complexes from PPI network is often nontrivial. Two major constraints are large amount of noise and ignorance of occurrence time of different interactions in PPI network. In this paper, an efficient algorithm, Inter Module Hub Removal Clustering (IMHRC), is developed based on inter-module hub removal in the weighted PPI network which can detect overlapped complexes. By removing some of the inter-module hubs and module hubs, IMHRC eliminates high amount of noise in dataset and implicitly considers different occurrence time of the PPI in network. The performance of the IMHRC was evaluated on several benchmark datasets and results were compared with some of the state-of-the-art models. The protein complexes discovered with the IMHRC method show significantly better agreement with the real complexes than other current methods. Our algorithm provides an accurate and scalable method for detecting and predicting protein complexes from PPI networks.

  14. Tagetes erecta, A Potential Medicinal Plant for Discovering a New Antibacterial Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motamedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Tagetes genus contains 56 species and is native in North and South America, but some have become widespread around the world. Objectives This study was designed to examine the antibacterial potential of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Tagetes erecta. Materials and Methods Hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts of this plant were prepared using aqueous solution of ethanol and methanol (8:2 v/v. The inhibitory effect of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 mg of effective dose per disc of these extracts was discovered against clinical bacterial isolates including three Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis and five Gram-negative bacteria: Salmonella Typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC and time kill kinetic assay of these extracts were also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis was performed to find possible structural changes following exposure to the extract. Results Both extracts of T. erecta were active against B. cereus, S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. Typhi. Hydroalcoholic extracts of T. erecta showed significant antibacterial effects against some clinically important pathogenic bacteria. These extract also caused deformation and lysis of bacterial cells, as shown by SEM. Conclusions These extracts can be used as antibacterial agents in treating infectious diseases. Further studies are needed for considering this plant as an antibacterial plant and benefit from its clinical applications for routine use.

  15. X-ray observations of INTEGRAL discovered cataclysmic variable IGR J17195-4100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, V.; Singh, K. P.

    2012-11-01

    We present the analysis of archival X-ray data obtained with the XMM-Newton and Suzaku for a new intermediate polar identified as a counterpart of an INTEGRAL discovered γ-ray source, IGR J17195-4100. We report a new period of 1053.7 ± 12.2 s in X-rays. A new binary orbital period of 3.52-0.80+1.43 h is strongly indicated in the power spectrum of the time series. An ephemeris of the new period proposed as the spin period of the system has also been obtained. The various peaks detected in the power spectrum suggest a probable disc-less accretion system. The soft X-rays (<3 keV) dominate the variability seen in the X-ray light curves. The spin modulation shows energy dependence suggesting the possibility of a variable partial covering accretion column. The averaged spectral data obtained with XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) cameras show a multi-temperature spectrum with a soft excess. The latter can be attributed to the varying coverage of accretion curtains.

  16. A Left Handed Compliment: A newly discovered, early nineteenth-century lithograph by John Lewis Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Snowman, Janet

    2010-01-01

    A newly discovered, early nineteenth-century lithograph by John Lewis Marks (b. ca. 1795-1796, d. ca. 1857-1861), entitled A Left Handed Compliment, is described. In this humorous print a young boy is using his left hand to draw the face of an elderly woman who is his grandmother, and she is shocked at the boy's suggestion that he will, “just see if I can't touch off your old Phizog left handed”. The source of the joke about the left-handed compliment is obscure, but more than likely it is sexual in origin. Glued to the verso of the print are early versions of two prints by Robert Seymour (1798-1836), the illustrator of Dickens' Pickwick Papers, suggesting a possible link between Marks and Seymour. From the hatch patterns on the Seymour engravings, it appears that Seymour may himself have been left-handed and perhaps therefore the butt of the joke. An alternative possibility is that Phizog is a reference to Dickens' later illustrator whose pseudonym was Phiz. It is also just conceivable that the young boy is Marks's own young son, Jacob. The print can be placed in the context of a scatological English vernacular humour that extends from Shakespeare through to Donald McGill and into the present day.

  17. Re-discovering Alessandro Spina’s Transculture/ality in The Young Maronite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Dagnino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Spina, né Basili Shafik Khouzam, was born in Benghazi in 1927 into a family of Maronites from Aleppo and spent most of his life between Libya and Italy, speaking several languages and writing in Italian. He may be described as the “unsung” writer of Italian colonial and post-colonial past in North Africa. Spina’s oeuvre—collected in an omnibus edition, I confini dell’ombra. In terra d’oltremare (Morcelliana—charts the history of Libya from 1911, when Italy invaded the Ottoman province, to 1966, when the country witnessed the economic boom sparked by the petrodollars. The cycle was awarded the Premio Bagutta, Italy’s highest literary accolade. In 2015, Darf Press published in English the first instalment of Spina’s opus with the title The Confines of the Shadows. In Lands Overseas. Spina always refused to be pigeonholed in some literary category and to be labeled as a colonial or postcolonial author. As a matter of fact, his works go beyond the spatial and imaginary boundaries of a given state or genre, emphasizing instead the mixing and collision of languages, cultures, identities, and forms of writing. Reading and re-discovering Spina in a transcultural mode brings to light the striking newness of his literary efforts, in which transnational lived life, creative imagination, and transcultural sensibility are inextricably interlaced.

  18. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus: Molecular Insights into the Most Recently Discovered Human Tumour Virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stakaitytė, Gabrielė; Wood, Jennifer J.; Knight, Laura M.; Abdul-Sada, Hussein; Adzahar, Noor Suhana; Nwogu, Nnenna; Macdonald, Andrew; Whitehouse, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A fifth of worldwide cancer cases have an infectious origin, with viral infection being the foremost. One such cancer is Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare but aggressive skin malignancy. In 2008, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) was discovered as the causative agent of MCC. It is found clonally integrated into the majority of MCC tumours, which require MCPyV oncoproteins to survive. Since its discovery, research has begun to reveal the molecular virology of MCPyV, as well as how it induces tumourigenesis. It is thought to be a common skin commensal, found at low levels in healthy individuals. Upon loss of immunosurveillance, MCPyV reactivates, and a heavy viral load is associated with MCC pathogenesis. Although MCPyV is in many ways similar to classical oncogenic polyomaviruses, such as SV40, subtle differences are beginning to emerge. These unique features highlight the singular position MCPyV has as the only human oncogenic polyomavirus, and open up new avenues for therapies against MCC

  19. Trace Gas Retrievals from the GeoTASO Aircraft Instrument During the DISCOVER-AQ Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlan, C. R.; Liu, X.; Leitch, J. W.; Liu, C.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Delker, T.; Good, W. S.; Murcray, F.; Ruppert, L.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) instrument is a recently-developed passive remote sensing instrument capable of making 2-D measurements of trace gases from aircraft. GeoTASO was developed under NASA's Instrument Incubator program and is a test-bed instrument for the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) decadal survey and the upcoming Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite missions. The instrument collects spectra of backscattered UV-visible radiation for the detection of tropospheric trace gases such as NO2, ozone, formaldehyde and SO2. GeoTASO flew on the NASA HU-25C Falcon aircraft during the 2013 (Texas) and 2014 (Colorado) DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns, making satellite-analog measurements of trace gases at a spatial resolution of approximately 500x500 m over urban areas, power plants and other industrial sources of pollution. We present the GeoTASO retrieval algorithms, trace gas measurement results, and validation comparisons with ground-based observations and other aircraft instruments during these campaigns.

  20. SONAR Discovers RNA-Binding Proteins from Analysis of Large-Scale Protein-Protein Interactomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, Kristopher W; Jin, Wenhao; Huelga, Stephanie C; Banks, Charles A S; Gilmore, Joshua M; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Pratt, Gabriel A; Schwinn, Marie K; Daniels, Danette L; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-10-20

    RNA metabolism is controlled by an expanding, yet incomplete, catalog of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), many of which lack characterized RNA binding domains. Approaches to expand the RBP repertoire to discover non-canonical RBPs are currently needed. Here, HaloTag fusion pull down of 12 nuclear and cytoplasmic RBPs followed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrates that proteins interacting with multiple RBPs in an RNA-dependent manner are enriched for RBPs. This motivated SONAR, a computational approach that predicts RNA binding activity by analyzing large-scale affinity precipitation-MS protein-protein interactomes. Without relying on sequence or structure information, SONAR identifies 1,923 human, 489 fly, and 745 yeast RBPs, including over 100 human candidate RBPs that contain zinc finger domains. Enhanced CLIP confirms RNA binding activity and identifies transcriptome-wide RNA binding sites for SONAR-predicted RBPs, revealing unexpected RNA binding activity for disease-relevant proteins and DNA binding proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Presence of extensive Wolbachia symbiont insertions discovered in the genome of its host Glossina morsitans morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Brelsfoard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies (Glossina spp. are the cyclical vectors of Trypanosoma spp., which are unicellular parasites responsible for multiple diseases, including nagana in livestock and sleeping sickness in humans in Africa. Glossina species, including Glossina morsitans morsitans (Gmm, for which the Whole Genome Sequence (WGS is now available, have established symbiotic associations with three endosymbionts: Wigglesworthia glossinidia, Sodalis glossinidius and Wolbachia pipientis (Wolbachia. The presence of Wolbachia in both natural and laboratory populations of Glossina species, including the presence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT events in a laboratory colony of Gmm, has already been shown. We herein report on the draft genome sequence of the cytoplasmic Wolbachia endosymbiont (cytWol associated with Gmm. By in silico and molecular and cytogenetic analysis, we discovered and validated the presence of multiple insertions of Wolbachia (chrWol in the host Gmm genome. We identified at least two large insertions of chrWol, 527,507 and 484,123 bp in size, from Gmm WGS data. Southern hybridizations confirmed the presence of Wolbachia insertions in Gmm genome, and FISH revealed multiple insertions located on the two sex chromosomes (X and Y, as well as on the supernumerary B-chromosomes. We compare the chrWol insertions to the cytWol draft genome in an attempt to clarify the evolutionary history of the HGT events. We discuss our findings in light of the evolution of Wolbachia infections in the tsetse fly and their potential impacts on the control of tsetse populations and trypanosomiasis.

  2. UPLC-based metabonomic applications for discovering biomarkers of diseases in clinical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-Yong; Cheng, Xian-Long; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Liu, Shuman; Lin, Rui-Chao

    2014-10-01

    Metabonomics is a powerful and promising analytic tool that allows assessment of global low-molecular-weight metabolites in biological systems. It has a great potential for identifying useful biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis and assessment of therapeutic interventions in clinical practice. The aim of this review is to provide a brief summary of the recent advances in UPLC-based metabonomic approach for biomarker discovery in a variety of diseases, and to discuss their significance in clinical chemistry. All the available information on UPLC-based metabonomic applications for discovering biomarkers of diseases were collected via a library and electronic search (using Web of Science, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Springer, Google Scholar, etc.). Metabonomics has been used in clinical chemistry to identify and evaluate potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in various diseases affecting the liver (hepatocarcinoma and liver cirrhosis), lung (lung cancer and pneumonia), gastrointestinal tract (colorectal cancer) and urogenital tract (prostate cancer, ovarian cancer and chronic kidney disease), as well as metabolic diseases (diabetes) and neuropsychiatric disorders (Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia), etc. The information provided highlights the potential value of determination of endogenous low-molecular-weight metabolites and the advantages and potential drawbacks of the application of UPLC-based metabonomics in clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. LifeWatch Greece data-services: Discovering Biodiversity Data using Semantic Web Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minadakis, Nikos; Marketakis, Yannis; Doerr, Martin; Bekiari, Chryssoula; Papadakos, Panagiotis; Gougousis, Alexandros; Bailly, Nicolas; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity data is characterized by its cross-disciplinary character, the extremely broad range of data types and structures, and the variety of semantic concepts that it encompasses. Furthermore there is a plethora of different data sources providing resources for the same piece of information in a heterogeneous way. Even if we restrict our attention to Greek biodiversity domain, it is easy to see that biodiversity data remains unconnected and widely distributed among different sources. To cope with these issues, in the context of the LifeWatch Greece project, i) we supported cataloguing and publishing of all the relevant metadata information of the Greek biodiversity domain, ii) we integrated data from heterogeneous sources by supporting the definitions of appropriate models, iii) we provided means for efficiently discovering biodiversity data of interest and iv) we enabled the answering of complex queries that could not be answered from the individual sources. This work has been exploited, evaluated and scientificaly confirmed by the biodiversity community through the services provided by the LifeWatch Greece portal.

  4. Accounting for data errors discovered from an audit in multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Bryan E; Yu, Chang

    2011-09-01

    A data coordinating team performed onsite audits and discovered discrepancies between the data sent to the coordinating center and that recorded at sites. We present statistical methods for incorporating audit results into analyses. This can be thought of as a measurement error problem, where the distribution of errors is a mixture with a point mass at 0. If the error rate is nonzero, then even if the mean of the discrepancy between the reported and correct values of a predictor is 0, naive estimates of the association between two continuous variables will be biased. We consider scenarios where there are (1) errors in the predictor, (2) errors in the outcome, and (3) possibly correlated errors in the predictor and outcome. We show how to incorporate the error rate and magnitude, estimated from a random subset (the audited records), to compute unbiased estimates of association and proper confidence intervals. We then extend these results to multiple linear regression where multiple covariates may be incorrect in the database and the rate and magnitude of the errors may depend on study site. We study the finite sample properties of our estimators using simulations, discuss some practical considerations, and illustrate our methods with data from 2815 HIV-infected patients in Latin America, of whom 234 had their data audited using a sequential auditing plan. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  5. The First Brown Dwarf Discovered by the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Schneider, Adam C.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Gagné, Jonathan; Trouille, Laura; Silverberg, Steven M.; Castro, Rosa; Fletcher, Bob; Mokaev, Khasan; Stajic, Tamara

    2017-06-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a powerful tool for finding nearby brown dwarfs and searching for new planets in the outer solar system, especially with the incorporation of NEOWISE and NEOWISE-Reactivation data. However, so far, searches for brown dwarfs in WISE data have yet to take advantage of the full depth of the WISE images. To efficiently search this unexplored space via visual inspection, we have launched a new citizen science project, called “Backyard Worlds: Planet 9,” which asks volunteers to examine short animations composed of difference images constructed from time-resolved WISE coadds. We report the first new substellar object discovered by this project, WISEA J110125.95+540052.8, a T5.5 brown dwarf located approximately 34 pc from the Sun with a total proper motion of ˜0.″7 {{yr}}-1. WISEA J110125.95+540052.8 has a WISE W2 magnitude of W2=15.37+/- 0.09; our sensitivity to this source demonstrates the ability of citizen scientists to identify moving objects via visual inspection that are 0.9 mag fainter than the W2 single-exposure sensitivity, a threshold that has limited prior motion-based brown dwarf searches with WISE.

  6. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J; Rieke, Judith L

    2009-07-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota's only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state's residents and helps them "Discover Health Services Near You!" A team approach and collaboration with health providers and organizations worked well in this small rural state. North Dakota's Go Local project offers a low-cost model that stresses collaboration, teamwork and technology. Part I which appeared in the last issue describes the rural setting, explains how the project was conceived, and the processes necessary to begin building the database. Part II which appears in this issue details how records were created including developing the input style guide and indexing decisions, the NLM testing and review process, the maintenance and auditing process, and publicity and promotion of the project.

  7. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Judith L; Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J

    2009-04-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota's only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state's residents and helps them "Discover Health Services Near You!" A team approach and collaboration with health providers and organizations worked well in this small rural state. North Dakota's Go Local project offers a low-cost model that stresses collaboration, teamwork and technology. Part I, which appears in this issue, describes the rural setting, explains how the project was conceived, and the processes necessary to begin building the database. Part II, which will appear in the next issue, details how records were created, including developing the input style guide and indexing decisions, the NLM testing and review process, the maintenance and auditing process, and publicity and promotion of the project.

  8. The Brain Mechanisms Underlying the Cognitive Benefits of Bilingualism may be Extraordinarily Difficult to Discover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Paap

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that coordinating two or more languages leads to an enhancement in executive functioning has been intensely studied for the past decade with very mixed results. The purpose of this review and analysis is to consider why it has been (and will continue to be difficult to discover the brain mechanisms underlying any cognitive benefits to bilingualism. Six reasons are discussed: 1 the phenomenon may not actually exist; 2 the cognitive neuroscientists investigating bilingual advantages may have been studying the wrong component of executive functioning; 3 most experiments use risky small numbers of participants and are underpowered; 4 the neural differences between groups do not align with the behavioral differences; 5 neural differences sometimes suffer from valence ambiguity, that is, disagreements whether “more” implies better or worse functioning and 6 neural differences often suffer from kind ambiguity, that is, disagreements regarding what type of mental events the pattern of activation in a region-of-interest actually reflects.

  9. Discover Science Initiative, outreach and professional development at the University of California, Irvine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Jill; Earthman, James

    Discover Science Initiative (DSI) is an unprecedented success in the Southern Californian community by reaching out to over 5,000 participants through eight hands-on workshops on topics from fungi to the physics of light, and two large events in the past year. The DSI vision is to provide an avenue for University of California, Irvine (UCI) students and faculty from all departments to engage with the local community through workshops and presentations on interdisciplinary, state-of-the-art STEM research unique to UCI. DSI provides professional development opportunities for diverse students at UCI, while providing outreach at one of the most popular educational centers in Southern California, the Discovery Cube, which hosts over 400,000 guests each year. In DSI, students engage in peer-to-peer mentoring with guidance from the UCI School of Education in designing workshops, leading meetings, and managing teams. Also, students practice science communication, coached by certified communications trainers. Students involved in DSI learn important skills to complement their academic degrees, and stay motivated to pursue their career goals. Support for DSI is from Diverse Educational and Doctoral Experience (DECADE) at UCI.

  10. The First Brown Dwarf Discovered by the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Schneider, Adam C.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Gagne, Jonathan; Trouille, Laura; Silverberg, Steven M.; Castro, Rosa; Fletcher, Bob; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a powerful tool for finding nearby brown dwarfs and searching for new planets in the outer solar system, especially with the incorporation of NEOWISE and NEOWISE Reactivation data. However, so far, searches for brown dwarfs in WISE data have yet to take advantage of the full depth of the WISE images. To efficiently search this unexplored space via visual inspection, we have launched anew citizen science project, called "Backyard Worlds: Planet 9," which asks volunteers to examine short animations composed of difference images constructed from time-resolved WISE co adds. We report the first new substellar object discovered by this project, WISEA J110125.95+540052.8, a T5.5 brown dwarf located approximately 34 pc from the Sun with a total proper motion of approx.0. "7/ yr. WISEA J110125.95+540052.8 has a WISE W2 magnitude of W2 = 15.37+/- 0.09; our sensitivity to this source demonstrates the ability of citizen scientists to identify moving objects via visual inspection that are 0.9 mag fainter than the W2 single-exposure sensitivity, a threshold that has limited prior motion-based brown dwarf searches with WISE.

  11. Big Data Analytics for Discovering Electricity Consumption Patterns in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Pérez-Chacón

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available New technologies such as sensor networks have been incorporated into the management of buildings for organizations and cities. Sensor networks have led to an exponential increase in the volume of data available in recent years, which can be used to extract consumption patterns for the purposes of energy and monetary savings. For this reason, new approaches and strategies are needed to analyze information in big data environments. This paper proposes a methodology to extract electric energy consumption patterns in big data time series, so that very valuable conclusions can be made for managers and governments. The methodology is based on the study of four clustering validity indices in their parallelized versions along with the application of a clustering technique. In particular, this work uses a voting system to choose an optimal number of clusters from the results of the indices, as well as the application of the distributed version of the k-means algorithm included in Apache Spark’s Machine Learning Library. The results, using electricity consumption for the years 2011–2017 for eight buildings of a public university, are presented and discussed. In addition, the performance of the proposed methodology is evaluated using synthetic big data, which cab represent thousands of buildings in a smart city. Finally, policies derived from the patterns discovered are proposed to optimize energy usage across the university campus.

  12. Exploiting the In-Network Capabilities of Multicast to Discover Proximate IPTV Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Donnelly

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available IPTV has become the next generation of television due, in part, to its ability to support features that have been lacking in conventional broadcasting—for example, end-user interactivity, personalisation and localisation. Providers are also searching for the most efficient delivery methods to provide the greatest amount of contents at the lowest cost. At present IPTV uses IP multicast to deliver live TV channels in an over-provisioned walled-garden network due to issues of deploying multicast and QoS challenges in the public Internet. However, IPTV is likely to shift into some parts of the public Internet in the future as a managed service. Multicast routing is performed on a per-session destination-address basis so each router maintains a table of all of the multicast addresses to which the content is being forwarded. We exploit this information to discover and join the in-progress channels of geographically proximate users and to create a new incentivised premium service in future IPTV networks called ProxyTV. This approach is expected to minimise network bandwidth requirements as it enables ISPs to optimise bandwidth on their edge networks. This becomes increasingly significant as TV content consumes more and more bandwidth, especially with the onset of HD and 3D capabilities. In this paper, we have presented in detail the concept with the results of a survey and an analysis of network traffic to justify the proposed approach.

  13. A CLASS OF ECCENTRIC BINARIES WITH DYNAMIC TIDAL DISTORTIONS DISCOVERED WITH KEPLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Susan E.; Barclay, Thomas; Howell, Steve B.; Still, Martin; Ibrahim, Khadeejah A. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Everett, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Mullally, Fergal; Rowe, Jason; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Clarke, Bruce D. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Kurtz, Donald W.; Hambleton, Kelly, E-mail: susan.e.thompson@nasa.gov [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    We have discovered a class of eccentric binary systems within the Kepler data archive that have dynamic tidal distortions and tidally induced pulsations. Each has a uniquely shaped light curve that is characterized by periodic brightening or variability at timescales of 4-20 days, frequently accompanied by shorter period oscillations. We can explain the dominant features of the entire class with orbitally varying tidal forces that occur in close, eccentric binary systems. The large variety of light curve shapes arises from viewing systems at different angles. This hypothesis is supported by spectroscopic radial velocity measurements for five systems, each showing evidence of being in an eccentric binary system. Prior to the discovery of these 17 new systems, only four stars, where KOI-54 is the best example, were known to have evidence of these dynamic tides and tidally induced oscillations. We perform preliminary fits to the light curves and radial velocity data, present the overall properties of this class, and discuss the work required to accurately model these systems.

  14. The asymmetric facial skin perfusion distribution of Bell's palsy discovered by laser speckle imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Han; Chen, Yi; Zhong, Weizheng; Yu, Haibo; Li, Zhifeng; He, Yuhai; Yu, Wenlong; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Bell's palsy is a kind of peripheral neural disease that cause abrupt onset of unilateral facial weakness. In the pathologic study, it was evidenced that ischemia of facial nerve at the affected side of face existed in Bell's palsy patients. Since the direction of facial nerve blood flow is primarily proximal to distal, facial skin microcirculation would also be affected after the onset of Bell's palsy. Therefore, monitoring the full area of facial skin microcirculation would help to identify the condition of Bell's palsy patients. In this study, a non-invasive, real time and full field imaging technology - laser speckle imaging (LSI) technology was applied for measuring facial skin blood perfusion distribution of Bell's palsy patients. 85 participants with different stage of Bell's palsy were included. Results showed that Bell's palsy patients' facial skin perfusion of affected side was lower than that of the normal side at the region of eyelid, and that the asymmetric distribution of the facial skin perfusion between two sides of eyelid is positively related to the stage of the disease (P Bell's palsy patients, and we discovered that the facial skin blood perfusion could reflect the stage of Bell's palsy, which suggested that microcirculation should be investigated in patients with this neurological deficit. It was also suggested LSI as potential diagnostic tool for Bell's palsy.

  15. Discovering multiple transcripts of human hepatocytes using massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Hao, Pei; Zhang, Yun-Li; Deng, Fu-Xing; Deng, Qing; Hong, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Wo; Wang, Yun; Li, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Xue-Gong; Li, Yi-Xue; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Wang, Hong-Yang; Han, Ze-Guang

    2007-07-02

    The liver is the largest human internal organ--it is composed of multiple cell types and plays a vital role in fulfilling the body's metabolic needs and maintaining homeostasis. Of these cell types the hepatocytes, which account for three-quarters of the liver's volume, perform its main functions. To discover the molecular basis of hepatocyte function, we employed Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) to determine the transcriptomic profile of adult human hepatocytes obtained by laser capture microdissection (LCM). 10,279 UniGene clusters, representing 7,475 known genes, were detected in human hepatocytes. In addition, 1,819 unique MPSS signatures matching the antisense strand of 1,605 non-redundant UniGene clusters (such as APOC1, APOC2, APOB and APOH) were highly expressed in hepatocytes. Apart from a large number of protein-coding genes, some of the antisense transcripts expressed in hepatocytes could play important roles in transcriptional interference via a cis-/trans-regulation mechanism. Our result provided a comprehensively transcriptomic atlas of human hepatocytes using MPSS technique, which could be served as an available resource for an in-depth understanding of human liver biology and diseases.

  16. Novel Class IIa-Selective Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Discovered Using an in Silico Virtual Screening Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Yi; Lin, Tony Eight; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Sung, Tzu-Ying; Tseng, Hui-Ju; Yang, Jinn-Moon; Huang, Wei-Jan

    2017-06-12

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) contain eighteen isoforms that can be divided into four classes. Of these isoform enzymes, class IIa (containing HDAC4, 5, 7 and 9) target unique substrates, some of which are client proteins associated with epigenetic control. Class IIa HDACs are reportedly associated with some neuronal disorders, making HDACs therapeutic targets for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, some reported HDAC inhibitors contain hydroxamate moiety that chelates with zinc ion to become the cofactor of HDAC enzymes. However, the hydroxamate functional group is shown to cause undesirable effects and has poor pharmacokinetic profile. This study used in silico virtual screening methodology to identify several nonhydroxamate compounds, obtained from National Cancer Institute database, which potentially inhibited HDAC4. Comparisons of the enzyme inhibitory activity against a panel of HDAC isoforms revealed these compounds had strong inhibitory activity against class IIa HDACs, but weak inhibitory activity against class I HDACs. Further analysis revealed that a single residue affects the cavity size between class I and class IIa HDACs, thus contributing to the selectivity of HDAC inhibitors discovered in this study. The discovery of these inhibitors presents the possibility of developing new therapeutic treatments that can circumvent the problems seen in traditional hydroxamate-based drugs.

  17. What hadron collider is required to discover or falsify natural supersymmetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Baer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Weak scale supersymmetry (SUSY remains a compelling extension of the Standard Model because it stabilizes the quantum corrections to the Higgs and W,Z boson masses. In natural SUSY models these corrections are, by definition, never much larger than the corresponding masses. Natural SUSY models all have an upper limit on the gluino mass, too high to lead to observable signals even at the high luminosity LHC. However, in models with gaugino mass unification, the wino is sufficiently light that supersymmetry discovery is possible in other channels over the entire natural SUSY parameter space with no worse than 3% fine-tuning. Here, we examine the SUSY reach in more general models with and without gaugino mass unification (specifically, natural generalized mirage mediation, and show that the high energy LHC (HE-LHC, a pp collider with s=33 TeV, will be able to detect the SUSY signal over the entire allowed mass range. Thus, HE-LHC would either discover or conclusively falsify natural SUSY with better than 3% fine-tuning using a conservative measure that allows for correlations among the model parameters.

  18. Quantifying TOLNet ozone lidar accuracy during the 2014 DISCOVER-AQ and FRAPPÉ campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Newchurch, Michael J.; Alvarez, Raul J., II; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Brown, Steven S.; Carrion, William; De Young, Russell J.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Ganoe, Rene; Gronoff, Guillaume; Kirgis, Guillaume; Kuang, Shi; Langford, Andrew O.; Leblanc, Thierry; McDuffie, Erin E.; McGee, Thomas J.; Pliutau, Denis; Senff, Christoph J.; Sullivan, John T.; Sumnicht, Grant; Twigg, Laurence W.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.

    2017-10-01

    The Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) is a unique network of lidar systems that measure high-resolution atmospheric profiles of ozone. The accurate characterization of these lidars is necessary to determine the uniformity of the network calibration. From July to August 2014, three lidars, the TROPospheric OZone (TROPOZ) lidar, the Tunable Optical Profiler for Aerosol and oZone (TOPAZ) lidar, and the Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar (LMOL), of TOLNet participated in the Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission and the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) to measure ozone variations from the boundary layer to the top of the troposphere. This study presents the analysis of the intercomparison between the TROPOZ, TOPAZ, and LMOL lidars, along with comparisons between the lidars and other in situ ozone instruments including ozonesondes and a P-3B airborne chemiluminescence sensor. The TOLNet lidars measured vertical ozone structures with an accuracy generally better than ±15 % within the troposphere. Larger differences occur at some individual altitudes in both the near-field and far-field range of the lidar systems, largely as expected. In terms of column average, the TOLNet lidars measured ozone with an accuracy better than ±5 % for both the intercomparison between the lidars and between the lidars and other instruments. These results indicate that these three TOLNet lidars are suitable for use in air quality, satellite validation, and ozone modeling efforts.

  19. Discovering the influential users oriented to viral marketing based on online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiguo

    2013-08-01

    The target of viral marketing on the platform of popular online social networks is to rapidly propagate marketing information at lower cost and increase sales, in which a key problem is how to precisely discover the most influential users in the process of information diffusion. A novel method is proposed in this paper for helping companies to identify such users as seeds to maximize information diffusion in the viral marketing. Firstly, the user trust network oriented to viral marketing and users’ combined interest degree in the network including isolated users are extensively defined. Next, we construct a model considering the time factor to simulate the process of information diffusion in viral marketing and propose a dynamic algorithm description. Finally, experiments are conducted with a real dataset extracted from the famous SNS website Epinions. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm has better scalability and is less time-consuming. Compared with the classical model, the proposed algorithm achieved a better performance than does the classical method on the two aspects of network coverage rate and time-consumption in our four sub-datasets.

  20. Microgenetic experiment in developmental psychology: A new approach to discover cognitive change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Svetina

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Microgenetic experiment is relatively new tool in a developmental psychology research. It is primarily used in discovering broad range of cognitive processes such as the development of logical operations, memory and attention as well as beliefs or school adaptation. Designed as an extension of simple longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches it is convinient to research mental processes in all developmental stages of human being, from infancy to the old age. Microgenetic approach is characterised with repeated observations of behaviour. Observations are carried out in a relatively short period of time and yet they cover the whole interval between first appearance and stabilisation of a process in a subject. The microgenetic approach offers a good insight into the nature and development of the change. The article presents the general steps in both forming and performing of a microgenetic experiment, as well as the approaches used in the data analyses. On more general level, the article presents major practical and theoretical advantages and disadvantages of a microgenetic approach to be considered in the future.

  1. Discovering multiple transcripts of human hepatocytes using massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yi-Xue

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The liver is the largest human internal organ – it is composed of multiple cell types and plays a vital role in fulfilling the body's metabolic needs and maintaining homeostasis. Of these cell types the hepatocytes, which account for three-quarters of the liver's volume, perform its main functions. To discover the molecular basis of hepatocyte function, we employed Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS to determine the transcriptomic profile of adult human hepatocytes obtained by laser capture microdissection (LCM. Results 10,279 UniGene clusters, representing 7,475 known genes, were detected in human hepatocytes. In addition, 1,819 unique MPSS signatures matching the antisense strand of 1,605 non-redundant UniGene clusters (such as APOC1, APOC2, APOB and APOH were highly expressed in hepatocytes. Conclusion Apart from a large number of protein-coding genes, some of the antisense transcripts expressed in hepatocytes could play important roles in transcriptional interference via a cis-/trans-regulation mechanism. Our result provided a comprehensively transcriptomic atlas of human hepatocytes using MPSS technique, which could be served as an available resource for an in-depth understanding of human liver biology and diseases.

  2. Research on Methods for Discovering and Selecting Cloud Infrastructure Services Based on Feature Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huamin Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays more and more cloud infrastructure service providers are providing large numbers of service instances which are a combination of diversified resources, such as computing, storage, and network. However, for cloud infrastructure services, the lack of a description standard and the inadequate research of systematic discovery and selection methods have exposed difficulties in discovering and choosing services for users. First, considering the highly configurable properties of a cloud infrastructure service, the feature model method is used to describe such a service. Second, based on the description of the cloud infrastructure service, a systematic discovery and selection method for cloud infrastructure services are proposed. The automatic analysis techniques of the feature model are introduced to verify the model’s validity and to perform the matching of the service and demand models. Finally, we determine the critical decision metrics and their corresponding measurement methods for cloud infrastructure services, where the subjective and objective weighting results are combined to determine the weights of the decision metrics. The best matching instances from various providers are then ranked by their comprehensive evaluations. Experimental results show that the proposed methods can effectively improve the accuracy and efficiency of cloud infrastructure service discovery and selection.

  3. Beliefs about the Etiology of Homosexuality and about the Ramifications of Discovering Its Possible Genetic Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Jane P.; Pfeffer, Carla A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein; Feldbaum, Merle; Petty, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Homosexuality is viewed by many as a social problem. As such, there has been keen interest in elucidating the origins of homosexuality among many scholars, from anthropologists to zoologists, psychologists to theologians. Research has shown that those who believe sexual orientation is inborn are more likely to have tolerant attitudes toward gay men and lesbians, whereas those who believe it is a choice have less tolerant attitudes. The current qualitative study used in-depth, open-ended telephone interviews with 42 White and 44 Black Americans to gain insight into the public's beliefs about the possible genetic origins of homosexuality. Along with etiological beliefs (and the sources of information used to develop those beliefs), we asked respondents to describe the benefits and dangers of scientists discovering the possible genetic basis for homosexuality. We found that although limited understanding and biased perspectives likely led to simplistic reasoning concerning the origins and genetic basis of homosexuality, many individuals appreciated complex and interactive etiological perspectives. These interactive perspectives often included recognition of some type of inherent aspect, such as a genetic factor(s), that served as an underlying predisposition that would be manifested after being influenced by other factors such as choice or environmental exposures. We also found that beliefs in a genetic basis for homosexuality could be used to support very diverse opinions, including those in accordance with negative eugenic agendas. PMID:17594974

  4. Using ADOPT Algorithm and Operational Data to Discover Precursors to Aviation Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiraman, Vijay; Matthews, Bryan; Oza, Nikunj

    2018-01-01

    The US National Airspace System (NAS) is making its transition to the NextGen system and assuring safety is one of the top priorities in NextGen. At present, safety is managed reactively (correct after occurrence of an unsafe event). While this strategy works for current operations, it may soon become ineffective for future airspace designs and high density operations. There is a need for proactive management of safety risks by identifying hidden and "unknown" risks and evaluating the impacts on future operations. To this end, NASA Ames has developed data mining algorithms that finds anomalies and precursors (high-risk states) to safety issues in the NAS. In this paper, we describe a recently developed algorithm called ADOPT that analyzes large volumes of data and automatically identifies precursors from real world data. Precursors help in detecting safety risks early so that the operator can mitigate the risk in time. In addition, precursors also help identify causal factors and help predict the safety incident. The ADOPT algorithm scales well to large data sets and to multidimensional time series, reduce analyst time significantly, quantify multiple safety risks giving a holistic view of safety among other benefits. This paper details the algorithm and includes several case studies to demonstrate its application to discover the "known" and "unknown" safety precursors in aviation operation.

  5. Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Delgado

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004. Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs. A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá. RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. The virus was shown to be most closely related to Sabiá virus, but with 26% and 30% nucleotide difference in the S and L segments, and 26%, 28%, 15% and 22% amino acid differences for the L, Z, N, and GP proteins, respectively, indicating the virus represents a newly discovered arenavirus, for which we propose the name Chapare virus. In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia.

  6. Diverse Regulators of Human Ribosome Biogenesis Discovered by Changes in Nucleolar Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine I. Farley-Barnes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome biogenesis is a highly regulated, essential cellular process. Although studies in yeast have established some of the biological principles of ribosome biogenesis, many of the intricacies of its regulation in higher eukaryotes remain unknown. To understand how ribosome biogenesis is globally integrated in human cells, we conducted a genome-wide siRNA screen for regulators of nucleolar number. We found 139 proteins whose depletion changed the number of nucleoli per nucleus from 2–3 to only 1 in human MCF10A cells. Follow-up analyses on 20 hits found many (90% to be essential for the nucleolar functions of rDNA transcription (7, pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA processing (16, and/or global protein synthesis (14. This genome-wide analysis exploits the relationship between nucleolar number and function to discover diverse cellular pathways that regulate the making of ribosomes and paves the way for further exploration of the links between ribosome biogenesis and human disease.

  7. In silico structure-based approaches to discover protein-protein interaction-targeting drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woong-Hee; Christoffer, Charles W; Kihara, Daisuke

    2017-12-01

    A core concept behind modern drug discovery is finding a small molecule that modulates a function of a target protein. This concept has been successfully applied since the mid-1970s. However, the efficiency of drug discovery is decreasing because the druggable target space in the human proteome is limited. Recently, protein-protein interaction (PPI) has been identified asan emerging target space for drug discovery. PPI plays a pivotal role in biological pathways including diseases. Current human interactome research suggests that the number of PPIs is between 130,000 and 650,000, and only a small number of them have been targeted as drug targets. For traditional drug targets, in silico structure-based methods have been successful in many cases. However, their performance suffers on PPI interfaces because PPI interfaces are different in five major aspects: From a geometric standpoint, they have relatively large interface regions, flat geometry, and the interface surface shape tends to fluctuate upon binding. Also, their interactions are dominated by hydrophobic atoms, which is different from traditional binding-pocket-targeted drugs. Finally, PPI targets usually lack natural molecules that bind to the target PPI interface. Here, we first summarize characteristics of PPI interfaces and their known binders. Then, we will review existing in silico structure-based approaches for discovering small molecules that bind to PPI interfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The newly-discovered epigraphic monuments from Sočanica - Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Milena L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 2000 the Roman site of Municipium Dardanorum yielded several funerary stelae bearing epitaphs. Most had been deliberately broken along the longer or shorter axis and built into the bases of the columns forming a colonnade on the forum. In addition, the basilica holds an ara (No 10 and a fragment of an inscription (No 9 discovered by E. Čerškov (Cat. nos 26 and 38. I wish to express my gratitude to a colleague of mine, the archaeologist G. Kovaljov, for notifying me about this find and kindly conceding the publication of the inscriptions to me. The stelae were poorly carved and all alike in appearance, showing a large rosette in the pediment (upper field and an epitaph (unusually tall letters, 5 to 7 cm within the simple-bordered lower field. All the persons mentioned in the epitaphs come from lower social layers – slaves, vernae, liberti (with the exception of one Roman citizen, a M. Ulpius Apollinaris, No 3. Their names are often Greek, such as Eutychus (Nos 1 and 7, T(heofas, or Alexander (No 8, while Trite (No 2 is likely to be native. Ravius (gentile ? here occurs for the first time in Upper Moesia (No 5. To judge by the gentile names and formulas (h.s.e., f.c most inscriptions date from the second century AD.

  9. the Underestimation of Isorene in Houston during the Texas 2013 DISCOVER-AQ Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y.; Diao, L.; Czader, B.; Li, X.; Estes, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    This study applies principal component analysis to aircraft data from the Texas 2013 DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign to characterize isoprene sources over Houston during September 2013. The biogenic isoprene signature appears in the third principal component and anthropogenic signals in the following two. Evaluations of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations of isoprene with airborne measurements are more accurate for suburban areas than for industrial areas. This study also compares model outputs to eight surface automated gas chromatograph (Auto-GC) measurements near the Houston ship channel industrial area during the nighttime and shows that modeled anthropogenic isoprene is underestimated by a factor of 10.60. This study employs a new simulation with a modified anthropogenic emissions inventory (constraining using the ratios of observed values versus simulated ones) that yields closer isoprene predictions at night with a reduction in the mean bias by 56.93%, implying that model-estimated isoprene emissions from the 2008 National Emission Inventory are underestimated in the city of Houston and that other climate models or chemistry and transport models using the same emissions inventory might also be underestimated in other Houston-like areas in the United States.

  10. Discover the Cosmos - Bringing Cutting Edge Science to Schools across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-03-01

    The fast growing number of science data repositories is opening enormous possibilities to scientists all over the world. The emergence of citizen science projects is engaging in science discovery a large number of citizens globally. Astronomical research is now a possibility to anyone having a computer and some form of data access. This opens a very interesting and strategic possibility to engage large audiences in the making and understanding of science. On another perspective it would be only natural to imagine that soon enough data mining will be an active part of the academic path of university or even secondary schools students. The possibility is very exciting but the road not very promising. Even in the most developed nations, where all schools are equipped with modern ICT facilities the use of such possibilities is still a very rare episode. The Galileo Teacher Training Program GTTP, a legacy of IYA2009, is participating in some of the most emblematic projects funded by the European Commission and targeting modern tools, resources and methodologies for science teaching. One of this projects is Discover the Cosmos which is aiming to target this issue by empowering educators with the necessary skills to embark on this innovative path: teaching science while doing science.

  11. Asymmetric author-topic model for knowledge discovering of big data in toxicogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hua eChung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of high-throughput screening technologies facilitates the generation of massive amount of biological data, a big data phenomena in biomedical science. Yet, researchers still heavily rely on keyword search and/or literature review to navigate the databases and analyses are often done in rather small-scale. As a result, the rich information of a database has not been fully utilized, particularly for the information embedded in the interactive nature between data points that are largely ignored and buried. For the past ten years, probabilistic topic modeling has been recognized as an effective machine learning algorithm to annotate the hidden thematic structure of massive collection of documents. The analogy between text corpus and large-scale genomic data enables the application of text mining tools, like probabilistic topic models, to explore hidden patterns of genomic data and to the extension of altered biological functions. In this paper, we developed a generalized probabilistic topic model to analyze a toxicogenomics dataset that consists of a large number of gene expression data from the rat livers treated with drugs in multiple dose and time-points. We discovered the hidden patterns in gene expression associated with the effect of doses and time-points of treatment. Finally, we illustrated the ability of our model to identify the evidence of potential reduction of animal use.

  12. Novel Transrotational Solid State Order Discovered by TEM in Crystallizing Amorphous Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Vladimir

    Exotic thin crystals with unexpected transrotational microstructures have been discovered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for crystal growth in thin (10-100 nm) amorphous films of different chemical nature (oxides, chalcogenides, metals and alloys) prepared by various methods. Primarily we use our TEM bend contour technique. The unusual phenomenon can be traced in situ in TEM column: dislocation independent regular internal bending of crystal lattice planes in a growing crystal. Such transrotation (unit cell trans lation is complicated by small rotationrealized round an axis lying in the film plane) can result in strong regular lattice orientation gradients (up to 300 degrees per micrometer) of different geometries: cylindrical, ellipsoidal, toroidal, saddle, etc. Transrotation is increasing as the film gets thinner. Transrotational crystal resembles ideal single crystal enclosed in a curved space. Transrotational micro crystals have been eventually recognized by other authors in some vital thin film materials, i.e. PCMs for memory, silicides, SrTiO3. Atomic model and possible mechanisms of the phenomenon are discussed. New transrotational nanocrystalline model of amorphous state is also proposed Support of RF Ministry of Education and Science is acknowledged.

  13. Proteomics research to discover markers: what can we learn from Netflix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, David F

    2010-02-01

    Research in the field of proteomics to discover markers for detection of cancer has produced disappointing results, with few markers gaining US Food and Drug Administration approval, and few claims borne out when subsequently tested in rigorous studies. What is the role of better mathematical or statistical analysis in improving the situation? This article examines whether a recent successful Netflix-sponsored competition using mathematical analysis to develop a prediction model for movie ratings of individual subscribers can serve to improve studies of markers in the field of proteomics. Netflix developed a database of movie preferences of individual subscribers using a longitudinal cohort research design. Groups of researchers then competed to develop better ways to analyze the data. Against this background, the strengths and weaknesses of research design are reviewed, contrasting the Netflix design with that of studies of biomarkers to detect cancer. Such biomarker studies generally have less-strong design, lower numbers of outcomes, and greater difficulty in even just measuring predictors and outcomes, so the fundamental data that will be used in mathematical analysis tend to be much weaker than in other kinds of research. If the fundamental data that will be analyzed are not strong, then better analytic methods have limited use in improving the situation. Recognition of this situation is an important first step toward improving the quality of clinical research about markers to detect cancer.

  14. Beliefs about the etiology of homosexuality and about the ramifications of discovering its possible genetic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Jane P; Pfeffer, Carla A; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein; Feldbaum, Merle; Petty, Elizabeth M

    2007-01-01

    Homosexuality is viewed by many as a social problem. As such, there is a keen interest in elucidating the origins of homosexuality among many scholars, from anthropologists to zoologists, from psychologists to theologians. Research has shown that those who believe sexual orientation is inborn are more likely to have tolerant attitudes toward gay men and lesbians, whereas those who believe it is a choice have less tolerant attitudes. The current qualitative study used in-depth, open-ended telephone interviews with 42 White and 44 Black Americans to gain insight into the public's beliefs about the possible genetic origins of homosexuality. Along with etiological beliefs (and the sources of information used to develop these beliefs), we asked respondents to describe the benefits and dangers of scientists discovering the possible genetic basis for homosexuality. We found that although limited understanding and biased perspectives likely led to simplistic reasoning concerning the origins and genetic basis of homosexuality, many individuals appreciated the complex and interactive etiological perspectives. These interactive perspectives often included recognition of some type of inherent aspect, such as a genetic factor(s), that served as an underlying predisposition that would be manifested after being influenced by other factors such as choice or environmental exposures. We also found that beliefs in a genetic basis for homosexuality could be used to support very diverse opinions including those in accordance with negative eugenic agendas.

  15. Discovering link communities in complex networks by an integer programming model and a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenping; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Wang, Rui-Sheng; Liu, Hongwei; Zhang, Shihua

    2013-01-01

    Identification of communities in complex networks is an important topic and issue in many fields such as sociology, biology, and computer science. Communities are often defined as groups of related nodes or links that correspond to functional subunits in the corresponding complex systems. While most conventional approaches have focused on discovering communities of nodes, some recent studies start partitioning links to find overlapping communities straightforwardly. In this paper, we propose a new quantity function for link community identification in complex networks. Based on this quantity function we formulate the link community partition problem into an integer programming model which allows us to partition a complex network into overlapping communities. We further propose a genetic algorithm for link community detection which can partition a network into overlapping communities without knowing the number of communities. We test our model and algorithm on both artificial networks and real-world networks. The results demonstrate that the model and algorithm are efficient in detecting overlapping community structure in complex networks.

  16. A Bacterial Surface Display System Expressing Cleavable Capsid Proteins of Human Norovirus: A Novel System to Discover Candidate Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (HuNoVs are the dominant cause of food-borne outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. However, fundamental researches on HuNoVs, such as identification of viral receptors have been limited by the currently immature system to culture HuNoVs and the lack of efficient small animal models. Previously, we demonstrated that the recombinant protruding domain (P domain of HuNoVs capsid proteins were successfully anchored on the surface of Escherichia coli BL21 cells after the bacteria were transformed with a plasmid expressing HuNoVs P protein fused with bacterial transmembrane anchor protein. The cell-surface-displayed P proteins could specifically recognize and bind to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs, receptors of HuNoVs. In this study, an upgraded bacterial surface displayed system was developed as a new platform to discover candidate receptors of HuNoVs. A thrombin-susceptible “linker” sequence was added between the sequences of bacterial transmembrane anchor protein and P domain of HuNoV (GII.4 capsid protein in a plasmid that displays the functional P proteins on the surface of bacteria. In this new system, the surface-displayed HuNoV P proteins could be released by thrombin treatment. The released P proteins self-assembled into small particles, which were visualized by electron microscopy. The bacteria with the surface-displayed P proteins were incubated with pig stomach mucin which contained HBGAs. The bacteria-HuNoV P proteins-HBGAs complex could be collected by low speed centrifugation. The HuNoV P proteins-HBGAs complex was then separated from the recombinant bacterial surface by thrombin treatment. The released viral receptor was confirmed by using the monoclonal antibody against type A HBGA. It demonstrated that the new system was able to capture and easily isolate receptors of HuNoVs. This new strategy provides an alternative, easier approach for isolating unknown receptors/ligands of HuNoVs from different samples

  17. Insights into methane dynamics from analysis of authigenic carbonates and chemosynthetic mussels at newly-discovered Atlantic Margin seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Sahy, Diana; Ruppel, Carolyn D.; Roark, E. Brendan; Condon, Dan; Brooke, Sandra; Ross, Steve W.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of active methane venting along the US northern and mid-Atlantic margin represents a new source of global methane not previously accounted for in carbon budgets from this region. However, uncertainty remains as to the origin and history of methane seepage along this tectonically inactive passive margin. Here we present the first isotopic analyses of authigenic carbonates and methanotrophic deep-sea mussels, Bathymodiolus   sp., and the first direct constraints on the timing of past methane emission, based on samples collected at the upper slope Baltimore Canyon (∼385 m water depth) and deepwater Norfolk (∼1600 m) seep fields within the area of newly-discovered venting. The authigenic carbonates at both sites were dominated by aragonite, with an average  signature of −47‰, a value consistent with microbially driven anaerobic oxidation of methane-rich fluids occurring at or near the sediment–water interface. Authigenic carbonate U and Sr isotope data further support the inference of carbonate precipitation from seawater-derived fluids rather than from formation fluids from deep aquifers. Carbonate stable and radiocarbon ( and ) isotope values from living Bathymodiolus   sp. specimens are lighter than those of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon, highlighting the influence of fossil carbon from methane on carbonate precipitation. U–Th dates on authigenic carbonates suggest seepage at Baltimore Canyon between 14.7±0.6 ka to 15.7±1.6 ka, and at the Norfolk seep field between 1.0±0.7 ka to 3.3±1.3 ka, providing constraint on the longevity of methane efflux at these sites. The age of the brecciated authigenic carbonates and the occurrence of pockmarks at the Baltimore Canyon upper slope could suggest a link between sediment delivery during Pleistocene sea-level lowstand, accumulation of pore fluid overpressure from sediment compaction, and release of overpressure through subsequent venting. Calculations show that

  18. Stratigraphic Reconstruction of a Late Pleistocene Cypress Forest Discovered on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Bentley, S. J.; Obelcz, J.; Truong, J. T.; DeLong, K. L.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, C. A.; Caporaso, A.; Shen, Z.

    2017-12-01

    A previously buried bald cypress forest (Taxodium distichum) was discovered on the continental shelf, offshore of Orange Beach, Alabama, USA, in 20 m water depth. The forest was possibly exhumed by Hurricane Ivan in 2004, and is now exposed as stumps in life position in a trough located in the northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf seafloor. We are investigating the local stratigraphy, paleo-landscape, and mode of forest preservation of this unique site. In August 2015 and July 2016, submersible vibracores (18 in total) were collected. Core analysis included: bulk density and imaging via Geotek multi sensor core logger, sediment grain size, structure, and organic content via loss-on-ignition. Selected samples have been dated using 14C and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods. Multibeam and CHIRP subbottom bathymetry provide context for litho- and chrono-stratigraphy of the site. Integration of core lithostratigraphy and modern shelf bathymetry reveal Holocene transgressive sands blanketing diverse sedimentary facies that are truncated by the late Pleistocene-early Holocene ravinement. Deposits below the ravinement surface include interbedded sand and mud (exact age unknown, but possibly pertaining to a shallow marine environment), overlying a floodplain/swamp facies of woody debris, peat, and mud (provisionally dated by 14C to 41-45 ka). These units grade laterally into paleosols that appear to be 10-15 ka older, based on recently obtained preliminary OSL dates. Occurrence of paleosols and swamp deposits of broadly similar age and elevation suggests that the ancient landscape possessed topographic relief that allowed wetland and upland habitats to develop in close proximity. These new OSL dates enhance our initial hypothesis that floodplain aggradation in the area was a key factor that might have allowed forest preservation. The timing of temporary sea level rises (SLR) ca. 40 and 60 ka. with our 14C and preliminary OSL dates, suggests that floodplain

  19. Supernova 2009kf: An Ultraviolet Bright Type IIP Supernova Discovered With Pan-Starrs 1 and Galex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. SUPERNOVA 2009kf: AN ULTRAVIOLET BRIGHT TYPE IIP SUPERNOVA DISCOVERED WITH PAN-STARRS 1 AND GALEX M. T. Botticella1, C...January 29; accepted 2010 May 12; published 2010 June 16 ABSTRACT We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of a luminous Type IIP Supernova ...magnitude MNUV = −21.5 ± 0.5 mag suggests such SNe could be discovered out to z ∼ 2.5 in the PS1 survey. Key words: stars: evolution – supernovae

  20. 75 FR 39192 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (Previously Utah State University), et al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    .... (Previously Jamie R. Hill and Southwest Florida Aviation); Tamarack Helicopters, Inc. (Previously Ranger... 6220: Main Rotor Head. Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on June 5, 2010. Mark R. Schilling, Acting Manager...

  1. Zika virus:a previously slow pandemic spreads rapidly through the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Gatherer, Derek; Kohl, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Zika virus (Flaviviridae) is an emerging arbovirus. Spread by Aedes mosquitoes, it was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and later in humans elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, arriving in south-east Asia at latest by mid-20th-century. In the 21st century, it spread across the Pacific Islands reaching South America around 2014. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards reaching Mexico in November 2015. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associations w...

  2. Non-detection of Previously Reported Transits of HD 97658b with MOST Photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragomir, Diana; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Howard, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The radial velocity-discovered exoplanet HD 97658b was recently announced to transit, with a derived planetary radius of 2.93 ± 0.28 R ⊕. As a transiting super-Earth orbiting a bright star, this planet would make an attractive candidate for additional observations, including studies of its...... out transits for a planet with radius larger than 2.09 R ⊕, corresponding to the reported 3σ lower limit. We also report new radial velocity measurements which continue to support the existence of an exoplanet with a period of 9.5 days, and obtain improved orbital parameters....

  3. Hourly air pollution concentrations and their important predictors over Houston, Texas using deep neural networks: case study of DISCOVER-AQ time period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, E.; Choi, Y.; Roy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Air quality forecasting carried out by chemical transport models often show significant error. This study uses a deep-learning approach over the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area to overcome this forecasting challenge, for the DISCOVER-AQ period (September 2013). Two approaches, deep neural network (DNN) using a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) were utilized. The proposed approaches analyzed input data by identifying features abstracted from its previous layer using a stepwise method. The approaches predicted hourly ozone and PM in September 2013 using several predictors of prior three days, including wind fields, temperature, relative humidity, cloud fraction, precipitation along with PM, ozone, and NOx concentrations. Model-measurement comparisons for available monitoring sites reported Indexes of Agreement (IOA) of around 0.95 for both DNN and RBM. A standard artificial neural network (ANN) (IOA=0.90) with similar architecture showed poorer performance than the deep networks, clearly demonstrating the superiority of the deep approaches. Additionally, each network (both deep and standard) performed significantly better than a previous CMAQ study, which showed an IOA of less than 0.80. The most influential input variables were identified using their associated weights, which represented the sensitivity of ozone to input parameters. The results indicate deep learning approaches can achieve more accurate ozone forecasting and identify the important input variables for ozone predictions in metropolitan areas.

  4. Polarized Imaging Nephelometer Scattering Measurements from the Winter of 2013 Discover-AQ Field Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, R.; Martins, J.; Dolgos, G.; Dubovik, O.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (Discover-AQ) mission. This presentation will focus on the results of the PI-Neph's twelve successful science flights during this past winter's Discover-AQ mission. These flights focused primarily on vehicle traffic, agriculture and biomass burning emissions over the San Joaquin Valley in central California. PI-Neph scattering data from this mission will be analyzed with an emphasis on evaluating horizontal, vertical and temporal variation in the sampled aerosol to asses the reliability of column measurements made by remote sensing platforms in determining air quality. Measured PI-Neph phase functions during spirals over AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) stations will also be compared with retrieved phase functions from AERONET. In an effort to further validate AERONET retrievals an inversion method (Dubovik et al., J. Geophys. Res., 111, D11208, doi:10.1029/2005JD006619d, 2006) similar to the AERONET inversion will be applied to PI-NEPH data to obtain size distribution estimates. These results will be compared to measurements of the same sample made by particle counters on board the aircraft.

  5. 12 CFR 563b.260 - May I use previously executed proxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I use previously executed proxies? 563b.260... FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Proxy Solicitation § 563b.260 May I use previously executed proxies? You may not use previously executed proxies for the plan of conversion vote. If members...

  6. 22 CFR 40.93 - Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present after previous... TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.93 Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation. An alien described...

  7. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of a previously submitted... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may... the citation is necessary. (b) Study previously submitted by another person. If the applicant is not...

  8. Peptidic inhibitors of insulin-degrading enzyme with potential for dermatological applications discovered via phage display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin N Suire

    Full Text Available Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE is an atypical zinc-metalloendopeptidase that hydrolyzes insulin and other intermediate-sized peptide hormones, many of which are implicated in skin health and wound healing. Pharmacological inhibitors of IDE administered internally have been shown to slow the breakdown of insulin and thereby potentiate insulin action. Given the importance of insulin and other IDE substrates for a variety of dermatological processes, pharmacological inhibitors of IDE suitable for topical applications would be expected to hold significant therapeutic and cosmetic potential. Existing IDE inhibitors, however, are prohibitively expensive, difficult to synthesize and of undetermined toxicity. Here we used phage display to discover novel peptidic inhibitors of IDE, which were subsequently characterized in vitro and in cell culture assays. Among several peptide sequences tested, a cyclic dodecapeptide dubbed P12-3A was found to potently inhibit the degradation of insulin (Ki = 2.5 ± 0.31 μM and other substrates by IDE, while also being resistant to degradation, stable in biological milieu, and highly selective for IDE. In cell culture, P12-3A was shown to potentiate several insulin-induced processes, including the transcription, translation and secretion of alpha-1 type I collagen in primary murine skin fibroblasts, and the migration of keratinocytes in a scratch wound migration assay. By virtue of its potency, stability, specificity for IDE, low cost of synthesis, and demonstrated ability to potentiate insulin-induced processes involved in wound healing and skin health, P12-3A holds significant therapeutic and cosmetic potential for topical applications.

  9. Mantle peridotite in newly discovered far-inland subduction complex, southwest Arizona: Initial report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxel, Gordon B.; Jacobson, Carl E.; Wittke, James H.

    2015-01-01

    The latest Cretaceous to early Palaeogene Orocopia Schist and related units are generally considered a low-angle subduction complex that underlies much of southern California and Arizona. A recently discovered exposure of Orocopia Schist at Cemetery Ridge west of Phoenix, Arizona, lies exceptionally far inland from the continental margin. Unexpectedly, this body of Orocopia Schist contains numerous blocks, as large as ~300 m, of variably serpentinized mantle peridotite. These are unique; elsewhere in the Orocopia and related schists, peridotite is rare and completely serpentinized. Peridotite and metaperidotite at Cemetery Ridge are of three principal types: (1) serpentinite and tremolite serpentinite, derived from dunite; (2) partially serpentinized harzburgite and olivine orthopyroxenite (collectively, harzburgite); and (3) granoblastic or schistose metasomatic rocks, derived from serpentinite, made largely of actinolite, calcic plagioclase, hercynite, and chlorite. In the serpentinite, paucity of relict olivine, relatively abundant magnetite (5%), and elevated Fe3+/Fe indicate advanced serpentinization. Harzburgite contains abundant orthopyroxene, only slightly serpentinized, and minor to moderate (1–15%) relict olivine. Mantle tectonite fabric is locally preserved. Several petrographic and geochemical characteristics of the peridotite at Cemetery Ridge are ambiguously similar to either abyssal or mantle-wedge (suprasubduction) peridotites and serpentinites. Least ambiguous are orthopyroxene compositions. Orthopyroxene is distinctively depleted in Al2O3, Cr2O3, and CaO, indicating mantle-wedge affinities. Initial interpretation of field and petrologic data suggests that the peridotite blocks in the Orocopia Schist subduction complex at Cemetery Ridge may be derived from the leading corner or edge of a mantle wedge, presumably in (pre-San Andreas fault) southwest California. However, derivation from a subducting plate is not precluded.

  10. Functional histology and possible clinical significance of recently discovered telocytes inside the female reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Ivan; Urban, Ladislav; Kajanová, Marianna; Polák, Štefan

    2016-08-01

    Key discoveries of recent years comprise detection of telocytes. These cells of connective tissue have extremely long cytoplasmic processes through which they form functionally connected spatial networks. Through their processes they mutually contact and functionally connect also cells of the immune system, nerve fibres and smooth muscle cells. They are located in various parts of the female reproductive system where they can perform specifically significant functions, which are summarized in our literature review. Literature regarding "telocytes" and "interstitial Cajal-like cells" was reviewed using scientific databases PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, and Web of Knowledge. Among other things telocytes regulate peristaltic muscle movements in the uterine tubes. Their decreased activity, e.g., in inflammatory diseases or endometriosis, causes disorders of a transport function through the uterine tubes resulting in infertility or tubal pregnancy. In the uterine myometrium they are, first, responsible for regulation of muscle contraction (in expelling menstrual blood or in childbirth) and, second, they participate also in immune surveillance during embryo implantation. They likely control also uterine involution post partum. Their function in the vagina has not been elucidated yet, but probably they participate in production of slow contraction waves during sexual intercourse. In the mammary gland their function may be to regulate cellular proliferation and apoptosis, thus they may play a role also in the development and growth of tumours. In the placenta, they may monitor and regulate blood flow through chorionic villi and they participate in aetiopathogenesis of preeclampsia. However, all above-mentioned functions of telocytes are purely hypothetic and have been published only recently. Therefore, only further research will demonstrate whether this recently discovered cell population will really play a key role in all processes mentioned, or whether it is just an effort

  11. Bubble composition of natural gas seeps discovered along the Cascadia Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberger, T.; Merle, S. G.; Embley, R. W.; Seabrook, S.; Raineault, N.; Lilley, M. D.; Evans, L. J.; Walker, S. L.; Lupton, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Gas hydrates and gas-filled pockets present in sedimentary deposits have been recognized as large reservoirs for reduced carbon in the Earth's crust. This is particularly relevant in geological settings with high carbon input, such as continental margins. During expedition NA072 on the E/V Nautilus (operated by the Ocean Exploration Trust Inc.) in June 2016, the U.S. Cascadia Continental Margin (Washington, Oregon and northern California) was explored for gas seepage from sediments. During this expedition, over 400 bubble plumes at water depths ranging from 125 and 1640 m were newly discovered, and five of them were sampled for gas bubble composition using specially designed gas tight fluid samplers mounted on the Hercules remotely operated vehicle (ROV). These gas bubble samples were collected at four different depths, 494 m (rim of Astoria Canyon), 615 and 620 m (SW Coquille Bank), 849 m (floor of Astoria Canyon) and 1227 m (Heceta SW). At the two deeper sites, exposed hydrate was present in the same area where bubbles were seeping out from the seafloor. Other than the escaping gas bubbles, no other fluid flow was visible. However, the presence of bacterial mats point to diffuse fluid flow present in the affected area. In this study we present the results of the currently ongoing geochemical analysis of the gas bubbles released at the different sites and depths. Noble gas analysis, namely helium and neon, will give information about the source of the helium as well as about potential fractionation between helium and neon associated with gas hydrates. The characterization of these gas samples will also include total gas (CO2, H2, N2, O2, Ar, CH4 and other hydrocarbons) and stable isotope analysis (C and H). This dataset will reveal the chemical composition of the seeping bubbles as well as give information about the possible sources of the carbon contained in the seeping gas.

  12. Observability and Frequency of Spatial and Temporal Gradients Relevant to Air Quality During DISCOVER-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K. E.; Crawford, J. H.; Loughner, C.; Pfister, G.; Appel, W.

    2016-12-01

    The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument will be the first NASA mission to make atmospheric composition observations from geostationary orbit and partially fulfills the goals of the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission. Using high-resolution model output and in-situ measurements taken during the four deployments of the NASA Earth Venture mission DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality), we use structure function analyses to quantify how often the atmosphere exhibited observationally relevant gradients in several key trace gas species (O3, NO2, CO, SO2, and HCHO), over what length scales they occurred, and over what time periods. These deployments consisted of month-long campaigns over Baltimore, MD (Jul 2011), the San Joaquin Valley, CA (Jan-Feb 2013), Houston, TX (Sep 2013), and Denver, CO (Jul-Aug 2014) and represent a wide variety of emissions sources, meteorological conditions, and air quality conditions. Using the precision requirements defined by the science traceability matrices of these space-borne missions, we assess the detectability and frequency of spatial and temporal gradients relevant to air quality observations. For example, over the Baltimore/DC corridor spatial gradients in NO2 were larger than the prospective precision requirements outlined for TEMPO, and therefore hypothetically observable to the instrument, 95% of the time during July 2011. We additionally compare the spatial and temporal variability of the surface mixing ratio and boundary layer column to that of the tropospheric column.

  13. An integrative multi-platform analysis for discovering biomarkers of osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guodong; Zhang, Wenjuan; Zeng, Huazong; Chen, Lei; Wang, Wenjing; Liu, Jilong; Zhang, Zhiyu; Cai, Zhengdong

    2009-01-01

    SELDI-TOF-MS (Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry) has become an attractive approach for cancer biomarker discovery due to its ability to resolve low mass proteins and high-throughput capability. However, the analytes from mass spectrometry are described only by their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) values without further identification and annotation. To discover potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of osteosarcoma, we designed an integrative workflow combining data sets from both SELDI-TOF-MS and gene microarray analysis. After extracting the information for potential biomarkers from SELDI data and microarray analysis, their associations were further inferred by link-test to identify biomarkers that could likely be used for diagnosis. Immuno-blot analysis was then performed to examine whether the expression of the putative biomarkers were indeed altered in serum from patients with osteosarcoma. Six differentially expressed protein peaks with strong statistical significances were detected by SELDI-TOF-MS. Four of the proteins were up-regulated and two of them were down-regulated. Microarray analysis showed that, compared with an osteoblastic cell line, the expression of 653 genes was changed more than 2 folds in three osteosarcoma cell lines. While expression of 310 genes was increased, expression of the other 343 genes was decreased. The two sets of biomarkers candidates were combined by the link-test statistics, indicating that 13 genes were potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of osteosarcoma. Among these genes, cytochrome c1 (CYC-1) was selected for further experimental validation. Link-test on datasets from both SELDI-TOF-MS and microarray high-throughput analysis can accelerate the identification of tumor biomarkers. The result confirmed that CYC-1 may be a promising biomarker for early diagnosis of osteosarcoma

  14. An artificial neural network to discover hypervelocity stars: candidates in Gaia DR1/TGAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, T.; Rossi, E. M.; Kordopatis, G.; Brown, A. G. A.; Rimoldi, A.; Starkenburg, E.; Youakim, K.; Ashley, R.

    2017-09-01

    The paucity of hypervelocity stars (HVSs) known to date has severely hampered their potential to investigate the stellar population of the Galactic Centre and the Galactic potential. The first Gaia data release (DR1, 2016 September 14) gives an opportunity to increase the current sample. The challenge is the disparity between the expected number of HVSs and that of bound background stars. We have applied a novel data mining algorithm based on machine learning techniques, an artificial neural network, to the Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution catalogue. With no pre-selection of data, we could exclude immediately ˜99 per cent of the stars in the catalogue and find 80 candidates with more than 90 per cent predicted probability to be HVSs, based only on their position, proper motions and parallax. We have cross-checked our findings with other spectroscopic surveys, determining radial velocities for 30 and spectroscopic distances for five candidates. In addition, follow-up observations have been carried out at the Isaac Newton Telescope for 22 stars, for which we obtained radial velocities and distance estimates. We discover 14 stars with a total velocity in the Galactic rest frame >400 km s-1, and five of these have a probability of >50 per cent of being unbound from the Milky Way. Tracing back their orbits in different Galactic potential models, we find one possible unbound HVS with v ˜ 520 km s-1, five bound HVSs and, notably, five runaway stars with median velocity between 400 and 780 km s-1. At the moment, uncertainties in the distance estimates and ages are too large to confirm the nature of our candidates by narrowing down their ejection location, and we wait for future Gaia releases to validate the quality of our sample. This test successfully demonstrates the feasibility of our new data-mining routine.

  15. Untangling Consequential Futures: Discovering Self-Consistent Regional and Global Multi-Sector Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, J. R.; Reed, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts and adaptations to global change largely occur at regional scales, yet they are shaped globally through the interdependent evolution of the climate, energy, agriculture, and industrial systems. It is important for regional actors to account for the impacts of global changes on their systems in a globally consistent but regionally relevant way. This can be challenging because emerging global reference scenarios may not reflect regional challenges. Likewise, regionally specific scenarios may miss important global feedbacks. In this work, we contribute a scenario discovery framework to identify regionally-specific decision relevant scenarios from an ensemble of scenarios of global change. To this end, we generated a large ensemble of time evolving regional, multi-sector global change scenarios by a full factorial sampling of the underlying assumptions in the emerging shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs), using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Statistical and visual analytics were then used to discover which SSP assumptions are particularly consequential for various regions, considering a broad range of time-evolving metrics that encompass multiple spatial scales and sectors. In an illustrative examples, we identify the most important global change narratives to inform water resource scenarios for several geographic regions using the proposed scenario discovery framework. Our results highlight the importance of demographic and agricultural evolution compared to technical improvements in the energy sector. We show that narrowly sampling a few canonical reference scenarios provides a very narrow view of the consequence space, increasing the risk of tacitly ignoring major impacts. Even optimistic scenarios contain unintended, disproportionate regional impacts and intergenerational transfers of consequence. Formulating consequential scenarios of deeply and broadly uncertain futures requires a better exploration of which quantitative measures of

  16. Discovering beaten paths in collaborative ontology-engineering projects using Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, Simon; Singer, Philipp; Strohmaier, Markus; Tudorache, Tania; Musen, Mark A; Noy, Natalya F

    2014-10-01

    Biomedical taxonomies, thesauri and ontologies in the form of the International Classification of Diseases as a taxonomy or the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus as an OWL-based ontology, play a critical role in acquiring, representing and processing information about human health. With increasing adoption and relevance, biomedical ontologies have also significantly increased in size. For example, the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, which is currently under active development by the World Health Organization contains nearly 50,000 classes representing a vast variety of different diseases and causes of death. This evolution in terms of size was accompanied by an evolution in the way ontologies are engineered. Because no single individual has the expertise to develop such large-scale ontologies, ontology-engineering projects have evolved from small-scale efforts involving just a few domain experts to large-scale projects that require effective collaboration between dozens or even hundreds of experts, practitioners and other stakeholders. Understanding the way these different stakeholders collaborate will enable us to improve editing environments that support such collaborations. In this paper, we uncover how large ontology-engineering projects, such as the International Classification of Diseases in its 11th revision, unfold by analyzing usage logs of five different biomedical ontology-engineering projects of varying sizes and scopes using Markov chains. We discover intriguing interaction patterns (e.g., which properties users frequently change after specific given ones) that suggest that large collaborative ontology-engineering projects are governed by a few general principles that determine and drive development. From our analysis, we identify commonalities and differences between different projects that have implications for project managers, ontology editors, developers and contributors working on collaborative ontology

  17. NEWLY DISCOVERED GLOBAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURES IN THE QUIET SUN AT SOLAR MINIMUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zhenguang; Frazin, Richard A.; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward B.; Gombosi, Tamas I. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Vasquez, Alberto M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CONICET-University of Buenos Aires, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, CC 67-Suc 28 (Argentina)

    2012-08-20

    Magnetic loops are building blocks of the closed-field corona. While active region loops are readily seen in images taken at EUV and X-ray wavelengths, quiet-Sun (QS) loops are seldom identifiable and are therefore difficult to study on an individual basis. The first analysis of solar minimum (Carrington Rotation 2077) QS coronal loops utilizing a novel technique called the Michigan Loop Diagnostic Technique (MLDT) is presented. This technique combines Differential Emission Measure Tomography and a potential field source surface (PFSS) model, and consists of tracing PFSS field lines through the tomographic grid on which the local differential emission measure is determined. As a result, the electron temperature T{sub e} and density N{sub e} at each point along each individual field line can be obtained. Using data from STEREO/EUVI and SOHO/MDI, the MLDT identifies two types of QS loops in the corona: so-called up loops in which the temperature increases with height and so-called down loops in which the temperature decreases with height. Up loops are expected, however, down loops are a surprise, and furthermore, they are ubiquitous in the low-latitude corona. Up loops dominate the QS at higher latitudes. The MLDT allows independent determination of the empirical pressure and density scale heights, and the differences between the two remain to be explained. The down loops appear to be a newly discovered property of the solar minimum corona that may shed light on the physics of coronal heating. The results are shown to be robust to the calibration uncertainties of the EUVI instrument.

  18. A newly discovered neurotoxin ADTIQ associated with hyperglycemia and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bingjie; Lin, Fankai; Ullah, Kaleem; Peng, Lei; Ding, Wei; Dai, Rongji; Qing, Hong; Deng, Yulin

    2015-04-10

    Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Number of studies have suggested that methylglyoxal (MGO) induced by diabetes is related to PD. However, very little is known about its molecular mechanism. On other hand, 1-acetyl-6, 7- dihydroxyl-1, 2, 3, 4- Tetrahydroisoquinoline(ADTIQ) is a dopamine (DA)-derived tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ), a novel endogenous neurotoxins, which was first discovered in frozen Parkinson's disease human brain tissue. While ADTIQ precursor methylglyoxal was also found in diabetic patients related to the glucose metabolism and diabetic patients. LC-MS/MS, 1H NMR and infrared spectroscopy identified the structure of ADTIQ. The Annexin V-FITC/PI, MTT and western blot analysis were used to measure the neurotoxicity of ADTIQ. The levels of ADTIQ and methylglyoxal were detected by LC-MS/MS. Here we report the chemical synthesis of ADTIQ, demonstrate its biosynthesis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and investigate its role in the pathogenesis of PD. In addition, a significant increase in the level of ADTIQ was detected in the brains of transgenic mice expressing mutant forms (A53T or A30P) of α-synuclein. ADTIQ also reduced the cell viability and induced mitochondrial apoptosis in dopaminergic cells, suggesting that ADTIQ acts as an endogenous neurotoxin and potentially involved in the pathogenesis of PD. Methylglyoxal, a major byproduct of glucose metabolism and abnormalities in glucose metabolism could influence the levels of ADTIQ. Consistent with the hypothesis, increased levels of ADTIQ and methylglyoxal were detected in the striatum of diabetic rats and SH-SY5Y cells cultured in the presence of high glucose concentrations. Increased levels of ADTIQ could be related with Hyperglycemia and death of dopaminergic neurons. The increased levels of ADTIQ could be a reason of dopamine neuron dysfunction in diabetes. Therefore, ADTIQ may play a key role in increasing the risk for PD in patients with diabetes

  19. Athlome Project Consortium: a concerted effort to discover genomic and other "omic" markers of athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Tanaka, Masashi; Eynon, Nir; Bouchard, Claude; North, Kathryn N; Williams, Alun G; Collins, Malcolm; Moran, Colin N; Britton, Steven L; Fuku, Noriyuki; Ashley, Euan A; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Ahmetov, Ildus I; de Geus, Eco; Alsayrafi, Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Despite numerous attempts to discover genetic variants associated with elite athletic performance, injury predisposition, and elite/world-class athletic status, there has been limited progress to date. Past reliance on candidate gene studies predominantly focusing on genotyping a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms or the insertion/deletion variants in small, often heterogeneous cohorts (i.e., made up of athletes of quite different sport specialties) have not generated the kind of results that could offer solid opportunities to bridge the gap between basic research in exercise sciences and deliverables in biomedicine. A retrospective view of genetic association studies with complex disease traits indicates that transition to hypothesis-free genome-wide approaches will be more fruitful. In studies of complex disease, it is well recognized that the magnitude of genetic association is often smaller than initially anticipated, and, as such, large sample sizes are required to identify the gene effects robustly. A symposium was held in Athens and on the Greek island of Santorini from 14-17 May 2015 to review the main findings in exercise genetics and genomics and to explore promising trends and possibilities. The symposium also offered a forum for the development of a position stand (the Santorini Declaration). Among the participants, many were involved in ongoing collaborative studies (e.g., ELITE, GAMES, Gene SMART, GENESIS, and POWERGENE). A consensus emerged among participants that it would be advantageous to bring together all current studies and those recently launched into one new large collaborative initiative, which was subsequently named the Athlome Project Consortium. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF A NEWLY DISCOVERED UX Ori STAR IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Sargent, B.; Boyer, M. L.; Meixner, M.; Roman-Duval, J.; Sewilo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The LMC star, SSTISAGE1C J050756.44-703453.9, was first noticed during a survey of EROS-2 light curves for stars with large irregular brightness variations typical of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) class. However, the visible spectrum showing emission lines including the Balmer and Paschen series as well as many Fe II lines is emphatically not that of an RCB star. This star has all of the characteristics of a typical UX Ori star. It has a spectral type of approximately A2 and has excited an H II region in its vicinity. However, if it is an LMC member, then it is very luminous for a Herbig Ae/Be star. It shows irregular drops in brightness of up to 2 mag, and displays the reddening and 'blueing' typical of this class of stars. Its spectrum, showing a combination of emission and absorption lines, is typical of a UX Ori star that is in a decline caused by obscuration from the circumstellar dust. SSTISAGE1C J050756.44-703453.9 has a strong IR excess and significant emission is present out to 500 μm. Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling of the spectral energy distribution requires that SSTISAGE1C J050756.44-703453.9 have both a dusty disk as well as a large extended diffuse envelope to fit both the mid- and far-IR dust emission. This star is a new member of the UX Ori subclass of the Herbig Ae/Be stars and only the second such star to be discovered in the LMC.

  1. The Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae Discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Sullivan, M.; McGuire, K.; Hook, I. M.; Nugent, P. E.; Howell, D. A.; Arcavi, I.; Botyanszki, J.; Cenko, Stephen Bradley; DeRose, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of 82 low-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We determine star-formation rates, gas-phase stellar metallicities, and stellar masses and ages of these objects. As expected, strong correlations between the SN Ia light-curve width (stretch) and the host age mass metallicity are found: fainter, faster-declining events tend to be hosted by older massive metal-rich galaxies. There is some evidence that redder SNe Ia explode in higher metallicity galaxies, but we found no relation between the SN colour and host galaxy extinction based on the Balmer decrement, suggesting that the colour variation of these SNe does not primarily arise from this source. SNe Ia in higher-mass metallicity galaxies also appear brighter after stretch colour corrections than their counterparts in lower mass hosts, and the stronger correlation is with gas-phase metallicity suggesting this may be the more important variable. We also compared the host stellar mass distribution to that in galaxy targeted SN surveys and the high-redshift untargeted Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). SNLS has many more low mass galaxies, while the targeted searches have fewer. This can be explained by an evolution in the galaxy stellar mass function, coupled with a SN delay-time distribution proportional to t1. Finally, we found no significant difference in the mass--metallicity relation of our SN Ia hosts compared to field galaxies, suggesting any metallicity effect on the SN Ia rate is small.

  2. Nitroproteins in Human Astrocytomas Discovered by Gel Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang; Li, Jianglin; Guo, Tianyao; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Maoyu; Sang, Shushan; Li, Xuejun; Desiderio, Dominic M.; Zhan, Xianquan

    2015-12-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is involved in the pathogenesis of highly fatal astrocytomas, a type of brain cancer. To understand the molecular mechanisms of astrocytomas and to discover new biomarkers/therapeutic targets, we sought to identify nitroproteins in human astrocytoma tissue. Anti-nitrotyrosine immunoreaction-positive proteins from a high-grade astrocytoma tissue were detected with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE)-based nitrotyrosine immunoblots, and identified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fifty-seven nitrotyrosine immunopositive protein spots were detected. A total of 870 proteins (nitrated and non-nitrated) in nitrotyrosine-immunopositive 2D gel spots were identified, and 18 nitroproteins and their 20 nitrotyrosine sites were identified with MS/MS analysis. These nitroproteins participate in multiple processes, including drug-resistance, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and apoptosis, immune response, phenotypic dedifferentiation, cell migration, and metastasis. Among those nitroproteins that might play a role in astrocytomas was nitro-sorcin, which is involved in drug resistance and metastasis and might play a role in the spread and treatment of an astrocytoma. Semiquantitative immune-based measurements of different sorcin expressions were found among different grades of astrocytomas relative to controls, and a semiquantitative increased nitration level in high-grade astrocytoma relative to control. Nitro-β-tubulin functions in cytoskeleton and cell migration. Semiquantitative immunoreactivity of β-tubulin showed increased expression among different grades of astrocytomas relative to controls and semiquantitatively increased nitration level in high-grade astrocytoma relative to control. Each nitroprotein was rationalized and related to the corresponding functional system to provide new insights into tyrosine nitration and its potential role in the

  3. Finding Long Lost Lexell's Comet: The Fate of the First Discovered Near-Earth Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Wiegert, Paul A.; Hui, Man-To

    2018-04-01

    Jupiter-family Comet D/1770 L1 (Lexell) was the first discovered Near-Earth Object (NEO) and passed the Earth on 1770 July 1 at a recorded distance of 0.015 au. The comet was subsequently lost due to unfavorable observing circumstances during its next apparition followed by a close encounter with Jupiter in 1779. Since then, the fate of D/Lexell has attracted interest from the scientific community, and now we revisit this long-standing question. We investigate the dynamical evolution of D/Lexell based on a set of orbits recalculated using the observations made by Charles Messier, the comet’s discoverer, and find that there is a 98% chance that D/Lexell remains in the solar system by the year of 2000. This finding remains valid even if a moderate non-gravitational effect is imposed. Messier’s observations also suggest that the comet is one of the largest known near-Earth comets, with a nucleus of ≳10 km in diameter. This implies that the comet should have been detected by contemporary NEO surveys regardless of its activity level if it has remained in the inner solar system. We identify asteroid 2010 JL33 as a possible descendant of D/Lexell, with a 0.8% probability of chance alignment, but a direct orbital linkage of the two bodies has not been successfully accomplished. We also use the recalculated orbit to investigate the meteors potentially originating from D/Lexell. While no associated meteors have been unambiguously detected, we show that meteor observations can be used to better constrain the orbit of D/Lexell despite the comet being long lost.

  4. The "Planet Earth Week": a National Scientific Festival helping Italy Discover Geosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, S.; Coccioni, R.

    2017-12-01

    The "Planet Earth Week- Italy Discovering Geosciences: a More Informed Society is a More Engaged Society" (www.settimanaterra.org) is a science festival that involves the whole of the Italian Regions: founded in 2012, it has become the largest event of Italian Geosciences and one of the biggest European science festivals. During a week in October several locations distributed throughout the Country (see map) are animated by events, called "Geoeventi", to disseminate geosciences to the masses and deliver science education by means of a wide range of activities: hiking, walking in city and town centers, open-door at museums and research centers, guided tours, exhibitions, educational and experimental workshops for children and young people, music and art performances, food and wine events, lectures, conferences, round tables. Universities and colleges, research centers, local Authorities, cultural and scientific associations, parks and museums, professionals organize the Geoeventi. The festival aims at bringing adults and young people to Geosciences, conveying enthusiasm for scientific research and discoveries, promoting sustainable cultural tourism, aware of environmental values and distributed all over Italy. The Geoeventi shed light both on the most spectacular and on the less known geological sites, which are often a stone's throw from home. The Planet Earth Week is growing year after year: the 2016 edition proposed 310 Geoeventi, 70 more than in 2015. The number of places involved in the project also increased and rose from 180 in 2015 to 230 in 2016. This initiative, that is also becoming a significant economic driver for many small companies active in the field of science divulgation, is analyzed, evaluated and put in a transnational network perspective.

  5. Long-term outcome of otherwise healthy individuals with incidentally discovered borderline thrombocytopenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Stasi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The long-term outcome of individuals with mild degrees of thrombocytopenia is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a prospective study conducted between August 1992 and December 2002, 260 apparently healthy individuals with incidentally discovered platelet counts between 100 x 10(9/l and 150 x 10(9/l were monitored for 6 mo to determine whether their condition persisted. The monitoring period was completed in 217 cases, of whom 191 (88% maintained stable platelet counts. These 191 individuals were included in a long-term follow-up study to gain knowledge of their natural history. With a median time of observation of 64 mo, the thrombocytopenia resolved spontaneously or persisted with no other disorders becoming apparent in 64% of cases. The most frequent event during the study period was the subsequent development of an autoimmune disease. The 10-y probability of developing idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP, as defined by platelet counts persistently below 100 x 10(9/l, was 6.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0%-12.0%. The 10-y probability of developing autoimmune disorders other than ITP was 12.0% (95% CI: 6.9%-20.8%. Most of the cases (85% of autoimmune disease occurred in women. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy individuals with a sustained platelet count between 100 x 10(9/l and 150 x 10(9/l have a 10-y probability of developing autoimmune disorders of 12%. Further investigation is required to establish whether this risk is higher than in the general population and whether an intensive follow-up results in an improvement of prognosis.

  6. A framework with Cucho algorithm for discovering regular plans in mobile clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiligaridis, John

    2017-09-01

    In a mobile computing system, broadcasting has become a very interesting and challenging research issue. The server continuously broadcasts data to mobile users; the data can be inserted into customized size relations and broadcasted as Regular Broadcast Plan (RBP) with multiple channels. Two algorithms, given the data size for each provided service, the Basic Regular (BRA) and the Partition Value Algorithm (PVA) can provide a static and dynamic RBP construction with multiple constraints solutions respectively. Servers have to define the data size of the services and can provide a feasible RBP working with many broadcasting plan operations. The operations become more complicated when there are many kinds of services and the sizes of data sets are unknown to the server. To that end a framework has been developed that also gives the ability to select low or high capacity channels for servicing. Theorems with new analytical results can provide direct conditions that can state the existence of solutions for the RBP problem with the compound criterion. Two kinds of solutions are provided: the equal and the non equal subrelation solutions. The Cucho Search Algorithm (CS) with the Levy flight behavior has been selected for the optimization. The CS for RBP (CSRP) is developed applying the theorems to the discovery of RBPs. An additional change to CS has been made in order to increase the local search. The CS can also discover RBPs with the minimum number of channels. From all the above modern servers can be upgraded with these possibilities in regards to RBPs discovery with fewer channels.

  7. Walther Flemming on histology in medicine 1878: a newly discovered letter to his father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Paul A; Zacharias, Helmut

    2009-04-01

    Histology is a child of the 19th century, and its status in medicine was long in doubt. Was "microscopic anatomy" to be viewed as a refinement of the traditional discipline or as a technically complex subject of doubtful practical value? This was one of the questions that faced the commission charged with reforming examinations in German medical schools in 1878. One of its members, Carl Friedrich Flemming [1799-1880], was able to refer this matter to an acknowledged expert, his son Walther Flemming, who was Professor of Anatomy and Histology at the University of Kiel. Walther's views are contained in a letter that was recently discovered among Carl Friedrich's papers held in the State Library of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Schwerin. To the best of our knowledge, this letter is the only surviving piece of personal correspondence from the hand of Walther Flemming, one of the most distinguished biologists of his time. The original text, together with an annotated English translation, is published here for the first time. The letter throws new light on Flemming's attitudes to medical education, and also illuminates his relationship with his father, himself a figure of considerable stature in psychiatric medicine in 19th-century Germany. The younger Flemming [1843-1905], an acknowledged master of microscopy, made his most distinguished contributions to the field we now call cell biology. In addition to the terms chromatin and mitosis, we owe to him the first comprehensive account of the latter, as well as the fundamental insight that meiosis involves two successive divisions.

  8. Whole-Genome Sequencing Coupled to Imputation Discovers Genetic Signals for Anthropometric Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Süveges, Dániel; Min, Josine L

    2017-01-01

    Deep sequence-based imputation can enhance the discovery power of genome-wide association studies by assessing previously unexplored variation across the common- and low-frequency spectra. We applied a hybrid whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and deep imputation approach to examine the broader alleli...

  9. Discovering Shared Experiences of Second Generation Community College Employees: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studebaker, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The second generation community college employee had not been a target population of any previous research in the field of higher education. This study added to a broader understanding of employees, their various characteristics, and the implications of those characteristics. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory defining the…

  10. Attribute and topology based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, Reginald N.

    2016-01-19

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  11. Antibiosis and tolerance discovered in USDA-ARS sorghums resistant to the sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, was discovered infesting grain sorghum near Beaumont, TX, close to the Texas and Louisiana state line a few miles inland from the Gulf coast in the late summer of 2013, and has been a perennial pest of sorghum through 2016. Our research was aimed at identif...

  12. Association genetics of growth and adaptive traits in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using whole-exome-discovered polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengmeng Lu; Konstantin V. Krutovsky; C. Dana Nelson; Jason B. West; Nathalie A. Reilly; Carol A. Loopstra

    2017-01-01

    In the USA, forest genetics research began over 100 years ago and loblolly pine breeding programs were established in the 1950s. However, the genetics underlying complex traits of loblolly pine remains to be discovered. To address this, adaptive and growth traits were measured and analyzed in a clonally tested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) population. Over 2.8 million...

  13. Undergraduates Discovering Folds in ''Flat'' Strata: An Unusual Undergraduate Geology Field Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduates learned to measure, map, and interpret bedding plane attitudes during a semesterlong geology field methods course in a field area where strata dip less than 98. Despite the low dip of the strata, 2011 field course students discovered a half-kilometer-wide structural basin by using digital levels and Brunton pocket transits to…

  14. Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

  15. “Fine-Scale Application of the coupled WRF-CMAQ System to the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ Campaign”

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DISCOVER-AQ project (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality), is a joint collaboration between NASA, U.S. EPA and a number of other local organizations with the goal of characterizing air quality in ...

  16. Newly discovered tachykinins raise new questions about their peripheral roles and the tachykinin nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patacchini, Riccardo; Lecci, Alessandro; Holzer, Peter; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2004-01-01

    The tachykinin family has recently been extended by the discovery of a third tachykinin gene encoding previously unknown mammalian tachykinins (hemokinin 1, endokinin A and endokinin B) that have a widespread peripheral distribution and a tachykinin NK(1) receptor selectivity. This and the identification of other tachykinin-like peptides such as C14TKL-1 and virokinin raise many questions about the roles played by tachykinins in peripheral tissues and render terms such as 'neurokinins' and 'SP receptor' inappropriate.

  17. The Role of Newly Discovered Exotoxin (S Toxin) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    sacrificed by cervic SPurified toxin A wee used to immuniss rabbits and a dislocation and blood was obtained by cardiac punc. sheop as previously described...net ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2 (7, 8/). This mechanism rate of Na reabsorption (18). The composition of the serosal is similar to~ that...of the I. has been shown to The mucosal addition of diphtheria toxin to bladders in approximate the .na of the net C1 and HCO3 reabsorption (17, Na

  18. A new hard X-ray source discovered by INTEGRAL: IGR J16442-554

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    . The IBIS/ISGRI spectrum in the 20-100 keV energy range is well described by a power-law with photon index 2.2+/-0.5. The 20-100 keV flux is 1.2e-10 erg/cm^2/s. The light curve exhibits pronounced variability on a few hours time scale. We did not find any previously known X-ray source in the Simbad database...

  19. Wootz Crucible Steel: A Newly Discovered Production Site in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Srinivasan

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available During the course of field investigations of copper mining and smelting in South India, the author of this paper came across a previously unrecorded archaeometallurgical site in Mel-siruvalur, South Arcot district, Tamil Nadu, which investigations have confinned was a production centre for wootz crucible steel in the Deccan. The find of this production centre supports the idea that wootz steel production was relatiYely widespread in South India, and extends the known horizons of this technology further.

  20. Discovering miRNA regulatory networks in Holt-Oram Syndrome using a Zebrafish model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina D'Aurizio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in the post- transcriptional regulation of gene expression. miRNAs are involved in the regulation of many biological processes such as differentiation, apoptosis and cell proliferation. miRNAs are expressed in embryonic, postnatal, and adult hearts and they have a key role in the regulation of gene expression during cardiovascular development and disease. Aberrant expression of miRNAs is associated with abnormal cardiac cell differentiation and dysfunction. Tbx5 is a member of the T-box gene family which acts as transcription factor involved in the vertebrate heart development. Alteration of Tbx5 level affects the expression of hundreds of genes. Haploinsufficiency and gene duplication of Tbx5 are at the basis of the cardiac abnormalities associated with Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS. Recent data indicate that miRNAs might be an important part of the regulatory circuit through which Tbx5 controls heart development. Using high-throughput technology we characterized genome-widely the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in WT and Tbx5 depleted zebrafish embryos at two developmental time points, 24 and 48 hours post fertilization (hpf. We found that several miRNAs which are potential effectors of Tbx5 are differentially expressed, some of them are already known to be involved in cardiac development and functions, such as miR-30, miR-34, miR-190, miR-21. We performed an integrated analysis of miRNA expression data with gene expression profiles to refine computational target prediction approaches by means of the inversely correlation of miRNA-mRNA expressions. Interestingly these targets have roles in cardiac contractility, cardiomyocyte proliferation/apoptosis and valve formation which are crucial functions regulated by Tbx5. This approach allowed to discover complex regulatory circuits involving novel miRNAs and protein coding genes not considered before in the HOS such as miR-34a and