WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously developed scheme

  1. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    CERN Document Server

    Chrysalidis, K; Fedosseev, V N; Marsh, B A; Naubereit, P; Rothe, S; Seiffert, C; Kron, T; Wendt, K

    2017-01-01

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  2. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrysalidis, K., E-mail: katerina.chrysalidis@cern.ch; Goodacre, T. Day; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A. [CERN (Switzerland); Naubereit, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany); Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C. [CERN (Switzerland); Kron, T.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  3. Shanghai : Developing a Green Electricity Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Heijndermans, Enno; Berrah, Noureddine; Crowdis, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the experience of developing a green electricity scheme in Shanghai, China. It is intended to be a resource when replicating this effort in another city or country. The study consists of two parts. In Part 1, the general characteristics of both the framework for green electricity products and the market for green electricity products are presented. It also presents a ...

  4. Carbon trading: Current schemes and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdan, Slobodan; Azapagic, Adisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading schemes and examines the prospects of carbon trading. The first part of the paper gives an overview of several mandatory GHG trading schemes around the world. The second part focuses on the future trends in carbon trading. It argues that the emergence of new schemes, a gradual enlargement of the current ones, and willingness to link existing and planned schemes seem to point towards geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading. However, such expansion would need to overcome some considerable technical and non-technical obstacles. Linking of the current and emerging trading schemes requires not only considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems, but also necessitates clear regulatory and policy signals, continuing political support and a more stable economic environment. Currently, the latter factors are missing. The global economic turmoil and its repercussions for the carbon market, a lack of the international deal on climate change defining the Post-Kyoto commitments, and unfavourable policy shifts in some countries, cast serious doubts on the expansion of emissions trading and indicate that carbon trading enters an uncertain period. - Highlights: → The paper provides an extensive overview of mandatory emissions trading schemes around the world. → Geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading are identified as future trends. → The expansion requires considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems. → Clear policy signals, political support and a stable economic environment are needed for the expansion. → A lack of the post-Kyoto commitments and unfavourable policy shifts indicate an uncertain future for carbon trading.

  5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF FREE PRIMARY EDUCATION SCHEME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    introduced a free primary education programme. ... education in Nigeria. This period witnessed the introduction of Free. Education scheme in Western Region and marked a radical departure from the hitherto existing educational patterns not only in Western. Nigeria but ..... The institutions of higher education also benefited.

  6. Unsustainable Development: Could it be a Ponzi Scheme?

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavan, Shobhana; Barrass, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the extent to which analogies can be drawn between unsustainable development and a Ponzi scheme. A Ponzi scheme is a type of fraudulent investment strategy and an extreme form of market failure caused by ill-informed decisions based on questionable criteria; the driving force is individual and collective deception and self-deception. Unsustainable development is possible because economic activities are frequently distanced, spatially and temporally, from their associated e...

  7. Development scheme of the public power transportation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Article 14 of the modified law from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric utility foresees that the development scheme of the public power transportation network is regularly submitted to the approval of the ministry of energy after advice from the energy regulation commission. The development scheme identifies the areas of 'power fragility' with respect to the existing or future constraints susceptible to occur at the short- or medium-term on the French power grid. This document comprises the text of the law 2000-108 from February 10, 2000, and the complete development scheme with its appendixes (regulatory and administrative context relative to network projects, constraints relative to each administrative region). (J.S.)

  8. The Development Of Free Primary Education Scheme In Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of education in Western Nigeria and the whole country. Using both primary and secondary documents, this paper analyses the circumstances surrounding the introduction of this revolutionary scheme, as well as its historical development. The paper concludes with an examination of some of the impacts of the programme.

  9. Development of knowledgebase system for assisting signal validation scheme design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, M.; Baba, T.; Washio, T.; Sugiyama, K.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a knowledgebase system to be used as a tool for designing signal validation schemes. The outputs from the signal validation scheme can be used as; (1) auxiliary signals for detecting sensor failures, (2) inputs to advanced instrumentation such as disturbance analysis and diagnosis system or safety parameter display system, and (3) inputs to digital control systems. Conventional signal validation techniques such as comparison of redundant sensors, limit checking, and calibration tests have been employed in nuclear power plants. However, these techniques have serious drawbacks, e.g. needs for extra sensors, vulnerability to common mode failures, limited applicability to continuous monitoring, etc. To alleviate these difficulties, a new signal validation technique has been developed by using the methods called analytic redundancy and parity space. Although the new technique has been proved feasible as far as preliminary tests are concerned, further developments should be made in order to enhance its practical applicability

  10. Development of an inviscid flux scheme for thermochemical nonequilibrium flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles Hugh

    Solutions to the governing equations that model hypersonic aerothermodynamics rely heavily on the mathematical and numerical technology that characterizes Computational Fluid Dynamics. Many areas of significant investigation are relevant to advancing state of the art hypersonic aerothermodynamic engineering and applied research analyses. Due to the relatively high energy achieved by spacecraft during launch, physical models for thermal nonequilibrium and chemical nonequilibrium are necessary to develop adequate numerical reentry simulations. In addition, complex features of the Navier Stokes equations require sophisticated mathematical and numerical techniques in order to develop reasonably accurate simulations in an acceptable amount of time. The objective of this work is to present the development of a new inviscid flux evaluation method. This new method, referred to as the Flux Consistent scheme, is closely related to the Modified Steger-Warming method. The unique characteristics of this new flux scheme involve an original eigenvalue implementation. This original eigenvalue formulation, however, leads to incorrect flux magnitudes which must be corrected in the total flux to provide an accurate representation of the inviscid fluxes. The mathematical technique used to identify flux magnitude errors in the Flux Consistent scheme is also applied to the Modified Steger-Warming flux evaluation method. This assessment leads to the characterization of flux errors in the Modified Steger-Warming scheme which are generated by eigenvalue differences between the left and right cell interface flow states. These Modified Steger-Warming flux errors are shown to vanish for supersonic conditions. Two hypotheses in reference to the Modified Steger-Warming scheme are proposed. The first is that sonic glitch problems occurring in some Steger-Warming simulations are the result of the flux error vanishing at supersonic conditions. The second hypothesis concerning the Steger

  11. India's integrated child development services scheme: challenges for scaling up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N; Kaul, V

    2018-01-01

    India had around 158 million children under the age of 6 and about 26 million births in 2015. In the same year, India's Integrated Child Development Services Scheme served about 82 million children under 6 years and over 19 million pregnant women and lactating mothers. These 102 million beneficiaries received services in about 1.3 million centres. This paper reviews the growth of the Scheme and considers challenges to scaling up quality with equity based on results of large-scale national or multistate studies. The Scheme is associated with decreased malnutrition and better child development. The size and diversity of the country, the policy context, funding mode and lack of community awareness and engagement have hindered scaling up access while the approach to service delivery, low institutional capacity and poor infrastructure have impeded scaling up of implementation quality. This review illustrates the challenges associated with scaling-up access and implementation quality of a multicomponent, integrated early childhood programme in a large, diverse country. The future success of the Integrated Child Development Services will depend on how well it adheres to quality standards and how well it evolves to address current weaknesses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Study on a new meteorological sampling scheme developed for the OSCAAR code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhe; Tomita, Kenichi; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2002-03-01

    One important step in Level-3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment is meteorological sequence sampling, on which the previous studies were mainly related to code systems using the straight-line plume model and more efforts are needed for those using the trajectory puff model such as the OSCAAR code system. This report describes the development of a new meteorological sampling scheme for the OSCAAR code system that explicitly considers population distribution. A group of principles set for the development of this new sampling scheme includes completeness, appropriate stratification, optimum allocation, practicability and so on. In this report, discussions are made about the procedures of the new sampling scheme and its application. The calculation results illustrate that although it is quite difficult to optimize stratification of meteorological sequences based on a few environmental parameters the new scheme do gather the most inverse conditions in a single subset of meteorological sequences. The size of this subset may be as small as a few dozens, so that the tail of a complementary cumulative distribution function is possible to remain relatively static in different trials of the probabilistic consequence assessment code. (author)

  13. Ten-year scheme of network development - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    RTE, an independent subsidiary of EDF, is the French electricity transmission system operator. It is a public service company responsible for operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. RTE transports electricity between electricity suppliers (French and European) and consumers, whether they are electricity distributors or industrial consumers directly connected to the transmission system. The mission of RTE is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. With the support of the government authorities, RTE prepares a ten-year scheme of network development in France; This document presents the main electricity transport infrastructures to foresee within the ten coming years and lists the network development investments which must be realised and implemented within 3 years. The document is updated each year and comes to complement at the national level the European ten year network development plan (TYNDP) and the European regional plans as provided for in the 2009/72/CE European directive

  14. Ten-year scheme of network development - 2013 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    RTE, an independent subsidiary of EDF, is the French electricity transmission system operator. It is a public service company responsible for operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. RTE transports electricity between electricity suppliers (French and European) and consumers, whether they are electricity distributors or industrial consumers directly connected to the transmission system. The mission of RTE is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. With the support of the government authorities, RTE prepares a ten-year scheme of network development in France; This document presents the main electricity transport infrastructures to foresee within the ten coming years and lists the network development investments which must be realised and implemented within 3 years. The document is updated each year and comes to complement at the national level the European ten year network development plan (TYNDP) and the European regional plans as provided for in the 2009/72/CE European directive

  15. Sustainable development, tourism and territory. Previous elements towards a systemic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre TORRENTE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, tourism is one of the major challenges for many countries and territories. The balance of payments, an ever-increasing number of visitors and the significant development of the tourism offer clearly illustrate the booming trend in this sector. This macro-economic approach is often used by the organizations in charge of tourism, WTO for instance. Quantitative assessments which consider the satisfaction of customers’ needs as an end in itself have prevailed both in tourism development schemes and in prospective approaches since the sixties.

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Phage Typing Scheme for Vibrio cholerae O139

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, A. K.; Ghosh, A. N.; Nair, G. Balakrish; Niyogi, S. K.; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Sarkar, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    The scenario of cholera that existed previously changed in 1992 and 1993 with the emergence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O139 in India. The genesis of the new serogroup formed the impetus to search for O139 phages in and around the country. A total of five newly isolated phages lytic to V. cholerae O139 strains were used for the development of this phage typing scheme. These phages differed from each other and also differed from the existing O1 phages in their lytic patterns, morphologies, re...

  17. Development and evaluation of a physics-based windblown dust emission scheme implemented in the CMAQ modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new windblown dust emission treatment was incorporated in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. This new model treatment has been built upon previously developed physics-based parameterization schemes from the literature. A distinct and novel feature of t...

  18. Development and evaluation of a phage typing scheme for Vibrio cholerae O139.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, A K; Ghosh, A N; Nair, G B; Niyogi, S K; Bhattacharya, S K; Sarkar, B L

    2000-01-01

    The scenario of cholera that existed previously changed in 1992 and 1993 with the emergence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O139 in India. The genesis of the new serogroup formed the impetus to search for O139 phages in and around the country. A total of five newly isolated phages lytic to V. cholerae O139 strains were used for the development of this phage typing scheme. These phages differed from each other and also differed from the existing O1 phages in their lytic patterns, morphologies, restriction endonuclease digestion profiles, and immunological criteria. With this scheme, 500 V. cholerae O139 strains were evaluated for their phage types, and almost all strains were found to be typeable. The strains clustered into 10 different phage types, of which type 1 (38.2%) was the dominant type, followed by type 2 (22.4%) and type 3 (18%). Additionally, a comparative study of phage types in 1993 and 1994 versus those from 1996 to 1998 for O139 strains showed a higher percentage of phage type 1 (40.5%), followed by type 3 (18.8%) during the period between 1993 and 1994, whereas phage type 2 (32. 1%) was the next major type during the period from 1996 to 1998. This scheme comprising five newly isolated phages would be another useful tool in the study of the epidemiology of cholera caused by V. cholerae O139.

  19. Predictive factors for the development of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Kühl, C.; Bertelsen, Aksel

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of diabetes in women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify predictive factors for development of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Two to 11 years post partum, glucose tolerance was investigated in 241...... women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and 57 women without previous gestational diabetes mellitus (control group). RESULTS: Diabetes developed in 42 (17.4%) women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (3.7% insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 13.7% non......-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Diabetes did not develop in any of the controls. Predictive factors for diabetes development were fasting glucose level at diagnosis (high glucose, high risk), preterm delivery, and an oral glucose tolerance test result that showed diabetes 2 months post partum. In a subgroup...

  20. 78 FR 35263 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... the LNG at the time of export. The Application was filed under section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA... not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. Current Application The current Application is filed in... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

  1. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  2. Development of a technical external quality assurance scheme in non-gynaecological cytology in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P A; Hodgson, C; Crossley, J; Crossley, B

    2015-04-01

    Technical external quality assurance (EQA) schemes are well established for histopathology and cervical cytology but, to date, sadly lacking for diagnostic cytology (DC). This timely review redresses the balance by describing the development and evaluation of a technical EQA scheme for DC available to the UK, Europe and beyond. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme developed for farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdóttir, K.; Hyldig, Grethe; Martinsdóttir, E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop 'Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme for raw, farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and to evaluate the scheme. in a shelf life study. QIM is based on the evaluation of key parameters in the deterioration of seafood's. Demerit points are assigned to selected...

  4. Development of Fault Detection and Diagnosis Schemes for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2004-01-01

    The success of a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) scheme depends not alone on developing an advanced detection scheme. To enable successful deployment in industrial applications, an economically optimal development of FDD schemes are required. This paper reviews and discusses the gained...... experiences achieved by employing a combination of various techniques, methods, and algorithms, which are proposed by academia, on an industrial application. The main focus is on sharing the "lessons learned" from developing and employing Faulttolerant functionalities to a controlled process in order to meet...... the industrial needs while satisfying economically motivated constraints....

  5. Effect of previous utilization and out-of-pocket expenditure on subsequent utilization of a state led public-private partnership scheme "Chiranjeevi Yojana" to promote facility births in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasobant, Sandul; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Vora, Kranti Suresh; Annerstedt, Kristi Sidney; Isaakidis, Petros; Dholakia, Nishith B; Mavalankar, Dileep V

    2017-04-25

    In Gujarat, India, a state led public private partnership scheme to promote facility birth named Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) was implemented in 2005. Institutional birth is provided free of cost at accredited private health facilities to women from socially disadvantaged groups (eligible women). CY has contributed in increasing facility birth and providing substantially subsidized (but not totally free) birth care; however, the retention of mothers in this scheme in subsequent child birth is unknown. Therefore, we conducted a study aimed to determine the effect of previous utilization of the scheme and previous out of pocket expenditure on subsequent child birth among multiparous eligible women in Gujarat. This was a retrospective cohort study of multiparous eligible women (after excluding abortions and births at public facility). A structured questionnaire was administered by trained research assistant to those with recent delivery between Jan and Jul 2013. Outcome of interest was CY utilization in subsequent child birth (Jan-Jul 2013). Explanatory variables included socio-demographic characteristics (including category of eligibility), pregnancy related characteristics in previous child birth, before Jan 2013, (including CY utilization, out of pocket expenditure) and type of child birth in subsequent birth. A poisson regression model was used to assess the association of factors with CY utilization in subsequent child birth. Of 997 multiparous eligible women, 289 (29%) utilized and 708 (71%) did not utilize CY in their previous child birth. Of those who utilized CY (n = 289), 182 (63%) subsequently utilized CY and 33 (11%) gave birth at home; whereas those who did not utilize CY (n = 708) had four times higher risk (40% vs. 11%) of subsequent child birth at home. In multivariable models, previous utilization of the scheme was significantly associated with subsequent utilization (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 2.7; 95% CI: 2.2-3.3), however previous out of pocket

  6. Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

    OpenAIRE

    S. Schulze

    2010-01-01

    The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basi...

  7. Development and test of a classification scheme for human factors in incident reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.; Freitag, M.; Wilpert, B.

    1997-01-01

    The Research Center System Safety of the Berlin University of Technology conducted a research project on the analysis of Human Factors (HF) aspects in incident reported by German Nuclear Power Plants. Based on psychological theories and empirical studies a classification scheme was developed which permits the identification of human involvement in incidents. The classification scheme was applied in an epidemiological study to a selection of more than 600 HF - relevant incidents. The results allow insights into HF related problem areas. An additional study proved that the application of the classification scheme produces results which are reliable and independent from raters. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  8. Developing Educational Goals: Insights from a Peer Assisted Teaching Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Bella; Carbone, Angela; Lindsay, Katherine; Drew, Steve; Phelan, Liam; Cottman, Caroline; Stoney, Sue

    2016-01-01

    The rapid changes facing higher education are placing increased focus on the quality of the student experience, achieving learning outcomes, and employability expectations. As a result, academics in teaching roles are increasingly measured on performance via student evaluations amplifying attention on professional development initiatives for…

  9. An Indexing Scheme for Case-Based Manufacturing Vision Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Johansen, John; Luxhøj, James T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on one critical element, indexing – retaining and representing knowledge in an applied case-based reasoning (CBR) model for supporting strategic manufacturing vision development (CBRM). Manufacturing vision (MV) is a kind of knowledge management concept and process concerned wi...

  10. Development of a Regional Habitat Classification Scheme for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The procedures used in map development, image processing techniques and field survey methods are outlined. Habitat classification, and regional-scale comparisons of relative habitat composition are described. The study demonstrates the use of remotesensing data to construct digital habitat maps for the comparison of ...

  11. An Indexing Scheme for Case-Based Manufacturing Vision Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Johansen, John; Luxhøj, James T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on one critical element, indexing – retaining and representing knowledge in an applied case-based reasoning (CBR) model for supporting strategic manufacturing vision development (CBRM). Manufacturing vision (MV) is a kind of knowledge management concept and process concerned...

  12. Development of a Regional Habitat Classification Scheme for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development, image processing techniques and field survey methods are outlined. Habitat classification, and regional-scale comparisons of relative habitat composition are described. The study demonstrates the use of remote sensing data to construct digital habitat maps for the comparison of regional habitat coverage, ...

  13. Developing a coding scheme for detecting usability and fun problems in computer games for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendregt, W; Bekker, M M

    2006-08-01

    This article describes the development and assessment of a coding scheme for finding both usability and fun problems through observations of young children playing computer games during user tests. The proposed coding scheme is based on an existing list of breakdown indication types of the detailed video analysis method (DEVAN). This method was developed to detect usability problems in task-based products for adults. However, the new coding scheme for children's computer games takes into account that in games, fun, in addition to usability, is an important factor and that children behave differently from adults. Therefore, the proposed coding scheme uses 8 of the 14 original breakdown indications and has 7 new indications. The article first discusses the development of the new coding scheme. Subsequently, the article describes the reliability assessment of the coding scheme. The any-two agreement measure of 38.5% shows that thresholds for when certain user behavior is worth coding will be different for different evaluators. However, the any-two agreement of .92 for a fixed list of observation points shows that the distinction between the available codes is clear to most evaluators. Finally, a pilot study shows that training can increase any-two agreement considerably by decreasing the number of unique observations, in comparison with the number of agreed upon observations.

  14. The development and evaluation of a community attachment scheme for first-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannay, David; Mitchell, Caroline; Chung, Man Cheung

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes the development over 14 years of a Community Attachment Scheme for First Year Medical Students in Sheffield, together with feedback from tutors and students. The scheme involves pairs of students visiting families expecting a baby or experiencing an illness. The families are identified by general practitioners who act as tutors together with a behavioural scientist for groups of eight to 10 students. The scheme provides first-year students with practical experience of sociology and psychology in terms of family dynamics and illness behaviour. Assessment is part of the degree examination, and involves a written assignment on the family, together with tutors' assessments. The development of the attachment scheme took place in three phases, which are described together with feedback from tutors and students, as well as changes in methods of assessment. The basis of the Community Attachment Scheme has been self-directed problem-based learning in small groups with continuous assessment, and these principles have now extended to the rest of the medical curriculum in Sheffield, of which the Community Attachment Scheme is an integral part.

  15. Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schulze

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT. Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research selfefficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.

  16. Planning policy, sustainability and housebuilder practices: The move into (and out of?) the redevelopment of previously developed land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadimitriou, Nikos

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores the transformations of the housebuilding industry under the policy requirement to build on previously developed land (PDL). This requirement was a key lever in promoting the sustainable urban development agenda of UK governments from the early 1990s to 2010 and has survived albeit somewhat relaxed and permutated in the latest National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF). The paper therefore looks at the way in which the policy push towards densification and mixed use affected housebuilders' business strategy and practices and their ability to cope with the 2007 downturn of the housing market and its aftermath. It also points out the eventual feedback of some of these practices into planning policy. Following the gradual shift of British urban policy focus towards sustainability which started in the early 1990s, new configurations of actors, new skills, strategies and approaches to managing risk emerged in property development and housebuilding. There were at least two ways in which housebuilders could have responded to the requirements of developing long term mixed use high density projects on PDL. One way was to develop new products and to employ practices and combinations of practices involving phasing, a flexible approach to planning applications and innovative production methods. Alternatively, they could approach PDL development as a temporary turn of policy or view mixed use high density schemes as a niche market to be explored without drastically overhauling the business model of the entire firm. These transformations of the UK housebuilding sector were unfolding during a long period of buoyancy in the housing market which came to an end in 2007. Very little is known both about how housebuilder strategies and production practices evolved during the boom years as well as about how these firms coped with the effects of the 2007 market downturn. The paper draws on published data (company annual reports, government statistics) and primary

  17. Planning policy, sustainability and housebuilder practices: The move into (and out of?) the redevelopment of previously developed land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadimitriou, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the transformations of the housebuilding industry under the policy requirement to build on previously developed land (PDL). This requirement was a key lever in promoting the sustainable urban development agenda of UK governments from the early 1990s to 2010 and has survived albeit somewhat relaxed and permutated in the latest National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF). The paper therefore looks at the way in which the policy push towards densification and mixed use affected housebuilders’ business strategy and practices and their ability to cope with the 2007 downturn of the housing market and its aftermath. It also points out the eventual feedback of some of these practices into planning policy. Following the gradual shift of British urban policy focus towards sustainability which started in the early 1990s, new configurations of actors, new skills, strategies and approaches to managing risk emerged in property development and housebuilding. There were at least two ways in which housebuilders could have responded to the requirements of developing long term mixed use high density projects on PDL. One way was to develop new products and to employ practices and combinations of practices involving phasing, a flexible approach to planning applications and innovative production methods. Alternatively, they could approach PDL development as a temporary turn of policy or view mixed use high density schemes as a niche market to be explored without drastically overhauling the business model of the entire firm. These transformations of the UK housebuilding sector were unfolding during a long period of buoyancy in the housing market which came to an end in 2007. Very little is known both about how housebuilder strategies and production practices evolved during the boom years as well as about how these firms coped with the effects of the 2007 market downturn. The paper draws on published data (company annual reports, government statistics) and primary

  18. Development of a Hazard Classification Scheme for Substances Used in the Fraudulent Adulteration of Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everstine, Karen; Abt, Eileen; McColl, Diane; Popping, Bert; Morrison-Rowe, Sara; Lane, Richard W; Scimeca, Joseph; Winter, Carl; Ebert, Andrew; Moore, Jeffrey C; Chin, Henry B

    2018-01-01

    Food fraud, the intentional misrepresentation of the true identity of a food product or ingredient for economic gain, is a threat to consumer confidence and public health and has received increased attention from both regulators and the food industry. Following updates to food safety certification standards and publication of new U.S. regulatory requirements, we undertook a project to (i) develop a scheme to classify food fraud-related adulterants based on their potential health hazard and (ii) apply this scheme to the adulterants in a database of 2,970 food fraud records. The classification scheme was developed by a panel of experts in food safety and toxicology from the food industry, academia, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Categories and subcategories were created through an iterative process of proposal, review, and validation using a subset of substances known to be associated with the fraudulent adulteration of foods. Once developed, the scheme was applied to the adulterants in the database. The resulting scheme included three broad categories: 1, potentially hazardous adulterants; 2, adulterants that are unlikely to be hazardous; and 3, unclassifiable adulterants. Categories 1 and 2 consisted of seven subcategories intended to further define the range of hazard potential for adulterants. Application of the scheme to the 1,294 adulterants in the database resulted in 45% of adulterants classified in category 1 (potentially hazardous). Twenty-seven percent of the 1,294 adulterants had a history of causing consumer illness or death, were associated with safety-related regulatory action, or were classified as allergens. These results reinforce the importance of including a consideration of food fraud-related adulterants in food safety systems. This classification scheme supports food fraud mitigation efforts and hazard identification as required in the U.S. Food Safety Modernization Act Preventive Controls Rules.

  19. Development of a control scheme of homodyne detection for extracting ponderomotive squeezing from a Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Shihori; Kawamura, Seiji; Sato, Shuichi; Somiya, Kentaro; Arai, Koji; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Sugamoto, Akio

    2006-01-01

    We developed a control scheme of homodyne detection. To operate the homodyne detector as easy as possible, a simple Michelson interferometer is used. Here a motivation that the control scheme of the homodyne detection is developed is for our future experiment of extracting the ponderomotively squeezed vacuum fluctuations. To obtain the best signalto- noise ratio using the homodyne detection, the homodyne phase should be optimized. The optimization of the homodyne phase is performed by changing a phase of a local oscillator for the homodyne detection from a point at which a signal is maximized. In fact, in this experiment, using the developed control scheme, we locked the Michelson interferometer with the homodyne detector and changed the phase of the local oscillator for the homodyne detection. Then, we measured signals quantity changed by changing the phase of the local oscillator for the homodyne detection. Here we used the output from the homodyne detection as the signal

  20. Development of a sustainability reporting scheme for biofuels: A UK case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, Jessica; Archer, Greg

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the UK launched the first regulatory sustainability reporting scheme for biofuels. The development of the scheme, managed by the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership for the Department for Transport, involved extensive stakeholder engagement. The scheme has significantly increased understanding by policy-makers, the biofuels industry and its supply chains on how to monitor and manage the sustainability risks of biofuels and increase their greenhouse-gas benefits. It is providing a practical model for similar developments globally. To receive certificates in order to meet volume obligations under the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), suppliers must provide a monthly carbon and sustainability report on individual batches of renewable fuels they supply into the UK. The Renewable Fuels Agency produces aggregate monthly reports of overall performance and quarterly updates of individual supplier performance. This scheme is an important first step to assist the biofuels industry to demonstrate its environmental credentials and justify the subsidies received. The paper provides a case study of the development of the scheme, its initial outcomes and outstanding challenges.

  1. Development of linear sensitivity matrix method for fast evaluation of CANDU refuelling schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wencong; Liu Yuxuan; Zhang Shaohong; Feng Jinjun; Wang Jun; Fan Shen

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop a numerical tool for the fast evaluation of CANDU refuelling schemes, a Linear Sensitivity Matrix method (LSM) is developed. It assumes that all the effects caused by various perturbations to the core state are independent to each other and the core response to a perturbation is proportional to its magnitude. In this way, the main core parameters of a refuelling scheme can be derived by simple algebraic operations with the use of pre-calculated sensitivity matrices, without resorting to the complicated and time-consuming 3D core calculation. Verification against the Qinshan CANDU reactor operation history demonstrates that LSM is capable of generating accurate results and running very fast for evaluating a refuelling scheme. (authors)

  2. Rate of torque and electromyographic development during anticipated eccentric contraction is lower in previously strained hamstrings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Timmins, Ryan G; Dear, Nuala M; Shield, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The effect of prior strain injury on myoelectrical activity of the hamstrings during tasks requiring high rates of torque development has received little attention. To determine if recreational athletes with a history of unilateral hamstring strain injury will exhibit lower levels of myoelectrical activity during eccentric contraction, rate of torque development (RTD), and impulse (IMP) at 30, 50, and 100 milliseconds after the onset of myoelectrical activity or torque development in the previously injured limb compared with the uninjured limb. Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-six recreational athletes were recruited. Of these, 13 athletes had a history of unilateral hamstring strain injury (all confined to biceps femoris long head), and 13 had no history of hamstring strain injury. Following familiarization, all athletes undertook isokinetic dynamometry testing and surface electromyography (integrated EMG; iEMG) assessment of the biceps femoris long head and medial hamstrings during eccentric contractions at -60 and -180 deg·s(-1). In the injured limb of the injured group, compared with the contralateral uninjured limb, RTD and IMP was lower during -60 deg·s(-1) eccentric contractions at 50 milliseconds (RTD: injured limb, 312.27 ± 191.78 N·m·s(-1) vs uninjured limb, 518.54 ± 172.81 N·m·s(-1), P = .008; IMP: injured limb, 0.73 ± 0.30 N·m·s vs uninjured limb, 0.97 ± 0.23 N·m·s, P = .005) and 100 milliseconds (RTD: injured limb, 280.03 ± 131.42 N·m·s(-1) vs uninjured limb, 460.54 ± 152.94 N·m·s(-1), P = .001; IMP: injured limb, 2.15 ± 0.89 N·m·s vs uninjured limb, 3.07 ± 0.63 N·m·s, P contraction. Biceps femoris long head muscle activation was lower at 100 milliseconds at both contraction speeds (-60 deg·s(-1), normalized iEMG activity [×1000]: injured limb, 26.25 ± 10.11 vs uninjured limb, 33.57 ± 8.29, P = .009; -180 deg·s(-1), normalized iEMG activity [×1000]: injured limb, 31.16 ± 10.01 vs uninjured limb, 39.64

  3. Developing and supporting coordinators of structured mentoring schemes in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Abbott

    2010-10-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this research is to discover what the characteristics of coordinators of structured mentoring schemes in South Africa are, what is required of such coordinators and how they feel about their role, with a view to improving development and support for them. Motivation for the study: The limited amount of information about role requirements for coordinators which is available in the literature is not based on empirical research. This study aims to supply the empirical basis for improved development and support for coordinators. Research design and method: A purposive sample of 25 schemes was identified and both quantitative and qualitative data, obtained through questionnaires and interviews, were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Main findings: Functions of coordinators tend to be similar across different types of mentoring schemes. A passion for mentoring is important, as the role involves many frustrations. There is little formalised development and support for coordinators. Practical/managerial implications: The study clarifies the functions of the coordinator, offers a job description and profile and makes suggestions on how to improve the development of the coordinator’s skills. Contribution/value-add: An understanding of what is required from a coordinator, how the necessary knowledge and skills can be developed and how the coordinator can be supported,adds value to an organisation setting up or reviewing its structured mentoring schemes.

  4. Cures for the shock instability: Development of a shock-stable Roe scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S S; Rho, O H; Kyu-Hong, S

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of an improved Roe scheme that is free from the shock instability and still preserves the accuracy and efficiency of the original Roe's Flux Difference Splitting (FDS). Roe's FDS is known to possess good accuracy but to suffer from the shock instability, such as the carbuncle phenomenon. As the first step towards a shock-stable scheme, Roe's FDS is compared with the HLLE scheme to identify the source of the shock instability. Through a linear perturbation analysis on the odd-even decoupling problem, damping characteristic is examined and Mach number-based functions f and g are introduced to balance damping and feeding rates, which leads to a shock-stable Roe scheme. In order to satisfy the conservation of total enthalpy, which is crucial in predicting surface heat transfer rate in high-speed steady flows, an analysis of dissipation mechanism in the energy equation is carried out to find out the error source and to make the proposed scheme preserve total enthalpy. By modif...

  5. Development of a moisture scheme for the explicit numerical simulation of moist convection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bopape, Mary-Jane M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available . The aim of this study is to add a moisture scheme to the NSM. As a first step a simple model that is equivalent to the first pressure-coordinate nonhydrostatic model used to simulate cumulonimbus clouds in 1974 is developed. The equation set that includes...

  6. Next Generations, Catwalks, Random Walks and Arms Races: Conceptualising the Development of Quality Assurance Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerheijden, Don F.; Stensaker, Bjørn; Rosa, Maria J.; Corbett, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and development of quality assurance schemes in European countries over the last 15-20 years has inspired many national case studies of the systems and procedures adopted. The methods, contexts, and procedures associated with this policy change are diverse. But although individual countries have set about changing policy in different…

  7. Development of the Teacher Feedback Observation Scheme: evaluating the quality of feedback in peer groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Kreijns, Karel; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that feedback is an essential element in learning. This study focuses on feedback that teachers provide in reciprocal peer groups to improve their performance in the classroom. The Teacher Feedback Observation Scheme (TFOS) was developed to identify feedback patterns, which

  8. Patterns of Learning in the Accountancy Profession under an Output-Based Continuing Professional Development Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004, professional accountancy bodies in membership of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) have been required to adopt mandatory continuing professional development (CPD) schemes. This research explores the learning activities of members of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW) which introduced an…

  9. Developing a Coding Scheme to Analyse Creativity in Highly-constrained Design Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dekoninck, Elies; Yue, Huang; Howard, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a larger project which aims to investigate the nature of creativity and the effectiveness of creativity tools in highly-constrained design tasks. This paper presents the research where a coding scheme was developed and tested with a designer-researcher who conducted two rounds...... of design and analysis on a highly constrained design task. This paper shows how design changes can be coded using a scheme based on creative ‘modes of change’. The coding scheme can show the way a designer moves around the design space, and particularly the strategies that are used by a creative designer...... larger study with more designers working on different types of highly-constrained design task is needed, in order to draw conclusions on the modes of change and their relationship to creativity....

  10. A new tailored scheme for the support of renewable energies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moner-Girona, Magda

    2009-01-01

    Historically the promotion of renewable energy technologies in isolated areas has involved international donors or governments subsidising the initial capital investment. This paper proposes an alternative support mechanism for remote villages based on the generation of renewable electricity. This communication presents an evaluation of the Renewable Energy Premium Tariff (RPT) scheme, a locally adapted variation of the Feed-in Tariff tailored for decentralised grids of developing countries. The RPT scheme stimulates the deployment of renewable energy technologies by paying for renewable electricity generated. A good-quality performance is secured since the support is given based on the electricity produced by renewables, not for the initial capital investment. The mechanism has been designed to provide a cost-effective scheme for the introduction of renewable energy technologies to remote villages, to provide sustainable and affordable electricity to local users, to make renewable energy projects attractive to policy-makers, and concurrently decrease financial risk to attract private sector investment.

  11. Developing a contributing factor classification scheme for Rasmussen's AcciMap: Reliability and validity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, N; Salmon, P M; Taylor, N Z; Lenné, M G; Finch, C F

    2017-10-01

    One factor potentially limiting the uptake of Rasmussen's (1997) Accimap method by practitioners is the lack of a contributing factor classification scheme to guide accident analyses. This article evaluates the intra- and inter-rater reliability and criterion-referenced validity of a classification scheme developed to support the use of Accimap by led outdoor activity (LOA) practitioners. The classification scheme has two levels: the system level describes the actors, artefacts and activity context in terms of 14 codes; the descriptor level breaks the system level codes down into 107 specific contributing factors. The study involved 11 LOA practitioners using the scheme on two separate occasions to code a pre-determined list of contributing factors identified from four incident reports. Criterion-referenced validity was assessed by comparing the codes selected by LOA practitioners to those selected by the method creators. Mean intra-rater reliability scores at the system (M = 83.6%) and descriptor (M = 74%) levels were acceptable. Mean inter-rater reliability scores were not consistently acceptable for both coding attempts at the system level (M T1  = 68.8%; M T2  = 73.9%), and were poor at the descriptor level (M T1  = 58.5%; M T2  = 64.1%). Mean criterion referenced validity scores at the system level were acceptable (M T1  = 73.9%; M T2  = 75.3%). However, they were not consistently acceptable at the descriptor level (M T1  = 67.6%; M T2  = 70.8%). Overall, the results indicate that the classification scheme does not currently satisfy reliability and validity requirements, and that further work is required. The implications for the design and development of contributing factors classification schemes are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of previous exhaustive exercise on metabolism and fatigue development during intense exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Perez-Gomez, J.; Nordsborg, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how metabolic response and work capacity are affected by previous exhaustive exercise. Seven subjects performed an exhaustive cycle exercise ( approximately 130%-max; EX2) after warm-up (CON) and 2 min after an exhaustive bout at a very high (VH; approximately 30 s), high...... during a repeated high-intensity exercise lasting 1/2-2 min....

  13. Continuous development of schemes for parallel computing of the electrostatics in biological systems: implementation in DelPhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Petukh, Marharyta; Li, Lin; Alexov, Emil

    2013-08-15

    Due to the enormous importance of electrostatics in molecular biology, calculating the electrostatic potential and corresponding energies has become a standard computational approach for the study of biomolecules and nano-objects immersed in water and salt phase or other media. However, the electrostatics of large macromolecules and macromolecular complexes, including nano-objects, may not be obtainable via explicit methods and even the standard continuum electrostatics methods may not be applicable due to high computational time and memory requirements. Here, we report further development of the parallelization scheme reported in our previous work (Li, et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2012, 33, 1960) to include parallelization of the molecular surface and energy calculations components of the algorithm. The parallelization scheme utilizes different approaches such as space domain parallelization, algorithmic parallelization, multithreading, and task scheduling, depending on the quantity being calculated. This allows for efficient use of the computing resources of the corresponding computer cluster. The parallelization scheme is implemented in the popular software DelPhi and results in speedup of several folds. As a demonstration of the efficiency and capability of this methodology, the electrostatic potential, and electric field distributions are calculated for the bovine mitochondrial supercomplex illustrating their complex topology, which cannot be obtained by modeling the supercomplex components alone. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Development of explicit solution scheme for the MATRA-LMR code and test calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, H. Y.; Ha, K. S.; Chang, W. P.; Kwon, Y. M.; Jeong, K. S

    2003-01-01

    The local blockage in a subassembly of a liquid metal reactor is of particular importance because local sodium boiling could occur at the downstream of the blockage and integrity of the fuel clad could be threatened. The explicit solution scheme of MATRA-LMR code is developed to analyze the flow blockage in a subassembly of a liquid metal cooled reactor. In the present study, the capability of the code is extended to the analysis of complete blockage of one or more subchannels. The results of the developed solution scheme shows very good agreement with the results obtained from the implicit scheme for the experiments of flow channel without any blockage. The applicability of the code is also evaluated for two typical experiments in a blocked channel. Through the sensitivity study, it is shown that the explicit scheme of MATRA-LMR predicts the flow and temperature profile after blockage reasonably if the effect of wire is suitably modeled. The simple assumption in wire-forcing function is effective for the un-blocked case or for the case of blockage with lower velocity. A different type of wire-forcing function describing the velocity reduction after blockage or an accurate distributed resistance model is required for more improved predictions.

  15. Exergame Grading Scheme: Concept Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluations in Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of using exergames to promote physical activity among cancer survivors lies in the selection of the exergames that match their fitness level. There is a need for a standardized grading scheme by which to judge an exergame’s capacity to address specific physical fitness attributes with different levels of physical engagement. The study aimed to develop an Exergame Grading Scheme and preliminarily evaluate its psychometric properties. Fourteen (14 items were created from the human movement and exergame literature. The content validity index (CVI was rated by content experts with two consecutive rounds (N=5 and N=3 independently. The interrater reliability (IRR was determined by two raters who used the Exergame Grading Scheme to determine the grading score of the five exergames performed by two cancer survivors (N=10. Each item had a score of 1 for item-level CVI and 1 for k. For IRR, 9 items had rho values of 1, 1 item had 0.93, and 4 items had between 0.80 and 0.89. This valid and reliable Exergame Grading Scheme makes it possible to develop a personalized physical activity program using any type of exergame or fitness mobile application in rehabilitation practice to meet the needs of cancer survivors.

  16. Formalization of hydrocarbon conversion scheme of catalytic cracking for mathematical model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, G.; Ivashkina, E.; Ivanchina, E.; Kiseleva, S.; Stebeneva, V.

    2015-11-01

    The issue of improving the energy and resource efficiency of advanced petroleum processing can be solved by the development of adequate mathematical model based on physical and chemical regularities of process reactions with a high predictive potential in the advanced petroleum refining. In this work, the development of formalized hydrocarbon conversion scheme of catalytic cracking was performed using thermodynamic parameters of reaction defined by the Density Functional Theory. The list of reaction was compiled according to the results of feedstock structural-group composition definition, which was done by the n-d-m-method, the Hazelvuda method, qualitative composition of feedstock defined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and individual composition of catalytic cracking gasoline fraction. Formalized hydrocarbon conversion scheme of catalytic cracking will become the basis for the development of the catalytic cracking kinetic model.

  17. Synchronous development of breast cancer and chest wall fibrosarcoma after previous mantle radiation for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlas, Michael; McCready, David; Kulkarni, Supriya; Dill-Macky, Marcus J.

    2005-01-01

    Survivors of Hodgkin's disease are at increased risk of developing a second malignant neoplasm, including breast carcinoma and sarcoma. We report the first case of synchronous development of chest wall fibrosarcoma and breast carcinoma after mantle radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. Mammographic, sonographic and MR features are demonstrated. (orig.)

  18. Aquatic environment as an occupational therapeutic scenario for the development of body scheme in Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Maria Veras Pôrto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of aquatic environment while an occupational therapeutic scenario in the development of body scheme of a child with Down Syndrome, considering the therapeutic properties of water. Description of the case: An interventionist research, with a qualitative and descriptive approach, conducted in an adapted pool of the Núcleo de Atenção Médica Integrada (NAMI of Fortaleza University (UNIFOR, Ceara, during the period of March to May, 2005. The subject of the study was a female child, aged 10 years old, diagnosed with Down Syndrome. Data collection had as instruments an interview guide for anamnesis, an evaluation form of psychomotor development, besides a field diary to record clinical observations during the sessions. This information was organized and analyzed based on clinical reasoning of occupational therapists and then described as a case study. We observed an evolution in the development of skills related to body scheme, such as the perception of fine parts of her own body, as well as large parts in someone else’s body, the imitation of positions, finishing with more active participation in activities of daily living. Final Considerations: We verified the effectiveness of occupational therapeutic activities conducted in aquatic environment for the development of the body scheme of the child in the study. This may be useful for conducting further research on the subject – whose literature is scarce – and contributing to the crescent update of occupational therapy practices.

  19. Development of a moisture scheme for the explicit numerical simulation of moist convection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bopape, Mary-Jane M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available .kashan.co.za] Development of a moisture scheme for the explicit numerical simulation of moist convection M BOPAPE, F ENGELBRECHT, D RANDALL AND W LANDMAN CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa Email: mbopape... sigma coordinate model that incorporates moisture effects, so that it can simulate convective clouds and precipitation. moisture terms equivalent to those of the miller and pearce (1974) model are incorporated in the equation set used: ; (1) ; (2...

  20. Development and application of a third order scheme of finite differences centered in mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfin L, A.; Alonso V, G.; Valle G, E. del

    2003-01-01

    In this work the development of a third order scheme of finite differences centered in mesh is presented and it is applied in the numerical solution of those diffusion equations in multi groups in stationary state and X Y geometry. Originally this scheme was developed by Hennart and del Valle for the monoenergetic diffusion equation with a well-known source and they show that the one scheme is of third order when comparing the numerical solution with the analytical solution of a model problem using several mesh refinements and boundary conditions. The scheme by them developed it also introduces the application of numeric quadratures to evaluate the rigidity matrices and of mass that its appear when making use of the finite elements method of Galerkin. One of the used quadratures is the open quadrature of 4 points, no-standard, of Newton-Cotes to evaluate in approximate form the elements of the rigidity matrices. The other quadrature is that of 3 points of Radau that it is used to evaluate the elements of all the mass matrices. One of the objectives of these quadratures are to eliminate the couplings among the Legendre moments 0 and 1 associated to the left and right faces as those associated to the inferior and superior faces of each cell of the discretization. The other objective is to satisfy the particles balance in weighed form in each cell. In this work it expands such development to multiplicative means considering several energy groups. There are described diverse details inherent to the technique, particularly those that refer to the simplification of the algebraic systems that appear due to the space discretization. Numerical results for several test problems are presented and are compared with those obtained with other nodal techniques. (Author)

  1. Tradable schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Hoogland (Jiri); C.D.D. Neumann

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we present a new approach to the numerical valuation of derivative securities. The method is based on our previous work where we formulated the theory of pricing in terms of tradables. The basic idea is to fit a finite difference scheme to exact solutions of the pricing

  2. Macro-level integrated renewable energy production schemes for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhadra, Bobban G.

    2011-01-01

    The production of renewable clean energy is a prime necessity for the sustainable future existence of our planet. However, because of the resource-intensive nature, and other challenges associated with these new generation renewable energy sources, novel industrial frameworks need to be co-developed. Integrated renewable energy production schemes with foundations on resource sharing, carbon neutrality, energy-efficient design, source reduction, green processing plan, anthropogenic use of waste resources for the production green energy along with the production of raw material for allied food and chemical industries is imperative for the sustainable development of this sector especially in an emission-constrained future industrial scenario. To attain these objectives, the scope of hybrid renewable production systems and integrated renewable energy industrial ecology is briefly described. Further, the principles of Integrated Renewable Energy Park (IREP) approach, an example for macro-level energy production, and its benefits and global applications are also explored. - Research highlights: → Discusses the need for macro-level renewable energy production schemes. → Scope of hybrid and integrated industrial ecology for renewable energy production. → Integrated Renewable Energy Parks (IREPs): A macro-level energy production scheme. → Discusses the principle foundations and global applications of IREPs. → Describes the significance of IREPs in the carbon-neutral future business arena.

  3. Prostatic pathology reporting in the UK: development of a national external quality assurance scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnden, P; Coleman, D; Moss, S; Kodikara, S; Patnick, J; Melia, J

    2008-01-01

    To develop a baseline picture of prostatic pathology reporting in the UK, identify areas of particular difficulty and assess the feasibility of a national external quality assurance scheme based on prostatic biopsy specimens using the same format as the National Health Service breast pathology scheme, as recommended by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Eight expert uropathologists and 32 randomly selected pathologists participated in four circulations each of 12 cases of prostatic biopsy specimens. A fixed text proforma was developed and responses were analysed for interobserver agreement using kappa statistics. Consistency of reporting the main diagnostic categories of benign and invasive carcinoma was good (kappa values 0.77 and 0.88, respectively), but only after excluding 19% of cases for which the experts did not reach 75% agreement. Areas of difficulty included the diagnosis of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and small foci of cancer. Prognostic factor reporting was more variable, with lower overall kappas for the assessment of Gleason grading (experts 0.55, others 0.50), perineural invasion (experts 0.64, others 0.50) and number of positive cores (experts 0.74, others 0.61). Given the difficulties in diagnosis of prostatic biopsy specimens and the assessment of prognostic factors, the expansion of the scheme could deliver important educational benefits.

  4. Evaluation and Development of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Reduction Scheme for Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel Surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Hiew Mun; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the existing chemical kinetic mechanism reduction techniques. From here, an appropriate reduction scheme was developed to create compact yet comprehensive surrogate models for both diesel and biodiesel fuels for diesel engine applications. The reduction......-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study. A new reduction scheme was therefore formulated. A 68-species mechanism for biodiesel surrogate and a 49-species mechanism for diesel surrogate were successfully derived from the respective detailed mechanisms. An overall 97% reduction in species number......-hexadecane mechanism is expected to be a better representative of surrogate component for various transportation fuels such as biodiesel. Additionally, it can be applied to predict the reactivity of other n-alkane or interchange with one another for kinetic and CFD simulations....

  5. Development of efficient GPU parallelization of WRF Yonsei University planetary boundary layer scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The planetary boundary layer (PBL is the lowest part of the atmosphere and where its character is directly affected by its contact with the underlying planetary surface. The PBL is responsible for vertical sub-grid-scale fluxes due to eddy transport in the whole atmospheric column. It determines the flux profiles within the well-mixed boundary layer and the more stable layer above. It thus provides an evolutionary model of atmospheric temperature, moisture (including clouds, and horizontal momentum in the entire atmospheric column. For such purposes, several PBL models have been proposed and employed in the weather research and forecasting (WRF model of which the Yonsei University (YSU scheme is one. To expedite weather research and prediction, we have put tremendous effort into developing an accelerated implementation of the entire WRF model using graphics processing unit (GPU massive parallel computing architecture whilst maintaining its accuracy as compared to its central processing unit (CPU-based implementation. This paper presents our efficient GPU-based design on a WRF YSU PBL scheme. Using one NVIDIA Tesla K40 GPU, the GPU-based YSU PBL scheme achieves a speedup of 193× with respect to its CPU counterpart running on one CPU core, whereas the speedup for one CPU socket (4 cores with respect to 1 CPU core is only 3.5×. We can even boost the speedup to 360× with respect to 1 CPU core as two K40 GPUs are applied.

  6. Stream nitrogen sources apportionment and pollution control scheme development in an agricultural watershed in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dingjiang; Lu, Jun; Huang, Hong; Liu, Mei; Gong, Dongqin; Chen, Jiabo

    2013-08-01

    A modeling system that couples a land-usebased export coefficient model, a stream nutrient transport equation, and Bayesian statistics was developed for stream nitrogen source apportionment. It divides a watershed into several sub-catchments, and then considers the major landuse categories as stream nitrogen sources in each subcatchment. The runoff depth and stream water depth are considered as the major factors influencing delivery of nitrogen from land to downstream stream node within each sub-catchment. The nitrogen sources and delivery processes are lumped into several constant parameters that were calibrated using Bayesian statistics from commonly available stream monitoring and land-use datasets. This modeling system was successfully applied to total nitrogen (TN) pollution control scheme development for the ChangLe River watershed containing six sub-catchments and four land-use categories. The temporal (across months and years) and spatial (across sub-catchments and land-use categories) variability of nonpoint source (NPS) TN export to stream channels and delivery to the watershed outlet were assessed. After adjustment for in-stream TNretention, the time periods and watershed areas with disproportionately high-TN contributions to the stream were identified. Aimed at a target stream TN level of 2 mg L-1, a quantitative TN pollution control scheme was further developed to determine which sub-catchments, which land-use categories in a sub-catchment, which time periods, and how large of NPS TN export reduction were required. This modeling system provides a powerful tool for stream nitrogen source apportionment and pollution control scheme development at the watershed scale and has only limited data requirements.

  7. methanization development scheme in the Maine-et-Loire district - Synthesis June 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    After a presentation of the situation of methanization in France and in the Pays-de-la-Loire region, this report proposes an overview of the situation of methanization in the district and recalls objectives defined in its methanization development scheme. Then, it describes methanization principles (definition, operation and techniques, project typology, project development steps), proposes an overview of conditions for a successful methanization project development (substrate typology, biogas energetic valorisation, digestate valorisation, project financial and economic impact, social acceptability of methanization projects), gives an assessment of methanization development potential in the district through an assessment of methanizable resources and of energy outlets. It presents and comments a map of methanization development opportunities in the district

  8. Development scheme for the public electricity transport network - 2006-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    After having discussed the role of the development scheme and its mains requirements, presented its important components (energy needs, energy transport needs), and described its elaboration mode, this report gives an overview of the present status of the electricity transport network in France: 400.000 volts transport and interconnection networks, 225.000 volts and high voltage networks, development objectives, development context, transport network characteristics in 2006 (country gridding, development dynamics and consumption growth). Then, it presents a set of hypotheses about consumption, production and European exchanges. It identifies different types of constraints (customer connection, supply safety, electric and economic performance, robustness against extreme climate phenomena) and presents a method to assess these constraints (simulation of situations at risk, supply quality analysis, works expertise). The last part present the middle- and long-term constraints for the network

  9. Impact of integrated child development scheme on child malnutrition in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arijita; Ghosh, Smritikana

    2017-10-01

    With child malnutrition detected as a persistent problem in most of the developing countries, public policy has been directed towards offering community-based supplementary feeding provision and nutritional information to caregivers. India, being no exception, has initiated these programs as early as 1970s under integrated child development scheme. Using propensity score matching technique on primary data of 390 households in two districts of West Bengal, an Eastern state in India, the study finds that impact of being included in the program and receiving supplementary feeding is insignificant on child stunting measures, though the program can break the intractable barriers of child stunting only when the child successfully receives not only just the supplementary feeding but also his caregiver collects crucial information on nutritional awareness and growth trajectory of the child. Availability of regular eggs in the feeding diet too can reduce protein-related undernutrition. Focusing on just feeding means low depth of other services offered under integrated child development scheme, including pre-school education, nutritional awareness, and hygiene behavior; thus repealing a part of the apparent food-secure population who puts far more importance on the latter services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Development and evaluation of a multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Mycoplasma synoviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, R; Feberwee, A; Landman, W J M

    2016-08-01

    Reproducible molecular Mycoplasma synoviae typing techniques with sufficient discriminatory power may help to expand knowledge on its epidemiology and contribute to the improvement of control and eradication programmes of this mycoplasma species. The present study describes the development and validation of a novel multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for M. synoviae. Thirteen M. synoviae isolates originating from different poultry categories, farms and lesions, were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Their sequences were compared to that of M. synoviae reference strain MS53. A high number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indicating considerable genetic diversity were identified. SNPs were present in over 40 putative target genes for MLST of which five target genes were selected (nanA, uvrA, lepA, ruvB and ugpA) for the MLST scheme. This scheme was evaluated analysing 209 M. synoviae samples from different countries, categories of poultry, farms and lesions. Eleven clonal clusters and 76 different sequence types (STs) were obtained. Clustering occurred following geographical origin, supporting the hypothesis of regional population evolution. M. synoviae samples obtained from epidemiologically linked outbreaks often harboured the same ST. In contrast, multiple M. synoviae lineages were found in samples originating from swollen joints or oviducts from hens that produce eggs with eggshell apex abnormalities indicating that further research is needed to identify the genetic factors of M. synoviae that may explain its variations in tissue tropism and disease inducing potential. Furthermore, MLST proved to have a higher discriminatory power compared to variable lipoprotein and haemagglutinin A typing, which generated 50 different genotypes on the same database.

  11. A new approach to develop computer-aided detection schemes of digital mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Maxine; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin; Qian, Wei; Pu, Jiantao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a new global mammographic image feature analysis based computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme and evaluate its performance in detecting positive screening mammography examinations. A dataset that includes images acquired from 1896 full-field digital mammography (FFDM) screening examinations was used in this study. Among them, 812 cases were positive for cancer and 1084 were negative or benign. After segmenting the breast area, a computerized scheme was applied to compute 92 global mammographic tissue density based features on each of four mammograms of the craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. After adding three existing popular risk factors (woman’s age, subjectively rated mammographic density, and family breast cancer history) into the initial feature pool, we applied a sequential forward floating selection feature selection algorithm to select relevant features from the bilateral CC and MLO view images separately. The selected CC and MLO view image features were used to train two artificial neural networks (ANNs). The results were then fused by a third ANN to build a two-stage classifier to predict the likelihood of the FFDM screening examination being positive. CAD performance was tested using a ten-fold cross-validation method. The computed area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was AUC = 0.779   ±   0.025 and the odds ratio monotonically increased from 1 to 31.55 as CAD-generated detection scores increased. The study demonstrated that this new global image feature based CAD scheme had a relatively higher discriminatory power to cue the FFDM examinations with high risk of being positive, which may provide a new CAD-cueing method to assist radiologists in reading and interpreting screening mammograms. (paper)

  12. Development and evaluation of a building energy model integrated in the TEB scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bueno

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of air-conditioning systems is expected to increase as a consequence of global-scale and urban-scale climate warming. In order to represent future scenarios of urban climate and building energy consumption, the Town Energy Balance (TEB scheme must be improved. This paper presents a new building energy model (BEM that has been integrated in the TEB scheme. BEM-TEB makes it possible to represent the energy effects of buildings and building systems on the urban climate and to estimate the building energy consumption at city scale (~10 km with a resolution of a neighbourhood (~100 m. The physical and geometric definition of buildings in BEM has been intentionally kept as simple as possible, while maintaining the required features of a comprehensive building energy model. The model considers a single thermal zone, where the thermal inertia of building materials associated with multiple levels is represented by a generic thermal mass. The model accounts for heat gains due to transmitted solar radiation, heat conduction through the enclosure, infiltration, ventilation, and internal heat gains. BEM allows for previously unavailable sophistication in the modelling of air-conditioning systems. It accounts for the dependence of the system capacity and efficiency on indoor and outdoor air temperatures and solves the dehumidification of the air passing through the system. Furthermore, BEM includes specific models for passive systems, such as window shadowing devices and natural ventilation. BEM has satisfactorily passed different evaluation processes, including testing its modelling assumptions, verifying that the chosen equations are solved correctly, and validating the model with field data.

  13. Development and evaluation of a building energy model integrated in the TEB scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, B.; Pigeon, G.; Norford, L. K.; Zibouche, K.; Marchadier, C.

    2012-03-01

    The use of air-conditioning systems is expected to increase as a consequence of global-scale and urban-scale climate warming. In order to represent future scenarios of urban climate and building energy consumption, the Town Energy Balance (TEB) scheme must be improved. This paper presents a new building energy model (BEM) that has been integrated in the TEB scheme. BEM-TEB makes it possible to represent the energy effects of buildings and building systems on the urban climate and to estimate the building energy consumption at city scale (~10 km) with a resolution of a neighbourhood (~100 m). The physical and geometric definition of buildings in BEM has been intentionally kept as simple as possible, while maintaining the required features of a comprehensive building energy model. The model considers a single thermal zone, where the thermal inertia of building materials associated with multiple levels is represented by a generic thermal mass. The model accounts for heat gains due to transmitted solar radiation, heat conduction through the enclosure, infiltration, ventilation, and internal heat gains. BEM allows for previously unavailable sophistication in the modelling of air-conditioning systems. It accounts for the dependence of the system capacity and efficiency on indoor and outdoor air temperatures and solves the dehumidification of the air passing through the system. Furthermore, BEM includes specific models for passive systems, such as window shadowing devices and natural ventilation. BEM has satisfactorily passed different evaluation processes, including testing its modelling assumptions, verifying that the chosen equations are solved correctly, and validating the model with field data.

  14. The effect of the signalling scheme on the robustness of pattern formation in development

    KAUST Repository

    Kang, H.-W.

    2012-03-21

    Pattern formation in development is a complex process which involves spatially distributed signals called morphogens that influence gene expression and thus the phenotypic identity of cells. Usually different cell types are spatially segregated, and the boundary between them may be determined by a threshold value of some state variable. The question arises as to how sensitive the location of such a boundary is to variations in properties, such as parameter values, that characterize the system. Here, we analyse both deterministic and stochastic reaction-diffusion models of pattern formation with a view towards understanding how the signalling scheme used for patterning affects the variability of boundary determination between cell types in a developing tissue.

  15. Development of a technical scheme for the management of chemical dangerous substances in hospitable environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja Amador, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical substances that are used in the hospitals, and their remainders, represent risks for the environment, the health and security of those who work in these establishments, and of the civil population. The deficiency of a norm that establishes the directives for the handling responsible for such products in the hospitals that our country has motivated the elaboration of a technical scheme that serves as it guides for the correct manipulation, storage and safe disposition of chemical substances in the twenty-nine hospitals of the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, establishing Procedures of Standard Operation for its management. To development of the guideline proposal it took a sample of hospitals that includes three levels of comple complexity: national, regional and peripheral. Applying a methodology of evaluation of risks two factors of risk of hospitable were determined, the zones and the population but affected by the existence of chemical substances, which allowed to identify some operative deficiencies in the product handling diverse. The qualitative analysis of the results lead to the elaboration of a technical scheme that includes an instrument for the identification of risks, guideline for the management responsible for hospitable chemical substances, a friendly tool computations like complementary source of intelligence and the proposal of a governing group in charge of the monitoring of the fulfillment of these lineament. (Author) [es

  16. Review of the Umthombo Youth Development Foundation scholarship scheme, 1999–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Gavin; Campbell, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Staffing of rural and remote facilities is a challenge throughout the world. Umthombo Youth Development Foundation (UYDF) has been running a rurally based scholarship scheme since 1999. The aim of this review is to present data on the number of students selected, their progress, graduation and work placement from inception of the scheme until 2013. Methods Data were extracted from the UYDF data base using a data collection template to ensure all important information was captured. Results Since 1999, 430 rural students across 15 health disciplines have been supported by UYDF. The annual pass rate has been greater than 89%, and less than 10% of students have been excluded from university. All graduates have spent time working in rural areas (excluding the 32 currently doing internships) and 72% (52/73) of those with no work-back obligation continue to work in rural areas. Discussion and conclusion The UYDF model is built around local selection, compulsory academic and peer mentoring and social support, comprehensive financial support and experiential holiday work. The results are encouraging and highlight the fact that rural students can succeed at university and will come back and work in rural areas. With 46% of the South African population situated rurally, greater thought and effort must be put into the recruitment and training of rural scholars as a possible solution to the staffing of rural healthcare facilities. The UYDF provides a model which could be replicated in other parts of South Africa. PMID:26245594

  17. Laser resonance ionization scheme development for tellurium and germanium at the dual Ti:Sa–Dye ISOLDE RILIS

    CERN Document Server

    Day Goodacre, T.; Fedosseev, V.N.; Forster, L.; Marsh, B.A.; Rossel, R.E.; Rothe, S.; Veinhard, M.

    2016-01-01

    The resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) is the principal ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive beam facility based at CERN. Using the method of in-source laser resonance ionization spectroscopy, a transition to a new autoionizing state of tellurium was discovered and applied as part of a three-step, three-resonance, photo-ionization scheme. In a second study, a three-step, two-resonance, photo-ionization scheme for germanium was developed and the ionization efficiency was measured at ISOLDE. This work increases the range of ISOLDE RILIS ionized beams to 31 elements. Details of the spectroscopy studies are described and the new ionization schemes are summarized.

  18. Developing a methodology for the inverse estimation of root architectural parameters from field based sampling schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandage, Shehan; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan; Javaux, Mathieu; Leitner, Daniel; Laloy, Eric; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    Root traits are increasingly important in breading of new crop varieties. E.g., longer and fewer lateral roots are suggested to improve drought resistance of wheat. Thus, detailed root architectural parameters are important. However, classical field sampling of roots only provides more aggregated information such as root length density (coring), root counts per area (trenches) or root arrival curves at certain depths (rhizotubes). We investigate the possibility of obtaining the information about root system architecture of plants using field based classical root sampling schemes, based on sensitivity analysis and inverse parameter estimation. This methodology was developed based on a virtual experiment where a root architectural model was used to simulate root system development in a field, parameterized for winter wheat. This information provided the ground truth which is normally unknown in a real field experiment. The three sampling schemes coring, trenching, and rhizotubes where virtually applied to and aggregated information computed. Morris OAT global sensitivity analysis method was then performed to determine the most sensitive parameters of root architecture model for the three different sampling methods. The estimated means and the standard deviation of elementary effects of a total number of 37 parameters were evaluated. Upper and lower bounds of the parameters were obtained based on literature and published data of winter wheat root architectural parameters. Root length density profiles of coring, arrival curve characteristics observed in rhizotubes, and root counts in grids of trench profile method were evaluated statistically to investigate the influence of each parameter using five different error functions. Number of branches, insertion angle inter-nodal distance, and elongation rates are the most sensitive parameters and the parameter sensitivity varies slightly with the depth. Most parameters and their interaction with the other parameters show

  19. Genomic Characterization of Flavobacterium psychrophilum Serotypes and Development of a Multiplex PCR-Based Serotyping Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rochat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a devastating bacterial pathogen of salmonids reared in freshwater worldwide. So far, serological diversity between isolates has been described but the underlying molecular factors remain unknown. By combining complete genome sequence analysis and the serotyping method proposed by Lorenzen and Olesen (1997 for a set of 34 strains, we identified key molecular determinants of the serotypes. This knowledge allowed us to develop a robust multiplex PCR-based serotyping scheme, which was applied to 244 bacterial isolates. The results revealed a striking association between PCR-serotype and fish host species and illustrate the use of this approach as a simple and cost-effective method for the determination of F. psychrophilum serogroups. PCR-based serotyping could be a useful tool in a range of applications such as disease surveillance, selection of salmonids for bacterial coldwater disease resistance and future vaccine formulation.

  20. Break-through of Mass Integration in Textile Industry through Development of Generic Water Recycle Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    processing is one of the largest and oldest industries world-wide and responsible for a substantial resource consumption and pollution. Especially the wet processing part of the industry, i.e. pre-treatment, dyeing, printing and finishing, is polluting and resource consuming in terms of both water, energy......As a result of a long term South African – Danish research co-operation on Cleaner Production in textile industry, a number of generic and widely applicable water recycle schemes for textile wet processing has been developed, and the first break-through of water recycling has been achieved. Textile...... and chemicals. It entails a vast variety of water consuming processes, and like in most industries, fresh water is used in all processes with almost no exceptions. Between researchers, it was known for many years that fresh water is not needed by all processes taking place in textile wet treatment. But sound...

  1. Progress in the Development of J Estimation Schemes for the RSE-M Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Delliou, Patrick; Sermage, Jean-Philippe; Cambefort, Pierre; Barthelet, Bruno; Gilles, Philippe; Michel, Bruno

    2002-01-01

    The RSE-M Code provides rules and requirements for in-service inspection of French Pressurized Water Reactor power plant components. The Code gives non mandatory guidance for analytical evaluation of flaws. To calculate the stress intensity factors in pipes and shells containing semi-elliptical surface defects, influence coefficients are given for a wide range of geometrical parameters. To calculate the J integral for a circumferential surface crack in a straight pipe, simplified methods are available in the present version of the Code (2000 Addenda) for mechanical loads (in-plane bending and torsion moments, pressure), thermal loads as well as for the combination of these loads. This paper presents the recent advances in the development of J-estimation schemes for two configurations: a longitudinal surface crack in a straight pipe, a longitudinal surface crack in the mid-section of an elbow. (authors)

  2. Development of a signal-extraction scheme for resonant sideband extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokeyama, K; Kawazoe, F; Sugamoto, A; Somiya, K; Sato, S; Kawamura, S

    2008-01-01

    As a future plan, an advanced gravitational-wave detector will employ an optical configuration of resonant sideband extraction (RSE), achieved with an additional mirror at the signal-detection port of the power-recycled Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. To control the complex coupled cavity system, one of the most important design issues is how to extract the longitudinal control signals of the cavities. We have developed a new signal-extraction scheme which provides an appropriate sensing matrix. The new method uses two sets of sidebands: one of the sideband components satisfies the critical coupling condition for the RSE interferometer and reaches the signal-extraction port, and the other sideband is completely reflected by the Michelson interferometer. They provide a diagonalized sensing matrix and enable the RSE control to be robust

  3. An overview of J estimation schemes developed for the RSE-M code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delliou, Patrick Le; Sermage, Jean-Philippe; Barthelet, Bruno; Michel, Bruno; Gilles, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    The RSE-M Code provides rules and requirements for in-service inspection of French Pressurized Water Reactor power plant components. The RSE-M Code gives non mandatory guidance for analytical evaluation of flaws. To calculate the stress intensity factors in pipes and shells containing semi-elliptical surface defects, influence coefficients are given for a wide range of geometrical parameters. To calculate the J integral for surface cracks in pipes and elbows, simplified methods have been developed for mechanical loads (in-plane bending and torsion moments, pressure), thermal loads as well as for the combination of these loads. This paper presents an overview of the J-estimation schemes presently available: a circumferential surface crack in a straight pipe (already included in the 2000 Addenda of the Code), a circumferential surface crack in a tapered transition, a longitudinal surface crack in a straight pipe, a longitudinal surface crack in the mid-section of an elbow. (author)

  4. Analysis of Paper reduction schemes to develop selection criteria for ofdm signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of different PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) reduction schemes of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) signals. The schemes that have been considered include Clipping and Filtering, Coding, ACE (Active Contstellation Extension), SLM (Selected Mapping), PTS (Partial Transmit Sequence), TI (Tone Injection) and TR (Tone Reservation). A comparative analysis has been carried out qualitatively. It has been demonstrated how these schemes can be combined with MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technologies. Finally, criteria for selection of PAPR reduction schemes of OFDM systems are discussed. (author)

  5. Development of orthogonal 2-dimensional numerical code TFC2D for fluid flow with various turbulence models and numerical schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Yeop; In, Wang Kee; Chun, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    The development of orthogonal 2-dimensional numerical code is made. The present code contains 9 kinds of turbulence models that are widely used. They include a standard k-{epsilon} model and 8 kinds of low Reynolds number ones. They also include 6 kinds of numerical schemes including 5 kinds of low order schemes and 1 kind of high order scheme such as QUICK. To verify the present numerical code, pipe flow, channel flow and expansion pipe flow are solved by this code with various options of turbulence models and numerical schemes and the calculated outputs are compared to experimental data. Furthermore, the discretization error that originates from the use of standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model with wall function is much more diminished by introducing a new grid system than a conventional one in the present code. 23 refs., 58 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  6. An energy pricing scheme for the diffusion of decentralized renewable technology investment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiam, Djiby Racine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate price support for market penetration of renewable energy in developing nations through a decentralized supply process. We integrate the new decentralized energy support: renewable premium tariff, to analyze impacts of tariff incentives on the diffusion of renewable technology in Senegal. Based on photovoltaic and wind technologies and an assessment of renewable energy resources in Senegal, an optimization technique is combined with a cash flow analysis to investigate investment decisions in renewable energy sector. Our findings indicate that this support mechanism could strengthen the sustainable deployment of renewable energy in remote areas of Senegal. Although different payoffs emerged, profits associated with a renewable premium tariff are the highest among the set of existing payoffs. Moreover in analyzing impacts of price incentives on social welfare, we show that price tariffing schemes must be strategically scrutinized in order to minimize welfare loss associated with price incentives. Finally we argue that a sustainable promotion of incentive mechanisms supporting deployment of renewable technology in developing nations should be carried out under reliable institutional structures. The additional advantage of the proposed methodology is its ability to integrate different stakeholders (producers, investors and consumers) in the planning process. - Highlights: → We simulate impacts of price support for market penetration of renewable technology in developing nations. → An array of price incentive mechanisms strengthens diffusion of renewable technology in Senegal. → Moreover, reliable institutional frameworks in developing nations are a requirement in order to strengthen diffusion path of renewable technologies.

  7. Review of the Umthombo Youth Development Foundation scholarship scheme, 1999–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ross

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Staffing of rural and remote facilities is a challenge throughout the world. Umthombo Youth Development Foundation (UYDF has been running a rurally based scholarship scheme since 1999.The aim of this review is to present data on the number of students selected, their progress, graduation and work placement from inception of the scheme until 2013.Methods: Data were extracted from the UYDF data base using a data collection template to ensure all important information was captured.Results: Since 1999, 430 rural students across 15 health disciplines have been supported by UYDF. The annual pass rate has been greater than 89%, and less than 10% of students have been excluded from university. All graduates have spent time working in rural areas (excluding the 32 currently doing internships and 72% (52/73 of those with no work-back obligation continue to work in rural areas.Discussion and conclusion: The UYDF model is built around local selection, compulsory academic and peer mentoring and social support, comprehensive financial support and experiential holiday work. The results are encouraging and highlight the fact that rural students can succeed at university and will come back and work in rural areas. With 46% of the South African population situated rurally, greater thought and effort must be put into the recruitment and training of rural scholars as a possible solution to the staffing of rural healthcare facilities. The UYDF provides a model which could be replicated in other parts of South Africa.

  8. Review of the Umthombo Youth Development Foundation scholarship scheme, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew; MacGregor, Gavin; Campbell, Laura

    2015-03-31

    Staffing of rural and remote facilities is a challenge throughout the world. Umthombo Youth Development Foundation (UYDF) has been running a rurally based scholarship scheme since 1999.The aim of this review is to present data on the number of students selected, their progress, graduation and work placement from inception of the scheme until 2013. Data were extracted from the UYDF data base using a data collection template to ensure all important information was captured. Since 1999, 430 rural students across 15 health disciplines have been supported by UYDF. The annual pass rate has been greater than 89%, and less than 10% of students have been excluded from university. All graduates have spent time working in rural areas (excluding the 32 currently doing internships) and 72% (52/73) of those with no work-back obligation continue to work in rural areas. The UYDF model is built around local selection, compulsory academic and peer mentoring and social support, comprehensive financial support and experiential holiday work. The results are encouraging and highlight the fact that rural students can succeed at university and will come back and work in rural areas. With 46% of the South African population situated rurally, greater thought and effort must be put into the recruitment and training of rural scholars as a possible solution to the staffing of rural healthcare facilities. The UYDF provides a model which could be replicated in other parts of South Africa.

  9. To d, or not to d. Recent developments and comparisons of regularization schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnendiger, C.; Pruna, G.M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Signer, A.; Ulrich, Y.; Visconti, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland); Stoeckinger, D. [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Broggio, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department T31, Garching (Germany); Cherchiglia, A.L. [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, UFABC, Santo Andre (Brazil); Driencourt-Mangin, F.; Rodrigo, G. [Universitat de Valencia, Insituto de Fisica Corpuscular, UVEG-CSIC, Paterna (Spain); Fazio, A.R. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Fisica, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Hiller, B. [University of Coimbra, CFisUC, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Mastrolia, P. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Peraro, T. [The University of Edinburgh, Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Pittau, R. [Universidad de Granada, Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos yd CAFPE, Granada (Spain); Sampaio, M. [ICEX, UFMG, Departamento de Fisica, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Sborlini, G. [Universitat de Valencia, Insituto de Fisica Corpuscular, UVEG-CSIC, Paterna (Spain); Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milan (Italy); Bobadilla, W.J.T. [Universitat de Valencia, Insituto de Fisica Corpuscular, UVEG-CSIC, Paterna (Spain); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Tramontano, F. [Universita di Napoli, Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

    2017-07-15

    We give an introduction to several regularization schemes that deal with ultraviolet and infrared singularities appearing in higher-order computations in quantum field theories. Comparing the computation of simple quantities in the various schemes, we point out similarities and differences between them. (orig.)

  10. Development of an Optimal Power Control Scheme for Wave-Offshore Hybrid Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmin Jung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integration technology of various distribution systems for improving renewable energy utilization has been receiving attention in the power system industry. The wave-offshore hybrid generation system (HGS, which has a capacity of over 10 MW, was recently developed by adopting several voltage source converters (VSC, while a control method for adopted power conversion systems has not yet been configured in spite of the unique system characteristics of the designated structure. This paper deals with a reactive power assignment method for the developed hybrid system to improve the power transfer efficiency of the entire system. Through the development and application processes for an optimization algorithm utilizing the real-time active power profiles of each generator, a feasibility confirmation of power transmission loss reduction was implemented. To find the practical effect of the proposed control scheme, the real system information regarding the demonstration process was applied from case studies. Also, an evaluation for the loss of the improvement rate was calculated.

  11. Assessment of the reduction methods used to develop chemical schemes: building of a new chemical scheme for VOC oxidation suited to three-dimensional multiscale HOx-NOx-VOC chemistry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, S.; Aumont, B.; Madronich, S.

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and assess an automatic procedure to generate reduced chemical schemes for the atmospheric photooxidation of volatile organic carbon (VOC) compounds. The procedure is based on (i) the development of a tool for writing the fully explicit schemes for VOC oxidation (see companion paper Aumont et al., 2005), (ii) the application of several commonly used reduction methods to the fully explicit scheme, and (iii) the assessment of resulting errors based on direct comparison between the reduced and full schemes. The reference scheme included seventy emitted VOCs chosen to be representative of both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and their atmospheric degradation chemistry required more than two million reactions among 350000 species. Three methods were applied to reduce the size of the reference chemical scheme: (i) use of operators, based on the redundancy of the reaction sequences involved in the VOC oxidation, (ii) grouping of primary species having similar reactivities into surrogate species and (iii) grouping of some secondary products into surrogate species. The number of species in the final reduced scheme is 147, this being small enough for practical inclusion in current three-dimensional models. Comparisons between the fully explicit and reduced schemes, carried out with a box model for several typical tropospheric conditions, showed that the reduced chemical scheme accurately predicts ozone concentrations and some other aspects of oxidant chemistry for both polluted and clean tropospheric conditions.

  12. Assessment of the reduction methods used to develop chemical schemes: building of a new chemical scheme for VOC oxidation suited to three-dimensional multiscale HOx-NOx-VOC chemistry simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Szopa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop and assess an automatic procedure to generate reduced chemical schemes for the atmospheric photooxidation of volatile organic carbon (VOC compounds. The procedure is based on (i the development of a tool for writing the fully explicit schemes for VOC oxidation (see companion paper Aumont et al., 2005, (ii the application of several commonly used reduction methods to the fully explicit scheme, and (iii the assessment of resulting errors based on direct comparison between the reduced and full schemes. The reference scheme included seventy emitted VOCs chosen to be representative of both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and their atmospheric degradation chemistry required more than two million reactions among 350000 species. Three methods were applied to reduce the size of the reference chemical scheme: (i use of operators, based on the redundancy of the reaction sequences involved in the VOC oxidation, (ii grouping of primary species having similar reactivities into surrogate species and (iii grouping of some secondary products into surrogate species. The number of species in the final reduced scheme is 147, this being small enough for practical inclusion in current three-dimensional models. Comparisons between the fully explicit and reduced schemes, carried out with a box model for several typical tropospheric conditions, showed that the reduced chemical scheme accurately predicts ozone concentrations and some other aspects of oxidant chemistry for both polluted and clean tropospheric conditions.

  13. Natural Assurance Scheme: A level playing field framework for Green-Grey infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denjean, Benjamin; Altamirano, Mónica A; Graveline, Nina; Giordano, Raffaele; van der Keur, Peter; Moncoulon, David; Weinberg, Josh; Máñez Costa, María; Kozinc, Zdravko; Mulligan, Mark; Pengal, Polona; Matthews, John; van Cauwenbergh, Nora; López Gunn, Elena; Bresch, David N

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework to systematize the use of Nature-based solutions (NBS) by integrating their resilience potential into Natural Assurance Scheme (NAS), focusing on insurance value as corner stone for both awareness-raising and valuation. As such one of its core goal is to align research and pilot projects with infrastructure development constraints and priorities. Under NAS, the integrated contribution of natural infrastructure to Disaster Risk Reduction is valued in the context of an identified growing need for climate robust infrastructure. The potential of NAS benefits and trade-off are explored by through the alternative lens of Disaster Resilience Enhancement (DRE). Such a system requires a joint effort of specific knowledge transfer from research groups and stakeholders to potential future NAS developers and investors. We therefore match the knowledge gaps with operational stages of the development of NAS from a project designer perspective. We start by highlighting the key role of the insurance industry in incentivizing and assessing disaster and slow onset resilience enhancement strategies. In parallel we place the public sector as potential kick-starters in DRE initiatives through the existing initiatives and constraints of infrastructure procurement. Under this perspective the paper explores the required alignment of Integrated Water resources planning and Public investment systems. Ultimately this will provide the possibility for both planners and investors to design no regret NBS and mixed Grey-Green infrastructures systems. As resources and constraints are widely different between infrastructure development contexts, the framework does not provide explicit methodological choices but presents current limits of knowledge and know-how. In conclusion the paper underlines the potential of NAS to ease the infrastructure gap in water globally by stressing the advantages of investment in the protection, enhancement and restoration of

  14. Development of a Multi-Model Ensemble Scheme for the Tropical Cyclone Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, S.; Lee, W. J.; Kang, K.; Shin, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    A Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) prediction scheme using selected and weighted method was developed and evaluated for tropical cyclone forecast. The analyzed tropical cyclone track and intensity data set provided by Korea Meteorological Administration and 11 numerical model outputs - GDAPS, GEPS, GFS (data resolution; 50 and 100 km), GFES, HWRF, IFS(data resolution; 50 and 100 km), IFS EPS, JGSM, and TEPS - during 2011-2014 were used for this study. The procedure suggested in this study was divided into two stages: selecting and weighting process. First several numerical models were chosen based on the past model's performances in the selecting stage. Next, weights, referred to as regression coefficients, for each model forecasts were calculated by applying the linear and nonlinear regression technique to past model forecast data in the weighting stage. Finally, tropical cyclone forecasts were determined by using both selected and weighted multi-model values at that forecast time. The preliminary result showed that selected MME's improvement rate (%) was more than 5% comparing with non-selected MME at 72 h track forecast.

  15. Development of Vision Control Scheme of Extended Kalman filtering for Robot's Position Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, W. S.; Kim, K. S.; Park, S. I.; Kim, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    It is very important to reduce the computational time in estimating the parameters of vision control algorithm for robot's position control in real time. Unfortunately, the batch estimation commonly used requires too murk computational time because it is iteration method. So, the batch estimation has difficulty for robot's position control in real time. On the other hand, the Extended Kalman Filtering(EKF) has many advantages to calculate the parameters of vision system in that it is a simple and efficient recursive procedures. Thus, this study is to develop the EKF algorithm for the robot's vision control in real time. The vision system model used in this study involves six parameters to account for the inner(orientation, focal length etc) and outer (the relative location between robot and camera) parameters of camera. Then, EKF has been first applied to estimate these parameters, and then with these estimated parameters, also to estimate the robot's joint angles used for robot's operation. finally, the practicality of vision control scheme based on the EKF has been experimentally verified by performing the robot's position control

  16. Validation of a Previously Developed Geospatial Model That Predicts the Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York State Produce Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Shiwakoti, Suvash; Bergholz, Peter; Grohn, Yrjo; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2016-02-01

    Technological advancements, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to predict the likelihood of foodborne pathogen contamination in produce production environments using geospatial models. Yet, few studies have examined the validity and robustness of such models. This study was performed to test and refine the rules associated with a previously developed geospatial model that predicts the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in produce farms in New York State (NYS). Produce fields for each of four enrolled produce farms were categorized into areas of high or low predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence using rules based on a field's available water storage (AWS) and its proximity to water, impervious cover, and pastures. Drag swabs (n = 1,056) were collected from plots assigned to each risk category. Logistic regression, which tested the ability of each rule to accurately predict the prevalence of L. monocytogenes, validated the rules based on water and pasture. Samples collected near water (odds ratio [OR], 3.0) and pasture (OR, 2.9) showed a significantly increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation compared to that for samples collected far from water and pasture. Generalized linear mixed models identified additional land cover factors associated with an increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation, such as proximity to wetlands. These findings validated a subset of previously developed rules that predict L. monocytogenes prevalence in produce production environments. This suggests that GIS and geospatial models can be used to accurately predict L. monocytogenes prevalence on farms and can be used prospectively to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination of produce. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Development of a Hierarchical Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Typing Scheme for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tao; Yang, Chongguang; Pang, Yu; Zhao, Yanlin; Mei, Jian; Gao, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Molecular typing based on variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis is a promising tool for identifying transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the currently proposed 15- and 24-locus VNTR sets (VNTR-15/24) only have limited resolution and contain too many loci for large-scale typing in high burden countries. To develop an optimal typing scheme in China, we evaluated the resolution and robustness of 25 VNTR loci, using population-based collections of 1362 clinical isolates from six provinces across the country. The resolution of most loci showed considerable variations among regions. By calculating the average resolution of all possible combinations of 20 robust loci, we identified an optimal locus set with a minimum of 9 loci (VNTR-9) that could achieve comparable resolution of the standard VNTR-15. The VNTR-9 had consistently high resolutions in all six regions, and it was highly concordant with VNTR-15 for defining both clustered and unique genotypes. Furthermore, VNTR-9 was phylogenetically informative for classifying lineages/sublineages of M. tuberculosis. Three hypervariable loci (HV-3), VNTR 3232, VNTR 3820 and VNTR 4120, were proved important for further differentiating unrelated clustered strains based on VNTR-9. We propose the optimized VNTR-9 as first-line method and the HV-3 as second-line method for molecular typing of M. tuberculosis in China and surrounding countries. The development of hierarchical VNTR typing methods that can achieve high resolution with a small number of loci could be suitable for molecular epidemiology study in other high burden countries. PMID:24586989

  18. [Incidence and clinical risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Vigo, P; Álvarez-Silvares, E; Alves-Pérez M T; Domínguez-Sánchez, J; González-González, A

    2016-04-01

    Gestational diabetes is considered a variant of diabetes mellitus as they share a common pathophysiological basis: insulin resistance in target and insufficient secretion of it by pancreatic p-cell bodies. Pregnancy is a unique physiological situation provides an opportunity to identify future risk of diabetes mellitus. To determine the long-term incidence of diabetes mellitus in women who have previously been diagnosed with gestational diabetes and identifying clinical risk factors for developing the same. nested case-control cohort study. 671 patients between 1996 and 2009 were diagnosed with gestational diabetes were selected. The incidence of diabetes mellitus was estimated and 2 subgroups were formed: Group A or cases: women who develop diabetes mellitus after diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Group B or control: random sample of 71 women with a history of gestational diabetes in the follow-up period remained normoglycemic. Both groups were studied up to 18 years postpartum. By studying Kaplan Meier survival of the influence of different gestational variables it was obtained in the later development of diabetes mellitus with time parameter and COX models for categorical variables were applied. Significant variables were studied by multivariate Cox analysis. In all analyzes the Hazard ratio was calculated with confidence intervals at 95%. The incidence of diabetes mellitus was 10.3% in patients with a history of gestational diabetes. They were identified as risk factors in the index pregnancy to later development of diabetes mellitus: greater than 35 and younger than 27 years maternal age, BMI greater than 30 kg/m2, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, insulin therapy, poor metabolic control and more than a complicated pregnancy with gestational diabetes. Clinical factors have been identified in the pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes that determine a higher probability of progression to diabetes mellitus in the medium and long term.

  19. Developing a risk-based trading scheme for cattle in England: farmer perspectives on managing trading risk for bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, R; Wheeler, K; Edge, S

    2017-02-11

    This paper examines farmer attitudes towards the development of a voluntary risk-based trading scheme for cattle in England as a risk mitigation measure for bovine tuberculosis (bTB). The research reported here was commissioned to gather evidence on the type of scheme that would have a good chance of success in improving the information farmers receive about the bTB risk of cattle they buy. Telephone interviews were conducted with a stratified random sample of 203 cattle farmers in England, splitting the interviews equally between respondents in the high-risk area and low-risk area for bTB. Supplementary interviews and focus groups with farmers were also carried out across the risk areas. Results suggest a greater enthusiasm for a risk-based trading scheme in low-risk areas compared with high-risk areas and among members of breed societies and cattle health schemes. Third-party certification of herds by private vets or the Animal and Plant Health Agency were regarded as the most credible source, with farmer self-certification being favoured by sellers, but being regarded as least credible by buyers. Understanding farmers' attitudes towards voluntary risk-based trading is important to gauge likely uptake, understand preferences for information provision and to assist in monitoring, evaluating and refining the scheme once established. British Veterinary Association.

  20. A new scheme for the promotion of renewable energies in developing countries: the renewable energy regulated purchase tariff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moner-Girona, M.; Aulich, H.; Ahm, P.; Adelmann, P.; Bounia, A.; Fabre, E.; Fioravanti, E.; Hosini, F.; Jongerden, G.J.; Jourde, P.; Kukuczka, T.; Llamas, P.; Macias, E.; Mayer, D.; Maigne, Y.; Moner, M.; McNelis, B.; Nemac, F.; Sener, O.; Ribeiro, F.; Samak, I.; Schmid, J.; Shah, Arvind; Shanker, A.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Vallvé, X.; Wohlthat, A.; Wollny, M.; Wouters, F.

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this policy-support document is to attract policy-makers attention in renewable energies deployment, offering to energy and development stakeholders an alternative subsidy-scheme to support electrification in a village-scale mini-grid based on the good performance of the renewable

  1. Development of a single multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Taylorella equigenitalis and Taylorella asinigenitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquesne, Fabien; Hébert, Laurent; Breuil, Marie-France; Matsuda, Motoo; Laugier, Claire; Petry, Sandrine

    2013-12-27

    We describe here the development of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Taylorella equigenitalis, the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM), and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a nonpathogenic bacterium. MLST was performed on a set of 163 strains collected in several countries over 35 years (1977-2012). The MLST data were analyzed using START2, MEGA 5.05 and eBURST, and can be accessed at http://pubmlst.org/taylorella/. Our results revealed a clonal population with 39 sequence types (ST) and no common ST between the two Taylorella species. The eBURST analysis grouped the 27 T. equigenitalis STs into four clonal complexes (CC1-4) and five unlinked STs. The 12 T. asinigenitalis STs were grouped into three clonal complexes (CC5-7) and five unlinked STs, among which CC1 (68.1% of the 113 T. equigenitalis) and CC5 (58.0% of the 50 T. asinigenitalis) were dominants. The CC1, still in circulation in France, contains isolates from the first CEM outbreaks that simultaneously emerged in several countries in the late 1970s. The emergence in different countries (e.g. France, Japan, and United Arab Emirates) of STs without any genetic relationship to CC1 suggests the existence of a natural worldwide reservoir that remains to be identified. T. asinigenitalis appears to behave same way since the American, Swedish and French isolates have unrelated STs. This first Taylorella sp. MLST is a powerful tool for further epidemiological investigations and population biology studies of the Taylorella genus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANNOTATION SCHEME FOR STANDARDIZED DESCRIPTION OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS IN THE FIELD OF PLANT PROTECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, T; Büttner, C; Käsbohrer, A; Filter, M

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models on properties and behavior of harmful organisms in the food chain are an increas- ingly relevant approach of the agriculture and food industry. As a consequence, there are many efforts to develop biological models in science, economics and risk assessment nowadays. However, there is a lack of international harmonized standards on model annotation and model formats, which would be neces- sary to set up efficient tools supporting broad model application and information exchange. There are some established standards in the field of systems biology, but there is currently no corresponding provi- sion in the area of plant protection. This work therefore aimed at the development of an annotation scheme using domain-specific metadata. The proposed scheme has been validated in a prototype implementation of a web-database model repository. This prototypic community resource currently contains models on aflatoxin secreting fungal Aspergillus flavus in maize, as these models have a high relevance to food safety and economic impact. Specifically, models describing biological processes of the fungus (growth, Aflatoxin secreting), as well as dose-response- and carry over models were included. Furthermore, phenological models for maize were integrated as well. The developed annotation scheme is based on the well-established data exchange format SBML, which is broadly applied in the field of systems biology. The identified example models were annotated according to the developed scheme and entered into a Web-table (Google Sheets), which was transferred to a web based demonstrator available at https://sites.google.com/site/test782726372685/. By implementation of a software demonstrator it became clear that the proposed annotation scheme can be applied to models on plant pathogens and that broad adoption within the domain could promote communication and application of mathematical models.

  3. Infrastructure Development and the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme: Evidence from Bankura, West Bengal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Roy (Jitendra); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. The immediate goal of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) is to ensure a social safety net for vulnerable groups by providing a fall-back source of employment when other alternatives are scarce. However, its long-term goals are to create durable rural

  4. Learning Organizations, Employee Development and Learning Representative Schemes in the UK and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bill; Cassell, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Disparities in learning opportunities endure. This paper aims to investigate whether the learning representative schemes in the UK and New Zealand (NZ) may redress disparate opportunities for learning. Design/methodology/approach: An interview study of UK trade unions' educational officers and an interview study of representatives of…

  5. Diagnosis and Modeling of the Explosive Development of Winter Storms: Sensitivity to PBL Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pradhan, Prabodha K.

    2014-05-01

    The correct representation of extreme windstorms in regional models is of great importance for impact studies of climate change. The Iberian Peninsula has recently witnessed major damage from winter extratropical intense cyclones like Klaus (January 2009), Xynthia (February 2010) and Gong (January 2013) which formed over the mid-Atlantic, experienced explosive intensification while travelling eastwards at lower latitudes than usual [Liberato et al. 2011; 2013]. In this paper the explosive development of these storms is simulated by the advanced mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF v 3.4.1), initialized with NCEP Final Analysis (FNL) data as initial and lateral boundary conditions (boundary conditions updated in every 3 hours intervals). The simulation experiments are conducted with two domains, a coarser (25km) and nested (8.333km), covering the entire North Atlantic and Iberian Peninsula region. The characteristics of these storms (e.g. wind speed, precipitation) are studied from WRF model and compared with multiple observations. In this context simulations with different Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes are performed. This approach aims at understanding which mechanisms favor the explosive intensification of these storms at a lower than usual latitudes, thus improving the knowledge of atmospheric dynamics (including small-scale processes) on controlling the life cycle of midlatitude extreme storms and contributing to the improvement in predictability and in our ability to forecast storms' impacts over Iberian Peninsula. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). References: Liberato M.L.R., J.G. Pinto, I.F. Trigo, R.M. Trigo (2011) Klaus - an

  6. Development of a general analysis and unfolding scheme and its application to measure the energy spectrum of atmospheric neutrinos with IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H. P.; Brown, A. M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Jagielski, K.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J. H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Larsen, D. T.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Rees, I.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zoll, M.; Morik, K.

    2015-03-01

    We present the development and application of a generic analysis scheme for the measurement of neutrino spectra with the IceCube detector. This scheme is based on regularized unfolding, preceded by an event selection which uses a Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance algorithm to select the relevant variables and a random forest for the classification of events. The analysis has been developed using IceCube data from the 59-string configuration of the detector. 27,771 neutrino candidates were detected in 346 days of livetime. A rejection of 99.9999 % of the atmospheric muon background is achieved. The energy spectrum of the atmospheric neutrino flux is obtained using the TRUEE unfolding program. The unfolded spectrum of atmospheric muon neutrinos covers an energy range from 100 GeV to 1 PeV. Compared to the previous measurement using the detector in the 40-string configuration, the analysis presented here, extends the upper end of the atmospheric neutrino spectrum by more than a factor of two, reaching an energy region that has not been previously accessed by spectral measurements.

  7. Development of a general analysis and unfolding scheme and its application to measure the energy spectrum of atmospheric neutrinos with IceCube: IceCube Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M G; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Anderson, T; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K-H; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H P; Brown, A M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Classen, L; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cowen, D F; Cruz Silva, A H; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eichmann, B; Eisch, J; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gier, D; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Gretskov, P; Groh, J C; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haack, C; Haj Ismail, A; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hellwig, D; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Jurkovic, M; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kheirandish, A; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Koob, A; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kriesten, A; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kroll, M; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Larsen, D T; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meli, A; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Middlemas, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Paul, L; Penek, Ö; Pepper, J A; Pérez de Los Heros, C; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Pütz, J; Quinnan, M; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Rees, I; Reimann, R; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rodrigues, J P; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Sander, H-G; Sandroos, J; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallraff, M; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Whitehorn, N; Wichary, C; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zoll, M; Morik, K

    We present the development and application of a generic analysis scheme for the measurement of neutrino spectra with the IceCube detector. This scheme is based on regularized unfolding, preceded by an event selection which uses a Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance algorithm to select the relevant variables and a random forest for the classification of events. The analysis has been developed using IceCube data from the 59-string configuration of the detector. 27,771 neutrino candidates were detected in 346 days of livetime. A rejection of 99.9999 % of the atmospheric muon background is achieved. The energy spectrum of the atmospheric neutrino flux is obtained using the TRUEE unfolding program. The unfolded spectrum of atmospheric muon neutrinos covers an energy range from 100 GeV to 1 PeV. Compared to the previous measurement using the detector in the 40-string configuration, the analysis presented here, extends the upper end of the atmospheric neutrino spectrum by more than a factor of two, reaching an energy region that has not been previously accessed by spectral measurements.

  8. Developing Efficient Coordination Schemes to Control Over-Pumping in the Heihe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzini, G.

    2015-12-01

    Many wicked water resources problems are approached in a social planner perspective. This not always matches the real institutional and policy-making context, where, rather, multiple decision-makers (DMs) can act independently, or weakly cooperate, ultimately producing system-wide inefficient trade-offs. The idea in this work is to adopt a more realistic approach, where the multi-DMs nature of the problem is preserved and the uncoordinated DMs are driven, thorough coordination mechanisms, towards a more system-wide efficient solution. An agent-based modelling framework linked to a surface and groundwater model is used to design these coordination mechanisms as constraints to the independent agents (i.e., DMs) behaviour. In the Heihe Basin the ongoing introduction of smart meter IC-card systems on farmers' pumping wells will soon allow monitoring and control of abstractions with the goal of preventing further depletion of the resource. The major interest of policy makers in the region concerns the development of new and the improvement of existing legislation on pricing schemes and/or groundwater quotas. The model outcome where agents act rationally but selfishly is compared to the optimal solution at system-level assuming perfect coordination and cooperation. The optimal solutions with respect to the given utility functions are computed using nonlinear optimization with a rolling out time horizon. The Pareto-Frontier is synthesized through an exhaustive sampling of the weight coefficient space and related to the current and to the historical management of the last 4 decades. The best parameter values for the proposed coordination mechanisms are determined and the alternatives are compared with respect to their efficiency and acceptability. Preliminary results suggest that a regulatory tax on groundwater of about a factor 10 of the current resource fee is required to increase the elasticity of the groundwater demand curve such that reducing consumption becomes

  9. Robust integration schemes for generalized viscoplasticity with internal-state variables. Part 1: Theoretical developments and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeb, Atef F.; Li, Wei

    1995-01-01

    This two-part report is concerned with the development of a general framework for the implicit time-stepping integrators for the flow and evolution equations in generalized viscoplastic models. The primary goal is to present a complete theoretical formulation, and to address in detail the algorithmic and numerical analysis aspects involved in its finite element implementation, as well as to critically assess the numerical performance of the developed schemes in a comprehensive set of test cases. On the theoretical side, the general framework is developed on the basis of the unconditionally-stable, backward-Euler difference scheme as a starting point. Its mathematical structure is of sufficient generality to allow a unified treatment of different classes of viscoplastic models with internal variables. In particular, two specific models of this type, which are representative of the present start-of-art in metal viscoplasticity, are considered in applications reported here; i.e., fully associative (GVIPS) and non-associative (NAV) models. The matrix forms developed for both these models are directly applicable for both initially isotropic and anisotropic materials, in general (three-dimensional) situations as well as subspace applications (i.e., plane stress/strain, axisymmetric, generalized plane stress in shells). On the computational side, issues related to efficiency and robustness are emphasized in developing the (local) interative algorithm. In particular, closed-form expressions for residual vectors and (consistent) material tangent stiffness arrays are given explicitly for both GVIPS and NAV models, with their maximum sizes 'optimized' to depend only on the number of independent stress components (but independent of the number of viscoplastic internal state parameters). Significant robustness of the local iterative solution is provided by complementing the basic Newton-Raphson scheme with a line-search strategy for convergence. In the present first part of the

  10. Development of an international harmonization scheme for salt water fish toxicity tests

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, E.; Amavis, R.; Cabridenc, R.; Gilliard, C.; Schubert, R.

    1984-01-01

    The proceeding deterioration of the marine environment demonstrates the need and the urgency to take appropriate measures. To obtain significant results all the practical efforts made so far must be sustained by national and international conventions and wherever necessary even by more strict regulations. One of the major objectives of the administrative and scientific authorities involved is to establish an harmonized scheme for toxicity testing on marine organisms under controlled laborator...

  11. EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT OF ECO‐MANAGEMENT AND AUDIT SCHEME (EMAS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna SŁONIMIEC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of the Environmental Management and Audit Scheme System (EMAS in Poland and the European Union. It analyzes the existing rules on the implementation and the process of its implementation. It also defines the benefits and costs arising from the registration of organizations in the system. The paper presents the current status of implementation of EMAS in the European Union.

  12. A heuristic neural network initialization scheme for modeling nonlinear functions in engineering mechanics: continuous development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jin-Song; Mai, Eric C.

    2007-04-01

    This paper introduces a continuous effort towards the development of a heuristic initialization methodology for constructing multilayer feedforward neural networks to model nonlinear functions. In this and previous studies that this work is built upon, including the one presented at SPIE 2006, the authors do not presume to provide a universal method to approximate arbitrary functions, rather the focus is given to the development of a rational and unambiguous initialization procedure that applies to the approximation of nonlinear functions in the specific domain of engineering mechanics. The applications of this exploratory work can be numerous including those associated with potential correlation and interpretation of the inner workings of neural networks, such as damage detection. The goal of this study is fulfilled by utilizing the governing physics and mathematics of nonlinear functions and the strength of the sigmoidal basis function. A step-by-step graphical procedure utilizing a few neural network prototypes as "templates" to approximate commonly seen memoryless nonlinear functions of one or two variables is further developed in this study. Decomposition of complex nonlinear functions into a summation of some simpler nonlinear functions is utilized to exploit this prototype-based initialization methodology. Training examples are presented to demonstrate the rationality and effciency of the proposed methodology when compared with the popular Nguyen-Widrow initialization algorithm. Future work is also identfied.

  13. Robust integration schemes for generalized viscoplasticity with internal-state variables. Part 2: Algorithmic developments and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Saleeb, Atef F.

    1995-01-01

    This two-part report is concerned with the development of a general framework for the implicit time-stepping integrators for the flow and evolution equations in generalized viscoplastic models. The primary goal is to present a complete theoretical formulation, and to address in detail the algorithmic and numerical analysis aspects involved in its finite element implementation, as well as to critically assess the numerical performance of the developed schemes in a comprehensive set of test cases. On the theoretical side, the general framework is developed on the basis of the unconditionally-stable, backward-Euler difference scheme as a starting point. Its mathematical structure is of sufficient generality to allow a unified treatment of different classes of viscoplastic models with internal variables. In particular, two specific models of this type, which are representative of the present start-of-art in metal viscoplasticity, are considered in applications reported here; i.e., fully associative (GVIPS) and non-associative (NAV) models. The matrix forms developed for both these models are directly applicable for both initially isotropic and anisotropic materials, in general (three-dimensional) situations as well as subspace applications (i.e., plane stress/strain, axisymmetric, generalized plane stress in shells). On the computational side, issues related to efficiency and robustness are emphasized in developing the (local) interative algorithm. In particular, closed-form expressions for residual vectors and (consistent) material tangent stiffness arrays are given explicitly for both GVIPS and NAV models, with their maximum sizes 'optimized' to depend only on the number of independent stress components (but independent of the number of viscoplastic internal state parameters). Significant robustness of the local iterative solution is provided by complementing the basic Newton-Raphson scheme with a line-search strategy for convergence. In the present second part of

  14. Schemes for development and mining of level coal seams without leaving support coal pillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, A.F.; Batmanov, Yu.K.; Taratuta, N.K.

    1982-07-01

    Methods are illustrated for longwall mining without leaving support pillars for strata control. Comparative evaluations in Soviet coal mines show that with increasing mining depth coal losses associated with support pillars increase. Use of support pillars also increases rock burst hazard and increases cost of support repairs in mine roadways. Proportion of coal from longwall mining without leaving coal support pillars increased from 36 % in 1976 to 52% in 1980. Two variants of longwall mining without support pillars are analyzed: with repeated use of longwall gate roads and without their repeated use. Comparative investigations show that longwall mining with the repeated use of the gates (one of the gate roads) is used in coal seams with the most convenient mining and geological conditions, whereas the second system is used under more difficult conditions. Schemes with repeated use are designed for thin coal seams, at a depth not exceeding 600 m, under conditions of stable roof and floor (when the floor consists of less stable rocks absence of water influx is the condition). Repeated use of gate roads is economical when, in spite of repeated gate road use, cost of support repair and maintenance is low. Fifteen schemes for longwall mining with and without repeated use of gateroads are compared. The results of evaluations are shown in a table. Recommendations on the most economical mining schemes are made.

  15. Government and Private Sector Joint Venturing in Natural Resource Development: The Queensland Plantation Forestry Joint Venture Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, S.R.; Miano, J.; Anderson, M.W

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the role of joint ventures between government and resource owners to develop natural resources, with particular reference for forestry plantations. Findings of a survey of landholders participating or expressing interest in the Queensland Plantation Joint Venture Scheme are presented. Joint venture arrangements are found to overcome investment constraints, particularly with respect to capital, technical knowledge and resource security. Complementarities between resource su...

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium with arsenazo previous liquid-liquid extraction and colour development in organic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares Delgado, F.; Vera Palomino, J.; Petrement Eguiluz, J. C.

    1964-01-01

    The determination of uranium with arsenazo is hindered by a great number of cation which form stable complexes with the reactive and may given rise to serious interferences. By studying the optimum conditions of uranium the extraction be means of tributylphosphate solutions dissolved in methylisobuthylketone, under conditions for previous masking of the interfering cations, an organic extract was obtained containing all the uranium together with small amounts of iron. The possible interference derived from the latter element is avoided by reduction with hydroxylammoniumchlorid followed by complex formation of the Fe(II)-ortophenantroline compound in alcoholic medium. (Author) 17 refs

  17. Synchronous development of breast cancer and chest wall fibrosarcoma after previous mantle radiation for Hodgkin's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patlas, Michael [Hamilton General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); McCready, David [University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Surgery, Toronto, ON (Canada); Kulkarni, Supriya; Dill-Macky, Marcus J. [University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-09-01

    Survivors of Hodgkin's disease are at increased risk of developing a second malignant neoplasm, including breast carcinoma and sarcoma. We report the first case of synchronous development of chest wall fibrosarcoma and breast carcinoma after mantle radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. Mammographic, sonographic and MR features are demonstrated. (orig.)

  18. Development and Ecological-Energy Comparative Analysis оf Vapor Compression and Solar Absorption Schemes of Air Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mission of the research included the following objectives: the development of new circuit decisions for the alternate refrigerating systems based on the use of an open absorptive circuit and on the use of solar energy for absorbent solution regeneration; an assessment of the energy and envi-ronmental characteristics of the developed systems; obtaining of the experimental data for an assess-ment of the principal capabilities of the proposed new solar air-conditioning systems. New principles for design of heat and mass transfer equipment in the version with a movable packing of heat exchange elements (fluidized bed packing "gas - liquid - solid body" placed in the packed bed were developed, which allows self-cleaning of the working surfaces and walls of the heat and mass transfer equipment HMT. This new solution, when working with outdoor air and solutions of absorbents, seems to be a fundamentally important condition for maintaining the working capacity of solar absorption systems. The new schemes of absorber with internal steam cooling allowing the improve-ment of the new scheme of the alternate refrigerating system were developed. Comparative analysis based on the methodology of the "Life Cycle Assessment" (LCA showed that new, developed solar systems provide the considerable decrease in energy consumption, their use leads to the decrease of exhaustion of natural resources, influences less global climate change.

  19. MLVA Typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates with Emphasis on Serotypes 14, 9N and 9V: Comparison of Previously Described Panels and Proposal of a Novel 7 VNTR Loci-Based Simplified Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Natália S; Pinto, Tatiana C A; Merquior, Vânia L C; Castro, Luciana F S; da Rocha, Filomena S P; Morais, Jaqueline M; Peralta, José M; Teixeira, Lúcia M

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae remains as an important cause of community-acquired bacterial infections, and the nasopharynx of asymptomatic carriers is the major reservoir of this microorganism. Pneumococcal strains of serotype 14 and serogroup 9 are among the most frequently isolated from both asymptomatic carriers and patients with invasive disease living in Brazil. Internationally disseminated clones belonging to such serotypes have been associated with the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in our setting, highlighting the need for epidemiological tracking of these isolates. In this scenario, Multiple Loci VNTR Analysis (MLVA) has emerged as an alternative tool for the molecular characterization of pneumococci, in addition to more traditional techniques such as Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). In the present study, 18 VNTR loci, as well as other previously described reduced MLVA panels (7 VNTR loci), were evaluated as tools to characterize pneumococcal strains of serotypes 14, 9N and 9V belonging to international and regional clones isolated in Brazil. The 18 VNTR loci panel was highly congruent with MLST and PFGE, being also useful for indicating the genetic relationship with international clones and for discriminating among strains with indistinguishable STs and PFGE profiles. Analysis of the results also allowed deducing a novel shorter 7 VNTR loci panel, keeping a high discriminatory power for isolates of the serotypes investigated and a high congruence level with MLST and PFGE. The newly proposed simplified panel was then evaluated for typing pneumococcal strains of other commonly isolated serotypes. The results indicate that MLVA is a faster and easier to perform, reliable approach for the molecular characterization of S. pneumoniae isolates, with potential for cost-effective application, especially in resource-limited countries.

  20. Inflatable Antenna for CubeSat: Extension of the Previously Developed S-Band Design to the X-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuscia, Alessandra; Choi, Thomas; Cheung, Kar-Ming; Thangavelautham, Jekan; Ravichandran, Mithun; Chandra, Aman

    2015-01-01

    The inflatable antenna for CubeSat is a 1 meter antenna reflector designed with one side reflective Mylar, another side clear Mylar with a patch antenna at the focus. The development of this technology responds to the increasing need for more capable communication systems to allow CubeSats to operate autonomously in interplanetary missions. An initial version of the antenna for the S-Band was developed and tested in both anechoic chamber and vacuum chamber. Recent developments in transceivers and amplifiers for CubeSat at X-band motivated the extension from the S-Band to the X-Band. This paper describes the process of extending the design of the antenna to the X-Band focusing on patch antenna redesign, new manufacturing challenges and initial results of experimental tests.

  1. Development of a serial powering scheme and a versatile characterization system for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filimonov, Viacheslav

    2017-08-01

    In order to increase the probability of new discoveries the LHC will be upgraded to the HL-LHC. The upgrade of the ATLAS detector is an essential part of this program. The entire ATLAS tracking system will be replaced by an all-silicon detector called Inner Tracker (ITk) which should be able to withstand the increased luminosity of 5 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . The work presented in this thesis is focused on the ATLAS ITk pixel detector upgrade. Advanced silicon pixel detectors will be an essential part of the ITk pixel detector where they will be used for tracking and vertexing. Characterization of the pixel detectors is one of the required tasks for a successful ATLAS tracker upgrade. Therefore, the work presented in this thesis includes the development of a versatile and modular test system for advanced silicon pixel detectors for the HL-LHC. The performance of the system is verified. Single and quad FE-I4 modules functionalities are characterized with the developed system. The reduction of the material budget of the ATLAS ITk pixel detector is essential for a successful operation at high luminosity. Therefore, a low mass, efficient power distribution scheme to power detector modules (serial powering scheme) is investigated as well in the framework of this thesis. A serially powered pixel detector prototype is built with all the components that are needed for current distribution, data transmission, sensor biasing, bypassing and redundancy in order to prove the feasibility of implementing the serial powering scheme in the ITk. Detailed investigations of the electrical performance of the detector prototype equipped with FE-I4 quad modules are made with the help of the developed readout system.

  2. The reliability of the Associate Platinum digital foot scanner in measuring previously developed footprint characteristics: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papuga, M Owen; Burke, Jeanmarie R

    2011-02-01

    An ink pad and paper, pressure-sensitive platforms, and photography have previously been used to collect footprint data used in clinical assessment. Digital scanners have been widely used more recently to collect such data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and interrater reliability of a flatbed digital image scanning technology to capture footprint data. This study used a repeated-measures design on 32 (16 male 16 female) healthy subjects. The following measured indices of footprint were recorded from 2-dimensional images of the plantar surface of the foot recorded with an Associate Platinum (Foot Levelers Inc, Roanoke, VA) digital foot scanner: Staheli index, Chippaux-Smirak index, arch angle, and arch index. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values were calculated to evaluate intrarater, interday, and interclinician reliability. The ICC values for intrarater reliability were greater than or equal to .817, indicating an excellent level of reproducibility in assessing the collected images. Analyses of variance revealed that there were no significant differences between raters for each index (P > .05). The ICC values also indicated excellent reliability (.881-.971) between days and clinicians in all but one of the indices of footprint, arch angle (.689), with good reliability between clinicians. The full-factorial analysis of variance model did not reveal any interaction effects (P > .05), which indicated that indices of footprint were not changing across days and clinicians. Scanning technology used in this study demonstrated good intra- and interrater reliability measurements of footprint indices, as demonstrated by high ICC values. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. European Pesticide Tax Schemes in Comparison: An Analysis of Experiences and Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Böcker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Policy measures are needed to reduce the risks associated with pesticides’ application in agriculture, resulting in more sustainable agricultural systems. Pesticide taxes can be an important tool in the toolkit of policy-makers and are of increasing importance in European agriculture. However, little is known about the effects of such tax solutions and their impacts on the environment, farmers, and human health. We aim to fill this gap and synthesize experiences made in the European countries that have introduced pesticide taxes, i.e., France, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The major findings of our analysis are: (1 overall, the effectiveness of pesticide taxes is limited, but if a tax on a specific pesticide is high enough, the application and the associated risks will be reduced significantly; (2 in all countries, hoarding activities have been observed before a tax introduction or increase. Therefore, short-term effects of taxes are substantially smaller than long-term effects; (3 differentiated taxes are superior to undifferentiated taxes because fewer accompanying measures are required to reach policy goals; (4 tax scheme designs are not always in line with the National Action Plan targets. Low tax levels do not necessarily lead to a reduction of pesticide input and differentiated taxes do not necessarily lead to fewer violations of water residue limits.

  4. Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carrier (HBOC) Development in Trauma: Previous Regulatory Challenges, Lessons Learned, and a Path Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keipert, Peter E

    2017-01-01

    Historically, hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) were being developed as "blood substitutes," despite their transient circulatory half-life (~ 24 h) vs. transfused red blood cells (RBCs). More recently, HBOC commercial development focused on "oxygen therapeutic" indications to provide a temporary oxygenation bridge until medical or surgical interventions (including RBC transfusion, if required) can be initiated. This included the early trauma trials with HemAssist ® (BAXTER), Hemopure ® (BIOPURE) and PolyHeme ® (NORTHFIELD) for resuscitating hypotensive shock. These trials all failed due to safety concerns (e.g., cardiac events, mortality) and certain protocol design limitations. In 2008 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) put all HBOC trials in the US on clinical hold due to the unfavorable benefit:risk profile demonstrated by various HBOCs in different clinical studies in a meta-analysis published by Natanson et al. (2008). During standard resuscitation in trauma, organ dysfunction and failure can occur due to ischemia in critical tissues, which can be detected by the degree of lactic acidosis. SANGART'S Phase 2 trauma program with MP4OX therefore added lactate >5 mmol/L as an inclusion criterion to enroll patients who had lost sufficient blood to cause a tissue oxygen debt. This was key to the successful conduct of their Phase 2 program (ex-US, from 2009 to 2012) to evaluate MP4OX as an adjunct to standard fluid resuscitation and transfusion of RBCs. In 2013, SANGART shared their Phase 2b results with the FDA, and succeeded in getting the FDA to agree that a planned Phase 2c higher dose comparison study of MP4OX in trauma could include clinical sites in the US. Unfortunately, SANGART failed to secure new funding and was forced to terminate development and operations in Dec 2013, even though a regulatory path forward with FDA approval to proceed in trauma had been achieved.

  5. MODEL OF PHYTOPLANKTON COMPETITION FOR LIMITING AND NONLIMITING NUTRIENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF ESTUARINE AND NEARSHORE MANAGEMENT SCHEMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global increase of noxious bloom occurrences has increased the need for phytoplankton management schemes. Such schemes require the ability to predict phytoplankton succession. Equilibrium Resources Competition theory, which is popular for predicting succession in lake systems...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHP-THERMAL SCHEMES IN CONTEXTS OF THE CONSOLIDATED ENERGY SYSTEM OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known increase of the specific electricity production based on the heat consumption. Because of this the steam-turbine condensation units which are the traditional capacity regulators for the energy systems with heat power plants dominance are being pushed out of operation. In consequence of this complex of changes the issue of load diagram provision gains momentum which in evidence is relevant to the Consolidated Energy System of Belarus. One of the ways to alleviate acuteness of the problem could be the specific electric energy production cut on the CHP heat consumption with preserving the heat loads and without their handover to the heat generating capacities of direct combustion i.e. without fuel over-burning. The solution lies in integrating the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump units into the CHP thermal scheme. Through their agency low-temperature heat streams of the generator cooling, the lubrication and condensation heat-extraction of steam minimal passing to the condenser systems are utilized. As a case study the authors choose one of the CHPs in the conditions of which the corresponding employment of the said pumps leads to diminution of the fuel-equivalent specific flow-rate by 20−25 g for 1 kW⋅h production and conjoined electric energy generation capacity lowering. The latter will be handed over to other generating capacities, and the choice of them affects economic expediency of the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump-units installation

  7. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF 3D SUB-SURFACE MAPPING SCHEME AND ITS APPLICATION TO MARTIAN LOBATE DEBRIS APRONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Baik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD, a sounding radar equipped on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO, has produced highly valuable information about the Martian subsurface. In particular, the complicated substructures of Mars such as polar deposit, pedestal crater and the other geomorphic features involving possible subsurface ice body has been successfully investigated by SHARAD. In this study, we established a 3D subsurface mapping strategy employing the multiple SHARAD profiles. A number of interpretation components of SHARAD signals were integrated into a subsurface mapping scheme using radargram information and topographic data, then applied over a few mid latitude Lobate Debris Aprons (LDAs. From the identified subsurface layers of LDA, and the GIS data base incorporating the other interpretation outcomes, we are expecting to trace the origin of LDAs. Also, the subsurface mapping scheme developed in this study will be further applied to other interesting Martian geological features such as inter crater structures, aeolian deposits and fluvial sediments. To achieve higher precision sub-surface mapping, the clutter simulation employing the high resolution topographic data and the upgraded clustering algorithms assuming multiple sub-surface layers will be also developed.

  9. The Development of 3d Sub-Surface Mapping Scheme and its Application to Martian Lobate Debris Aprons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, H.; Kim, J.

    2017-07-01

    The Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), a sounding radar equipped on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), has produced highly valuable information about the Martian subsurface. In particular, the complicated substructures of Mars such as polar deposit, pedestal crater and the other geomorphic features involving possible subsurface ice body has been successfully investigated by SHARAD. In this study, we established a 3D subsurface mapping strategy employing the multiple SHARAD profiles. A number of interpretation components of SHARAD signals were integrated into a subsurface mapping scheme using radargram information and topographic data, then applied over a few mid latitude Lobate Debris Aprons (LDAs). From the identified subsurface layers of LDA, and the GIS data base incorporating the other interpretation outcomes, we are expecting to trace the origin of LDAs. Also, the subsurface mapping scheme developed in this study will be further applied to other interesting Martian geological features such as inter crater structures, aeolian deposits and fluvial sediments. To achieve higher precision sub-surface mapping, the clutter simulation employing the high resolution topographic data and the upgraded clustering algorithms assuming multiple sub-surface layers will be also developed.

  10. A new approach to develop computer-aided diagnosis scheme of breast mass classification using deep learning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Yan, Shiju; Gundreddy, Rohith Reddy; Wang, Yunzhi; Cheng, Samuel; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    To develop and test a deep learning based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme of mammograms for classifying between malignant and benign masses. An image dataset involving 560 regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from digital mammograms was used. After down-sampling each ROI from 512×512 to 64×64 pixel size, we applied an 8 layer deep learning network that involves 3 pairs of convolution-max-pooling layers for automatic feature extraction and a multiple layer perceptron (MLP) classifier for feature categorization to process ROIs. The 3 pairs of convolution layers contain 20, 10, and 5 feature maps, respectively. Each convolution layer is connected with a max-pooling layer to improve the feature robustness. The output of the sixth layer is fully connected with a MLP classifier, which is composed of one hidden layer and one logistic regression layer. The network then generates a classification score to predict the likelihood of ROI depicting a malignant mass. A four-fold cross validation method was applied to train and test this deep learning network. The results revealed that this CAD scheme yields an area under the receiver operation characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.696±0.044, 0.802±0.037, 0.836±0.036, and 0.822±0.035 for fold 1 to 4 testing datasets, respectively. The overall AUC of the entire dataset is 0.790±0.019. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a deep learning based CAD scheme to classify between malignant and benign breast masses without a lesion segmentation, image feature computation and selection process.

  11. Development of a Model for a Cordon Pricing Scheme Considering Environmental Equity: A Case Study of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Afandizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Congestion pricing strategy has been recognized as an effective countermeasure in the practical field of urban traffic congestion mitigation. Despite the positive effects of congestion pricing, its implementation has faced problems. This paper investigates the issue of environmental equity in cordon pricing and a park-and-ride scheme. Although pollution decreases inside the cordon by implementation of cordon pricing, air pollutants emission may increase in some links and in the whole network. Therefore, an increase in air emissions in the network means more emission outside the cordon. In fact, due to the implementation of this policy, air pollutants emission may transfer from inside to outside the cordon, creating a type of environmental inequity. To reduce this inequity, a bi-level optimization model with an equity constraint is developed. The proposed solution algorithm based on the second version of the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2 is applied to the city network in Tehran. The results revealed that it seems reasonable to consider environmental equity as an objective function in cordon pricing. In addition, we can create a sustainable situation for the transportation system by improving environmental inequity with a relatively low reduction in social welfare. Moreover, there are environmental inequity impacts in real networks, which should be considered in the cordon pricing scheme.

  12. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  13. Women in Science and Technology: A Global Development Leadership Pilot Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Sarah; Howe-Walsh, Liza; Shute, Janis

    2014-01-01

    In 2012 The University of Portsmouth piloted their first Global Development Leadership program for women in Science and Technology faculties. This was seen to be particularly important because of the wider under-representation of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM) and the need to encourage more women into senior positions…

  14. Impression management : developing and illustrating a scheme of analysis for narrative disclosures – a methodological note

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Niamh; Guillamon-Saorin, Encarna; Pierce, Aileen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This paper develops a holistic measure for analysing impression management and for detecting bias introduced into corporate narratives as a result of impression management. Design/methodology/approach – Prior research on the seven impression management methods in the literature is summarised. Four of the less-researched methods are described in detail, and are illustrated with examples from UK Annual Results’ Press Releases (ARPRs). A method of computing a holistic composite impr...

  15. Role of proper response schemes, legislation and regional cooperation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzov, A.

    2002-01-01

    proper model scheme for the developing countries is important for starting the initial process of preventing and combating the illicit traffic of nuclear materials. There is a need of reinforcing strategy to control the existing stockpiles of fissile material and to lower the future production and use of such materials. The illicit traffic of nuclear materials is a new threat, which requires rapid implementation of comprehensive, mutually measures and efforts, new approaches, coordination of services and institutions and even new legislation. IV. Action Scheme for illicit radioactive or nuclear material It was felt that the application of a new model scheme would allow better and quicker response of Bulgarian capabilities for combating illicit nuclear trafficking. First Step 1. Health physics analysis (gamma and neutron dose) 2. Preservation of evidence (proper protocols adopted by the law enforcement forces) Second Step 1. NDA analysis to categorize the radioactive material on site: radioactive, non-fissile material; nuclear fuel ( 235 U content less 20 %); Pu and/or enriched U ( 235 U content higher 20 %) 2. Ge(Li) high Resolution Gamma Spectroscopy 3. Passive Neutron interrogation for Pu Third Step 1. In-Depth Analysis by Specialized laboratory: Analysis of the matrix, of packaging material; element composition of nuclear material; impurities, traces etc. V. Setting up a Legal and Administrative Frame. The creation and proposition of a model scheme procedure for the developing countries is important for starting the initial process of preventing and combating the illicit traffic of nuclear materials. The proposition of a model procedure will allow better and quicker upgrade of developing countries capabilities for combating illicit nuclear trafficking. It is also important to initiate the contacts between neighbouring countries by regional collaboration of law enforcement authorities, customs, analytical laboratories etc. which will make combating illicit trafficking

  16. Development of a Cloud Forecast Scheme for the GL Baseline Global Spectral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-20

    Kaplan et al. ’ 3 ). Furthermore, in response to large moist biases in early GL assimilation experiments, GL developed improved methods for vertically...139, ADA179792. 13 Kaplan , L.D., Hoffman, R.N., Isaacs, R.G., Rosen, R.D., Salstein, D.A., and Wang, W.-C. (1983) Outlook for Improved Numerical...agreement between the total cloud 1t0r-cas- h )i it o’lei and (s1,,erved total Cloud arnounts (in terms of cloud cima - toiogles and 5,,~eh.oiiiprnsoiis

  17. Developing a computationally efficient dynamic multilevel hybrid optimization scheme using multifidelity model interactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Castro, Joseph Pete Jr. (; .); Giunta, Anthony Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Many engineering application problems use optimization algorithms in conjunction with numerical simulators to search for solutions. The formulation of relevant objective functions and constraints dictate possible optimization algorithms. Often, a gradient based approach is not possible since objective functions and constraints can be nonlinear, nonconvex, non-differentiable, or even discontinuous and the simulations involved can be computationally expensive. Moreover, computational efficiency and accuracy are desirable and also influence the choice of solution method. With the advent and increasing availability of massively parallel computers, computational speed has increased tremendously. Unfortunately, the numerical and model complexities of many problems still demand significant computational resources. Moreover, in optimization, these expenses can be a limiting factor since obtaining solutions often requires the completion of numerous computationally intensive simulations. Therefore, we propose a multifidelity optimization algorithm (MFO) designed to improve the computational efficiency of an optimization method for a wide range of applications. In developing the MFO algorithm, we take advantage of the interactions between multi fidelity models to develop a dynamic and computational time saving optimization algorithm. First, a direct search method is applied to the high fidelity model over a reduced design space. In conjunction with this search, a specialized oracle is employed to map the design space of this high fidelity model to that of a computationally cheaper low fidelity model using space mapping techniques. Then, in the low fidelity space, an optimum is obtained using gradient or non-gradient based optimization, and it is mapped back to the high fidelity space. In this paper, we describe the theory and implementation details of our MFO algorithm. We also demonstrate our MFO method on some example problems and on two applications: earth penetrators and

  18. Development of urban bird indicators using data from monitoring schemes in two large European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrando, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bird monitoring projects have provided valuable data for developing biological indicators to evaluate the state of natural and agricultural habitats. However, fewer advances have been made in urban environments. In this study we used bird monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 in two cities with different climates (Brussels and Barcelona, to generate two multi–species urban indicators to evaluate temporal trends on abundance of urban avifauna. To do this we used two different conceptual approaches, one based on a list of widespread species in European cities (WSEC and another based exclusively on species widespread at city level (WCS regardless of the birds occurring in other cities. The two indicators gave a similar general pattern, although we found a 3% difference in the mean annual change in both cities, thus suggesting that the values provided by urban indicators may differ depending on the conceptual approach and, hence, by the species list used to generate them. However, both indicators may have their own value and could be treated as complementary indices.

  19. Development and testing of an aerosol-stratus cloud parameterization scheme for middle and high latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, P.Q.; Meyers, M.P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Cotton, W.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The aim of this new project is to develop an aerosol/cloud microphysics parameterization of mixed-phase stratus and boundary layer clouds. Our approach is to create, test, and implement a bulk-microphysics/aerosol model using data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites and large-eddy simulation (LES) explicit bin-resolving aerosol/microphysics models. The primary objectives of this work are twofold. First, we need the prediction of number concentrations of activated aerosol which are transferred to the droplet spectrum, so that the aerosol population directly affects the cloud formation and microphysics. Second, we plan to couple the aerosol model to the gas and aqueous-chemistry module that will drive the aerosol formation and growth. We begin by exploring the feasibility of performing cloud-resolving simulations of Arctic stratus clouds over the North Slope CART site. These simulations using Colorado State University`s regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) will be useful in designing the structure of the cloud-resolving model and in interpreting data acquired at the North Slope site.

  20. Development of Non-staggered, SMAC numerical scheme for a two-fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, H. Y.; Jeong, Jae Jun

    2007-06-01

    The SMAC(Simplified Marker And Cell) method, along with the SIMPLE, has long been used efficiently for the computational fluid dynamics. Usually, the majority of the applications are single phase compressible or incompressible fluids, and the numerical methods are to be modified to implement the following items for the analysis of two-phase flows. - Non-staggered grid for the analysis of a complex geometry - Application of the two-phase models - Coupling of the energy conservation equations - Two-phase flows with phase change. In this report, the SMAC Method is reviewed and extended to compressible two-phase flows with phase change. A pilot code CUPID-M is developed using the proposed numerical method. A set of verification calculations are carried out for th CUPID-M. At first, isothermal air-water flow is simulated to verify the numerical method against two-phase flow flow problems. Next, the two-phase flows with phase change are calculated using CUPID-M and the results are compared to that of CUPID-I, which is based on the coupled ICE method. The calculation time is shorter with CUPID-M than with CUPID-I, while the calculations are unstable with CUPID-M for the rapid phase change problems. Thus, CUPID-M and CUPID-I can be used as an user input considering the application problems

  1. SERS Sensors: Recent Developments and a Generalized Classification Scheme Based on the Signal Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xin; Trujillo, Michael J; Olson, Jacob E; Camden, Jon P

    2018-03-16

    Owing to its extreme sensitivity and easy execution, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) now finds application for a wide variety of problems requiring sensitive and targeted analyte detection. This widespread application has prompted a proliferation of different SERS-based sensors, suggesting the need for a framework to classify existing methods and guide the development of new techniques. After a brief discussion of the general SERS modalities, we classify SERS-based sensors according the origin of the signal. Three major categories emerge from this analysis: surface-affinity strategy, SERS-tag strategy, and probe-mediated strategy. For each case, we describe the mechanism of action, give selected examples, and point out general misconceptions to aid the construction of new devices.Wehope this review serves as a useful tutorial guide and helps readers to better classify and design practical and effective SERS-based sensors. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry Volume 11 is June 12, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  2. Recent Developments on the Silicon Drift Detector readout scheme for the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, G; Bonazzola, G C; Bonvicini, V; Cavagnino, D; Cerello, P G; De Remigis, P; Falchieri, D; Gabrielli, A; Gandolfi, E; Giubellino, P; Hernández, R; Masetti, M; Montaño-Zetina, L M; Nouais, D; Rashevsky, A; Rivetti, A; Tosello, F

    1999-01-01

    Proposal of abstract for LEB99, Snowmass, Colorado, 20-24 September 1999Recent developments of the Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) readout system for the ALICE Experiment are presented. The foreseen readout system is based on 2 main units. The first unit consists of a low noise preamplifier, an analog memory which continuously samples the amplifier output, an A/D converter and a digital memory. When the trigger signal validates the analog data, the ADCs convert the samples into a digital form and store them into the digital memory. The second unit performs the zero suppression/data compression operations. In this paper the status of the design is presented, together with the test results of the A/D converter, the multi-event buffer and the compression unit prototype.Summary:In the Inner Tracker System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment the third and the fourth layer of the detectors are SDDs. These detectors provide the measurement of both the energy deposition and the bi-dimensional position of the track. In terms o...

  3. Development of a monitoring scheme for preventive maintenance of the cement machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajjaji, Malek; Boubeker, Brahim; Eljoumani, Safia; Zamma, Abdellah; Idiri, Mohamed; Atik, Hafsa

    2016-01-01

    It was underscored that the optimization of policies of preventive maintenance has become a subject of much research. This article proposes a new optimal policy of preventive maintenance for the roller shaft system. It is divided into two main sections. The first proposes a new design of the shaft where the effect of preventive maintenance is integrated, and the second is developing a new control technique adapted to the new design. In this regard, we are interested in the shaft of rollers of the rotary kilns of cement. We have noted the stresses imposed to the axis of the roller. These constraints that have stemmed from the contact between tire and its support rollers. Currently the ultrasonic inspection method of the solid shaft in this situation poses disadvantages, for example, the obligation to stop the rotary Kiln and the difficulty of detecting and sizing defects (fatigue cracks). We propose in this study another approach, we recommend opting for a hollow shaft instead of a solid shaft with a minimum diameter that allows the control system to enter hollow shaft to show for inspection purposes. This will allow preventive control, in operation by the non-destructive technique of ultrasound. The analysis shows the different results of comparison between the axis of full and hollow cylinders, having the same dimensions and the same material and ultimately the most interesting is the same operation.

  4. Development of an Accident Diagnostic Scheme Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, M. G.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, D. S.; No, Y. G.; Lee, S. W. [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, K. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    As a means to effectively manage the severe nuclear accidents, it is important to identify and diagnose the accident initiating events during an initial short time interval after the accidents by observing the major controlling parameters. Main objective of this study is to develop the diagnostic approach for the accurate prediction of accident initiating events using artificial intelligence techniques. For this, first, a variety of artificial intelligence techniques such as Finn, Gmbh, and Sm were examined through this study. Among them, Sc and Gmbh model were assessed as a useful approach to predict the break location and the break size of Local. In order to verify the proposed algorithm, the 111 accident simulation data (based on Map) were applied to train the Sc and Gmbh models, and the test data was used to independently verify whether or not the SVC and GMDH models work well. The analysis of the maximum errors and RMS errors, and the performance of the GMDH according to the existence of measurement errors and SIS actuation showed that the proposed SVC and GMDH models can accurately classify the break locations and accurately predict the break size. As the time-integrated signals were used for inputs into the GMDH model within a period of 60 second after a reactor scram, the actuation of the safety systems such as safety injection system (SIS), auxiliary feed water system, and containment spray system, were not considered in this study. It is because the initial 60 second time-integrated signals were used and the safety systems usually start to actuate after a more than 60 second time delay after the reactor scram

  5. Development of an Accident Diagnostic Scheme Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, M. G.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, D. S.; No, Y. G.; Lee, S. W.; Ahn, K. I.

    2010-06-01

    As a means to effectively manage the severe nuclear accidents, it is important to identify and diagnose the accident initiating events during an initial short time interval after the accidents by observing the major controlling parameters. Main objective of this study is to develop the diagnostic approach for the accurate prediction of accident initiating events using artificial intelligence techniques. For this, first, a variety of artificial intelligence techniques such as Finn, Gmbh, and Sm were examined through this study. Among them, Sc and Gmbh model were assessed as a useful approach to predict the break location and the break size of Local. In order to verify the proposed algorithm, the 111 accident simulation data (based on Map) were applied to train the Sc and Gmbh models, and the test data was used to independently verify whether or not the SVC and GMDH models work well. The analysis of the maximum errors and RMS errors, and the performance of the GMDH according to the existence of measurement errors and SIS actuation showed that the proposed SVC and GMDH models can accurately classify the break locations and accurately predict the break size. As the time-integrated signals were used for inputs into the GMDH model within a period of 60 second after a reactor scram, the actuation of the safety systems such as safety injection system (SIS), auxiliary feed water system, and containment spray system, were not considered in this study. It is because the initial 60 second time-integrated signals were used and the safety systems usually start to actuate after a more than 60 second time delay after the reactor scram

  6. Development scheme of the public power transportation network; Le schema de developpement du reseau public de transport d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Article 14 of the modified law from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric utility foresees that the development scheme of the public power transportation network is regularly submitted to the approval of the ministry of energy after advice from the energy regulation commission. The development scheme identifies the areas of 'power fragility' with respect to the existing or future constraints susceptible to occur at the short- or medium-term on the French power grid. This document comprises the text of the law 2000-108 from February 10, 2000, and the complete development scheme with its appendixes (regulatory and administrative context relative to network projects, constraints relative to each administrative region). (J.S.)

  7. Scheme for development of monitoring networks for springs in Bavaria, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Steffen; Einsiedl, Florian; Wohnlich, Stefan

    2001-03-01

    The present groundwater monitoring network in Bavaria consists mostly of wells and only a small number of natural groundwater springs, all of which are analyzed for mainly the common physical and chemical constituents in groundwater. In order to develop a long-term groundwater management plan for all the groundwater resources of Bavaria, the Bavarian State Office for Water Management intends to establish a separate spring-monitoring network throughout the 11 groundwater provinces of the state. As a first step, significant physicochemical parameters that show considerable annual fluctuation (after monitoring 1-3 years) were determined at 21 springs or spring systems to create a basic data set to guide future monitoring. A selection procedure was developed around four parameters: (1) geological units, which includes the principal aquifers; (2) rate of spring discharge; (3) land utilization within a catchment; and (4) approximate size of the subterranean catchment. However, in the initial phase of the study, only the first three parameters were investigated. These parameters established a matrix for evaluating each groundwater region of Bavaria to aid in the selection of additional springs for the proposed monitoring network. Résumé. Le réseau actuel de surveillance des eaux souterraines en Bavière consiste surtout en des puits avec seulement un petit nombre de sources, tous analysés pour l'essentiel pour les composants courants physiques et chimiques des eaux souterraines. Afin de développer un plan de gestion à long terme des eaux souterraines de la Bavière, l'Office bavarois pour la gestion de l'eau cherche à mettre en place un réseau séparé de surveillance des sources dans les onze provinces hydrogéologiques du lander. Dans un premier temps, les paramètres physico-chimiques significatifs qui présentent des variations annuelles considérables, après 1 à 3 ans de surveillance, ont été déterminés à 21 sources ou groupes de sources pour

  8. Security problem on arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Woon [Emerging Technology R and D Center, SK Telecom, Kyunggi 463-784 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Ku-Young; Hong, Dowon [Cryptography Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Many arbitrated quantum signature schemes implemented with the help of a trusted third party have been developed up to now. In order to guarantee unconditional security, most of them take advantage of the optimal quantum one-time encryption based on Pauli operators. However, in this paper we point out that the previous schemes provide security only against a total break attack and show in fact that there exists an existential forgery attack that can validly modify the transmitted pair of message and signature. In addition, we also provide a simple method to recover security against the proposed attack.

  9. Involvement of local stakeholders in the development of new information schemes for the displaying of environmental radiological monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollinger, Francoise; Lebeau, Audrey; Petitfrere, Michael; Eimer, Michel; Ganay, Claude de; Gadbois, Serge; Leprieur, Fabrice; Vaillant, Ludovic

    2008-01-01

    Evolution of radionuclides concentration in the environment and associated potential health impacts are key and legitimate questions for the population living around nuclear facilities. In spite of the efforts from authorities, public experts and operators to make this information available and understandable, mainly through Local Liaison Committees (LLC), the way it is usually formalized makes it difficult to meet non-expert expectations. In this context, the IRSN launched a pilot project in the Loire Valley to define new schemes for the displaying of this information. This project brings together representatives from LLCs - local elected people, trade unions and environmental NGOs -, experts from the IRSN - environment and radiation protection departments - and facilitators - CEPN and MUTADIS -. Its objectives are: 1-) To identify all nuclear facilities and producers of measurements in the environment within the Valley; 2-) To clearly define local population expectations regards environmental radiological survey; 3-) To select adequate measurements values and presentational schemes; 4-) To provide recommendations regarding the environment monitoring strategy. This project is also connected with the French national measurement network. Within this national network, the IRSN is in charge of developing a database that brings together all the results from environmental radiological monitoring, in order to provide all these data to the population, including elements about impacts on human health. This network will take advantage of the work achieved within the pilot project. The facilitation process mainly consisted in fostering relations of trust (notably with the preparation of detailed minutes of the project meetings), and supporting both local stakeholders and IRSN experts in the project management and the development of a common language at the crossroad between scientific and technical knowledge and local actors' understanding of their own environment. This

  10. Development of a 3D cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for the numerical modeling of the gas dynamics and hyper-elasticity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) flows are multi-material flows characterized by strong shock waves and large changes in the domain shape due to rare faction waves. Numerical schemes based on the Lagrangian formalism are good candidates to model this kind of flows since the computational grid follows the fluid motion. This provides accurate results around the shocks as well as a natural tracking of multi-material interfaces and free-surfaces. In particular, cell-centered Finite Volume Lagrangian schemes such as GLACE (Godunov-type Lagrangian scheme Conservative for total Energy) and EUCCLHYD (Explicit Unstructured Cell-Centered Lagrangian Hydrodynamics) provide good results on both the modeling of gas dynamics and elastic-plastic equations. The work produced during this PhD thesis is in continuity with the work of Maire and Nkonga [JCP, 2009] for the hydrodynamic part and the work of Kluth and Despres [JCP, 2010] for the hyper elasticity part. More precisely, the aim of this thesis is to develop robust and accurate methods for the 3D extension of the EUCCLHYD scheme with a second-order extension based on MUSCL (Monotonic Upstream-centered Scheme for Conservation Laws) and GRP (Generalized Riemann Problem) procedures. A particular care is taken on the preservation of symmetries and the monotonicity of the solutions. The scheme robustness and accuracy are assessed on numerous Lagrangian test cases for which the 3D extensions are very challenging. (author) [fr

  11. Two schemes of intellectual development: A comparison of development as defined by william perry and jean piaget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bruce; Donovan, Michael P.; Kelsey, Linda J.; Paterson, John; Statkiewicz, Walter; Allen, Robert D.

    The theories of Jean Piaget and William Perry provide two different theories of intellectual development with several similiarities, but also with critical differences. In this study a comparison was made to determine whether the two theories describe operation of the same mental structures or two fundamentally different aspects of intellectual development. The results, based upon individual interviews of all participants, indicate that the two theories outline different and independent processes for assessing intellectual development.

  12. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  13. Using polarimetric radar observations and probabilistic inference to develop the Bayesian Observationally-constrained Statistical-physical Scheme (BOSS), a novel microphysical parameterization framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier-Walqui, M.; Morrison, H.; Kumjian, M. R.; Prat, O. P.

    2016-12-01

    Microphysical parameterization schemes have reached an impressive level of sophistication: numerous prognostic hydrometeor categories, and either size-resolved (bin) particle size distributions, or multiple prognostic moments of the size distribution. Yet, uncertainty in model representation of microphysical processes and the effects of microphysics on numerical simulation of weather has not shown a improvement commensurate with the advanced sophistication of these schemes. We posit that this may be caused by unconstrained assumptions of these schemes, such as ad-hoc parameter value choices and structural uncertainties (e.g. choice of a particular form for the size distribution). We present work on development and observational constraint of a novel microphysical parameterization approach, the Bayesian Observationally-constrained Statistical-physical Scheme (BOSS), which seeks to address these sources of uncertainty. Our framework avoids unnecessary a priori assumptions, and instead relies on observations to provide probabilistic constraint of the scheme structure and sensitivities to environmental and microphysical conditions. We harness the rich microphysical information content of polarimetric radar observations to develop and constrain BOSS within a Bayesian inference framework using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler (see Kumjian et al., this meeting for details on development of an associated polarimetric forward operator). Our work shows how knowledge of microphysical processes is provided by polarimetric radar observations of diverse weather conditions, and which processes remain highly uncertain, even after considering observations.

  14. Anthropometric Profile of Children Attending Anganwadi Centers under Integrated Child Development Sevices (ICDS Scheme in Doiwala Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Deep Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In any community, Mothers and Children constitutes not only priority group, but they are also a “Vulnerable” or “Special-risk Group”. Similarly in India our biggest problem is malnutrition among under five year old children. To break the vicious cycle of malnutrition, morbidity reduced learning capacity and mortality India launched the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Scheme in 1975. It is the foremost symbol of India’s commitment to her children Rationale: Forty percent of the world's severely under-nourished under-five children live in India so the present study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of children availing the services under Integrated Child Development Service Scheme in Uttarakhand. Objective: To estimate the level of nutrition in children attending Anganwadi centers of Doiwala block. Methods: Out of these Seven ICDS project areas, Doiwala Block was chosen for the study purpose since it is also the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, HIMS. 19 AWC was selected by using Simple Random Sampling technique in Doiwala block. All the children aged between 3- 6years attending Anganwadi centers were included in community based, cross sectional study. Predesigned pretested anthropometric survey tool with local adaptability and minor modification for local suitability was adopted to collect information pertaining to growth monitoring of the children [Adopted from WHO child growth standard 2006]. Children were weighed, and their height and MUAC were recorded. Weight for age, height for age and MUAC for age was calculated using WHO growth references .Nutritional status according to the WHO Child Growth Standards was analysed using WHO Anthro statistical software. Results: 200 children were surveyed. From the total population 110 are males and 90 are females. After the analysis of weight for age with anthro software it was found that 20.9% of children lie within -2 SD with a mean

  15. Two Schemes of Intellectual Development: A Comparison of Development as Defined by William Perry and Jean Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bruce; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of the theories of Jean Piaget and William Perry (using individual interviews with college students) shows that the two theories outline different and independent processes for assessing intellectual development. (JN)

  16. Development zoning scheme of the territory of the projected national park "Orilskyi" in order to optimize the structure of natureusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelens'ka L.I.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The scheme planning of land reserved for the creation of a national park "Orilskyi" within Shulhivskoyi village council Petrikov district of Dnipropetrovsk region, which is based on a functional concept of territory planning. Dedicated areas protected mode, recreational and economic of subzones. Grounded floral-faunistic value protected territory types rationalization of nature. The results introduced in local government institutions for the planning scheme area.

  17. Development and validation of calculation schemes dedicated to the interpretation of small reactivity effects for nuclear data improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruel, A.

    2011-01-01

    Reactivity measurements by the oscillation technique, as those performed in the Minerve reactor, enable to access various neutronic parameters on materials, fuels or specific isotopes. Usually, expected reactivity effects are small, about ten pcm at maximum. Then, the modeling of these experiments should be very precise, to obtain reliable feedback on the pointed parameters. Especially, calculation biases should be precisely identified, quantified and reduced to get precise information on nuclear data. The goal of this thesis is to develop a reference calculation scheme, with well quantified uncertainties, for in-pile oscillation experiments. In this work are presented several small reactivity calculation methods, based on deterministic and/or stochastic calculation codes. Those method are compared thanks to a numerical benchmark, against a reference calculation. Three applications of these methods are presented here: a purely deterministic calculation with exact perturbation theory formalism is used for the experimental validation of fission product cross sections, in the frame of reactivity loss studies for irradiated fuel; an hybrid method, based on a stochastic calculation and the exact perturbation theory is used for the readjustment of nuclear data, here 241 Am; and a third method, based on a perturbative Monte Carlo calculation, is used in a conception study. (author) [fr

  18. Challenges of a common climate policy. An analysis of the development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufenanger, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    The emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) adopted by the European Union in 2003 was a new instrument for the EU and its Member States. It is one of the most important strategies of achieving the EU's greenhouse gas reduction target under the Kyoto Protocol. This book analyses the policy cycle of the EU ETS Directive, focusing on the crucial implementation phase. The revised EU ETS Directive of 2009 includes significant changes for greater ecological effectiveness, changes that were unlikely to have been adopted in 2003. It is evident that the experiences of the first phase influenced not only the second implementation phase but also the revision. The intensive learning process that took place on all levels was necessary to overcome institutional constraints so that the EU ETS could be successfully established and further developed. The EU ETS policy-making is a good example to demonstrate that output legitimacy challenges input legitimacy. With the centralisation of the EU ETS in 2013 it is likely to become a more effective system; however, the legislators from the Member States may lose influence. This problem will have to be addressed.

  19. Rural development scheme of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited - A study on its growth, effectiveness and prospect in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the people of Bangladesh are living under poverty line. To alleviate poverty, thousands of NGOs and GOs have been working since the inception of the Bangladesh. But the success rate of these programs appears to be insignificant. Rural Development Scheme (RDS being a shariah and teaching of Islam based technique has been introduced in order to graduate the rural poor from poverty trap by bringing them in the main stream of economy by providing micro-credit and teaching for value creation. The present study has been undertaken aiming at evaluating the effectiveness of the program and its prospect. It has collected both primary and secondary data, and analyzed these with the help of both financial and statistical techniques. The findings of the study are: the growth performance of RDS in important parameters are robust across study period, and RDS influence the income and income generating activities of borrowing members significantly. Finally the study has put forward some logical suggestions for enhancing the sustainability as well as robustness of the program.

  20. Combining feed-in tariffs and net-metering schemes to balance development in adoption of photovoltaic energy: Comparative economic assessment and policy implications for European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez, F. Javier; Honrubia-Escribano, A.; Gómez-Lázaro, E.; Pham, Duc T.

    2017-01-01

    In the last fifteen years, Europe has been involved in the major development of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy. The Kyoto Protocol requirements and the European Union (EU) directives to promote the use of renewable energy sources (RES) together with environmental policies introduced for the development and use of alternative energies have generated a large number of market opportunities for this sector. Differences in the application of energy policies have caused significant imbalances in electricity systems and distortion of electricity prices. The main concern of governments is to define the support schemes to be used and how to combine them in the most profitable manner. The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative cost-effectiveness assessment using feed-in tariffs (FiT) and net-metering (NM) schemes in some representative EU countries. The authors have developed an economic model to evaluate the profitability of PV projects combining these support schemes. Results show not only the circumstances under which solar energy is economically profitable, but also the kind of PV systems, locations, minimum levels of tariff prices and specific combination of support schemes that should be promoted. - Highlights: • Comparative cost-effectiveness assessment combining FiT and NM support schemes. • A minimum FiT is proposed in addition to traditional financial performance indicators. • Results show the specific combinations of support schemes that should be promoted. • This work can aid efficient energy policy making. • Model could be applied to other types of RES projects and other geographical areas.

  1. A stable penalty method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations: II: One-dimensional domain decomposition schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesthaven, Jan

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents asymptotically stable schemes for patching of nonoverlapping subdomains when approximating the compressible Navier-Stokes equations given on conservation form. The scheme is a natural extension of a previously proposed scheme for enforcing open boundary conditions and as a res......This paper presents asymptotically stable schemes for patching of nonoverlapping subdomains when approximating the compressible Navier-Stokes equations given on conservation form. The scheme is a natural extension of a previously proposed scheme for enforcing open boundary conditions...... and as a result the patching of subdomains is local in space. The scheme is studied in detail for Burgers's equation and developed for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. The versatility of the proposed scheme for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is illustrated...

  2. Development of a thermal scheme for a cogeneration combined-cycle unit with an SVBR-100 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Dudolin, A. A.; Krasheninnikov, S. M.

    2017-02-01

    At present, the prospects for development of district heating that can increase the effectiveness of nuclear power stations (NPS), cut down their payback period, and improve protection of the environment against harmful emissions are being examined in the nuclear power industry of Russia. It is noted that the efficiency of nuclear cogeneration power stations (NCPS) is drastically affected by the expenses for heat networks and heat losses during transportation of a heat carrier through them, since NPSs are usually located far away from urban area boundaries as required for radiation safety of the population. The prospects for using cogeneration power units with small or medium power reactors at NPSs, including combined-cycle units and their performance indices, are described. The developed thermal scheme of a cogeneration combined-cycle unit (CCU) with an SBVR-100 nuclear reactor (NCCU) is presented. This NCCU should use a GE 6FA gasturbine unit (GTU) and a steam-turbine unit (STU) with a two-stage district heating plant. Saturated steam from the nuclear reactor is superheated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) to 560-580°C so that a separator-superheater can be excluded from the thermal cycle of the turbine unit. In addition, supplemental fuel firing in HRSG is examined. NCCU effectiveness indices are given as a function of the ambient air temperature. Results of calculations of the thermal cycle performance under condensing operating conditions indicate that the gross electric efficiency η el NCCU gr of = 48% and N el NCCU gr = 345 MW can be achieved. This efficiency is at maximum for NCCU with an SVBR-100 reactor. The conclusion is made that the cost of NCCU installed kW should be estimated, and the issue associated with NCCUs siting with reference to urban area boundaries must be solved.

  3. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  4. Performance comparison of binary modulation schemes for visible light communication

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2015-09-11

    In this paper, we investigate the power spectral density of several binary modulation schemes including variable on-off keying, variable pulse position modulation, and pulse dual slope modulation which were previously proposed for visible light communication with dimming control. We also propose a novel slope-based modulation called differential chip slope modulation (DCSM) and develop a chip-based hard-decision receiver to demodulate the resulting signal, detect the chip sequence, and decode the input bit sequence. We show that the DCSM scheme can exploit spectrum density more efficiently than the reference schemes while providing an error rate performance comparable to them. © 2015 IEEE.

  5. Ameloblastic fibroma: a stage in the development of a hamartomatous odontoma or a true neoplasm? Critical analysis of 162 previously reported cases plus 10 new cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Amos; Vered, Marilena

    2013-11-01

    To analyze neoplastic and hamartomatous variants of ameloblastic fibromas (AFs). Analysis of 172 cases (162 previously reported, 10 new). AF emerged as a lesion primarily of children and adolescents (mean age, 14.9 years), with about 80% diagnosed when odontogenesis is completed (age, 22 years are considered true neoplasms, while those in younger patients may be either true neoplasms or odontomas in early stages of development. Although the histopathology of hamartomatous and neoplastic variants of AF are indistinguishable, clinical and radiologic features can be of some help to distinguish between them. Asymptomatic small unilocular lesions with no or minimal bone expansion in young individuals are likely to be developing odontomas, and large, expansile lesions with extensive bone destruction are neoplasms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interpreting "Personality" Taxonomies: Why Previous Models Cannot Capture Individual-Specific Experiencing, Behaviour, Functioning and Development. Major Taxonomic Tasks Still Lay Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    As science seeks to make generalisations, a science of individual peculiarities encounters intricate challenges. This article explores these challenges by applying the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) and by exploring taxonomic "personality" research as an example. Analyses of researchers' interpretations of the taxonomic "personality" models, constructs and data that have been generated in the field reveal widespread erroneous assumptions about the abilities of previous methodologies to appropriately represent individual-specificity in the targeted phenomena. These assumptions, rooted in everyday thinking, fail to consider that individual-specificity and others' minds cannot be directly perceived, that abstract descriptions cannot serve as causal explanations, that between-individual structures cannot be isomorphic to within-individual structures, and that knowledge of compositional structures cannot explain the process structures of their functioning and development. These erroneous assumptions and serious methodological deficiencies in widely used standardised questionnaires have effectively prevented psychologists from establishing taxonomies that can comprehensively model individual-specificity in most of the kinds of phenomena explored as "personality", especially in experiencing and behaviour and in individuals' functioning and development. Contrary to previous assumptions, it is not universal models but rather different kinds of taxonomic models that are required for each of the different kinds of phenomena, variations and structures that are commonly conceived of as "personality". Consequently, to comprehensively explore individual-specificity, researchers have to apply a portfolio of complementary methodologies and develop different kinds of taxonomies, most of which have yet to be developed. Closing, the article derives some meta-desiderata for future research on individuals' "personality".

  7. Economic evaluation of progeny-testing and genomic selection schemes for small-sized nucleus dairy cattle breeding programs in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, C M; Brascamp, E W; Komen, H; Kahi, A K; van Arendonk, J A M

    2017-03-01

    In developing countries minimal and erratic performance and pedigree recording impede implementation of large-sized breeding programs. Small-sized nucleus programs offer an alternative but rely on their economic performance for their viability. We investigated the economic performance of 2 alternative small-sized dairy nucleus programs [i.e., progeny testing (PT) and genomic selection (GS)] over a 20-yr investment period. The nucleus was made up of 453 male and 360 female animals distributed in 8 non-overlapping age classes. Each year 10 active sires and 100 elite dams were selected. Populations of commercial recorded cows (CRC) of sizes 12,592 and 25,184 were used to produce test daughters in PT or to create a reference population in GS, respectively. Economic performance was defined as gross margins, calculated as discounted revenues minus discounted costs following a single generation of selection. Revenues were calculated as cumulative discounted expressions (CDE, kg) × 0.32 (€/kg of milk) × 100,000 (size commercial population). Genetic superiorities, deterministically simulated using pseudo-BLUP index and CDE, were determined using gene flow. Costs were for one generation of selection. Results show that GS schemes had higher cumulated genetic gain in the commercial cow population and higher gross margins compared with PT schemes. Gross margins were between 3.2- and 5.2-fold higher for GS, depending on size of the CRC population. The increase in gross margin was mostly due to a decreased generation interval and lower running costs in GS schemes. In PT schemes many bulls are culled before selection. We therefore also compared 2 schemes in which semen was stored instead of keeping live bulls. As expected, semen storage resulted in an increase in gross margins in PT schemes, but gross margins remained lower than those of GS schemes. We conclude that implementation of small-sized GS breeding schemes can be economically viable for developing countries. The

  8. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...... as named functions in Scheme. Finally, the Scheme Elucidator is able to integrate SchemeDoc resources as part of an internal documentation resource....

  9. Developing a Tool Point Control Scheme for a Hydraulic Crane Using Interactive Real-time Dynamic Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Ballebye, Morten

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an interactive real-time dynamic simulation model of a hydraulic crane. The user input to the model is given continuously via joystick and output is presented continuously in a 3D animation. Using this simulation model, a tool point control scheme...

  10. Decennial scheme of grid development 2016: National component + synthesis, Regional component, Regional sheets. Version 1 submitted to public consultation - December 2016, final version after public consultation - January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    Two versions of the same decennial scheme are gathered. The first one has been published before public consultation, and the second one after, and thus contains some evolutions. This decennial scheme presents an overview of the main electric power transport infrastructures envisaged for the ten years to come. It notably highlights the different orientations of the planned development: to streamline transits and to ease mutual supports between neighbouring countries, to streamline transits between French regions, to support consumption evolution in territories, to integrate electric power production means, and to ensure a safe operation of the power system. Main projects are more precisely presented while maps and synthetic tables propose a general overview. After this national approach, the report proposes syntheses for the different French regions. These syntheses address the present grid situation, and propose a list and a map of works which have been commissioned in 2016, a recall of regional ambitions regarding climate and energy (Climate-air-energy regional scheme, SRCAE) and renewable energies (regional scheme for the connection of renewable energies to the grid, S3REnR), a list and a map of planned projects, and a presentation of perspectives of grid development beyond a 10 year horizon

  11. An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement"*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui-Ran; Luo Ming-Xing; Peng Dai-Yuan; Wang Xiao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks . (paper)

  12. An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Ran; Luo, Ming-Xing; Peng, Dai-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-09-01

    Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks.

  13. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  14. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  15. Development and evaluation of a core genome multilocus typing scheme for whole-genome sequence-based typing of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Higgins

    Full Text Available We have employed whole genome sequencing to define and evaluate a core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST scheme for Acinetobacter baumannii. To define a core genome we downloaded a total of 1,573 putative A. baumannii genomes from NCBI as well as representative isolates belonging to the eight previously described international A. baumannii clonal lineages. The core genome was then employed against a total of fifty-three carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates that were previously typed by PFGE and linked to hospital outbreaks in eight German cities. We defined a core genome of 2,390 genes of which an average 98.4% were called successfully from 1,339 A. baumannii genomes, while Acinetobacter nosocomialis, Acinetobacter pittii, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus resulted in 71.2%, 33.3%, and 23.2% good targets, respectively. When tested against the previously identified outbreak strains, we found good correlation between PFGE and cgMLST clustering, with 0-8 allelic differences within a pulsotype, and 40-2,166 differences between pulsotypes. The highest number of allelic differences was between the isolates representing the international clones. This typing scheme was highly discriminatory and identified separate A. baumannii outbreaks. Moreover, because a standardised cgMLST nomenclature is used, the system will allow inter-laboratory exchange of data.

  16. Developing a visual moraine classification scheme to support investigations into the Holocene glacier chronology of the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufung, Eva; Winkler, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    investigation on basis of a specifically developed visual classification scheme for specific regional moraine types. Our classification also takes the recently controversial discussion on the influence of major mass movement events (like rock avalanches) on glacier behavior into account by highlighting those moraines that may be influences/created by such events and require special attention. When completed, this study eventually may be a useful tool for an improved selection of future study sites by including such purpose-oriented geomorphological criteria.

  17. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No. 10.1: Recommended Guidelines on National Schemes for Continuing Professional Development of Medical Physicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Stelios; Isidoro, Jorge; Pesznyak, Csilla; Cremers, Florian; Figueira, Rita; van Swol, Christiaan; Evans, Stephen; Torresin, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is vital to the medical physics profession if it is to embrace the pace of change occurring in medical practice. As CPD is the planned acquisition of knowledge, experience and skills required for professional practice throughout one's working life it promotes excellence and protects the profession and public against incompetence. Furthermore, CPD is a recommended prerequisite of registration schemes (Caruana et al. 2014) and is implied in the Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (EU BSS) and the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS). It is to be noted that currently not all national registration schemes require CPD to maintain the registration status necessary to practise medical physics. Such schemes should consider adopting CPD as a prerequisite for renewing registration after a set period of time. This EFOMP Policy Statement, which is an amalgamation and an update of the EFOMP Policy Statements No. 8 and No. 10, presents guidelines for the establishment of national schemes for CPD and activities that should be considered for CPD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Implementation of the EU directive on the energy performance of buildings: Development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of buildings and inspection of boilers. Project document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    'Development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of buildings and inspection of boilers' includes major steps in implementing the EU EPB directive in Latvia. The EPB directive includes a number of efforts: 1. A methodology for calculation of the integrated energy performance of buildings 2. Application of minimum requirements on the energy performance for new buildings 3. Application of minimum requirements on the energy performance for larger existing buildings subject to major renovation 4. Energy performance certification (energy labelling) of buildings 5. Regular inspection of boilers and of air-conditioning systems in buildings, and assessment of heating installations in older systems. The present project includes activities connected to point 4 and point 5. The results will include 4 steps in implementing the EU EPB directive: 1) A Latvian training of certified independent energy auditors to be active conducting energy audits and issuing energy performance certificates. Including a handbook in energy auditing. 2) A Latvian training of certified independent experts for inspection of boilers, air-con systems and assessing older heating systems. Including a handbook in boiler inspection. 3) A proposal for the institutional set-up for a connected scheme for energy auditing and a scheme for boiler inspection 4) Initial information on the scheme of energy auditors and of the boiler inspection. (au)

  19. Assessing Risk Management Capability of Public Sector Organizations Related to PPP Scheme Development for Water Supply in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangeran M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of Public Private Partnership (PPP for water supply investment is inseparable from the capability of risk management of the parties within the project. This study investigates the risk management capability of Indonesian local public sector organizations that are potentially involved in PPP schemes for water supply. A risk management maturity model based assessment tool probing the culture, process, experience, application and partnership aspects is used in the survey. The model describes risk management capability in four levels (ad-hoc, initial, competent, excellent. The survey shows that their risk management capability is still in-average at the initial stage (level 2, meaning that the adopted risk management postures are mostly supported only by unstructured, ad-hoc and non-formal processes. The result of this study can help decision makers in choosing appropriate risk management methods and tools to be used by the local public authorities for managing risks in PPP schemes.

  20. Simple supercapacitor charging scheme of an electric vehicle on small-scale hardware simulator: a prototype development for education purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Rafi Al Tahtawi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitor is one of electrical energy sources that have faster charging-discharging times when compared to other power sources, such as battery and fuel cell. Therefore, it is often used as an additional power source in an electric vehicle. In this paper, a prototype of small-scale electric vehicle simulator (EVS is built and a simple charging scheme of supercapacitor is used for education purpose. EVS is an electric vehicle prototype which can show the vehicle’s powertrain on small-scale configuration. Main components of this device are two direct current motors (DCMs with a linked axis of rotation. Therefore one of them will be able to act as a generator. The supercapacitor charging scheme is employed by controlling the relays. The hardware experimental result shows that the averages of charging current are proportional to the maximum slope angle of the road profiles. This scheme is simple due to the EVS utility and it is useful for education purpose.

  1. Development of a Compensation Scheme for a Measurement Voltage Transformer Using the Hysteresis Characteristics of a Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyewon Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, evaluation, and implementation of a compensation scheme for a measurement voltage transformer (VT using the hysteresis characteristics of the core. The error of a VT is caused by the primary winding voltage and secondary winding voltage. The latter depends on the secondary current, whereas the former depends on the primary current, which is an aggregate of the exciting and secondary currents. The secondary current is obtained directly from the secondary voltage and is used to obtain the voltage across the secondary winding. For the primary current, the exciting current is decomposed into two components: core-loss and magnetizing currents. The magnetizing current is obtained by the flux-magnetizing current curve instead of the hysteresis loop to minimize the required loops for compensation. The core-loss current is obtained by dividing the primary induced voltage by the core-loss resistance. Finally, the estimated voltages across the primary and secondary windings are added to the measured secondary voltage for compensation. The scheme can significantly improve the accuracy of a VT. The results of the performance of compensator are shown in the experimental test. The accuracy of the measurement VT improves from 1.0C class to 0.1C class. The scheme can help to significantly reduce the required core cross section of a measurement VT in an electrical energy system.

  2. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  3. Conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of development ICT, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries setting out the previous new theoretical model and preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Smyrnova-Trybulska, Eugenia; Morze, Natalia; Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper, prepared by an international team of authors focuses on the conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of ICT development, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries, setting out the previous and new theoretical model and preliminary

  4. [The diabetes traffic light scheme - development of an instrument for the case management in patients with diabetes mellitus in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, C; Birnbaum, B; Gensichen, J; Rosemann, T; Frei, A

    2011-11-30

    In order to sustain the continuity and quality of treatment in diabetic primary care patients, it is necessary to introduce structured and regularly performed monitoring system into the practice team. The monitoring aims at early and valid recognition of potential complications resulting from a chronic disease. Ideally the practice nurse is in charge of the case management. The central element of the case management is a colour coded instrument, the diabetes traffic light scheme, by which means the most important clinical parameters and patient adherence can be screened in regular intervals. Additionally, the instrument regulates in-practice communication by means of stratified action plans and enables ideal treatment continuity also in larger teams. The experiences resulting from the development of this diabetes-specific traffic light scheme can be beneficial for the future development of similar instruments in other chronic diseases.

  5. Development of a universal dual-bolus injection scheme for the quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfakih Khaled

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dual-bolus protocol enables accurate quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF by first-pass perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. However, despite the advantages and increasing demand for the dual-bolus method for accurate quantification of MBF, thus far, it has not been widely used in the field of quantitative perfusion CMR. The main reasons for this are that the setup for the dual-bolus method is complex and requires a state-of-the-art injector and there is also a lack of post processing software. As a solution to one of these problems, we have devised a universal dual-bolus injection scheme for use in a clinical setting. The purpose of this study is to show the setup and feasibility of the universal dual-bolus injection scheme. Methods The universal dual-bolus injection scheme was tested using multiple combinations of different contrast agents, contrast agent dose, power injectors, perfusion sequences, and CMR scanners. This included 3 different contrast agents (Gd-DO3A-butrol, Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA, 4 different doses (0.025 mmol/kg, 0.05 mmol/kg, 0.075 mmol/kg and 0.1 mmol/kg, 2 different types of injectors (with and without "pause" function, 5 different sequences (turbo field echo (TFE, balanced TFE, k-space and time (k-t accelerated TFE, k-t accelerated balanced TFE, turbo fast low-angle shot and 3 different CMR scanners from 2 different manufacturers. The relation between the time width of dilute contrast agent bolus curve and cardiac output was obtained to determine the optimal predefined pause duration between dilute and neat contrast agent injection. Results 161 dual-bolus perfusion scans were performed. Three non-injector-related technical errors were observed (1.9%. No injector-related errors were observed. The dual-bolus scheme worked well in all the combinations of parameters if the optimal predefined pause was used. Linear regression analysis showed that the optimal duration for the predefined

  6. Impact of climate change on the sustainable development of traditional lifestyles of indigenous peoples of the Russian North: Towards the development of an integrated scheme of assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulyandziga, P. [Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North (Russian Federation); Vlassova, T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    A major study of the effect of climatic change on the sustainable development of indigenous people's traditional lifestyle has been undertaken in the Russian Federation focusing on the indigenous peoples of the Russian North. Integrated goals of sustainable development of traditional lifestyle are studied in five different spheres of human activity: spiritual-cultural sphere (values); mental sphere (decision making, legal and management aspects); social, economic and financial sphere; nature protection sphere; and nature reproduction sphere. Two different sets of influences on sustainable development of traditional lifestyles are indicated: First, the translation of climate change impacts (warming, cooling, humidity, increase in seasonal variability, etc) from nature to social systems. Second, the translation of human change impacts (cultural values, science, policy, socio-economics, land-use change, etc) into the natural world. For each sphere both positive and negative aspects of these two influences have been identified. This five-sphere scheme of assessment of climate change impacts was inspired by traditional indigenous philosophy -- the holistic view of indigenous people living on the land who traditionally do not differentiate between spiritual and cultural resources, or social, economic or natural factors. Nevertheless, modern science, intent on integrating natural and social phenomena also plays a part in influencing the responses of indigenous people to climate change. What this study demonstrates is that science and traditional knowledge must be integrated, that both scientists and indigenous people must learn from each other. Only in this way can it be assured that traditional lifestyles of indigenous peoples will be able to develop in a sustainable way. 1 ref.

  7. Identification of IncA/C Plasmid Replication and Maintenance Genes and Development of a Plasmid Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Steven J; Phan, Minh-Duy; Peters, Kate M; Forde, Brian M; Chong, Teik Min; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Paterson, David L; Walsh, Timothy R; Beatson, Scott A; Schembri, Mark A

    2017-02-01

    Plasmids of incompatibility group A/C (IncA/C) are becoming increasingly prevalent within pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae They are associated with the dissemination of multiple clinically relevant resistance genes, including bla CMY and bla NDM Current typing methods for IncA/C plasmids offer limited resolution. In this study, we present the complete sequence of a bla NDM-1 -positive IncA/C plasmid, pMS6198A, isolated from a multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Hypersaturated transposon mutagenesis, coupled with transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), was employed to identify conserved genetic elements required for replication and maintenance of pMS6198A. Our analysis of TraDIS data identified roles for the replicon, including repA, a toxin-antitoxin system; two putative partitioning genes, parAB; and a putative gene, 053 Construction of mini-IncA/C plasmids and examination of their stability within E. coli confirmed that the region encompassing 053 contributes to the stable maintenance of IncA/C plasmids. Subsequently, the four major maintenance genes (repA, parAB, and 053) were used to construct a new plasmid multilocus sequence typing (PMLST) scheme for IncA/C plasmids. Application of this scheme to a database of 82 IncA/C plasmids identified 11 unique sequence types (STs), with two dominant STs. The majority of bla NDM -positive plasmids examined (15/17; 88%) fall into ST1, suggesting acquisition and subsequent expansion of this bla NDM -containing plasmid lineage. The IncA/C PMLST scheme represents a standardized tool to identify, track, and analyze the dissemination of important IncA/C plasmid lineages, particularly in the context of epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. How polygeneration schemes may develop under an advanced clean fossil fuel strategy under a joint sino-European initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetland, Jens; Zheng, Li; Shisen, Xu

    2009-01-01

    In this article the prospect of emerging co-production and polygeneration schemes based on pre-combustion decarbonisation and options for geological storage of the CO 2 are discussed in a European and Chinese setting. Reference is made to European and Chinese undertakings - especially the COACH project that is being conducted under the auspices of the European Commission. COACH is based on principles lined up by the EU-based DYNAMIS project with reference to options for decarbonising fossil fuels within a more sustainable framework. (author)

  9. Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree

    Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry and ge...

  10. Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree

    Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry...

  11. Factorizable Schemes for the Equations of Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidilkover, David

    1999-01-01

    We present an upwind high-resolution factorizable (UHF) discrete scheme for the compressible Euler equations that allows to distinguish between full-potential and advection factors at the discrete level. The scheme approximates equations in their general conservative form and is related to the family of genuinely multidimensional upwind schemes developed previously and demonstrated to have good shock-capturing capabilities. A unique property of this scheme is that in addition to the aforementioned features it is also factorizable, i.e., it allows to distinguish between full-potential and advection factors at the discrete level. The latter property facilitates the construction of optimally efficient multigrid solvers. This is done through a relaxation procedure that utilizes the factorizability property.

  12. Analysis of Program Obfuscation Schemes with Variable Encoding Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kazuhide; Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Program analysis techniques have improved steadily over the past several decades, and software obfuscation schemes have come to be used in many commercial programs. A software obfuscation scheme transforms an original program or a binary file into an obfuscated program that is more complicated and difficult to analyze, while preserving its functionality. However, the security of obfuscation schemes has not been properly evaluated. In this paper, we analyze obfuscation schemes in order to clarify the advantages of our scheme, the XOR-encoding scheme. First, we more clearly define five types of attack models that we defined previously, and define quantitative resistance to these attacks. Then, we compare the security, functionality and efficiency of three obfuscation schemes with encoding variables: (1) Sato et al.'s scheme with linear transformation, (2) our previous scheme with affine transformation, and (3) the XOR-encoding scheme. We show that the XOR-encoding scheme is superior with regard to the following two points: (1) the XOR-encoding scheme is more secure against a data-dependency attack and a brute force attack than our previous scheme, and is as secure against an information-collecting attack and an inverse transformation attack as our previous scheme, (2) the XOR-encoding scheme does not restrict the calculable ranges of programs and the loss of efficiency is less than in our previous scheme.

  13. Development of the rational scheme of geological exploration process, its analysis and significance for prospecting and exploration of hydrocarbons at the russian sector of the Caspian sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Bystrova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To conduct a justified assessment of the perspective resources of the Caspian Sea and adjacent territories, the authors develop a rational scheme of the geological exploration process with its analysis and identification of significance for hydrocarbon exploration in the northern part of the Caspian Sea. The paper outlines the methodological approaches and concepts of introducing this scheme in search for oil and gas. This allows us to justify and select the optimal set of research methods at various stages of oil and gas production. The system of structure and principles of organization scheme of the geological prospecting process allow to identify the optimal complexes of methods of geological-geophysical and other studies for these stages. The article provides information confirming the necessity of developing and implementing this scheme in the geological exploration process of the studied territory. The necessary development of opportunities in carrying out this work fundamentally changes the qualitative aspect of the geological exploration process. The facts presented in the article allow to study in detail the structures of the shelf zone, the thicknesses and composition of productive subsalt deposits, and to trace their interrelation with continental structural elements. The paper shows the importance of providing, at different levels, a rationale and choice of an optimal set of research methods at different stages of oil and gas prospecting during the development of a rational geological exploration scheme for hydrocarbons in water areas. This paper presents a proposed block diagram of a marine geological prospecting process for hydrocarbons. It describes the sequence of performing the types of work at the regional, exploratory and exploration stages. For each stage of the study, the authors set the tasks, determine the objects of research, methods of geological and geophysical research and their results, and determine methods for

  14. Hybrid flux splitting schemes for numerical resolution of two-phase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaatten, Tore

    2003-07-01

    This thesis deals with the construction of numerical schemes for approximating. solutions to a hyperbolic two-phase flow model. Numerical schemes for hyperbolic models are commonly divided in two main classes: Flux Vector Splitting (FVS) schemes which are based on scalar computations and Flux Difference Splitting (FDS) schemes which are based on matrix computations. FVS schemes are more efficient than FDS schemes, but FDS schemes are more accurate. The canonical FDS schemes are the approximate Riemann solvers which are based on a local decomposition of the system into its full wave structure. In this thesis the mathematical structure of the model is exploited to construct a class of hybrid FVS/FDS schemes, denoted as Mixture Flux (MF) schemes. This approach is based on a splitting of the system in two components associated with the pressure and volume fraction variables respectively, and builds upon hybrid FVS/FDS schemes previously developed for one-phase flow models. Through analysis and numerical experiments it is demonstrated that the MF approach provides several desirable features, including (1) Improved efficiency compared to standard approximate Riemann solvers, (2) Robustness under stiff conditions, (3) Accuracy on linear and nonlinear phenomena. In particular it is demonstrated that the framework allows for an efficient weakly implicit implementation, focusing on an accurate resolution of slow transients relevant for the petroleum industry. (author)

  15. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme using Bell states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Chan, W. H.; Long Dongyang

    2009-01-01

    In an arbitrated quantum signature scheme, the signatory signs the message and the receiver verifies the signature's validity with the assistance of the arbitrator. We present an arbitrated quantum signature scheme using two-particle entangled Bell states similar to the previous scheme using three-particle entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states [G. H. Zeng and C. H. Keitel, Phys. Rev. A 65, 042312 (2002)]. The proposed scheme can preserve the merits in the original scheme while providing a higher efficiency in transmission and reducing the complexity of implementation.

  16. On usage of CABARET scheme for tracer transport in INM ocean model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diansky, Nikolay; Kostrykin, Sergey; Gusev, Anatoly; Salnikov, Nikolay

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary state of ocean numerical modelling sets some requirements for the numerical advection schemes used in ocean general circulation models (OGCMs). The most important requirements are conservation, monotonicity and numerical efficiency including good parallelization properties. Investigation of some advection schemes shows that one of the best schemes satisfying the criteria is CABARET scheme. 3D-modification of the CABARET scheme was used to develop a new transport module (for temperature and salinity) for the Institute of Numerical Mathematics ocean model (INMOM). Testing of this module on some common benchmarks shows a high accuracy in comparison with the second-order advection scheme used in the INMOM. This new module was incorporated in the INMOM and experiments with the modified model showed a better simulation of oceanic circulation than its previous version.

  17. Good governance for pension schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory and market developments have transformed the way in which UK private sector pension schemes operate. This has increased demands on trustees and advisors and the trusteeship governance model must evolve in order to remain fit for purpose. This volume brings together leading practitioners to provide an overview of what today constitutes good governance for pension schemes, from both a legal and a practical perspective. It provides the reader with an appreciation of the distinctive characteristics of UK occupational pension schemes, how they sit within the capital markets and their social and fiduciary responsibilities. Providing a holistic analysis of pension risk, both from the trustee and the corporate perspective, the essays cover the crucial role of the employer covenant, financing and investment risk, developments in longevity risk hedging and insurance de-risking, and best practice scheme administration.

  18. A case of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma associated with small cell carcinoma of lung developing a skin metastasis on previously irradiated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohda, Mamoru; Takei, Yoji; Ueki, Hiroaki

    1983-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma which occurred in the penis of a 61-year-old male patient was treated surgically and by Linac (a total of 10,400 rad). However, it was not cured. Abnormal shadows in the lung and multiple liver tumor was noted one month before death. Autopsy revealed generalized metastases of pulmonary small-cell carcinoma, and persistent squamous cell carcinoma of the penis with no metastases. Skin metastasis of lung carcinoma occurred only in the area previously irradiated. (Ueda, J.)

  19. Development of an Alternative Treatment Scheme for Sr/TRU Removal: Permanganate Treatment of AN-107 Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RT Hallen; SA Bryan; FV Hoopes

    2000-08-04

    A number of Hanford tanks received waste containing organic complexants, which increase the volubility of Sr-90 and transuranic (TRU) elements. Wastes from these tanks require additional pretreatment to remove Sr-90 and TRU for immobilization as low activity waste (Waste Envelope C). The baseline pretreatment process for Sr/TRU removal was isotopic exchange and precipitation with added strontium and iron. However, studies at both Battelle and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have shown that the Sr/Fe precipitates were very difficult to filter. This was a result of the formation of poor filtering iron solids. An alternate treatment technology was needed for Sr/TRU removal. Battelle had demonstrated that permanganate treatment was effective for decontaminating waste samples from Hanford Tank SY-101 and proposed that permanganate be examined as an alternative Sr/TRU removal scheme for complexant-containing tank wastes such as AW107. Battelle conducted preliminary small-scale experiments to determine the effectiveness of permanganate treatment with AN-107 waste samples that had been archived at Battelle from earlier studies. Three series of experiments were performed to evaluate conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination using permanganate treatment. The final series included experiments with actual AN-107 diluted feed that had been obtained specifically for BNFL process testing. Conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination were identified. A free hydroxide concentration of 0.5M provided adequate decontamination with added Sr of 0.05M and permanganate of 0.03M for archived AN-107. The best results were obtained when reagents were added in the sequence Sr followed by permanganate with the waste at ambient temperature. The reaction conditions for Sr/TRU removal will be further evaluated with a 1-L batch of archived AN-107, which will provide a large enough volume of waste to conduct crossflow filtration studies (Hallen et al. 2000a).

  20. A first framework for the development of age determination schemes for latent biometric fingerprint traces using a chromatic white light (CWL) sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Ronny; Krapyvskyy, Andriy; Leich, Marcus; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2011-11-01

    Since decades, the age determination of latent fingerprint traces left at crime scenes is a challenge to forensic investigators, since fingerprint traces can often only be used in a lawsuit if they can be assigned to the specific time interval of a crime taking place. In this paper, we suggest a six-step framework on how an age determination scheme might be developed for a given application scenario using optical and non-invasive image sensory. We explain and discuss each step of such framework, using three different aging features (the binary pixel feature based on prior work as well as the novel aging features corrosion blob size and corrosion blob amount), which are based on the loss of contrast of a fingerprint on a hard disk platter surface as well as on corrosion properties of fingerprint residue applied to a copper coin surface. We furthermore evaluate different aspects of the scheme in practical experiments, to show its feasibility and conclude, that the steps 1, 3, 5 and 6 of the framework are comparatively easy to be realized, whereas the steps 2 (developing new aging features) and 4 (determining all significant influences on a given aging feature) are challenging, yet possible.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCHEME AND EXERGY ANALYSIS OF THE EGS WITH THE POSSIBILITY OF THE SIMULTANEOUS PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITY AND "DEEP COLD"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ia Gubarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of energy conservation is the use of an expander-generator sets, that convert pressurized natural gas into electricity. In applying the expander-generator set for using gas pressure power generation gas flow necessary to heat, as as a result of expansion of the gas in an expander and a corresponding lowering of the temperature, the formation of condensate and hydrates in gas pipelines and fittings, piping and, as a consequence, their blockage or obstruction. In connection with this gas before detander-generating set to be heated so that at its exit gas temperature was at least 0 0C. A scheme in which the heater is replaced by adsorption drying, which makes it possible to use an expander-generator set at low temperatures without the risk of it or after it, mist and hydrates. Gas adsorption drying - process is selective absorption of the surface pores of the solid adsorbent of water molecules from the gas, and then extract them from the pores by applying external influences. The process of adsorption drying gas can achieve dew point – 90 0C. Including this unit, or equivalent, in the scheme with the DHA, get simultaneous generation of electricity and "deep cold". Area of application "deep cold" is very broads. Along with all energy and chemical industries, he is in demand in the food industry, plants for the production of beer and soft drinks. Chill needed for freezing and for subsequent storage products in refrigeration terminals and warehouses. This article contains diagrams of the adsorption unit, unit the receipt of "deep cold", a description of their work and exergy analysis of the developed scheme.

  2. Simulating deep convection with a shallow convection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hohenegger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Convective processes profoundly affect the global water and energy balance of our planet but remain a challenge for global climate modeling. Here we develop and investigate the suitability of a unified convection scheme, capable of handling both shallow and deep convection, to simulate cases of tropical oceanic convection, mid-latitude continental convection, and maritime shallow convection. To that aim, we employ large-eddy simulations (LES as a benchmark to test and refine a unified convection scheme implemented in the Single-column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM. Our approach is motivated by previous cloud-resolving modeling studies, which have documented the gradual transition between shallow and deep convection and its possible importance for the simulated precipitation diurnal cycle.

    Analysis of the LES reveals that differences between shallow and deep convection, regarding cloud-base properties as well as entrainment/detrainment rates, can be related to the evaporation of precipitation. Parameterizing such effects and accordingly modifying the University of Washington shallow convection scheme, it is found that the new unified scheme can represent both shallow and deep convection as well as tropical and mid-latitude continental convection. Compared to the default SCAM version, the new scheme especially improves relative humidity, cloud cover and mass flux profiles. The new unified scheme also removes the well-known too early onset and peak of convective precipitation over mid-latitude continental areas.

  3. 5 year radar-based rainfall statistics: disturbances analysis and development of a post-correction scheme for the German radar composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A.; Seltmann, J.; Kunstmann, H.

    2015-02-01

    A radar-based rainfall statistic demands high quality data that provide realistic precipitation amounts in space and time. Instead of correcting single radar images, we developed a post-correction scheme for long-term composite radar data that corrects corrupted areas, but preserves the original precipitation patterns. The post-correction scheme is based on a 5 year statistical analysis of radar composite data and its constituents. The accumulation of radar images reveals artificial effects that are not visible in the individual radar images. Some of them are already inherent to single radar data such as the effect of increasing beam height, beam blockage or clutter remnants. More artificial effects are introduced in the process of compositing such as sharp gradients at the boundaries of overlapping areas due to different beam heights and resolution. The cause of these disturbances, their behaviour with respect to reflectivity level, season or altitude is analysed based on time-series of two radar products: the single radar reflectivity product PX for each of the 16 radar systems of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) for the time span 2000 to 2006 and the radar composite product RX of DWD from 2005 through to 2009. These statistics result in additional quality information on radar data that is not available elsewhere. The resulting robust characteristics of disturbances, e.g. the dependency of the frequencies of occurrence of radar reflectivities on beam height, are then used as a basis for the post-correction algorithm. The scheme comprises corrections for shading effects and speckles, such as clutter remnants or overfiltering, as well as for systematic differences in frequencies of occurrence of radar reflectivities between the near and the far ranges of individual radar sites. An adjustment to rain gauges is also included. Applying this correction, the Root-Mean-Square-Error for the comparison of radar derived annual rain amounts with rain gauge data

  4. Simple scheme for gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Nomura, Yasunori

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple scheme for constructing models that achieve successful gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. In addition to our previous work [H. Murayama and Y. Nomura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 151803 (2007)] that proposed drastically simplified models using metastable vacua of supersymmetry breaking in vectorlike theories, we show there are many other successful models using various types of supersymmetry-breaking mechanisms that rely on enhanced low-energy U(1) R symmetries. In models where supersymmetry is broken by elementary singlets, one needs to assume U(1) R violating effects are accidentally small, while in models where composite fields break supersymmetry, emergence of approximate low-energy U(1) R symmetries can be understood simply on dimensional grounds. Even though the scheme still requires somewhat small parameters to sufficiently suppress gravity mediation, we discuss their possible origins due to dimensional transmutation. The scheme accommodates a wide range of the gravitino mass to avoid cosmological problems

  5. On the development of OpenFOAM solvers based on explicit and implicit high-order Runge-Kutta schemes for incompressible flows with heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Valerio; Binci, Lorenzo; Montelpare, Sergio; Ricci, Renato

    2018-01-01

    Open-source CFD codes provide suitable environments for implementing and testing low-dissipative algorithms typically used to simulate turbulence. In this research work we developed CFD solvers for incompressible flows based on high-order explicit and diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (RK) schemes for time integration. In particular, an iterated PISO-like procedure based on Rhie-Chow correction was used to handle pressure-velocity coupling within each implicit RK stage. For the explicit approach, a projected scheme was used to avoid the "checker-board" effect. The above-mentioned approaches were also extended to flow problems involving heat transfer. It is worth noting that the numerical technology available in the OpenFOAM library was used for space discretization. In this work, we additionally explore the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed implementations by computing several unsteady flow benchmarks; we also show that the numerical diffusion due to the time integration approach is completely canceled using the solution techniques proposed here.

  6. Numerical schemes for explosion hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, internal or external explosions can cause confinement breaches and radioactive materials release in the environment. Hence, modeling such phenomena is crucial for safety matters. Blast waves resulting from explosions are modeled by the system of Euler equations for compressible flows, whereas Navier-Stokes equations with reactive source terms and level set techniques are used to simulate the propagation of flame front during the deflagration phase. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the creation of efficient numerical schemes to solve these complex models. The work presented here focuses on two major aspects: first, the development of consistent schemes for the Euler equations, then the buildup of reliable schemes for the front propagation. In both cases, explicit in time schemes are used, but we also introduce a pressure correction scheme for the Euler equations. Staggered discretization is used in space. It is based on the internal energy formulation of the Euler system, which insures its positivity and avoids tedious discretization of the total energy over staggered grids. A discrete kinetic energy balance is derived from the scheme and a source term is added in the discrete internal energy balance equation to preserve the exact total energy balance at the limit. High order methods of MUSCL type are used in the discrete convective operators, based solely on material velocity. They lead to positivity of density and internal energy under CFL conditions. This ensures that the total energy cannot grow and we can furthermore derive a discrete entropy inequality. Under stability assumptions of the discrete L8 and BV norms of the scheme's solutions one can prove that a sequence of converging discrete solutions necessarily converges towards the weak solution of the Euler system. Besides it satisfies a weak entropy inequality at the limit. Concerning the front propagation, we transform the flame front evolution equation (the so

  7. ESCAP mobile training scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasas, F M

    1977-01-01

    In response to a United Nations resolution, the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) was set up to provide training to the trainers of national cadres engaged in frontline and supervisory tasks in social welfare and rural development. The training is innovative in its being based on an analysis of field realities. The MTS team consisted of a leader, an expert on teaching methods and materials, and an expert on action research and evaluation. The country's trainers from different departments were sent to villages to work for a short period and to report their problems in fulfilling their roles. From these grass roots experiences, they made an analysis of the job, determining what knowledge, attitude and skills it required. Analysis of daily incidents and problems were used to produce indigenous teaching materials drawn from actual field practice. How to consider the problems encountered through government structures for policy making and decisions was also learned. Tasks of the students were to identify the skills needed for role performance by job analysis, daily diaries and project histories; to analyze the particular community by village profiles; to produce indigenous teaching materials; and to practice the role skills by actual role performance. The MTS scheme was tried in Nepal in 1974-75; 3 training programs trained 25 trainers and 51 frontline workers; indigenous teaching materials were created; technical papers written; and consultations were provided. In Afghanistan the scheme was used in 1975-76; 45 participants completed the training; seminars were held; and an ongoing Council was created. It is hoped that the training program will be expanded to other countries.

  8. A characterization of the effect of limb position on EMG features to guide the development of effective prosthetic control schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmand, A; Scheme, E; Englehart, K

    2014-01-01

    Electromyogram (EMG) pattern recognition has long been used for the control of upper limb prostheses. More recently, it has been shown that variability induced during functional use, such as changes in limb position and dynamic contractions, can have a substantial impact on the robustness of EMG pattern recognition. This work further investigates the reasons for pattern recognition performance degradation due to the limb position variation. The main focus is on the impact of limb position variation on features of the EMG, as measured using separability and repeatability metrics. The results show that when the limb is moved to a position different from the one in which the classifier is trained, both the separability and repeatability of the data decrease. It is shown how two previously proposed classification methods, multiple position training and dual-stage classification, resolve the position effect problem to some extent through increasing either separability or repeatability but not both. A hybrid classification method which exhibits a compromise between separability and repeatability is proposed in this work. It is shown that, when tested with the limb in 16 different positions, this method increases classification accuracy from an average of 70% (single position training) to 89% (hybrid approach). This hybrid method significantly (p<;0.05) outperforms multiple position training (an average of 86%) and dual-stage classification (an average of 85%).

  9. Development of a rapid lateral flow immunoassay test for detection of exosomes previously enriched from cell culture medium and body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Rodríguez, Myriam; López-Cobo, Sheila; Reyburn, Hugh T; Costa-García, Agustín; López-Martín, Soraya; Yáñez-Mó, María; Cernuda-Morollón, Eva; Paschen, Annette; Valés-Gómez, Mar; Blanco-López, Maria Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are cell-secreted nanovesicles (40-200 nm) that represent a rich source of novel biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. Despite the increasingly recognized relevance of these vesicles as biomarkers, their detection has been limited due in part to current technical challenges in the rapid isolation and analysis of exosomes. The complexity of the development of analytical platforms relies on the heterogeneous composition of the exosome membrane. One of the most attractive tests is the inmunochromatographic strips, which allow rapid detection by unskilled operators. We have successfully developed a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for the detection of exosomes based on the use of tetraspanins as targets. We have applied this platform for the detection of exosomes purified from different sources: cell culture supernatants, human plasma and urine. As proof of concept, we explored the analytical potential of this LFIA platform to accurately quantify exosomes purified from a human metastatic melanoma cell line. The one-step assay can be completed in 15 min, with a limit of detection of 8.54×10(5) exosomes/µL when a blend of anti-CD9 and anti-CD81 were selected as capture antibodies and anti-CD63 labelled with gold nanoparticles as detection antibody. Based on our results, this platform could be well suited to be used as a rapid exosome quantification tool, with promising diagnostic applications, bearing in mind that the detection of exosomes from different sources may require adaptation of the analytical settings to their specific composition.

  10. Development of a rapid lateral flow immunoassay test for detection of exosomes previously enriched from cell culture medium and body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Oliveira-Rodríguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are cell-secreted nanovesicles (40–200 nm that represent a rich source of novel biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. Despite the increasingly recognized relevance of these vesicles as biomarkers, their detection has been limited due in part to current technical challenges in the rapid isolation and analysis of exosomes. The complexity of the development of analytical platforms relies on the heterogeneous composition of the exosome membrane. One of the most attractive tests is the inmunochromatographic strips, which allow rapid detection by unskilled operators. We have successfully developed a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA for the detection of exosomes based on the use of tetraspanins as targets. We have applied this platform for the detection of exosomes purified from different sources: cell culture supernatants, human plasma and urine. As proof of concept, we explored the analytical potential of this LFIA platform to accurately quantify exosomes purified from a human metastatic melanoma cell line. The one-step assay can be completed in 15 min, with a limit of detection of 8.54×105 exosomes/µL when a blend of anti-CD9 and anti-CD81 were selected as capture antibodies and anti-CD63 labelled with gold nanoparticles as detection antibody. Based on our results, this platform could be well suited to be used as a rapid exosome quantification tool, with promising diagnostic applications, bearing in mind that the detection of exosomes from different sources may require adaptation of the analytical settings to their specific composition.

  11. Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Epistemological Development as a Framework for Describing Student Difficulties in Learning Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Nathaniel P.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated student difficulties with the learning of organic chemistry. Using Perry's Model of Intellectual Development as a framework revealed that organic chemistry students who function as dualistic thinkers struggle with the complexity of the subject matter. Understanding substitution/elimination reactions and multi-step syntheses is…

  12. Struggling between resources-based and sustainable development schemes-An analysis of Egypt's recent energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suding, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Egypt's recent energy sector and policy developments against objectives and issues of the energy policy strategy adopted in 2007. It reviews energy supply and demand, pricing and subsidies as well as institutional arrangements and respective reform projects from the perspective of assessing achievements. It identifies the consequences of the policy and the long-term outlook and reports on the internal policy struggle. The policy strategy of 2007 is directed at energy security, social and industrial development. Environmental or climate objectives play no role. Energy efficiency is at best considered an instrument. The implementation of the strategy has been successful on the supply side, but not on the demand side. Price reform, refocusing subsidies and sector reform were not achieved. This has negatively affected energy efficiency and diversification, energy availability and supply security, the State budget and the sector's financial capacity. It causes rising energy import requirements and increasing risks to the current account balance. In spite of that, 'old guard' and industrial establishment favour the resource-based development based on cheap energy and protract price reform, whereas another group of businessmen wants a sustainable development concept and monetize the oil and gas production to invest in Egypt's competitiveness. - Research Highlights: → Egyptian energy policy has not delivered demand side results and institutional reform. → The consequences are disparities in supply, external balance, financing and subsidies. →The prevailing interest groups succeed in protracting the implementation of the policy.

  13. Tackling Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5: the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS approach in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiu Mohammed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries are devising various strategies and mechanisms to accelerate their speed towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs by 2015. In Nigeria, different approaches have been used to address the tackling of health-related MDGs. One creative approach has been the implementation of the NHIS Maternal and Child Health (NHIS-MCH Project. The project aims to speed up the achievement of MDGs 4 and 5 (reducing child mortality and improving maternal health in the country. Little is known about the NHISMCH Project’s design and health insurance coverage activities. Project planning and monitoring could be hampered by lack of technical and managerial skills of health insurance most especially at middle and local levels. Challenging debates continue to emanate on the project’s sustainability.

  14. Development of a PBL Parameterization Scheme for the Tropical Cyclone Model and an Improved Magnetospheric Model for Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-25

    jM 1.25(W P Il~ II I [ 6 :, LEVd~5 I ~JAMMOR jkppovo reecm * 1 L81 31 042 300 Unicorn Park Drive Wobum, Massachuset 0C601 _ __ _JA YCOR DEVELOPMENT...for the growth 4 of the tropical cyclone, and leads to a gradual shift of the storm center toward the warm ocean. "Test of a Planetary Boundary Layer... growth characteristics because gravity waves and model physics act to smooth them. Besides, random observational errors are not the major problem with

  15. Towards single Ce ion detection in a bulk crystal for the development of a single-ion qubit readout scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was concerned with investigating the relevant spectroscopic properties of Ce ions randomly doped in an Y2SiO5 crystal at low temperatures (around 4 K), in order to develop a technique and an experimental set-up to detect the fluorescence photons emitted by a single Ce ion. The aim of the work was to determine whether a single Ce ion (referred to as the readout ion) can be used as a local probe to sense the quantum state of a neighbouring single-ion qubit via ...

  16. Development of an efficient and economic small scale management scheme for low-and intermediate level radioactive waste and its impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, A.Ph.; Panem, J.A.; Manalastas, H.C.; Cortez, S.L.; Paredes, C.H.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1976-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary report on the evolution of a pilot-scale management system for low-and intermediate level radioactive wastes to provide adequate protection to the public as well as maintain the equilibrium in the human environment. Discussions on the waste management and disposal scheme proposals, assessment of waste treatment requirements of the Atomic Research Center, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, previous experiences in the handling and management of radioactive wastes, current practices and alternatives to meet waste management problems and research studies on waste treatment are presented. In the selection of a chemical treatment process for ARC, comparative studies on the different waste processing methods or combination of processes that will be most suitable for the waste requirements of the Center are now in progress. The decontamination efficiency and economy of the lime-soda, ferrocyanide phosphate and ferric hydroxide methods are being compared. Jar experiments were conducted in the Lime-Soda Process to establish the optima conditions for certain parameter required in order to achieve an efficient and economical treatment system applicable to the local conditions for attaining maximum removal of contamination; maximum settling time - 5 hours after treatment, optimum pH-11, 2:3 ppm ratio of Ca +2 to Co 3 -2 concentration, concentration of dosing reagents can further be increased beyond 160 ppm Ca +2 and 240 ppm Co 3 -2 . Cobalt contamination can be removed with lime-soda treatment aside from strontium

  17. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  18. The Eukaryotic Microbiome: Origins and Implications for Fetal and Neonatal life note bene: previous titles: The Microbiome in the Development of Terrestrial Life,and,The Origins and Development of the Neonatal Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Miller

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available All eukaryotic organisms are holobionts representing complex collaborations between the entire microbiome of each eukaryote and its innate cells. These linked constituencies form complex localized and interlocking ecologies in which the specific microbial constituents and their relative abundance differ substantially according to age and environmental exposures. Rapid advances in microbiology and genetic research techniques have uncovered a significant previous underestimate of the extent of that microbial contribution and its metabolic and developmental impact on holobionts. Therefore, a re-calibration of the neonatal period is suggested as a transitional phase in development that includes the acquisition of consequential collaborative microbial life from extensive environmental influences. These co-dependent, symbiotic relationships formed in the fetal and neonatal stages extend into adulthood and even across generations.

  19. Follow-up Assessment of Under-nourished Children Under Integrated Child Development Services Scheme in Tapi District, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Kanan T; Nayak, Sunil N; Patel, Prakash B; Modi, Bhautik P; Gharat, Vaibhav V; Bansal, Rajkumar

    2014-06-01

    India shares the largest burden of under-nutrition in world. The aim of this study was to conduct follow-up assessment of under-nourished children attending anganwadi center (AWC). This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in 50 AWC of Tapi district. Total 529 children aged 1-6 years diagnosed as under-nourished before 1 year were included. Pre-structured questionnaire was used for present day assessment of these children followed by Epi-info mediated analysis. Children of literate mothers had higher weight gain. Ninety percent of children attended anganwadi regularly, however 25% of children dropped out for more than 1 month. In 1 year, growth had faltered in 20% children and was stagnant in 63% of them. Children who were treated for under-nutrition; that completed course at Child Development and Nutrition Center; and whose parents were counseled about the under-nourished status of child had higher weight gain than their counterparts. Parents of under-nourished children must be counseled about the nutritional status of their child. In cases of under-nourished child, referral to higher center must be ensured by health worker. Supplementary feeding as a long-term solution to country's under-nutrition problem should be studied in detail with the alternative solutions.

  20. Avenues for research and technology development for industrial applications using electron beam facilities and their exploitation through BRNS schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandeya, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    BARC has been responsible to establish indigenously designed state-of-the-art electron accelerator facilities at its Electron Beam Centre at Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. The centre offers two versatile machines namely, (i) 3 MeV, 30 kW Parallel Coupled Self Capacitance type Multiplier (Dynamitron) DC accelerator and (ii) 10 MeV, 10 kW RF Electron Linac. While these machines are being used by scientists and engineers from within DAE, there is tremendous scope for exploiting their use by researchers in the country for basic research as well as by technologists and entrepreneurs for exploiting its potential for industrial applications. However, due to lack of adequate information about the facilities and due to paucity of research funds for the academia in the country, there is always a gap which researchers seldom look forward to be filled up appropriately. The present talk will give a glimpse of some opportunities to exploit the facilities at EBC, Kharghar for variety of applications followed by a brief presentation on provisions under BRNS to carry out sponsored research activities for basic research as well as for technology development for the industrial applications. (author)

  1. Developing a multi-pollutant conceptual framework for the selection and targeting of interventions in water industry catchment management schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodworth, J W; Holman, I P; Burgess, P J; Gillman, S; Frogbrook, Z; Brown, P

    2015-09-15

    In recent years water companies have started to adopt catchment management to reduce diffuse pollution in drinking water supply areas. The heterogeneity of catchments and the range of pollutants that must be removed to meet the EU Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) limits make it difficult to prioritise areas of a catchment for intervention. Thus conceptual frameworks are required that can disaggregate the components of pollutant risk and help water companies make decisions about where to target interventions in their catchments to maximum effect. This paper demonstrates the concept of generalising pollutants in the same framework by reviewing key pollutant processes within a source-mobilisation-delivery context. From this, criteria are developed (with input from water industry professionals involved in catchment management) which highlights the need for a new water industry specific conceptual framework. The new CaRPoW (Catchment Risk to Potable Water) framework uses the Source-Mobilisation-Delivery concept as modular components of risk that work at two scales, source and mobilisation at the field scale and delivery at the catchment scale. Disaggregating pollutant processes permits the main components of risk to be ascertained so that appropriate interventions can be selected. The generic structure also allows for the outputs from different pollutants to be compared so that potential multiple benefits can be identified. CaRPow provides a transferable framework that can be used by water companies to cost-effectively target interventions under current conditions or under scenarios of land use or climate change. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Information management in the Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BUSP) scheme in Kalyan Dombivili (Maharashtra, India) and implications for Geographic Information System (GIS) development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, C.

    2014-01-01

    Urban poverty alleviation schemes in India continue to target mainly slum areas. An important aspect in the planning, implementation, and monitoring of such government schemes pertains to the procedure and practices of spatial and socio-spatial information management in municipal administration.

  3. Application of carbon dioxide towards the development of smart materials, green reaction schemes and metallic nanoparticle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Fiaz S.

    energy consumption due to a separate deprotection reaction. To solve this dilemma, the reversible protection of amines using CO2 induced carbamates was demonstrated in chapter 3; by reducing n-alkyl benzophenone imine and n-phenyl, nalkylurea yields by up to 67% compared to non-protected amines. The applicability of this chemistry to these classes of nucleophilic substitution reactions and has significant potential to alter the way we approach amine protection in organic synthesis. Another research area that has grown popularity over the last decade is the development of metallic nanoparticles, specifically gold nanoparticles (GNPs), due to their size and shape dependent optical and catalytic properties. Chapter 4 of this dissertation demonstrates the successful application of polyethylene imine (PEI) in the synthesis of cationic GNPs, which are of significant interest for biomedical applications. In this work, we investigated the effect of pH, PEI concentration and reduction method on the size and stability of amine-stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles. Furthermore the potential of carbon dioxide as a stabilizing aid through reversible carbamate formation was explored, leading to a decrease in particle size at ambient temperature along with an increase in stability. In summary, this work has demonstrated the great potential of employing the reversible reaction of carbon dioxide with primary and secondary amines as an effective and greener alternative to conventional methods in a diversity of fields that include "smart" materials, organic chemistry, and functional nanomaterials.

  4. The Mawala irrigation scheme

    OpenAIRE

    de Bont, Chris

    2018-01-01

    This booklet was written to share research results with farmers and practitioners in Tanzania. It gives a summary of the empirical material collected during three months of field work in the Mawala irrigation scheme (Kilimanjaro Region), and includes maps, tables and photos. It describes the history of the irrigation scheme, as well current irrigation and farming practices. It especially focuses on the different kinds of infrastructural improvement in the scheme (by farmers and the government...

  5. Evaluating public involvement in research design and grant development: Using a qualitative document analysis method to analyse an award scheme for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Susan; Muir, Delia; Brereton, Louise; Allmark, Christine; Barber, Rosemary; Harris, Lydia; Hodges, Brian; Khan, Samaira; Baird, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Research Design Service (RDS) for Yorkshire and Humber has been running a public involvement funding scheme since 2008. This scheme awards researchers a small amount of money to help them get involvement from patients and/or the public. Involvement activities take place at the time when researchers are planning studies, and when they are completing application forms to request funding for a proposed research project. After the public involvement activities researchers are asked to write a report for the RDS describing what they did with the public involvement funding. This study analysed those reports using an approach which included members of a public involvement panel in the data analysis process. The aim of the work was to see what the views and experiences of researchers who received funding were, and what might be learned for the future of the scheme. Twenty five reports were analysed. Four main themes were identified, these described: the added value of public involvement; aspects to consider when planning and designing public involvement; different roles of public contributors; and aspects of valuing public member contributions. The group approach to analysis was successful in enabling involvement of a variety of individuals in the process. The findings of the study provide evidence of the value of public involvement during the development of applications for research funding. The results also indicate that researchers recognise the variety in potential roles for the public in research, and acknowledge how involvement adds value to studies. Background A regional Research Design Service, funded by the National Institute for Health Research, introduced a small grant in 2008, to support public involvement (often known as patient and public involvement [PPI]) activities during the development of applications for research funding. Successful applicants are requested to submit a report detailing how the grant

  6. Development and experimental qualification of a calculation scheme for the evaluation of gamma heating in experimental reactors. Application to MARIA and Jules Horowitz (JHR) MTR Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarchalski, M.; Pytel, K.; Wroblewska, M.; Marcinkowska, Z.; Boettcher, A.; Prokopowicz, R. [NCBJ Institute, MARIA Reactor, ul.Andrzeja Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk (Poland); Sireta, P.; Gonnier, C.; Bignan, G. [CEA, DEN, Reactor Studies Department, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Barbot, L.; Villard, J.F.; Destouches, C. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Reynard-Carette, C.; Brun, J. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Universite de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Jagielski, J. [NCBJ Institute, MARIA Reactor, ul.Andrzeja Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technolgy, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland); Luks, A. [Institute of Heat Engineering, Nowowiejska 21/25, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    Precise computational determination of nuclear heating which consists predominantly of gamma heating (more than 80 %) is one of the challenges in material testing reactor exploitation. Due to sophisticated construction and conditions of experimental programs planned in JHR it became essential to use most accurate and precise gamma heating model. Before the JHR starts to operate, gamma heating evaluation methods need to be developed and qualified in other experimental reactor facilities. This is done inter alia using OSIRIS, MINERVE or EOLE research reactors in France. Furthermore, MARIA - Polish material testing reactor - has been chosen to contribute to the qualification of gamma heating calculation schemes/tools. This reactor has some characteristics close to those of JHR (beryllium usage, fuel element geometry). To evaluate gamma heating in JHR and MARIA reactors, both simulation tools and experimental program have been developed and performed. For gamma heating simulation, new calculation scheme and gamma heating model of MARIA have been carried out using TRIPOLI4 and APOLLO2 codes. Calculation outcome has been verified by comparison to experimental measurements in MARIA reactor. To have more precise calculation results, model of MARIA in TRIPOLI4 has been made using the whole geometry of the core. This has been done for the first time in the history of MARIA reactor and was complex due to cut cone shape of all its elements. Material composition of burnt fuel elements has been implemented from APOLLO2 calculations. An experiment for nuclear heating measurements and calculation verification has been done in September 2014. This involved neutron, photon and nuclear heating measurements at selected locations in MARIA reactor using in particular Rh SPND, Ag SPND, Ionization Chamber (all three from CEA), KAROLINA calorimeter (NCBJ) and Gamma Thermometer (CEA/SCK CEN). Measurements were done in forty points using four channels. Maximal nuclear heating evaluated from

  7. Alternative schemes for the inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhonchuk, V.T. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, University Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 33405, Talence (France); Mima, K., E-mail: tikhonchuk@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The advanced target designs are requiring a lower laser energy for ignition and promising higher energy gains. Two approaches are under development within the European inertial fusion energy project HiPER: the fast ignition scheme with energetic electrons and the shock ignition scheme. The fundamental physical issues and major experimental works related to the alternative ignition schemes as well as the reactor designs are discussed.

  8. Identification of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) Sequences in Acinetobacter pittii and Development of an Optimized Multiple-Locus VNTR Analysis Typing Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuan; Li, Bo Qing; Jin, Da Zhi; He, Li Hua; Tao, Xiao Xia; Zhang, Jian Zhong

    2015-12-01

    To develop a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) assay for Acinetobacter pittii typing. Polymorphic VNTRs were searched by Tandem Repeats Finder. The distribution and polymorphism of each VNTR locus were analyzed in all the A. pittii genomes deposited in the NCBI genome database by BLAST and were evaluated with a collection of 20 well-characterized clinical A. pittii strains and one reference strain. The MLVA assay was compared with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for discriminating A. pittii isolates. Ten VNTR loci were identified upon bioinformatic screening of A. pittii genomes, but only five of them showed full amplifiability and good polymorphism. Therefore, an MLVA assay composed of five VNTR loci was developed. The typeability, reproducibility, stability, discriminatory power, and epidemiological concordance were excellent. Compared with PFGE, the new optimized MLVA typing scheme provided the same and even greater discrimination. Compared with PFGE, MLVA typing is a faster and more standardized alternative for studying the genetic relatedness of A. pittii isolates in disease surveillance and outbreak investigation. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  9. Exact analysis of Packet Reversed Packet Combining Scheme and Modified Packet Combining Scheme; and a combined scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2007-07-01

    Packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme for the detection and correction of errors at the receiver. Although it permits a higher throughput when compared to other basic ARQ protocols, packet combining (PC) scheme fails to correct errors when errors occur in the same bit locations of copies. In a previous work, a scheme known as Packet Reversed Packet Combining (PRPC) Scheme that will correct errors which occur at the same bit location of erroneous copies, was studied however PRPC does not handle a situation where a packet has more than 1 error bit. The Modified Packet Combining (MPC) Scheme that can correct double or higher bit errors was studied elsewhere. Both PRPC and MPC schemes are believed to offer higher throughput in previous studies, however neither adequate investigation nor exact analysis was done to substantiate this claim of higher throughput. In this work, an exact analysis of both PRPC and MPC is carried out and the results reported. A combined protocol (PRPC and MPC) is proposed and the analysis shows that it is capable of offering even higher throughput and better error correction capability at high bit error rate (BER) and larger packet size. (author)

  10. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  11. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    to carry out a campaign targeted at this segment. The awareness percentage is already 92 % and 67% of the respondents believe they know the meaning of the scheme. But it stands to reason to study whether the respondents actually know what the labelling scheme stands for or if they just think they do...

  12. The GEOFAR Project - Geothermal Finance and Awareness in Europeans Regions - Development of new schemes to overcome non-technical barriers, focusing particularly on financial barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, Adeline; Wendel, Marco; Jaudin, Florence; Hiegl, Mathias

    2010-05-01

    Numerous advantages of geothermal energy like its widespread distribution, a base-load power and availability higher than 90%, a small footprint and low carbon emissions, and the growing concerns about climate changes strongly promote the development of geothermal projects. Geothermal energy as a local energy source implies needs on surface to be located close to the geothermal resource. Many European regions dispose of a good geothermal potential but it is mostly not sufficiently developed due to non-technical barriers occurring at the very early stages of the project. The GEOFAR Project carried out within the framework of EU's "Intelligent Energy Europe" (IEE) program, gathers a consortium of European partners from Germany, France, Greece, Spain and Portugal. Launched in September 2008, the aim of this research project is to analyze the mentioned non-technical barriers, focusing most particularly on economic and financial aspects. Based on this analysis GEOFAR aims at developing new financial and administrative schemes to overcome the main financial barriers for deep geothermal projects (for electricity and direct use, without heat pumps). The analysis of the current situation and the future development of geothermal energy in GEOFAR target countries (Germany, France, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Hungary) was necessary to understand and expose the diverging status of the geothermal sector and the more and less complicated situation for geothermal projects in different Europeans Regions. A deeper analysis of 40 cases studies (operating, planned and failed projects) of deep geothermal projects also contributed to this detailed view. An exhaustive analysis and description of financial mechanisms already existing in different European countries and at European level to support investors completed the research on non-technical barriers. Based on this profound analysis, the GEOFAR project has made an overview of the difficulties met by project

  13. Multidimensional Vlasov-Poisson Simulations with High-order Monotonicity- and Positivity-preserving Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Kohji; Minoshima, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki

    2017-11-01

    We develop new numerical schemes for Vlasov-Poisson equations with high-order accuracy. Our methods are based on a spatially monotonicity-preserving (MP) scheme and are modified suitably so that the positivity of the distribution function is also preserved. We adopt an efficient semi-Lagrangian time integration scheme that is more accurate and computationally less expensive than the three-stage TVD Runge-Kutta integration. We apply our spatially fifth- and seventh-order schemes to a suite of simulations of collisionless self-gravitating systems and electrostatic plasma simulations, including linear and nonlinear Landau damping in one dimension and Vlasov-Poisson simulations in a six-dimensional phase space. The high-order schemes achieve a significantly improved accuracy in comparison with the third-order positive-flux-conserved scheme adopted in our previous study. With the semi-Lagrangian time integration, the computational cost of our high-order schemes does not significantly increase, but remains roughly the same as that of the third-order scheme. Vlasov-Poisson simulations on {128}3× {128}3 mesh grids have been successfully performed on a massively parallel computer.

  14. Tissue engineering scheming by artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Ge, H; Zhou, X; Yang, D

    2005-01-01

    Tissue engineers are often confused when seeking the most effective, economical and secure scheme for tissue engineering. The aim of this study is to generate tissue engineering schemes with artificial intelligence instead of human intelligence. The experimental data of tissue engineered cartilage were integrated and standardized with a centralized database, and a scheme engine was developed using artificial intelligent methods (artificial neural networks and decision trees). The scheme engine was trained with existing cases in the database, and then was used to generate tissue engineering schemes for new experimental animals. Following the schemes generated by the artificial intelligent system, we cured 18 of the 20 experimental animals. In conclusion, artificial intelligence is a powerful method for decision making in the tissue engineering realm.

  15. How can conceptual schemes change teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Per-Olof

    2012-03-01

    Lundqvist, Almqvist and Östman describe a teacher's manner of teaching and the possible consequences it may have for students' meaning making. In doing this the article examines a teacher's classroom practice by systematizing the teacher's transactions with the students in terms of certain conceptual schemes, namely the epistemological moves, educational philosophies and the selective traditions of this practice. In connection to their study one may ask how conceptual schemes could change teaching. This article examines how the relationship of the conceptual schemes produced by educational researchers to educational praxis has developed from the middle of the last century to today. The relationship is described as having been transformed in three steps: (1) teacher deficit and social engineering, where conceptual schemes are little acknowledged, (2) reflecting practitioners, where conceptual schemes are mangled through teacher practice to aid the choices of already knowledgeable teachers, and (3) the mangling of the conceptual schemes by researchers through practice with the purpose of revising theory.

  16. Statistical Hiding Fuzzy Commitment Scheme for Securing Biometric Templates

    OpenAIRE

    Alawi A. Al-Saggaf; Haridas Acharya

    2013-01-01

    By considering the security flaws in cryptographic hash functions, any commitment scheme designed straight through hash function usage in general terms is insecure. In this paper, we develop a general fuzzy commitment scheme called an ordinary fuzzy commitment scheme (OFCS), in which many fuzzy commitment schemes with variety complexity assumptions is constructed. The scheme is provably statistical hiding (the advisory gets almost no statistically advantages about the secret message). The eff...

  17. THE METHODICAL ASPECTS OF WORKING-OUT "THE SCHEME OF DEVELOPMENT AND DISPOSAL OF PRODUCTIVE FORCES OF HANTY-MANSIJSKY AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT – UGRA" (2006-2015 YY AND TILL YEAR 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Pakhomov

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of working-out the methodical theses "The scheme of development and disposal of productive forces of Hanty-mansijsky autonomous district – UGRA" for the perspective period till the year 2020. The necessity of its working-out is caused by the raw materials orientation of the district’s economy, which is simpliciter depending on the condition of mineral and raw material base of the region, already experiencing today the influence of global and national processes on oil and gas market. SWOT-analysis of district’s development and the scheme structure are presented. The Institute of Economy of UrB of RAS along with the other executors took the participation in working-out the scheme structure.

  18. Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI): skill assessment of health and Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) workers to classify sick under-five children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewade, Hemant D; Aggarwal, Arun K; Bharti, Bhavneet

    2013-06-01

    To assess the skills (diagnostic/counseling) of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) trained workers; and to assess the degree of agreement between the physician and the IMNCI trained workers of Raipurrani block, district Panchkula, India, to classify sick under-five children in field. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Raipurrani in the outpatient departments of the community health centre and one primary health centre in 2010. Workers from health department and Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) were assessed in this study. They received IMNCI training in 2006, with 1 day refresher training in 2009. Investigator noted his observations using a skill assessment checklist. Under-five child observations were the unit of study. Sixteen IMNCI trained workers made 128 child observations. Considering color-coded categorization under IMNCI, agreement with investigator (Kappa) was intermediate; red and yellow categorizations had poor agreement. Morbidity-wise agreement (Kappa) was poor for possible serious bacterial infection, feeding problem, respiratory problem and anemia. Considering final diagnosis, investigator and IMNCI trained worker completely agreed in 45 % child observations. All symptoms were asked only in 15 %. Skills were poor overall for young infants. For children between 2 mo to 5 y, danger signs, neck stiffness, edema, wasting and pallor were checked in <40 % observations. Immunization card was asked for in 20 % observations. IMNCI trained workers performed well in all aspects of counseling, except follow up. Training without effective implementation plans will not result in long term skill retention.

  19. Steam gasification of wood biomass in a fluidized biocatalytic system bed gasifier: A model development and validation using experiment and Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme BPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Vecchione

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in biomass biocatalytic gasification is the correct prediction of gasification products, with particular attention to the Topping Atmosphere Residues (TARs. In this work, performedwithin the European 7FP UNIfHY project, we develops and validate experimentally a model which is able of predicting the outputs,including TARs, of a steam-fluidized bed biomass gasifier. Pine wood was chosen as biomass feedstock: the products obtained in pyrolysis tests are the relevant model input. Hydrodynamics and chemical properties of the reacting system are considered: the hydrodynamic approach is based on the two phase theory of fluidization, meanwhile the chemical model is based on the kinetic equations for the heterogeneous and homogenous reactions. The derived differentials equations for the gasifier at steady state were implemented MATLAB. Solution was consecutively carried out using the Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme by varying steam/biomass ratio (0.5-1 and operating temperature (750-850°C.The comparison between models and experimental results showed that the model is able of predicting gas mole fractions and production rate including most of the representative TARs compounds

  20. Supporting public involvement in research design and grant development: a case study of a public involvement award scheme managed by a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Research Design Service (RDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Jonathan D; Twiddy, Maureen; Baird, Wendy; Birks, Yvonne; Clarke, Clare; Beever, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    It is good practice for the public to be involved in developing health research. Resources should be available for researchers to fund the involvement of the public in the development of their grants. To describe a funding award scheme to support public involvement in grant development, managed by an NIHR Research Design Service (RDS). Case examples of how the award contributed to successful grant applications and findings from a recent evaluation of the scheme are presented. A case study of resource provision to support public involvement activities in one region of England. University and NHS-based researchers, and members of the public. Between 2009 and 2012, the RDS approved 45 public involvement funding awards (totalling nearly £19,000). These awards contributed to 27 submitted applications at the time of writing, of which 11 were successful (totalling over £7.5 million). The evaluation revealed difficulties encountered by some researchers when involving the public in grant development, which led to suggestions about how the scheme could be improved. This award scheme represents an efficient method of providing researchers with resources to involve the public in grant development and would appear to represent good value for money. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  2. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  3. Development of Row of Vibration Insulators and its Mathematical Models on a Base of Common Multi-parameter Scheme of Element Axial Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Yury K.

    2018-01-01

    The mathematical model of deformation of a cable (rope) vibration insulator consisting of two identical clips connected by means of elastic elements of a complex axial line is developed in detail. The axial line of the element is symmetric relatively to the horizontal axis of the shape and is made up of five rectilinear sections of arbitrary length a, b, c, conjugated to four radius sections with parameters R1 and R2 with angular extent 90°. On the basis of linear representations of the theory of bending and torsion of mechanics of materials, applied mechanics and linear algebra, a mathematical model of loading of an element and a vibration insulator as a whole in the direction of the vertical Y axis has been developed. Generalized characteristics of the friction and elastic forces for an elastic element with a complete set of the listed sections are obtained. Further, with the help of nullification in the generalized model of the characteristics of certain parameters, special cases of friction and elastic forces are obtained without taking into account the nullified parameters. Simultaneously, on the basis of the 3D computer-aided design system, volumetric models of simplified structures were created, given in the work. It is shown that, with the help of a variation of the five parameters of the axial scheme of the element, in combination with the variation of the moment of inertia of the rope section and the number of elements entering the ensemble, the load characteristics and stiffness of the vibration insulators can be changed tens and hundreds of times. This opens up unlimited possibilities for the optimal design of vibration protection systems in terms of weight characteristics, in cost, in terms of vibration intensity, in overall dimensions in different directions, which is very important for aerospace and transport engineering.

  4. Scheme of energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This scheme defines the objectives relative to the renewable energies and the rational use of the energy in the framework of the national energy policy. It evaluates the needs and the potentialities of the regions and preconizes the actions between the government and the territorial organizations. The document is presented in four parts: the situation, the stakes and forecasts; the possible actions for new measures; the scheme management and the regional contributions analysis. (A.L.B.)

  5. A satellite based scheme for predicting the effects of land cover change on local microclimate and surface hydrology: Development of an operational regional planning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Sandra Traci

    Humans have diverse goals for their use of land: mining, water supply, aesthetic enjoyment, recreation, transportation, housing, etc. Any individual living within an actively developing community can look back in time and note how, perhaps slowly but nonetheless dramatically, the total land area dedicated to human use has increased. As our society's basic functioning intensifies, the disappearance of "free" open space is apparent---today, even conservation areas are carefully designated, mapped and controlled. This transition in land use is a result of many individual decisions that occur throughout space and time, often with little concern for the potential impacts on the local environment. Two specific environmental components---the microclimate and surface hydrology---are the focus of this thesis. This study, as well as related tools and bodies of knowledge, should be used to broaden the scientific basis behind land use management decisions. It will be shown that development can induce predictable changes in measures of the local radiant surface temperature and evapotranspiration fraction---as long as certain features of the development are known. Specifically, the vegetation changes that accompany the development must be noted, as well as the initial climatic state of the land parcel. Additionally, plots of runoff vs. rainfall for gauged basins will be interpreted in terms of the proportion of the basin contributing to a storm event's runoff signal. For a particular basin, four distinct runoff responses, separated by season and antecedent moisture conditions, will be distinguished. The response for the non-summer months under typical antecedent moisture conditions will be shown to be the most representative of and responsive to a basin's land use patterns. A scheme that makes use of satellite-derived land cover patterns and other physical attributes of the basin in order to determine this particular runoff response will be presented. The Soil Conservation

  6. Emotional Development and Adaptive Abilities in Adults with Intellectual Disability. A Correlation Study between the Scheme of Appraisal of Emotional Development (SAED) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Lassi, Stefano; Bertelli, Marco; Albertini, Giorgio; Dosen, Anton

    2009-01-01

    The importance of emotional aspects in developing cognitive and social abilities has already been underlined by many authors even if there is no unanimous agreement on the factors constituting adaptive abilities, nor is there any on the way to measure them or on the relation between adaptive ability and cognitive level. The purposes of this study…

  7. Development of an Ionization Scheme for Gold using the Selective Laser Ion Source at the On-Line Isotope Separator ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Fedosseev, V; Marsh, B A; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2006-01-01

    At the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility, the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) can be used to ionize reaction products as they effuse from the target. The RILIS process of laser step-wise resonance ionization of atoms in a hot metal cavity provides a highly element selective stage in the preparation of the radioactive ion beam. As a result, the ISOLDE mass separators can provide beams of a chosen isotope with greatly reduced isobaric contamination. The number of elements available at RILIS has been extended to 26, with the addition of a new three-step ionization scheme for gold. The optimal ionization scheme was determined during an extensive study of the atomic energy levels and auto-ionizing states of gold, carried out by means of in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy. Details of the ionization scheme and a summary of the spectroscopy study are presented.

  8. Development of a Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme for Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue: Application to yaws in Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godornes, Charmie; Giacani, Lorenzo; Barry, Alyssa E; Mitja, Oriol; Lukehart, Sheila A

    2017-12-01

    Yaws is a neglected tropical disease, caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue. The disease causes chronic lesions, primarily in young children living in remote villages in tropical climates. As part of a global yaws eradication campaign initiated by the World Health Organization, we sought to develop and evaluate a molecular typing method to distinguish different strains of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue for disease control and epidemiological purposes. Published genome sequences of strains of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue and pallidum were compared to identify polymorphic genetic loci among the strains. DNA from a number of existing historical Treponema isolates, as well as a subset of samples from yaws patients collected in Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, were analyzed using these targets. From these data, three genes (tp0548, tp0136 and tp0326) were ultimately selected to give a high discriminating capability among the T. pallidum subsp. pertenue samples tested. Intragenic regions of these three target genes were then selected to enhance the discriminating capability of the typing scheme using short readily amplifiable loci. This 3-gene multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method was applied to existing historical human yaws strains, the Fribourg-Blanc simian isolate, and DNA from 194 lesion swabs from yaws patients on Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea. Among all samples tested, fourteen molecular types were identified, seven of which were found in patient samples and seven among historical isolates or DNA. Three types (JG8, TD6, and SE7) were predominant on Lihir Island. This MLST approach allows molecular typing and differentiation of yaws strains. This method could be a useful tool to complement epidemiological studies in regions where T. pallidum subsp. pertenue is prevalent with the overall goals of improving our understanding of yaws transmission dynamics and helping the yaws eradication campaign to succeed.

  9. Project financing renewable energy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandler, A.

    1993-01-01

    The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

  10. Combination of scoring schemes for protein docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schomburg Dietmar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Docking algorithms are developed to predict in which orientation two proteins are likely to bind under natural conditions. The currently used methods usually consist of a sampling step followed by a scoring step. We developed a weighted geometric correlation based on optimised atom specific weighting factors and combined them with our previously published amino acid specific scoring and with a comprehensive SVM-based scoring function. Results The scoring with the atom specific weighting factors yields better results than the amino acid specific scoring. In combination with SVM-based scoring functions the percentage of complexes for which a near native structure can be predicted within the top 100 ranks increased from 14% with the geometric scoring to 54% with the combination of all scoring functions. Especially for the enzyme-inhibitor complexes the results of the ranking are excellent. For half of these complexes a near-native structure can be predicted within the first 10 proposed structures and for more than 86% of all enzyme-inhibitor complexes within the first 50 predicted structures. Conclusion We were able to develop a combination of different scoring schemes which considers a series of previously described and some new scoring criteria yielding a remarkable improvement of prediction quality.

  11. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and changes for women farmers. The thesis seeks to

  12. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to
    understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local
    society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and
    changes for women farmers. The

  13. Generalized energy and potential enstrophy conserving finite difference schemes for the shallow water equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramopoulos, Frank

    1988-01-01

    The conditions under which finite difference schemes for the shallow water equations can conserve both total energy and potential enstrophy are considered. A method of deriving such schemes using operator formalism is developed. Several such schemes are derived for the A-, B- and C-grids. The derived schemes include second-order schemes and pseudo-fourth-order schemes. The simplest B-grid pseudo-fourth-order schemes are presented.

  14. East Asian winter monsoon forecasting schemes based on the NCEP's climate forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baoqiang; Fan, Ke; Yang, Hongqing

    2017-12-01

    The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is the major climate system in the Northern Hemisphere during boreal winter. In this study, we developed two schemes to improve the forecasting skill of the interannual variability of the EAWM index (EAWMI) using the interannual increment prediction method, also known as the DY method. First, we found that version 2 of the NCEP's Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) showed higher skill in predicting the EAWMI in DY form than not. So, based on the advantage of the DY method, Scheme-I was obtained by adding the EAWMI DY predicted by CFSv2 to the observed EAWMI in the previous year. This scheme showed higher forecasting skill than CFSv2. Specifically, during 1983-2016, the temporal correlation coefficient between the Scheme-I-predicted and observed EAWMI was 0.47, exceeding the 99% significance level, with the root-mean-square error (RMSE) decreased by 12%. The autumn Arctic sea ice and North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) are two important external forcing factors for the interannual variability of the EAWM. Therefore, a second (hybrid) prediction scheme, Scheme-II, was also developed. This scheme not only involved the EAWMI DY of CFSv2, but also the sea-ice concentration (SIC) observed the previous autumn in the Laptev and East Siberian seas and the temporal coefficients of the third mode of the North Pacific SST in DY form. We found that a negative SIC anomaly in the preceding autumn over the Laptev and the East Siberian seas could lead to a significant enhancement of the Aleutian low and East Asian westerly jet in the following winter. However, the intensity of the winter Siberian high was mainly affected by the third mode of the North Pacific autumn SST. Scheme-I and Scheme-II also showed higher predictive ability for the EAWMI in negative anomaly years compared to CFSv2. More importantly, the improvement in the prediction skill of the EAWMI by the new schemes, especially for Scheme-II, could enhance the forecasting skill of

  15. Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orewa, S. I.

    The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East) and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest) of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil palm farmers were randomly selected from each zone for the study. The study tried to identify the size of oil palm cultivated, types of food and cash crops planted and the proportion consumed and sold and the sufficiency of labour for various farm activities. The study showed that the average oil palm farm size at Ekuku-Agbor zone was smaller (about 1.57 ha) and more fragmented while for Mosogar zone it was 2.28 ha. However a greater percentage (over 65%) of the farms at both locations were within 0.01-2.00 ha farm size range which could be said to be relatively small. The study revealed that among other factors the farmers desire to ensure adequate family food needs which equates to food security and some cash to meet regular family financial needs necessitated their intercropping of the oil palm farms. Others include the need to maximize the returns from the use of labour which they considered a major limiting factor in farm maintenance and to take advantage of the relative high unit price of cassava and its products that prevailed then by cultivating on any available land space including the palm plantations and thereby increasing their farm income.

  16. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  17. Compact spreader schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J.-Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C., E-mail: csun@lbl.gov

    2014-12-21

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  18. Image reconstruction scheme that combines modified Newton method and efficient initial guess estimation for optical tomography of finger joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhen; Jiang, Huabei

    2007-05-10

    What we believe to be a novel 3D diffuse optical tomography scheme is developed to reconstruct images of both absorption and scattering coefficients of finger joint systems. Compared with our previous reconstruction method, the improved 3D algorithm employs both modified Newton methods and an enhanced initial value optimization scheme to recover the optical properties of highly heterogeneous media. The developed approach is tested using simulated, phantom, and in vivo measurement data. The recovered results suggest that the improved approach is able to provide quantitatively better images than our previous algorithm for optical tomography reconstruction.

  19. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0006-0013 ...

  20. Link Monotonic Allocation Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1999-01-01

    A network is a graph where the nodes represent players and the links represent bilateral interaction between the players. A reward game assigns a value to every network on a fixed set of players. An allocation scheme specifies how to distribute the worth of every network among the players. This

  1. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  2. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13 ... Author Affiliations. V Rajaraman1. IBM Professor of Information Technology JNCASR Bangalore 560 064, India.

  3. CSR schemes in agribusiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    of schemes that can be categorized on focus areas, scales, mechanisms, origins, types and commitment levels. Research limitations/implications – The findings contribute to conceptual and empirical research on existing models to compare and analyse CSR standards. Sampling technique and depth of analysis limit...

  4. Simple monotonic interpolation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for presenting tabular data, such as are contained in the ENDF/B files, that is simpler, more general, and potentially much more compact than the present schemes used with ENDF/B is presented. The method has been successfully used for Bondarenko interpolation in a module of the AMPX system. 1 figure, 1 table

  5. A novel quantum group signature scheme without using entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang-Bao; Zhang, Ke-Jia

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel quantum group signature scheme. It can make the signer sign a message on behalf of the group without the help of group manager (the arbitrator), which is different from the previous schemes. In addition, a signature can be verified again when its signer disavows she has ever generated it. We analyze the validity and the security of the proposed signature scheme. Moreover, we discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of the new scheme and the existing ones. The results show that our scheme satisfies all the characteristics of a group signature and has more advantages than the previous ones. Like its classic counterpart, our scheme can be used in many application scenarios, such as e-government and e-business.

  6. A high-fidelity memory scheme for quantum data buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bo-Yang; Chen Xi; Zhang Ming; Cui Wei; Dai Hong-Yi

    2017-01-01

    A novel quantum memory scheme is proposed for quantum data buses in scalable quantum computers by using adjustable interaction. Our investigation focuses on a hybrid quantum system including coupled flux qubits and a nitrogen–vacancy center ensemble. In our scheme, the transmission and storage (retrieval) of quantum state are performed in two separated steps, which can be controlled by adjusting the coupling strength between the computing unit and the quantum memory. The scheme can be used not only to reduce the time of quantum state transmission, but also to increase the robustness of the system with respect to detuning caused by magnetic noises. In comparison with the previous memory scheme, about 80% of the transmission time is saved. Moreover, it is exemplified that in our scheme the fidelity could achieve 0.99 even when there exists detuning, while the one in the previous scheme is 0.75. (paper)

  7. Canonical, stable, general mapping using context schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Adam M; Rosen, Yohei; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2015-11-15

    Sequence mapping is the cornerstone of modern genomics. However, most existing sequence mapping algorithms are insufficiently general. We introduce context schemes: a method that allows the unambiguous recognition of a reference base in a query sequence by testing the query for substrings from an algorithmically defined set. Context schemes only map when there is a unique best mapping, and define this criterion uniformly for all reference bases. Mappings under context schemes can also be made stable, so that extension of the query string (e.g. by increasing read length) will not alter the mapping of previously mapped positions. Context schemes are general in several senses. They natively support the detection of arbitrary complex, novel rearrangements relative to the reference. They can scale over orders of magnitude in query sequence length. Finally, they are trivially extensible to more complex reference structures, such as graphs, that incorporate additional variation. We demonstrate empirically the existence of high-performance context schemes, and present efficient context scheme mapping algorithms. The software test framework created for this study is available from https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/adamnovak/sequence-graphs/. anovak@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Description and Application of the CE-SE Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin KOSÍK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The CE-SE scheme is new numerical methodology for conservation laws. It was developed by Dr.Chang of NASA Glenn Research Center and his collaborators. The 1D and 2D variant of CE-SE scheme for scalar convection and for Euler equations for incompressible flows is described. The CESE scheme is compared with classical schemes in 1D. The solution to inviscid incompressible flow in GAMM channel in 2D is presented.

  9. Development and application of a third order scheme of finite differences centered in mesh; Desarrollo y aplicacion de un esquema de tercer orden de diferencias finitas centradas en malla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfin L, A.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valle G, E. del [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: adl@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work the development of a third order scheme of finite differences centered in mesh is presented and it is applied in the numerical solution of those diffusion equations in multi groups in stationary state and X Y geometry. Originally this scheme was developed by Hennart and del Valle for the monoenergetic diffusion equation with a well-known source and they show that the one scheme is of third order when comparing the numerical solution with the analytical solution of a model problem using several mesh refinements and boundary conditions. The scheme by them developed it also introduces the application of numeric quadratures to evaluate the rigidity matrices and of mass that its appear when making use of the finite elements method of Galerkin. One of the used quadratures is the open quadrature of 4 points, no-standard, of Newton-Cotes to evaluate in approximate form the elements of the rigidity matrices. The other quadrature is that of 3 points of Radau that it is used to evaluate the elements of all the mass matrices. One of the objectives of these quadratures are to eliminate the couplings among the Legendre moments 0 and 1 associated to the left and right faces as those associated to the inferior and superior faces of each cell of the discretization. The other objective is to satisfy the particles balance in weighed form in each cell. In this work it expands such development to multiplicative means considering several energy groups. There are described diverse details inherent to the technique, particularly those that refer to the simplification of the algebraic systems that appear due to the space discretization. Numerical results for several test problems are presented and are compared with those obtained with other nodal techniques. (Author)

  10. Ponzi scheme diffusion in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anding; Fu, Peihua; Zhang, Qinghe; Chen, Zhenyue

    2017-08-01

    Ponzi schemes taking the form of Internet-based financial schemes have been negatively affecting China's economy for the last two years. Because there is currently a lack of modeling research on Ponzi scheme diffusion within social networks yet, we develop a potential-investor-divestor (PID) model to investigate the diffusion dynamics of Ponzi scheme in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks. Our simulation study of artificial and real Facebook social networks shows that the structure of investor networks does indeed affect the characteristics of dynamics. Both the average degree of distribution and the power-law degree of distribution will reduce the spreading critical threshold and will speed up the rate of diffusion. A high speed of diffusion is the key to alleviating the interest burden and improving the financial outcomes for the Ponzi scheme operator. The zero-crossing point of fund flux function we introduce proves to be a feasible index for reflecting the fast-worsening situation of fiscal instability and predicting the forthcoming collapse. The faster the scheme diffuses, the higher a peak it will reach and the sooner it will collapse. We should keep a vigilant eye on the harm of Ponzi scheme diffusion through modern social networks.

  11. Contribution to a neutronic calculation scheme for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Del Campo, C.

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis aims at developing and validating the set of data and codes which build up the neutron computation scheme of pressurized water reactors. More precisely, it focuses on the improvement of the precision of calculation of command clusters (absorbing components which can be inserted into the core to control the reactivity), and on the modelling of reflector representation (material placed around the core and reflecting back the escaping neutrons). For the first case, a precise calculation is performed, based on the transport theory. For the second case, diffusion constants obtained in the previous case and simplified equations are used to reduce the calculation cost

  12. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  13. Beyond Scheme F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C.J.; Fisher, H.; Pepin, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gillmann, R. [Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Traffic classification techniques were evaluated using data from a 1993 investigation of the traffic flow patterns on I-20 in Georgia. First we improved the data by sifting through the data base, checking against the original video for questionable events and removing and/or repairing questionable events. We used this data base to critique the performance quantitatively of a classification method known as Scheme F. As a context for improving the approach, we show in this paper that scheme F can be represented as a McCullogh-Pitts neural network, oar as an equivalent decomposition of the plane. We found that Scheme F, among other things, severely misrepresents the number of vehicles in Class 3 by labeling them as Class 2. After discussing the basic classification problem in terms of what is measured, and what is the desired prediction goal, we set forth desirable characteristics of the classification scheme and describe a recurrent neural network system that partitions the high dimensional space up into bins for each axle separation. the collection of bin numbers, one for each of the axle separations, specifies a region in the axle space called a hyper-bin. All the vehicles counted that have the same set of in numbers are in the same hyper-bin. The probability of the occurrence of a particular class in that hyper- bin is the relative frequency with which that class occurs in that set of bin numbers. This type of algorithm produces classification results that are much more balanced and uniform with respect to Classes 2 and 3 and Class 10. In particular, the cancellation of errors of classification that occurs is for many applications the ideal classification scenario. The neural network results are presented in the form of a primary classification network and a reclassification network, the performance matrices for which are presented.

  14. Recent developments in automated determinations of trace level concentrations of elements and on-line fractionations schemes exploiting the micro-sequential injection - lab-on-valve approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel; Long, Xiangbao

    2006-01-01

    . In this context sequential injection (SI) and lab-on-valve (LOV) schemes have proven themselves as superb vehicles to act as front-end microanalytical methodologies, particularly when employing solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedures. In this communication, selected SPE-procedures in a bead-renewable fashion...... are presented as based on the exploitation of micro-sequential injection (μSI-LOV) using hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic bead materials. The examples given comprise the presentation of a universal approach for SPE-assays, front-end speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in a fully automated and enclosed set...

  15. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana

    of the ongoing fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power (mCHP) demonstration projects by addressing the socio‐economic and systems analyses perspectives of a large‐scale promotion scheme of fuel cells. This document constitutes the deliverable of Work Package 1 of the FC4Home project and provides......In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects...... previous findings and provides a short “preview” of the quantitative analyses in subsequent Work Packages by giving some food for thought on the way....

  16. Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debojyoti [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Brown, Jed [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.

  17. Adaptive Optics Metrics & QC Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Julien H.

    2017-09-01

    "There are many Adaptive Optics (AO) fed instruments on Paranal and more to come. To monitor their performances and assess the quality of the scientific data, we have developed a scheme and a set of tools and metrics adapted to each flavour of AO and each data product. Our decisions to repeat observations or not depends heavily on this immediate quality control "zero" (QC0). Atmospheric parameters monitoring can also help predict performances . At the end of the chain, the user must be able to find the data that correspond to his/her needs. In Particular, we address the special case of SPHERE."

  18. Quantum identification schemes with entanglements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    We need secure identification schemes because many situations exist in which a person must be identified. In this paper, we propose three quantum identification schemes with entanglements. First, we propose a quantum one-time pad password scheme. In this scheme, entanglements play the role of a one-time pad password. Next, we propose a quantum identification scheme that requires a trusted authority. Finally, we propose a quantum message authentication scheme that is constructed by combining a different quantum cryptosystem with an ordinary authentication tag

  19. Unified gas-kinetic scheme for diatomic molecular flow with translational, rotational, and vibrational modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Yan, Hong; Li, Qibing; Xu, Kun

    2017-12-01

    The unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) is a direct modeling method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. In the previous study, the UGKS was developed for diatomic molecular simulations with translation and rotational motions. In this paper, a UGKS with non-equilibrium translational, rotational, and vibrational degrees of freedom, will be developed. The new scheme is based on the phenomenological gas dynamics model, where the translational, rotational, and vibrational modes get to the equilibrium with different time scales with the introduction of rotational and vibrational collision numbers. This new scheme is tested in a few cases, such as the homogeneous flow relaxation, shock structure, shock tube problem, and flow passing through a circular and semi-circular cylinders. The analytical and DSMC solutions are used for the validation of the UGKS, and reasonable agreements have been achieved.

  20. ESS-FH: Enhanced Security Scheme for Fast Handover in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ilsun; Lee, Jong-Hyouk; Sakurai, Kouichi; Hori, Yoshiaki

    Fast Handover for Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (F-HMIPv6) that combines advantages of Fast Handover for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) and Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) achieves the superior performance in terms of handover latency and signaling overhead compared with previously developed mobility protocols. However, without being secured, F-HMIPv6 is vulnerable to various security threats. In 2007, Kang and Park proposed a security scheme, which is seamlessly integrated into F-HMIPv6. In this paper, we reveal that Kang-Park's scheme cannot defend against the Denial of Service (DoS) and redirect attacks while largely relying on the group key. Then, we propose an Enhanced Security Scheme for F-HMIPv6 (ESS-FH) that achieves the strong key exchange and the key independence as well as addresses the weaknesses of Kang-Park's scheme. More importantly, it enables fast handover between different MAP domains. The proposed scheme is formally verified based on BAN-logic, and its handover latency is analyzed and compared with that of Kang-Park's scheme.

  1. Optimal Sales Schemes for Network Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parakhonyak, Alexei; Vikander, Nick

    to consumers, allowing success to breed success. Failure can also breed failure, but this is made less likely by consumers’ desire to influence one another’s behavior. We show that when consumers differ in the weight they place on the network externality, the firm would like to serve consumers with lower......This paper examines the optimal sequencing of sales in the presence of network externalities. A firm sells a good to a group of consumers whose payoff from buying is increasing in total quantity sold. The firm selects the order to serve consumers so as to maximize expected sales. It can serve all...... consumers simultaneously, serve them all sequentially, or employ any intermediate scheme. We show that the optimal sales scheme is purely sequential, where each consumer observes all previous sales before choosing whether to buy himself. A sequential scheme maximizes the amount of information available...

  2. A New Accurate Finite-Difference Scheme Based on the Optimally Accurate Operators and Boundary-Condition Consistent Material Parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristek, J.; Moczo, P.; Galis, M.

    2005-12-01

    Geller and Takeuchi (1995) developed optimally accurate finite-difference (FD) operators. The operators minimize the error of the numerical solution of the discretized equation of motion. The criterion for obtaining the optimally accurate operators requires that the leading term of the truncation error of the discretized homogeneous (without body-force term) equation of motion (that is if operand is an eigenfunction and frequency is equal to eigenfrequency) is zero. Consequently, the optimally accurate operators satisfy (up to the leading term of the truncation error) homogeneous equation of motion. The grid dispersion of an optimally accurate FD scheme is significantly smaller than that of a standard FD scheme. A heterogeneous FD scheme cannot be anything else than a FD approximation to the heterogeneous formulation of the equation of motion (the same form of the equation for a point away from a material discontinuity and a point at the material discontinuity). If an optimally accurate FD scheme for heterogeneous media is to be obtained, the optimally accurate operators have to be applied to the heterogeneous formulation of the equation of motion. Moczo et al. (2002) found a heterogeneous formulation and developed a FD scheme based on standard staggered-grid 4th-order operators. The scheme is capable to sense both smooth material heterogeneity and material discontinuity at any position in a spatial grid. We present a new FD scheme that combines optimally accurate operators of Geller and Takeuchi (1995) with a material parameterization of Moczo et al. (2002). Models of a single material discontinuity, interior constant-velocity layer, and interior layer with the velocity gradient were calculated with the new scheme, conventional-operator scheme and analytically. Numerical results clearly isolate and demonstrate effects of the boundary and grid dispersion. The results demonstrate significant accuracy improvement compared to previous FD schemes.

  3. Enhanced arbitrated quantum signature scheme using Bell states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chao; Liu Jian-Wei; Shang Tao

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the existing arbitrated quantum signature schemes as well as their cryptanalysis, including intercept-resend attack and denial-of-service attack. By exploring the loopholes of these schemes, a malicious signatory may successfully disavow signed messages, or the receiver may actively negate the signature from the signatory without being detected. By modifying the existing schemes, we develop counter-measures to these attacks using Bell states. The newly proposed scheme puts forward the security of arbitrated quantum signature. Furthermore, several valuable topics are also presented for further research of the quantum signature scheme

  4. Bonus Schemes and Trading Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders’ propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders’ performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold (convex) bonus schemes on traders’ behavior. Traders purchase and sell shares in an experimental stock

  5. Scheme of stepmotor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashilin, V.A.; Karyshev, Yu.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    A 6-cycle scheme of step motor is described. The block-diagram and the basic circuit of the step motor control are presented. The step motor control comprises a pulse shaper, electronic commutator and power amplifiers. The step motor supply from 6-cycle electronic commutator provides for higher reliability and accuracy than from 3-cycle commutator. The control of step motor work is realised by the program given by the external source of control signals. Time-dependent diagrams for step motor control are presented. The specifications of the step-motor is given

  6. Intelligent Aggregation Based on Content Routing Scheme for Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachen Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has emerged as today’s most exciting computing paradigm for providing services using a shared framework, which opens a new door for solving the problems of the explosive growth of digital resource demands and their corresponding convenience. With the exponential growth of the number of data types and data size in so-called big data work, the backbone network is under great pressure due to its transmission capacity, which is lower than the growth of the data size and would seriously hinder the development of the network without an effective approach to solve this problem. In this paper, an Intelligent Aggregation based on a Content Routing (IACR scheme for cloud computing, which could reduce the amount of data in the network effectively and play a basic supporting role in the development of cloud computing, is first put forward. All in all, the main innovations in this paper are: (1 A framework for intelligent aggregation based on content routing is proposed, which can support aggregation based content routing; (2 The proposed IACR scheme could effectively route the high aggregation ratio data to the data center through the same routing path so as to effectively reduce the amount of data that the network transmits. The theoretical analyses experiments and results show that, compared with the previous original routing scheme, the IACR scheme can balance the load of the whole network, reduce the amount of data transmitted in the network by 41.8%, and reduce the transmission time by 31.6% in the same network with a more balanced network load.

  7. A Novel Congestion Detection Scheme in TCP Over OBS Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem

    2009-02-01

    This paper introduces a novel congestion detection scheme for high-bandwidth TCP flows over optical burst switching (OBS) networks, called statistical additive increase multiplicative decrease (SAIMD). SAIMD maintains and analyzes a number of previous round-trip time (RTTs) at the TCP senders in order to identify the confidence with which a packet loss event is due to network congestion. The confidence is derived by positioning short-term RTT in the spectrum of long-term historical RTTs. The derived confidence corresponding to the packet loss is then taken in the developed policy for TCP congestion window adjustment. We will show through extensive simulation that the proposed scheme can effectively solve the false congestion detection problem and significantly outperform the conventional TCP counterparts without losing fairness. The advantages gained in our scheme are at the expense of introducing more overhead in the SAIMD TCP senders. Based on the proposed congestion control algorithm, a throughput model is formulated, and is further verified by simulation results.

  8. Maize sugary enhancer1 (se1) is a presence-absence variant of a previously uncharacterized gene and development of educational videos to raise the profile of plant breeding and improve curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro von Mogel, Karl J.

    Carbohydrate metabolism is a biologically, economically, and culturally important process in crop plants. Humans have selected many crop species such as maize (Zea mays L.) in ways that have resulted in changes to carbohydrate metabolic pathways, and understanding the underlying genetics of this pathway is therefore exceedingly important. A previously uncharacterized starch metabolic pathway mutant, sugary enhancer1 (se1), is a recessive modifier of sugary1 (su1) sweet corn that increases the sugar content while maintaining an appealing creamy texture. This allele has been incorporated into many sweet corn varieties since its discovery in the 1970s, however, testing for the presence of this allele has been difficult. A genetic stock was developed that allowed the presence of se1 to be visually scored in segregating ears, which were used to genetically map se1 to the deletion of a single gene model located on the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 2. An analysis of homology found that this gene is specific to monocots, and the gene is expressed in the endosperm and developing leaf. The se1 allele increased water soluble polysaccharide (WSP) and decreased amylopectin in maize endosperm, but there was no overall effect on starch content in mature leaves due to se1. This discovery will lead to a greater understanding of starch metabolism, and the marker developed will assist in breeding. There is a present need for increased training for plant breeders to meet the growing needs of the human population. To raise the profile of plant breeding among young students, a series of videos called Fields of Study was developed. These feature interviews with plant breeders who talk about what they do as plant breeders and what they enjoy about their chosen profession. To help broaden the education of students in college biology courses, and assist with the training of plant breeders, a second video series, Pollination Methods was developed. Each video focuses on one or two

  9. The development of a thermal hydraulic feedback mechanism with a quasi-fixed point iteration scheme for control rod position modeling for the TRIGSIMS-TH application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karriem, Veronica V.

    heterogeneous temperature distribution throughout the core. Each of these codes is written in its own computer language performing its function and outputs a set of data. TRIGSIMS-TH provides an effective use and data manipulation and transfer between different codes. With the implementation of feedback and control- rod-position modeling methodologies, the TRIGSIMS-TH calculations are more accurate and in a better agreement with measured data. The PSBR is unique in many ways and there are no "off-the-shelf" codes, which can model this design in its entirety. In particular, PSBR has an open core design, which is cooled by natural convection. Combining several codes into a unique system brings many challenges. It also requires substantial knowledge of both operation and core design of the PSBR. This reactor is in operation decades and there is a fair amount of studies and developments in both PSBR thermal hydraulics and neutronics. Measured data is also available for various core loadings and can be used for validation activities. The previous studies and developments in PSBR modeling also aids as a guide to assess the findings of the work herein. In order to incorporate new methods and codes into exiting TRIGSIMS, a re-evaluation of various components of the code was performed to assure the accuracy and efficiency of the existing CTF/MCNP5/ADMARC-H multi-physics coupling. A new set of ADMARC-H diffusion coefficients and cross sections was generated using the SERPENT code. This was needed as the previous data was not generated with thermal hydraulic feedback and the ARO position was used as the critical rod position. The B4C was re-evaluated for this update. The data exchange between ADMARC-H and MCNP5 was modified. The basic core model is given a flexibility to allow for various changes within the core model, and this feature was implemented in TRIGSIMS-TH. The PSBR core in the new code model can be expanded and changed. This allows the new code to be used as a modeling tool for

  10. Packet reversed packet combining scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2006-07-01

    The packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme with erroneous copies at the receiver. It offers higher throughput combined with ARQ protocols in networks than that of basic ARQ protocols. But packet combining scheme fails to correct errors when the errors occur in the same bit locations of two erroneous copies. In the present work, we propose a scheme that will correct error if the errors occur at the same bit location of the erroneous copies. The proposed scheme when combined with ARQ protocol will offer higher throughput. (author)

  11. Two-out-of-two color matching based visual cryptography schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machizaud, Jacques; Fournel, Thierry

    2012-09-24

    Visual cryptography which consists in sharing a secret message between transparencies has been extended to color prints. In this paper, we propose a new visual cryptography scheme based on color matching. The stacked printed media reveal a uniformly colored message decoded by the human visual system. In contrast with the previous color visual cryptography schemes, the proposed one enables to share images without pixel expansion and to detect a forgery as the color of the message is kept secret. In order to correctly print the colors on the media and to increase the security of the scheme, we use spectral models developed for color reproduction describing printed colors from an optical point of view.

  12. Development of an automatic system dedicated to the writing of explicit and reduced chemical schemes suited to the photo-oxidant pollution study at different scales; Developpement d'une chaine automatique d'ecriture de schemas chimiques explicites et reduits adaptes a l'etude de la pollution photooxydante aux differentes echelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laval-Szopa, S

    2003-12-15

    Millions of compounds are involved in atmospheric chemistry. Chemical schemes must then be reduced to model the photo-oxidant pollution using chemistry-transport models (CTM). Such reduced schemes describe the atmospheric VOC oxidation using typically a hundred of species. The reduction methods depend actually on the particular case under consideration. The recent emergence of multi-scale CTM sets the problem of the use of reduced chemical schemes developed for a specified scale to the simultaneous modeling of several space scales. The objective of this work was to develop and assess an automatic procedure allowing to write explicit and reduced chemical schemes suited to the study of photo-oxidant pollution at different scales. The method is based on (1) the development of a tool dedicated to the writing of explicit schemes for VOC oxidation and (2) the assessment of reduced schemes using the explicit scheme as a reference. In order to minimize the problems involved in the development of chemical schemes, an automatic generator of explicit chemical schemes was developed for the tropospheric VOC oxidation. This generator is based on state of the art in terms of reactivity and mechanisms. It allows the writing of the whole set of reactions implied in the oxidation of a given primary compound, from its initiation to its total oxidation in CO{sub 2} et H{sub 2}O. A reference chemical scheme was built, using the generator, for about seventy primary VOC, chosen to be representative of both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. The scheme describes their oxidation through more than 2 millions of reactions and 350.000 species. Three methods were applied to reduce the size of the chemical scheme: (i) use of operators, based on the redundancy of inorganic chemistry implied in the VOC oxidation, (ii) lumping of primary species having similar reactivities and (iii) lumping of secondary products into surrogate species. The number of species in the final reduced scheme is 150, i

  13. Development of the scheme of stepwise combustion of coal in the inverter firebox of a power unit of 1000 MW power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, V. B.; Chernov, S. L.; Kirichkov, V. S.

    2017-09-01

    The desire to increase the efficiency of using the heat of burned solid fuel leads to the significant growth of the initial steam parameter at steam-turbine plants. At the maximum temperatures of fresh and secondary steam of 700-720°C, the price of connecting of steam pipelines between the boiler and turbine is up to 20% of the price of a power plant unit, which dictates the necessity to decrease their length. One of the methods to achieve this is the application of an inverter firebox. An M-shaped profile of boiler, allowing one to decrease the length of heat-resistant steam pipelines, was developed at NRU MPEI. A distinctive feature of the profile is two inclined connecting gas flues between the firebox and convective shaft, starting from the gas windows located in the lower third of the firebox height. The boiler was designed for the steam production of 2493 t/h with the parameters of fresh steam of 35 MPa and 710°C. Thermal and aerodynamic calculations made it possible to get the sizes of boiler and dimensions of heating surfaces, and they also allow one to get the values of temperatures in the characteristic points along the gas path. On the basis of the results of calculations, the coefficient of efficiency of the boiler was 93.07% and the fuel consumption was 91.13 kg/s. For this boiler, the technology of effective stepwise burning of coal in a direct-flow-vortex torch (DFVT) in a system of vertical and horizontal tangential torches in the mode of solid slag removal, previously successively used in boilers with a traditional profile and upgraded to an inverter firebox, is proposed. The layouts of the direct-flow burners and nozzles for even and odd vertical sections of the firebox and also in a horizontal section were proposed. Organization of staged air supply in the vertical direction with a high fraction of in-firebox recycle of hot gases leads to low concentration of nitrogen oxides.

  14. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  15. Low-storage implicit/explicit Runge-Kutta schemes for the simulation of stiff high-dimensional ODE systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaglieri, Daniele; Bewley, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Implicit/explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta (RK) schemes are effective for time-marching ODE systems with both stiff and nonstiff terms on the RHS; such schemes implement an (often A-stable or better) implicit RK scheme for the stiff part of the ODE, which is often linear, and, simultaneously, a (more convenient) explicit RK scheme for the nonstiff part of the ODE, which is often nonlinear. Low-storage RK schemes are especially effective for time-marching high-dimensional ODE discretizations of PDE systems on modern (cache-based) computational hardware, in which memory management is often the most significant computational bottleneck. In this paper, we develop and characterize eight new low-storage implicit/explicit RK schemes which have higher accuracy and better stability properties than the only low-storage implicit/explicit RK scheme available previously, the venerable second-order Crank-Nicolson/Runge-Kutta-Wray (CN/RKW3) algorithm that has dominated the DNS/LES literature for the last 25 years, while requiring similar storage (two, three, or four registers of length N) and comparable floating-point operations per timestep.

  16. The development of a speech act coding scheme to characterize communication patterns under an off-normal situation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hwan; Park, Jin Kyun

    2009-01-01

    Since communication is an important means to exchange information between individuals/teams or auxiliary means to share resources and information given in the team and group activity, effective communication is the prerequisite for construct powerful teamwork by a sharing mental model. Therefore, unless communication is performed efficiently, the quality of task and performance of team lower. Furthermore, since communication is highly related to situation awareness during team activities, inappropriate communication causes a lack of situation awareness and tension and stress are intensified and errors are increased. According to lesson learned from several accidents that have actually occurred in nuclear power plant (NPP), consequence of accident leads most critical results and is more dangerous than those of other industries. In order to improve operator's cope ability and operation ability through simulation training with various off-normal condition, the operation groups are trained regularly every 6 months in the training center of reference NPP. The objective of this study is to suggest modified speech act coding scheme and to elucidate the communication pattern characteristics of an operator's conversation during an abnormal situation in NPP

  17. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

    2009-01-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field

  18. Further attacks on Yeung-Mintzer fragile watermarking scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrich, Jessica; Goljan, Miroslav; Memon, Nasir D.

    2000-05-01

    In this paper, we describe new and improved attacks on the authentication scheme previously proposed by Yeung and Mintzer. Previous attacks assumed that the binary watermark logo inserted in an image for the purposes of authentication was known. Here we remove that assumption and show how the scheme is still vulnerable, even if the binary logo is not known but the attacker has access to multiple images that have been watermarked with the same secret key and contain the same (but unknown) logo. We present two attacks. The first attack infers the secret watermark insertion function and the binary logo, given multiple images authenticated with the same key and containing the same logo. We show that a very good approximation to the logo and watermark insertion function can be constructed using as few as two images. With color images, one needs many more images, nevertheless the attack is still feasible. The second attack we present, which we call the 'collage-attack' is a variation of the Holliman-Memon counterfeiting attack. The proposed variation does not require knowledge of the watermark logo and produces counterfeits of superior quality by means of a suitable dithering process that we develop.

  19. Design Scheme of Remote Monitoring System Based on Qt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design scheme of remote monitoring system based on Qt, the scheme of remote monitoring system based on S3C2410 and Qt, with the aid of cross platform development tools Qt and powerful ARM platform design and implementation. The development of remote video surveillance system based on embedded terminal has practical significance and value.

  20. Two notes about Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Honohan

    1987-01-01

    A Ponzi scheme is an arrangement whereby a promoter offers an investment opportunity with attractive dividends, but where the only basis for the dividends is the future receipts from new investors. The first of these two notes explores some of the analytical properties of a Ponzi scheme, addressing in particular the question whether it is possible for a Ponzi scheme to exist if all the participants are rational. The second note briefly examines the collapse of the PMPA insurance company whos...

  1. Modern Schemes for Computation of Transonic Flows in Internal Aerodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fürst

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with numerical solution of steady transonic flows with applications in internal aerodynamics. The problems are described by the system of 2D or 3D Euler or Navier-Stokes equations. Our group developed during last years several central or upwind TVD finite volume methods for computation of transonic flows through a cascade or in a channel using grids of quadrilateral cells or triangular cells. We also developed other (non TVD schemes e.g. MacCormack scheme or several multistage Runge-Kutta finite volume schemes with applications of some acceleration techniques (multi-grid solution or hierarchical residual averaging. Our aim is to present some comparison of results of flows in internal aerodynamics using TVD schemes or other schemes. One can also compare the influence or artificial viscosity effects especially using TVD schemes.

  2. Entropy conservative finite element schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, E.

    1986-01-01

    The question of entropy stability for discrete approximations to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws is studied. The amount of numerical viscosity present in such schemes is quantified and related to their entropy stability by means of comparison. To this end, two main ingredients are used: entropy variables and the construction of certain entropy conservative schemes in terms of piecewise-linear finite element approximations. It is then shown that conservative schemes are entropy stable, if and (for three-point schemes) only if, they contain more numerical viscosity than the abovementioned entropy conservation ones.

  3. New Ideas on Labeling Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbart, Noy Galil

    in a distributed fashion increases. Second, attempting to answer queries on vertices of a graph stored in a distributed fashion can be significantly more complicated. In order to lay theoretical foundations to the first penalty mentioned a large body of work concentrated on labeling schemes. A labeling scheme...... evaluation of fully dynamic labeling schemes. Due to a connection between adjacency labeling schemes and the graph theoretical study of induced universal graphs, we study these in depth and show novel results for bounded degree graphs and power-law graphs. We also survey and make progress on the related...

  4. An overview of the Nigerian Pension Scheme from 1951-2004 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the various pension schemes in Nigeria since 1951 to date with emphasis laid on the pre and the post 2004 era. It identifies the reason behind the failure of the previous schemes and also carryout a comparison of the pre and post 2004 pension Schemes in terms of which of the Pension era have ...

  5. hybrid modulation scheme fo rid modulation scheme fo dulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This work proposes a switching technique for ca proposes a switching technique for ca. (SCSPWM) scheme is employed in the generation circulation schemes are presented for this concepts, it is now possible to generate equal ave pts, it is now possible to generate equal ave semiconductor switches. This results in equal ...

  6. Optimized variational analysis scheme of single Doppler radar wind data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yoshi K.; Allen, Steve; Mizuno, Koki; Whitehead, Victor; Wilk, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    A computer scheme for extracting singularities has been developed and applied to single Doppler radar wind data. The scheme is planned for use in real-time wind and singularity analysis and forecasting. The method, known as Doppler Operational Variational Extraction of Singularities is outlined, focusing on the principle of local symmetry. Results are presented from the application of the scheme to a storm-generated gust front in Oklahoma on May 28, 1987.

  7. New phage typing scheme for Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, D J; Sarkar, B L; Ansari, M Q; Chakrabarti, B K; Roy, M K; Ghosh, A N; Pal, S C

    1993-06-01

    The conventional phage typing scheme proposed by S. Basu and S. Mukerjee (Experientia 24:299-300, 1968) has been used routinely for identification of the strains at the Vibrio Phage Reference Laboratory since 1968. However, because of limitations of this scheme, a new phage typing scheme using five newly isolated phages was incorporated into the conventional scheme. A different definition of routine test dilution (almost confluent lysis) was found to be more useful than the one previously used (confluent lysis). The 1,000 strains tested could be clustered into 27 types with the five new phages. With the new scheme of 10 phages (5 new phages and 5 phages of Basu and Mukerjee), the 1,000 strains could be grouped into 146 types. The new phages were different from each other and also from those of Basu and Mukerjee, as revealed by lytic pattern, electron microscopy, restriction endonuclease digestion, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and antiphage antiserum studies. With the new typing scheme, 99.6% of the strains were typeable. Phage type 115 was the most common and includes 119 (11.9%) of the 1,000 strains tested. Next most common were phage types 142 (9.4%), 143 (7.0%), 104 and 116 (both 5.4%), 3 (5.3%), 5 (4.1%), 4 (3.9%), 24 (2.1%), and 100 (1.7%). The larger number of types would be useful for further classification of the strains for epidemiological purposes. This newly developed scheme is highly applicable to, and could be widely adopted for, phage typing of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor strains.

  8. A Novel Passive Tracking Scheme Exploiting Geometric and Intercept Theorems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Biao; Sun, Chao; Ahn, Deockhyeon; Kim, Youngok

    2018-03-17

    Passive tracking aims to track targets without assistant devices, that is, device-free targets. Passive tracking based on Radio Frequency (RF) Tomography in wireless sensor networks has recently been addressed as an emerging field. The passive tracking scheme using geometric theorems (GTs) is one of the most popular RF Tomography schemes, because the GT-based method can effectively mitigate the demand for a high density of wireless nodes. In the GT-based tracking scheme, the tracking scenario is considered as a two-dimensional geometric topology and then geometric theorems are applied to estimate crossing points (CPs) of the device-free target on line-of-sight links (LOSLs), which reveal the target's trajectory information in a discrete form. In this paper, we review existing GT-based tracking schemes, and then propose a novel passive tracking scheme by exploiting the Intercept Theorem (IT). To create an IT-based CP estimation scheme available in the noisy non-parallel LOSL situation, we develop the equal-ratio traverse (ERT) method. Finally, we analyze properties of three GT-based tracking algorithms and the performance of these schemes is evaluated experimentally under various trajectories, node densities, and noisy topologies. Analysis of experimental results shows that tracking schemes exploiting geometric theorems can achieve remarkable positioning accuracy even under rather a low density of wireless nodes. Moreover, the proposed IT scheme can provide generally finer tracking accuracy under even lower node density and noisier topologies, in comparison to other schemes.

  9. Numerical framework and performance of the new multiple-phase cloud microphysics scheme in RegCM4.5: precipitation, cloud microphysics, and cloud radiative effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogherotto, Rita; Tompkins, Adrian Mark; Giuliani, Graziano; Coppola, Erika; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-07-01

    We implement and evaluate a new parameterization scheme for stratiform cloud microphysics and precipitation within regional climate model RegCM4. This new parameterization is based on a multiple-phase one-moment cloud microphysics scheme built upon the implicit numerical framework recently developed and implemented in the ECMWF operational forecasting model. The parameterization solves five prognostic equations for water vapour, cloud liquid water, rain, cloud ice, and snow mixing ratios. Compared to the pre-existing scheme, it allows a proper treatment of mixed-phase clouds and a more physically realistic representation of cloud microphysics and precipitation. Various fields from a 10-year long integration of RegCM4 run in tropical band mode with the new scheme are compared with their counterparts using the previous cloud scheme and are evaluated against satellite observations. In addition, an assessment using the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observational Simulator Package (COSP) for a 1-year sub-period provides additional information for evaluating the cloud optical properties against satellite data. The new microphysics parameterization yields an improved simulation of cloud fields, and in particular it removes the overestimation of upper level cloud characteristics of the previous scheme, increasing the agreement with observations and leading to an amelioration of a long-standing problem in the RegCM system. The vertical cloud profile produced by the new scheme leads to a considerably improvement of the representation of the longwave and shortwave components of the cloud radiative forcing.

  10. CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The schemes are based on rational interpolation obtained from canonical polynomials. They are A-stable. The test problems show that they give better results than Euler backward method and trapezoidal method near a singular point. KEY WORDS: backward differentiation scheme, collocation, initial value problems.

  11. Political Modernization in China's Forest Governance? Payment Schemes for Forest Ecological Services in Liaoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, D.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Payment for environmental services (PES) schemes are increasingly being introduced in developed and developing countries for the ecological conservation of forests also. Such payment schemes resemble a new mode of forest governance labelled political modernization, in which centralized and

  12. TVD schemes in one and two space dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, R.J.; Goodman, J.B.; New York Univ., NY)

    1985-01-01

    The recent development of schemes which are second order accurate in smooth regions has made it possible to overcome certain difficulties which used to arise in numerical computations of discontinuous solutions of conservation laws. The present investigation is concerned with scalar conservation laws, taking into account the employment of total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes. The concept of a TVD scheme was introduced by Harten et al. (1976). Harten et al. first constructed schemes which are simultaneously TVD and second order accurate on smooth solutions. In the present paper, a summary is provided of recently conducted work in this area. Attention is given to TVD schemes in two space dimensions, a second order accurate TVD scheme in one dimension, and the entropy condition and spreading of rarefaction waves. 19 references

  13. New bounded skew central difference scheme. Part 1: Formulation and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moukalled, F.; Darwish, M. [American Univ. of Beirut (Lebanon)

    1997-01-01

    The skew central difference scheme is combined with the normalized variable formulation to yield a new bounded skew central difference scheme. The newly developed scheme is tested and compared with the upwind scheme, the bounded skew upwind scheme, and the high-resolution SMART scheme by solving four problems: (1) pure convection of a step profile in an oblique velocity field; (2) sudden expansion of an oblique flow field in a rectangular cavity; (3) driven flow in a skew cavity; and (4) gradual expansion in an axisymmetric, nonorthogonal channel. Results generated reveal the new scheme to be bounded and to be the most accurate among those investigated.

  14. Steering sustainability. On the potential of a radical energy tax subsidy scheme to move the Dutch society towards sustainable development in the energy domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamminga, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    After an introduction to the issue of sustainable development, relevant aspects of the discussion about sustainable development are discussed. In particular, various perspectives on sustainable development based on different views of nature. However, since sustainable development is such a broad and general concept, narrowing its reach is necessary to enlarge its applicability. From various observations, it is concluded that there are good reasons to focus the sustainable development discussion on the energy domain. First, the existence of sources of potential energy is the basis for all physical activity. Second, fossil fuel reserves -which are by far the most dominant types of energy in the western, industrialized world at present- are limited. Third, the extraction, transportation, use and/or combustion of fossil fuels give rise to serious pressure on the world's natural environment. On a global scale, this particularly concerns the emission of CO2. Starting from a system approach, the relationship between society (the production and consumption system) and nature (the natural system) is dealt with, distinguishing between two relevant views. The first one regards the production and consumption system as separated from, though interacting with, the natural system. Thus, two systems in fact exist next to each other. By contrast, the second view explicitly defines boundaries for the production and consumption system on biophysical grounds. According to this vision, the production and consumption system should be considered a subsystem of the natural system. Chapter 2 offers a first elaboration upon the relation between the two systems. From a historical perspective sustainable development is addressed against the background of the main development in economics over the last three centuries; that is, the development from the physiocrats and the classical economists to the theory of neoclassical economics. The issue of natural resources is chosen as a proxy of

  15. Regulatory aspects, an important factor for geothermal energy application for district heating development. European insurance scheme to cover geological risk related to geothermal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril

    2000-01-01

    District heating is one of the most interesting fields of geothermal energy application development in Europe. However, besides the technical/technological/economical and organizational aspects of the problem in question, the related legal and regulatory aspects influence very much the real possibilities for wider introduction of this energy source in the state energy balances in most of the countries. Based on the official EU report for the State-of-the-art of the problem of the insurance to cover geological risks and necessary aspects to be developed and resolved in a better and 'common' way in order to enable higher investments in bigger projects (district heating) development, the paper presents the situation in different European countries in relation to the Macedonian one. Conclusions extracted should give a positive contribution to the process of the Macedonian laws accommodation to the common EU practice. (Author)

  16. A classification scheme for LWR fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.S.; Williamson, D.A.; Notz, K.J.

    1988-11-01

    With over 100 light water nuclear reactors operating nationwide, representing designs by four primary vendors, and with reload fuel manufactured by these vendors and additional suppliers, a wide variety of fuel assembly types are in existence. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, both the Systems Integration Program and the Characteristics Data Base project required a classification scheme for these fuels. This scheme can be applied to other areas and is expected to be of value to many Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management programs. To develop the classification scheme, extensive information on the fuel assemblies that have been and are being manufactured by the various nuclear fuel vendors was compiled, reviewed, and evaluated. It was determined that it is possible to characterize assemblies in a systematic manner, using a combination of physical factors. A two-stage scheme was developed consisting of 79 assembly types, which are grouped into 22 assembly classes. The assembly classes are determined by the general design of the reactor cores in which the assemblies are, or were, used. The general BWR and PWR classes are divided differently but both are based on reactor core configuration. 2 refs., 15 tabs.

  17. Convexity-preserving Bernstein–Bézier quartic scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hussain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A C1 convex surface data interpolation scheme is presented to preserve the shape of scattered data arranged over a triangular grid. Bernstein–Bézier quartic function is used for interpolation. Lower bound of the boundary and inner Bézier ordinates is determined to guarantee convexity of surface. The developed scheme is flexible and involves more relaxed constraints.

  18. Scheme on the Web and in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    LAML is a software system that brings XML languages into Scheme as a collection of Scheme functions. The XML languages are defined by XML document type definitions (DTDs). We review the development of LAML during more than a decade, and we collect the experiences from these efforts. The paper des...

  19. Economic evaluation of progeny-testing and genomic selection schemes for small-sized nucleus dairy cattle breeding programs in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, Charles; Brascamp, Pim; Komen, H.; Kahi, A.K.; Arendonk, van Johan

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries minimal and erratic performance and pedigree recording impede implementation of large-sized breeding programs. Small-sized nucleus programs offer an alternative but rely on their economic performance for their viability. We investigated the economic performance of 2

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium with arsenazo previous liquid-liquid extraction and colour development in organic medium; Determinacion espectrofotometrica de uranio con arsenazo, previa extraccion y desarrollo del color en medio organico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares Delgado, F.; Vera Palomino, J.; Petrement Eguiluz, J. C.

    1964-07-01

    The determination of uranium with arsenazo is hindered by a great number of cation which form stable complexes with the reactive and may given rise to serious interferences. By studying the optimum conditions of uranium the extraction be means of tributylphosphate solutions dissolved in methylisobuthylketone, under conditions for previous masking of the interfering cations, an organic extract was obtained containing all the uranium together with small amounts of iron. The possible interference derived from the latter element is avoided by reduction with hydroxylammoniumchlorid followed by complex formation of the Fe(II)-ortophenantroline compound in alcoholic medium. (Author) 17 refs.

  1. “More Than a Game”: The Impact of Sport-Based Youth Mentoring Schemes on Developing Resilience toward Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Johns

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws upon the findings of an evaluation of “More than a Game”, a sport-focused youth mentoring program in Melbourne, Australia that aimed to develop a community-based resilience model using team-based sports to address issues of identity, belonging, and cultural isolation amongst young Muslim men in order to counter forms of violent extremism. In this essay we focus specifically on whether the intense embodied encounters and emotions experienced in team sports can help break down barriers of cultural and religious difference between young people and facilitate experiences of resilience, mutual respect, trust, social inclusion and belonging. Whilst the project findings are directly relevant to the domain of countering violent extremism, they also contribute to a growing body of literature which considers the relationship between team-based sport, cross-cultural engagement and the development of social resilience, inclusion and belonging in other domains of youth engagement and community-building.

  2. Study on the Development of New BWR Core Analysis Scheme Based on the Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Burn-up Calculation Method

    OpenAIRE

    東條, 匡志; tojo, masashi

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a BWR core calculation method is developed. The continuous energy Monte Carlo burn-up calculation code is newly applied to BWR assembly calculations of production level. The applicability of the present new calculation method is verified through the tracking-calculation of commercial BWR.The mechanism and quantitative effects of the error propagations, the spatial discretization and of the temperature distribution in fuel pellet on the Monte Carlo burn-up calculations are clari...

  3. Spectral scheme for spacetime physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seriu, Masafumi

    2002-01-01

    Based on the spectral representation of spatial geometry, we construct an analysis scheme for spacetime physics and cosmology, which enables us to compare two or more universes with each other. In this scheme the spectral distance plays a central role, which is the measure of closeness between two geometries defined in terms of the spectra. We apply this scheme for analyzing the averaging problem in cosmology; we explicitly investigate the time evolution of the spectra, distance between two nearby spatial geometries, simulating the relation between the real Universe and its model. We then formulate the criteria for a model to be a suitable one

  4. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., the price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power...... RES-E support schemes already has a common liberalised power market. In this case the introduction of a common support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system...

  5. Further development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme in Germany and the European Union under consideration of experiences in other EU Member States; Weiterentwicklung des Emissionshandels - national und auf EU-Ebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wartmann, S.; Klaus, S.; Scharte, M.; Harnisch, J. [Ecofys GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany); Heilmann, S.; Bertenrath, R. [FiFo Koeln (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    The study analyses options for further development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) after 2012. The first analysis focuses on the effects of the EU-ETS on companies, power prices, competitiveness and employment. It is followed by an analysis of overlaps or lacking coverage regarding the climate policies EU-ETS, Eco-Tax (Oekosteuer) resp. Energy Tax, the Renewable Energy Sources Act and the Combined Heat and Powert Act. These instruments are analysed with regards to their coherence. As a next step, the national allocation plans of France, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Poland are evaluated and recommendations are developed. Best practice recommendations for further developing the EU-ETS after 2012 both at the European and the national level are developed from the comparison of these European national allocation plans. Finally, design features of certificate systems relevant for international linking of such systems are addressed. In the analysis such design features are identified and approaches for problems potentially arising when certificate systems are linked, are developed. (orig.)

  6. Relaxation schemes for Chebyshev spectral multigrid methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yimin; Fulton, Scott R.

    1993-01-01

    Two relaxation schemes for Chebyshev spectral multigrid methods are presented for elliptic equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The first scheme is a pointwise-preconditioned Richardson relaxation scheme and the second is a line relaxation scheme. The line relaxation scheme provides an efficient and relatively simple approach for solving two-dimensional spectral equations. Numerical examples and comparisons with other methods are given.

  7. External quality assessment schemes for toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John

    2002-08-14

    A variety of external quality assurance (EQA) schemes monitor quantitative performance for routine biochemical analysis of agents such as paracetamol, salicylate, ethanol and carboxyhaemoglobin. Their usefulness for toxicologists can be lessened where the concentrations monitored do not extend fully into the toxic range or where the matrix is synthetic, of animal origin or serum as opposed to whole human blood. A scheme for quantitative determinations of a wider range of toxicological analytes such as opioids, benzodiazepines and tricyclics in human blood has been piloted by the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UKNEQAS). Specialist schemes are available for drugs of abuse testing in urine and for hair analysis. Whilst these programmes provide much useful information on the performance of analytical techniques, they fail to monitor the integrated processes that are needed in investigation of toxicological cases. In practice, both qualitative and quantitative tests are used in combination with case information to guide the evaluation of the samples and to develop an interpretation of the analytical findings that is used to provide clinical or forensic advice. EQA programs that combine the analytical and interpretative aspects of case studies are available from EQA providers such as UKNEQAS and the Dutch KKGT program (Stichting Kwaliteitsbewaking Klinische Geneesmiddelanalyse en Toxicologie).

  8. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  9. Wind power and market integration, comparative study of financing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    The financing scheme of renewable energies is a key factor for their development pace and cost. As some countries like France, Germany or Spain have chosen a Feed-in Tariff (FiT) scheme, there are in fact four possible financing schemes: FiT, ex-post prime, ex-ante prime, and quotas (green certificates). A market convergence is then supposed to meet two main objectives: the control of market distortions related to wind energy development, and the optimization of wind energy production with respect to market signals. The authors analyse the underlying economic challenges and the ability of financing schemes to meet these objectives within a short term horizon (2015). They present the different financing schemes, analyse the impact of three key economic factors (market distortion, production optimization, financing costs)

  10. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  11. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    . While coordination mechanisms focus on how classification schemes enable cooperation among people pursuing a common goal, boundary objects embrace the implicit consequences of classification schemes in situations involving conflicting goals. Moreover, the requirements specification focused on functional...... requirements and provided little information about why these requirements were considered relevant. This stands in contrast to the discussions at the project meetings where the software engineers made frequent use of both abstract goal descriptions and concrete examples to make sense of the requirements...

  12. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  13. Tegotae-based decentralised control scheme for autonomous gait transition of snake-like robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Takeshi; Yoshizawa, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio

    2017-08-04

    Snakes change their locomotion patterns in response to the environment. This ability is a motivation for developing snake-like robots with highly adaptive functionality. In this study, a decentralised control scheme of snake-like robots that exhibited autonomous gait transition (i.e. the transition between concertina locomotion in narrow aisles and scaffold-based locomotion on unstructured terrains) was developed. Additionally, the control scheme was validated via simulations. A key insight revealed is that these locomotion patterns were not preprogrammed but emerged by exploiting Tegotae, a concept that describes the extent to which a perceived reaction matches a generated action. Unlike local reflexive mechanisms proposed previously, the Tegotae-based feedback mechanism enabled the robot to 'selectively' exploit environments beneficial for propulsion, and generated reasonable locomotion patterns. It is expected that the results of this study can form the basis to design robots that can work under unpredictable and unstructured environments.

  14. Scheme for Quantum Computing Immune to Decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin; Vatan, Farrokh

    2008-01-01

    that the derivation provides explicit constructions for finding the exchange couplings in the physical basis needed to implement any arbitrary 1-qubit gate. These constructions lead to spintronic encodings of quantum logic that are more efficient than those of a previously published scheme that utilizes a universal but fixed set of gates.

  15. Use of caesium-137 as a tracer of erosion and sedimentation: Handbook for the application of the caesium-137 technique. UK Overseas Development Administration research scheme R4579

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, D.E.; Quine, T.A.

    1993-10-01

    The caesium 137 technique has become an important tool for investigating soil erosion. It permits retrospective assessment of medium-term erosion rates. The application of the technique requires only one field visit, and the results can be provided within a relatively short time. The soil redistribution rates estimated represent an average for the last 30-35 years, and are therefore less influenced by extreme events. The rates estimated represent the sum of all erosive processes. Both rates and patterns of soil redistribution may be quantitatively assessed. A range of erosion estimates may be obtained, including mean rates of erosion and deposition and net rates of soil export from the field. The whole field may be studied without disturbance to the slope environment. The spatial resolution of the data obtained is defined by the sampling strategy. Chapters of part 1 discuss the basis of the 137 Cs technique, the potential for its further development, and define a protocol for its application. Part 2 includes descriptions of case studies from China, Zimbabwe and Lesotho, which illustrate the value of the 137 Cs technique in the assessment of soil erosion

  16. Dynamics and controls of urban heat sink and island phenomena in a desert city: Development of a local climate zone scheme using remotely-sensed inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Ahmed K.; Blackburn, G. Alan; Whyatt, J. Duncan

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine the dynamics and controls of Surface Urban Heat Sinks (SUHS) and Surface Urban Heat Islands (SUHI) in desert cities, using Dubai as a case study. A Local Climate Zone (LCZ) schema was developed to subdivide the city into different zones based on similarities in land cover and urban geometry. Proximity to the Gulf Coast was also determined for each LCZ. The LCZs were then used to sample seasonal and daily imagery from the MODIS thermal sensor to determine Land Surface Temperature (LST) variations relative to desert sand. Canonical correlation techniques were then applied to determine which factors explained the variability between urban and desert LST. Our results indicate that the daytime SUHS effect is greatest during the summer months (typically ∼3.0 °C) with the strongest cooling effects in open high-rise zones of the city. In contrast, the night-time SUHI effect is greatest during the winter months (typically ∼3.5 °C) with the strongest warming effects in compact mid-rise zones of the city. Proximity to the Arabian Gulf had the largest influence on both SUHS and SUHI phenomena, promoting daytime cooling in the summer months and night-time warming in the winter months. However, other parameters associated with the urban environment such as building height had an influence on daytime cooling, with larger buildings promoting shade and variations in airflow. Likewise, other parameters such as sky view factor contributed to night-time warming, with higher temperatures associated with limited views of the sky.

  17. Predicting the Risk to Develop Preeclampsia in the First Trimester Combining Promoter Variant -98A/C of LGALS13 (Placental Protein 13), Black Ethnicity, Previous Preeclampsia, Obesity, and Maternal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar-Shapiro, Liora; Karady, Ido; Trahtenherts, Alla; Syngelaki, Argryo; Akolekar, Ranjit; Poon, Liona; Cohen, Ruth; Sharabi-Nov, Adi; Huppertz, Berthold; Sammar, Marei; Juhasz, Kata; Than, Nandor Gabor; Papp, Zoltan; Romero, Roberto; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Meiri, Hamutal

    2017-07-21

    LGALS13 (placental protein 13 [PP13]) promoter DNA polymorphisms was evaluated in predicting preeclampsia (PE), given PP13's effects on hypotension, angiogenesis, and immune tolerance. First-trimester plasma samples (49 term and 18 intermediate) of PE cases matched with 196 controls were collected from King's College Hospital, London, repository. Cell-free DNA was extracted and the LGALS13 exons were sequenced after PCR amplification. Expression of LGALS13 promoter reporter constructs was determined in BeWo trophoblast-like cells with luciferase assays. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated for the A/A genotype combined with maternal risk factors. The A/A, A/C, and C/C genotypes in the -98 promoter position were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the control but not in the PE group (p 35, black ethnicity, and maternal age >40 were 15.6 and 11.0, respectively (p promoter variant had lower expression than the "-98C" variant in non-differentiated (-13%, p = 0.04) and differentiated (-26%, p promoter region position (compared to "C") and high OR calculated for the A/A genotype in the -98A/C promoter region position, history of previous PE, BMI >35, advanced maternal age >40, and black ethnicity could serve to aid in PE prediction in the first trimester. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Can adding web-based support to UK primary care exercise referral schemes improve patients’ physical activity levels? Intervention development for the e-coachER study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Taylor

    2015-10-01

    Aims: This presentation will provide details on the intervention development and data to be captured to inform a process evaluation. Methods: An initial version of e-coachER was produced, building on experiences from obesity and diabetes self-management interventions using the Lifeguide platform, and beta tested over 7 months. Co-applicants and researchers then provided feedback on a time-truncated version, and ERS patients on a real-time version, for 5 months before it was locked for the RCT. Within the trial, after participants are screened, provide consent and complete baseline assessments, they are randomised to receive usual ERS at each site or usual ERS plus a mailed Welcome Pack (including a user friendly guide to register for e-coachER access in-line, a free pedometer and a fridge magnet with daily recording strips for step counts or minutes of MVPA. Contact details for an e-coachER facilitator are provided for additional technical support. Results: At the core of the intervention are ‘7 Steps to Health’ aimed to last 5-10 mins each, to encourage patients to think about the benefits of PA, seek support from an ERS practitioner (and friends/family, and the web, to self-monitor PA with a pedometer and upload steps or minutes of MVPA, set progressive goals, build confidence, autonomy and relatedness (from Self-Determination Theory, find ways to increase sustainable PA more broadly, and deal with setbacks. An avatar (to avoid having to represent a range of individual characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity and brief narratives are used throughout to normalise and support behaviour change and encourage e-coachER use. Automatic or patient chosen e-mails from the Lifeguide system promote on-going use of functions such as recording weekly PA and goal setting. For each site, participants are able to access links to reputable generic websites for further information about chronic conditions and lifestyle, links to other sites and apps for self

  19. Payment schemes and cost efficiency: evidence from Swiss public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims at analysing the impact of prospective payment schemes on cost efficiency of acute care hospitals in Switzerland. We study a panel of 121 public hospitals subject to one of four payment schemes. While several hospitals are still reimbursed on a per diem basis for the treatment of patients, most face flat per-case rates-or mixed schemes, which combine both elements of reimbursement. Thus, unlike previous studies, we are able to simultaneously analyse and isolate the cost-efficiency effects of different payment schemes. By means of stochastic frontier analysis, we first estimate a hospital cost frontier. Using the two-stage approach proposed by Battese and Coelli (Empir Econ 20:325-332, 1995), we then analyse the impact of these payment schemes on the cost efficiency of hospitals. Controlling for hospital characteristics, local market conditions in the 26 Swiss states (cantons), and a time trend, we show that, compared to per diem, hospitals which are reimbursed by flat payment schemes perform better in terms of cost efficiency. Our results suggest that mixed schemes create incentives for cost containment as well, although to a lesser extent. In addition, our findings indicate that cost-efficient hospitals are primarily located in cantons with competitive markets, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman index in inpatient care. Furthermore, our econometric model shows that we obtain biased estimates from frontier analysis if we do not account for heteroscedasticity in the inefficiency term.

  20. Development of a modular lightweight tumour endoprosthesis with novel textile attachment points for the refixation of previously detached muscle groups: Poster presented at 18th EFORT Congress, Sports Activities & Orthopaedic Practice 31 May to 02 June 2017, Vienna

    OpenAIRE

    Grunert, Ronny; Schmidt, Michael; Kopper, Michael; Töppel, Thomas; Rädel, Thomas; Hanus, Sybille; Prietzel, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: In tumor endoprosthetics, implants are applied to reconstruct the proximal femur. The main problems of these implants are often the high weight and the biomechanically not optimal attachment of soft tissue. The aim of this work is to solve these problems in order to develop a long-term stable biomechanically correct implant of a proximal femoral replacement. Methods Based on lightweight construction concepts from vehicle construction, a topology optimization was performed with an ...

  1. Scheme Choice and Inverse Kinematics of a Positioning System Based on a Planar Parallel Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Laryushkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent development of the parallel mechanisms theory has resulted in an increase of the actual machines, which are built using the conceptual schemes of such mechanisms. The advantages of parallel kinematics over conventional open-chain design, such as increased stiffness or lower inertia of moving parts, allow, in theory, higher performance rates in pick-and-place or machining applications. However, the practical usage of parallel mechanisms may be problematic due to their drawbacks, such as restricted workspace area and presence of singularities.The paper discusses a modification of the milling machine “Tetra” developed in “Modular Mechanics”, ltd. (BMSTU, which consists of two identical modules based on planar parallel kinematics mechanism. The loss of module stiffness in certain positions of the end-effector was noticed after experiments on the prototype, thus indicating the presence of singularities. Since this problem is a manifestation of fundamental properties of the chosen kinematic scheme, it was decided to change it.A scheme with three linear rails and three drives, as well as a scheme with a single rail and with four drives were considered as alternative options. The first option was discarded because it requires manufacturing a massive base plate. The second option was selected for future development. In this case, as compared to the previously known design, a configuration of the intermediate links was changed. The use of “lambda”-shaped elements makes it possible to distance the drive supports from the end-effector.For a chosen scheme an inverse kinematics problem was solved. Using constraints associated with the placement of all four drive supports on a single rail and stiffness requirements as well, a one single solution was selected among sixteen possible solutions.The further investigation will include a workspace and singularity analysis and an optimization of geometric parameters of the mechanism.

  2. Is a Previously or Currently Reduced Testosterone Level in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus a Risk Factor for the Development of Coronary Artery Disease? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng

    2018-04-04

    We aimed to systematically investigate the association between testosterone level and cardiovascular risk in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by comparing male T2DM patients with low testosterone levels to male T2DM patients with normal testosterone levels at baseline in terms of the number of cases of coronary artery disease (CAD). Online databases were carefully searched for studies relating to testosterone, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular risk by using the search terms 'testosterone,' 'diabetes mellitus,' and 'coronary artery/cardiovascular disease.' The only endpoint in this analysis was CAD/atherosclerosis/coronary plaque/major adverse coronary event prior to or following testosterone reduction at baseline. The analytical parameters used in this analysis were the risk ratio (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI), as obtained using the RevMan 5.3 software. 3467 male patients with T2DM (1079 patients with a low testosterone level versus 2388 patients with a normal testosterone level) were included. The results of this analysis showed that when a random effects model was used, a higher risk of CAD/cardiovascular disease was observed in diabetic patients with a low testosterone level than in those with a normal testosterone level (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.94-1.63; P = 0.13). However, the difference in risk was not statistically significant. Similarly, with a fixed effects model, a low testosterone level was associated with a higher CAD/cardiovascular risk of disease (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.98-1.34; P = 0.08); in this case, the difference in risk between the T2DM patients with low and normal testosterone levels approached statistical significance. A previously or currently reduced testosterone level was not found to be statistically significantly associated with a high risk of CAD/cardiovascular disease in male patients with T2DM. However, the difference in risk between the T2DM patients with low and normal testosterone levels was observed

  3. LEPA: A Lightweight and Efficient Public Auditing Scheme for Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From smart watch to remote healthcare system, wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs play an important role in modern healthcare system. However, the weak capacity of devices has limited WBSNs development. Considering the huge processing and storage capacity of the cloud, it can be merged with WBSNs to make up for the deficiencies of weak capacity. Based on this consideration, the concept of cloud-assisted WBSNs has been proposed recently. In contrast to generic data, the data in cloud-assisted WBSNs will be used for providing medical diagnosis, so the integrity of data is very important because any modification will result in severe consequences such as misdiagnosis. The public auditing scheme could provide an efficient solution to check the data integrity remotely without downloading them. However, the traditional public auditing scheme for cloud cannot be used directly due to the high data density and weak processing capacity in WBSNs. So, in this paper, we proposed a lightweight and efficient public auditing scheme, LEPA, for cloud-assisted WBSNs. Compared with similar schemes, the WBSNs’ client only needs to do one symmetrical encryption with low computational cost in LEPA. Security proof shows that LEPA can resist two types of adversaries in random oracle model. The efficiency evaluation also shows that LEPA outperforms previous proposals.

  4. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  5. An Efficient V2I Authentication Scheme for VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousheng Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of intelligent transportation system has a crucial impact on the traffic safety and efficiency. To cope with security issues such as spoofing attack and forgery attack, many authentication schemes for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have been developed, which are based on the hypothesis that secret keys are kept perfectly secure. However, key exposure is inevitable on account of the openness of VANET environment. To address this problem, key insulation is introduced in our proposed scheme. With a helper device, vehicles could periodically update their own secret keys. In this way, the forward and backward secrecy has been achieved. In addition, the elliptic curve operations have been integrated to improve the performance. The random oracle model is adopted to prove the security of the proposed scheme, and the experiment has been conducted to demonstrate the comparison between our scheme and the existing similar schemes.

  6. Receptivity of a TVD Scheme in Incompressible Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Byeong Rog

    A TVD upwind scheme originally designed for compressible flow is applied to the SMAC finite-difference method for incompressible flow analysis. The receptivity and validity of this application are investigated by an evaluation of the accuracy, stability and convergence rate for the SMAC method combined with the TVD scheme. Using this method, three-dimensional developing entry flows through a square-curved duct are calculated and compared with available experimental data as well as some computational results obtained by QUICKs and third-order upwind schemes. Such comparisons show that the numerical method applying the TVD scheme has the highest computational efficiency without a sharp loss of accuracy, resulting in confidence in the application this scheme to incompressible flow computations.

  7. Design and comparison of gene-pyramiding schemes in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F P; Jiang, L; Gao, H J; Ding, X D; Zhang, Q

    2009-08-01

    Marker-assisted gene pyramiding provides a promising way to develop new animal breeds or lines, in which genes responsible for certain favorable characters identified in different breeds or lines are incorporated. In consideration of features of animal populations, we proposed five schemes for pyramiding three genes, denoted Scheme A-E, and five schemes for pyramiding four genes, denoted Scheme F-J. These schemes are representative of the possible alternatives. We also provided an algorithm to compute the population sizes needed in each generation. We compared these schemes with respect to the total population size and the number of generations required under different situations. The results show that there is no scheme that is optimal in all cases. Among the schemes for pyramiding three genes from three lines (L1, L2 and L3), Scheme D (a three-way cross between the three lines are first performed, followed by a backcross to L1 and a subsequent intercross to obtain the desired genotype) has a significant advantage over the other schemes when the recombination rate between adjacent genes ranges from 0.1 to 0.4, while Scheme A (a two-way cross between L1 and L2 and a subsequent intercross are performed, followed by a cross with L3 and a subsequent intercross to obtain the desired genotype) is optimal when recombination rate is 0.5. Among schemes for pyramiding four genes from four lines (L1, L2, L3 and L4), Scheme I (seperately, a two-way cross between L1 and L2 (L3 and L4) followed by a backcross to L1 (L3) and a subsequent intercross are performed, then the offspring from the two sides are crossed and followed by a backcross to L1 and a subsequent intercross to obtain the desired genotype) is optimal when the recombination rate ranges from 0.1 to 0.4, while Scheme F (cross and subsequent intercross between the four lines are performed successively) is the optimal when the recombination rate is 0.5. We also disscuss how the animals' reproductive capacity, the

  8. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Applying regional planning schemes in East Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunfelder, Julien; Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    landscapes. A common regional planning scheme is discussed for a while, but nothing is agreed on yet. Our objective is to apply three interesting spatial schemes to our case study region. The three planning schemes are well known for their simple and clear approach: The Fingerplan of Copenhagen urban region...... 2000 and 2006, documented by CORINE. The Fingerplan was elaborated in 1947 but became first in 2007 a legal planning document. However, its simple principles of development along the commuter rail lines and the protection of green wedges in between them guided spatial development in Copenhagen since...... a development aligned along mass-transport corridors. In the Montpellier case, the planning scheme has the particularity of having a “sight inversion”. Thus, the landscape is presented as an integrated part of the reflection on regional development. In other words, it protects natural and agricultural areas...

  10. An intelligent robotics control scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of robot control is viewed at the level of communicating high-level commands produced by intelligent algorithms to the actuator/sensor controllers. Four topics are considered in the design of an integrated control and communications scheme for an intelligent robotic system: the use of abstraction spaces, hierarchical versus heterarchical control, distributed processing, and the interleaving of the steps of plan creation and plan execution. A scheme is presented for an n-level distributed hierarchical/heterarchical control system that effectively interleaves intelligent planning, execution, and sensory feedback. A three-level version of this scheme has been successfully implemented in the Intelligent Systems Research Lab at NASA Langley Research Center. This implementation forms the control structure for DAISIE (Distributed Artificially Intelligent System for Interacting with the Environment), a testbed system integrating AI software with robotics hardware.

  11. One-qubit fingerprinting schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaudrap, J. Niel de

    2004-01-01

    Fingerprinting is a technique in communication complexity in which two parties (Alice and Bob) with large data sets send short messages to a third party (a referee), who attempts to compute some function of the larger data sets. For the equality function, the referee attempts to determine whether Alice's data and Bob's data are the same. In this paper, we consider the extreme scenario of performing fingerprinting where Alice and Bob both send either one bit (classically) or one qubit (in the quantum regime) messages to the referee for the equality problem. Restrictive bounds are demonstrated for the error probability of one-bit fingerprinting schemes, and show that it is easy to construct one-qubit fingerprinting schemes which can outperform any one-bit fingerprinting scheme. The author hopes that this analysis will provide results useful for performing physical experiments, which may help to advance implementations for more general quantum communication protocols

  12. Modulation Schemes for Wireless Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vejrazka

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four modulation schemes, namely minimum shift keying (MSK, Gaussianminimum shift keying (GMSK, multiamplitude minimum shift keying(MAMSK and π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying (π/4-QPSKare described and their applicability to wireless access is discussedin the paper. Low complexity receiver structures based on differentialdetection are analysed to estimate the performance of the modulationschemes in the additive Gaussian noise and the Rayleigh and Riceenvelope fast fading channel. The bandwidth efficiency is calculated toevaluate the modulation schemes. The results show that the MAMSK schemegives the greatest bandwidth efficiency, but its performance in theRayleigh channel is rather poor. In contrast, the MSK scheme is lessbandwidth efficient, but it is more resistant to Rayleigh fading. Theperformance of π/4-QPSK signal is considerably improved by appropriateprefiltering.

  13. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    injection schemes have been compared: vertical pi- n junction through a current post structure as in1 and lateral p-i-n junction with either uniform material as in2 or with a buried heterostructure (BH) as in3. To allow a direct comparison of the three schemes the same active material composition consisting......The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...

  14. Pension scheme in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Alikaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Driven by unfavorable demographic developments and unsustainable, outdated or fragmented systems, pension reform has been at the top of political agendas across the globe for many years now (Prinz, Stanovnik & Stropnik, 2000. Over the last two decades, almost all western European countries have been trimming their public pension systems in an effort to strengthen pension sustainability. One main target of reform was to increase the retirement age. Other measures (e.g. changing the pension calculation, broadening the assessment base, changing the adjustment mechanism were designed to lower replacement rates. The reform process in the wide range of countries addressed by this survey differs considerably from country to country. This is why Allianz first introduced the Pension Sustainability Index (PSI, which combines the various characteristics of pension systems with the factors that influence them to help track and evaluate policy changes made in different countries around the world. In addressing the sustainability of a country’s public pension system, the PSI can give an indication of a country’s need for reforms to maintain long-term financial sustainability. This can be difficult to assess given the many country-specific institutional, technical and legal parameters. The PSI is able to evaluate the long-term sustainability of national pension systems and thus the pressure on governments to reform these (International pension Papers, 1.2014. The speed of reform, however, differs between countries. Those which recently introduced major reforms were able to improve in the PSI ranking because of active steps taken, while others were lost in comparison due to their passive policymaking.

  15. A hybrid Lagrangian Voronoi-SPH scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gutierrez, D.; Souto-Iglesias, A.; Zohdi, T. I.

    2017-11-01

    A hybrid Lagrangian Voronoi-SPH scheme, with an explicit weakly compressible formulation for both the Voronoi and SPH sub-domains, has been developed. The SPH discretization is substituted by Voronoi elements close to solid boundaries, where SPH consistency and boundary conditions implementation become problematic. A buffer zone to couple the dynamics of both sub-domains is used. This zone is formed by a set of particles where fields are interpolated taking into account SPH particles and Voronoi elements. A particle may move in or out of the buffer zone depending on its proximity to a solid boundary. The accuracy of the coupled scheme is discussed by means of a set of well-known verification benchmarks.

  16. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  17. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  18. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  19. Numerical schemes for solving and optimizing multiscale models with age of hepatitis C virus dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinharz, Vladimir; Dahari, Harel; Barash, Danny

    2018-03-15

    Age-structured PDE models have been developed to study viral infection and treatment. However, they are notoriously difficult to solve. Here, we investigate the numerical solutions of an age-based multiscale model of hepatitis C virus (HCV) dynamics during antiviral therapy and compare them with an analytical approximation, namely its long-term approximation. First, starting from a simple yet flexible numerical solution that also considers an integral approximated over previous iterations, we show that the long-term approximation is an underestimate of the PDE model solution as expected since some infection events are being ignored. We then argue for the importance of having a numerical solution that takes into account previous iterations for the associated integral, making problematic the use of canned solvers. Second, we demonstrate that the governing differential equations are stiff and the stability of the numerical scheme should be considered. Third, we show that considerable gain in efficiency can be achieved by using adaptive stepsize methods over fixed stepsize methods for simulating realistic scenarios when solving multiscale models numerically. Finally, we compare between several numerical schemes for the solution of the equations and demonstrate the use of a numerical optimization scheme for the parameter estimation performed directly from the equations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A fast iterative scheme for the linearized Boltzmann equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Haihu; Zhang, Yonghao; Reese, Jason M.

    2017-06-01

    Iterative schemes to find steady-state solutions to the Boltzmann equation are efficient for highly rarefied gas flows, but can be very slow to converge in the near-continuum flow regime. In this paper, a synthetic iterative scheme is developed to speed up the solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation by penalizing the collision operator L into the form L = (L + Nδh) - Nδh, where δ is the gas rarefaction parameter, h is the velocity distribution function, and N is a tuning parameter controlling the convergence rate. The velocity distribution function is first solved by the conventional iterative scheme, then it is corrected such that the macroscopic flow velocity is governed by a diffusion-type equation that is asymptotic-preserving into the Navier-Stokes limit. The efficiency of this new scheme is assessed by calculating the eigenvalue of the iteration, as well as solving for Poiseuille and thermal transpiration flows. We find that the fastest convergence of our synthetic scheme for the linearized Boltzmann equation is achieved when Nδ is close to the average collision frequency. The synthetic iterative scheme is significantly faster than the conventional iterative scheme in both the transition and the near-continuum gas flow regimes. Moreover, due to its asymptotic-preserving properties, the synthetic iterative scheme does not need high spatial resolution in the near-continuum flow regime, which makes it even faster than the conventional iterative scheme. Using this synthetic scheme, with the fast spectral approximation of the linearized Boltzmann collision operator, Poiseuille and thermal transpiration flows between two parallel plates, through channels of circular/rectangular cross sections and various porous media are calculated over the whole range of gas rarefaction. Finally, the flow of a Ne-Ar gas mixture is solved based on the linearized Boltzmann equation with the Lennard-Jones intermolecular potential for the first time, and the difference

  1. Efficient adaptive fuzzy control scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents an adaptive nonlinear (state-) feedback control structure, where the nonlinearities are implemented as smooth fuzzy mappings defined as rule sets. The fine tuning and adaption of the controller is realized by an indirect adaptive scheme, which modifies the parameters of the fuzzy

  2. New practicable Siberian Snake schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, K.

    1983-07-01

    Siberian Snake schemes can be inserted in ring accelerators for making the spin tune almost independent of energy. Two such schemes are here suggested which lend particularly well to practical application over a wide energy range. Being composed of horizontal and vertical bending magnets, the proposed snakes are designed to have a small maximum beam excursion in one plane. By applying in this plane a bending correction that varies with energy, they can be operated at fixed geometry in the other plane where most of the bending occurs, thus avoiding complicated magnet motion or excessively large magnet apertures that would otherwise be needed for large energy variations. The first of the proposed schemes employs a pair of standard-type Siberian Snakes, i.e. of the usual 1st and 2nd kind which rotate the spin about the longitudinal and the transverse horizontal axis, respectively. The second scheme employs a pair of novel-type snakes which rotate the spin about either one of the horizontal axes that are at 45 0 to the beam direction. In obvious reference to these axes, they are called left-pointed and right-pointed snakes. (orig.)

  3. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min

    2014-02-26

    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  4. Verifier-based three-party authentication schemes using extended chaotic maps for data exchange in telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Fu

    2014-12-01

    Telecare medicine information systems provide a communicating platform for accessing remote medical resources through public networks, and help health care workers and medical personnel to rapidly making correct clinical decisions and treatments. An authentication scheme for data exchange in telecare medicine information systems enables legal users in hospitals and medical institutes to establish a secure channel and exchange electronic medical records or electronic health records securely and efficiently. This investigation develops an efficient and secure verified-based three-party authentication scheme by using extended chaotic maps for data exchange in telecare medicine information systems. The proposed scheme does not require server's public keys and avoids time-consuming modular exponential computations and scalar multiplications on elliptic curve used in previous related approaches. Additionally, the proposed scheme is proven secure in the random oracle model, and realizes the lower bounds of messages and rounds in communications. Compared to related verified-based approaches, the proposed scheme not only possesses higher security, but also has lower computational cost and fewer transmissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  6. A new numerical scheme for the simulation of active magnetic regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torregrosa-Jaime, B.; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Payá, J.

    2014-01-01

    A 1D model of a parallel-plate active magnetic regenerator (AMR) has been developed based on a new numerical scheme. With respect to the implicit scheme, the new scheme achieves accurate results, minimizes computational time and prevents numerical errors. The model has been used to check the boun...

  7. Parallel S/sub n/ iteration schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienke, B.R.; Hiromoto, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The iterative, multigroup, discrete ordinates (S/sub n/) technique for solving the linear transport equation enjoys widespread usage and appeal. Serial iteration schemes and numerical algorithms developed over the years provide a timely framework for parallel extension. On the Denelcor HEP, the authors investigate three parallel iteration schemes for solving the one-dimensional S/sub n/ transport equation. The multigroup representation and serial iteration methods are also reviewed. This analysis represents a first attempt to extend serial S/sub n/ algorithms to parallel environments and provides good baseline estimates on ease of parallel implementation, relative algorithm efficiency, comparative speedup, and some future directions. The authors examine ordered and chaotic versions of these strategies, with and without concurrent rebalance and diffusion acceleration. Two strategies efficiently support high degrees of parallelization and appear to be robust parallel iteration techniques. The third strategy is a weaker parallel algorithm. Chaotic iteration, difficult to simulate on serial machines, holds promise and converges faster than ordered versions of the schemes. Actual parallel speedup and efficiency are high and payoff appears substantial

  8. Congruence between selection on breeding values and farmers' selection criteria in sheep breeding under conventional nucleus breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; Getachew, T; Tibbo, M; Haile, A; Dessie, T

    2011-05-01

    Designing breeding schemes suitable for smallholder livestock production systems in developing regions has hitherto been a challenge. The suggested schemes either do not address farmers' breeding goals (centralized station-based nucleus schemes) or yield slow genetic progress (village-based schemes). A new breeding scheme that integrates the merits of previously suggested schemes has been designed for Menz sheep improvement in Ethiopia. It involves selection based on breeding values in nucleus flocks to produce elite rams, a one-time only provision of improved rams to villagers and a follow-up village-based selection to sustain genetic progress in village flocks. Here, we assessed whether conventional selection of breeding rams based on breeding values for production traits, which is the practice in station-based nucleus flocks, meets farmers' breeding objectives. We also elicited determinants of farmers' ram choice. Low but significant correlations were found between rankings of rams based on farmers' selection criteria, estimated breeding values (EBV) and body weight (BW). Appearance traits (such as color and horn) and meat production traits (BW and linear size traits) significantly determined farmers' breeding ram choice. The results imply that conventional selection criteria based solely on EBV for production traits do not address farmers' trait preferences fully, but only partially. Thus, a two-stage selection procedure involving selection on breeding values in nucleus centers followed by farmers' selection among top- ranking candidate rams is recommended. This approach accommodates farmers' preferences and speeds up genetic progress in village-based selection. The Menz sheep scheme could be applied elsewhere with similar situations to transform conventional station-based nucleus breeding activities into participatory breeding programs.

  9. Anticollusion Attack Noninteractive Security Hierarchical Key Agreement Scheme in WHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefei Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Health Monitoring Systems (WHMS have potential to change the way of health care and bring numbers of benefits to patients, physicians, hospitals, and society. However, there are crucial barriers not only to transmit the biometric information but also to protect the privacy and security of the patients’ information. The key agreement between two entities is an essential cryptography operation to clear the barriers. In particular, the noninteractive hierarchical key agreement scheme becomes an attractive direction in WHMS because each sensor node or gateway has limited resources and power. Recently, a noninteractive hierarchical key agreement scheme has been proposed by Kim for WHMS. However, we show that Kim’s cryptographic scheme is vulnerable to the collusion attack if the physicians can be corrupted. Obviously, it is a more practical security condition. Therefore, we proposed an improved key agreement scheme against the attack. Security proof, security analysis, and experimental results demonstrate that our proposed scheme gains enhanced security and more efficiency than Kim’s previous scheme while inheriting its qualities of one-round communication and security properties.

  10. Efficient Scheme for Chemical Flooding Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braconnier Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate an efficient implicit scheme for the numerical simulation of chemical enhanced oil recovery technique for oil fields. For the sake of brevity, we only focus on flows with polymer to describe the physical and numerical models. In this framework, we consider a black oil model upgraded with the polymer modeling. We assume the polymer only transported in the water phase or adsorbed on the rock following a Langmuir isotherm. The polymer reduces the water phase mobility which can change drastically the behavior of water oil interfaces. Then, we propose a fractional step technique to resolve implicitly the system. The first step is devoted to the resolution of the black oil subsystem and the second to the polymer mass conservation. In such a way, jacobian matrices coming from the implicit formulation have a moderate size and preserve solvers efficiency. Nevertheless, the coupling between the black-oil subsystem and the polymer is not fully resolved. For efficiency and accuracy comparison, we propose an explicit scheme for the polymer for which large time step is prohibited due to its CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion and consequently approximates accurately the coupling. Numerical experiments with polymer are simulated : a core flood, a 5-spot reservoir with surfactant and ions and a 3D real case. Comparisons are performed between the polymer explicit and implicit scheme. They prove that our polymer implicit scheme is efficient, robust and resolves accurately the coupling physics. The development and the simulations have been performed with the software PumaFlow [PumaFlow (2013 Reference manual, release V600, Beicip Franlab].

  11. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  12. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on χ-type entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Huijuan; Huang, Wei; Qin, Sujuan

    2013-01-01

    An arbitrated quantum signature scheme, which is mainly applied in electronic-payment systems, is proposed and investigated. The χ-type entangled states are used for quantum key distribution and quantum signature in this protocol. Compared with previous quantum signature schemes which also utilize χ-type entangled states, the proposed scheme provides higher efficiency. Finally, we also analyze its security under various kinds of attacks. (paper)

  13. Elucidation of molecular kinetic schemes from macroscopic traces using system identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Fribourg

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overall cellular responses to biologically-relevant stimuli are mediated by networks of simpler lower-level processes. Although information about some of these processes can now be obtained by visualizing and recording events at the molecular level, this is still possible only in especially favorable cases. Therefore the development of methods to extract the dynamics and relationships between the different lower-level (microscopic processes from the overall (macroscopic response remains a crucial challenge in the understanding of many aspects of physiology. Here we have devised a hybrid computational-analytical method to accomplish this task, the SYStems-based MOLecular kinetic scheme Extractor (SYSMOLE. SYSMOLE utilizes system-identification input-output analysis to obtain a transfer function between the stimulus and the overall cellular response in the Laplace-transformed domain. It then derives a Markov-chain state molecular kinetic scheme uniquely associated with the transfer function by means of a classification procedure and an analytical step that imposes general biological constraints. We first tested SYSMOLE with synthetic data and evaluated its performance in terms of its rate of convergence to the correct molecular kinetic scheme and its robustness to noise. We then examined its performance on real experimental traces by analyzing macroscopic calcium-current traces elicited by membrane depolarization. SYSMOLE derived the correct, previously known molecular kinetic scheme describing the activation and inactivation of the underlying calcium channels and correctly identified the accepted mechanism of action of nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker clinically used in patients with cardiovascular disease. Finally, we applied SYSMOLE to study the pharmacology of a new class of glutamate antipsychotic drugs and their crosstalk mechanism through a heteromeric complex of G protein-coupled receptors. Our results indicate that our methodology

  14. Design of an extensive information representation scheme for clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deléger, Louise; Campillos, Leonardo; Ligozat, Anne-Laure; Névéol, Aurélie

    2017-09-11

    Knowledge representation frameworks are essential to the understanding of complex biomedical processes, and to the analysis of biomedical texts that describe them. Combined with natural language processing (NLP), they have the potential to contribute to retrospective studies by unlocking important phenotyping information contained in the narrative content of electronic health records (EHRs). This work aims to develop an extensive information representation scheme for clinical information contained in EHR narratives, and to support secondary use of EHR narrative data to answer clinical questions. We review recent work that proposed information representation schemes and applied them to the analysis of clinical narratives. We then propose a unifying scheme that supports the extraction of information to address a large variety of clinical questions. We devised a new information representation scheme for clinical narratives that comprises 13 entities, 11 attributes and 37 relations. The associated annotation guidelines can be used to consistently apply the scheme to clinical narratives and are https://cabernet.limsi.fr/annotation_guide_for_the_merlot_french_clinical_corpus-Sept2016.pdf . The information scheme includes many elements of the major schemes described in the clinical natural language processing literature, as well as a uniquely detailed set of relations.

  15. Verifiable Rational Secret Sharing Scheme in Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of mobile network, lots of people now have access to mobile phones and the mobile networks give users ubiquitous connectivity. However, smart phones and tablets are poor in computational resources such as memory size, processor speed, and disk capacity. So far, all existing rational secret sharing schemes cannot be suitable for mobile networks. In this paper, we propose a verifiable rational secret sharing scheme in mobile networks. The scheme provides a noninteractively verifiable proof for the correctness of participants’ share and handshake protocol is not necessary; there is no need for certificate generation, propagation, and storage in the scheme, which is more suitable for devices with limited size and processing power; in the scheme, every participant uses her encryption on number of each round as the secret share and the dealer does not have to distribute any secret share; every participant cannot gain more by deviating the protocol, so rational participant has an incentive to abide by the protocol; finally, every participant can obtain the secret fairly (means that either everyone receives the secret, or else no one does in mobile networks. The scheme is coalition-resilient and the security of our scheme relies on a computational assumption.

  16. Non Standard Finite Difference Scheme for Mutualistic Interaction Description

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbriellini, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    One of the more interesting themes of the mathematical ecology is the description of the mutualistic interaction between two interacting species. Based on continuous-time model developed by Holland and DeAngelis 2009 for consumer-resource mutualism description, this work deals with the application of the Mickens Non Standard Finite Difference method to transform the continuous-time scheme into a discrete-time one. It has been proved that the Mickens scheme is dynamically consistent with the o...

  17. Cost-prioritized droop schemes for autonomous microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    centralized optimal dispatch control. To better adapt to this non-uniformity, an alternative viewpoint based on reducing the Total Generation Cost (TGC including fuel cost, emission penalty and other operational concerns) of the microgrid is discussed, from which two new cost-prioritized droop schemes...... are developed. The schemes operate by tuning the dispatch priorities of the DGs and curve shapes of their resulting active power versus frequency plots. Their effective reduction of TGC has been verified through simulation....

  18. Multiplexing schemes for quantum repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Luciano; Van Meter, Rodney

    2011-08-01

    When built, quantum repeaters will allow the distribution of entangled quantum states across large distances, playing a vital part in many proposed quantum technologies. Enabling multiple users to connect through the same network will be key to their real-world deployment. Previous work on repeater technologies has focussed only on simple entanglment production, without considering the issues of resource scarcity and competition that necessarily arise in a network setting. In this paper we simulated a thirteen-node network with up to five flows sharing different parts of the network, measuring the total throughput and fairness for each case. Our results suggest that the Internet-like approach of statistical multiplexing use of a congested link gives the highest aggregate throughput. Time division multiplexing and buffer space multiplexing were slightly less effective, but all three schemes allow the sum of multiple flows to substantially exceed that of any one flow, improving over circuit switching by taking advantage of resources that are forced to remain idle in circuit switching. All three schemes proved to have excellent fairness. The high performance, fairness and simplicity of implementation support a recommendation of statistical multiplexing for shared quantum repeater networks.

  19. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  20. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  1. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  2. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  3. Scheme for secure swapping two unknown states of a photonic qubit and an electron-spin qubit using simultaneous quantum transmission and teleportation via quantum dots inside single-sided optical cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jino [College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Chungdae-ro 1, Seowon-Gu, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min-Sung [Center for Quantum Information, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Chang-Ho [National Security Research Institute, P.O.Box 1, Yuseong, Daejeon, 34188 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong-Gon [College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Chungdae-ro 1, Seowon-Gu, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jong-Phil, E-mail: jongph@cbnu.ac.kr [College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Chungdae-ro 1, Seowon-Gu, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    We propose a scheme for swapping two unknown states of a photon and electron spin confined to a charged quantum dot (QD) between two users by transferring a single photon. This scheme simultaneously transfers and teleports an unknown state (electron spin) between two users. For this bidirectional quantum communication, we utilize the interactions between a photonic and an electron-spin qubits of a QD located inside a single-sided optical cavity. Thus, our proposal using QD-cavity systems can obtain a certain success probability with high fidelity. Furthermore, compared to a previous scheme using cross-Kerr nonlinearities and homodyne detections, our scheme (using QD-cavity systems) can improve the feasibility under the decoherence effect in practice. - Highlights: • Design of Simultaneous quantum transmission and teleportation scheme via quantum dots and cavities. • We have developed the experimental feasibility of this scheme compared with the existing scheme. • Analysis of some benefits when our scheme is experimentally implemented using quantum dots and single-sided cavities.

  4. A dynamic identity based authentication scheme using chaotic maps for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Huo, Zhanqiang; Shi, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    With rapid development of computer technology and wide use of mobile devices, the telecare medicine information system has become universal in the field of medical care. To protect patients' privacy and medial data's security, many authentication schemes for the telecare medicine information system have been proposed. Due to its better performance, chaotic maps have been used in the design of authentication schemes for the telecare medicine information system. However, most of them cannot provide user's anonymity. Recently, Lin proposed a dynamic identity based authentication scheme using chaotic maps for the telecare medicine information system and claimed that their scheme was secure against existential active attacks. In this paper, we will demonstrate that their scheme cannot provide user anonymity and is vulnerable to the impersonation attack. Further, we propose an improved scheme to fix security flaws in Lin's scheme and demonstrate the proposed scheme could withstand various attacks.

  5. Fourier analysis of finite element preconditioned collocation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Michel O.; Mund, Ernest H.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of the iteration operator of some finite element preconditioned Fourier collocation schemes is investigated. The first part of the paper analyses one-dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic model problems and the advection-diffusion equation. Analytical expressions of the eigenvalues are obtained with use of symbolic computation. The second part of the paper considers the set of one-dimensional differential equations resulting from Fourier analysis (in the tranverse direction) of the 2-D Stokes problem. All results agree with previous conclusions on the numerical efficiency of finite element preconditioning schemes.

  6. Finite volume schemes for Vlasov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouseilles Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present finite volume schemes for the numerical approximation of the one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson equation (FOV CEMRACS 2011 project. Stability analysis is performed for the linear advection and links with semi-Lagrangian schemes are made. Finally, numerical results enable to compare the different methods using classical plasma test cases. Des schémas de type volumes finis sont étudiés ici pour l’approximation de l’équation de Vlasov-Poisson (projet FOV, CEMRACS 2011. Une analyse de stabilité est effectuée dans le cas de l’advection linéaire et plusieurs liens sont faits entre les méthodes volumes finis et semi-Lagrangiennes. Enfin, les méthodes sont comparées sur des cas tests académiques de la physique des plasmas.

  7. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  8. New CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) forms

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    New versions of the following forms for claims and requests to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) have been released:   form for claiming reimbursement of medical expenses,   form for requesting advance reimbursement, and   dental estimate form (for treatments foreseen to exceed 800 CHF).   The new forms are available in French and English. They can either be completed electronically before being printed and signed, or completed in paper form. New detailed instructions can be found at the back of the claim form; CHIS members are invited to read them carefully. The electronic versions (PDF) of all the forms are available on the CHIS website and on the UNIQA Member Portal. CHIS Members are requested to use these new forms forthwith and to discard any previous version. Questions regarding the above should be addressed directly to UNIQA (72730 or 022.718 63 00 or uniqa.assurances@cern.ch).

  9. New schemes for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Y.

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors propose new schemes for realizing the v/sub p/xB accelerator, by using no plasma system for producing the strong longitudinal waves. The first method is to use a grating for obtaining extended interaction of an electron beam moving along the grating surface with light beam incident also along the surface. Here, the light beam propagates obliquely to the grating grooves for producing strong electric field, and the electron beam propagates in parallel to the light beam. The static magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the grating surface. In the present system, the beam interacts synchronously with the p-polarized wave which has the electric field be parallel to the grating surface. Another conventional scheme is to use a delay circuit. Here, the light beam propagates obliquely between a pair of array of conductor fins or slots. The phase velocity of the spatial harmonics in the y-direction (right angle to the array of slots) is slower than the speed of light. With the aid of powerful laser light or microwave source, it should be possible to miniaturise linacs by using the v/sub p/xB effect and schemes proposed here

  10. PHACK: An Efficient Scheme for Selective Forwarding Attack Detection in WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Per-Hop Acknowledgement (PHACK-based scheme is proposed for each packet transmission to detect selective forwarding attacks. In our scheme, the sink and each node along the forwarding path generate an acknowledgement (ACK message for each received packet to confirm the normal packet transmission. The scheme, in which each ACK is returned to the source node along a different routing path, can significantly increase the resilience against attacks because it prevents an attacker from compromising nodes in the return routing path, which can otherwise interrupt the return of nodes’ ACK packets. For this case, the PHACK scheme also has better potential to detect abnormal packet loss and identify suspect nodes as well as better resilience against attacks. Another pivotal issue is the network lifetime of the PHACK scheme, as it generates more acknowledgements than previous ACK-based schemes. We demonstrate that the network lifetime of the PHACK scheme is not lower than that of other ACK-based schemes because the scheme just increases the energy consumption in non-hotspot areas and does not increase the energy consumption in hotspot areas. Moreover, the PHACK scheme greatly simplifies the protocol and is easy to implement. Both theoretical and simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in terms of high detection probability and the ability to identify suspect nodes.

  11. New Financing Schemes of Public Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio de la Riva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public works procurements and concessions are traditional legal techniques used to shape the financing of public infrastructure. Fiscal constraints faced by public administrations at the end of the 20th century, and the subsequent increase of private participation in the provision of public goods and services, encouraged the development of new legal schemes allowing a higher degree of private investment in public infrastructure; such as Public Private Partnerships, project finance, securitizations, the shadow toll, turn-key agreements, public leasing and public trusts.

  12. Analogical Argument Schemes and Complex Argument Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Juthe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses several issues in argumentation theory. The over-arching goal is to discuss how a theory of analogical argument schemes fits the pragma-dialectical theory of argument schemes and argument structures, and how one should properly reconstruct both single and complex argumentation by analogy. I also propose a unified model that explains how formal valid deductive argumentation relates to argument schemes in general and to analogical argument schemes in particular. The model suggests “scheme-specific-validity” i.e. that there are contrasting species of validity for each type of argument scheme that derive from one generic conception of validity.

  13. On the relationship between some nodal schemes and the finite element method in static diffusion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedon-Magnaud, C.; Hennart, J.P.; Lautard, J.J.

    1983-03-01

    An unified formulation of non conforming finite elements with quadrature formula and simple nodal scheme is presented. The theoretical convergence is obtained for the previous scheme when the mesh is refined. Numerical tests are provided in order to bear out the theorical results

  14. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  15. Development and qualification of reference calculation schemes for absorbers in pressured water reactor; Elaboration et qualification de schemas de calcul de reference pour les absorbants dans les reacteurs a eau pressurisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc-Tranchant, P

    2001-07-01

    The general field in which this work takes place is the field of the accuracy improvement of neutronic calculations, required to operate Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) with a better precision and a lower cost. More specifically, this thesis deals with the calculation of the absorber clusters used to control these reactors. The first aim of that work was to define and validate a reference calculation route of such an absorber cluster, based on the deterministic code APOLLO2. This calculation scheme was then to be checked against experimental data. This study of the complex situation of absorber clusters required several intermediate studies, of simpler problems, such as the study of fuel rods lattices and the study of single absorber rods (B4C, AIC, Hafnium) isolated in such lattices. Each one of these different studies led to a particular reference calculation route. All these calculation routes were developed against reference continuous energy Monte-Carlo calculations, carried out with the stochastic code TRIPOLI4. They were then checked against experimental data measured during French experimental programs, undertaken within the EOLE experimental reactor, at the Nuclear Research Center of Cadarache: the MISTRAL experiments for the study of isolated absorber rods and the EPICURE experiments for the study of absorber clusters. This work led to important improvements in the calculation of isolated absorbers and absorber clusters. The reactivity worth of these clusters in particular, can now be obtained with a great accuracy: the discrepancy observed between the calculated and the experimental values is less than 2.5 %, and then slightly lower than the experimental uncertainty. (author)

  16. Quantum blind dual-signature scheme without arbitrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Huang, Dazu; Shi, Jinjing; Guo, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the elegant features of a bind signature, we suggest the design of a quantum blind dual-signature scheme with three phases, i.e., initial phase, signing phase and verification phase. Different from conventional schemes, legal messages are signed not only by the blind signatory but also by the sender in the signing phase. It does not rely much on an arbitrator in the verification phase as the previous quantum signature schemes usually do. The security is guaranteed by entanglement in quantum information processing. Security analysis demonstrates that the signature can be neither forged nor disavowed by illegal participants or attacker. It provides a potential application for e-commerce or e-payment systems with the current technology.

  17. Quantum blind dual-signature scheme without arbitrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Huang, Dazu; Shi, Jinjing; Guo, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the elegant features of a bind signature, we suggest the design of a quantum blind dual-signature scheme with three phases, i.e., initial phase, signing phase and verification phase. Different from conventional schemes, legal messages are signed not only by the blind signatory but also by the sender in the signing phase. It does not rely much on an arbitrator in the verification phase as the previous quantum signature schemes usually do. The security is guaranteed by entanglement in quantum information processing. Security analysis demonstrates that the signature can be neither forged nor disavowed by illegal participants or attacker. It provides a potential application for e-commerce or e-payment systems with the current technology. (paper)

  18. The EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Biomass. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, H.; Tuerk, A.; Arasto, A.; Vehlow, J.; Kautto, N.; Sijm, J.; Hunder, M.; Brammer, J.

    2009-02-01

    Within its Energy and Climate Package, adopted by the European Parliament in December 2008, the European commission set a 10% minimum for the market share of renewables in the transport sector in 2020. To find the appropriate instruments to reach this target and the instrument mix with which biomass use in general could be best stimulated are the main questions of this project. An important instrument of the European Climate Policy is the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), which started operation in 2005. Previous work done within Bioenergy NoE showed that only a high share of auctioning of allowances and a high CO2 price provide necessary incentives for a higher biomass use. According to the Energy and Climate Package, all allowances will be auctioned in the energy sector from 2013 on, with exceptions for a few CEE countries. Based on work done within the project, a model has been developed to analyse at which CO2 price biomass becomes competitive in case of 100 per cent auctioning or at a lower level. The European Commission furthermore decided not to include the road transport sector into the EU-ETS until 2020. Whether the inclusion of the road transport sector in the EU-ETS, could help introducing biofuels, a separate trading scheme for biofuels should be set up, or biofuels should be addressed with other policy instruments, was another main question of this project. The first result shows that an integrated scheme would hardly have any effects on the use of liquid biofuels in the transportation sector, but might cause higher CO2 prices for the energy and industry sector. A separate trading scheme has been implemented in the UK in 2008, California is planning such as scheme in addition to include the road transport sector into the future ETS. Within this project the design of such as system has been elaborated based on the comparison of several policy instruments to increase the use of liquid biofuels in the transportation sector. Policy interaction

  19. Decoupling schemes for the SSC Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Meinke, R.; Peterson, J.; Pilat, F.; Stampke, S.; Syphers, M.; Talman, R.

    1993-05-01

    A decoupling system is designed for the SSC Collider. This system can accommodate three decoupling schemes by using 44 skew quadrupoles in the different configurations. Several decoupling schemes are studied and compared in this paper

  20. Decoupling schemes for the SCC Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Meinke, R.; Peterson, J.; Pilat, F.; Stampke, S.; Syphers, M.; Talman, R.

    1993-01-01

    A decoupling system is designed for the SSC Collider. This system can accommodate three decoupling schemes by using 44 skew quadrupoles in the different configurations. Several decoupling schemes are studied and compared in this paper

  1. TVD schemes for open channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, A. I.; Skeels, C. P.

    1998-04-01

    The Saint Venant equations for modelling flow in open channels are solved in this paper, using a variety of total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes. The performance of second- and third-order-accurate TVD schemes is investigated for the computation of free-surface flows, in predicting dam-breaks and extreme flow conditions created by the river bed topography. Convergence of the schemes is quantified by comparing error norms between subsequent iterations. Automatically calculated time steps and entropy corrections allow high CFL numbers and smooth transition between different conditions. In order to compare different approaches with TVD schemes, the most accurate of each type was chosen. All four schemes chosen proved acceptably accurate. However, there are important differences between the schemes in the occurrence of clipping, overshooting and oscillating behaviour and in the highest CFL numbers allowed by a scheme. These variations in behaviour stem from the different orders and inherent properties of the four schemes.

  2. Iteration scheme for implicit calculations of kinetic and equilibrium chemical reactions in fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshaw, J.D.; Chang, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    An iteration scheme for the implicit treatment of equilibrium chemical reactions in partial equilibrium flow has previously been described. Here we generalize this scheme to kinetic reactions as well as equilibrium reactions. This extends the applicability of the scheme to problems with kinetic reactions that are fast in regions of the flow field but slow in others. The resulting scheme thereby provides a single unified framework for the implicit treatment of an arbitrary number of coupled equilibrium and kinetic reactions in chemically reacting fluid flow. 10 refs., 2 figs

  3. Impacts of Rotation Schemes on Ground-Dwelling Beneficial Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2016-10-01

    Crop rotation alters agroecosystem diversity temporally, and increasing the number of crops in rotation schemes can increase crop yields and reduce reliance on pesticides. We hypothesized that increasing the number of crops in annual rotation schemes would positively affect ground-dwelling beneficial arthropod communities. During 2012 and 2013, pitfall traps were used to measure activity-density and diversity of ground-dwelling communities within three previously established, long-term crop rotation studies located in Wisconsin and Illinois. Rotation schemes sampled included continuous corn, a 2-yr annual rotation of corn and soybean, and a 3-yr annual rotation of corn, soybean, and wheat. Insects captured were identified to family, and non-insect arthropods were identified to class, order, or family, depending upon the taxa. Beneficial arthropods captured included natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. The beneficial community from continuous corn plots was significantly more diverse compared with the community in the 2-yr rotation, whereas the community in the 3-yr rotation did not differ from either rotation scheme. The activity-density of the total community and any individual taxa did not differ among rotation schemes in either corn or soybean. Crop species within all three rotation schemes were annual crops, and are associated with agricultural practices that make infield habitat subject to anthropogenic disturbances and temporally unstable. Habitat instability and disturbance can limit the effectiveness and retention of beneficial arthropods, including natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. Increasing non-crop and perennial species within landscapes in conjunction with more diverse rotation schemes may increase the effect of biological control of pests by natural enemies. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. DISTINGUISHING SCHEMES AND TASKS IN CHILDREN’S DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPLICATIVE REASONING (Distinción de esquemas y tareas en el desarrollo del razonamiento multiplicativo de los niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Hord

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a synthesis of findings from constructivist teaching experiments regarding six schemes children construct for reasoning multiplicatively and tasks to promote them. We provide a task-generating platform game, depictions of each scheme, and supporting tasks. Tasks must be distinguished from children’s thinking, and learning situations must be organized to (a build on children’s available schemes, (b promote the next scheme in the sequence, and (c link to intended mathematical concepts. Presentamos una síntesis de hallazgos de experimentos de enseñanzaconstructivistas en relación con seis esquemas que los niños construyen para razonar multiplicativamente y tareas para promoverlos. Proveemos una plataforma de juego generadora de tareas, descripciones de cada esquema y tareas para apoyarlos. Las tareas deben distinguirse del pensamiento de los niños, y las situaciones de aprendizaje deben organizarse para que (a se basen en los esquemas que los niños tienen disponibles, (b promuevan el siguiente esquema en la secuencia y (c se relacionen con los conceptos matemáticos pretendidos.

  5. MIRD radionuclide data and decay schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides. Includes CD Table of Contents Decay schemes listed by atomic number Radioactive decay processes Serial decay schemes Decay schemes and decay tables This essential reference for nuclear medicine physicians, scientists and physicists also includes a CD with tabulations of the radionuclide data necessary for dosimetry calculations.

  6. Secret Sharing Schemes and Advanced Encryption Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Secret Sharing Scheme, they have only been better under certain parameters; there is always a trade -off with some parameter of the scheme. xiv...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS SECRET SHARING SCHEMES AND ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD by Bing Yong Lim September 2015 Thesis...AND SUBTITLE SECRET SHARING SCHEMES AND ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lim, Bin Yong 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  7. Tightly Secure Signatures From Lossy Identification Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla , Michel; Fouque , Pierre-Alain; Lyubashevsky , Vadim; Tibouchi , Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present three digital signature schemes with tight security reductions in the random oracle model. Our first signature scheme is a particularly efficient version of the short exponent discrete log-based scheme of Girault et al. (J Cryptol 19(4):463–487, 2006). Our scheme has a tight reduction to the decisional short discrete logarithm problem, while still maintaining the non-tight reduction to the computational version of the problem upon which the or...

  8. Czech Public and Occupational Pension Schemes and Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOSTATEK, Jaroslav

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Czechoslovak communist retirement protection scheme resembled the Bismarckian earnings-related pensions, with new benefits close to final salaries and with their insufficient indexation. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the reform processes in Czechia and the potential for a simple technical reform that would make the public retirement schemes understandable and efficient. In the process of the transition to capitalism under liberal Czech governments, the prevailing concept of the public retirement scheme changed to a Beveridge model of pensions not being related to previous wages. The insufficient valorisation of bend points was the main method of this transition. Modern international pension theory recommends the separation of a solidary pillar and an earnings-related pillar. After the Czech “small” pension reform, a basic technical reform may be simply realised, resulting in a higher flat-rate pension and an NDC pension insurance scheme, convenient to parties with programmes based on three basic welfare regimes. The introduction of occupational pension schemes is necessary to reflect the specifics of arduous occupations.

  9. A subgrid parameterization scheme for precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Turner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing computing power, the horizontal resolution of numerical weather prediction (NWP models is improving and today reaches 1 to 5 km. Nevertheless, clouds and precipitation formation are still subgrid scale processes for most cloud types, such as cumulus and stratocumulus. Subgrid scale parameterizations for water vapor condensation have been in use for many years and are based on a prescribed probability density function (PDF of relative humidity spatial variability within the model grid box, thus providing a diagnosis of the cloud fraction. A similar scheme is developed and tested here. It is based on a prescribed PDF of cloud water variability and a threshold value of liquid water content for droplet collection to derive a rain fraction within the model grid. Precipitation of rainwater raises additional concerns relative to the overlap of cloud and rain fractions, however. The scheme is developed following an analysis of data collected during field campaigns in stratocumulus (DYCOMS-II and fair weather cumulus (RICO and tested in a 1-D framework against large eddy simulations of these observed cases. The new parameterization is then implemented in a 3-D NWP model with a horizontal resolution of 2.5 km to simulate real cases of precipitating cloud systems over France.

  10. THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF EXTENDED ARQ SCHEMES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    and Wait (SW), Selective Repeat (SR), Stutter. (ST) and Go-Back-N (GBN) (Lin and Costello,. 2003). Combinations of these schemes lead to mixed mode schemes which include the SR-. GBN, SR-ST1 and SR-ST2. In the mixed mode schemes, when a prescribed number of failures occur in the SR mode, the GBN or ST ...

  11. The Original Management Incentive Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Richard T. Holden

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, the structure of pay for top corporate executives shifted markedly as the use of stock options greatly expanded. By the early 2000s, as the dot-com boom ended and the Nasdaq stock index melted down, these modern executive incentive schemes were being sharply questioned on many grounds—for encouraging excessive risk-taking and a short-run orientation, for being an overly costly and inefficient method of providing incentives, and even for tempting managers of firms like Enron,...

  12. The mathematics of Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Artzrouni, Marc

    2009-01-01

    A first order linear differential equation is used to describe the dynamics of an investment fund that promises more than it can deliver, also known as a Ponzi scheme. The model is based on a promised, unrealistic interest rate; on the actual, realized nominal interest rate; on the rate at which new deposits are accumulated and on the withdrawal rate. Conditions on these parameters are given for the fund to be solvent or to collapse. The model is fitted to data available on Charles...

  13. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    At present, there exists no explicit European policy framework on distributed generation. Various Directives encompass distributed generation; inherently, their implementation is to the discretion of the Member States. The latter have adopted different kinds of support schemes, ranging from feed-in...... tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators...

  14. Improving Biometric-Based Authentication Schemes with Smart Card Revocation/Reissue for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2017-04-25

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks is more difficult than in traditional networks owing to sensor network characteristics such as unreliable communication, limited resources, and unattended operation. For these reasons, various authentication schemes have been proposed to provide secure and efficient communication. In 2016, Park et al. proposed a secure biometric-based authentication scheme with smart card revocation/reissue for wireless sensor networks. However, we found that their scheme was still insecure against impersonation attack, and had a problem in the smart card revocation/reissue phase. In this paper, we show how an adversary can impersonate a legitimate user or sensor node, illegal smart card revocation/reissue and prove that Park et al.'s scheme fails to provide revocation/reissue. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Finally, we provide security and performance analysis between previous schemes and the proposed scheme, and provide formal analysis based on the random oracle model. The results prove that the proposed scheme can solve the weaknesses of impersonation attack and other security flaws in the security analysis section. Furthermore, performance analysis shows that the computational cost is lower than the previous scheme.

  15. Improving Biometric-Based Authentication Schemes with Smart Card Revocation/Reissue for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks is more difficult than in traditional networks owing to sensor network characteristics such as unreliable communication, limited resources, and unattended operation. For these reasons, various authentication schemes have been proposed to provide secure and efficient communication. In 2016, Park et al. proposed a secure biometric-based authentication scheme with smart card revocation/reissue for wireless sensor networks. However, we found that their scheme was still insecure against impersonation attack, and had a problem in the smart card revocation/reissue phase. In this paper, we show how an adversary can impersonate a legitimate user or sensor node, illegal smart card revocation/reissue and prove that Park et al.’s scheme fails to provide revocation/reissue. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Finally, we provide security and performance analysis between previous schemes and the proposed scheme, and provide formal analysis based on the random oracle model. The results prove that the proposed scheme can solve the weaknesses of impersonation attack and other security flaws in the security analysis section. Furthermore, performance analysis shows that the computational cost is lower than the previous scheme. PMID:28441331

  16. Classification schemes for knowledge translation interventions: a practical resource for researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E. Slaughter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As implementation science advances, the number of interventions to promote the translation of evidence into healthcare, health systems, or health policy is growing. Accordingly, classification schemes for these knowledge translation (KT interventions have emerged. A recent scoping review identified 51 classification schemes of KT interventions to integrate evidence into healthcare practice; however, the review did not evaluate the quality of the classification schemes or provide detailed information to assist researchers in selecting a scheme for their context and purpose. This study aimed to further examine and assess the quality of these classification schemes of KT interventions, and provide information to aid researchers when selecting a classification scheme. Methods We abstracted the following information from each of the original 51 classification scheme articles: authors’ objectives; purpose of the scheme and field of application; socioecologic level (individual, organizational, community, system; adaptability (broad versus specific; target group (patients, providers, policy-makers, intent (policy, education, practice, and purpose (dissemination versus implementation. Two reviewers independently evaluated the methodological quality of the development of each classification scheme using an adapted version of the AGREE II tool. Based on these assessments, two independent reviewers reached consensus about whether to recommend each scheme for researcher use, or not. Results Of the 51 original classification schemes, we excluded seven that were not specific classification schemes, not accessible or duplicates. Of the remaining 44 classification schemes, nine were not recommended. Of the 35 recommended classification schemes, ten focused on behaviour change and six focused on population health. Many schemes (n = 29 addressed practice considerations. Fewer schemes addressed educational or policy objectives. Twenty

  17. A real options approach to analyse wind energy investments under different support schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitzing, Lena; Juul, Nina; Drud, Michael; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Real options model for wind projects considering investment timing and sizing. • Introducing a capacity constraint in the optimisation. • Addressing several uncertainty factors while still providing analytical solution. • Comparative policy analysis of investment incentives from different support schemes. • Improved quantification of trade-off between fast deployment and large projects. - Abstract: A real options model is developed to evaluate wind energy investments in a realistic and easily applicable way. Considering optimal investment timing and sizing (capacity choice), the model introduces a capacity constraint as part of the optimisation. Several correlated uncertainty factors are combined into a single stochastic process, which allows for analytical (closed-form) solutions. The approach is well suited for quantitative policy analysis, such as the comparison of different support schemes. A case study for offshore wind in the Baltic Sea quantifies differences in investment incentives under feed-in tariffs, feed-in premiums and tradable green certificates. Investors can under certificate schemes require up to 3% higher profit margins than under tariffs due to higher variance in profits. Feed-in tariffs may lead to 15% smaller project sizes. This trade-off between faster deployment of smaller projects and slower deployment of larger projects is neglected using traditional net present value approaches. In the analysis of such trade-off, previous real options studies did not consider a capacity constraint, which is here shown to decrease the significance of the effect. The impact on investment incentives also depends on correlations between the underlying stochastic factors. The results may help investors to make informed investment decisions and policy makers to strategically design renewable support and develop tailor-made incentive schemes.

  18. SRIM Scheme: An Impression-Management Scheme for Privacy-Aware Photo-Sharing Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of online social networks (OSNs and modern smartphones, sharing photos with friends has become one of the most popular social activities. Since people usually prefer to give others a positive impression, impression management during photo sharing is becoming increasingly important. However, most of the existing privacy-aware solutions have two main drawbacks: ① Users must decide manually whether to share each photo with others or not, in order to build the desired impression; and ② users run a high risk of leaking sensitive relational information in group photos during photo sharing, such as their position as part of a couple, or their sexual identity. In this paper, we propose a social relation impression-management (SRIM scheme to protect relational privacy and to automatically recommend an appropriate photo-sharing policy to users. To be more specific, we have designed a lightweight face-distance measurement that calculates the distances between users’ faces within group photos by relying on photo metadata and face-detection results. These distances are then transformed into relations using proxemics. Furthermore, we propose a relation impression evaluation algorithm to evaluate and manage relational impressions. We developed a prototype and employed 21 volunteers to verify the functionalities of the SRIM scheme. The evaluation results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed scheme. Keywords: Impression management, Relational privacy, Photo sharing, Policy recommendation, Proxemics

  19. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  20. Representación de aspectos candidato en esquemas preconceptuales Representing candidate aspects by means of pre-conceptual schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Zapata Jaramillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspects have been gradually consolidating as a new software development paradigm. Although aspects are already common in programming, as aspect-oriented languages have shown, aspect evolution is currently going to the first phases of software development lifecycle. Some work has been devoted to natural-language-based aspect identification. However, translation from natural language to conceptual schemas still has problems. For this reason, we present, in this paper, a proposal for representing aspects in the so-called pre-conceptual schemes (PS, which are previous diagrams to conceptual scheme generation. PS representation is, then, translated into class and sequence diagram, two of the most representative UML diagrams. The overall environment is, finally, exemplified by means of a case study

  1. Improvement of burnup analysis for pebble bed reactors with an accumulative fuel loading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanullang, Irwan Liapto; Obara, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Given the limitations of natural uranium resources, innovative nuclear power plant concepts that increase the efficiency of nuclear fuel utilization are needed. The Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) shows some potential to achieve high efficiency in natural uranium utilization. To simplify the PBR concept, PBR with an accumulation fuel loading scheme was introduced and the Fuel Handling System (FHS) removed. In this concept, the pebble balls are added little by little into the reactor core until the pebble balls reach the top of the reactor core, and all pebble balls are discharged from the core at the end of the operation period. A code based on the MVP/MVP-BURN method has been developed to perform an analysis of a PBR with the accumulative fuel loading scheme. The optimum fuel composition was found using the code for high burnup performance. Previous efforts provided several motivations to improve the burnup performance: First, some errors in the input code were corrected. This correction, and an overall simplification of the input code, was implemented for easier analysis of a PBR with the accumulative fuel loading scheme. Second, the optimum fuel design had been obtained in the infinite geometry. To improve the optimum fuel composition, a parametric survey was obtained by varying the amount of Heavy Metal (HM) uranium per pebble and the degree of uranium enrichment. Moreover, an entire analysis of the parametric survey was obtained in the finite geometry. The results show that improvements in the fuel composition can lead to more accurate analysis with the code. (author)

  2. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  3. A Haptic Feedback Scheme to Accurately Position a Virtual Wrist Prosthesis Using a Three-Node Tactor Array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Erwin

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel haptic feedback scheme, used for accurately positioning a 1DOF virtual wrist prosthesis through sensory substitution, is presented. The scheme employs a three-node tactor array and discretely and selectively modulates the stimulation frequency of each tactor to relay 11 discrete haptic stimuli to the user. Able-bodied participants were able to move the virtual wrist prosthesis via a surface electromyography based controller. The participants evaluated the feedback scheme without visual or audio feedback and relied solely on the haptic feedback alone to correctly position the hand. The scheme was evaluated through both normal (perpendicular and shear (lateral stimulations applied on the forearm. Normal stimulations were applied through a prototype device previously developed by the authors while shear stimulations were generated using an ubiquitous coin motor vibrotactor. Trials with no feedback served as a baseline to compare results within the study and to the literature. The results indicated that using normal and shear stimulations resulted in accurately positioning the virtual wrist, but were not significantly different. Using haptic feedback was substantially better than no feedback. The results found in this study are significant since the feedback scheme allows for using relatively few tactors to relay rich haptic information to the user and can be learned easily despite a relatively short amount of training. Additionally, the results are important for the haptic community since they contradict the common conception in the literature that normal stimulation is inferior to shear. From an ergonomic perspective normal stimulation has the potential to benefit upper limb amputees since it can operate at lower frequencies than shear-based vibrotactors while also generating less noise. Through further tuning of the novel haptic feedback scheme and normal stimulation device, a compact and comfortable sensory substitution

  4. Kinetic scheme of biomass pyrolysis considering secondary charring reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anca-Couce, Andrés; Mehrabian, Ramin; Scharler, Robert; Obernberger, Ingwald

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A mechanistic scheme for biomass pyrolysis from the literature is adapted. • Secondary char formation reactions and catalytic effect of alkalis are considered. • The adapted scheme is validated with experimental data from the literature. - Abstract: A widely applicable kinetic scheme for pyrolysis is still missing. In this work an adaptation of the mechanistic scheme developed by Ranzi et al. (2008) for pyrolysis of small ash free biomass particles is proposed. The scheme is modified to include secondary char formation reactions, which are relevant for particles of a certain thickness, and sugar formation is avoided due to the catalytic effect of alkali metals in biomass. The predictions of the adapted scheme are compared to experimental data from the literature of pyrolysis in fixed beds of particles with a size of around 1 cm. It is shown that the adaptation improves the prediction of the final char yield and its CHO composition and also the yields of the main groups of volatiles, as carbonyls + alcohols, sugars and water vapor

  5. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  6. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  7. A Classification Scheme for Glaciological AVA Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A.; Emir, E.

    2014-12-01

    A classification scheme is proposed for amplitude vs. angle (AVA) responses as an aid to the interpretation of seismic reflectivity in glaciological research campaigns. AVA responses are a powerful tool in characterising the material properties of glacier ice and its substrate. However, before interpreting AVA data, careful true amplitude processing is required to constrain basal reflectivity and compensate amplitude decay mechanisms, including anelastic attenuation and spherical divergence. These fundamental processing steps can be difficult to design in cases of noisy data, e.g. where a target reflection is contaminated by surface wave energy (in the case of shallow glaciers) or by energy reflected from out of the survey plane. AVA methods have equally powerful usage in estimating the fluid fill of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, such applications seldom use true amplitude data and instead consider qualitative AVA responses using a well-defined classification scheme. Such schemes are often defined in terms of the characteristics of best-fit responses to the observed reflectivity, e.g. the intercept (I) and gradient (G) of a linear approximation to the AVA data. The position of the response on a cross-plot of I and G then offers a diagnostic attribute for certain fluid types. We investigate the advantages in glaciology of emulating this practice, and develop a cross-plot based on the 3-term Shuey AVA approximation (using I, G, and a curvature term C). Model AVA curves define a clear lithification trend: AVA responses to stiff (lithified) substrates fall discretely into one quadrant of the cross-plot, with positive I and negative G, whereas those to fluid-rich substrates plot diagonally opposite (in the negative I and positive G quadrant). The remaining quadrants are unoccupied by plausible single-layer responses and may therefore be diagnostic of complex thin-layer reflectivity, and the magnitude and polarity of the C term serves as a further indicator

  8. Implications of rural irrigation schemes on household economy. A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and quality of life as measured through the use of standardised HDI. In light of the above, there is a need to fund and develop more rural irrigation schemes so as to ensure livelihood security and rural development in Zimbabwe. Keywords: Rural livelihood, Poverty, Climate change, Irrigation, Lower Gweru, Extension.

  9. Extended lattice Boltzmann scheme for droplet combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashna, Mostafa; Rahimian, Mohammad Hassan; Fakhari, Abbas

    2017-05-01

    The available lattice Boltzmann (LB) models for combustion or phase change are focused on either single-phase flow combustion or two-phase flow with evaporation assuming a constant density for both liquid and gas phases. To pave the way towards simulation of spray combustion, we propose a two-phase LB method for modeling combustion of liquid fuel droplets. We develop an LB scheme to model phase change and combustion by taking into account the density variation in the gas phase and accounting for the chemical reaction based on the Cahn-Hilliard free-energy approach. Evaporation of liquid fuel is modeled by adding a source term, which is due to the divergence of the velocity field being nontrivial, in the continuity equation. The low-Mach-number approximation in the governing Navier-Stokes and energy equations is used to incorporate source terms due to heat release from chemical reactions, density variation, and nonluminous radiative heat loss. Additionally, the conservation equation for chemical species is formulated by including a source term due to chemical reaction. To validate the model, we consider the combustion of n-heptane and n-butanol droplets in stagnant air using overall single-step reactions. The diameter history and flame standoff ratio obtained from the proposed LB method are found to be in good agreement with available numerical and experimental data. The present LB scheme is believed to be a promising approach for modeling spray combustion.

  10. Present and future nuclear power financing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diel, R.

    1977-01-01

    The financial requirement for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany for the period up until 1985 was estimated to run up to some DM 100 billion already in the Nuclear Energy Study published by the Dresdner Bank in 1974. This figure is not changed in any way by the reduction the nuclear power program has suffered in the meantime, because the lower requirement for investment capital is more than offset by the price increases that have occurred meanwhile. A capital requirement in the order of DM 100 billion raises major problems for the power producing industry and the banks which, however, are not going to hamper the further expansion of nuclear power, because new financing schemes have been specially developed for the nuclear field. They include financing by leasing, the use of funds from real estate credit institutions for long term financing, borrowing of long term funds in the Euro market, and financing through subsidiaries of the utilities. The new financing schemes also apply to the large financial requirement associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, waste management in particular. In this sector the utilities agree to bear the economic risk of the companies implementing the respective projects. Accordingly, financing will not entail any major difficulties. Another area of great importance is export financing. The German-Brazilian nuclear agreement is a model of this instrument. (orig.) [de

  11. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: es@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01

    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  12. Optimum penstocks for low head microhydro schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, K.V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, P.O. Box 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Giddens, E.P. [Formally of Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury, 81 Grange Street, Opawa, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2008-03-15

    This paper presents an analysis for penstock optimization, for low head microhydro schemes. The intent of the optimization is to minimize capital cost per kilowatt rather than maximize the energy from the site. It is shown that site slope is an important consideration that affects the economics. While this work stands alone it has been generated as part of a research program that is in the final stages of developing a modular set of cost-effective low-head microhydro schemes for site heads below those currently serviced by Pelton Wheels. The rationale for the work has been that there is a multitude of viable low-head sites in isolated areas where microhydro is a realistic energy option, and where conventional economics are not appropriate. This is especially the case in third world countries. The goals of this paper have been to illustrate the issues and show how to decide on the most cost-effective penstock solutions that systematically cover the 0.2-20 kW supply. The paper presents the results as a matrix of the most cost-effective penstocks, and in the larger project it matches them to a modular set of turbines. It shows how to find the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative penstocks, and concludes with examples illustrating the results. (author)

  13. A Modified Computational Scheme for the Stochastic Perturbation Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu

    Full Text Available Abstract A modified computational scheme of the stochastic perturbation finite element method (SPFEM is developed for structures with low-level uncertainties. The proposed scheme can provide second-order estimates of the mean and variance without differentiating the system matrices with respect to the random variables. When the proposed scheme is used, it involves finite analyses of deterministic systems. In the case of one random variable with a symmetric probability density function, the proposed computational scheme can even provide a result with fifth-order accuracy. Compared with the traditional computational scheme of SPFEM, the proposed scheme is more convenient for numerical implementation. Four numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed scheme can be used in linear or nonlinear structures with correlated or uncorrelated random variables.

  14. Remote automatic control scheme for plasma arc cutting of contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudar, A.M.; Ward, C.R.; Kriikku, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Robotics Development Group at the Savannah River Technology Center has developed and implemented a scheme to perform automatic cutting of metallic contaminated waste. The scheme employs a plasma arc cutter in conjunction with a laser ranging sensor attached to a robotic manipulator called the Telerobot. A software algorithm using proportional control is then used to perturb the robot's trajectory in such a way as to regulate the plasma arc standoff and the robot's speed in order to achieve automatic plasma arc cuts. The scheme has been successfully tested on simulated waste materials and the results have been very favorable. This report details the development and testing of the scheme

  15. A Classification Scheme for Smart Manufacturing Systems’ Performance Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. Tina; Kumaraguru, Senthilkumaran; Jain, Sanjay; Robinson, Stefanie; Helu, Moneer; Hatim, Qais Y.; Rachuri, Sudarsan; Dornfeld, David; Saldana, Christopher J.; Kumara, Soundar

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a classification scheme for performance metrics for smart manufacturing systems. The discussion focuses on three such metrics: agility, asset utilization, and sustainability. For each of these metrics, we discuss classification themes, which we then use to develop a generalized classification scheme. In addition to the themes, we discuss a conceptual model that may form the basis for the information necessary for performance evaluations. Finally, we present future challenges in developing robust, performance-measurement systems for real-time, data-intensive enterprises. PMID:28785744

  16. BOT schemes as financial model of hydro power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grausam, A.

    1997-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) schemes are the latest methods adopted in the developing infrastructure projects. This paper outlines the project financing through BOT schemes and briefly focuses on the factors particularly relevant to hydro power projects. Hydro power development provides not only the best way to produce electricity, it can also solve problems in different fields, such as navigation problems in case of run-of-the river plants, ground water management systems and flood control etc. This makes HPP projects not cheaper, but hydro energy is a clean and renewable energy and the hydro potential worldwide will play a major role to meet the increased demand in future. 5 figs

  17. IMPORTANCE OF THE AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATE SCHEME WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SYSTEM (IN THE LIGHT OF THE POLISH RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME 2014–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Mickiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the agri-environment scheme, which gained a high position in the process of integration of environmental protection in the framework of the CAP. The purpose of the payments was to encourage farmers to protect and improve the environment. The farmers were required to apply environmentally friendly techniques and practices for a period of fi ve years. Received payments had additional reimbursement of extra costs and decreased income resulting from the application of environment-friendly practices. Agrienvironmental scheme was realized through packages and variants, whose number diff ered in time. In 2004–2006, agrienvironmental scheme included approximately 70 thousand of agricultural holdings, which labored on the surface of the 1.4 million ha. In the next programming period (2007–2013 the benefi ciaries submitted 448,6 thousand applications, and the level of payment amounted to PLN 6.7 billion. The program of the current fi nancial perspective (2014–2020 includes 2058,9 thousand ha of agricultural land, as compared to the total area of agricultural land in the country in the amount of 14609 ha of agricultural land represents 14.1%

  18. A decentralized control scheme for an effective coordination of phasic and tonic control in a snake-like robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takahide; Kano, Takeshi; Ishiguro, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous decentralized control has attracted considerable attention because it enables us to understand the adaptive and versatile locomotion of animals and facilitates the construction of truly intelligent artificial agents. Thus far, we have developed a snake-like robot (HAUBOT I) that is driven by a decentralized control scheme based on a discrepancy function, which incorporates phasic control. In this paper, we investigate a decentralized control scheme in which phasic and tonic control are well coordinated, as an extension of our previous study. To verify the validity of the proposed control scheme, we apply it to a snake-like robot (HAUBOT II) that can adjust both the phase relationship between its body segments and the stiffness at each joint. The results indicate that the proposed control scheme enables the robot to exhibit remarkable real-time adaptability over various frictional and inclined terrains. These findings can potentially enable us to gain a deeper insight into the autonomous decentralized control mechanism underlying the adaptive and resilient locomotion of animals.

  19. A novel 2.5D finite difference scheme for simulations of resistivity logging in anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shubin; Chen, Fangzhou; Li, Dawei; Chen, Ji; Chen, Jiefu

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a method to model 3D resistivity well logging problems in 2D formation with anisotropy, known as 2.5D modeling. The traditional 1D forward modeling extensively used in practice lacks the capability of modeling 2D formation. A 2.5D finite difference method (FDM) solving all the electric and magnetic field components simultaneously is proposed. Compared to other previous 2.5D FDM schemes, this method is more straightforward in modeling fully anisotropic media and easy to be implemented. Fourier transform is essential to this FDM scheme, and by employing Gauss-Legendre (GL) quadrature rule the computational time of this step can be greatly reduced. In the numerical examples, we first demonstrate the validity of the FDM scheme with GL rule by comparing with 1D forward modeling for layered anisotropic problems, and then we model a complicated 2D formation case and find that the proposed 2.5D FD scheme is much more efficient than 3D numerical methods.

  20. The Design of Arbitrage-Free Data Pricing Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Deep, Shaleen; Koutris, Paraschos

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a growing market that involves buying and selling data over the web, we study pricing schemes that assign value to queries issued over a database. Previous work studied pricing mechanisms that compute the price of a query by extending a data seller’s explicit prices on certain queries, or investigated the properties that a pricing function should exhibit without detailing a generic construction. In this work, we present a formal framework for pricing queries over data that allows...

  1. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  2. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  3. Executive Function in Previously Institutionalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Emily C; Harlé, Katia M; Noble, Kimberly G; McCall, Robert B

    2016-06-01

    In studies of children adopted from institutions, being raised in an institution has been associated consistently with an increased risk of persistent cognitive, academic, and social-emotional problems. These findings raise questions about the neurocognitive mechanisms that contribute to these negative outcomes. Theory and models based on studies of animals indicate that development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and executive function (EF) may be particularly susceptible to environmental influences during early childhood. In this article, we review recent studies of postinstitutionalized children that examined EF components such as inhibitory control, working memory, shifting, and planning. We then describe emerging research on the structure and function of the PFC. Converging evidence suggests both EF difficulties and alterations in development of the PFC following early institutionalization. We conclude by discussing possible explanations for these findings and implications for prevention and intervention, and by offering suggestions for ongoing research.

  4. Generic Schemes for Single-Molecule Kinetics. 3: Self-Consistent Pathway Solutions for Nonrenewal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piephoff, D Evan; Cao, Jianshu

    2018-04-23

    We recently developed a pathway analysis framework (paper 1) for describing single-molecule kinetics for renewal (i.e., memoryless) processes based on the decomposition of a kinetic scheme into generic structures. In our approach, waiting time distribution functions corresponding to such structures are expressed in terms of self-consistent pathway solutions and concatenated to form measurable probability distribution functions (PDFs), affording a simple way to decompose and recombine a network. Here, we extend this framework to nonrenewal processes, which involve correlations between events, and employ it to formulate waiting time PDFs, including the first-passage time PDF, for a general kinetic network model. Our technique does not require the assumption of Poissonian kinetics, permitting a more general kinetic description than the usual rate approach, with minimal topological restrictiveness. To demonstrate the usefulness of this technique, we provide explicit calculations for our general model, which we adapt to two generic schemes for single-enzyme turnover with conformational interconversion. For each generic scheme, wherein the intermediate state(s) need not undergo Poissonian decay, the functional dependence of the mean first-passage time on the concentration of an external substrate is analyzed. When conformational detailed balance is satisfied, the enzyme turnover rate (related to the mean first-passage time) reduces to the celebrated Michaelis-Menten functional form, consistent with our previous work involving a similar scheme with all rate processes, thereby establishing further generality to this intriguing result. Our framework affords a general and intuitive approach for evaluating measurable waiting time PDFs and their moments, making it a potentially useful kinetic tool for a wide variety of single-molecule processes.

  5. Third Order Reconstruction of the KP Scheme for Model of River Tinnelva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susantha Dissanayake

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saint-Venant equation/Shallow Water Equation is used to simulate flow of river, flow of liquid in an open channel, tsunami etc. The Kurganov-Petrova (KP scheme which was developed based on the local speed of discontinuity propagation, can be used to solve hyperbolic type partial differential equations (PDEs, hence can be used to solve the Saint-Venant equation. The KP scheme is semi discrete: PDEs are discretized in the spatial domain, resulting in a set of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs. In this study, the common 2nd order KP scheme is extended into 3rd order scheme while following the Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO and Central WENO (CWENO reconstruction steps. Both the 2nd order and 3rd order schemes have been used in simulation in order to check the suitability of the KP schemes to solve hyperbolic type PDEs. The simulation results indicated that the 3rd order KP scheme shows some better stability compared to the 2nd order scheme. Computational time for the 3rd order KP scheme for variable step-length ode solvers in MATLAB is less compared to the computational time of the 2nd order KP scheme. In addition, it was confirmed that the order of the time integrators essentially should be lower compared to the order of the spatial discretization. However, for computation of abrupt step changes, the 2nd order KP scheme shows a more accurate solution.

  6. An extended Finite Variable Difference Method with application to QUICK scheme. Optimized QUICK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Katsuhiro

    1996-01-01

    A Finite Variable Difference Method (FVDM) proposed previously by the author for locally exact numerical schemes is extended so as to be applicable to polynomial expansion schemes. This extended FVDM is applied to the QUICK scheme. The optimum differencing points are analytically derived in terms of mesh Reynolds numbers so that the variance of the numerical solution is minimized under the condition that roots of the resulting characteristic equation are nonnegative to insure the numerical stability. This optimized scheme coincides with the original QUICK scheme at Rm=8/3, which is the critical value of its stability, and complements a stable scheme for Rm greater than 8/3. This optimization improves the numerical solution for the steady and unsteady convection-diffusion equations without numerical oscillations. In the same manner as the previous result for the locally exact numerical schemes, it has been made clear based on the extended FVDM that optimum differencing points from the view point of numerical stability and accuracy exist for the polynomial expansion schemes. (author)

  7. An efficient training scheme for supermodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schevenhoven, Francine J.; Selten, Frank M.

    2017-06-01

    Weather and climate models have improved steadily over time as witnessed by objective skill scores, although significant model errors remain. Given these imperfect models, predictions might be improved by combining them dynamically into a so-called supermodel. In this paper a new training scheme to construct such a supermodel is explored using a technique called cross pollination in time (CPT). In the CPT approach the models exchange states during the prediction. The number of possible predictions grows quickly with time, and a strategy to retain only a small number of predictions, called pruning, needs to be developed. The method is explored using low-order dynamical systems and applied to a global atmospheric model. The results indicate that the CPT training is efficient and leads to a supermodel with improved forecast quality as compared to the individual models. Due to its computational efficiency, the technique is suited for application to state-of-the art high-dimensional weather and climate models.

  8. Auction dynamics: A volume constrained MBO scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Matt; Merkurjev, Ekaterina; Esedoǧlu, Selim

    2018-02-01

    We show how auction algorithms, originally developed for the assignment problem, can be utilized in Merriman, Bence, and Osher's threshold dynamics scheme to simulate multi-phase motion by mean curvature in the presence of equality and inequality volume constraints on the individual phases. The resulting algorithms are highly efficient and robust, and can be used in simulations ranging from minimal partition problems in Euclidean space to semi-supervised machine learning via clustering on graphs. In the case of the latter application, numerous experimental results on benchmark machine learning datasets show that our approach exceeds the performance of current state-of-the-art methods, while requiring a fraction of the computation time.

  9. On Optimal Designs of Some Censoring Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Adnan Mohammad Awad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper  is to explore suitability of some entropy-information measures for introducing a new optimality censoring criterion and to apply it to some censoring schemes from some underlying life-time models.  In addition, the  paper investigates four related issues namely; the  effect of the parameter of parent distribution on optimal scheme, equivalence of schemes based on Shannon and Awad sup-entropy measures, the conjecture that the optimal scheme is one stage scheme, and  a conjecture by Cramer and Bagh (2011 about Shannon minimum and maximum schemes when parent distribution is reflected power. Guidelines for designing an optimal censoring plane are reported together with theoretical and numerical results and illustrations.

  10. A Multihop Key Agreement Scheme for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Based on Channel Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nenghai

    2013-01-01

    A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks. PMID:23766725

  11. Block-classified bidirectional motion compensation scheme for wavelet-decomposed digital video

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.; Zhang, Y.Q. [David Sarnoff Research Center, Princeton, NJ (United States); Jabbari, B. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this paper the authors introduce a block-classified bidirectional motion compensation scheme for the previously developed wavelet-based video codec, where multiresolution motion estimation is performed in the wavelet domain. The frame classification structure described in this paper is similar to that used in the MPEG standard. Specifically, the I-frames are intraframe coded, the P-frames are interpolated from a previous I- or a P-frame, and the B-frames are bidirectional interpolated frames. They apply this frame classification structure to the wavelet domain with variable block sizes and multiresolution representation. They use a symmetric bidirectional scheme for the B-frames and classify the motion blocks as intraframe, compensated either from the preceding or the following frame, or bidirectional (i.e., compensated based on which type yields the minimum energy). They also introduce the concept of F-frames, which are analogous to P-frames but are predicted from the following frame only. This improves the overall quality of the reconstruction in a group of pictures (GOP) but at the expense of extra buffering. They also study the effect of quantization of the I-frames on the reconstruction of a GOP, and they provide intuitive explanation for the results. In addition, the authors study a variety of wavelet filter-banks to be used in a multiresolution motion-compensated hierarchical video codec.

  12. Local recurrence risk after previous salvage mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, M; Iwase, T; Okumura, Y; Yoshida, A; Masuda, N; Nakatsukasa, K; Shien, T; Tanaka, S; Komoike, Y; Taguchi, T; Arima, N; Nishimura, R; Inaji, H; Ishitobi, M

    2016-07-01

    Breast-conserving surgery is a standard treatment for early breast cancer. For ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving surgery, salvage mastectomy is the current standard surgical procedure. However, it is not rare for patients with IBTR who have received salvage mastectomy to develop local recurrence. In this study, we examined the risk factors of local recurrence after salvage mastectomy for IBTR. A total of 118 consecutive patients who had histologically confirmed IBTR without distant metastases and underwent salvage mastectomy without irradiation for IBTR between 1989 and 2008 were included from eight institutions in Japan. The risk factors of local recurrence were assessed. The median follow-up period from salvage mastectomy for IBTR was 4.6 years. Patients with pN2 or higher on diagnosis of the primary tumor showed significantly poorer local recurrence-free survival than those with pN0 or pN1 at primary tumor (p mastectomy for IBTR. Further research and validation studies are needed. (UMIN-CTR number UMIN000008136). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Data mining for detecting Bitcoin Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoletti, Massimo; Pes, Barbara; Serusi, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Soon after its introduction in 2009, Bitcoin has been adopted by cyber-criminals, which rely on its pseudonymity to implement virtually untraceable scams. One of the typical scams that operate on Bitcoin are the so-called Ponzi schemes. These are fraudulent investments which repay users with the funds invested by new users that join the scheme, and implode when it is no longer possible to find new investments. Despite being illegal in many countries, Ponzi schemes are now proliferating on Bit...

  14. Indiscriminate behaviors in previously institutionalized young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S; Smyke, Anna T; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2014-03-01

    This study included 54-month-old children with a history of institutional care. Our goal was to: (1) examine differences in indiscriminate social behaviors in children with a history of institutional care compared with home-reared children; (2) test whether foster care reduces indiscriminate social behaviors in a randomized controlled trial; and (3) examine early predictors of indiscriminate behaviors. Participants were 58 children with a history of institutional care and 31 never-institutionalized control (NIG) subjects enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutional care, assessed from toddlerhood to 54 months. Indiscriminate social behaviors were measured naturalistically by using the Stranger at the Door procedure. In the Stranger at the Door procedure, children with a history of institutional care left with a stranger at higher rates than NIG subjects (33% vs. 3.5%; P Children in the care as usual group left more than NIG subjects (41.9% vs. 3.6%; P ≤ .001). The differences between the foster care group (24.1%) and the care as usual group and between foster care group and NIG were not significant. In a logistic regression, early disorganized attachment behaviors, baseline developmental quotient, and caregiving quality after randomization contributed to variance at 54 months. In the same analysis using only children with a history of institutional care, only disorganized attachment contributed significantly to 54-month indiscriminate social behaviors (Exp[B] = 1.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.1-2.5]). Observed socially indiscriminate behaviors at 54 months were associated with prolonged exposure to institutional care. Young children raised in conditions of deprivation who fail to develop organized attachments as toddlers are at increased risk for subsequent indiscriminate behaviors.

  15. A Lightweight Data Integrity Scheme for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam Juma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited energy is the most critical constraint that limits the capabilities of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Most sensors operate on batteries with limited power. Battery recharging or replacement may be impossible. Security mechanisms that are based on public key cryptographic algorithms such as RSA and digital signatures are prohibitively expensive in terms of energy consumption and storage requirements, and thus unsuitable for WSN applications. This paper proposes a new fragile watermarking technique to detect unauthorized alterations in WSN data streams. We propose the FWC-D scheme, which uses group delimiters to keep the sender and receivers synchronized and help them to avoid ambiguity in the event of data insertion or deletion. The watermark, which is computed using a hash function, is stored in the previous group in a linked-list fashion to ensure data freshness and mitigate replay attacks, FWC-D generates a serial number SN that is attached to each group to help the receiver determines how many group insertions or deletions occurred. Detailed security analysis that compares the proposed FWC-D scheme with SGW, one of the latest integrity schemes for WSNs, shows that FWC-D is more robust than SGW. Simulation results further show that the proposed scheme is much faster than SGW.

  16. A lightweight data integrity scheme for sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Ibrahim; Juma, Hussam

    2011-01-01

    Limited energy is the most critical constraint that limits the capabilities of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Most sensors operate on batteries with limited power. Battery recharging or replacement may be impossible. Security mechanisms that are based on public key cryptographic algorithms such as RSA and digital signatures are prohibitively expensive in terms of energy consumption and storage requirements, and thus unsuitable for WSN applications. This paper proposes a new fragile watermarking technique to detect unauthorized alterations in WSN data streams. We propose the FWC-D scheme, which uses group delimiters to keep the sender and receivers synchronized and help them to avoid ambiguity in the event of data insertion or deletion. The watermark, which is computed using a hash function, is stored in the previous group in a linked-list fashion to ensure data freshness and mitigate replay attacks, FWC-D generates a serial number SN that is attached to each group to help the receiver determines how many group insertions or deletions occurred. Detailed security analysis that compares the proposed FWC-D scheme with SGW, one of the latest integrity schemes for WSNs, shows that FWC-D is more robust than SGW. Simulation results further show that the proposed scheme is much faster than SGW.

  17. A Secure Trust Establishment Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farruh Ishmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trust establishment is an important tool to improve cooperation and enhance security in wireless sensor networks. The core of trust establishment is trust estimation. If a trust estimation method is not robust against attack and misbehavior, the trust values produced will be meaningless, and system performance will be degraded. We present a novel trust estimation method that is robust against on-off attacks and persistent malicious behavior. Moreover, in order to aggregate recommendations securely, we propose using a modified one-step M-estimator scheme. The novelty of the proposed scheme arises from combining past misbehavior with current status in a comprehensive way. Specifically, we introduce an aggregated misbehavior component in trust estimation, which assists in detecting an on-off attack and persistent malicious behavior. In order to determine the current status of the node, we employ previous trust values and current measured misbehavior components. These components are combined to obtain a robust trust value. Theoretical analyses and evaluation results show that our scheme performs better than other trust schemes in terms of detecting an on-off attack and persistent misbehavior.

  18. Comparing Security Notions of Secret Sharing Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songsong Dai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Different security notions of secret sharing schemes have been proposed by different information measures. Entropies, such as Shannon entropy and min entropy, are frequently used in the setting security notions for secret sharing schemes. Different to the entropies, Kolmogorov complexity was also defined and used in study the security of individual instances for secret sharing schemes. This paper is concerned with these security notions for secret sharing schemes defined by the variational measures, including Shannon entropy, guessing probability, min entropy and Kolmogorov complexity.

  19. Quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook

    2015-01-01

    When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)

  20. A Spatial Domain Quantum Watermarking Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zhan-Hong; Chen Xiu-Bo; Niu Xin-Xin; Yang Yi-Xian; Xu Shu-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial domain quantum watermarking scheme. For a quantum watermarking scheme, a feasible quantum circuit is a key to achieve it. This paper gives a feasible quantum circuit for the presented scheme. In order to give the quantum circuit, a new quantum multi-control rotation gate, which can be achieved with quantum basic gates, is designed. With this quantum circuit, our scheme can arbitrarily control the embedding position of watermark images on carrier images with the aid of auxiliary qubits. Besides reversely acting the given quantum circuit, the paper gives another watermark extracting algorithm based on quantum measurements. Moreover, this paper also gives a new quantum image scrambling method and its quantum circuit. Differ from other quantum watermarking schemes, all given quantum circuits can be implemented with basic quantum gates. Moreover, the scheme is a spatial domain watermarking scheme, and is not based on any transform algorithm on quantum images. Meanwhile, it can make sure the watermark be secure even though the watermark has been found. With the given quantum circuit, this paper implements simulation experiments for the presented scheme. The experimental result shows that the scheme does well in the visual quality and the embedding capacity. (paper)

  1. Improved Load Shedding Scheme considering Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Nitsas, Antonios; Altin, Müfit

    2017-01-01

    . These schemes utilize directional relays, power flow through feeders, wind and PV measurements to optimally select the feeders to be disconnected during load shedding such that DG disconnection is minimized while disconnecting required amount of consumption. These different UFLS schemes are compared in terms......With high penetration of distributed generation (DG), the conventional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) face many challenges and may not perform as expected. This article proposes new UFLS schemes, which are designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional load shedding scheme...... of frequency response, amount of consumption and DG disconnected during load shedding....

  2. AppBuilder for DSSTools; an application development environment for developing decision support systems in Prolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneho Kim; Donald Nute; H. Michael Rauscher; David L. Loftis

    2000-01-01

    A programming environment for developing complex decision support systems (DSSs) should support rapid prototyping and modular design, feature a flexible knowledge representation scheme and sound inference mechanisms, provide project management, and be domain independent. We have previously developed DSSTools (Decision Support System Tools), a reusable, domain-...

  3. Integrated optical 3D digital imaging based on DSP scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Peng, Xiang; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2008-03-01

    We present a scheme of integrated optical 3-D digital imaging (IO3DI) based on digital signal processor (DSP), which can acquire range images independently without PC support. This scheme is based on a parallel hardware structure with aid of DSP and field programmable gate array (FPGA) to realize 3-D imaging. In this integrated scheme of 3-D imaging, the phase measurement profilometry is adopted. To realize the pipeline processing of the fringe projection, image acquisition and fringe pattern analysis, we present a multi-threads application program that is developed under the environment of DSP/BIOS RTOS (real-time operating system). Since RTOS provides a preemptive kernel and powerful configuration tool, with which we are able to achieve a real-time scheduling and synchronization. To accelerate automatic fringe analysis and phase unwrapping, we make use of the technique of software optimization. The proposed scheme can reach a performance of 39.5 f/s (frames per second), so it may well fit into real-time fringe-pattern analysis and can implement fast 3-D imaging. Experiment results are also presented to show the validity of proposed scheme.

  4. Frequency Stabilizing Scheme for a Danish Island Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of frequency stabilizing control scheme for a small Danish island of Bornholm. The Bornholm power system is able to transit from interconnected operation with the Nordic power system to isolated islanding operation. During islanding operation the shedding...... with a battery energy storage system (BESS) has been proposed. The real-time models of distribution grids of Bornholm power system were used to carry out case studies to illustrate the performance of centralized load frequency control as well as coordinated control scheme. Case study results show...

  5. International proposal for an acoustic classification scheme for dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    classes, implying also trade barriers. Thus, a harmonized classification scheme would be useful, and the European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", running 2009-2013 with members from 32 countries, including three overseas...... countries, had as one of the main objectives preparation of a proposal for a harmonized acoustic classification scheme. The proposal developed has been approved as an ISO/TC43/SC2 work item, and a working group established. This paper describes the proposal, the background and the perspectives....

  6. A secure quantum group signature scheme based on Bell states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kejia; Song, Tingting; Zuo, Huijuan; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new secure quantum group signature with Bell states, which may have applications in e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. Compared with the recent quantum group signature protocols, our scheme is focused on the most general situation in practice, i.e. only the arbitrator is trusted and no intermediate information needs to be stored in the signing phase to ensure the security. Furthermore, our scheme has achieved all the characteristics of group signature—anonymity, verifiability, traceability, unforgetability and undeniability, by using some current developed quantum and classical technologies. Finally, a feasible security analysis model for quantum group signature is presented.

  7. A Simple Scheme for Book Classification Using Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andromeda Yelton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the rate at which documents are being generated outstrips librarians’ ability to catalog them, an accurate, automated scheme of subject classification is desirable. However, simplistic word-counting schemes miss many important concepts; librarians must enrich algorithms with background knowledge to escape basic problems such as polysemy and synonymy. I have developed a script that uses Wikipedia as context for analyzing the subjects of nonfiction books. Though a simple method built quickly from freely available parts, it is partially successful, suggesting the promise of such an approach for future research.

  8. Secret data embedding scheme modifying the frequency of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Image histogram; information security; data hiding; watermarking. Abstract. The main purpose of this presented work is to develop a data embedding method based on a new digital image histogram modification approach. The proposed scheme fundamentally is concerned about the frequency of occurrence of ...

  9. Breakdown of NpNn scheme in very heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, A.K.; Singh, M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gupta, K.K.; Gupta, D.K.

    2016-01-01

    The proton neutron interaction has been considered the key ingredient in the development of configuration mixing, collectivity and ultimately deformation in atomic nuclei for over five decades. Phenomenologically, the correlation of the integrated valance p - n interaction with the onset of collectivity and deformation has been described in terms of NpNn scheme

  10. Secret data embedding scheme modifying the frequency of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The main purpose of this presented work is to develop a data embedding method based on a new digital image histogram modification approach. The proposed scheme fundamentally is concerned about the frequency of occurrence of the image brightness values of the cover image for the data embedding ...

  11. Secret data embedding scheme modifying the frequency of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main purpose of this presented work is to develop a data embedding method based on a new digital image histogram modification approach. The proposed scheme fundamentally is concerned about the frequency of occurrence of the image brightness values of the cover image for the data embedding procedures.

  12. Establishment of water quality classification scheme: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A water quality classification scheme based on 11 routinely measured physicochemical variables has been developed for the Calabar River Estuary. The variables considered include water temperature, pH. Eh, DO, DO saturation, BOD5, COD, TSS, turbidity, NH4-N and electrical conductivity. Classification of water source ...

  13. Analysis of Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined Student's Industrial Work Experience Scheme carried out in NIFFR visa-a-vise the challenge of skilled manpower development for fishery extension. Secondary data collected from NIFFR library and report of 2007 SIWES period was analysed descriptively. Out of 617 students from 36 schools that visited ...

  14. Counting schemes of Ghanaian primary school children | Wilmot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counting schemes of Ghanaian primary school children. ... Mathematics Connection ... Abstract. The study was premised on the fact that instruction tailored to the level of cognitive development of the students is more effective than using one instructional strategy and hoping that all children in the class would understand.

  15. Adaptive protection coordination scheme for distribution network with distributed generation using ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive protection coordination scheme for optimal coordination of DOCRs in interconnected power networks with the impact of DG, the used coordination technique is the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC. The scheme adapts to system changes; new relays settings are obtained as generation-level or system-topology changes. The developed adaptive scheme is applied on the IEEE 30-bus test system for both single- and multi-DG existence where results are shown and discussed.

  16. Finite element, discontinuous Galerkin, and finite difference evolution schemes in spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumbusch, G

    2009-01-01

    Numerical schemes for Einstein's vacuum equation are developed. Einstein's equation in harmonic gauge is second-order symmetric hyperbolic. It is discretized in four-dimensional spacetime by finite differences, finite elements and interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin methods, the latter being related to Regge calculus. The schemes are split into space and time and new time-stepping schemes for wave equations are derived. The methods are evaluated for linear and nonlinear test problems of the Apples-with-Apples collection.

  17. A Difference Scheme with Autocontrol Artificial Viscosity to Predict Ablated Nosetip Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-29

    I FTD-ID(RS)T-0640-89 U) (0 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION A DIFFERENCE SCHEME WITH AUTOCONTROL ARTIFICIAL VISCOSITY TO PREDICT ABLATED NOSETIP SHAPE by...September 1989 MICROFICHE NR: FTD-89-C-000800 A DIFFERENCE SCHEME WITH AUTOCONTROL ARTIFICIAL VISCOSITY TO PREDICT ABLATED NOSETIP SHAPE By: Yang Maozhao...DIFFERENCE SCHEME WITH AUTOCONTROL ARTIFICIAL VISCOSITY TO PREDICT ABLATED NOSETIP SHAPE Yang Maozhao (China Aerodynamic Research and Development Centre

  18. Mono-implicit Runge Kutta schemes for singularly perturbed delay differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihan, Fathalla A.; Al-Salti, Nasser S.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we adapt Mono-Implicit Runge-Kutta schemes for numerical approximations of singularly perturbed delay differential equations. The schemes are developed to reduce the computational cost of the fully implicit method which combine the accuracy of implicit method and efficient implementation. Numerical stability properties of the schemes are investigated. Numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness of the method for both stiff and non-stiff initial value problems.

  19. TLC scheme for numerical solution of the transport equation on equilateral triangular meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    A new triangular linear characteristic TLC scheme for numerically solving the transport equation on equilateral triangular meshes has been developed. This scheme uses the analytic solution of the transport equation in the triangle as its basis. The data on edges of the triangle are assumed linear as is the source representation. A characteristic approach or nodal approach is used to obtain the analytic solution. Test problems indicate that the new TLC is superior to the widely used DITRI scheme for accuracy

  20. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  1. A novel robust speed controller scheme for PMBLDC motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirusakthimurugan, P; Dananjayan, P

    2007-10-01

    The design of speed and position controllers for permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDC) drive remains as an open problem in the field of motor drives. A precise speed control of PMBLDC motor is complex due to nonlinear coupling between winding currents and rotor speed. In addition, the nonlinearity present in the developed torque due to magnetic saturation of the rotor further complicates this issue. This paper presents a novel control scheme to the conventional PMBLDC motor drive, which aims at improving the robustness by complete decoupling of the design besides minimizing the mutual influence among the speed and current control loops. The interesting feature of this robust control scheme is its suitability for both static and dynamic aspects. The effectiveness of the proposed robust speed control scheme is verified through simulations.

  2. Efficient Video Streaming Scheme for Next Generations of Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdi Ashibani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Video streaming over next generations of mobile networks has undergone enormous development recently due to the continuing growth in wireless communication, especially since the emergence of 3G wireless networks. The new generations of wireless networks pose many challenges, including supporting quality of service over wireless communication links. This is due to the time-varying characteristics of wireless channel. Therefore, a more flexible and efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is needed. This paper is a part of ongoing work to come up with a more robust scheme that is capable of rapidly adapting to changes in network conditions. The proposed scheme focuses on the wireless part of the network, providing high quality video service and better utilization of network resources.

  3. Cognitive Aware Interference Mitigation Scheme for LTE Femtocells

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2015-04-21

    Femto-cells deployment in today’s cellular networks came into practice to fulfill the increasing demand for data services. However, interference to other femto and macro-cells users remains an unresolved challenge. In this paper, we propose an interference mitigation scheme to control the cross-tier interference caused by femto-cells to the macro users and the co-tier interference among femtocells. Cognitive radio spectrum sensing capability is utilized to determine the non-occupied channels or the ones that cause minimal interference to the macro users. An awareness based channel allocation scheme is developed with the assistance of the graph-coloring algorithm to assign channels to the femto-cells base stations with power optimization, minimal interference, maximum throughput, and maximum spectrum efficiency. In addition, the scheme exploits negotiation capability to match traffic load and QoS with the channel capacity, and to maintain efficient utilization of the available channels.

  4. A Cell-Centered Multiphase ALE Scheme With Structural Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Timothy Alan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-04-16

    A novel computational scheme has been developed for simulating compressible multiphase flows interacting with solid structures. The multiphase fluid is computed using a Godunov-type finite-volume method. This has been extended to allow computations on moving meshes using a direct arbitrary-Eulerian- Lagrangian (ALE) scheme. The method has been implemented within a Lagrangian hydrocode, which allows modeling the interaction with Lagrangian structural regions. Although the above scheme is general enough for use on many applications, the ultimate goal of the research is the simulation of heterogeneous energetic material, such as explosives or propellants. The method is powerful enough for application to all stages of the problem, including the initial burning of the material, the propagation of blast waves, and interaction with surrounding structures. The method has been tested on a number of canonical multiphase tests as well as fluid-structure interaction problems.

  5. A General Symbolic PDE Solver Generator: Beyond Explicit Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sheshadri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extension of our Mathematica- and MathCode-based symbolic-numeric framework for solving a variety of partial differential equation (PDE problems. The main features of our earlier work, which implemented explicit finite-difference schemes, include the ability to handle (1 arbitrary number of dependent variables, (2 arbitrary dimensionality, and (3 arbitrary geometry, as well as (4 developing finite-difference schemes to any desired order of approximation. In the present paper, extensions of this framework to implicit schemes and the method of lines are discussed. While C++ code is generated, using the MathCode system for the implicit method, Modelica code is generated for the method of lines. The latter provides a preliminary PDE support for the Modelica language. Examples illustrating the various aspects of the solver generator are presented.

  6. Adaptive PCA based fault diagnosis scheme in imperial smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhikun; Chen, Zhiwen; Gui, Weihua; Jiang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive fault detection scheme based on a recursive principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to deal with the problem of false alarm due to normal process changes in real process. Our further study is also dedicated to develop a fault isolation approach based on Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLR) test and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) which is one of general techniques of PCA, on which the off-set and scaling fault can be easily isolated with explicit off-set fault direction and scaling fault classification. The identification of off-set and scaling fault is also applied. The complete scheme of PCA-based fault diagnosis procedure is proposed. The proposed scheme is first applied to Imperial Smelting Process, and the results show that the proposed strategies can be able to mitigate false alarms and isolate faults efficiently. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An efficient compression scheme for bitmap indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow J.; Shoshani, Arie

    2004-04-13

    When using an out-of-core indexing method to answer a query, it is generally assumed that the I/O cost dominates the overall query response time. Because of this, most research on indexing methods concentrate on reducing the sizes of indices. For bitmap indices, compression has been used for this purpose. However, in most cases, operations on these compressed bitmaps, mostly bitwise logical operations such as AND, OR, and NOT, spend more time in CPU than in I/O. To speedup these operations, a number of specialized bitmap compression schemes have been developed; the best known of which is the byte-aligned bitmap code (BBC). They are usually faster in performing logical operations than the general purpose compression schemes, but, the time spent in CPU still dominates the total query response time. To reduce the query response time, we designed a CPU-friendly scheme named the word-aligned hybrid (WAH) code. In this paper, we prove that the sizes of WAH compressed bitmap indices are about two words per row for large range of attributes. This size is smaller than typical sizes of commonly used indices, such as a B-tree. Therefore, WAH compressed indices are not only appropriate for low cardinality attributes but also for high cardinality attributes.In the worst case, the time to operate on compressed bitmaps is proportional to the total size of the bitmaps involved. The total size of the bitmaps required to answer a query on one attribute is proportional to the number of hits. These indicate that WAH compressed bitmap indices are optimal. To verify their effectiveness, we generated bitmap indices for four different datasets and measured the response time of many range queries. Tests confirm that sizes of compressed bitmap indices are indeed smaller than B-tree indices, and query processing with WAH compressed indices is much faster than with BBC compressed indices, projection indices and B-tree indices. In addition, we also verified that the average query response time

  8. A secure and efficient password-based user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Chang, I-Pin; Lin, Tsung-Hung; Wang, Ching-Cheng

    2013-06-01

    The integrated EPR information system supports convenient and rapid e-medicine services. A secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system provides safeguarding patients' electronic patient records (EPRs) and helps health care workers and medical personnel to rapidly making correct clinical decisions. Recently, Wu et al. proposed an efficient password-based user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system, and claimed that the proposed scheme could resist various malicious attacks. However, their scheme is still vulnerable to lost smart card and stolen verifier attacks. This investigation discusses these weaknesses and proposes a secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system as alternative. Compared with related approaches, the proposed scheme not only retains a lower computational cost and does not require verifier tables for storing users' secrets, but also solves the security problems in previous schemes and withstands possible attacks.

  9. Three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Hamed; Nikooghadam, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, with comprehensive employment of the internet, healthcare delivery services is provided remotely by telecare medicine information systems (TMISs). A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is one of the most important security requirements for TMISs. Recently, Tan proposed a user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. The present paper shows that Tan's scheme is vulnerable to replay attacks and Denial-of-Service attacks. In order to overcome these security flaws, a new and efficient three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS is proposed. Security and performance analysis shows superiority of the proposed scheme in comparison with previously proposed schemes that are related to security of TMISs.

  10. Security Analysis and Improvement of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsook Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.’s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1 it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2 it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3 it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.’s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme.

  11. Variable flavor scheme for final state jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrulewicz, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis I describe a setup to treat mass effects from secondary radiation of heavy quark pairs in inclusive hard scattering processes with various dynamical scales. The resulting variable flavor number scheme (VFNS) generalizes a well-known scheme for massive initial state quarks which has been developed for deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in the classical region 1 - x ⁓ O(1) and which will be also discussed here. The setup incorporated in the formalism of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) consistently takes into account the effects of massive quark loops and allows to deal with all hierarchies between the mass scale and the involved kinematic scales corresponding to collinear and soft radiation. It resums all large logarithms due to flavor number dependent evolution, achieves both decoupling for very large masses and the correct massless behavior for very small masses, and provides a continuous description in between. In the bulk of this work I will concentrate on DIS in the endpoint region x → 1 serving mainly as a showcase for the concepts and on the thrust distribution for e + e - -collisions in the dijet limit as a phenomenologically relevant example for an event shape. The computations of the corrections to the structures in the factorization theorems are described explicitly for the singular terms at O(α s 2 C F T F ) arising from secondary radiation of massive quarks through gluon splitting. Apart from the soft function for thrust, which requires a dedicated calculation, these results are directly obtained from the corresponding results for the radiation of a massive gauge boson with vector coupling at O(α s ) with the help of dispersion relations, and most of the relevant conceptual and technical issues can be dealt with already at this level. Finally, to estimate the impact of the corrections I carry out a numerical analysis for secondary massive bottom and top quarks on thrust distributions at different center-of-mass energies

  12. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Youngsook; Moon, Jongho; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An's scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user's ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An's scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge's scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge's scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost.

  13. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsung Choi

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An's scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user's ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An's scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge's scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge's scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost.

  14. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D

    1989-05-01

    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  15. Support schemes and ownership structures - The policy context for fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropenus, S.; Thorsten Schroeder, S.; Costa, A.; Obe, E.

    2010-05-15

    In recent years, fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects of the ongoing fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) demonstration projects by addressing the socio-economic and systems analyses perspectives of a large-scale promotion scheme of fuel cells. This document constitutes the deliverable of Work Package 1 of the FC4Home project and provides an introduction to the policy context for mCHP. Section 1 describes the rationale for the promotion of mCHP by explaining its potential contribution to European energy policy goals. Section 2 addresses the policy context at the supranational European level by outlining relevant EU Directives on support schemes for promoting combined heat and power and energy from renewable sources. These Directives are to be implemented at the national level by the Member States. Section 3 conceptually presents the spectrum of national support schemes, ranging from investment support to market-based operational support. The choice of support scheme simultaneously affects risk and technological development, which is the focus of Section 4. Subsequent to this conceptual overview, Section 5 takes a glance at the national application of support schemes for mCHP in practice, notably in the three country cases of the FC4Home project, Denmark, France and Portugal. Another crucial aspect for the diffusion of the mCHP technology is possible ownership structures. These may range from full consumer ownership to ownership by utilities and energy service companies, which is discussed in Section 6. Finally, a conclusion (Section 7) wraps up previous findings and provides a short 'preview' of the quantitative analyses in subsequent Work Packages by giving some food for thought on the way. (author)

  16. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  17. Mobile Machine for E-payment Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Sattar J Aboud

    2010-01-01

    In this article e-payment scheme by mobile machine is considered. The requirements for a mobile machine in e-payment are presented, particularly when merchant employing accounts for payments and when using advertising. In the proposed scheme we will use the public key infrastructure and certificate for authenticate purchaser and merchant and to secure the communication between them.

  18. Sampling scheme optimization from hyperspectral data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debba, P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents statistical sampling scheme optimization for geo-environ-menta] purposes on the basis of hyperspectral data. It integrates derived products of the hyperspectral remote sensing data into individual sampling schemes. Five different issues are being dealt with.First, the optimized

  19. A generalized scheme for designing multistable continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a generalized scheme is proposed for designing multistable continuous dynamical systems. The scheme is based on the concept of partial synchronization of states and the concept of constants of motion. The most important observation is that by coupling two mdimensional dynamical systems, multistable ...

  20. Hybrid scheme for Brownian semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Lunde, Asger; Pakkanen, Mikko S.

    We introduce a simulation scheme for Brownian semistationary processes, which is based on discretizing the stochastic integral representation of the process in the time domain. We assume that the kernel function of the process is regularly varying at zero. The novel feature of the scheme is to ap...