Broersma, A.; Jansen, Carel
This study aimed to discover what specific beliefs of students at a South African university should be addressed when trying to persuade them to go for HIV counselling and testing (HCT). The participants were 113 students from a previously disadvantaged university. The students completed a
Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...
The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...
There are vital farming requisites like recognition of indigenous knowledge, lack of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on sustainable resource use by disadvantaged land users. The need to form holistic approaches that entails all elements of sustainability is vital for the area development ...
:200). The South African education .... related ideal would determine the principals' morale, motivation and job satisfaction. This conception of an .... scribing these verbatim, and presenting direct quotes from interviews in the results. The results.
The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basi...
Full Text Available The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT. Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research selfefficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.
Abrahams, Fatima; Jano, Rukhsana; van Lill, Burger
During the apartheid years in South Africa, career guidance amongst disadvantaged learners was largely absent and, for many, career choices were limited and governed by politics. Despite South Africa having celebrated 20 years of democracy, this situation has improved only slightly. Therefore, the aims of the study were to determine the factors…
Morris-Paxton, Angela A.; Van Lingen, Johanna M.; Elkonin, Diane
Objective: The aim of this study was to measure possible impacts of a salutogenic lifestyle education programme on wellness and academic outcomes in a group of socioeconomically disadvantaged students in the first year of higher education. Setting: University in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was…
Hahn, Lisa; Rigby, Ashlee; Galletly, Cherrie
This study aimed to identify factors associated with the high rates of smoking amongst people with psychosis living in a disadvantaged region in Adelaide, South Australia. Data were collected from 402 people with psychosis, aged 18-64 years, who lived in the northern suburbs of Adelaide. This area is disadvantaged on many measures of socioeconomic well-being and people living in this region have higher rates of smoking compared to the general Australian population. We hypothesised that whilst tobacco use by people with psychosis living in this region was primarily associated with mental illness, factors related to social disadvantage also contributed to the high rates of smoking. Approximately 74% of men and 71% of women with psychotic disorders living in the northern suburbs of Adelaide were current smokers. Factors such as unemployment, lower levels of education and receiving government welfare, factors known to be associated with smoking in the general population, were more prevalent in the northern region. Smokers with psychosis were less likely to participate in recreational programs and physical activity, and more likely to use illicit substances and be a victim of crime. They had poorer health and financial outcomes than non-smokers. There were some gender differences: for men with psychosis, employment and having a post-school qualification decreased the risk of smoking while cannabis use increased the risk; for women with psychosis, a diagnosis of alcohol abuse/dependence, using cannabis and being sedentary were risk factors for smoking, while attending recreational programs reduced this risk. Smoking rates were strikingly high in both men and women, and particularly high in women when compared with previous research. Our study shows that the risk of smoking is increased by factors related to the social disadvantage of living in the northern Adelaide region. Smoking cessation interventions for people with mental illness should take into account the social
Full Text Available Youth and Development 2011/ Vol. 9 No.2, pp 14-34 Software usage IN unsupervised Digital Doorway Computing Environments IN disadvantaged South African communities: Focusing on youthful users Kim Gush1 AND M.R. (Ruth) De Villiers2 1CSIR. Meraka...
Full Text Available The association between mental illness and poor physical health and socioeconomic outcomes has been well established. In the twenty-first century, the challenge of how mental illnesses such as psychosis are managed in the provision of public health services remains complex. Developing effective clinical mental health support and interventions for individuals requires a coordinated and robust mental health system supported by social as well as health policy that places a priority on addressing socioeconomic disadvantage in mental health cohorts. This paper thus examines the complex relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage, family/social supports, physical health and health service utilisation in a community sample of 402 participants diagnosed with psychosis. The paper utilises quantitative data collected from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis research project conducted in a socioeconomically disadvantaged region of Adelaide, South Australia. Participants (42% female provided information about socio-economic status, education, employment, physical health, contact with family and friends, and health service utilisation. The paper highlights that socio-economic disadvantage is related to increased self-reported use of emergency departments, decreased use of general practitioners for mental health reasons, higher body mass index, less family contact and less social support. In particular, the paper explores the multifaceted relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health confronting individuals with psychosis, highlighting the complex link between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health. It emphasizes that mental health service usage for those with higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage differs from those experiencing lower levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. The paper also stresses that the development of health policy and practice that seeks to redress the socioeconomic and health inequalities created by
Tervonen, Hanna E; Aranda, Sanchia; Roder, David; You, Hui; Walton, Richard; Morrell, Stephen; Baker, Deborah; Currow, David C
Public concerns are commonly expressed about widening health gaps. This cohort study examines variations and trends in cancer survival by socio-economic disadvantage, geographical remoteness and country of birth in an Australian population over a 30-year period. Data for cases diagnosed in New South Wales (NSW) in 1980-2008 (n = 651,245) were extracted from the population-based NSW Cancer Registry. Competing risk regression models, using the Fine & Gray method, were used for comparative analyses to estimate sub-hazard ratios (SHR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) among people diagnosed with cancer. Increased risk of cancer death was associated with living in the most socio-economically disadvantaged areas compared with the least disadvantaged areas (SHR 1.15, 95% CI 1.13-1.17), and in outer regional/remote areas compared with major cities (SHR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.06). People born outside Australia had a similar or lower risk of cancer death than Australian-born (SHR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-1.01 and SHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.90-0.92 for people born in other English and non-English speaking countries, respectively). An increasing comparative risk of cancer death was observed over time when comparing the most with the least socio-economically disadvantaged areas (SHR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10 for 1980-1989; SHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.12-1.17 for 1990-1999; and SHR 1.24, 95% CI 1.21-1.27 for 2000-2008; p economic disadvantage that warrants a policy response and further examination of reasons behind these disparities.
Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these…
Isaacs, Eslyn B. H.; Friedrich, Christian
It is estimated that 50-70% of all South African businesses are family-owned and that these businesses form the backbone of the South African economy, their qualities providing stability and resilience in the changing society of the nation. Succession is one of the biggest challenges for family business owners. Research shows that only 33% of all…
Rajaraman, Divya; Correa, Natasha; Punthakee, Zubin; Lear, Scott A; Jayachitra, Krishnaswamy G; Vaz, Mario; Swaminathan, Sumathi
The purpose of this study was to understand perceived benefits, facilitators, disadvantages, and barriers for physical activity among South Asian adolescents in India and Canada. Thirteen focus group discussions with South Asian (origin) adolescent boys and girls of different nutritional status and socioeconomic status in rural and urban India and urban Canada. Across the groups, fitness and 'energy' were perceived to be major benefits of physical activity. In India, better academic performance was highlighted, while health benefits were well detailed in Canadian groups. In all settings, friends, family, and teachers were perceived as facilitators of as well as barriers to physical activity. Lack of a safe space to play was a major concern for urban adolescents, while academic pressures and preference for other sedentary recreational activities were common barriers across all groups. Girls were less likely than boys to be interested in physical activity, with girls' participation in India further limited by societal restrictions. The study suggests key areas for promotion of physical activity among South Asian adolescents: balance between academic pressure and opportunities for physical activity, especially in India; urban planning for a built environment conducive to physical activity; and gender-sensitive programming to promote girls' activity which also addresses culture-specific barriers.
Howie, Sarah; Scherman, Vanessa; Venter, Elsie
South Africa's education system is still deep in the throes of reform under its third Minister of Education since 1994. Poor communities, in particular those of rural Africans, bear the brunt of the past inequalities. The challenge was to explore the extent of the "gap" in students' scores by comparing the advantaged and disadvantaged…
Rosso, Edoardo; McGrath, Richard
Issue addressed: Recently arrived migrants and refugees from a culturally and linguistically diverse background (CALD) may be particularly vulnerable to social exclusion. Participation in sport is endorsed as a vehicle to ease the resettlement process; however, in Australia, this is often thought as a simple matter of integration into existing sport structures (e.g. clubs). This approach fails to place actual community needs at the centre of sport engagement efforts. Methods: A consultation framework was established with South Australian CALD community leaders and organisations to scope needs for community-based alternatives to participation in traditional sport (e.g. clubs), co-design a suitable community sport program and pilot it in five communities. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted with participants, community representatives, stakeholders and volunteers. Results: Regular, free soccer activities engaged 263 young people from a great variety of nationalities, including over 50% refugees, in secondary state school and community-based sites. Conclusion: Alternative community sport programs can provide a basic but valuable forum to promote physical activity and associated well being in CALD and refugee communities. So what?: Alternative approaches can extend the health benefits of sport participation to disadvantaged children and youth who are excluded from traditional sport participation opportunities.
Buthelezi, T.; Alexander, D.; Seabi, J.
The study sought to understand adolescents' perceived career challenges and needs in a disadvantaged context using the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT). A qualitative research design based on semi-structured interviews was conducted with 12 Grade 9 and Grade 10 learners from a disadvantaged background. The results of the study indicated a…
den Boon, Saskia; van Lill, Schalk W. P.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Enarson, Donald A.; Verver, Suzanne; Bateman, Eric D.; Irusen, Elvis; Lombard, Carl J.; White, Neil W.; de Villiers, Christine; Beyers, Nulda
The tuberculosis (TB) notification rate is high and increasing in 2 communities in Cape Town, South Africa. In 2002, we conducted a prevalence survey among adults > or = 15 years of age to determine the TB prevalence rate; 15% of households in these communities were randomly sampled. All persons
Full Text Available Abstract Background Crucial connections between sexual network structure and the distribution of HIV remain inadequately understood, especially in regard to the role of concurrency and age disparity in relationships, and how these network characteristics correlate with each other and other risk factors. Social desirability bias and inaccurate recall are obstacles to obtaining valid, detailed information about sexual behaviour and relationship histories. Therefore, this study aims to use novel research methods in order to determine whether HIV status is associated with age-disparity and sexual connectedness as well as establish the primary behavioural and socio-demographic predictors of the egocentric and community sexual network structures. Method/Design We will conduct a cross-sectional survey that uses a questionnaire exploring one-year sexual histories, with a focus on timing and age disparity of relationships, as well as other risk factors such as unprotected intercourse and the use of alcohol and recreational drugs. The questionnaire will be administered in a safe and confidential mobile interview space, using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI technology on touch screen computers. The ACASI features a choice of languages and visual feedback of temporal information. The survey will be administered in three peri-urban disadvantaged communities in the greater Cape Town area with a high burden of HIV. The study communities participated in a previous TB/HIV study, from which HIV test results will be anonymously linked to the survey dataset. Statistical analyses of the data will include descriptive statistics, linear mixed-effects models for the inter- and intra-subject variability in the age difference between sexual partners, survival analysis for correlated event times to model concurrency patterns, and logistic regression for association of HIV status with age disparity and sexual connectedness. Discussion This study design is
Angela Diane Crocker
Full Text Available Many first-year students in the School of Law at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College, who have been disadvantaged by a poor primary and secondary education, exhibit poor legal writing skills. Over a period of four years, in order to address this urgent need for legal writing instruction, the School of Law introduced two successive legal writing interventions. The first intervention was the Concise Writing Programme, followed by the Integrated Skills in Context Programme. The Concise Writing Programme focused on English writing skills and grammar in the hope that first-year law students would be able to transfer these generic writing skills to the more specific legal discourse within which they were learning to operate. The Law School reviewed the success of this initial programme and found that students who took part in the programme not only lacked the motivation to learn generic English writing skills, but that they also did not find it easy to transfer these skills to the more specific legal writing environment. The Law School then implemented a second legal writing intervention – The Integrated Skills in Context Programme. This programme acknowledged the fact that legal writing has a multi-faceted nature, encompassing legal analysis and application, as well as logical sequencing and argument, all of which could not be taught in a vacuum, particularly when most of the student base was largely unfamiliar with any form of legal discourse and many had English as a second language. This paper recognises that there is no silver bullet to improving the legal writing skills of these students. The reality is that it will take hard work as well as financial incentives to make a difference to these students' legal writing skills. Our students need intensive one-on-one attention by qualified academics, and this means that those doing the instruction must be recognised and adequately compensated.
Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study.
Gall, Stefanie; Müller, Ivan; Walter, Cheryl; Seelig, Harald; Steenkamp, Liana; Pühse, Uwe; du Randt, Rosa; Smith, Danielle; Adams, Larissa; Nqweniso, Siphesihle; Yap, Peiling; Ludyga, Sebastian; Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Gerber, Markus
Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children's capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES), parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children. The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8-12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores), and lower grip strength (all pselective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (pattention and thereby impede their academic performance. Poor academic achievement will make it difficult for children to realize their full potential, perpetuating a vicious cycle of poverty and poor health. ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN68411960.
Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study.
Full Text Available Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children's capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES, parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children.The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8-12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement.Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores, and lower grip strength (all p<0.05. In a multiple regression model, low selective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.05 and low shuttle run performance (p<0.001, whereas higher academic achievement was observed in children without soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.001 and with higher shuttle run performance (p<0.05.Soil-transmitted helminth infections and low physical fitness appear to hamper children's capacity to pay attention
Schalkwyk, van H.D.; Groenewald, J.A.; Fraser, G.C.G.; Obi, A.; Tilburg, van A.
This book assesses the institutional, technical and market constraints as well as opportunities for smallholders, notably, emerging farmers in disadvantaged areas such as the former homelands of South Africa. Emerging farmers are previously disadvantaged black people who started or will start their
required during their absence. The use of family labour may reduce production cost and be of advantage to communal farming as cost for labour could be channeled to other production requisites (Letsoalo, 2000). 3.9 Accessibility of sufficient markets. The availability of market opportunities remains the external elements.
Wouters, Edwin; van Rensburg, H C J; Meulemans, H
Hitherto, the story of HIV/AIDS in South Africa is, to a large extent, one of lost opportunities. Whereas the country has one of the worst epidemics in the world, consecutive national AIDS strategies have been repeatedly marked by failure over almost three decades. Understandably, South Africa's most recent HIV/AIDS policy, the HIV & AIDS and STI Strategic Plan for South Africa, 2007-2011 (NSP), has been greeted with general acclaim. However, what are its real prospects of success against the backdrop of the repeated failures of the past? The first objective of this review is to systematically identify the core reasons for past policy failures. Using a comprehensive analytical framework, this article presents a systematic review of the literature on postapartheid AIDS policy in South Africa. The analysis demonstrates that a complex interplay among the content, context, actors and process of AIDS policy created a gap between policy making and policy implementation, which rendered near-ideal AIDS policies ineffective. Secondly, we evaluate the chances of success of the current NSP by examining both the policy-making phase and the resulting policy document in light of the reasons for past policy failures. Our analysis shows that the NSP contains dynamic and comprehensive policy content, sensitive to the socio-economic and cultural dimensions of HIV/AIDS. However, many of the political actors that hampered treatment implementation in the past, and who deepened the gap between government and civil society, are still in office. Monetary and human resource shortages also create a policy context that is infertile for the implementation of a comprehensive HIV/AIDS strategy, as envisaged in the NSP. Finally, these health system restrictions have a clear negative impact on the process of policy implementation. Without the mobilization of people living with HIV/AIDS and their communities, the NSP will be ineffective in bridging the gap between policy intentions and policy
Luschei, Thomas F.; Vega, Laura
The United States has long struggled with the challenge of educating children experiencing extreme disadvantage, including the poor, ethnic and racial minorities, English language learners, and foster children. In this article, we argue that solutions to this problem lie not to the east or west, but to the south. Specifically, we offer the…
Wikström, Per-Olof H.; Treiber, Kyle
In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features – i.e., their exposure – which leads to their interaction. PMID:27524829
Jaime R. Pagán-Jiménez
Full Text Available This is the first report of the occurrence of wild Zamia pumila L. Zamiaceae populations on various volcanic substrates in the piedmont area of south central Puerto Rico. Data acquisition and its field confirmation were possible after the identification of toponymic names in old and current maps, and historic documents of the island in which one of the indigenous names for the genus (marunguey [marungüey] or marungueyes has been used for naming some localities. These preliminary data have deep implications for paleo- and neoethnobotanical research, and for population ecology of the species in Puerto Rico, because they expand the traditionally accepted range for the species on the island. Zamia has been described as one of the main food plants among pre- and post-Columbian inhabitants in two islands of the Greater Antilles, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, where the most sophisticated pre-Columbian society of the Antilles, the Taínos, emerged. Our findings suggest that Zamia might have been more available to humans, as a food source, than previously thought.
Conceição, Emilyn Costa; Rastogi, Nalin; Couvin, David; Lopes, Maria Luíza; Furlaneto, Ismari Perini; Gomes, Harrison Magdinier; Vasconcellos, Sidra Ezídio Gonçalves; Suffys, Philip Noel; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; de Sousa, Maísa Silva; Sola, Christophe; de Paula Souza E Guimarães, Ricardo José; Duarte, Rafael Silva; Batista Lima, Karla Valéria
There is only scarce information available on genotypic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical isolates circulating in the Northern part of Brazil, a relatively neglected region regarding research on tuberculosis. We therefore characterized 980 MTBC clinical isolates from the state of Pará, by spoligotyping and data was compared with patterns from around the world, besides analyzing drug susceptibility, and collecting sociodemographic data. We also performed 24 loci MIRU-VNTR typing to evaluate phylogenetic inferences among the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage strains. The Geographic Information System analyses were performed to generate a descriptive visualization of MTBC strain distribution in the region. A total of 249 different spoligopatterns primarily belonging to evolutionary recent Euro-American lineages, as well as Central-Asian, Manu and ancestral EAI lineages, were identified, in addition to strains with reportedly unknown lineage signatures. The most frequent lineages were Latin American Mediterranean, T and Haarlem. Interestingly, EAI lineage strains were found in a significantly higher proportion in comparison with previous studies from South America. Regarding EAI lineage, the absence of spacers 4-9 and 23-24 co-related to 24 loci MIRU-VNTRs may suggest a close evolutionary relationship between such strains in Pará and those prevalent in Mozambique, which might have contributed to the genetic diversity of MTBC strains in this region. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Post-modern career assessment for traditionally disadvantaged South African learners: Moving away from the 'expert opinion' ... Perspectives in Education ... This article explores the perceptions of learners from a disadvantaged community regarding the limitations and advantages of traditional and post-modern career ...
... of South Africa. Findings reveal that for numerous reasons, teachers are too overwhelmed by contextual challenges to seek creative ways to overcome disadvantage. Keywords: English First Additional Language, Re-imagining, Teacher's Role, Quality of Learning and Teaching, Disadvantaged Contexts, Agency ...
Dec 14, 2010 ... South African competition policy promotes both fair market practices and economic empowerment for previously disadvantaged racial groups. Competition law in South Africa acknowledges that ensuring open, free, and competitive markets today requires addressing the injustices of the past. The law is ...
Maurice Guiaux; Annette Roest; Jurjen Iedema
Original title: Voorbestemd tot achterstand? Are children who grow up in poverty destined for disadvantage? Are they still poor 25 years later, when they are adults, and are they also more socially excluded in adulthood? And if so, why? This publication explores the extent to which
Jaime R. Pagán-Jiménez; Julio C. Lazcano-Lara
This is the first report of the occurrence of wild Zamia pumila L. Zamiaceae populations on various volcanic substrates in the piedmont area of south central Puerto Rico. Data acquisition and its field confirmation were possible after the identification of toponymic names in old and current maps, and historic documents of the island in which one of the indigenous names for the genus (marunguey [marungüey] or marungueyes) has been used for naming some localities. These preliminary data have de...
Full Text Available To assess the delivery outcome in a pregnancy with a previous unexplained intra-uterine death by elective induction of labour at term.An audit of the pregnancy outcome of all women within the catchment area with a current singleton pregnancy; and a previous unexplained or unexplored singleton fetal demise ≥24 weeks (or 500 grams birth weight if gestation unknown after planned routine induction of labour at full term (39-40 weeks.During the audit period, 306 patients with a previous intra-uterine fetal death were referred for further management. Of these, 161 had a clear indication for earlier intervention and were excluded from the protocol. Of the remaining 145 patients, 9 met further exclusion criteria and there were 2 patients who defaulted. Forty-two of the remaining study patients (with no known previous medical problems developed complications during their antenatal course that necessitated a change in clinical management and earlier (<39 weeks delivery. Of the remaining 92 patients in the audit, 47 (51% went into spontaneous labour before their induction date; all 92 women delivered without major complications. There were no intra-uterine deaths prior to induction.Careful follow up at a high risk clinic identifies new or concealed maternal or fetal complications in 29% of patients with a previous intra-uterine death and no obvious maternal or fetal disease in the index pregnancy. When all risks are excluded and the pregnancy allowed to progress to full term (39-40 weeks before an induction is offered, 50% will go into spontaneous labour.
Andersen, Odd W.
The article discussed various disadvantages of the wind power production and focuses on turbine types, generators, operational safety and development aspects. Some environmental problems are mentioned
Nixon, Helen; Wilkinson, Lyn
A project was undertaken at the University of South Australia to improve the understandings of tertiary lecturers and student teachers about disadvantaged schools as contexts for literacy pedagogy. The project conducted seminars and workshops on the nature of the relationship among literacy, poverty, and education. The project resulted in…
Walker, Melanie; Mkwananzi, Faith
This paper sketches an innovative conceptualisation of disadvantaged youth, shaped dialogically by the interactions of theorising and data from a case study at Orange Farm informal settlement in South Africa in 2013. The study focused on the challenges for the young people in this area in accessing higher education. Drawing on Sen's and Nussbaum's…
The aim of the research was to develop and evaluate a cognitive stimulation programme to promote school readiness in South African pre-school children from a disadvantaged background. Two groups consisting of 23 children each made up the experimental and control groups. A repeated measurement ...
The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...
The article analyses the online commerce. Presents the advantages and disadvantages purchases on the Internet, considered the purpose and object of. online trading. Conclusions are made about possible directions of further improvement and development of this type of commerce.
Saad, E.A.; Abdel Krim, M.S.; EL-Dimerdash, A.A.
The invariant embedding method is used to solve the problem for a two region reactor with anisotropic scattering and to compute the disadvantage factor necessary for calculating some reactor parameters
The topic of the tesis is advantages and disadvantages of work in russian-czech multicultural teams. The research then analyzes the efficiency of such teams primarily from the side of partners and clients of such projects.
Tourism in South Africa has emerged as a popular poverty reduction strategy. Nevertheless, benefit of the sector to previously disadvantaged communities remains highly contested. In efforts to increase equitable economic impacts of tourism, the Eastern Cape local government introduced a Local
Globalization has become one of the most debated issues of our times. Considering that many of the approaches to this phenomenon do not have an answer yet, we are still dealing with multiple interpretations, some even contradictory. The globalization of the world economy entails common standards and values; it can generate both global balance and imbalance having both winners and losers. Failure to adapt to the globalization process brings along a series of disadvantages that lead to poverty ...
PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...
Full Text Available Drawing on novel survey data, this study maps the distribution of neighborhood and network disadvantage in a population of Milwaukee renters and evaluates the relationship between each disadvantage and multiple social and health outcomes. We find that many families live in neighborhoods with above average disadvantage but are embedded in networks with below average disadvantage, and vice versa. Neighborhood (but not network disadvantage is associated with lower levels of neighborly trust but also with higher levels of community support (e.g., providing neighbors with food. Network (but not neighborhood disadvantage is associated with lower levels of civic engagement. Asthma and diabetes are associated exclusively with neighborhood disadvantage, but depression is associated exclusively with network disadvantage. These findings imply that some social problems may be better addressed by neighborhood interventions and others by network interventions.
Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise
Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…
Doll, Russell C., Ed.; Hawkins, Maxine, Ed.
This anthology includes newly published essays by Daniel U. Levine, Robert J. Havighurst, and J. McVicker Hunt, two previously unpublished reports from the National Study of American Indian Education, and a new guide to resource centers. In addition, 35 papers by 55 contributors concerned with educating disadvantaged and culturally different…
Gudmundsdottir, G. B.
This study explores factors influencing the digital divide in four schools in Cape Town, South Africa. Three of the schools are for disadvantaged learners whereas the fourth was previously for whites only. All the schools use ICT in their curriculum delivery and thereby support the emphasis of provincial educational authorities on ICT access for…
McLoyd, V C
Recent research consistently reports that persistent poverty has more detrimental effects on IQ, school achievement, and socioemotional functioning than transitory poverty, with children experiencing both types of poverty generally doing less well than never-poor children. Higher rates of perinatal complications, reduced access to resources that buffer the negative effects of perinatal complications, increased exposure to lead, and less home-based cognitive stimulation partly account for diminished cognitive functioning in poor children. These factors, along with lower teacher expectancies and poorer academic-readiness skills, also appear to contribute to lower levels of school achievement among poor children. The link between socioeconomic disadvantage and children's socioemotional functioning appears to be mediated partly by harsh, inconsistent parenting and elevated exposure to acute and chronic stressors. The implications of research findings for practice and policy are considered.
Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.
237 non-disadvantaged controls, mostly under ﬁve—year old children, admitted to the Wesley. Guild Hospital, Ilesa, over a six'month period, ... literature on social disadvantage and its effect on child health in developing countries. ... in crises situations which may include dismemberment through death, divorce or separation.
administration of questionnaire Compared with controls, higher percentages of disadvantaged children received none ... to examine the influence of social disadvantage on health of hospitalized children An attempt was made to identify, by history, ..... Lack of or poor' maternal education seen in 29.5 percent of the affected ...
van der Flier, H.; Thijs, G.D.; Zaaiman, H.
The identification of students with the potential to succeed in mathematics- and science-based study despite previous educational disadvantage is a critical issue currently facing many South African higher education institutions. The possible use of school-leaving examination (Matric) results and/or
Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States. [Maps, tables of field data and analytical data for sections of North and South Carolina and Georgia, previously reported sites of uranium mineralization
Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area. (JGB)
A major impediment to problem solving in mathematics in the great majority of South African schools is that disadvantaged students from seriously impoverished learning environments are lacking in the necessary informal mathematical knowledge to develop their own strategies for solving non-routine problems. A randomized pretest-posttest control…
van Niekerk, Caroline; Salminen, Sanna
This article looks at STTEP, an outreach project currently housed at the University of Pretoria, which concentrates on the teaching of western orchestral instruments, plus background areas such as music theory, to disadvantaged children and youth from a variety of townships around Pretoria, South Africa. STTEP's direction can well be described as…
Daniel A. Hackman
Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.
Full Text Available The concentration of disadvantage in specific neighbourhoods is a widespread characteristic of many Australian cities. A broad range of policies and programs which utilize integrated forms of governance have been designed and implemented to redress this. Within the state of New South Wales, Australia, local governments have been identified as being amongst the most effective drivers for these integrated governance approaches. Utilizing a case study of the Penrith Neighbourhood Renewal Program, this paper explores recent attempts by Penrith City Council to develop a framework to redress neighbourhood disadvantage, firstly by establishing an integrated governance framework for the program, and secondly by transforming the council’s operational structure.
Rivlin, Harry N.; And Others
The presentations in this volume deal with various aspects of education for the gifted disadvantaged. Maija Blaubergs describes disadvantages experienced by gifted and talented girls in obtaining access to opportunities for achievement congruent with their potentialities. Some of the topics examined are sexist barriers, marriage, institutional and…
To solve the problem of the shortage of electricity in China, an objective assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of generating electricity from different energy sources is necessary. Nuclear power is evaluated against hydro-, oil-, gas- and coal-power. It is proposed to develop nuclear power in a planned way as a sensible long term strategy
Harding, David J.
Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…
Petrovic, Juraj; Pale, Predrag
This paper aims to provide insight into various properties of live lectures from the perspective of sophomore engineering students. In an anonymous online survey conducted at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, we investigated students' opinions regarding lecture attendance, inherent disadvantages of live…
KEGEYAN SVETLANA ERIHOVNA
Distance learning has become popular in higher institutions because of its flexibility and availability to learners and teachers at anytime, regardless of geographic location. With so many definitions and phases of distance education, this paper only focuses on the delivery mode of distance education (the use of information technology), background, and its disadvantages and advantages for today’s learners.
Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert
Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…
Heller, Sara B
Every day, acts of violence injure more than 6000 people in the United States. Despite decades of social science arguing that joblessness among disadvantaged youth is a key cause of violent offending, programs to remedy youth unemployment do not consistently reduce delinquency. This study tests whether summer jobs, which shift focus from remediation to prevention, can reduce crime. In a randomized controlled trial among 1634 disadvantaged high school youth in Chicago, assignment to a summer jobs program decreases violence by 43% over 16 months (3.95 fewer violent-crime arrests per 100 youth). The decline occurs largely after the 8-week intervention ends. The results suggest the promise of using low-cost, well-targeted programs to generate meaningful behavioral change, even with a problem as complex as youth violence. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Full Text Available Active social participation of disabled people is one of the major tasks of modern society. That also includes access to the academic community by higher education. Universities all over the world work hard to give handicapped students a chance to graduate. In this context, compensation of disadvantages in examination procedures is an important matter. But, also chronic illness may impair the student's examination performance. To ensure equal examination opportunities for all students, responsible university officials must be creative to find individual compensation solutions. The paper analyzes examination regulations at universities in different countries and offers solutions to compensate disabled and chronic ill students' disadvantages. It discusses the necessity of compensation for different types of disability and chronic illness. Finally, an overview of current German case law and solutions for compensation problems are provided.
The digitization of education in Poland is spreading into more and more areas. Therefore, it becomes necessary to analyse all its aspects, both advantages and disadvantages. In the performed reflection, an attempt to present the current state of the access to computers, the Internet and e-course books in Polish schools has been made. On the basis of the secondary analysis of various recent studies as well as own research performed, it has been determined that the level of digitization of educ...
Wing, Jeffrey J; Sánchez, Brisa N; Adar, Sara D; Meurer, William J; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Smith, Melinda A; Lisabeth, Lynda D
Little is known about the relation between environment and stroke severity. We investigated associations between environmental exposures, including neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and short-term exposure to airborne particulate matter stroke severity. First-ever ischemic stroke cases were identified from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi project (2000-2012). Associations between pollutants, disadvantage, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale were modeled using linear and logistic regression with adjustment for demographics and risk factors. Pollutants and disadvantage were modeled individually, jointly, and with interactions. Higher disadvantage scores and previous-day ozone concentrations were associated with higher odds of severe stroke. Higher levels of particulate matter stroke among those in higher disadvantage areas (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.55) but not in lower disadvantage areas (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-1.22; P interaction =0.097). Air pollution exposures and neighborhood socioeconomic status may be important in understanding stroke severity. Future work should consider the multiple levels of influence on this important stroke outcome. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Alvarado, Steven Elías
Previous research suggests that youth who grow up in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods face higher odds of becoming obese. Neighborhood effects scholars, meanwhile, have suggested that contextual influences may increase in strength as children age. This is the first study to examine whether developmental epochs moderate the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on obesity over time. I use thirteen waves of new restricted and geo-coded data on children ages 2-18 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Children and Young Adults. Bivariate and pooled logistic regression results suggest that neighborhood disadvantage has a stronger impact on adolescents' likelihood of becoming obese. Fixed effects models reveal that after adjusting for observed and unobserved confounders, adolescents continue to face higher odds of becoming obese due to the conditions associated with living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Moreover, as research on adults suggests, girls experience larger impacts of neighborhood disadvantage than boys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Globalization is a new term that has found a significant place in people’s lifes. By globalization, we mean shedding down the walls of distrust and the barriers of suspicion between countries, to make a bridge where ideas and beliefs can cross the borders. While globalization is seen as a sign of a hopeful future by some, there are others who believe that it can cause tremendous disaster for the world economy. However, the disadvantages of globalization could be reduced if the responsible aut...
Wei, Benjamin; D'Amico, Thomas A
The overall advantages of thoracoscopy over thoracotomy in terms of patient recovery have been fairly well established. The use of robotics, however, is a newer and less proven modality in the realm of thoracic surgery. Robotics offers distinct advantages and disadvantages in comparison with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Robotic technology is now used for a variety of complex cardiac, urologic, and gynecologic procedures including mitral valve repair and microsurgical treatment of male infertility. This article addresses the potential benefits and limitations of using the robotic platform for the performance of a variety of thoracic operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities.
Garthe, Rachel C; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Gregory, Joshua; E Schoeny, Michael
The link between relationship violence and aspects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage (e.g., percent of unemployed adults, percent of families below poverty level), has been established. However, the literature examining neighborhood social processes, including informal social control and social cohesion, in relation to adolescent dating violence has shown mixed results with a limited theoretical foundation and methodology. Using a social disorganization theoretical framework, this study examined the mediating role of these neighborhood social processes in the relation between concentrated disadvantage and adolescent dating violence within an urban context. Participants included 605 adult residents in 30 census tracts and 203 adolescents from neighborhoods on the West and South sides of Chicago. Neighborhood-level concentrated disadvantage was measured via Census data, adult residents reported on neighborhood social processes, and youth reported on dating violence. Informal social control was negatively associated with dating violence, and social cohesion was positively associated with dating violence. A multilevel mediation model showed that concentrated disadvantage was related to higher levels of dating violence via lower levels of informal social control. These results extend social disorganization theory to dating violence within an urban context, while also highlighting the important role of neighborhood processes on relationship violence. Implications for research and intervention programming are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.
Stender, Marie; Bech-Danielsen, Claus
Disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently subject to more thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to overcome the isolated character of the housing estates. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... penthouse flats, new urban functions within the area or spectacular new public spaces near it. In this paper the social impact of such transformations are analysed and discussed based on case-studies in 3 Danish areas. The analysis shows that especially everyday-route strategies adding new public functions...... within the area can pave can the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on context, location and existing image. Social distance may sustain though physical borders are removed, yet, the negative image of the areas can in itself call...
This article provides an overview of the nature and quality of research supervision and mentorship practices employed by supervisors and mentors of interns in a South African research council in an attempt to increase the pool and change the face of researchers in the country. Through a series of studies conducted by the ...
Williams, Emily D; Nazroo, James Y; Kooner, Jaspal S; Steptoe, Andrew
To explore the differences in psychosocial risk factors related to coronary heart disease (CHD) between South Asian subgroups in the UK. South Asian people suffer significantly higher rates of CHD than other ethnic groups, but vulnerability varies between South Asian subgroups, in terms of both CHD rates and risk profiles. Psychosocial factors may contribute to the excess CHD propensity that is observed; however, subgroup heterogeneity in psychosocial disadvantage has not previously been systematically explored. With a cross-sectional design, 1065 healthy South Asian and 818 white men and women from West London, UK, completed psychosocial questionnaires. Psychosocial profiles were compared between South Asian religious groups and the white sample, using analyses of covariance and post hoc tests. Of the South Asian sample, 50.5% was Sikh, 28.0% was Hindu, and 15.8% was Muslim. Muslim participants were more socioeconomically deprived and experienced higher levels of chronic stress, including financial strain, low social cohesion, and racial discrimination, compared with other South Asian religious groups. In terms of health behaviors, Muslim men smoked more than Sikhs and Hindus, and Muslims also reported lower alcohol consumption and were less physically active than other groups. This study found that Muslims were exposed to more psychosocial and behavioral adversity than Sikhs and Hindus, and highlights the importance of investigating subgroup heterogeneity in South Asian CHD risk. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eric Isenberg; Jeffrey Max; Philip Gleason; Liz Potamites; Robert Santillano; Heinrich Hock; Michael Hansen
Recent federal initiatives in education, such as Race to the Top, the Teacher Incentive Fund, and the flexibility policy for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act are designed in part to ensure that disadvantaged students have equal access to effective teaching. The initiatives respond to the concern that disadvantaged students may be taught by less effective teachers and that this could contribute to the achievement gap between disadvantaged students and other students. To address the n...
Much of the writing on differences in educational attainment by different social classes in Ireland has started by accepting the use of the tenn 'educational disadvantage' and trying to define it afterwards (Kellaghan et at., 1995; Boldt and Devine, 1998). Others, like Drudy and Lynch have simply dismissed the use of the tenns out of hand, preferring instead to write about social class differences in education (1993, p 52). Far from discouraging the use of the term, this latter sort of interv...
Urban form-the structure of the built environment-can influence physical activity, yet little is known about how walkable design differs according to neighborhood sociodemographic composition. We studied how walkable urban form varies by neighborhood sociodemographic composition, region, and urbanicity across the United States. Using linear regression models and 2000-2001 US Census data, we investigated the relationship between 5 neighborhood census characteristics (income, education, racial/ethnic composition, age distribution, and sex) and 5 walkability indicators in almost 65,000 census tracts in 48 states and the District of Columbia. Data on the built environment were obtained from the RAND Corporation's (Santa Monica, California) Center for Population Health and Health Disparities (median block length, street segment, and node density) and the US Geological Survey's National Land Cover Database (proportion open space and proportion highly developed). Disadvantaged neighborhoods and those with more educated residents were more walkable (i.e., shorter block length, greater street node density, more developed land use, and higher density of street segments). However, tracts with a higher proportion of children and older adults were less walkable (fewer street nodes and lower density of street segments), after adjustment for region and level of urbanicity. Research and policy on the walkability-health link should give nuanced attention to the gap between perso
Cinar, Dede Nursan
A powerful reflex of the infant in the weeks following birth is sucking. Breastfed babies benefit from both the nutrition in mother's milk and the satisfaction of their sucking instinct. Babies that can not be breastfed due to various reasons may satisfy their sucking instinct by using pacifiers. Pacifier use and digit sucking are believed to be harmless habits. In many places of the world, and especially in developing countries, pacifier use in early childhood is very common. It is said that pacifier use eases the baby and satisfies its sucking instinct. It has been reported in several studies that pacifier use reduces the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The most important risks of this non-nutritive sucking habit are failure of breastfeeding, dental deformities, recurrent acute otitis media, and the possibility of accidents. The development of latex allergy, tooth decay, oral ulcers and sleep disorders are other problems encountered with pacifier use. Parents may hesitate to use pacifiers for their babies and consult nurses or midwives on this issue. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of pacifier use are discussed with the aim of providing guidance to nurses and midwives working in the field of pediatrics and infant health.
After the shut-down decision, the technical effort necessary to place a reactor facility in the ''storage with surveillance'' condition is relatively minor. The operating costs during the storage time depend on whether a second power plant unit is located or is being constructed at the site. If the reactor facility is totally removed after the decision to shut it down, the resulting costs are at first not comparable to those incurred by the bringing about of ''storage with surveillance''. Because the nuclear power plant ''stored with surveillance'' will have to be removed at the end of the storage time, enormously high costs once again are the result here too. The savings resulting because the need for remotely controlled dismantling and packing of parts with higher activity (reactor vessel, core fixtures, etc.) is eliminated, do not, from a technical point of view, outweigh the disadvantages of the surveillance and maintenance necessary during a storage time of 40 years. It is to be noted, however, that during a total removal, large quantities of radioactive waste result and suitable repositories or storage possibilities must be available
Allen, A.A.; Ferek, R.J.
The full potential for in situ burning as a controlled oil spill response technique is a subject of growing interest throughout the world. Information now available from burning oil during accidental fires, war-related fires in Kuwait, spillage from the Exxon Valdez, and controlled test burns, permits an objective and comprehensive assessment of both the positive and negative aspects of in situ burning. A thorough analysis has been made of direct and indirect impacts and concerns typically associated with the decision, to burn or not to burn. These factors, together with the comparative costs of various response techniques, have been identified and described to provide spill control planners and response organizations with a means of assessing the potential use of burning to clean up offshore oil spills. Some of the advantages for in situ burning are high elimination rate, minimal environmental impact, minimal disposal and cleanup, and ease of control. Some of the disadvantages are localized reduction of air quality, oil conditions, and limited window of opportunity
Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz
Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience.
... cash), personal net worth, and the fair market value of all assets, whether encumbered or not. SBA will... disadvantage must describe it in a narrative statement, and must submit personal financial information. (2) When married, an individual claiming economic disadvantage also must submit separate financial...
The vocational education and training (VET) system can provide an entry point to the education sector for people who have experienced disadvantage in their lives. Participation in VET can provide personal benefits as well as lead to further study and/or employment. How disadvantaged learners participate in vocational education and training is an…
....219-74, Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Evaluation Factor, (and assign a value to it), or... business participation. 1519.204 Section 1519.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.204 Small disadvantaged...
This paper investigated the correlates of disadvantaged children and literacy achievement in Cross River State, Nigeria. In order to carry out the study, 3 determinant factors of disadvantaged children which relate to children literacy achievement were identified. These factors include, group identity, family expectation and ...
White, Simon; Baird, Wendy
Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty and…
Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Moore, Sarah; Pratt, Iain S
To identify the features of a nutrition education programme for disadvantaged adults deemed most attractive and useful by participants. A two-year, multi-method, qualitative evaluation of pre and post data collected from programme participants. Data were imported into NVivo10 for coding to facilitate a thematic analysis. Western Australia. Participants Individuals attending the Western Australian FOODcents nutrition education programme that is designed to provide knowledge and skills needed to consume a healthy diet on a budget. Focus groups were conducted several weeks after course completion (five groups, forty-seven participants), observations were conducted during FOODcents sessions (thirty-one observation episodes, 237 participants), and open-ended questions were asked in pre-post hard-copy surveys administered in sessions (n 927) and an online survey administered on average six weeks after course completion (n 114). The course attributes that were found to be especially important to participants were: (i) user-friendly, practical information that could be immediately translated to their daily lives; (ii) experiential learning that involved direct contact with food products; and (iii) opportunities for social interaction. These aspects of nutrition education were described as being highly influential in the decision to participate in the course, the application of the information in their subsequent food purchase and preparation activities, and their word-of-mouth communications with others about the course. Incorporating aspects of most importance to participants into nutrition education programme delivery and promotion may increase joining rates, enjoyment, satisfaction with course content and, ultimately, the uptake of recommended behaviours.
Spilsbury, James C; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Kirchner, H Lester; Nelson, Lisa; Rosen, Carol L; Drotar, Dennis; Redline, Susan
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a range of health outcomes. Our objective was to study the relationship between residence in a neighborhood of severe socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Cross-sectional analysis of 843 (49% female, 36% African-American) children 8 to 11 years of age from a community-based cohort. Data on neighborhood conditions were obtained from the 2000 US Census. The main outcome measure was OSA, defined as an obstructive apnea hypopnea index >5 events per hour or an obstructive apnea index >1 event per hour. Residence in a neighborhood of severe socioeconomic disadvantage was significantly associated with OSA after adjusting for effects of previously established risk factors: premature birth, obesity, and African-American ethnicity (OR = 3.44, 95% CI = 1.53-7.75). Secondary analyses showed that neighborhood disadvantage remained significantly associated with OSA: (1) in the African-American subgroup, after controlling for effects of prematurity and obesity; and (2) after controlling for indicators of household-level SES or other health characteristics. Childhood OSA is associated with low SES as measured by an index describing severe neighborhood disadvantage, emphasizing the potential importance of environmental factors, particularly those associated with neighborhood distress, as risk factors for OSA.
Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine
This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of 'positive pack characteristics' (ppackaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers' purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers.
Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine
Objectives This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. Design A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Setting Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. Participants N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Interventions Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Results Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of ‘positive pack characteristics’ (ppackaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers’ purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Conclusions Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. PMID:24503299
Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra; Moulton, Vanessa
Previous research shows that, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD have worse socio-emotional outcomes and more experience of socio-economic disadvantage. In this study, we explored if and how the increased emotional and behavioural difficulties faced by children with ADHD may be accounted for by their more disadvantaged socio-economic circumstances. Our study, using data from 180 children (149 boys) with ADHD from the Millennium Cohort Study, had two aims. First, to examine the role of socio-economic disadvantage in the trajectories of emotional and conduct problems in children with ADHD at ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. Second, to explore the roles of the home environment (household chaos) and parenting (quality of emotional support, quality of the parent-child relationship and harsh parental discipline) in mediating any associations between socio-economic disadvantage and child emotional and conduct problems. Using growth curve models, we found that socio-economic disadvantage was associated with emotional and conduct problems but neither the home environment nor parenting attenuated this association. Lower quality of the parent-child relationship and harsher discipline were associated with more conduct problems. It appears that socio-economic disadvantage and parenting contribute independently to the prediction of comorbid psychopathology in children with ADHD.
Hiilamo, Aapo; Lallukka, Tea; Mänty, Minna; Kouvonen, Anne
The two-way relationship between obesity and socioeconomic disadvantage is well established but previous studies on social and economic consequences of obesity have primarily focused on relatively young study populations. We examined whether obesity is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage through the 10-12-year follow-up, and how obesity-related socioeconomic inequalities develop during midlife among women. Baseline data were derived from the female population of the Helsinki Health Study cohort, comprising 40-60 -year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland in 2000-2002 (n = 6913, response rate 69%). The follow-up surveys were carried out in 2007 (n = 5810) and 2012 (n = 5400). Socioeconomic disadvantage was measured by five dichotomous measures. Repeated logistic regression analyses utilising generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to test the association between baseline self-reported obesity and the likelihood of socioeconomic disadvantage through all phases. The effect of time on the development of inequalities was examined by time interaction terms in random effect logistic regression models. After adjustment for educational level, baseline obesity was associated with repeated poverty (OR = 1.23; 95% CI; 1.05-1.44), frequent economic difficulties (OR = 1.74; 95% CI; 1.52-1.99), low household net income (OR = 1.23; 95% CI; 1.07-1.41), low household wealth (OR = 1.90; 95% CI; 1.59-2.26) and low personal income (OR = 1.22; 95% CI; 1.03-1.44). The differences in poverty rate and low personal income between the participants with obesity and participants with normal weight widened during the follow-up. Living without a partner and early exit from paid employment explained the widening of inequalities. Weight status inequalities in socioeconomic disadvantage persisted or widened during the late adulthood.
Das-Munshi, Jayati; Lund, Crick; Mathews, Catherine; Clark, Charlotte; Rothon, Catherine; Stansfeld, Stephen
South Africa is one of the most 'unequal' societies in the world. Despite apartheid ending more than 20 years ago, material inequalities remain interwoven with ethnic/racial inequalities. There is limited research on the prevalence/predictors of common mental disorders (CMD) among young people. Adolescence is a unique time-point during which intervention may lead to improved mental health and reduced social problems later. The study objective was to assess mental health disparities in a representative sample of adolescents growing up in South Africa. Cross-sectional associations of race/ethnicity and material disadvantage with CMD and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were assessed in a stratified random sample representative of school-attendees, aged 14-15 years, in a large metropolitan area of Cape Town. Validated instruments assessed mental disorders; these included: Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (PTSD); Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (depression); Zung self-rated anxiety scale (anxiety). Self-ascribed ethnicity was determined using procedures similar to the South African census and previous national surveys. Response rate was 88% (1034 of 1169 individuals). Adolescents experienced a high prevalence of depression (41%), anxiety (16%) and PTSD (21%). A gradient between material disadvantage and CMD/ PTSD was evident across all ethnic/racial groups. Respondents self-identifying as 'black' or 'coloured' were disadvantaged across most indicators. After adjusting for confounders, relative to white children, relative risk (RR) of CMD in black children was 2.27 (95% CI:1.24, 4.15) and for PTSD was RR: 2.21 (95% CI:1.73, 2.83). Relative risk of CMD was elevated in children self-identifying as 'coloured' (RR: 1.73, 95% CI:1.11, 2.70). Putative mediators (violence, racially motivated bullying, social support, self-esteem) partially accounted for differences in CMD and fully for PTSD. Adolescent mental health inequalities in Cape Town are associated with
Gwynne, Kylie; Irving, Michelle J; McCowen, Debbie; Rambaldini, Boe; Skinner, John; Naoum, Steve; Blinkhorn, Anthony
A sustainable model of oral health care for disadvantaged Aboriginal people living in rural and remote communities in New South Wales was developed using collective impact methodology. Collective impact is a structured process which draws together organizations to develop a shared agenda and design solutions which are jointly resourced, measured and reported upon.
Frørup, Anna Kathrine; Jensen, Niels Rosendal
how young people's (living in a socially disadvantaged area) possibilities, aspirations and demands are raised, strengthened, transformed or put aside and in what way they feel participating within different local programmes....
Transportation needs of disadvantaged populations (persons with disabilities, older adults, and the poor) are explored, and a methodology to address transit markets is examined to determine where, when, and how to provide for basic mobility needs ass...
... disadvantaged business enterprises. (a) The STD shall schedule contract lettings in a balanced program providing... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply...
This first in a two part series on telemedicine in healthcare outlines the background and context for using this technology. It discusses the levels of telemedicine and its possible applications in healthcare, and examines its advantages and disadvantages.
Ellemers, Naomi|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086631276; Barreto, M
Stereotypes and discriminatory behavior do not necessarily imply that people are explicitly devalued or actively excluded from attractive positions in society. Instead, these often implicitly communicate that any social disadvantages are due to individual shortcomings. Recent research has uncovered
Full Text Available From its appearance, the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base generated numerous de-bates and controversies since its effects cannot be precisely measured. Two of the factors in the formula for allocating common consolidated corporate tax base are susceptible to disadvantage some Member States. This paper demonstrates, by a case study in Romania, that the tax sharing mechanism, through the payroll factor, disadvantages less developed countries of the European Union. These countries will record losses of corporate income tax revenues.
Goldfeld, Sharon; O'Connor, Meredith; Cloney, Dan; Gray, Sarah; Redmond, Gerry; Badland, Hannah; Williams, Katrina; Mensah, Fiona; Woolfenden, Sue; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Kochanoff, Anita T
Child health and developmental inequities exist in all countries. Comprehensive and robust concepts of disadvantage are fundamental to growing an evidence base that can reveal the extent of inequities in childhood, and identify modifiable leverage points for change. We conceptualise and test a multidimensional framework of child disadvantage aligned to a social determinants and bioecological perspective. The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children is a nationally representative sample of two cohorts of Australian children, including the birth cohort of 5107 infants, which commenced in May 2004. The analysis focused on disadvantage indicators collected at age 4-5 years. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test a theoretically informed model of disadvantage. Concurrent validity was examined through associations with academic performance at 8-9 years. The model comprising four latent factors of sociodemographic (10 indicators), geographical environments (three indicators), health conditions (three indicators) and risk factors (14 indicators) was found to provide a better fit for the data than alternative models. Each factor was associated with academic performance, providing evidence of concurrent validity. The study provides a theoretically informed and empirically tested framework for operationalising relative child disadvantage. Understanding and addressing inequities will be facilitated by capturing the complexity of children's experiences of disadvantage across the multiple environments in which their development unfolds. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye
The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Curtis, David S.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Chae, David H.; Boylan, Jennifer M.; Ryff, Carol D.
Objective Disparities in sleep duration and efficiency between Black/African American (AA) and White/European American (EA) adults are well-documented. The objective of this study was to examine neighborhood disadvantage as an explanation for race differences in objectively measured sleep. Methods Data were from 133 AA and 293 EA adults who participated in the sleep assessment protocol of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study (57% female; Mean Age = 56.8 years, SD=11.4). Sleep minutes, onset latency, and waking after sleep onset (WASO) were assessed over seven nights using wrist actigraphy. Neighborhood characteristics were assessed by linking home addresses to tract-level socioeconomic data from the 2000 US Census. Multilevel models estimated associations between neighborhood disadvantage and sleep, and the degree to which neighborhood disadvantage mediated race differences in sleep controlling for family socioeconomic position and demographic variables. Results AAs had shorter sleep duration, greater onset latency, and higher WASO than EAs (ps < .001). Neighborhood disadvantage was significantly associated with WASO (B = 3.54, p = .028), but not sleep minutes (B = −2.21, p = .60) or latency (B = 1.55, p = .38). Furthermore, race was indirectly associated with WASO via neighborhood disadvantage (B = 4.63, p = .035), which explained 24% of the race difference. When measures of depression, health behaviors, and obesity were added to the model, the association between neighborhood disadvantage and WASO was attenuated by 11% but remained significant. Conclusion Findings suggest that neighborhood disadvantage mediates a portion of race differences in WASO, an important indicator of sleep efficiency. PMID:27938909
Previous research has suggested that adolescent peers influence behavior and provide social support during a critical developmental period, but few studies have addressed the antecedents of adolescent social networks. Research on the collateral consequences of incarceration has explored the implications of parental incarceration for children's behavioral problems, academic achievement, health, and housing stability, but not their social networks. Using network data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that adolescents with recently incarcerated fathers are in socially marginal positions in their schools and befriend more-marginal peers than other adolescents: their friends are less advantaged, less academically successful, and more delinquent than other adolescents' friends. Differences in network outcomes are robust to a variety of specifications and are consistent across race and gender subgroups. This study advances the social networks literature by exploring how familial characteristics can shape adolescent social networks and contributes to the collateral consequences of incarceration literature by using network analysis to consider how mass incarceration may promote intergenerational social marginalization.
Full Text Available The relationship between coach- and peer-created motivational climates and Positive Youth Development is largely unexplored. This is especially true for the latter and in particular with regard to disadvantaged girls. The present study was designed to examine the relationships between perceived coach- and peer-created climates and reported developmental gains among disadvantaged girls participating in sports programmes, and to determine whether these relationships were moderated by personal characteristics. Two hundred young women aged between 12 and 22 completed a questionnaire which included the ‘Youth Experience Survey for Sport’ (MacDonald, Côté, Eys, & Deakin, 2012, the ‘Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports’ (Smith, Cumming, & Smoll, 2008, the ‘Peer Motivational Climate in Youth Sport Questionnaire’ (Ntoumanis & Vazou, 2005, and questions regarding participants’ socio-economic characteristics. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to take into account the hierarchical data structure. The analysis revealed that a mastery-oriented coach climate is a very strong predictor of perceived Positive Youth Development. This is based on both the number of developmental domains on which it had a significant impact and the explained variance based on the PRV values of the multi-level models. Unlike previous research on disadvantaged youth in general and disadvantaged girls in particular, the observed interaction effects did not show that disadvantaged girls necessarily gain more from their involvement in organised activities such as sport.
Monitoring the recovery of a previously exploited surf-zone fish community in the St Lucia Marine Reserve, South Africa, using a no-take sanctuary area as a benchmark. BQ Mann, H Winker, JQ Maggs, SN Porter ...
Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR has recently received considerable attention in literature. One of the vehicles by which companies can conform to CSR in South Africa is Black Economic Empowerment (BEE. In this regard, BEE has been employed to assist previously disadvantaged groups of investors obtain a larger share of the equity of South African listed companies. The question has often been asked whether the announcement of BEE transactions by listed companies increases shareholder wealth. This article tries to answer this question by examining the share performance of 125 BEE transactions involving 95 companies during the period January 2002 to July 2006. The results indicate a positive relation between BEE transaction announcements and shareholder wealth creation, but only during the last part of the period covered by the study.
Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Mazas, Carlos A; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W
To evaluate a conceptual model of the psychosocial pathways linking socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI) among smokers. A latent variable modeling approach was used to evaluate the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect, and BMI among smokers recruited from the Houston metropolitan area (N = 424). A total of 42.4% of participants were obese, with the highest prevalence of obesity among Latinos followed by African Americans. Across all racial/ethnic groups, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect functioned as pathways linking socioeconomic status and BMI. Findings indicate the need for interventions that target obesity among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers and provide potential intervention targets for the prevention and treatment of obesity.
Full Text Available Disaster plans almost always do not benefit from the knowledge and values of disadvantaged people who are frequently underrepresented in disaster planning processes. Consequently, the plans are inconsistent with the conditions, concerns, and capabilities of disadvantaged people. We present an approach to community-based participatory planning aimed at engaging marginalized and distrustful communities to build their capacity to be more disaster resilient. We review the experiences of six disadvantaged communities under the Emergency Preparedness Demonstration (EPD project. The EPD effort revealed several critical implications: recruit a diverse set of participants for inclusive collaboration; provide analytical tools to co-develop information and empower people; employ coaches to organize and facilitate sustainable community change; design a bottom-up review process for selection of strategies that holds communities accountable; and build capacity for implementation of strategies.
Johnson, Molly K; Symes, Lene; Bernard, Lillian; Landson, Margie J; Carroll, Theresa L
Recent studies have identified a problematic gap for nursing students between terse clinical writing and formal academic writing. This gap can create a potential barrier to academic and workplace success, especially for disadvantaged nursing students who have not acquired the disciplinary conventions and sophisticated writing required in upper-level nursing courses. The authors demonstrate the need for writing-in-the-discipline activities to enhance the writing skills of nursing students, describe the technical writing workshops they developed to mentor minority and disadvantaged nursing students, and provide recommendations to stimulate educator dialogue across disciplines and institutions.
The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.
Full Text Available The digital divide is both a matter of having access to technology and being able to use it. There are several initiatives to roll out Information and Communication Technology (ICT in public places in South Africa, but the question arises as to whether people will be able to use it effectively. Is the backlog with regard to general education and training not so insurmountable that people from disadvantaged communities are not educable for computer usage? This paper reports on the experiences and observations of instructors during a word processing training course for people from such communities. An interaction model that incorporates user and interface limitations with the difficulties experienced, serves as framework for the discussion. It became clear that most of the difficulties that attendees experienced were related to lack of technological experience, a limitation that can be eliminated through practice and perseverance. Enough practice might also result in an attenuation of the effects of some psychological limitations.
Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir
Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...
Marks, Gary N.
Making use of the longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, this study examines the relationship between post-school qualifications and financial disadvantage among Australians during the period 2001 to 2008. Specifically, it is concerned with the extent that education and training, vis-a-vis…
Koen, J.; van Vianen, A.; Klehe, U.-C.; Zikic, J.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how disadvantaged young adults construct a positive work-related identity in their transition from unemployment to employment, and what enables or constrains a successful transition. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted semi-structured
The State Disadvantaged Child Project provides supplementary support services for 6,000 children residing in a low income core area and attending 10 elementary schools and 1 high school in Portland, Oregon. The project also covers other children, allocating funds to the Albina Youth Opportunity School (AYOS), Early Childhood Education Centers, and…
Are the children with epilepsy treated traditionally a disadvantaged group? A pilot study. Thierry Matonda Ma Nzuzi, Gilbert Mananga Lelo, Magloire Mpembi Nkosi, Joule Madinga, Constantin Kabwe Kola, Vivi Maketa, Pascal Lutumba, Katja Polman, Marleen Boelaert, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Samuel Mampunza Ma Miezi ...
The prevalence of substance use and high-risk sexual behaviour of 460 primary school learners, from four schools in a historically disadvantaged urban area, was investigated. It was found that 14% of the primary school learners in this study currently used alcohol, 4% smoked marihuana, 3% sniffed solvents, 9% used ...
... REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.219-22 Small Disadvantaged Business Status. As prescribed in 19.308(b), insert the following... applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (C) It is identified, on the date of its...
Reviews "Hunger of Memory," a 1981 book by Richard Rodriguez. Contrasts demands by university students that they be taught by minority faculty members with Rodriguez's awareness that cultural differences between instructors and disadvantaged students are an important factor in enabling such students to join the educational elite in…
Sallam, O.H.; Akimov, I.S.; Naguib, K.; Hamouda, I.
The possibility of using the generalized perturbation theory to calculate the perturbation of the flux disadvantage factors of reactor cell, resulting from the variation of the cell parameters, is studied. For simplicity the one-group diffusion approximation is considered. All necessary equations are derived for variations both of the cell dimensions. Numerical results are presented in the paper
Klein, Esther Dominique
Purpose: Increased school autonomy and accountability have been a common denominator of national reforms in otherwise heterogeneous governance systems in Europe and the USA. The paper argues that because schools serving disadvantaged communities (SSDCs) often have lower average performance, they are more often sanctioned or under closer scrutiny,…
... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals; (2) Institutions designated by the Secretary of... universities having a student body in which more than 40 percent of the students are Hispanic American; or (4...
It is a difficulty problem to choice repayment patterns of student loan. "Conventional mortgage-type loan" and "Income contingent loan" has been performed in many countries. These loan repayment manners have their own characteristics. In this paper, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and would provide policy choice…
Paige, David M.; And Others
Examined with 177 disadvantaged elementary school students (5-9 years old, 99 percent Blacks) were the effects of the provision of a nutritionally fortified low-lactose food supplement on hematocrit values (volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood), growth, absenteeism, and lunch consumption. (IM)
Zamarro, Gema; Engberg, John; Saavedra, Juan Esteban; Steele, Jennifer
This article investigates the use of teacher value-added estimates to assess the distribution of effective teaching across students of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in the presence of classroom composition effects. We examine, via simulations, how accurately commonly used teacher value-added estimators recover the rank correlation between…
Jason Thompson; Dana Mitchell; John. Klepac
Very few companies that purchase forest products accept untrimmed trees (whole-trees including limbs and tops). Those that do accept untrimmed trees have been doing so for decades. A potential benefit of hauling untrimmed trees is higher in-woods productivity due to less processing of the trees. Disadvantages for the logging contractor can include specialized trailers...
Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.
Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…
This study investigates the theory that apocalyptic texts originated in, and reflect the convictions and activities of socially disadvantaged groups on the margins of ... hermeneutical and topical themes questioning the validity of this approach as well as research insights that revealed major weaknesses in this understanding.
Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…
Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema
This is a study of four projects in New York City which were established with federal grants to offer library service to the disadvantaged in the area. The four programs studied are the Preschool Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the Community Coordinator Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the North Manhattan Project of the New York…
In 1965, following a review of second-level education in Ireland, the report "Investment in Education" was published. While a concern with educational inequality and disadvantage pre-dates this report, it clearly identified the significant socio-economic disparities in educational participation at the time and emphasised an urgent need…
Grant, D. R. B.
This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…
This study was created primarily to explore new techniques and to generate fruitful new hypotheses and procedures for the (1) description of variations in expressed curiosity and constructive exploration among disadvantaged preschool children and (2) assessment of the relationship between such curiosity and exploration and other aspects of the…
This study analyses the citizenship experiences of young non-western migrants in the Netherlands. Young migrants are in a disadvantaged position in education and in the labour market and this leads to concerns about their integration in Dutch society. The focus of this study is on the participation
Maree, J. G.; Fletcher, L.; Sommerville, J.
One hundred and fifty-nine Grade 11 prospective disadvantaged students in the natural sciences at the University of Pretoria completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics and the Senior Aptitude Test (Advanced). Fifty-nine male students (M age = 16.05; SD = 0.57) and 100 females (M age = 16.02; SD = 0.512) scored significantly…
... 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications AGENCY: Office of the... the PRA's procedural requirements. Today, the Department is correcting this omission by including discussion of the Uniform Report collection and providing the public with 60 days from today to comment both...
Siegfried E. Drewes
Full Text Available Having spent some 50 years as an organic chemist with an interest in medicinal plant chemistry in South Africa it was relevant now to ask three questions, (1 when were natural products first utilised, (2 who were the people involved, and (3 what is the status quo? Based on older literature published in the South African Journal of Chemistry, information gleaned from attendance at innumerable chemistry conferences, and relevant literature in university archives, a great deal of information was gathered to answer the first two questions. For example, that the first veterinarian to treat cattle diseases caused by poisonous plants in the Eastern Cape was Dr Jotella Soga in the 1890s. Contributions from other prominent scientists such as Marais, Rindl, Rimington and Warren followed. From about 1940 to the 1990s, researchers concentrated mainly on the isolation of new compounds from local plants for which some indigenous knowledge was recorded. Foreign chemists also arrived and did a fair amount of ‘exploitation’ of natural products. Thus, the anti-cancer compound combretastatin was first isolated from the indigenous tree Combretum caffrum. Plant chemistry in South Africa has blossomed in the last decade, with many students from previously disadvantaged backgrounds, but with a keen interest in muti or medicinal chemistry, entering the field. Recent findings have rekindled the belief that a major development in natural products would at last emerge from Africa.
Cross, Roger; Bonney, Andrew; Mayne, Darren J; Weston, Kathryn M
Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the association between area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and glycaemic-related risk in health service users in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales, Australia. Methods HbA1c values recorded between 2010 and 2012 for non-pregnant individuals aged ≥18 years were extracted from the Southern.IML Research (SIMLR) database. Individuals were assigned quintiles of the Socioeconomic Indices for Australia (SEIFA) Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD) according to their Statistical Area 1 of residence. Glycaemic risk categories were defined as HbA1c 5.0-5.99% (lowest risk), 6.0-7.49% (intermediate risk) and ≥7.5% (highest risk). Logistic regression models were fit with glycaemic risk category as the outcome variable and IRSD as the study variable, adjusting for age and sex. Results Data from 29064 individuals were analysed. Higher disadvantage was associated with belonging to a higher glycaemic risk category in the fully adjusted model (most disadvantaged vs least disadvantaged quintile; odds ratio 1.74, 95% confidence interval 1.58, 1.93; Prisk. Geocoded clinical data can inform more targeted use of health service resources, with the potential for improved health care equity and cost-effectiveness. What is known about the topic? The rapid increase in the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes (T2D), both globally and nationally within Australia, is a major concern for the community and public health agencies. Individual socioeconomic disadvantage is a known risk factor for abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM), including T2D. Although small-area-level socioeconomic disadvantage is a known correlate of AGM in Australia, less is known of the association of area-level disadvantage and glycaemic-related risk in individuals with AGM. What does this paper add? This study demonstrates a robust association between small-area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and glycaemic-related risk in regional New
Johnson, Kenneth R.
The last of a series of teacher education units discusses techniques for teaching reading and writing to culturally disadvantaged students. The poor reading ability of such students is related to their cultural backgrounds which prepared them inadequately for reading instruction in a middle-class oriented curriculum. Therefore, remedial…
Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P
To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.
Full Text Available The Healthy Growth Charter is an educational and health-promoting project aimed at an active involvement of the primary school children in health surveillance and protection. Being duly acquainted of the matter, scholars are asked to fill by their own a questionnaire on height, weight, sport attendance and other items of medical and demographic interest. According to the project, problems suitable of corrective measures, such as amblyopia, are signalled to the families and dealt individually. The project has been previously tested on about 1500 boys and girls from various Italian regions, showing that, despite the limits of self-reported data, it provides information in line with literature. Health inequalities in children remain an important problem also in Italy, and a second test of the Healthy Growth Charter was launched in a group of socially disadvantaged children. As reported in this paper, overweight, reduced physical activity, visual problems and other items markedly differed in this with respect to the previous study. These results provide some indication on the potential role of social disadvantage and poverty on health status of children. To better tackle the problem of health inequalities, the actual surveillance systems should be empowered, preferably with an active educational involvement of children, translating the information into public health intervention policies.
Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.
A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)
Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Clark, Shelley
Like in other world regions, children with divorced parents in sub-Saharan Africa experience significant heath disadvantages relative to their peers with married parents. Preliminary evidence suggests this disadvantage may not be uniform across the subcontinent's diverse settings. Research from other world regions shows that the childhood health consequences of divorce vary across different contexts. Specifically, we hypothesize that the childhood disadvantages associated with divorce are more severe in regions of sub-Saharan Africa where divorce is rare, and less so where divorce is a more common family experience. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 290 subnational regions within 31 sub-Saharan African countries, multilevel models document the previously shown link between having a divorced mother and child morbidity and mortality. The study results further demonstrate that the childhood health disadvantage is accentuated in subnational African regions where fewer women are divorced and muted in areas where more women are divorced. The findings demonstrate that the broader context can powerfully moderate childhood health inequalities traditionally thought of as operating at the family or individual level.
Full Text Available Like in other world regions, children with divorced parents in sub-Saharan Africa experience significant heath disadvantages relative to their peers with married parents. Preliminary evidence suggests this disadvantage may not be uniform across the subcontinent’s diverse settings. Research from other world regions shows that the childhood health consequences of divorce vary across different contexts. Specifically, we hypothesize that the childhood disadvantages associated with divorce are more severe in regions of sub-Saharan Africa where divorce is rare, and less so where divorce is a more common family experience. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 290 subnational regions within 31 sub-Saharan African countries, multilevel models document the previously shown link between having a divorced mother and child morbidity and mortality. The study results further demonstrate that the childhood health disadvantage is accentuated in subnational African regions where fewer women are divorced and muted in areas where more women are divorced. The findings demonstrate that the broader context can powerfully moderate childhood health inequalities traditionally thought of as operating at the family or individual level.
Ranti Ristiani, Christina; Rokhmatuloh; Hernina, Revi
Flood is one of natural disasters that have often happened in East Jakarta. Flood can give several negative impacts and it can affect all aspects of society lives such as economics, political, cultural, socials and others. East Jakarta is an urban area which continuously grows and establishes to become a rapid area. It can be seen from the highest population density in East Jakarta (BPS, 2016) and categorized into a region prone to flooding based on data Prone Flood Map in 1996 and 2016. The higher population exists in East Jakarta, the bigger possibility of the negative effects of disaster it gets. The negative impacts of flood disaster can affect societies especially with socio-economic disadvantage. One of the index to measure socio-economic disadvantage is NSDI (Neighbourhood socio-economic disadvantage index). However, to adjust indicators used in NSDI with Indonesia statistical data compatibility, it needs further assessment and evaluation. Therefore, this paper evaluates previous main indicators used in previous NSDI studies and improves with indicators which more suitable with statistical records in Indonesia. As a result, there will be improved 19 indicators to be used in NSDI, but the groups of indicators remain the same as previous namely; income, education, occupation, housing, and population.
Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael
Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.
Koch, R J; Chavez, A; Dagum, P; Newman, J P
Despite the growing popularity of computer imaging systems, it is not clear whether the medical and legal advantages of using such a system outweigh the disadvantages. The purpose of this report is to evaluate these aspects, and provide some protective guidelines in the use of computer imaging in cosmetic surgery. The positive and negative aspects of computer imaging from a medical and legal perspective are reviewed. Also, specific issues are examined by a legal panel. The greatest advantages are potential problem patient exclusion, and enhanced physician-patient communication. Disadvantages include cost, user learning curve, and potential liability. Careful use of computer imaging should actually reduce one's liability when all aspects are considered. Recommendations for such use and specific legal issues are discussed.
Ozgener, B.; Ozgener, H.A.
A multi-region collision probability formulation that is capable of applying white boundary condition directly is presented and applied to thermal neutron transport problems. The disadvantage factors computed are compared with their counterparts calculated by S N methods with both direct and indirect application of white boundary condition. The results of the ABH and collision probability method with indirect application of white boundary condition are also considered and comparisons with benchmark Monte Carlo results are carried out. The studies show that the proposed formulation is capable of calculating thermal disadvantage factor with sufficient accuracy without resorting to the fictitious scattering outer shell approximation associated with the indirect application of the white boundary condition in collision probability solutions
Baeza-Velasco, Carolina; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Pailhez, Guillem; Vilarrasa, Antonio Bulbena
Joint hypermobility (JH) is a feature observed in several inherited conditions in which joints have a range of motion beyond normal limits. Such inherent flexibility makes it relatively easy for hypermobile people to perform certain physical activities, so this characteristic is particularly convenient for certain athletes. However JH also can carry some disadvantages: it has been associated to a higher risk of injury and to states of anxiety. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current evidence concerning the advantages and disadvantages of JH in the field of sport. We emphasize the importance of detecting JH in athletes in order to intervene appropriately through injury prevention programs, and emphasize how inherent anxiety may have a negative impact on sporting performance.
Full Text Available Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.
H Thomas; V Krishnarayan
In this paper some of the mechanisms by which black and ethnic minorities can be put at a particular disadvantage within the planning system in Britain (and how these processes can be challenged) are examined. A number of types of policy processes operating in British planning are identified, and, drawing on a range of secondary and primary data, the influence of black and ethnic minorities within these processes are analysed. The paper is concluded with a review of the possibilities for the ...
Turkey intends tobuild three nuclear power stations in the Akkuyu, Sinopand Igneada regions to meet its increasing energy demands. This policy,however, is still a highly controversial topic in Turkey as nuclear energy hasboth advantages and disadvantages. The related literature on this topic isdivided into two groups; supporters claim that nuclear energy may decreaseTurkey's energy dependency on other countries, as it already importsapproximately 70% of its total energy demand. In contra...
South African President F. W. de Klerk made headlines on March 24 when he admitted to a joint session of parliament that South Africa had once had a supply of nuclear weapons; six of seven planned devices had been completed. South African spokesmen had previously said that Pretoria was capable of building weapons, but they had remained deliberately vague about whether or not any had been built. According to de Klerk, the weapons were dismantled before South Africa signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty on July 10, 1991. De Klerk's revelation came in response to charges by the African National Congress and U.S. government officials that South Africa had possibly hidden atomic bomb components and manufacturing plants and that it had been evasive about its stockpile of weapon-grade uranium. A more complete discussion of de Klerk's disclosure and events leading to the admission are explored in this article
Arditti, Joyce; Burton, Linda; Neeves-Botelho, Sara
This article presents an emergent conceptual model of the features and links between cumulative disadvantage, maternal distress, and parenting practices in low-income families in which parental incarceration has occurred. The model emerged from the integration of extant conceptual and empirical research with grounded theory analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study. Fourteen exemplar family cases were used in the analysis. Results indicated that mothers in these families experienced life in the context of cumulative disadvantage, reporting a cascade of difficulties characterized by neighborhood worries, provider concerns, bureaucratic difficulties, violent intimate relationships, and the inability to meet children's needs. Mothers, however, also had an intense desire to protect their children, and to make up for past mistakes. Although, in response to high levels of maternal distress and disadvantage, most mothers exhibited harsh discipline of their children, some mothers transformed their distress by advocating for their children under difficult circumstances. Women's use of harsh discipline and advocacy was not necessarily an "either/or" phenomenon as half of the mothers included in our analysis exhibited both harsh discipline and care/advocacy behaviors. Maternal distress characterized by substance use, while connected to harsh disciplinary behavior, did not preclude mothers engaging in positive parenting behaviors.
Lewis, Sue; Russell, Andrew
This research article on youth smoking in disadvantaged communities is the product of a qualitative study to understand the issues faced by young smokers--and those trying not to be smokers--in such communities. Environmental factors and peer influence are widely recognised influences on adolescents' take-up and continuation of smoking but less is known about whether, what, how and why circumstances in disadvantaged communities affect young people's pathways towards and away from smoking. Focusing on a youth club in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in the North East of England, narratives about young people's relationships with tobacco provide an ethnographically rich, thick description of the experiences of a group that is too often easily ignored. We argue that young people are caught between competing domains that together exert a form of structural violence. These are, first, the economic and political structures that have overseen de-industrialisation; second, the media structures that create desire for what they cannot afford; third the structures of international organised crime that conspire to provide them with the means to consume from which 'legitimate' structures effectively exclude them. Rather than expecting young people to comply with the health imperative, interventions need to bridge issues of agency and critical consciousness, which structural violence otherwise insidiously erodes. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone
OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...
pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...
Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K
Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.
Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.
In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Disadvantaged groups are an important target for smoking cessation intervention. Smoking rates are markedly higher among severely socially disadvantaged groups such as indigenous people, the homeless, people with a mental illness or drug and alcohol addiction, and the unemployed than in the general population. This proposal aims to evaluate the efficacy of a client-centred, caseworker delivered cessation support intervention at increasing validated self reported smoking cessation rates in a socially disadvantaged population. Methods/Design A block randomised controlled trial will be conducted. The setting will be a non-government organisation, Community Care Centre located in New South Wales, Australia which provides emergency relief and counselling services to predominantly government income assistance recipients. Eligible clients identified as smokers during a baseline touch screen computer survey will be recruited and randomised by a trained research assistant located in the waiting area. Allocation to intervention or control groups will be determined by time periods with clients randomised in one-week blocks. Intervention group clients will receive an intensive client-centred smoking cessation intervention offered by the caseworker over two face-to-face and two telephone contacts. There will be two primary outcome measures obtained at one, six, and 12 month follow-up: 1 24-hour expired air CO validated self-reported smoking cessation and 2 7-day self-reported smoking cessation. Continuous abstinence will also be measured at six and 12 months follow up. Discussion This study will generate new knowledge in an area where the current information regarding the most effective smoking cessation approaches with disadvantaged groups is limited. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN85202510
Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; D'Este, Catherine; Sanson-Fisher, Robert; West, Robert; Girgis, Afaf; Siahpush, Mohammad; Carter, Robert
Disadvantaged groups are an important target for smoking cessation intervention. Smoking rates are markedly higher among severely socially disadvantaged groups such as indigenous people, the homeless, people with a mental illness or drug and alcohol addiction, and the unemployed than in the general population. This proposal aims to evaluate the efficacy of a client-centred, caseworker delivered cessation support intervention at increasing validated self reported smoking cessation rates in a socially disadvantaged population. A block randomised controlled trial will be conducted. The setting will be a non-government organisation, Community Care Centre located in New South Wales, Australia which provides emergency relief and counselling services to predominantly government income assistance recipients. Eligible clients identified as smokers during a baseline touch screen computer survey will be recruited and randomised by a trained research assistant located in the waiting area. Allocation to intervention or control groups will be determined by time periods with clients randomised in one-week blocks. Intervention group clients will receive an intensive client-centred smoking cessation intervention offered by the caseworker over two face-to-face and two telephone contacts. There will be two primary outcome measures obtained at one, six, and 12 month follow-up: 1) 24-hour expired air CO validated self-reported smoking cessation and 2) 7-day self-reported smoking cessation. Continuous abstinence will also be measured at six and 12 months follow up. This study will generate new knowledge in an area where the current information regarding the most effective smoking cessation approaches with disadvantaged groups is limited. ISRCTN: ISRCTN85202510.
Grollman, Eric Anthony
The double disadvantage hypothesis predicts that adults who hold more than one disadvantaged status may experience worse health than their singly disadvantaged and privileged counterparts. Research that has tested this thesis has yielded mixed findings due partly to a failure to examine the role of discrimination. This article uses data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (N = 2,647) to investigate the relationship between multiple disadvantaged statuses and health, and whether multiple forms of interpersonal discrimination contribute to this association. The results suggest that multiply disadvantaged adults are more likely to experience major depression, poor physical health, and functional limitations than their singly disadvantaged and privileged counterparts. Further, multiple forms of discrimination partially mediate the relationship between multiple stigmatized statuses and health. Taken together, these findings suggest that multiply disadvantaged adults do face a "double disadvantage" in health, in part, because of their disproportionate exposure to discrimination.
Nagane, Yuriko; Murai, Hiroyuki; Imai, Tomihiro; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Tsuda, Emiko; Minami, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasushi; Kanai, Tetsuya; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Kawaguchi, Naoki; Masuda, Masayuki; Konno, Shingo; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Aoki, Masashi; Utsugisawa, Kimiaki
To clarify the social disadvantages associated with myasthenia gravis (MG) and examine associations with its disease and treatment. Cross-sectional study. We evaluated 917 consecutive cases of established MG seen at 13 neurological centres in Japan over a short duration. All patients completed a questionnaire on social disadvantages resulting from MG and its treatment and a 15-item MG-specific quality of life scale at study entry. Clinical severity at the worst condition was graded according to the MG Foundation of America classification, and that at the current condition was determined according to the quantitative MG score and MG composite. Maximum dose and duration of dose ≥20 mg/day of oral prednisolone during the disease course were obtained from the patients' medical records. Achievement of the treatment target (minimal manifestation status with prednisolone at ≤5 mg/day) was determined at 1, 2 and 4 years after starting treatment and at study entry. We found that 27.2% of the patients had experienced unemployment, 4.1% had been unwillingly transferred and 35.9% had experienced a decrease in income, 47.1% of whom reported that the decrease was ≥50% of their previous total income. In addition, 49.0% of the patients reported feeling reduced social positivity. Factors promoting social disadvantages were severity of illness, dose and duration of prednisolone, long-term treatment, and a depressive state and change in appearance after treatment with oral steroids. Early achievement of the treatment target was a major inhibiting factor. Patients with MG often experience unemployment, unwilling job transfers and a decrease in income. In addition, many patients report feeling reduced social positivity. To inhibit the social disadvantages associated with MG and its treatment, greater focus needs to be placed on helping patients with MG resume a normal lifestyle as soon as possible by achieving the treatment target. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group
We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...
Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir
The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.
Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer, 1-13 ...
... disadvantaged enterprise. 752.226-1 Section 752.226-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Clauses 752.226-1 Determination of status as disadvantaged enterprise. As prescribed in 726.7006(a), insert the following provision: Disadvantaged Enterprise Representation (APR 1991) The offeror/contractor...
Arı, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Rıfat
In this study, it has examined that advantages and disadvantages of fair value accounting and historical cost accounting in comparatively. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of produced financial information according to fair value accounting and historical cost accounting in perspective of reliability, relavance, transparency, intelligibility, comparability, timeliness and financial stability. Literature review results of this study indicate that there are advantages and disadvantages b...
Full Text Available Learning analytics deals with the data that occurs from students' interaction with ICT: collecting data, analyzing and reporting that can influence learning and teaching. Analysis of validity and reliability of assessment lags behind other applications of learning analytics. We present here mathematical modeling of learning analytics for assessment, especially for peer-assessment. In addition, we analyze and categorize students' recognition of advantages and disadvantages of peer-assessment. Finally implementations of reliability check of peer-assessment in Moodle Workshop module are explained.
Christiansen, Camilla Worm; Gerdes, Anne-Marie Axø
Direct-to-consumer genetic tests are sold over the internet to consumers all over the world - including Denmark. No regulation of these tests has been introduced neither in Denmark nor in Europe, even though they have been on the market since 2007. Such tests have several advantages, but indeed also a long list of potential disadvantages, which are most often ignored, and among these is insufficient training of general practitioners in performing the necessary counselling but also the risk of increased expenses to unnecessary follow-up consultations.
d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos
This book presents a comparison analysis of two cancer treatment therapies: carbon ion therapy and protontherapy. It is divided in 5 sections. The first ones gives the reader a brief history of Radiotherapy and types of radiation. In the second section, the techniques and equipments, including new ones in development such as Cyclinac , Laser and DWA, are described. The third section describes biophysical (such as stopping power and LET) and biological (such as RBE and OER) properties, the fundamental experiments and clinical area. The fourth section presents models and the fifth section compares both techniques, showing advantages and disadvantages of each, and their similarities.
Full Text Available This article critically reviews the extant literature on social group representation and clarifies the advantages of intersectionality theory for studying political representation. It argues that the merit of intersectionality theory can be found in its ontology of power. Intersectionality theory is founded on a relational conception of political power that locates the constitution of power relations within social interactions, such as political representation. As such, intersectionality theory pushes scholarship beyond studying representation inequalities —that are linked to presumably stable societal positions— to also consider the ways in which political representation (recreates positions of privilege and disadvantage.
Carvalho Filho, Elio Barreto de; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes da; Antunes, Nilson
Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas.
Full Text Available The Digital Doorway is a computerized machine that was implemented in areas populated by disadvantaged communities throughout South Africa to promote computer literacy within these communities. Understanding the progress and satisfaction of users...
Wood, M.T.; Radford, L.R.; Saari, L.M.; Wright, J.
This report offers a design and recommendations for implementing a program of education to assist Department of Energy buyers and procurement officers in increasing the quality and quantity of small disadvantaged business (DB) participation in their contracted work. The recommendations are based on a previous companion report, ''Issues in Contracting with Small Minority Businesses,'' from which technical assistance and related needs were derived. The assistance program is based on buyer and disadvantaged-business needs, as determined from synthesizing the results of interviews with over two dozen minority business leaders and procurement officers.
Pandelani Harry Munzhedzi
Full Text Available The article seeks to explore the relationship between procurement in the public sector and corruption. Corruption in the procurement process is one of the biggest challenges facing the South Africa government. Procurement in the South African public sector through the tendering process has been used with a particular aim of addressing the past discriminatory practices and policies by empowering the previously disadvantaged majority. It ought to operate within a certain legislative and regulatory framework. However, the article argues that in the process of implementing the good intentions of the government, corruption illegitimises the process. There are also challenges that are associated with public sector procurement, with corruption being the main protagonist. The article also seeks to suggest possible solutions that could be used to address the anomalies. The article further concludes that the main reason for the rife corruption in the public sector is that there is nonadherence to policy prescripts including the Public Finance Management Act, 1999 (Act 1 of 1999 and the Municipal Finance Management Act, 2003 (Act 56 of 2003. This enormous predicament may only be addressed if the government were to show will and commitment by punishing offenders who do not comply with the said legislative framework.
Schoeni, Robert F; Dow, William H; Miller, Wilhelmine D; Pamuk, Elsie R
Higher educational attainment is associated with better health status and longer life. This analysis estimates the annual dollar value of the benefits that would accrue to less-educated American adults if they experienced the lower mortality rates and better health of those with a college education. Using estimates of differences in mortality among adults aged ≥ 25 years by educational attainment from the National Longitudinal Mortality Survey and of education-based differentials in health status from published studies based on the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, combined with existing estimates of the economic value of a healthy life year, the economic value of raising the health of individuals with less than a college education to the health of the college educated is estimated. The annual economic value that would accrue to disadvantaged (less-educated) Americans if their health and longevity improved to that of college-educated Americans is $1.02 trillion. This modeling exercise does not fully account for the social costs and benefits of particular policies and programs to reduce health disparities; rather, it provides a sense of the magnitude of the economic value lost in health disparities to compare with other social issues vying for attention. The aggregate economic gains from interventions that improve the health of disadvantaged Americans are potentially large. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Malhi, Prahbhjot; Sidhu, Manjit; Bharti, Bhavneet
To examine the effect of home stimulation on the language functioning of young children from low income families. The language functioning of 102 children (Mean age = 3.3 y, SD = 1.3) was assessed by the communication sub-scale of the Indian Developmental Inventory (IDI). Home visits were made to assess the quality of stimulation provided by parents to children. Seven items measuring stimulation of the child were selected from the Mohite Home Environment Inventory, a scale measuring the quality of home environment. Nearly 16 % of children from economically disadvantaged homes had language delay. Children with language delay as compared to children with adequate language skills had significantly lower stimulation at home (t = 2.59, P = 0.01), specifically parents were significantly less likely to praise their child (25 % vs. 52 %, χ (2) = 4.03, P = 0.045) or provide verbal stimulation (44 % vs. 72 %, χ (2) = 4.95, P = 0.026). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis revealed that 18 % of the variance in the communication developmental quotient (DQs) of children was accounted by stimulation and age of the child (F = 10.47, P = 0.000). Programs that seek to increase early stimulation for disadvantaged children by providing cognitive-linguistic enriched learning experiences would go a long way in paving the way for improved language, cognition and school performance in young children.
Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to see if Problem-based Learning (PBL can be successfully used in veterinary medicine. Research results show that PBL offers several advantages (it contributes towards the reduction of information overload; it develops generic skills and aptitudes; it facilitates an integrated core curriculum; it facilitates the relevance of curriculum content; it fosters active, deep learning, improved understanding, and retention and development of lifelong learning skills; it is a constructivist approach; it makes the students more responsible for their learning; and it motivates both teachers and students over traditional teaching methods. However, it also has several well recognised disadvantages (it deprives students’ access to a particular inspirational teacher who, in a traditional curriculum, would deliver lectures to a large group; it is difficult and frustrating for the tutors who cannot “teach”; it makes students be unsure about how much self-directed study to do and what information is relevant and useful; it needs more human resources to take part in the tutoring process; it needs more material resources for the students to access simultaneously. The conclusion is that PBL can successfully be used in the teaching of veterinary medicine-related disciplines provided the teachers work on its disadvantages
Parveen, Khadeeja; Banse, Viktoria; Ledwani, Lalita
The nanotechnology and biomedical sciences opens the possibility for a wide variety of biological research topics and medical uses at the molecular and cellular level. The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical and physical methods. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that connects nanotechnology with plants. Novel methods of ideally synthesizing NPs are thus thought that are formed at ambient temperatures, neutral pH, low costs and environmentally friendly fashion. Keeping these goals in view nanomaterials have been synthesized using various routes. Among the biological alternatives, plants and plant extracts seem to be the best option. Plants are nature's "chemical factories". They are cost efficient and require low maintenance. The advantages and disadvantages of nanotechnology can be easily enumerated. This study attempts to review the diversity of the field, starting with the history of nanotechnology, the properties of the nanoparticle, various strategies of synthesis, the many advantages and disadvantages of different methods and its application.
Margarita Calderón López
Full Text Available This study explores the role of literacy in disadvantaged environments and the interplay between self-generated literacy practices and their conceptualization of literacy in 7 to 10-year-old Chilean pupils from two different schools located in Santiago, Chile. The study was framed within a participatory approach focused on promoting the children’s agency and voice in the research. A range of second-level data materials were collected through interviews with parents, photographs and existing documents. Although at a resources-associated level the sociocultural context did not inhibit the emergence of literacy practices, the context did contribute to the children’s understanding of literacy. This study raises the need for considering how children’s understanding of literacy influence their involvement and learning about reading and writing as their experiences and perceptions have an important role in their learning process, particularly on how they develop their reading and writing practices. The findings implied that by raising the participants’ awareness of the relevance of everyday practices in relation with reading and writing, they are likelier to feel more comfortable and empowered towards their own literacy practices. Particularly, the empowerment of children coming from a disadvantaged background would give them more opportunities to support their learning. By making the children aware of the relevance of their own perceptions and practices, the pupils could gain in confidence, be agents of their learning processes, and have more resources to succeed on the demanding school environment.
The South African Journal of Philosophy publishes original contributions (articles, discussions of articles previously published, review articles and book reviews) within any field of philosophy. The South African Journal of Philosophy is indexed in The Philosopher's Index, Current Contents/Arts & Humanities, IBZ & IBR, Bio ...
Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.
Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.
South African higher education institutions, in line with international practice and as a result of the "social turn", are progressing towards mainstream academic literacy support for students. This shift has a political dimension in South Africa where, historically, disadvantage has had racial dimensions, in its departure from…
Educational practices in South Africa which privilege English throughout the educational journey of the learner disadvantage the majority who do not speak English as a home language. Tertiary institutions in South Africa have crafted language policies that appear to be attempts to redress this imbalance by pledging ...
Carolissen, Ronelle; Rohleder, Poul; Bozalek, Vivienne; Swartz, Leslie; Leibowitz, Brenda
The term "community" holds historical connotations of political, economic, and social disadvantage in South Africa. Many South African students tend to interpret the term "community" in ways that suggest that community and community psychology describe the experiences of exclusively poor, black people. Critical pedagogies that…
Queiros, Dorothy R.; de Villiers, M. R.
Online learning is a means of reaching marginalised and disadvantaged students within South Africa. Nevertheless, these students encounter obstacles in online learning. This research investigates South African students' opinions regarding online learning, culminating in a model of important connections (facets that connect students to their…
Full Text Available A total of 213 faecal samples were collected from four abattoirs and households to determine the prevalence of helminthes infections in exotic and indigenous goats in Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria. The study revealed that out of 153 exotic goats (Red Sokoto Capra hircus, 112 were infected with various species of gastrointestinal helminths; out of 60 indigenous goats (West African dwarf Capra hircus, 49 were also infected with various types of gastrointestinal helminths. The formol-ether concentration method was used to analyse the specimens. The study revealed that an overall prevalence of (75.5% was recorded, out of which 57 (76.0%, 55 (70.5%, and 49 (81.6% were recorded for exotic goat in the months of May–September, 2010, exotic goat in the months October 2010–February, 2011 and for indigenous goats, respectively. The overall prevalence amongst the infected animals was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Species of helminthes revealed from the study were, Haemonchus, Strongyloides, Chabertia, Trichuris, Ostertagia, Bunostomum, Trichostrongyloida, Ascaris, Tenia, Avitelina, Fasciola, Eurytrema, Gastrothylax, Schistosoma, and Dicrocoelium.
Sharpe, Patricia A; Flint, Sylvia; Burroughs-Girardi, Ericka L; Pekuri, Linda; Wilcox, Sara; Forthofer, Melinda
Successful community groups have the capacity to mobilize community assets to address needs. Capacity-building education is integral to building competent communities. A community-university team developed and pilot tested an education program for community advocates from disadvantaged neighborhoods with high chronic disease burden. The Community Advocacy and Leadership Program (CALP) included eight monthly workshops, a mini-grant opportunity, and technical assistance. A nominal group with community health practitioners, focus group with community advocates, and a literature search comprised a triangulated educational needs assessment. A participating pretest with 35 community health practitioners guided curriculum refinement. Seven representatives from three community groups in a medically underserved South Carolina county participated in pilot implementation and evaluation. Qualitative and quantitative data informed the process and impact evaluation. The mean knowledge score at 1 month after the program was 77% (range, 52%-96%). The mean score on post-program self-assessment of skills improvement was 3.8 out of a possible 4.0 (range, 3.6-4.0). Two groups submitted successful community mini-grant applications for playground improvements, and the third group successfully advocated for public funding of neighborhood park improvements. Participants reported favorable impressions and both personal and community benefits from participation. A community-university partnership successfully conducted a local educational needs assessment and developed and pilot tested a capacity development program within a CBPR partnership. Successes, challenges, and lessons learned will guide program refinement, replication, and dissemination.
Koebsch, Andre; Cunha, Bruno Rocha Marques da; Nunes, Erik Barbosa; Haverroth, Guilherme Eller [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campos, Paulo Herinque [Bredero Shaw, Houston, TX (United States)
The pipeline operating companies' requirements has divided the anti corrosive coating industry in two big groups. Europe, Asia and South America had decided to use tree layers polyethylene (3LPE). In the other hand North America and England are users of Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE). The coating characteristics guided this division. The 3LPE presents a better mechanical resistance, a small demand of cathodic protection current but the application costs involved are greater. The FBE has a small mechanic resistance, greater demand of cathodic protection current but its application cost is lower. In the effort for finding better mechanic performance of the FBE product the industry developed the 2L-FBE. This new product show better requirements as better mechanical resistance, smaller cathodic protection current required and medium application costs when compared to the traditional FBE. This paper intends to describe this new technology's PQT results that were carried out by PETROBRAS and Bredero Shaw - Brazil to be used on produced water injection pipelines. It'll show also a table with vantages and disadvantages about each coating. (author)
Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... that especially eve-ryday-route strategies adding new public functions within the area can pave the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on the context, location and existing image of the ar-ea. Social distance may sustain though physical...... penthouse flats, and new urban functions within the area or spectacular new public spaces near it. In this paper the social impact of such transformations are analysed and dis-cussed based on case-studies in 3 Danish areas: Gyldenrisparken, Finland-sparken and Mjølnerparken/Superkilen. The analysis shows...
de Carvalho Filho, Élio Barreto; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; da Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes; Antunes, Nilson
Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas. PMID:25140478
Silverman, S R
The bewildering patchwork or organization and organizing principles involved in the delivery of services to the communicatively disadvantaged requires and amalgam of effort. Also helpful would be a clearer understanding of magnitudes, characteristics and habilitation needs of certain subgroups such as the language disabled, the multiply handicapped and the moderately handicapped. Since this conference is concerned primarily with scientific contribution, it is suggested that we are in a transition from intuitive approaches to habilitative procedures to those derived from scientific investigations. This is pointedly documented in the area of language which cuts across all types of communicative disorders, as well as in such areas as early identification, sensory aids, career education, parent guidance, media use and mental health. It is important, too, for scientists to communicate clearly with their many publics.
Zhang, F J; Sun, M S
With the development of excimer laser and femtosecond laser equipment, application of diversified and customized surgical decision in modern corneal refractive surgery has been an inevitable trend. However, how to make a personalized decision with an accurate surgical design to achieve better visual quality becomes the main focus in clinical applications. Small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) have been commonly acknowledged as the mainstream of corneal refractive surgery for ametropia correction nowadays. Both methods have been verified by clinical practice for many years. This article compares and elaborates the different characteristics with advantages and disadvantages of the two methods so as to provide some reasonable treatment options for refractive surgery. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2018, 54: 7-10) .
Full Text Available Taxpayers and tax administrators sometimes may experience tax dispute. These disputes may arise from the taxpayers as well as from the tax administrators. In resolving tax disputes, tax administrators and tax payers are the first, usually administratively, solution. Because while the tax revenues of the state are possible entered into the state treasury, the taxpayers will benefit from the advantages of administrative solutions. The state and taxpayer herein will be the winner. Invitation to view is one of the administrative remedies for tax disputes. With this practice taxpayers who have caused tax evasion penalty are invited by tax administrators to make a declaration on the condition that the tax examination of the tax disputes is not started and the dispatch process has not been done to the discretion comission. In this study, advantages and disadvantages will be addressed after the definition, legal support, purpose, scope and mechanism of Invitation to view.
Zamarro, Gema; Engberg, John; Saavedra, Juan Esteban
This paper investigates the use of teacher value-added estimates to assess the distribution of effective teaching across students of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in the presence of classroom composition effects. We examine, via simulations, how accurately commonly-used teacher-value added estimators recover the rank correlation between true and estimated teacher effects and a parameter representing the distribution of effective teaching. We consider various scenarios of teacher assignment, within-teacher variability in classroom composition, importance of classroom composition effects, and presence of student unobserved heterogeneity. No single model recovers without bias estimates of the distribution parameter in all the scenarios we consider. Models that rank teacher effectiveness most accurately do not necessarily recover distribution parameter estimates with less bias. Since true teacher sorting in real data is seldom known, we recommend that analysts incorporate contextual information into their decisions about model choice and we offer some guidance on how to do so. PMID:26681993
Full Text Available Research utilizing the individual case study method examined the complex issues related to pathways into and out of home-lessness for an Aboriginal man from a First Nation community on the western James Bay in Canada. This instrumental case study focused on an individual's story, rather than on a site or a group of individuals, an incident or a series of incidents, or a program  . First, as a research tool, it provides insight into the issue of homelessness and some of its causes from the perspective of an Aboriginal person. Second, the in-depth data gathered allowed us to understand some of the factors that work and those that do not work in facilitating transitions out of homelessness. Third, as an educational tool, it allows people from the outside to have a better understanding of how systemic disadvantages contribute to individuals falling into homelessness.
Spriggs, Aubrey L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J
Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by social disorganization theory, relative deprivation theory, and gendered resource theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of socioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males' physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males' victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization.
The aim of the study was to evaluate a motivation-based HIV risk reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged urban women in South Africa. Women were recruited through radio and information pamphlets. At baseline 119 women completed a survey regarding HIV-related knowledge, risk perceptions, ...
This article is a conceptual consideration of what could be regarded as pedagogical justice for disadvantaged students in South African schools. Combining Bourdieu's social reproduction account of education with elements of Bernstein's consideration of the internal dynamics that constitute the pedagogic relay, the article ...
Background. While countries such as the USA, South Africa and China debate health reforms to improve access to care while rationalising costs, Canada's health care system has emerged as a notable option. In the USA, meaningful discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the Canadian system has been ...
Prior to 1994, the education system of South Africa was characterized by a hierarchical and bureaucratic style of management as well as a situation where white schools were the key beneficiaries of resources and black schools massively disadvantaged. In 1996 a national task team made strategic proposals for education management capacity, including…
Start Date. October 31, 2008. End Date. July 31, 2011. Duration. 30 months. IDRC Officer. Smith, Matthew. Total funding. CA$ 726,900. Country(s). Colombia, South America, Ecuador, North and Central America. Project Leader. Susan Pezzullo. Institution. International Youth Foundation Inc. Institution Country. United States.
Full Text Available South Africa is one of the most 'unequal' societies in the world. Despite apartheid ending more than 20 years ago, material inequalities remain interwoven with ethnic/racial inequalities. There is limited research on the prevalence/predictors of common mental disorders (CMD among young people. Adolescence is a unique time-point during which intervention may lead to improved mental health and reduced social problems later. The study objective was to assess mental health disparities in a representative sample of adolescents growing up in South Africa.Cross-sectional associations of race/ethnicity and material disadvantage with CMD and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD were assessed in a stratified random sample representative of school-attendees, aged 14-15 years, in a large metropolitan area of Cape Town. Validated instruments assessed mental disorders; these included: Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (PTSD; Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (depression; Zung self-rated anxiety scale (anxiety. Self-ascribed ethnicity was determined using procedures similar to the South African census and previous national surveys.Response rate was 88% (1034 of 1169 individuals. Adolescents experienced a high prevalence of depression (41%, anxiety (16% and PTSD (21%. A gradient between material disadvantage and CMD/ PTSD was evident across all ethnic/racial groups. Respondents self-identifying as 'black' or 'coloured' were disadvantaged across most indicators. After adjusting for confounders, relative to white children, relative risk (RR of CMD in black children was 2.27 (95% CI:1.24, 4.15 and for PTSD was RR: 2.21 (95% CI:1.73, 2.83. Relative risk of CMD was elevated in children self-identifying as 'coloured' (RR: 1.73, 95% CI:1.11, 2.70. Putative mediators (violence, racially motivated bullying, social support, self-esteem partially accounted for differences in CMD and fully for PTSD.Adolescent mental health inequalities in Cape Town are associated with
South Korea aspires to become a major nuclear supplier in the world nuclear market. There is no doubt that South Korea has great potential to fulfill these aspirations. South Korea is well positioned in terms of competitiveness, market relationships, institutional capability, ability to deliver, and commitment to nonproliferation values. As a mercantilist state, South Korea hopes to capitalize on its close relationships with transnational nuclear corporations in this endeavor. It hopes to participate in two- or three-way joint ventures---especially with the American firms that have traditionally predominated in the South Korean domestic nuclear business---to market their nuclear wares abroad. This paper is divided into four parts. The first section describes South Korea's intent to become a nuclear supplier in the 1990s. It delineates the networks of prior transactions and relationships that South Korea may use to penetrate export markets. The second section reviews South Korea's nuclear export potential, particularly its technological acquisitions from the domestic nuclear program. These capabilities will determine the rate at which South Korea can enter specific nuclear markets. The third section describes the institutional framework in South Korea for the review and approval of nuclear exports
Zahodne, Laura B; Nowinski, Cindy J; Gershon, Richard C; Manly, Jennifer J
Previous studies showed that control beliefs are more strongly related to global cognition and mortality among adults with low education, providing preliminary evidence that self-efficacy buffers against the negative impact of educational disadvantage on physical and cognitive health. The current study extends these findings to a nationally representative sample of men and women aged 30 to 85 and explores which cognitive domains are most strongly associated with self-efficacy, educational attainment, and their interaction. Data were obtained from 1032 adult (30-85) participants in the United States norming study for the NIH Toolbox. Self-efficacy, executive functioning, working memory, processing speed, episodic memory, and vocabulary were assessed with the NIH Toolbox. Multivariate analysis of covariance and follow-up regressions tested the hypothesis that self-efficacy would be more strongly related to cognitive performance among individuals with lower education, controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, reading level, testing language, and depressive symptoms. Higher education was associated with higher self-efficacy and better performance on all cognitive tests. Higher self-efficacy was associated with better set-switching and attention/inhibition. Significant self-efficacy by education interactions indicated that associations between self-efficacy and executive abilities were stronger for individuals with lower education. Specifically, individuals with low education but high self-efficacy performed similarly to individuals with high education. This study provides evidence that self-efficacy beliefs buffer against the negative effects of low educational attainment on executive functioning. These results have implications for future policy and/or intervention work aimed at reducing the deleterious effects of educational disadvantage on later cognitive health.
Zahodne, Laura B.; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Gershon, Richard C.; Manly, Jennifer J.
Objective Previous studies showed that control beliefs are more strongly related to global cognition and mortality among adults with low education, providing preliminary evidence that self-efficacy buffers against the negative impact of educational disadvantage on physical and cognitive health. The current study extends these findings to a nationally-representative sample of men and women aged 30 to 85 and explores which cognitive domains are most strongly associated with self-efficacy, educational attainment, and their interaction. Method Data were obtained from 1,032 adult (30-85) participants in the United States norming study for the NIH Toolbox. Self-efficacy, executive functioning, working memory, processing speed, episodic memory, and vocabulary were assessed with the NIH Toolbox. Multivariate analysis of covariance and follow-up regressions tested the hypothesis that self-efficacy would be more strongly related to cognitive performance among individuals with lower education, controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, reading level, testing language, and depressive symptoms. Results Higher education was associated with higher self-efficacy and better performance on all cognitive tests. Higher self-efficacy was associated with better set-switching and attention/inhibition. Significant self-efficacy by education interactions indicated that associations between self-efficacy and executive abilities were stronger for individuals with lower education. Specifically, individuals with low education but high self-efficacy performed similarly to individuals with high education. Conclusions This study provides evidence that self-efficacy beliefs buffer against the negative effects of low educational attainment on executive functioning. These results have implications for future policy and/or intervention work aimed at reducing the deleterious effects of educational disadvantage on later cognitive health. PMID:25877284
Ratha, Dilip; Shaw, William
South-South Migration and Remittances reports on preliminary results from an ongoing effort to improve data on bilateral migration stocks. It sets out some working hypotheses on the determinants and socioeconomic implications of South-South migration. Contrary to popular perception that migration is mostly a South-North phenomenon, South-South migration is large. Available data from nation...
Medical School Outcomes, Primary Care Specialty Choice, and Practice in Medically Underserved Areas by Physician Alumni of MEDPREP, a Postbaccalaureate Premedical Program for Underrepresented and Disadvantaged Students.
Metz, Anneke M
Minorities continue to be underrepresented as physicians in medicine, and the United States currently has a number of medically underserved communities. MEDPREP, a postbaccalaureate medical school preparatory program for socioeconomically disadvantaged or underrepresented in medicine students, has a stated mission to increase the numbers of physicians from minority or disadvantaged backgrounds and physicians working with underserved populations. This study aims to determine how MEDPREP enhances U.S. physician diversity and practice within underserved communities. MEDPREP recruits disadvantaged and underrepresented in medicine students to complete a 2-year academic enhancement program that includes science coursework, standardized test preparation, study/time management training, and emphasis on professional development. Five hundred twenty-five disadvantaged or underrepresented students over 15 years completed MEDPREP and were tracked through entry into medical practice. MEDPREP accepts up to 36 students per year, with two thirds coming from the Midwest region and another 20% from nearby states in the South. Students complete science, test preparation, academic enhancement, and professionalism coursework taught predominantly by MEDPREP faculty on the Southern Illinois University Carbondale campus. Students apply broadly to medical schools in the region and nation but are also offered direct entry into our School of Medicine upon meeting articulation program requirements. Seventy-nine percent of students completing MEDPREP became practicing physicians. Fifty-eight percent attended public medical schools, and 62% attended medical schools in the Midwest. Fifty-three percent of program alumni chose primary care specialties compared to 34% of U.S. physicians, and MEDPREP alumni were 2.7 times more likely to work in medically underserved areas than physicians nationally. MEDPREP increases the number of disadvantaged and underrepresented students entering and graduating
Speight, Svetlana; Smith, Ruth; Lloyd, Eva; Coshall, Cathy
This research aims to fill a gap in the evidence base by exploring the relationship between families experience of multiple disadvantage and childcare. We know that disadvantaged families are less likely to use formal childcare; however, less research has been conducted on childcare use by multiply disadvantaged families. The research is based on further analysis of the 2008 Childcare and Early Years Survey of Parents, which was published by the Department for Children Schools and Families in...
Hegland, Gary; Hough, Jill
The disadvantaged population have barriers to a normal lifestyle. Mobility is one of these barriers. Approximately 15.4 percent of North Dakota’s population is disadvantaged. These individuals live in the metropolitan areas and in the rural, low-population-density counties, which have limited transportation. The Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute (UGPTI) developed a survey to identify the transportation needs of the disadvantaged population and measure how those needs are being met. ...
Valuev, Denis Viktorovich; Malushin, N. N.; Valueva, Anna Vladimirovna; Dariev, R. S.; Mamadaliev, R. A.
To reveal the disadvantages of the traditional technology of facing with chromium-tungsten steels analysis of the given technology was completed. The analysis showed that the main disadvantages of the technology are high-temperature heating and underutilization of high-alloyed metal properties. To eliminate the disadvantages we developed the methods of facing allowing obtaining faced metal which state is close to that of the hardened one without cracks.
Kim, Doo Hwan; Law, Helen
In many industrialised societies, women remain underrepresented in the sciences, which can be predicted by the gender gap in math achievement at school. Using PISA 2006 data, we explore the role of family background and single-sex schooling in girls' disadvantage in maths in South Korea and Hong Kong. This disadvantage is found to be associated…
S.V. Knyaz; N.G. Georgiadi; Y.S. Bogiv
The article substantiates the necessity to develop technology business planning innovative projects. Arguments made by the ground analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of existing business planning technologies.
Marie-Louise H. Hansen
Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.
Venn, Andrea; Dickinson, Anne; Murray, Rachael; Jones, Laura; Li, Jinshuo; Parrott, Steve; McNeill, Ann
In countries where there are large disparities in smoking with persistent high rates among disadvantaged groups, there is a need to ensure that stop smoking services (SSS) reach such smokers. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mobile, drop-in, community-based SSS in reaching more disadvantaged smokers, particularly those from routine and manual (RM) occupation groups, than standard services; secondary aims were to evaluate effectiveness in reaching those who had not previously accessed SSS, triggering unplanned quit behaviour, helping people quit and cost-effectiveness. Following a 4-week pilot period, a mobile drop-in SSS was delivered across various public locations in Nottingham City, UK for 6 months, offering behavioural and pharmacological support via one-to-one consultations with trained cessation advisors. Detailed demographic and smoking behaviour data were collected from all clients accessing the mobile SSS, and Nottingham's standard SSS for comparison. Compared with smokers accessing the standard SSS (n=1856), mobile SSS smokers (n=811) were significantly more likely to be from the RM group (33.3% vs 27.2%, p=0.002), and to be first-time SSS users (67.8% vs 59.3%, pmobile SSS had no prior quit intentions. The cost per smoker setting a quit date for the mobile SSS was only slightly higher than the standard SSS (£224 vs £202). A mobile drop-in SSS is an effective way of reaching more disadvantaged smokers from RM occupations, as well as those who have not previously accessed standard SSS and those without prior quit intentions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes
This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.
Herbolzheimer, W G
Following a short historical introduction and a description of basic methods of perimetry, computerized perimetry is described (taking the Octopus computerized perimeter as an example). The hardware-software concept and the three parts of the automatic perimeter, i.e., the controller, the measuring section, and the program section, are described. The technique of threshold determination, the programs (including the new Octopus programs), and the modes of representation of the results are explained. It is shown how one tries top take subjective criteria of the patient, such as attention, intelligence, and ability to concentrate into account during the measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of computerized perimetry are pointed out. It is emphasized that on average the range of scatter of measurements made with the automatic perimeter is smaller than when traditional manual methods are employed. In addition to the accuracy (scatter), the reproducibility (correlation) of the results is also better. Pathologic visual field defects are detected in greater detail and earlier by the automatic static perimeter than by manual perimetry. This applies in particular to early stages of retrobulbar neuritis and glaucoma.
Early post-partum discharges (EPD) are a hot topic. Already widely practised in many European countries this procedure, was promoted by the government for a decade, requested by representatives of Midwive organisations, desired by some patients, but also criticized by the Academy of Medicine. Well organized and with an obligatory control and follow-up, EPD could help with the management of the shortage of maternity beds and hence increase the satisfaction of the patients. The procedure could even be a way to effectively implement a town-hospital network, something, which has many other benefits. However this procedure is not without potential dangers: lower quality of care, financial risks for the department, and especially a significant increase of the workload of the hospital staff. The main objective of this paper is to detail the benefits and disadvantages of EPD for maternities and to propose an organizational basis if EPD is the procedure of choice. A participatory methodology is essential when using this procedure, due to the important participation of different categories of staff involved in hospital discharge (administrative, medical and paramedical staff) and to exclude complications when certain specifications are not followed or misunderstood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Boyce, W F
A structural perspective was used in studying community participation of disadvantaged groups (poor women, street youth, and disabled persons) in health promotion projects. Five community projects in the Canadian Health Promotion Contribution Program were examined in a comparative case study utilizing in-depth interviews, documents, and secondary sources. Analysis revealed relatively low numbers and restricted range of participants, difficulties in recruiting and maintaining participants, declining rates of active participation over time, and limited target group influence and power. This paper reports on the relationship between various dimensions of structure (social-cultural, organizational, political-legal-economic) and the community participation process. Participation was influenced by structural factors such as bureaucratic rules and regulators, perceived minority group rights and relations, agency reputations and responsibilities, available resources, and organizational roles. Control of projects by target group members, rather than by service agencies, was an important overall organizational structural factor which allowed community members to achieve influence in projects. The study concludes that a conceptual model based on structural factors is useful in explaining how key factors from federal and local levels can restrict or facilitate the community participation process.
Pérez-Pérez, L; García-Gavín, J; Gilaberte, Y
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an option for the treatment of actinic keratosis, Bowen disease, and certain types of basal cell carcinoma. It is also used to treat various other types of skin condition, including inflammatory and infectious disorders. The main disadvantages of PDT are the time it takes to administer (both for the patient and for health professionals) and the pain associated with treatment. Daylight-mediated PDT has recently been reported to be an alternative to the conventional approach. Several studies have shown it to be similar in efficacy to and better tolerated than classic PDT for the treatment of mild to moderate actinic keratosis. Nevertheless, most of these studies are from northern Europe, and no data have been reported from southern Europe. The present article reviews the main studies published to date, presents the treatment protocol, and summarizes our experience with a group of treated patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper was to examine leadership practices in effective schools located in economically disadvantaged areas of three Canadian provinces: Ontario, Québec, and New Brunswick. Research Design. Our study was conducted in five successful schools selected on the basis of student outcomes on province-wide standardized exams, as well as on some risk factors such as rural area, low socioeconomic level, and proportion of Francophones (Ontario and New Brunswick. To increase the study’s validity, we used triangulation and various data sources: (1 individual interviews; (2 observation of school principals; (3 field documentation; (4 student essays; (5 internal school documents such as mission statement, rules, and directives. Participants. Participants included Department of Education heads and school board administrators, school principals and vice principals, teachers, school counsellors, educational psychologists, parent school board members, and students. Findings. Results show that leadership practices in effective schools can be grouped together around five dimensions: establishing goals and expectations; strategic resourcing; curriculum planning, coordination, and evaluation; promoting and participating in teacher supervision and development; ensuring order and support.
Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Rubilar, Bibiana; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gaston; Rodriguez, Alfredo E
Coronary angioplasty with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is currently the most common stent procedure worldwide. Since the introduction of DES, coronary restenosis as well as the incidence of target vessel and target lesion revascularization have been significantly reduced. However, the incidence of very late stent thrombosis beyond the first year after stent deployment has more commonly been linked to DES than to bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. Several factors have been associated with very late stent thrombosis after DES implantation, such as delayed healing, inflammation, stent mal-apposition and endothelial dysfunction. Some of these adverse events were associated with the presence of durable polymers, which were essential to allow the elution of the immunosuppressive drug in the first DES designs. The introduction of erodable polymers in DES technology has provided the potential to complete the degradation of the polymer simultaneously or immediately after the release of the immunosuppressive drug, after which a BMS remains in place. Several DES designs with biodegradable (BIO) polymers have been introduced in preclinical and clinical studies, including randomized trials. In this review, we analyze the clinical results from 6 observational and randomized studies with BIO polymers and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this new technology.
Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn
This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits...
Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn
This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....
Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn
This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South...
Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Trapp, Georgina; Wood, Lisa
Research suggests that there are area-level disparities in alcohol outlets, with greater density in disadvantaged areas. In part, this might be explained by the inequitable distribution of retail, attracted by lower rents to disadvantaged neighbourhoods. This ecological study examines the distribution of liquor licences in Perth, Australia, and whether discrepancies in the distribution of retail land-uses could account for a socio-economic gradient. Area disadvantage was determined for each Statistical Area 1 (SA1) using the Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage, and licence locations were mapped in GIS. Negative binomial loglinear models examined whether licence densities within SA1s differed by area disadvantage, controlling for demographics and spatial correlation. Models included an offset term, so the estimated effects of area-level disadvantage were on licences per km 2 , or licences per retail destination. In the area-based analyses, for every unit increase in disadvantage decile (i.e. a reduction in relative disadvantage), general licences reduced by 15% (P = 0.000) and liquor stores reduced by 7% (P = 0.004). These gradients were not apparent when licences were examined as a function of retail; however, for every unit increase in disadvantage decile, the density of on-premise licences per retail destination increased by 14% (P = 0.000). The direction of the socio-economic gradient for general licences and liquor stores in Perth is concerning, as all licences selling packaged alcohol were more abundant in disadvantaged areas. However, the over-representation of packaged liquor in disadvantaged areas may relate to the increased provision of retail. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua
Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...
Dewnarain Ramnarain, Umesh
The apartheid policies in South Africa had a marked influence on the accessibility and quality of school science experienced by the different race groups. African learners in particular were seriously disadvantaged in this regard. The issues of equity and redress were foremost in transformation of the education system, and the accompanying curriculum reform. This paper reports on equity in terms of equality of outputs and equality of inputs in South African school science, with a particular focus on the implementation of practical science investigations. This was a qualitative case study of two teachers on their implementation of science investigations at two schools, one a township school, previously designated for black children, and the other a former Model C school, previously reserved for white children. My study was guided by the curriculum implementation framework by Rogan and Grayson in trying to understand the practice of these teachers at schools located in contextually diverse communities. The framework helped profile the implementation of science investigations and also enabled me to explore the factors which are able to support or hinder this implementation.
... significant adverse tax or interest consequences, include only the present value of such assets, less the tax... presumption of disadvantage. (1) If the statement of personal net worth that an individual submits under... disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26.67 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY...
OECD Publishing, 2016
Socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students are not equally exposed to mathematics problems and concepts at school. Exposure to mathematics at school has an impact on performance, and disadvantaged students' relative lack of familiarity with mathematics partly explains their lower performance. Widening access to mathematics content…
... Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 105-53.130-4 Section 105-53.130-4 Public Contracts and Property Management... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130-4 Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. (a) Creation and authority. Public Law 95-507, October 14, 1978, an amendment to the Small...
de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, Roel J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris
This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and
...; (5) Name of person or entity providing the service, as applicable, and; (6) Retail sales receipts... contiguous United States) operate at a competitive disadvantage relative to farmers and ranchers in the continental United States. This disadvantage is due to the high cost of transporting agricultural commodities...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. 726.7006 Section 726.7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY... Enterprises Program 726.7006 Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. (a) To be eligible for an...
Van Zomeren, M.; Postmes, T.; Spears, R.
The social psychology of collective action against collective disadvantage has hitherto underspecified, not to say neglected, the profound power of moral motivations. This is particularly important because moral motivations can unite disadvantaged and advantaged group members to fight for a joint
Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Heung, Kitty
Objectives: The study reported the pilot evaluation of the Healthy Start Home Visit Program for disadvantaged Chinese parents with preschool children, delivered by trained parent assistants. Home visiting was used to make services more accessible to disadvantaged families. Method: The participants included 21 parent-child dyads. Outcome measures…
... disadvantaged businesses (SDBs) to self-represent their SDB status to prime contractors in good faith when... ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Parts 2, 19, and 52 [FAC 2005-54; FAR Case 2009-019; Item III; Docket 2010-0108; Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AL77 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification AGENCY...
... disadvantaged business (SDB) for any Federal subcontracting program, and believes in good faith that it is owned... ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Parts 2, 19, and 52 [FAC 2005-47; FAR Case 2009-019; Item IV; Docket 2010-0108, Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AL77 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification AGENCIES...
... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 23 RIN 2105-AD88 Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises... concessions disadvantaged business enterprise (ACDBE) program. The revised rule instead provides reviewing the... discrimination and its effects. Consequently, as part of the notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) for this final...
Ander, Roseanna; Guryan, Jonathan; Ludwig, Jens
Improving the educational outcomes of economically disadvantaged children is a policy priority in the United States, and yet relatively little progress has been made in recent decades. Education reforms that aim to help economically disadvantaged students often focus on improving the quality with which grade-level material is taught, or the…
David, Alex Hugh
Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…
McPhillips, Martin; Jordan-Black, Julie-Anne
Background: Empirical research suggests that social disadvantage has a negative effect on the development of language, and related cognitive skills such as reading. There is, however, no corresponding body of research on the impact of social disadvantage on motor development. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of…
de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.
This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the…
As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…
Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael
This report describes disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching in grades 4 through 8 in 29 diverse school districts, using value-added analysis to measure effective teaching. Recent federal initiatives emphasize measuring teacher effectiveness and ensuring that disadvantaged students have equal access to effective teachers. These…
Zikhali, Joyce; Perumal, Juliet
This qualitative multiple case study explored the sources of emotional stress experienced by 12 female Zimbabwean primary heads leading in socio-economic disadvantaged schools in Masvingo District and their attempts to alleviate the challenges that the children from these disadvantaged contexts presented them with. Data was generated through…
The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...
Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce
Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…
Improving structural racial equality for historically-disadvantaged Black South Africans, including low-skilled and unemployed adults and youths, is a pertinent challenge for the South African government during the ongoing transition from apartheid capitalism to post-apartheid capitalism. Within the framework of the National Skills Development…
Grow, H Mollie Greves; Cook, Andrea J; Arterburn, David E; Saelens, Brian E; Drewnowski, Adam; Lozano, Paula
Evidence suggests variability in adult obesity risk at a small-scale geographic area is associated with differences in neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). However, the extent to which geographic variability in child obesity is associated with neighborhood SES is unknown. The objective of this paper was to estimate risk of child obesity associated with multiple census tract SES measures and race within a large urban U.S. county. Height, weight, age, sex, medical insurance type and census tract residence were obtained for 6-18 year old children (n=8616) who received medical care at a health plan in King County, Washington, in 2006. Spatial analyses examined the individual risk of obesity (BMI > or = 95th percentile) with 2000 US census tract measures of median household income, home ownership, adult female education level, single parent households, and race as predictors. Conditional autoregressive regression models that incorporated adjacent census tracts (spatial autocorrelation) were applied to each census tract variable, adjusting for individual variables. We found that in adjusted spatial models, child obesity risk was significantly associated with each census tract variable in the expected direction: lower household income, lower home ownership, and for each 10% increase in less educated women, and single parent households, as well as non-white residents. In a spatial model including all variables, the SES/race variables explained approximately 24% of geographic variability in child obesity. Results indicated that living in census tracts with social disadvantage defined by multiple different measures was associated with child obesity among insured children in a large U.S. urban county. These results contribute new information on relationships between broader social and economic context and child obesity risk using robust spatial analyses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Larsson, L G; Baum, J; Mudholkar, G S; Kollia, G D
Joint hypermobility is considered to be both an advantage and a disadvantage. However, the degree of hypermobility in members of particular occupations requiring intense physical activity and the nature of the association between symptoms referable to specific joints and their hypermobility are unknown. We interviewed 660 musicians (300 women and 360 men) about work-related symptoms such as joint pain and swelling and examined them for joint hypermobility according to a standard protocol. We then determined the relation between the mobility of their fingers, thumbs, elbows, knees, and spine and any symptoms referable to these regions. Five of the 96 musicians (5 percent) with hypermobility of the wrists, mostly instrumentalists who played the flute, violin, or piano, had pain and stiffness in this region, whereas 100 of the 564 musicians (18 percent) without such hypermobility had symptoms (P = 0.001). Hypermobility of the elbow was associated with symptoms in only 1 of 208 musicians (< 1 percent), whereas 7 of 452 (2 percent) without this hypermobility had symptoms (P = 0.45). Among the 132 musicians who had hypermobile knees, 6 (5 percent) had symptoms, whereas only 1 of 528 (< 1 percent) with normal knees had symptoms (P < 0.001). Of the 462 musicians who had normal mobility of the spine, 50 (11 percent) had symptoms involving the back, as compared with 46 of the 198 musicians (23 percent) who had hypermobility of the spine (P < 0.001). Among musicians who play instruments requiring repetitive motion, hypermobility of joints such as the wrists and elbows may be an asset, whereas hypermobility of less frequently moved joints such as the knees and spine may be a liability.
Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many demands coming from all over the world to establish or to secure the possibility of comparability of the information provided in financial statements, and to make this information as reliable and accurate as possible, and therefore making it useful and beneficial for anyone who uses them. These requests demand adjustment of the content of accounted data in every single country, which might have its own accounting standards, to international norms of accounting. Substantial form of the synchronization or unification that attempts to harmonize accounting is the International Accounting Standards / International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS, which are mainly focusing on financial statements, and seeking the solutions for problems connected with it. Financial statements, being one of the main concerns of the IAS/IFRS that should lead to a better comparability, higher predication and also to achieve higher utility for users, is getting more and more important. One of the tools that should help achieve these demands in financial statements is called “Fair value”. Despite the intents and plans, however it is still quite difficult to establish, whether its contribution to the improvement of accounting standards is really beneficial. Main aim of this paper is to examine and depict the advantages and disadvantages connected to the fair value, providing the reader with objective information and thorough insight into the problems and benefits of fair value.Partial objectives of this paper are to define the concept of fair value, to provide information about theoretical background and evolution of fair value and to examine and describe the possible future development of fair value.
Sheldon, C T; Aubry, T D; Arboleda-Florez, J; Wasylenki, D; Goering, P N
The following study evaluates the complex association between legal involvement and mental illness. It describes a population of consumers of community mental health programs, comparing those with legal involvement to those without legal involvement, on a number of demographic, clinical and social indicators. It is a secondary analysis of data collected in studies making up the Community Mental Health Evaluation Initiative (CMHEI) in the province of Ontario, Canada. Legal involvement was a significant issue among community mental health program consumers; about one in five consumers had at least some contact with the legal system in the preceding nine months. Legally involved consumers were more likely to be in receipt of social assistance and be unstably housed than those legally uninvolved. However, there were no significant differences between legally involved and uninvolved consumers with respect to severity of symptomatology, current medication use or number of hospitalization days in the past 9 months. A predictive model compared the differential impact of clinical and social determinants upon legal involvement. Analyses failed to uncover a significant relationship between severity of psychiatric symptomatology and legal involvement. Significant predictors of legal involvement included gender, race, drug use as well as housing instability, and receipt of social assistance. Legal involvement was attributable to factors other than the severity of mental illness; these results challenge assumptions that the most symptomatically severe consumers are most at risk of legal involvement. Accordingly, the rate of legal involvement in a sample of community mental health program users must be considered in a broad context, with particular emphasis on social disadvantage.
Full Text Available When choosing between immediate and temporally delayed goods, people sometimes decide disadvantageously. Here, we aim to provide process-level insight into differences between individually determined advantageous and disadvantageous choices. Participants played a computer game, deciding between two different rewards of varying size and distance by moving an agent towards the chosen reward. We calculated individual models of advantageous choices and characterized the decision process by analyzing mouse movements. The larger amount of participants' choices was classified as advantageous and the disadvantageous choices were biased towards choosing sooner/smaller rewards. The deflection of mouse movements indicated more conflict in disadvantageous choices compared with advantageous choices when the utilities of the options differed clearly. Further process oriented analysis revealed that disadvantageous choices were biased by a tendency for choice-repetition and an undervaluation of the value information in favour of the delay information, making rather simple choices harder than could be expected from the properties of the decision situation.
Full Text Available The South Transdanubien region is among the 20 most disadvantaged region of the European Union, that shows a significant decrease compared to previous years. I think any professional research can we rationale, that to change this situation, do some substantive attept. I intend to shed light on the prospects/possibilities that this small town can have in the future; and I also want to find out whether it has developmental possibilities originated in the past yet adaptable to the current situation. When the development plans have been realized these town and neighborhoods has a decreasing migration and stabilized small towns culture. The aim of the present study is to present the long-term developmental laws and characteristic features that heavily influence the economic, social and political life of the South Transdanubian region via the developments plan of the small towns. In addition to the urban development plans I analyzed the statistical data and the associations scheme.
Singh, Deepti; Goli, Srinivas; Parsuraman, Sulabha
A substantial proportion of pregnant women in India are at the risk of serious obstetric complications and reliable information on obstetric morbidity is scanty, particularly in socio-economically disadvantaged society. We studied the association between the obstetric complications in women in their current pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous pregnancies in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data from District Level Household Survey (2007-2008) were used for empirical assessment. Bivariate, trivariate and Cox proportional hazard regression model analyses were applied to examine the effect of obstetric complications and previous pregnancy outcome on current pregnancy outcome among currently married women (age group 15-49 yr) in Uttar Pradesh, India. The results of this study showed that the obstetric complications in the current pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous pregnancies were associated with the outcome of the current pregnancy. Cox proportional hazard regression model estimates revealed that the hazard ratio of having stillbirths were significantly higher among women with any obstetric complications compared to women with no obstetric complications. The adverse pregnancy outcome in a previous pregnancy was the largest risk factor for likelihood of developing similar type of adverse pregnancy outcome in the current pregnancy. The findings provided key insights for health policy interventions in terms of prevention of obstetric complications to avoid the adverse pregnancy outcome in women.
Zilioli, Samuele; Imami, Ledina; Ong, Anthony D; Lumley, Mark A; Gruenewald, Tara
Recent evidence suggests that experiences of discrimination contribute to socioeconomic status health disparities. The current study examined if the experience and regulation of anger-an expected emotional response to discrimination-serves as an explanatory factor for the previously documented links between socioeconomic disadvantage (SED), discrimination, and allostatic load. Data were drawn from the second wave of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study and included 909 adults who participated in the biomarkers subproject. Results revealed that perceived discrimination was associated with higher levels of allostatic load. Furthermore, we found evidence that perceived discrimination and anger control sequentially explained the relationship between SED and allostatic load, such that greater discrimination was associated with lower levels of anger control, which, in turn accounted for the effects of discrimination on allostatic load. These results remained significant after controlling for negative affect, positive affect, other forms of anger expression, as well as demographic covariates. Our findings suggest that low anger control may be an important psychological pathway through which experiences of discrimination influence health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flagg, Lee A; Needham, Belinda L; Locher, Julie L
Prior studies have shown that neighborhood disadvantage and disorder are associated with birth outcomes. This study examined preconception diet and physical activity level, as well as body mass index, as mediators of the association between neighborhood conditions and birthweight. Secondary data analyses were conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The final analytic sample consisted of 523 adolescent and young adult mothers giving singleton live births between 1997 and 1998. In contrast to previous research, we found that neighborhood characteristics were unrelated to birthweight. Consistent with prior studies, compared to those who were White, on average, Blacks had birthweights that were 163.25 grams lighter. In addition, compared to mothers who were married or living with a partner, mothers who did not have a partner at the time of birth, on average, had offspring that were 127.20 grams lighter. No evidence was found for the mediation hypotheses as there were no associations between neighborhood characteristics and preconception diet or physical activity or between these behavioral variables and birthweight. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study examining diet and physical activity as possible behavioral pathways between the neighborhood context and birthweight.
Ryan, Ashling; Gibbon, Fiona E; O'shea, Aoife
Evidence suggests that children present with receptive language skills that are equivalent to or more advanced than expressive language skills. This profile holds true for typical and delayed language development. This study aimed to determine if such a profile existed for preschool children from an area of social deprivation and to investigate if particular language skills influence any differences found between expressive and receptive skills. Data from 187 CELF P2 UK assessments conducted on preschool children from two socially disadvantaged areas in a city in southern Ireland. A significant difference was found between Receptive Language Index (RLI) and Expressive Language Index (ELI) scores with Receptive scores found to be lower than Expressive scores. The majority (78.6%) of participants had a lower Receptive Language than Expressive score (RLI ELI), with very few (3.2%) having the same Receptive and Expressive scores (RLI = ELI). Scores for the Concepts and Following Directions (receptive) sub-test were significantly lower than for the other receptive sub tests, while scores for the Expressive Vocabulary sub-test were significantly higher than for the other expressive sub tests. The finding of more advanced expressive than receptive language skills in socially deprived preschool children is previously unreported and clinically relevant for speech-language pathologists in identifying the needs of this population.
Schibli, Kylie; Wong, Kyle; Hedayati, Nina; D'Angiulli, Amedeo
We review current findings associating socioeconomic status (SES), development of neurocognitive functions, and neurobiological pathways. A sizeable interdisciplinary literature was organized through a bifurcated developmental trajectory (BiDeT) framework, an account of the external and internal variables associated with low SES that may lead to difficulties with attention and learning, along with buffers that may protect against negative outcomes. A consistent neurocognitive finding is that low-SES children attend to information nonselectively, and engage in late filtering out of task-irrelevant information. Attentional preferences influence the development of latent inhibition (LI), an aspect of learning that involves reassigning meaningful associations to previously learned but irrelevant stimuli. LI reflects learning processes clarifying the relationship between neurobiological mechanisms related to attention and socioeconomic disadvantage during child development. Notably, changes in both selective attention and typical LI development may occur via the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MsCL-DA) system. Chaotic environments, social isolation, and deprivation associated with low SES trigger stress responses implicating imbalances in the MsCL-DA and consolidating anxiety traits. BiDeT describes plausible interactions between socioemotional traits and low-SES environments that modify selective attention and LI, predisposing individuals to vulnerability in cognitive development and academic achievement. However, positive role models, parental style, and self-regulation training are proposed as potential promoters of resilience. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation
Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M; Lee, Joyce
The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. We analyzed longitudinal data from Waves I (1994-1995), II (1996), and III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative population-based sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in 1995 who were followed into young adulthood. We assessed the relationship between obesity in adolescence and young adulthood, and disadvantage (measured by low parent education in adolescence) at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level using multilevel logistic regression. When all levels of disadvantage were modeled simultaneously, school-level disadvantage was significantly associated with obesity in adolescence for males and females and family-level disadvantage was significantly associated with obesity in young adulthood for females. Schools may serve as a primary setting for obesity prevention efforts. Because obesity in adolescence tracks into adulthood, it is important to consider prevention efforts at this stage in the life course, in addition to early childhood, particularly among disadvantaged populations. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed
We assessed the mediating role of education in the association between childhood disadvantage and psychological distress in adulthood using longitudinal data collected in three waves, from 1994 to 2008, in the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4530), a cohort that is representative of men and women from Tromsø. Education was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years, and psychological distress in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years. Ordinary least square regression analysis was used to assess the associations between childhood disadvantage, education, and psychological distress in adulthood. The indirect effects and the proportion (%) of indirect effects of childhood disadvantage (via education) on psychological distress in adulthood were assessed by mediation analysis. Childhood disadvantage was associated with lower education and higher psychological distress in adulthood (p childhood disadvantage and psychological distress in adulthood was mediated by education. Childhood disadvantages were measured retrospectively. The association between childhood disadvantage and psychological distress in adulthood is primarily independent of education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neckerman, Kathryn M; Garfinkel, Irwin; Teitler, Julien O; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher
The New York City (NYC) Longitudinal Study of Wellbeing, or "Poverty Tracker," is a survey of approximately 2300 NYC residents. Its purpose is to provide a multidimensional and dynamic understanding of economic disadvantage in NYC. Measures of disadvantage were collected at baseline and a 12-month follow-up, and include 3 types of disadvantage: 1) income poverty, using a measure on the basis of the new Supplemental Poverty Measure; 2) material hardship, including indicators of food insecurity, housing hardship, unmet medical needs, utility cutoffs, and financial insecurity; and 3) adult health problems, which can drain family time and resources. In this article initial results for NYC families with children younger than the age of 18 years are presented. At baseline, 56% of families with children had 1 or more type of disadvantage, including 28% with income poverty, 39% with material hardship, and 17% with an adult health problem. Even among nonpoor families, 33% experienced material hardship and 14% reported an adult health problem. Two-thirds of all families faced disadvantage at either baseline or follow-up, with 46% experiencing some kind of disadvantage at both time points. Respondents with a college education were much less likely to face disadvantage. Even after adjusting for educational attainment and family characteristics, the families of black and Hispanic respondents had increased rates of disadvantage. Considering income poverty alone the extent of disadvantage among families with children in NYC is greatly understated. These results suggest that in addition to addressing income poverty, policymakers should give priority to efforts to reduce material hardship and help families cope with chronic physical or mental illness. The need for these resources extends far above the poverty line. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bennie, Jason A; Thornton, Lukar E; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Banting, Lauren K; Biddle, Stuart J H
Leisure-time physical activity and strength training participation levels are low and socioeconomically distributed. Fitness trainers (e.g. gym/group instructors) may have a role in increasing these participation levels. However, it is not known whether the training location and characteristics of Australian fitness trainers vary between areas that differ in socioeconomic status. In 2014, a sample of 1,189 Australian trainers completed an online survey with questions about personal and fitness industry-related characteristics (e.g. qualifications, setting, and experience) and postcode of their usual training location. The Australian Bureau of Statistics 'Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage' (IRSD) was matched to training location and used to assess where fitness professionals trained and whether their experience, qualification level and delivery methods differed by area-level disadvantage. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between IRSD score and selected characteristics adjusting for covariates (e.g. sex, age). Overall, 47 % of respondents worked in areas within the three least-disadvantaged deciles. In contrast, only 14.8 % worked in the three most-disadvantaged deciles. In adjusted regression models, fitness industry qualification was positively associated with a higher IRSD score (i.e. working in the least-disadvantaged areas) (Cert III: ref; Cert IV β:13.44 [95 % CI 3.86-23.02]; Diploma β:15.77 [95 % CI: 2.17-29.37]; Undergraduate β:23.14 [95 % CI: 9.41-36.86]). Fewer Australian fitness trainers work in areas with high levels of socioeconomic disadvantaged areas than in areas with low levels of disadvantage. A higher level of fitness industry qualifications was associated with working in areas with lower levels of disadvantage. Future research should explore the effectiveness of providing incentives that encourage more fitness trainers and those with higher qualifications to work in more socioeconomically
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking rates remain unacceptably high among individuals who are socially disadvantaged. Social and community service organisations (SCSO are increasingly interested in providing smoking cessation support to clients, however little is known about the best way to assist disadvantaged smokers to quit in this setting. This study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators to quitting within the conceptual framework of the PRECEDE model to identify possible interventions appropriate to the social and community service setting. Methods Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with clients attending five community welfare organisations located in New South Wales, Australia. Thirty-two clients participated in six focus groups. A discussion guide was used to explore the barriers and facilitators to smoking and smoking cessation including: current smoking behaviour, motivation to quit, past quit attempts, barriers to quitting and preferences for cessation support. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis techniques. Results Participants were current smokers and most expressed a desire to quit. Factors predisposing continued smoking included perceived benefits of smoking for stress relief, doubting of ability to quit, fear of gaining weight, and poor knowledge and scepticism about available quit support. The high cost of nicotine replacement therapy was a barrier to its use. Continual exposure to smoking in personal relationships and in the community reinforced smoking. Participants expressed a strong preference for personalised quit support. Conclusions Disadvantaged smokers in Australia express a desire to quit smoking, but find quitting difficult for a number of reasons. SCSOs may have a role in providing information about the availability of quit support, engaging disadvantaged smokers with available quit support, and providing personalised, ongoing support.
Law, James; McBean, Kirsty; Rush, Robert
Previous studies have highlighted the level of communication difficulty experienced by children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds, but the pattern of difficulties remains unclear. The study asks whether the performance of a community sample of children from one of the most socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Scotland is best characterized by a general delay in all areas of development, by difficulties across the more formal structural aspects of language or in phonological skills. The study included 138 monolingual English-speaking children: 63 (45.7%) boys and 75 (54.3%) girls aged between 5 and 12 years. All children were assessed blind to educational attainment in the school. Nearly 40% of children had delayed language development with 10% having severe difficulties. The children presented with an uneven profile with much lower structural language scores than reading, general communication skills or non-verbal performance. Although service use was high in the group as a whole, the proportion who met criteria for specific language impairment on discrepancy criteria were not those who were being referred to speech and language therapy. Although many children were performing well within the normal range, a substantial proportion were not, having considerable implications for the way that services are delivered to these children. Given the high prevalence of delayed structural language difficulties in this group, there is a clear need for a more universal 'population'-based approaches to service delivery. © 2011 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.
Khan, Taskeen; Thomas, Leena S; Naidoo, Shan
In light of global concerns about insufficient numbers of doctors, midwives, and nurses, the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified the scale-up of the production of medical professionals who are competent and responsive to community needs as urgent and necessary. Coincident with this imperative, South African medical schools have also had to consider redressing apartheid-era inequities in access to medical education and changing the racial and gender profile of medical graduates to be representative of the population. In this article, we explore progress and challenges with regard to transformation, defined as intentional and planned changes aimed at addressing historical disadvantages, in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using data on medical school admissions and graduations from the Health and Education Departments for the period 1999-2011. Admission and graduation statistics of 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2011 were analysed according to race and gender. The results show that there has been progress in transforming the race and gender composition of medical students and graduates, in line with the transformation strategies of the South African government. In 1999, black African enrolments and graduates were conspicuously low in two of the three medical schools in the Gauteng province. By 2011, an almost six-fold increase in black African student enrolments was seen in one medical school that was previously designated as a white institution. In contrast, at the historically black medical school, whites only represented 0.40% of enrolments in 1999 and 7.4% in 2011. Since 1999, the number and proportion of female medical enrolments and graduates has also increased substantially. While there has been progress with redressing historical disparities and inequities in terms of race and gender, further efforts are needed to ensure that student intakes and graduations are in line with the South African
Full Text Available The current labour market has many forms of employment relations that differ from full-time employment. "Atypical," "non-standard," or even "marginal" are terms used to describe these new workers and include, amongst others, part-time work, contract work, self-employment, temporary, fixed-term, seasonal, casual, piece-rate work, employees supplied by employment agencies, home workers and those employed in the informal economy. These workers are often paid for results rather than time. Their vulnerability is linked in many instances to the absence of an employment relationship or the existence of a flimsy one. Most of these workers are unskilled or work in sectors with limited trade union organisation and limited coverage by collective bargaining, leaving them vulnerable to exploitation. They should, in theory, have the protection of current South African labour legislation, but in practice the unusual circumstances of their employment render the enforcement of their rights problematic. The majority of non-standard workers in South Africa are those previously disadvantaged by the apartheid regime, compromising women and unskilled black workers. The exclusion of these workers from labour legislation can be seen as discrimination, which is prohibited by almost all labour legislation in South Africa. This contribution illustrates how the concept of indirect discrimination can be an important tool used to provide labour protection to these workers. The purpose of this article is to explore the scope of the extension of labour rights to non-standard workers in the context of South African labour laws and the international framework.
Kamndaya, Mphatso; Pisa, Pedro T; Chersich, Matthew F; Decker, Michele R; Olumide, Adesola; Acharya, Rajib; Cheng, Yan; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead
Polyvictimisation (PV) - exposure to violence across multiple contexts - causes considerable morbidity and mortality among adolescents. Despite high levels of violence in urban disadvantaged settings, gender differences in associations between PV and mental health have not been well established. We analysed data from a survey with 2393 adolescents aged 15-19 years, recruited using respondent-driven sampling from urban disadvantaged settings in Baltimore (USA), Delhi (India), Ibadan (Nigeria), Johannesburg (South Africa) and Shanghai (China). PV was defined as exposure to two or more types of violence in the past 12 months with family, peers, in the community, or from intimate partners and non-partner sexual violence. Weighted logistic regression models are presented by gender to evaluate whether PV is associated with posttraumatic stress, depression, suicidal thoughts and perceived health status. PV was extremely common overall, but ranged widely, from 74.5% of boys and 82.0% of girls in Johannesburg, to 25.8 and 23.9% respectively in Shanghai. Community violence was the predominant violence type, affecting 72.8-93.7% across the sites. More than half of girls (53.7%) and 45.9% of boys had at least one adverse mental health outcome. Compared to those that did not report violence, boys exposed to PV had 11.4 higher odds of having a negative perception of health (95%CI adjusted OR = 2.45-53.2), whilst this figure was 2.58 times in girls (95%CI = 1.62-4.12). Among girls, PV was associated with suicidal thoughts (adjusted OR = 4.68; 95%CI = 2.29-9.54), posttraumatic stress (aOR = 4.53; 95%CI = 2.44-8.41) and depression (aOR = 2.65; 95%CI = 1.25-5.63). Among boys, an association was only detected between PV and depression (aOR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.00-3.33). The findings demonstrate that PV is common among both sexes in urban disadvantaged settings across the world, and that it is associated with poor mental health outcomes in girls, and with poor
Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyvictimisation (PV – exposure to violence across multiple contexts – causes considerable morbidity and mortality among adolescents. Despite high levels of violence in urban disadvantaged settings, gender differences in associations between PV and mental health have not been well established. Methods We analysed data from a survey with 2393 adolescents aged 15-19 years, recruited using respondent-driven sampling from urban disadvantaged settings in Baltimore (USA, Delhi (India, Ibadan (Nigeria, Johannesburg (South Africa and Shanghai (China. PV was defined as exposure to two or more types of violence in the past 12 months with family, peers, in the community, or from intimate partners and non-partner sexual violence. Weighted logistic regression models are presented by gender to evaluate whether PV is associated with posttraumatic stress, depression, suicidal thoughts and perceived health status. Results PV was extremely common overall, but ranged widely, from 74.5% of boys and 82.0% of girls in Johannesburg, to 25.8 and 23.9% respectively in Shanghai. Community violence was the predominant violence type, affecting 72.8–93.7% across the sites. More than half of girls (53.7% and 45.9% of boys had at least one adverse mental health outcome. Compared to those that did not report violence, boys exposed to PV had 11.4 higher odds of having a negative perception of health (95%CI adjusted OR = 2.45-53.2, whilst this figure was 2.58 times in girls (95%CI = 1.62-4.12. Among girls, PV was associated with suicidal thoughts (adjusted OR = 4.68; 95%CI = 2.29-9.54, posttraumatic stress (aOR = 4.53; 95%CI = 2.44-8.41 and depression (aOR = 2.65; 95%CI = 1.25-5.63. Among boys, an association was only detected between PV and depression (aOR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.00-3.33. Conclusion The findings demonstrate that PV is common among both sexes in urban disadvantaged settings across the world, and that it is associated
Yater, Allan C.; And Others
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare and contrast performances on the WPPSI and the WISC to determine the concurrent validity of the two instruments at three age levels among disadvantaged black children. (Author)
.... The major disadvantage of this approach is the well-known impedance mismatch in which some form of mapping is required to connect the objects in the frontend and the relational tuples in the backend. Java Data Objects (JDO...
... Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department... rulemaking regarding modified academic achievement standards and alternate assessments based on those modified academic achievement standards. This notice established an October 7, 2013, deadline for the...
.... In analyzing the specific advantages and disadvantages of one of the systems, virtual collaboration, it becomes clear that commanders and staff at all levels of war are understanding the potential...
PETR ŠAFRÁNKOVÁ, Anna
Full Text Available Education of socially disadvantaged pupils is a current issue widely discussed, especially in the context of the philosophy of inclusive education. The present article focuses on presentation of results of a research study aimed at finding out the relevance to teachers of selected determinants involved in education of socially disadvantaged pupils. For this purpose the Q-methodology was used. We found that teachers teaching at the selected elementary schools saw as the most relevant determinants of education of socially disadvantaged pupils reduced class numbers and interest of the socially disadvantaged pupils in their own education, while determinants of the teacher’s side (social environment the teacher comes from, their religious belief and race were considered less relevant.
Holm, Anders; Wang, Camilla; Kousholt, Dorte
Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) can enhance the life chances of all children, and especially socially disadvantaged children. In the Nordic daycare systems, however, it is not clear if ECEC provides equal social and intellectual opportunities for socially disadvantaged children. The VIDA...... in daycare. The objective is to improve our knowledge about effective means and methods when implementing a new innovative type of early childhood educational efforts aimed at socially disadvantaged children. This is done by a systematic approach on the basis of methods developed in the VIDA programs......: presentation of theoretical and empirical knowledge of children’s learning and wellbeing; education, including giving staff the opportunity to refl ect on their own experiences when working with socially disadvantaged children at their center; and, fi nally, training on how to renew practices at local level...
Leijten, P.; Raaijmakers, M.A.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van den Ban, E.; Matthys, W.
Families with socioeconomically disadvantaged and ethnic minority backgrounds are often hard to reach for the prevention and treatment of disruptive child behavior problems. We examined whether the Incredible Years parenting intervention can successfully reach and benefit families with socioeconomic
... Vol. 76 Friday, No. 29 February 11, 2011 Part VII Small Business Administration 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status... Regulations#0;#0; [[Page 8222
... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section 970.1907... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...
Acknowledging the common assumption locating the impact of education in its role to act as a mediator between origins and destinations, this paper examines Early Childhood Care and Education [ECCE], particularly the role state provided, compensatory education plays in challenging educational disadvantage. Initially operationalisation is made of the key concepts of ECCE, equality of opportunity and educational disadvantage. I then move to briefly describe the historical development of ECCE and...
Jason A. Bennie
Full Text Available Abstract Background Leisure-time physical activity and strength training participation levels are low and socioeconomically distributed. Fitness trainers (e.g. gym/group instructors may have a role in increasing these participation levels. However, it is not known whether the training location and characteristics of Australian fitness trainers vary between areas that differ in socioeconomic status. Methods In 2014, a sample of 1,189 Australian trainers completed an online survey with questions about personal and fitness industry-related characteristics (e.g. qualifications, setting, and experience and postcode of their usual training location. The Australian Bureau of Statistics ‘Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage’ (IRSD was matched to training location and used to assess where fitness professionals trained and whether their experience, qualification level and delivery methods differed by area-level disadvantage. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between IRSD score and selected characteristics adjusting for covariates (e.g. sex, age. Results Overall, 47 % of respondents worked in areas within the three least-disadvantaged deciles. In contrast, only 14.8 % worked in the three most-disadvantaged deciles. In adjusted regression models, fitness industry qualification was positively associated with a higher IRSD score (i.e. working in the least-disadvantaged areas (Cert III: ref; Cert IV β:13.44 [95 % CI 3.86-23.02]; Diploma β:15.77 [95 % CI: 2.17-29.37]; Undergraduate β:23.14 [95 % CI: 9.41-36.86]. Conclusions Fewer Australian fitness trainers work in areas with high levels of socioeconomic disadvantaged areas than in areas with low levels of disadvantage. A higher level of fitness industry qualifications was associated with working in areas with lower levels of disadvantage. Future research should explore the effectiveness of providing incentives that encourage more fitness trainers and those with
This bachelor thesis is dedicated to the comparison of advantages and disadvantages of the classic and on-line banking in the Czech banking market. The theoretical part gives definition of basic information about classic and internet banking. The practical part describes an offer of selected banks and, based on selected criteria, compares advantages and disadvantages of classic and internet banking from the perspective of the bank and clients.
Lüdemann, Elke; Schwerdt, Guido
Research on educational disadvantages of second-generation immigrants largely focuses on differences in student achievement tests. Exploiting data from the German PIRLS Extension, we provide evidence that second-generation immigrants face an additional disadvantage when tracked into different types of secondary school. We find that second-generation immigrants are less likely to receive a teacher recommendation for a higher school track. This difference cannot be attributed to differences in ...
Elke Lüdemann; Guido Schwerdt
Research on immigrantsâ€™ educational disadvantages largely focuses on differences in student achievement tests. Exploiting data from the German PIRLS extension, we find that second-generation immigrants face additional disadvantages with respect to grades and teacher recommendations for secondary school tracks that cannot be explained by differences in student achievement tests and general intelligence. Second-generation immigrations are disproportionately affected by prevailing social inequ...
Hiscock, Rosemary; Bauld, Linda; Amos, Amanda; Platt, Stephen
Since 2000 various tobacco control measures have been implemented in the UK. Changes in the smoking status of low and high socioeconomic status (SES) groups in England during this period (2001-08) are explored. Secondary analysis of the Health Survey for England general population samples was undertaken. Over 88 000 adults, age 16 or over, living in England were included. Smoking status (current, ex or never) was reported. SES was assessed through a count of seven possible indicators of disadvantage: National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NSSEC), neighbourhood index of multiple deprivation, lone parenting, car availability, housing tenure, income and unemployment. Smoking rates were four times higher among the most disadvantaged [60.7% (95% CI: 58.2-63.3)] than the most affluent [15.3% (95% CI: 14.8-15.8)]. Smoking prevalence declined between 2001 and 2008 except among the multiply disadvantaged. This trend appeared to be due to an increase in never smoking rather than an increase in quitting. Disadvantage declined among non-smokers but not smokers. In general never smoking and affluence increased in England over this period. The disadvantaged, however, did not experience the decline in smoking and smokers missed out from the increase in affluence. Smoking and disadvantage may increasingly coexist.
Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Muranaka, Yoshimi; Miwa, Masako; Kin, Seikon; Hirai, Kei
The preference for dialysis modalities is not well understood in Japan. This study explored the subjective views of Japanese patients undergoing dialysis regarding their treatments. The participants were receiving in-center hemodialysis (CHD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In Study 1, 34 participants (17 CHD and 17 CAPD) were interviewed about the advantages and disadvantages of dialysis modalities. In Study 2, 454 dialysis patients (437 CHD and 17 CAPD) rated the advantages and disadvantages of CHD and CAPD in a cross-sectional survey. Interviews showed that professional care and dialysis-free days were considered as advantages of CHD, while independence, less hospital visits, and flexibility were considered as advantages of CAPD. Disadvantages of CHD included restriction of food and fluids and unpleasant symptoms after each dialysis session. Catheter care was an additional disadvantage of CAPD. Survey showed that the highly ranked advantages were professional care in CHD and less frequent hospital visits in CAPD, while the highly ranked disadvantages were concerns about emergency and time restrictions in CHD, and catheter care and difficulty in soaking in a bath in CAPD. The total scores of advantages and disadvantages showed that CHD patients subjectively rated their own modality better CHD over CAPD, while CAPD patients had the opposite opinion. The results of this study indicate that the factors affecting the decision-making process of Japanese patients are unique to Japanese culture, namely considering the trouble caused to the people around patients (e.g., families, spouses, and/or caregivers).
Dec 22, 2008 ... South Africa has committed to address freshwater conservation at the catchment scale, using a combination of landscape- level and species-level .... recursive partitioning, a non-parametric technique, in the R software (version ... non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS), using log(n+1) transformed fish ...
prison in 1990; secret talks between the ANC and the South African govern- ment became public negotiations; and apartheid ended with the election of. 1994. Transition was under way within two years of the IDRC policy change. The earliest IDRC-supported research projects focused on health, urban issues, and economic ...
Fahy, A E; Stansfeld, S A; Smuk, M; Lain, D; van der Horst, M; Vickerstaff, S; Clark, C
The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in the life-course to enhance individuals' future capacity for extending their working lives. Childhood adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage have previously been linked to ill-health across the life-span and sickness benefit in early adulthood. This study builds upon previous research by examining associations between childhood adversity and self-reported labour force participation among older adults (aged 55). Data was from the National Child Development Study - a prospective cohort of all English, Scottish, & Welsh births in one week in 1958. There was evidence for associations between childhood adversity and increased risk of permanent sickness at 55 years - which were largely sustained after adjustment for educational disengagement and adulthood factors (mental/physical health, qualifications, socioeconomic disadvantage). Specifically, children who were abused or neglected were more likely to be permanently sick at 55 years. In addition, among males, those in care, those experiencing illness in the home, and those experiencing two or more childhood adversities were more likely to be permanently sick at 55 years. Childhood factors were also associated with part-time employment and retirement at 55 years. Severe childhood adversities may represent important distal predictors of labour force exit at 55 years, particularly via permanent sickness. Notably, some adversities show associations among males only, which may inform interventions designed to extend working lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray
This paper analyzes whether children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa are disadvantaged in terms of their health outcomes because their mother is a teen. Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the Cape Area Panel Study, we assess whether observable differences between teen mothers and slightly older mothers can explain why first-born children of teen mothers appear disadvantaged. Our balanced regressions indicate that observed characteristics cannot explain the full extent of disadvantage of being born to a teen mother, with children born to teen mothers continuing to have significantly worse child health outcomes, especially among coloured children. In particular, children born to teens are more likely to be underweight at birth and to be stunted with the disadvantage for coloured children four times the size for African children. PMID:26052156
Branson, Nicola; Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray
This paper analyzes whether children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa are disadvantaged in terms of their health outcomes because their mother is a teen. Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the Cape Area Panel Study, we assess whether observable differences between teen mothers and slightly older mothers can explain why first-born children of teen mothers appear disadvantaged. Our balanced regressions indicate that observed characteristics cannot explain the full extent of disadvantage of being born to a teen mother, with children born to teen mothers continuing to have significantly worse child health outcomes, especially among coloured children. In particular, children born to teens are more likely to be underweight at birth and to be stunted with the disadvantage for coloured children four times the size for African children.
Cyril, Sheila; Polonsky, Michael; Green, Julie; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre
Objective Disadvantaged communities bear a disproportionate burden of childhood obesity and show low participation in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. This study aims to examine the level of readiness of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Methods Using the community readiness model, 95 semi-structured interviews were conducted among communities in four disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Community readiness analysis and paired t-tests were performed to assess the readiness levels of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Results The results showed that disadvantaged communities demonstrated low levels of readiness (readiness score=4/9, 44%) to engage with the existing childhood obesity prevention initiatives, lacked knowledge of childhood obesity and its prevention, and reported facing challenges in initiating and sustaining participation in obesity prevention initiatives. Conclusion This study highlights the need to improve community readiness by addressing low obesity-related literacy levels among disadvantaged communities and by facilitating the capacity-building of bicultural workers to deliver obesity prevention messages to these communities. Integrating these needs into existing Australian health policy and practice is of paramount importance for reducing obesity-related disparities currently prevailing in Australia. What is known about the topic? Childhood obesity prevalence is plateauing in developed countries including Australia; however, obesity-related inequalities continue to exist in Australia especially among communities living in disadvantaged areas, which experience poor engagement in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Studies in the USA have found that assessing disadvantaged communities' readiness to participate in health programs is a critical initial step in reducing the disproportionate obesity burden among these communities
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...
Objectives. This paper predicts South Africa's performance at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games. Methods. Potential scenarios are developed based on South Africa's previous performances. Results. South Africa will win up to 15 gold medals and 43 medals in total. Conclusions. After Delhi 2010, the actual results ...
Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald
A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.
The advertising of nutritional supplements in South African women's magazines: a descriptive survey · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... The impact of preschool feeding programmes on the growth of disadvantaged young children in developing countries: a systematic review of randomised trials · EMAIL ...
Dukhi, Natisha; Sartorius, Benn; Taylor, Myra
Background: Stunting continues to affect young children as a global nutritional disorder. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence, associated risk factors and spatial clustering for stunting in a disadvantaged South African District. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional weighted survey of households was conducted in the iLembe…
Sofo, Francesco; Berzins, Michelle; Colapinto, Cinzia; Ammirato, Salvatore
There are economic and socio-cultural differences that characterise the north and south of Italy. A stereotype is that university students from rural southern Italy are more disadvantaged and isolated than those from the urban north. Past research has hypothesised that differences in socio-economic status impact on student learning, which is a…
Heaton, Dennis P.
Community and Individual Development Association (CIDA) City Campus is a private business college that provides bachelor's degrees to economically disadvantaged students in South Africa. CIDA's model of management education is in stark contrast to conventional business schools, which are not accessible to or adapted to students from extreme…
Schabort, Franci; Sinnes, Astrid; Kyle, William C., Jr.
The objective of this transformative action research project was to explore and develop sustainable methods to promote female empowerment through science education in rural, disadvantaged sectors of South Africa. In an attempt to achieve this we collaborated with local community members to develop and implement a contextualized science curriculum…
Park, Joo-Ho; Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok
More attention is needed on the career development of adolescents, specifically disadvantaged students deemed at risk of school failure. We investigated the determinants on career development competencies of 9th graders in secondary school in South Korea. The data in this study included 394 principals, 6635 students, and the students' parents. Our…
SBTM) could help to address the shortage of teachers. This model also allows, among other aspects, for poor and disadvantaged students to study while they gain experience. This article reports on the results of the SBTM implemented by a South ...
Qummouh, Rana; Rose, Vanessa; Hall, Pat
Safety is a health issue and a significant concern in disadvantaged communities. This paper describes an example of community-initiated action to address perceptions of fear and safety in a suburb in south-west Sydney which led to the development of a local, community-driven research project. As a first step in developing community capacity to take action on issues of safety, a joint resident-agency group implemented a community safety mapping project to identify the extent of safety issues in the community and their exact geographical location. Two aerial maps of the suburb, measuring one metre by two metres, were placed on display at different locations for four months. Residents used coloured stickers to identify specific issues and exact locations where crime and safety were a concern. Residents identified 294 specific safety issues in the suburb, 41.9% (n=123) associated with public infrastructure, such as poor lighting and pathways, and 31.9% (n=94) associated with drug-related issues such as drug activity and discarded syringes. Good health promotion practice reflects community need. In a very practical sense, this project responded to community calls for action by mapping resident knowledge on specific safety issues and exact locations and presenting these maps to local decision makers for further action.
Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home environment, the provision of learning materials in the home, maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and harsh disciplining practices were all analyzed as potential mediators of the association between economic disadvantage and children's internalizing and externalizing problem scores. Findings from structural equation modeling showed that for both internalizing and externalizing problems, the mechanisms underlying the effect of economic disadvantage included maternal depressive symptoms, along with parenting stress and harsh disciplining. For internalizing but not for externalizing problem scores, the lack of provision of learning materials in the home was an additional mechanism explaining the effect of economic disadvantage. The current results suggest that interventions that focus solely on raising income levels may not adequately address problems in the family processes that emerge as a result of economic disadvantage. Policies to improve the mental health of mothers with young children but also their home environments are needed to change the economic gradient in child behavior.
Kim, Pilyoung; Capistrano, Christian G; Erhart, Andrew; Gray-Schiff, Rachel; Xu, Nanxi
During the early postpartum period, mothers exhibit increased amygdala responses to positive infant expressions, which are important for positive mother-infant relationships. Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with altered amygdala response to emotional stimuli as well as more negative mother-infant relationships. However, little is known about the role of socioeconomic disadvantage in neural responses specifically to infants. Thus, we examined whether socioeconomic disadvantage (indexed by lower income-to-needs ratio) is associated with neural responses to infant emotions and parenting behaviors among new mothers. Using fMRI, neural responses to infants' emotional expressions (positive, negative, and neutral faces) were assessed among 39 low- and middle-income first-time mothers during 0-6 postpartum months. Lower income-to-needs ratio was associated with dampened amygdala responses to positive infant faces, but increased amygdala responses to negative infant faces. An indirect effect of socioeconomic disadvantage on emotional availability via amygdala activation suggests that socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with heightened neural sensitivity to infants' negative emotions, which is further associated with mothers' intrusiveness observed during interactions with their own infant. The findings suggest that low-income mothers may be more vulnerable to altered neural processing of infants' emotional expressions which may further influence mothers' emotional availability during interactions with their own infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Participation of at least 95% of children between the ages of 4 and the mandatory school age in high-quality preschool programs represents an important contribution to the achievement of the Europe 2020 strategy. Slovenia is not far from achieving this objective; however, if we consider participation in preschool programs from the perspective of the entire population of preschool children and the realisation of children’s rights, we note that nearly a quarter of children - among them (at least in the wider European area the most disadvantaged - have not realised the right to education. We studied the awareness of the importance of ensuring access to preschool programs for all children on a representative sample of 106 Slovenian preschool principals by means of quantitative pedagogical research. The results show a high percentage of disadvantaged children in the preschool areas and in the preschools themselves; on the other hand, only a low percentage (only one-third of preschools collect data about disadvantaged children and implement preschool programs for them; only one-fifth of preschools implement preschool programs for disadvantaged children. In order to act responsibly and enable all children the right to education, we must start devoting greater attention to identifying and including disadvantaged children in preschool programs.
Erin A. Cech
Full Text Available Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals in U.S. workplaces often face disadvantages in pay, promotion, and inclusion and emergent research suggests that these disadvantages may be particularly pernicious within science and engineering environments. However, no research has systematically examined whether LGBT employees indeed encounter disadvantages in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM organizations. Using representative data of over 30,000 workers employed in six STEM-related federal agencies (the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Science Foundation, NASA, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Department of Transportation, over 1000 of whom identify as LGBT, we compare the workplace experiences of LGBT employees in STEM-related federal agencies with those of their non-LGBT colleagues. Across numerous measures along two separate dimensions of workplace experiences—perceived treatment as employees and work satisfaction—LGBT employees in STEM agencies report systematically more negative workplace experiences than their non-LGBT colleagues. Exploring how these disadvantages vary by agency, supervisory status, age cohort, and gender, we find that LGBT persons have more positive experiences in regulatory agencies but that supervisory status does not improve LGBT persons’ experiences, nor do the youngest LGBT employees fare better than their older LGBT colleagues. LGBT-identifying men and women report similar workplace disadvantages. We discuss the implications of these findings for STEM organizations and STEM inequality more broadly.
Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc
The aim of this Western Australian population study was to assess the relationship of socioeconomic disadvantage and: 1) trends in hospitalisations for oral-health-related conditions over 10 years; 2) insurance status, costs and length of stay in hospital; and 3) specific conditions (principal diagnosis) patients were admitted for. Hospitalisation data (of oral-health-related conditions) were obtained for every episode of discharge from all hospitals in Western Australia for the financial years 1999-2000 to 2008-2009. Area based measures (using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage) was used to determine relationships between socioeconomic status and other variables. The most disadvantaged in the population are being hospitalised at significantly higher rates than other groups, stay in hospital for longer, and at higher costs. This trend remained over a period of 10 years. Those least disadvantaged have the second highest rates of hospitalisation, but the likelihood of being admitted for different procedures differ between these two extremes. The importance of socioeconomic determinants of health are evident when analysing these hospitalisations. Recognition that lifestyle choices are severely restricted among the most marginalised and disadvantaged groups in the population can no longer be ignored in attempts to reduce health inequalities.
Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J; Shrestha, Rupendra N
It is recognised that CVD affects an individual's financial situation, placing them in income poverty. However, recent developments in poverty measurement practice recognises other forms of disadvantage other than low income, such as poor health and insufficient education also affect living standards. Using the Freedom Poverty Measure, the multiple forms of disadvantage experienced by those with no health condition, heart disease, other diseases of the circulatory system, and all other health conditions was assessed using data on the adult Australian population contained in the 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers. 24% of those with heart disease and 23% of those with other diseases of the circulatory system were in freedom poverty, suffering from multiple forms of disadvantage. Those with heart disease and those with other diseases of the circulatory system were around three times more likely to be in freedom poverty (OR 3.02, 95% CI: 2.29-3.99, p<.0001; OR 2.78, 95% CI: 1.94-3.98, p<.0001) than those with no health condition. Recognising the multiple forms of disadvantage suffered by those with CVD provides a clearer picture of their living standards than just looking at their income alone and the high proportion of individuals with CVD that are suffering from multiple forms of disadvantage should make them a target for policy makers wishing to improve living standards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.
In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges
Luciano Dalla Rosa
Full Text Available This paper reports on two photo-identified humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae that were sighted in different years in the proximity of the South Orkney Islands, at the boundary between the Scotia and Weddell seas (60°54.5'S—46°40.4'W and 60°42.6'S—45°33'W. One of the whales had been previously sighted off Ecuador, a breeding ground for the eastern South Pacific population. The other whale was subsequently resighted in Bransfield Strait, off the western Antarctic Peninsula, a well-documented feeding ground for the same population. These matches give support to a hypothesis that the area south of the South Orkney Islands is occupied by whales from the eastern South Pacific breeding stock. Consequently, we propose 40°W as a new longitudinal boundary between the feeding grounds associated with the eastern South Pacific and western South Atlantic breeding stocks.
Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Williams, Rebecca; Russell, Ginny
This systematic review examines associations between parental socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by parental income, education, occupation and marital status. Results were mixed by measure of SES with no one aspect being differentially related to ADHD. 42 studies were included in the review, of which 35 found a significant univariate association between socioeconomic disadvantage and ADHD. Meta-analyses of dimensions of SES and their association with ADHD indicate that children in families of low SES are on average 1.85-2.21 more likely to have ADHD than their peers in high SES families. In spite of substantial between-study heterogeneity, there is evidence for an association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risk of ADHD measured in different ways. This is likely mediated by factors linked to low SES such as parental mental health and maternal smoking during pregnancy.
Scaramella, Laura V; Neppl, Tricia K; Ontai, Lenna L; Conger, Rand D
This study considers the intergenerational consequences of experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage within the family of origin. Specifically, the influence of socioeconomic disadvantage experienced during adolescence on the timing of parenthood and the association between early parenthood and risk for harsh parenting and emerging child problem behavior was evaluated. Participants included 154 3-generation families, followed prospectively over a 12-year period. Results indicated that exposure to poverty during adolescence, not parents' (first generation, or G1) education, predicted an earlier age of parenthood in G2. Younger G2 parents were observed to be harsher during interactions with their own 2-year-old child (G3), and harsh parenting predicted increases in G3 children's externalizing problems from age 2 to age 3. Finally, G3 children's externalizing behavior measured at age 3 predicted increases in harsh parenting from ages 3 to 4, suggesting that G3 children's behavior may exacerbate the longitudinal effects of socioeconomic disadvantage. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Nelson, Lyndsay A; Mayberry, Lindsay S; Wallston, Kenneth; Kripalani, Sunil; Bergner, Erin M; Osborn, Chandra Y
Among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), adherence to recommended self-care activities is suboptimal, especially among racial and ethnic minorities with low income. Self-care nonadherence is associated with having worse glycemic control and diabetes complications. Text messaging interventions are improving the self-care of adults with T2DM, but few have been tested with disadvantaged populations. To develop Rapid Education/Encouragement And Communications for Health (REACH), a tailored, text messaging intervention to support the self-care adherence of disadvantaged patients with T2DM, based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model. We then tested REACH's usability to make improvements before evaluating its effects. We developed REACH's content and functionality using an empirical and theory-based approach, findings from a previously pilot-tested intervention, and the expertise of our interdisciplinary research team. We recruited 36 adults with T2DM from Federally Qualified Health Centers to participate in 1 of 3 rounds of usability testing. For 2 weeks, participants received daily text messages assessing and promoting self-care, including tailored messages addressing users' unique barriers to adherence, and weekly text messages with adherence feedback. We analyzed quantitative and qualitative user feedback and system-collected data to improve REACH. Participants were, on average, 52.4 (SD 9.5) years old, 56% (20/36) female, 63% (22/35) were a racial or ethnic minority, and 67% (22/33) had an income less than US $35,000. About half were taking insulin, and average hemoglobin A1c level was 8.2% (SD 2.2%). We identified issues (eg, user concerns with message phrasing, technical restrictions with responding to assessment messages) and made improvements between testing rounds. Overall, participants favorably rated the ease of understanding (mean 9.6, SD 0.7) and helpfulness (mean 9.3, SD 1.4) of self-care promoting text messages on a scale of 1
Ghosh, Abhijeet; Charlton, Karen E; Batterham, Marijka J
To identify smaller geographic and region-specific evidence to inform population health planning for overweight and obesity. Cross-sectional secondary analysis of data. Primary healthcare-17 general practices located in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales (NSW). A subset (n=36 674) of the Sentinel Practices Data Sourcing project adult persons data set (n=118 794) that included information on disease status of all adult patients who had height and weight measurements recorded in their electronic health records and had visited the included general practices within the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of NSW between September 2011 and September 2013. Age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of overweight and obesity was determined for high and low levels of socioeconomic disadvantage based on Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)-Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSD) scores of patients' residential statistical local area. In men, overweight was lowest in areas of highest socioeconomic disadvantage (aOR=0.910; 95% CI 0.830 to 0.998; pdisadvantage (aOR=1.292; 95% CI 1.210 to 1.379; pdata analysis reveals multiple layers of evidence that should be assessed for population health approaches to curb the epidemic of obesity and overweight. It strongly highlights the need for preventive health initiatives to be specific to gender and socioeconomic attributes of the target population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Most public dental care services provide preventive, general dental care on a chronological, first come-first served basis. There is concern about lack of transparency, equity and timeliness in access to public dental services across Australia. Using social determinants as screening criteria is a novel approach to triage in dental care and is relatively untested in the literature. The research evaluated the discriminant and predictive validity of relative social disadvantage in prioritising access to public general dental care. A consecutive sample of 615 adults seeking general dental care was selected. The validation measure used was clinical assessment of priority. Nine indicators of relative social disadvantage (RSD) were collected: Indigenous status; intellectual disability; physical disability; wheelchair usage; dwelling conditions; serious medical condition; serious medical condition and taking regular medication; hospitalised within 12 months; and, regular medical visits. At the first dental visit, dentists rated care as a priority if treatment was required ≤6 months (PriorityTx) and otherwise non-priority (non-PriorityTx). A standardised dental examination was conducted. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and area under the ROC curve analyses of 1+ of RSD in predicting clinical priority were calculated. In bivariate analyses, one or more indicators of relative social disadvantage status were significantly associated with PriorityTx (P dental care (0.66). Considerable heterogeneity exists among persons seeking public general dental care in New South Wales. RSD performs as a valid predictor of priority for access to treatment and acts as valid screening criteria for triaging priority access to treatment. Such indicators may address issues of inequality in access to general public oral health services.
This article reflects on a project, which addresses the dual provision of three specific academic skills and language skills. The project describes the process of integration of students from previously disadvantaged schools into tertiary education through the Communication in English course. The researcher will ask whether ...
This article integrates previous research findings and theory to reflect on the limitations of traditional career counselling for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. It highlights the many challenges faced by students as they adjust to the university environment, and proposes a constructivist approach as more appropriate ...
Private colleges are growing very rapidly and more and more students enrol annually, whilst previously disadvantaged higher education institutions experience a serious decline in student numbers. The reasons for this proliferation together with its impact on higher education will be examined and trends and events leading ...
The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools: new light on an old issue · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... Girls' career choices as a product of a gendered school curriculum: the Zimbabwean example · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Full Text Available The work of teachers has a signiﬁcant role both with regard to learners’ achievement and their opportunities in life. In the context of a developing country, particularly with respect to township and rural schools, it is a common occurrence that many practising teachers are un- or under qualiﬁed for the teaching of mathematics. What kind of professional development would be effective for upgrading the content knowledge and professional competence of such teachers? It is the aim of this article to give an overview of a professional development approach, called mentorship by master mathematics teachers, which had a positive effect both on teacher learning and their learners’ performance. Where mentorship usually focuses on the induction of beginning or student teachers, the Teacher Mentorship Programme (TMP in this case, had as its target experienced teachers who had been teaching mathematics for years in township schools, but without the appropriate qualiﬁcations. The mentee teachers had never previously, due to no fault of their own, been exposed to excellent teaching practices as learners, student or practising teachers. The TMP was an initiative of a university’s Faculty of Engineering, that collaborated with private engineering companies and the Department of Education with the aim of preparing more and better equipped Grade 12 leavers who enrol for studies in engineering and technology related ﬁelds. The intended outcomes of the TMP were: To improve teachers’ content knowledge, pedagogical competence and attitude towards mathematics and science. To broaden teachers’ knowledge of careers related to the mathematics, science and technology ﬁelds. To improve learners’ attitudes towards mathematics, science and related careers. To increase the number of learners who enrol for mathematics on the higher grade which is the equivalent of “core” mathematics in the new National Curriculum Statement.Why a mentorship programme
Whittle, Sarah; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Simmons, Julian G; Dennison, Meg; Schwartz, Orli; Pantelis, Christos; Sheeber, Lisa; Byrne, Michelle L; Allen, Nicholas B
The negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on lifelong functioning are pronounced, with some evidence suggesting that these effects are mediated by changes in brain development. To our knowledge, no research has investigated whether parenting might buffer these negative effects. To establish whether positive parenting behaviors moderate the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on brain development and adaptive functioning in adolescents. In this longitudinal study of adolescents from schools in Melbourne, Australia, data were collected at 3 assessments between 2004 and 2012. Data were analyzed between August 2016 and April 2017. Both family (parental income-to-needs, occupation, and education level) and neighborhood measures of socioeconomic disadvantage were assessed. Positive maternal parenting behaviors were observed during interactions in early adolescence. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at 3 times (early, middle, and late adolescence) from ages 11 to 20 years. Global and academic functioning was assessed during late adolescence. We used linear mixed models to examine the effect of family and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage as well as the moderating effect of positive parenting on adolescent brain development. We used mediation models to examine whether brain developmental trajectories predicted functional outcomes during late adolescence. Of the included 166 adolescents, 86 (51.8%) were male. We found that neighborhood, but not family, socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with altered brain development from early (mean [SD] age, 12.79 [0.425] years) to late (mean [SD] age, 19.08 [0.460] years) adolescence, predominantly in the temporal lobes (temporal cortex: random field theory corrected; left amygdala: B, -0.237; P adolescence. Results have relevance for designing interventions for children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds.
Benešová, Monika; Fischer, Lukáš; Haisel, Daniel; Hnilička, František; Hniličková, Helena; Jedelský, Petr L.; Kočová, Marie; Rothová, Olga; Tůmová, Lenka; Wilhelmová, Naďa
A comparative analysis of various parameters that characterize plant morphology, growth, water status, photosynthesis, cell damage, and antioxidative and osmoprotective systems together with an iTRAQ analysis of the leaf proteome was performed in two inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) differing in drought susceptibility and their reciprocal F1 hybrids. The aim of this study was to dissect the parent-hybrid relationships to better understand the mechanisms of the heterotic effect and its potential association with the stress response. The results clearly showed that the four examined genotypes have completely different strategies for coping with limited water availability and that the inherent properties of the F1 hybrids, i.e. positive heterosis in morphological parameters (or, more generally, a larger plant body) becomes a distinct disadvantage when the water supply is limited. However, although a greater loss of photosynthetic efficiency was an inherent disadvantage, the precise causes and consequences of the original predisposition towards faster growth and biomass accumulation differed even between reciprocal hybrids. Both maternal and paternal parents could be imitated by their progeny in some aspects of the drought response (e.g., the absence of general protein down-regulation, changes in the levels of some carbon fixation or other photosynthetic proteins). Nevertheless, other features (e.g., dehydrin or light-harvesting protein contents, reduced chloroplast proteosynthesis) were quite unique to a particular hybrid. Our study also confirmed that the strategy for leaving stomata open even when the water supply is limited (coupled to a smaller body size and some other physiological properties), observed in one of our inbred lines, is associated with drought-resistance not only during mild drought (as we showed previously) but also during more severe drought conditions. PMID:28419152
Dadalto, Elâine Cristina Vargas; Rosa, Edinete Maria
To evaluate the knowledge and expectations of mothers of preterm newborn infants admitted in a neonatal intensive care unit about breastfeeding and pacifier use, and to analyze their experience in dealing with the sucking urge in the first months of life. Mothers were interviewed during hospitalization of the newborn in the neonatal intensive care unit and when the infant was six months old. All mothers with availability to participate in the study were included. Exclusion criteria comprised infants with syndromes and neurological disorders and mothers with cognitive impairment, depression, and drug users. Data were analyzed with the SPSS software, with descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Sixty-two mothers were interviewed in the beginning and 52 at a six-month follow-up. Mothers' expectations concerning breastfeeding were positive when they listed the benefits to the mother (90.3%) and infant (100%). However, they had difficulties maintaining exclusive breastfeeding and used the baby bottle (75.0%), which most mothers (69.4%) had already acquired before the infant was born. The fact of having a pacifier in the infant's layette (43.6%) did not influence its use (p=0.820). This also occurred among mothers who said they would not offer the pacifier due to disadvantages to the mother (80.7%) and infant (96.8%). The previous expectation that the pacifier could bring benefits for mother and infant did not affect its use (p=0.375 and p=0.158). Mothers demonstrated prior knowledge about breastfeeding benefits and disadvantages of the pacifiers. However, they changed their view when dealing with the infant and introduced bottles and pacifiers.
In a pandemic situation, resources in intensive care units may be stretched to the breaking point, and critical care triage may become necessary. In such a situation, I argue that a patient's combined vulnerability to illness and social disadvantage should be a justification for giving that patient some priority for critical care. In this article I present an example of a critical care triage protocol that recognizes the moral relevance of vulnerability to illness and social disadvantage, from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage.
Full Text Available The traditional corporate annual report consists of two types of disclosures, that is, mandatory and contextual disclosures. The research problem focuses on the issue whether full disclosure in corporate annual reports could entail mandatory and contextual disclosures as well as a more subtle set of information for disadvantaged stakeholders. To solve the research problem, use was mainly made of a literature review dealing with certain aspects of decision-useful financial reporting. The literature review was complemented by exploratory empirical research. It was found that full disclosure in corporate annual reports could consist of mandatory and contextual disclosures as well as a more subtle set of information for disadvantaged stakeholders.
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...
Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...
... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...
Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A
We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.
Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio
The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.
Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.
In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.
Full Text Available The South Coast Renosterveld has been fragmented extensively by agriculture. The extent of this fragmentation in terms of overall habitat loss, fragment sizes and fragment numbers has not been described previously, thereby limiting the development...
Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Clark, Shelley
Like in other world regions, children with divorced parents in sub-Saharan Africa experience significant heath disadvantages relative to their peers with married parents. Preliminary evidence suggests this disadvantage may not be uniform across the subcontinent’s diverse settings. Research from other world regions shows that the childhood health consequences of divorce vary across different contexts. Specifically, we hypothesize that the childhood disadvantages associated with divorce are mor...
Rebecca M. Stanley
Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation in regular physical activity (PA during the early years helps children achieve healthy body weight and can substantially improve motor development, bone health, psychosocial health and cognitive development. Despite common assumptions that young children are naturally active, evidence shows that they are insufficiently active for health and developmental benefits. Exploring strategies to increase physical activity in young children is a public health and research priority. Methods Jump Start is a multi-component, multi-setting PA and gross motor skill intervention for young children aged 3–5 years in disadvantaged areas of New South Wales, Australia. The intervention will be evaluated using a two-arm, parallel group, randomised cluster trial. The Jump Start protocol was based on Social Cognitive Theory and includes five components: a structured gross motor skill lesson (Jump In; unstructured outdoor PA and gross motor skill time (Jump Out; energy breaks (Jump Up; activities connecting movement to learning experiences (Jump Through; and a home-based family component to promote PA and gross motor skill (Jump Home. Early childhood education and care centres will be demographically matched and randomised to Jump Start (intervention or usual practice (comparison group. The intervention group receive Jump Start professional development, program resources, monthly newsletters and ongoing intervention support. Outcomes include change in total PA (accelerometers within centre hours, gross motor skill development (Test of Gross Motor Development-2, weight status (body mass index, bone strength (Sunlight MiniOmni Ultrasound Bone Sonometer, self-regulation (Heads-Toes-Knees-Shoulders, executive function tasks, and proxy-report Temperament and Approaches to learning scales, and educator and parent self-efficacy. Extensive quantitative and qualitative process evaluation and a cost-effectiveness evaluation will be conducted
Reising, Michelle M; Watson, Kelly H; Hardcastle, Emily J; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E
This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9-15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage with children's symptoms. This study provides evidence that disrupted parenting may be a common or shared process through which both parental depression and economic disadvantage are associated with children's internalizing and externalizing problems.
Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.
This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of
Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles
Research on drug trafficking has not been able to discern the exact nature of illegal drug markets and the relationship between their individual and group participants. This article delineates the role of Mexican immigrants and Mexican-American participants involved in the stratified drug market of South Texas. This article synthesizes ethnographic materials drawn from two previous National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) studies in order identify the different types of drug distribution behaviors that occur within the groups, the differentiated roles of individuals, the organizational framework, and most significantly, the processes that link market participants to others outside of the drug market. This illegal behavior can be interpreted as an adaptive mechanism that is a direct response to the marginal economic status imposed by macro socio-economical background factors. As well, we conclude that the specific foreground factors of the opportunities offered by the context, culture, and proximity of the U.S./Mexico border and invitational edges explain this behavior. There are both parallels and particular differences between the South Texas case and the structuring and functioning of informal legal and illegal markets that are characteristic of other economically disadvantaged communities.
Full Text Available Human decision making is rarely conducted in temporal isolation. It is often biased and affected by environmental variables, particularly prior selections. In this study, we used a task that simulates a real gambling process to explore the effect of the risky features of a previous selection on subsequent decision making. Compared with decision making after an advantageous risk-taking situation (Risk_Adv, that after a disadvantageous risk-taking situation (Risk_Disadv is associated with a longer response time (RT, the time spent in making decisions and higher brain activations in the caudate and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Compared with decisions after Risk_Adv, those after Risk_Disadv in loss trials are associated with higher brain activations in the left superior temporal gyrus and the precuneus. Brain activity and relevant RTs significantly correlated. Overall, people who experience disadvantageous risk-taking selections tend to focus on current decision making and engage cognitive endeavors in value evaluation and in the regulation of their risk-taking behaviors during decision making.
Dong, Guangheng; Zhang, Yifen; Xu, Jiaojing; Lin, Xiao; Du, Xiaoxia
Human decision making is rarely conducted in temporal isolation. It is often biased and affected by environmental variables, particularly prior selections. In this study, we used a task that simulates a real gambling process to explore the effect of the risky features of a previous selection on subsequent decision making. Compared with decision making after an advantageous risk-taking situation (Risk_Adv), that after a disadvantageous risk-taking situation (Risk_Disadv) is associated with a longer response time (RT, the time spent in making decisions) and higher brain activations in the caudate and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Compared with decisions after Risk_Adv, those after Risk_Disadv in loss trials are associated with higher brain activations in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the precuneus. Brain activity and relevant RTs significantly correlated. Overall, people who experience disadvantageous risk-taking selections tend to focus on current decision making and engage cognitive endeavors in value evaluation and in the regulation of their risk-taking behaviors during decision making.
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of "Bir Umut Ol Benim Için" (Be My Hope) project which was prepared for the children who were disadvantaged by being influenced from several risk factors as compared to their peers on the self-concepts and locus of controls of the children. The study group consisted of 33 children who were…
Partin, Minerva O.; And Others
A series of guidelines for use by Extension agents, as they involve socially and economically disadvantaged youth and adults in volunteer leadership roles in rural and urban Extension programs, is presented. Section headings are: Know Your Audience, Establish Rapport, Levels of Leadership, Leader Development, Leadership Roles, Volunteer…
Vogelwiesche, Uta; Grob, Alexander; Winkler, Britta
In a voluntary tutor-based training program, socially disadvantaged adolescents acquired basic computer skills. Two training groups were compared: one group was instructed by adolescents, the other by adults. Both groups achieved comparable results in a final test. The tutees' learning results did not differ with respect to their initial…
Based on the disease activity score, current indications for orbital decompression are described. After that, all contemporary decompression techniques are mentioned and their advantages and disadvantages are described. Transpalpebral fat resection is also included. Results (reduction of proptosis, complications) are presented for the coronal and transconjunctival (swinging eyelid and transcaruncular orbitotomy) approach used by the author and discussed in comparison with other methods.
... business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. 752.219-8 Section 752.219-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.219-8 Utilization of small business concerns...
... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda
Copp, Jennifer E; Kuhl, Danielle C; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D
Most theoretical treatments of intimate partner violence (IPV) focus on individual-level processes. Some researchers have attempted to situate IPV within the larger neighborhood context, but few studies have sought to link structural- and individual-level factors. The current analyses fill a research gap by examining the role of anger and depression in the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) and the 2000 Census, this study focuses on structural indicators of disadvantage as well as subjective disorder, and highlights the complex associations between neighborhood conditions, emotional distress, and IPV. Findings indicate that anger and depressive symptoms partially explain the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Additionally, the associations between disadvantage, disorder, and IPV depend on respondent's level of anger. Results underscore the need to further consider the role of neighborhood factors (both objective and subjective) in relation to IPV, and also suggest the utility of introducing individual-level emotional measures to assess the circumstances under which neighborhoods matter most. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Randell, Shirley K.
The Disadvantaged Country Areas Program in Australia involves a limited number of areas in each State selected according to their relative poverty, special need for improved educational provisions, and lack of opportunities for employment and training for young people. All schools in the declared areas are expected to share the services and…
Retallick, John; And Others
Through a combination of workshops and distance education, rural Australian middle-school teachers learned outcome-based programming, teaching, and assessment designed to improve outcomes of students experiencing educational disadvantage related to rural isolation, poverty, or aboriginality. Workplace learning, supported by in-school collegial…
Media literacy educators talk about the importance of developing essential social skills, such as collaboration, by using video production in the classroom. Video production with disadvantaged youth can also play a role of art therapy, as students use their creativity to come to terms with traumatizing pasts. This paper offers an account of a…
van Zomeren, Martijn; Leach, Colin Wayne; Spears, Russell
To explain the psychology behind individuals' motivation to participate in collective action against collective disadvantage (e.g., protest marches), the authors introduce a dynamic dual pathway model of approach coping that integrates many common explanations of collective action (i.e., group
Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar
Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…
Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.
This document profiles nine European programs that exemplify good practice in social and occupational integration of disadvantaged people. The programs profiled are as follows: (1) Restaurant Venezia (a CD-ROM program to improve the reading and writing skills of young people in Luxembourg who have learning difficulties); (2) an integrated…
The improvement in the quality of health care for the most disadvantaged people is dependent on the conditions of their existence being addressed. It also means understanding the factors influencing their relationship with health and care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The examination of disadvantaged regions goes back to a long history, greatly influenced by the ever-changing natural, economic and human resources. Consequently, while examining the disadvantaged areas, we face new systems of coherences. Today’s regional policy also needs to answer the question whether the spatial development funds of the past have been efficient or not and whether the land use distribution influences the spatial competitiveness or not. As we move towards 2015, we must consider the actual state of delivery of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs and address the above-mentioned issues in order to realise the international political commitment to leave no one behind. In this paper, we have shown some aspects of spatial economic processes through the example of the Hungarian disadvantaged areas. These issues are timely because the usefulness of the research is important, ranging from rural development to spatial planning and the elaboration of local and regional development strategies. Spatial discrepancies in Hungary cause the disadvantage of rural areas, contributing to their lagging behind compared to the urban areas (Kollár, 2012.
Van Acker, Frederik; Bakker, Esther
Although health and other benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child have been repeatedly shown, there is still a large proportion of women who do not initiate or continue breastfeeding. The aim of the current study is to analyze the contribution of the presentation of advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding in developing an attitude…
Wang, Hui-Hui; Billington, Barbara L.
This article addresses economically disadvantaged minority girls' knowledge and perceptions of science and engineering and the influence of their experiences with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) on their choices for future careers. We interviewed three girls who participated in a 4-H-led gender-inclusive STEM program. Our…
Mowen, Thomas J.; Schroeder, Ryan D.
Contemporary research suggests authoritative parenting is the most effective parenting style in deterring juvenile delinquency. Some research has found there are differences in parenting style between racial groups due to structural disadvantage faced by marginalized individuals. Yet, relatively little is known about how racial differences in…
... criteria of social and economic disadvantage and other eligibility requirements established in subpart A of....110, and 124.111, respectively. (4) Which, for purposes of SDB procurement mechanisms authorized by 10... procurement mechanisms (such as price evaluation adjustments, evaluation factors or subfactors, monetary...
Drawing on the theoretical constructs of Pierre Bourdieu, this article explores implications of the Australian "My School" website for schools located in disadvantaged communities. These implications flow from the legitimisation of certain cultural practices through the hidden linkages between scholastic aptitude and cultural heritage…
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary [Docket OST-2010-0025] Approved Information Collection Extension Request; Disadvantaged Business Enterprise AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S...
Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.
This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…
Goldman, Janice G.
Specific sub-tests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) and Merrill-Palmer Scales have been observed to evoke behavioral expression of phase-specific conflicts. Clinical observations of a disadvantaged inner-city population suggest that what is being tested is the preschool child's experience with adults in the…
Barnett, Melissa A.; Mortensen, Jennifer A.; Gonzalez, Henry; Gonzalez, Jose-Michael
Background: Mexican origin families with young children living in the United States are disproportionately likely to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods that may threaten engagement in positive parenting processes. However, the influences of contextual risks on family processes among Mexican origin families remain unclear. Objective: The goal of…
Pateman, Kelsey; Ford, Pauline; Fizgerald, Lisa; Mutch, Allyson; Yuke, Kym; Bonevski, Billie; Gartner, Coral
To explore how smoking and smoking cessation is perceived within the context of disadvantage, across a broad cross-section of defined populations vulnerable to social disadvantage. Qualitative focus groups with participants recruited through community service organizations (CSO). Metropolitan and regional settings in Queensland, Australia. Focus groups were held at the respective CSO facilities. Fifty-six participants across nine focus groups, including people living with mental illness, people experiencing or at risk of homelessness (adult and youth populations), people living with HIV, people living in a low-income area and Indigenous Australians. Thematic, in-depth analysis of focus group discussions. Participant demographic information and smoking history was recorded. Smoking behaviour, smoking identity and feelings about smoking were reflective of individual circumstances and social and environmental context. Participants felt 'trapped' in smoking because they felt unable to control the stressful life circumstances that triggered and sustained their smoking. Smoking cessation was viewed as an individual's responsibility, which was at odds with participants' statements about the broader factors outside of their own control that were responsible for their smoking. Highly disadvantaged smokers' views on smoking involve contradictions between feeling that smoking cessation involves personal responsibility, while at the same time feeling trapped by stressful life circumstances. Tobacco control programmes aiming to reduce smoking among disadvantaged groups are unlikely to be successful unless the complex interplay of social factors is carefully considered. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Lai, Cheng-Chieh; Kritsonis, William Allan
The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of computer technology and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) programs for current second language learning. According to the National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs' report (2002), more than nine million…
Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...
Harris, Renard; Hall, Cynthia; Hawkins, Tristan; Hartley, Megan; McCray, Willie; Sirleaf, Hammed
T.A.L.E.S., Teaching And Learning with Engaging Stories, is an alternative teaching method that focuses on enhancing learning by teaching science, math, ELA, and social studies through story. A six-week research study investigating socioeconomically disadvantaged students' responses to oral stories was conducted during an afterschool tutoring…
Taylor, Anne W; Williams, Carmel; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Herriot, Michelle
To assess the social capital profile of a known disadvantaged area a large cross-sectional survey was undertaken. The social capital profile of this area was compared to data from the whole of the state. The overall health status of the disadvantaged area was assessed in relation to a wide variety of social capital related variables. Univariate and multivariate analysis were undertaken. In the univariate analysis many statistically significant differences were found between the respondents in the disadvantaged area and the state estimates including overall health status, perceived attributes of the neighbourhood, levels of trust, community involvement and social activities. In the multivariate analysis very few variables were found to be statistically significantly associated with poorer health status. The variables that jointly predicted poorer health status in the disadvantaged area were older age, lower income, low sport participation, non-seeking help from neighbours and non-attendance at public meetings. Measuring social capital on a population level is complex and the use of epidemiologically-based population surveys does not produce overly valuable results. The inter-relational/dependence dichotomy of social capital is not yet fully understood making meaningful measurement in the broader population extremely difficult and hence is of questionable value for policy decision making.
Farr, Helen Louise Kuster
This library study investigated the problems of (1) what anthropological generalizations are of greatest value for English teachers of culturally disadvantaged students, and (2) how these generalizations are particularly relevant for classroom use. The theoretical and empirical research literature was surveyed and relevant sections were…
Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning
This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…
Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl
We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…
Fricker, Ronald D. Jr.; Schonlau, Matthias
London: SAGE Publications. Reprinted from Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet Research Surveys: Evidence from the Literature, Field Methods, 14, 347-367. The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/152582202237725
Antai, Diddy; Moradi, Tahereh
Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased -childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children urban population growth and urban under-5 mortality between 1983 and 2003 in Nigeria. We assessed whether urban area socioeconomic dis-advantage has an impact on under-5 mortality. Urban under-5 mortality rates were directly estimated from the 1990, 1999, and 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed on data for 2,118 children nested within data for 1,350 mothers, who were in turn nested within data for 165 communities. Urban under-5 mortality increased as urban population steadily increased between 1983 and 2003. Urban area disadvantage was significantly associated with under-5 mortality after adjusting for individual child- and mother-level demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Significant relative risks of under-5 deaths at both individual and community levels underscore the need for interventions tailored toward community- and individual-level interventions. We stress the need for further studies on community-level determinants of under-5 mortality in disadvantaged urban areas.
Sepulveda, Betty R.
Contending that language is the single greatest block to developing a deprived Hispano child's full learning potential, this primary teacher proposes a re-examination of reading readiness procedures at the K-3 level. She maintains that disadvantaged children are not non-verbal, as they are often mis-categorized, but have tremendous difficulty…
Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.
Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would…
Kallio, Alexis A.; Westerlund, Heidi
Cambodia's recent history of conflict and political instability has resulted in a recognized need to recover, regenerate, preserve and protect the nation's cultural heritage. Many education programmes catering for disadvantaged youth have implemented traditional Khmer music and dance lessons, suggesting that these programmes share the…
Brand, Pamela A
This collection of research articles and personal essays on Lesbians and Work is introduced, highlighting some of the advantages and disadvantages that lesbians experience when they engage in paid work outside the home. Although lesbians in the U.S. and elsewhere experience similar workplace discrimination and stress, there are many different ways in which lesbian women respond to discrimination and manage stress.
This paper initially discusses some of the consequences which the technological development has for lexicography, especially in terms of the different types of empirical basis which can be used in dictionary projects. The most important advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet as a corpus are then listed and ...
Allen, Rebecca; Burgess, Simon; Mayo, Jennifer
We study the market for teachers in England, in particular teacher turnover. We show that there is a positive raw association between the level of school disadvantage and the turnover rate of its teachers. This association diminishes as we control for school, pupil and local teacher labour market characteristics, but is not eliminated. The…
Langlois, Johanne; Omorou, Abdou Y; Vuillemin, Anne; Lecomte, Edith; Briançon, Serge
Initial participation in PRALIMAP-INÉS group activities was high among disadvantaged teenagers with financial difficulties, but it was more difficult to maintain their participation throughout the programme. Identification of factors that can maintain participation is a major challenge for continuity of the programme..
Morton, M.R.; Nielson, R.R.; Trevino, R.A.
This paper discusses the Reactor Interim Safe Storage (ISS) Project within the decommissioning projects at the Hanford Site and reviews the lessons learned from performing four large reactor decommissioning projects sequentially. The advantages and disadvantages of this multi-reactor decommissioning project are highlighted
Conrad, Rowan W.
Sixteen educational aims were rank ordered by 188 adult rural disadvantaged family members who were student participants in the Mountain-Plains Program. Results were examined by factor analysis and by the Thurstone (unweighted) scaling method; the factor structure was weak, indicating considerable independence for the individual items. Students…
Kerr, Kirstin; Dyson, Alan
Community schools have long been accepted as an institutional mechanism for intervening in the relationship between poverty, poor educational outcomes, and limited life chances. At a time when public services are being retracted, and disadvantaged places are being increasingly left to struggle, community schools are poised to become more important…
Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…
... decisions of the limited liability company. (d) One or more disadvantaged individuals must control the Board... is a general partner will be ineligible for participation. (c) In the case of a limited liability... applicant or Participant, and may be stockholders, partners, limited liability members, officers, and/or...
Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.
Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…
The purpose of this study was to determine the common characteristics of economically disadvantaged schools that demonstrate success in academics and extracurricular activities. Mixed-method design was used for this study. The quantitative portion of the study determined the correlation between a school's performance in extracurricular activities,…
Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…
Using detailed longitudinal data for the state of California, this paper estimates the effect of year-round school calendars on nationally standardized test performance of traditionally disadvantaged students. The student subgroups studied in this paper are: low socioeconomic status, limited English proficiency, Hispanic and Latino, and African…
Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie
In the Australian context, children living in disadvantaged circumstances, whose second language is English, are one of the groups at risk of failing in mathematics. This paper explores the impact purposely developed learning activities (Representations, Oral Language and Engagement in Mathematics Learning activities) have on pupils' mathematics…
... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business, HUBZone, and Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Business Status Protest... Business (SDB), or Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned (SDVO) status protest. SBA believes that the potential... Service-Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business Concern Protests Sec. 134.504 [Removed and Reserved] 0 19...
Okilwa, Nathern S. A.
This study explored the experiences of middle school students, particularly focusing on the academic achievement of economically disadvantaged students. For low SES middle school students, the known cumulative effects of poverty coupled with school transition and early adolescence development heighten the potential risks for school failure. By…
Since Head Start's last reauthorization in 2007, the Department of Health and Human Services, which oversees Head Start, has implemented significant reforms that are improving the program. In "Renewing Head Start's Promise: Invest in What Works for Disadvantaged Preschoolers," Sara Mead offers several recommendations to enable…
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The USAID Office of Small... Policies 719.271-2 The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). (a) SDB is...; (2) Advising and consulting regularly with USAID/Washington procuring activities on all phases of...
Smeaton, Kathleen; Bruce, Christine S.; Hughes, Hilary; Davis, Kate
Introduction: This paper explores the online information experiences of individuals experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage in Australia. As access to online information becomes increasingly critical those without access are in danger of being left behind. This exploratory pilot study examines the way that digital exclusion may be experienced.…
This article addresses sport's contribution to social mobility of disadvantaged urban youth through an analysis of the Sport Steward Program in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Sport-based social intervention programs are conceptualized as potential vehicles for the creation of different forms of capital
Minuchin, Patricia P.
In a follow-up study of curiosity and exploratory behavior, subjects were 18 disadvantaged inner-city black children who had been observed at age four in their first year of a Head Start program, and who were now finishing first grade. Data were obtained from teachers, observations in the classrooms, and an individual session with each child. Each…
Kelly, Patrick; Katz, Larry
Peer-to-peer (P2P) learning within two distinct groups of disadvantaged adults was studied during a two-hour computer skills workshop. Of interest was whether or not P2P learning with this population was a viable method for increasing performance and confidence. Two qualified instructors at two locations taught the same introductory…
J. Rijlaarsdam (Jolien); G. Stevens (Gonneke); J. van der Ende (Jan); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)
textabstractThis study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in
Camasso, Michael J.; Jagannathan, Radha
In this article we describe the development, implementation, and some of the early impacts of Nurture thru Nature (NtN), an American after-school and summer program designed to introduce elementary school students in disadvantaged, urban public schools to natural science and environmental education. The program, which began operations in 2010 as a…
Examined the parenting cognitions of single, adolescent, disadvantaged, African American mothers. Maternal reports highlighted three parenting dimensions: warmth, control, and anger. Mother-child dyads were periodically observed and interviewed. Mothers were classified as dismissive, permissive, authoritative, or affectionate-distressed.…
Kleef, van Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Vrijhof, Milou; Trijp, van Hans C.M.
The objective of this study was to explore parents', children's, and experts' beliefs and experiences about breakfast motivation, opportunity, and ability and elicit their thoughts on effective interventions to encourage healthy breakfast consumption. The setting was a disadvantaged neighbourhood
An overview of debated issues related to the benefits and disadvantages of inclusive schooling. The beliefs of districts, school personnel and parents are widely differing as related to the placement of students with special needs in inclusive settings. The examples of current federal laws help to shape the debate of full inclusion in schools…
Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.
Law, James; Rush, Robert; Clegg, Judy; Peters, Tim; Roulstone, Susan
The relationship between social disadvantage, behavior, and communication in childhood is well established. Less is known about how these 3 interact across childhood and specifically whether pragmatic language skills act as a mediator between early social disadvantage and adolescent behavior. The sample was the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a representative birth cohort initially recruited in England in 1991/1992 and followed through to adolescence and beyond. Of the original 13,992 live births, data were available for 2926 children at 13 years. Univariable analysis was first used to identify sociodemographic and other predictors of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at 13 years. The mediational role of the pragmatics scale of the Children's Communication Checklist (CCC) at 9 years was then tested, controlling for age, gender, and IQ. There was evidence of both a direct effect from social disadvantage (path C') to SDQ Total Behavior Score at 13 years (-.205; p pragmatics scale as a mediator. The latter represents a reduction in the magnitude of the unadjusted effect or "total effect" (-.430), demonstrating that the pragmatics scale partially mediates the relationship of early social disadvantage and adolescent behavior (even after controlling for other covariates). The same relationship held for all but the pro-social subscale of the SDQ. The results provide evidence to suggest that there maybe a causal relationship between these variables, suggesting that interventions targeting pragmatic skills have the potential to reduce adolescent behavioral symptoms.
Ailwood, Jo; Ford, Margot
This paper explores the work of "becoming exceptional" amongst a group of preservice teachers taking part in the National Exceptional Teaching for Disadvantaged Schools program (NETDS). The NETDS program is directed towards mentoring and supporting outstanding preservice teachers to transition into the schools where they can make a…
Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y
To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.
Mooyaart, J.E.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Billari, F.C.; Ritschard, G.; Studer, M.
How does the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage come about? This study aims to broaden our understanding by examining the extent to which income trajectories in later stages of young adulthood are influenced by the work- and family-related pathways young people take into adulthood. The
Large numbers of young children spend significant amounts of time in early childhood educational settings. Concerns about the quality of this experience have increased substantially in recent years. Further, as social inequalities in Australia continue to grow the gap between disadvantage and advantage widens despite overall levels of increased…
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of public meetings; request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business...
Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao
To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion
Aggarwal, Shilpa; Taljard, Lian; Wilson, Zane; Berk, Michael
Background: This report describes the findings of the survey conducted by South African Depression and Anxiety Group (SADAG) in a cohort of disadvantaged South African adolescent scholars in which PHQ-9 teen version was modified and adapted (PHQ-9M) to improve the response rate. Method: PHQ-9M was administered to 2025 secondary students of 35 schools over 2 years in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Results: The mean age was 15.8 years. 23% of respondents scored 9 or above, 26.7% reported suici...
Differences in impact of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status on cancer stage and survival by level of socio-economic disadvantage and remoteness of residence-A population-based cohort study in Australia.
Tervonen, Hanna E; Aranda, Sanchia; Roder, David; Walton, Richard; Baker, Deborah; You, Hui; Currow, David
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (referred to in this paper as "Aboriginal people") generally have lower cancer survivals and more advanced stages at diagnosis than non-Aboriginal people. There is conflicting evidence on whether these disparities vary by socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness. This study examines variations in these disparities in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Data for cancers diagnosed in 2000-2008 were extracted from the NSW Cancer Registry (n=264,219). Missing Aboriginal status (13.3%) was multiply imputed. Logistic regression and competing risk regression models were used to examine likelihood of advanced summary stage and risk of cancer death among Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal people by socio-economic disadvantage (categorised into quintiles 1: least disadvantaged-5: most disadvantaged) and remoteness. Aboriginal people showed a general pattern of more advanced stage at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal people across socio-economic disadvantage and remoteness categories. After adjusting for demographic factors, year of diagnosis, summary stage and cancer site, Aboriginal people living outside the least disadvantaged areas had an increased risk of cancer death compared with non-Aboriginal people living in similar areas (sub-hazard ratio SHR 1.41, 95% confidence interval CI 1.09-1.81; SHR 1.59, 95%CI 1.31-1.93; SHR 1.42, 95%CI 1.22-1.64 and SHR 1.34, 95%CI 1.22-1.48 for quintiles 2-5, respectively). Compared with non-Aboriginal people, Aboriginal people had an elevation in the risk of cancer death irrespective of the remoteness, with the most pronounced elevations detected in remote/very remote areas (SHR 1.56, 95%CI 1.10-2.21). Compared with non-Aboriginal people, Aboriginal people had a higher risk of cancer death and higher likelihood of more advanced stage across socio-economic disadvantage and remoteness categories. All areas appear to require attention in endeavours to improve cancer survival
DeGuzman, Pam Baker; Cohn, Wendy F; Camacho, Fabian; Edwards, Brandy L; Sturz, Vanessa N; Schroen, Anneke T
Research suggests that residents of inner-city urban neighborhoods have higher rates of late stage cancer diagnosis. Identifying urban neighborhoods with high rates of both concentrated disadvantage and late stage cancer diagnosis may assist health care providers to target screening interventions to reduce disparities. The purposes of this study were to (1) create an index to evaluate concentrated disadvantage (CD) using non-racial measures of poverty, (2) determine the impact of neighborhood CD on late stage breast cancer diagnosis in US cities, and (3) to understand the role of obesity on this relationship. We used census block group- (CBG) level poverty indicators from five Virginia cities to develop the index. Breast cancer cases of women aged 18-65 who lived in the five cities were identified from the 2000-2012 Virginia Cancer Registry. A logistic regression model with random intercept was used to evaluate the impact of disadvantage on late stage breast cancer diagnosis. CBG-level maps were developed to geographically identify neighborhoods with both high rates of CD and late breast cancer staging. Over 900 CBGs and 6000 breast cases were included. Global fit of the concentrated disadvantage model was acceptable. The effect of disadvantage on late stage was significant (OR = 1.0083, p = 0.032). Inner-city poverty impacts risk of late stage breast cancer diagnosis. Area-level obesity is highly correlated with neighborhood poverty (ρ = 0.74, p diagnosis for urban poor and for minorities living in these underserved neighborhoods, but more study is needed to understanding the complex relationship between concentrated neighborhood poverty, obesity, and late stage diagnosis.
Bridger, Emma; Daly, Michael
Individual differences in childhood cognitive ability have been neglected in the study of how early life psychosocial factors may buffer the long-term health consequences of social disadvantage. In this study, we drew on rich data from two large British cohorts to test whether high levels of cognitive ability may protect children from experiencing the physical and mental health consequences of early life socioeconomic disadvantage. Participants from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS; N = 11,522) were followed from birth to age 42, and those from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS; N = 13,213) were followed from birth to age 50. Childhood social disadvantage was indexed using 6 indicators gauging parental education, occupational prestige, and housing characteristics (i.e., housing tenure and home crowding). Standardized assessments of cognitive ability were completed at ages 10 (BCS) and 11 (NCDS) years. Psychological distress, self-rated health, and all-cause mortality were examined from early adulthood to midlife in both cohorts. Early social disadvantage predicted elevated levels of psychological distress and lower levels of self-rated health in both cohorts and higher mortality risk in the NCDS. Childhood cognitive ability moderated each of these relationships such that the link between early life social disadvantage and poor health in adulthood was markedly stronger at low (-1 SD) compared to high (+1 SD) levels of childhood cognitive ability. This study provides evidence that high childhood cognitive ability is associated with a decrease in the strength of socioeconomic status-driven health inequalities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Many studies have shown that rates of psychosis are elevated in the Black and minority ethnic (BME) population in the UK. One important, but relatively less researched explanation of these high rates may be social adversity associated with acculturation processes. Strong identification with an ethnic minority group subjected to social disadvantage may exert adverse effects on individuals from BME groups. Using data from a large epidemiological case-control study of first-episode psychosis, we aimed to investigate whether strong ethnic identification is a factor contributing to the excess of psychosis in BME groups compared with the White British, after adjustment for perceptions of disadvantage. All cases with a first episode of psychosis presenting to specialist mental health services within tightly defined catchment areas in London and Nottingham, UK, and geographically matched community controls were included in the study. Data were collected on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions of disadvantage, and identification with one\\'s own ethnic group. Analysis was performed on data from 139 cases and 234 controls. There was evidence that, as levels of ethnic identification increased, the odds of psychosis increased in the BME but not in the White British group, independent of potential confounders. However, the association between strong ethnic identity and psychosis in BME individuals was attenuated and non-significant when controlled for perceived disadvantage. Strong identification with an ethnic minority group may be a potential contributory factor of the high rates of psychosis in the BME population, the effects of which may be explained by perceptions of disadvantage.
Ooi, Poh Veh
Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.
Ooi, Poh Veh
Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.
Clapham, Kathleen; Hunter, Kate; Cullen, Patricia; Helps, Yvonne; Senserrick, Teresa; Byrne, Jake; Harrison, James E; Ivers, Rebecca Q
Low rates of driver licensing have been linked to increased risk of transport-related injury, and reduced access to health services, employment and educational opportunities in the Aboriginal population. This paper reports on how barriers to obtaining a driver licence are being addressed in four Aboriginal communities in New South Wales and South Australia. Qualitative data were collected over a four-month period in 2013. Interviews with Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal stakeholders (n=31) and 11 focus groups with Aboriginal participants (n=46) were analysed thematically using a framework approach. Factors facilitating licensing included: family support, professional lessons, alternative testing and programs that assist with literacy, fines management, financial assistance and access to a supervising driver. Stakeholders recommended raising awareness of existing services and funding community-based service provision to promote access to licensing. Facilitating licence participation requires systemic change and long-term investment to ensure interagency collaboration, service use and sustainability of relevant programs, including job search agencies. Implications for public health: The disadvantage faced by Aboriginal people in driver licensing is a fundamental barrier to participation and a social determinant of health. Understanding the factors that promote licensing is crucial to improving access for under-serviced populations; recommendations provide pragmatic solutions to address licensing disadvantage. © 2017 The Authors.
TITLE AND SUBTITLE: The Effects of Department of Defense Acquisition Reform on Women- Owned Small Businesses and Small Disadvantaged Businesses 6...unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) This study examines the effects of acquisition reform on Women- Owned Small...release; distribution is unlimited THE EFFECTS OF DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION REFORM ON WOMEN- OWNED SMALL BUSINESSES AND SMALL DISADVANTAGED
Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Côté-Lussier, Carolyn; Pagani, Linda S.; Blair, Clancy
Even when accounting for past performance, academic achievement can be influenced by teacher expectations, which are lower for disadvantaged and visible ethnic minority children. We use a Quebec (Canada) population-based sample (N = 1,311) to examine whether ethnicity and teacher-perceived signs of disadvantage in kindergarten predict child…
... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business, HUBZone, and Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Protest and Appeal... small business programs. SBA's size, small disadvantaged business (SDB), Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned... of the product or service to be acquired, and that a procurement is usually classified according to...
May, Emily M.; Azar, Sandra T.; Matthews, Stephen A.
Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with heightened risk for poor school readiness and health outcomes in early childhood, and the home environment is thought to be a primary mechanism by which neighborhood context impacts preschoolers. This study examined the effects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and neighborhood…
Nicholson, Lisa M.; Browning, Christopher R.
Neighborhood disadvantage in early adolescence may help explain racial and ethnic disparities in obesity during the transition to adulthood; however the processes may work differently for males and females and for minority groups compared to Whites. The present study examines the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and young adult…
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...
An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...
Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...
Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...
Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...
Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...
... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...
... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...
In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...
Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L
To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.
Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald
Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...
Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others
This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…
Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...
In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it
Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...
We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...
Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...
Kirby, Nicola Frances; Dempster, Edith Roslyn
The Foundation Programme of the Centre for Science Access at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa provides access to tertiary science studies to educationally disadvantaged students who do not meet formal faculty entrance requirements. The low number of students proceeding from the programme into mainstream is of concern, particularly…
Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R
Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.
Although mixed- and multiple-method research designs are currently gaining momentum and popularity, it is essential that researchers undertake a critical analysis of the process of mixing "mainstream" research designs with newer methods before commencing. In ethnography, not only are there multiple approaches to data collection, but each approach also spans the competing paradigms, thus making the term mainstream ambiguous because these mainstream techniques are reasonably different from one another. When critically appraising the combination of ethnography and autoethnography, researchers must evaluate paradigmatic philosophies and methods of inquiry for commensurability and delineate the advantages and disadvantages of combining methods as they relate to each paradigm. The author's goal in this article is to demarcate the methodologies of both ethnography and autoethnography and then to identify the (dis)advantages that might arise from undertaking multiple-method and/or mixed-method research that uses these approaches concurrently.
Runnqvist, Elin; Gollan, Tamar H; Costa, Albert; Ferreira, Victor S
Bilingual speakers access individual words less fluently, quickly, and accurately than monolinguals, particularly when accessing low-frequency words. Here we examined whether the bilingual speech production disadvantage would (a) extend to full sentences above and beyond single word retrieval and whether it would be modulated by (b) structural frequency and (c) syntactic properties of the bilingual speakers' other language. English monolinguals, Spanish-English bilinguals and Mandarin-English bilinguals were tested in a sentence production task conducted exclusively in English. Response times were modulated by bilingualism, structural frequency, and structural similarity across the bilingual speakers' two languages. These results refine our knowledge regarding the scope of the bilingual disadvantage, demonstrate that frequency effects apply to syntactic structures, and also suggest that syntax is partially shared across bilinguals' two languages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tu, J V
Artificial neural networks are algorithms that can be used to perform nonlinear statistical modeling and provide a new alternative to logistic regression, the most commonly used method for developing predictive models for dichotomous outcomes in medicine. Neural networks offer a number of advantages, including requiring less formal statistical training, ability to implicitly detect complex nonlinear relationships between dependent and independent variables, ability to detect all possible interactions between predictor variables, and the availability of multiple training algorithms. Disadvantages include its "black box" nature, greater computational burden, proneness to overfitting, and the empirical nature of model development. An overview of the features of neural networks and logistic regression is presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of using this modeling technique are discussed.
Aboustta, Mohamed A.; Martinez, Aquilino S.
The disadvantage factor takes into account the neutron flux variation through the fuel cell. In the fuel the flux is depressed in relation to its level in the moderator region. In order to avoid detailed calculations for each different set of cell dimensions, which turns out necessary the development of problem-dependent neutron cross section libraries, a disadvantage factor based on a two-region equivalence theory was proposed for the EPRI-CELL code. However, it uses a rational approximation to the neutron escape probability to describe the neutron transport between cell regions. Such approximation allows the use of the equivalence principals but introduces a non negligible error which results in an underestimation of the cell neutron fluxes. A new proposed treatment, that will be presented in this work, remarkably improves the numerical calculation and reduces the error of the above mentioned method. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs
Argentina has its own nuclear regulations, which include a risk-based criterion curve for the licensing of nuclear installations. This requirement, established in the early '70s, must be fulfilled with a PSA study. It has been applied to several installations, and the advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed in the paper through several examples. The main disadvantage is a somehow large amount of PSA work that needs to be performed for the licensing of a nuclear installation. The main advantage is the effective risk reduction that can be achieved by retrofitting the risk-based lessons learned into the design teams (not only for design of systems and components, but also for design of operation, testing and maintenance schemes). (author)
Aboustta, Mohamed A.; Martinez, Aquilino S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia
The disadvantage factor takes into account the neutron flux variation through the fuel cell. In the fuel the flux is depressed in relation to its level in the moderator region. In order to avoid detailed calculations for each different set of cell dimensions, which turns out necessary the development of problem-dependent neutron cross section libraries, a disadvantage factor based on a two-region equivalence theory was proposed for the EPRI-CELL code. However, it uses a rational approximation to the neutron escape probability to describe the neutron transport between cell regions. Such approximation allows the use of the equivalence principals but introduces a non negligible error which results in an underestimation of the cell neutron fluxes. A new proposed treatment, that will be presented in this work, remarkably improves the numerical calculation and reduces the error of the above mentioned method. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs.
Full Text Available After reviewing the existing literature on second generation adaptation, the paper presents evidence of the process of segmented assimilation on the basis of the latest data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS. This evidence serves as a backdrop for the analysis of determinants of educational and occupational achievement among second generation youths who grow up under conditions of severe disadvantage. Based on interviews with a sample of fifty CILS respondents and their families, the analysis identifies four key causal mechanisms that are common to these «success stories» and that offer the basis for theoretical refinements on how the process of second generation adaptation actually unfolds and for policies to address the needs and aspirations of the most disadvantaged members of this population
Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Sweeney, Megan M
This study investigated the association between contraceptive sterilization and socio-economic status (measured by educational attainment) in ten countries, using data from the 2006-10 National Survey of Family Growth and the 2004-10 Generations and Gender Surveys. The findings confirm that a long-standing association between socio-economic status and sterilization persists in the contemporary United States: female sterilization is associated with economic disadvantage, whereas male sterilization is associated with economic advantage. The latter association is found to be unique to the United States, but female sterilization is associated with disadvantage in most of the other countries studied. While basic demographic background factors such as early childbearing and parity can explain the observed associations in most of the countries, a strong gendered association between sterilization and socio-economic status remains in the United States and Belgium even after adjusting for these factors.
Brown, Eleanor D; Ackerman, Brian P; Moore, Charlee A
This study examined longitudinal relations linking aspects of family adversity to inhibitory control and school readiness for 120 economically disadvantaged children attending a Head Start preschool. The aspects of family adversity included income-to-needs ratios and an adversity index representing family instability and family chaos. The results showed that the adversity index but not the income ratios contributed to explaining diversity in the development of inhibitory control over the course of the preschool year. Additionally, the adversity index predicted school readiness at the end of the year, and the results suggested that inhibitory control mediated this effect. The implications concern understanding family sources of diversity in inhibitory control for economically disadvantaged preschool children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Abdelsattar, Zaid M; Hendren, Samantha; Wong, Sandra L
Individuals from disadvantaged communities are among the millions of uninsured Americans gaining insurance under the Affordable Care Act. The extent to which health insurance can mitigate the effects of the social determinants of health on cancer care is unknown. This study linked the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries to US Census data to study patients diagnosed with the 4 leading causes of cancer deaths between 2007 and 2011. A county-level social determinant score was developed with 5 measures of wealth, education, and employment. Patients were stratified into quintiles, with the lowest quintile representing the most disadvantaged communities. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate associations and cancer-specific survival. A total of 364,507 patients aged 18 to 64 years were identified (134,105 with breast cancer, 106,914 with prostate cancer, 62,606 with lung cancer, and 60,882 with colorectal cancer). Overall, patients from the most disadvantaged communities (median household income, $42,885; patients below the poverty level, 22%; patients completing college, 17%) were more likely to present with distant disease (odds ratio, 1.6; P insurance status. The effect of having insurance on cancer-specific survival was more pronounced in disadvantaged communities (relative benefit at 3 years, 40% vs 31%). However, it did not fully mitigate the effect of social determinants on mortality (hazard ratio, 0.75 vs 0.68; P insurance, and there is a reduction in disparities in outcome. However, the gap produced by social determinants of health cannot be bridged by insurance alone. Cancer 2017;123:1219-1227. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning
This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children?s internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3?years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home environment, the provision of learning materials in the home, maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and harsh disciplining practices were all analy...
Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A J; Orobio de Castro, Bram; van den Ban, Els; Matthys, Walter
Families with socioeconomically disadvantaged and ethnic minority backgrounds are often hard to reach for the prevention and treatment of disruptive child behavior problems. We examined whether the Incredible Years parenting intervention can successfully reach and benefit families with socioeconomic disadvantaged and ethnic minority backgrounds in the Netherlands. One hundred fifty-four families from a wide range of socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds were recruited in an outpatient clinic for child and adolescent psychiatry and in elementary schools serving deprived neighborhoods. Families were randomly assigned to the BASIC Incredible Years parenting intervention or a waiting list control condition. Children were 3-8 years old (M = 5.59, SD = 1.35; 62% boys, 66% ethnic minorities) and 65% of the children met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) criteria for oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and/or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Incredible Years reduced parent-reported disruptive child behavior and teacher-reported hyperactive and inattentive child behavior and increased parent-reported use of praise and incentives and reduced harsh and inconsistent discipline. Incredible Years did not affect parent-reported hyperactive and inattentive child behavior; teacher-reported child conduct problems; and parent-reported use of appropriate discipline techniques, clear expectations, physical punishment, and parenting stress. Of importance, the effectiveness of Incredible Years did not differ across families with different socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Effects were maintained at 3-month follow-up. This study shows that socioeconomically disadvantaged and ethnic minority families in disadvantaged neighborhoods can be engaged in and benefit from parenting interventions to reduce disruptive child behavior.
Backes, Benjamin; Holzer, Harry J.; Dunlop Velez, Erin
In this paper we examine a range of postsecondary education and labor market outcomes, with a particular focus on minorities and/or disadvantaged workers. We use administrative data from the state of Florida, where postsecondary student records have been linked to UI earnings data and also to secondary education records. Our main findings can be summarized as follows: 1) Gaps in secondary school achievement can account for a large portion of the variation in postsecondary attainment and labor...
Jurado P, M.; Martin del Campo M, C.
In this work the main advantages and disadvantages of the installation of a new type of nuclear reactor different to the BWR type reactor in Mexico are presented. A revision of the advanced reactors is made that are at the moment in operation and of the advanced reactors that are in construction or one has already planned its construction in the short term. Specifically the A BWR and EPR reactors are analyzed. (Author)
This thesis consists of three self-contained essays on childhood disadvantage and its consequences in Sweden. A Longitudinal Look at Child Poverty Using Both Monetary and Non-monetary Approaches. In this paper, we broaden the analysis of child poverty by using both monetary and non-monetary measures of poverty and by comparing these over time. We use a composite of questionnaire answers from children regarding possession of socially perceived necessities and participation in social activities...
Tak, S H; Nield, M; Becker, H
NUD.IST 3.0 was generally effective in managing the qualitative data of dyspnea stimuli. Yet, some disadvantages were found related to format restrictions of transcripts and data volume. In particular, an appropriate format of transcripts for NUD.IST use was critical for efficient data management. Awareness of strengths and limitations of program functions is necessary to use NUD.IST efficiently in qualitative data management.
Antai, D.; Moradi, T.
Background: Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased -childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children < 5 years of age (under-5 mortality). Objective: In this study we examined the trends in urban population growth and urban under-5 mortal...
Bernard, Josef; Decker, A.; Vojtíšková, Kateřina; Mikešová, Renáta
Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 29-53 ISSN 1214-813X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10602S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : rural disadvantage * local opportunity structure * social exclusion Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://socstudia.fss.muni.cz/sites/default/files/03_Living_and_Dealing_with_Limited_Opportunities_Bernard_Decker_Vojtiskova_Mikesova.pdf
Arulmani, G.; Van Laar, Darren; Easton, Simon
The present study was conducted in India and examined the impact of socioeconomic factors and the variables of self-efficacy and career beliefs on the career planning orientation of 755 high school boys from disadvantaged backgrounds. The sample had four orientations to career planning, namely, the intention to begin working immediately, pursue college education, enter vocational training and no career plans. The children of illiterate and unemployed parents exhibited the highest tendency to ...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Using magnetic resonance imaging, we aimed to assess the presence of silent brain vascular lesions in a sample of apparently healthy elderly individuals who were recruited from an economically disadvantaged urban region (São Paulo, Brazil. We also wished to investigate whether the findings were associated with worse cognitive performance. METHODS: A sample of 250 elderly subjects (66-75 years without dementia or neuropsychiatric disorders were recruited from predefined census sectors of an economically disadvantaged area of Sao Paulo and received structural magnetic resonance imaging scans and cognitive testing. A high proportion of individuals had very low levels of education (4 years or less, n=185; 21 with no formal education. RESULTS: The prevalence of at least one silent vascular-related cortical or subcortical lesion was 22.8% (95% confidence interval, 17.7-28.5, and the basal ganglia was the most frequently affected site (63.14% of cases. The subgroup with brain infarcts presented significantly lower levels of education than the subgroup with no brain lesions as well as significantly worse current performance in cognitive test domains, including memory and attention (p<0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Silent brain infarcts were present at a substantially high frequency in our elderly sample from an economically disadvantaged urban region and were significantly more prevalent in subjects with lower levels of education. Covert cerebrovascular disease significantly contributes to cognitive deficits, and in the absence of magnetic resonance imaging data, this cognitive impairment may be considered simply related to ageing. Emphatic attention should be paid to potentially deleterious effects of vascular brain lesions in poorly educated elderly individuals from economically disadvantaged environments.
Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria
A general overview of the advancements and applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) hyphenated with other analytical techniques is given from a practical point of view. Details on the advantages and disadvantages of the hyphenation of NMR with liquid chromatography as LC-NMR and also with mass spectrometry as LC-MS-NMR are demonstrated with two examples. Current developments of NMR with other analytical separation techniques, especially with capillary liquid chromatography (capLC) are discussed
Cumulative structural disadvantage theory posits two major sources of endogenous selection in shaping racial health disparities: a race-based version of the theory anticipates a racially distinct selection process, whereas a social class-based version anticipates a racially similar process. To operationalize cumulative structural disadvantage, this study uses data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in a Latent Class Analysis that demographically profiles health impairment trajectories. This analysis is used to examine the nature of selection as it relates to racial differences in the development of health impairments that are significant enough to hinder one's ability to work. The results provide no direct support for the race-based version of cumulative structural disadvantage theory. Instead, two key findings support the social class-based version of cumulative disadvantage theory. First, the functional form of the different health trajectories are invariant for whites and blacks, suggesting more racial similarly in the developmental process than anticipated by the race-based version of the theory. The extent of the racial disparity in the prevalences across the health impairment trajectories is, however, significant and noteworthy: nearly one-third of blacks (28 %) in the United States experience some form of impairment during their prime working years compared with 18.8 % of whites. Second, racial differences in childhood background mediate this racial health disparity through the indirect pathway of occupational attainment and through the direct pathway of early-life exposure to health-adverse environments. Thus, the selection of individuals into different health trajectories, based largely on childhood socioeconomic background, helps explain racial disparities in the development of health impairments.
Yunhee Chang; Angela Lyons
This paper uses data collected from a retrospective pre-test to investigate he impact that a financial education program has on participants’ financial behaviors. Specifically, we compare program impact across participants with varying levels of financial competency prior to the program and examine whether the program is meeting the educational needs of those it was designed to target – namely, financially disadvantaged consumers. The findings show that the program benefited all of the partic...
Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, S; Lahelma, E
Fears and experiences of food restriction influence eating behavior but the association between past and present economic disadvantage, food insecurity and body size is poorly understood. Therefore, we examined these associations in a nationwide, representative sample of 25- to 64-y-old Finnish men and women (n = 6506). The respondents were classified by their body mass index (BMI) into four groups: thin, normal, overweight and obese. Economic disadvantage was assessed by three indicators including low household income, unemployment during past 5 y and long-term economic problems in childhood. Food insecurity was assessed by five separate items concerning economic fears and experiences related to sufficient supply of food during the past 12 mo, and a combined scale in which those with affirmative responses to four to five items were classified as hungry. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted using both the BMI grouping and indicators of economic disadvantage as independent variables to predict food insecurity, controlling simultaneously for age, educational attainment and sex. The results showed that low household income, recent unemployment and economic problems in childhood were all predictors of food insecurity. Thin people were most likely to be hungry and showed most food insecurity in five separate items. In addition, obese people reported more buying cheaper food due to economic problems and fears or experiences of running out of money to buy food than did normal weight subjects. In conclusion, both past and present economic disadvantage is associated with various aspects of food insecurity. The association between food insecurity and BMI is curvilinear.
Pawełkowicz, Magdalena E.; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Posyniak, Kacper; ZiÄ bska, Karolina; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew
An important computational challenge is finding the regulatory elements across the promotor region. In this work we present the advantages and disadvantages from the application of different bioinformatics programs for localization of transcription factor binding sites in the upstream region of genes connected with sex determination in cucumber. We use PlantCARE, PlantPAN and SignalScan to find motifs in the promotor regions. The results have been compared and possible function of chosen motifs has been described.
Berezina, K.; Semrad, k.J.; Stepchenkova, S.; Cobanoglu, C.
The central intent of this qualitative inquiry is to investigate the benefits, drawbacks, and performance measures of hotel room inventory distribution via flash sales websites. Key advantages and disadvantages of using such a distribution channel fall within the categories of inventory management, revenue management, brand marketing, customer relationships, and operational challenges. The significance of the study is in providing a comprehensive review of the flash sales phenomenon in the lo...
To review the advantages and disadvantages of e-questionnaires, and question whether or not reported disadvantages remain valid or can be limited or circumvented. The internet is likely to become the dominant medium for survey distribution, yet nurses and midwives have been slow to use online technology for research involving questionnaires. Relatively little is known about optimal methods of harnessing the internet's potential in health studies. A small e-questionnaire of health workers. The Medline and Maternity and Infant Care databases were searched for articles containing the words 'web', 'online', or 'internet' and 'survey' or 'questionnaire'. The search was restricted to articles in English published since 2000. The reference lists of retrieved articles were also searched. Reported disadvantages of online data collection, such as sample bias, psychometric distortions, 'technophobia' and lower response rates are discussed and challenged. The author reports her experience of conducting a survey with an e-questionnaire to contribute to the limited body of knowledge in this area, and suggests how to maximise the quantity and quality of responses to e-questionnaires. E-questionnaires offer the researcher an inexpensive, quick and convenient way to collect data. Many of the reported disadvantages of the medium are no longer valid. The science of conducting the perfect e-survey is emerging. However, the lessons learned in the author's study, together with other research, seem to suggest that satisfactory response rates and data quality can be achieved in a relatively short time if certain tactics are used. To get the best results from e-questionnaires, it is suggested that the questionnaire recipients should be targeted carefully and that the value of their potential contribution to the project should be emphasised. E-questionnaires should be convenient, quick and easy to access, and be set out in a way that encourages full and complete responses.
Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda
Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.
Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.
Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...
Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET
The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...
The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect
Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.
This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...
Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio
The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.
Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D
Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.
Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla
Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...
Budd, K S; Heilman, N E; Kane, D
This study had two aims: First to examine psychosocial correlates of child maltreatment risk, and second to assess the validity of the CAP Inventory (Milner, 1986) with multiply disadvantaged teenage mothers. Participants were 75 adolescent mothers who were wards of the Illinois child protection system. Mothers (aged 14-18) and infants participated in home-based psychosocial assessment of personal and parenting functioning. Group comparisons examined differences for mothers with elevated versus normal versus invalid CAP scores due to faking good. Findings indicated that abuse risk groups differed on emotional distress, social support satisfaction, reading achievement, and years of education, but not on parenting beliefs or quality of child stimulation. Differences favored the normal over the elevated risk group in all significant comparisons, whereas mothers with elevated faking good differed from normals only in lower reading achievement. Multiple regression analysis highlighted emotional distress, support dissatisfaction, and low achievement as significant predictors of greater abuse risk. Despite sharing multiple disadvantages, adolescent wards are a heterogeneous group who show different levels of psychosocial functioning corresponding to levels of child maltreatment risk. The findings provide support for the concurrent validity and clinical applicability of the CAP Inventory with disadvantaged teenage mothers.
Rosengard, Cynthia; Pollock, Lealah; Weitzen, Sherry; Meers, Ann; Phipps, Maureen G
We sought to enhance our understanding of pregnant adolescents' concepts of the advantages and disadvantages of teen pregnancy and childbearing. This is a qualitative study of 247 pregnant adolescents recruited during their first prenatal health care visit to a women's primary care clinic in Providence, Rhode Island. Participants responded in writing to open-ended questions assessing their ideas about what was advantageous and disadvantageous about having an infant during their teen years rather than waiting until they were older. Themes and patterns in responding were coded, and subgroup differences based on age, ethnicity, intendedness of current pregnancy, and pregnancy/parenting history were assessed. Themes related to advantages of teen pregnancy included enhancing connections, positive changes/benefits, and practical considerations. Themes related to disadvantages included lack of preparedness, changes/interference, and others' perceptions. Differences among groups based on age, ethnicity, intendedness of the current pregnancy, and pregnancy/parenting history were examined and noted. Pregnant adolescents do not represent a homogeneous group. Considering differences in how pregnancy and childbearing are conceptualized along developmental, cultural, attitudinal, and experiential lines will strengthen our ability to tailor pregnancy-prevention messages.
Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N.
Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers’ higher stress than white mothers’ persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress. PMID:24026535