WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously developed scales

  1. Developing a News Media Literacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Seth; Maksl, Adam; Craft, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Using a framework previously applied to other areas of media literacy, this study developed and assessed a measurement scale focused specifically on critical news media literacy. Our scale appears to successfully measure news media literacy as we have conceptualized it based on previous research, demonstrated through assessments of content,…

  2. Child Development Program Evaluation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard J.

    The Child Development Program Evaluation Scale (CDPES) is actually two scales in one, a licensing scale and a quality scale. Licensing predictor items have been found to predict overall compliance of child day care centers with state regulations in four states. Quality scale items have been found to predict the overall quality of child day care…

  3. Scale issues in tourism development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinji Yang; Lori Pennington-Gray; Donald F. Holecek

    1998-01-01

    Proponents of Alternative Tourism overwhelmingly believe that alternative forms of tourism development need to be small in scale. Inasmuch as tourists' demand has great power to shape the market, the issues surrounding the tourism development scale deserve further consideration. This paper discusses the implications and effects of the tourism development scale on...

  4. Predictive factors for the development of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Kühl, C.; Bertelsen, Aksel

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of diabetes in women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify predictive factors for development of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Two to 11 years post partum, glucose tolerance was investigated in 241...... women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and 57 women without previous gestational diabetes mellitus (control group). RESULTS: Diabetes developed in 42 (17.4%) women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (3.7% insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 13.7% non...... of previous patients with gestational diabetes mellitus in whom plasma insulin was measured during an oral glucose tolerance test in late pregnancy a low insulin response at diagnosis was found to be an independent predictive factor for diabetes development. CONCLUSIONS: Women with previous dietary...

  5. COVERS Neonatal Pain Scale: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Hand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborns and infants are often exposed to painful procedures during hospitalization. Several different scales have been validated to assess pain in specific populations of pediatric patients, but no single scale can easily and accurately assess pain in all newborns and infants regardless of gestational age and disease state. A new pain scale was developed, the COVERS scale, which incorporates 6 physiological and behavioral measures for scoring. Newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit or Well Baby Nursery were evaluated for pain/discomfort during two procedures, a heel prick and a diaper change. Pain was assessed using indicators from three previously established scales (CRIES, the Premature Infant Pain Profile, and the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale, as well as the COVERS Scale, depending upon gestational age. Premature infant testing resulted in similar pain assessments using the COVERS and PIPP scales with an r=0.84. For the full-term infants, the COVERS scale and NIPS scale resulted in similar pain assessments with an r=0.95. The COVERS scale is a valid pain scale that can be used in the clinical setting to assess pain in newborns and infants and is universally applicable to all neonates, regardless of their age or physiological state.

  6. Recent developments in complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rescigno, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Some recent developments in the use of complex basis function techniques to study resonance as well as certain types of non-resonant, scattering phenomena are discussed. Complex scaling techniques and other closely related methods have continued to attract the attention of computational physicists and chemists and have now reached a point of development where meaningful calculations on many-electron atoms and molecules are beginning to appear feasible

  7. Development of emotional stability scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chaturvedi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional stability remains the central theme in personality studies. The concept of stable emotional behavior at any level is that which reflects the fruits of normal emotional development. The study aims at development of an emotional stability scale. Materials and Methods: Based on available literature the components of emotional stability were identified and 250 items were developed, covering each component. Two-stage elimination of items was carried out, i.e. through judges′ opinions and item analysis. Results: Fifty items with highest ′t′ values covering 5 dimensions of emotional stability viz pessimism vs. optimism, anxiety vs. calm, aggression vs. tolerance., dependence vs. autonomy., apathy vs. empathy were retained in the final scale. Reliability as checked by Cronbach′s alpha was .81 and by split half method it was .79. Content validity and construct validity were checked. Norms are given in the form of cumulative percentages. Conclusion: Based on the psychometric principles a 50 item, self-administered 5 point Lickert type rating scale was developed for measurement of emotional stability.

  8. Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

    OpenAIRE

    S. Schulze

    2010-01-01

    The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basi...

  9. [Development of the Japanese Indecisiveness (Yujufudan) Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shoko; Midorikawa, Akira

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has explored whether the Japanese concept of Indecisiveness is different from western cultures. The aim of the study was to develop a questionnaire scale to measure the concept of Japanese Indecisiveness (Yujufudan). In the first study, a factor analysis was carried out using data from 255 college students. Four different factors, “reflection” “procrastination” “referring to others” and “anxiety” were obtained. In the second study, a decision-making task was administered to 55 college students. The scores obtained from the factor analysis in the first study predicted performance on the decision-making task. These results demonstrated the validity and reliability for the Japanese Indecisiveness Scale to measure Japanese Indecisiveness (Yujufudan).

  10. Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schulze

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT. Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research selfefficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.

  11. Hepatic steatosis development with four weeks of physical inactivity in previously active, hyperphagic OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Melissa A; Meers, Grace M; Ruebel, Meghan L; Jenkins, Nathan T; Booth, Frank W; Laughlin, M Harold; Ibdah, Jamal A; Thyfault, John P; Rector, R Scott

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity-induced prevention of hepatic steatosis is maintained during short-term (7-day) transitions to an inactive state; however, whether these protective effects are present under a longer duration of physical inactivity is largely unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether previous physical activity had protective effects on hepatic steatosis and metabolic health following 4 wk of physical inactivity. Four-week old, hyperphagic, male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats were randomly assigned to either a sedentary group for 16 wk (OLETF-SED), given access to running wheels for 16 wk with wheels locked 5 h (OLETF-WL5hr) or given access to running wheels for 12 wk with wheels locked 4 wk (OLETF-WL4wk) prior to death. Four weeks of physical inactivity caused hepatic steatosis development, but liver triglycerides remained 60% lower than OLETF-SED (P inactivity, whereas markers of fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis remained relatively suppressed following 4 wk of inactivity. In addition, 4 wk of inactivity caused a complete loss of activity-induced increases in serum IL-6 and reductions in regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES), and a partial loss in reductions in leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-α. In conclusion, 4 wk of physical inactivity does not result in a complete loss in physical activity-induced benefits but does cause deterioration in the liver phenotype and overall metabolic health in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

  12. Abusive Supervision Scale Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wulani, Fenika; Purwanto, Bernadinus M; Handoko, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale of abusive supervision in Indonesia. The study was conducted with a different context and scale development method from Tepper’s (2000) abusive supervision scale. The abusive supervision scale from Tepper (2000) was developed in the U.S., which has a cultural orientation of low power distance. The current study was conducted in Indonesia, which has a high power distance. This study used interview procedures to obtain information about superviso...

  13. Effect of previous exhaustive exercise on metabolism and fatigue development during intense exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Perez-Gomez, J.; Nordsborg, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how metabolic response and work capacity are affected by previous exhaustive exercise. Seven subjects performed an exhaustive cycle exercise ( approximately 130%-max; EX2) after warm-up (CON) and 2 min after an exhaustive bout at a very high (VH; approximately 30 s), high...

  14. Developing evaluation scales for horticultural therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ae; Park, Sin-Ae; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2018-04-01

    This study developed evaluation scales for measuring the effects of horticultural therapy in practical settings. Qualitative and quantitative research, including three preliminary studies and a main study, were conducted. In the first study, a total of 779 horticultural therapists answered an open-end questionnaire based on 58 items about elements of occupational therapy and seven factors about singularity of horticultural therapy. In the second study, 20 horticultural therapists participated in in-depth interviews. In the third study, a Delphi method was conducted with 24 horticultural therapists to build a model of assessment indexes and ensure the validity. In the final study, the reserve scales were tested by 121 horticultural therapists in their practical settings for 1045 clients, to verify their reliability and validity. Preliminary questions in the effects area of horticultural therapy were developed in the first study, and validity for the components in the second study. In the third study, an expert Delphi survey was conducted as part of content validity verification of the preliminary tool of horticultural therapy for physical, cognitive, psychological-emotional, and social areas. In the final study, the evaluation tool, which verified the construct, convergence, discriminant, and predictive validity and reliability test, was used to finalise the evaluation tool. The effects of horticultural therapy were classified as four different aspects, namely, physical, cognitive, psycho-emotional, and social, based on previous studies on the effects of horticultural therapy. 98 questions in the four aspects were selected as reserve scales. The reliability of each scale was calculated as 0.982 in physical, 0.980 in cognitive, 0.965 in psycho-emotional, and 0.972 in social aspects based on the Cronbach's test of intra-item internal consistency and half reliability of Spearman-Brown. This study was the first to demonstrate validity and reliability by simultaneously

  15. Sustainable development, tourism and territory. Previous elements towards a systemic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre TORRENTE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, tourism is one of the major challenges for many countries and territories. The balance of payments, an ever-increasing number of visitors and the significant development of the tourism offer clearly illustrate the booming trend in this sector. This macro-economic approach is often used by the organizations in charge of tourism, WTO for instance. Quantitative assessments which consider the satisfaction of customers’ needs as an end in itself have prevailed both in tourism development schemes and in prospective approaches since the sixties.

  16. The Development of Marital Maturity Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed YILDIZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, validity, reliability and item analysis studies of the Marital Maturity Scale prepared to test whether individuals are ready for marriage have been done. Studies of the development of the scale were made on 623 individuals, consisting of single adults. In the validity studies of the scale, explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses and criterion related validity studies were performed. Factor analysis revealed that the scale had four dimensions. The four factors in the measurement account for 60.91% of the total variance. The factor loadings of the items in the scale range from 0.42 to 0.86. Inonu Marriage Attitude Scale was used in the criterion related validity studies. Correlation value of the two scales r=0.72 (p=0.000 was found significant. It was determined that the subscales of the scale had a significant correlation with the total scale. The cronbach alpha value of the first dimension of the scale was 0.85, the cronbach alpha value of the second dimension of the scale was 0.68, the cronbach alpha value of the third dimension of the scale was 0.80, the cronbach alpha value of the fourth dimension of the scale was 0.91 and the cronbach alpha value of the total scale was 0.90. Test retest results r=0.70, (p=0.000 were found significant. In the item analysis studies, it was revealed that in the lower 27% group, the individuals in the upper 27% group were significantly different in all items (p=0.000. The item total correlation value of the items in the scale was between 0.40 and 0.63. As a result of the assessments, it was concluded that the Marital Maturity Scale was a reliable and valid instrument to measure marital maturity of single adults

  17. Resiliency Scale (RS): Scale Development, Reliability and Validity Study

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRGAN, Uğur

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new Resiliency Scale (RS) for Turkish samples. Various items from some major resiliency scales, most of them with some partial change, were collected and a pool of 228 items containing almost all possible resilience areas were obtained. This item-pool was administered to a college sample of 419. Resulting of analysis 50 item RS were obtained and administered to a new college sample of 112 participants. This second sample has also received the Rosenba...

  18. Abusive Supervision Scale Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenika Wulani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a scale of abusive supervision in Indonesia. The study was conducted with a different context and scale development method from Tepper’s (2000 abusive supervision scale. The abusive supervision scale from Tepper (2000 was developed in the U.S., which has a cultural orientation of low power distance. The current study was conducted in Indonesia, which has a high power distance. This study used interview procedures to obtain information about supervisor’s abusive behavior, and it was also assessed by experts. The results of this study indicated that abusive supervision was a 3-dimensional construct. There were anger-active abuse (6 items, humiliation-active abuse (4 items, and passive abuse (15 items. These scales have internal reliabilities of 0.947, 0.922, and 0.845, in sequence.

  19. [Development of an Atypical Response Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Mark; Linden, James

    The development of an objective diagnostic scale to measure atypical behavior is discussed. The Atypical Response Scale (ARS) is a structured projective test consisting of 17 items, each weighted 1, 2, or 3, that were tested for convergence and reliability. ARS may be individually or group administered in 10-15 minutes; hand scoring requires 90…

  20. Socially responsible marketing decisions - scale development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Lončarić

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop a measurement scale for evaluating the implementation level of the concept of social responsibility in taking marketing decisions, in accordance with a paradigm of the quality-of-life marketing. A new scale of "socially responsible marketing decisions" has been formed and its content validity, reliability and dimensionality have been analyzed. The scale has been tested on a sample of the most successful Croatian firms. The research results lead us to conclude that the scale has satisfactory psychometric characteristics but that it is necessary to improve it by generating new items and by testing it on a greater number of samples.

  1. Development of The Harmony Restoration Measurement Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of The Harmony Restoration Measurement Scale (Cosmogram) Part 1. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... is one, who is in harmony or at peace with his world of relationships (Cosmos).

  2. Development of the intoxicated personality scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Brinkman, Craig S; Miller, Ashlin; Doolittle, James J

    2015-01-01

    To develop the Intoxicated Personality Scale (IPS). Data were collected from 436 college students via an online survey. Through an iterative measurement development process, the resulting IPS was created. The 5 subscales (Good Time, Risky Choices, Risky Sex, Emotional, and Introvert) of the IPS positively related to alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, and personality. The results suggest that the Intoxicated Personality Scale may be a useful tool for predicting problematic alcohol consumption, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives.

  3. Development and Standardization of the Gratitude Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Anas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gratitude Scale (GS developed by the authors was administered to 456 adults to determine the psychometric characteristics i.e. reliability and validity. Cronbach’s Alpha of the scale was found 0.91. Content validity of the scale was verified by some experts, academicians, and professionals. For testing multicollinearity and singularity ‘Determinant’ of the R-matrix was estimated and it was greater than 0.00001. The items having factor loading greater than or equal to 0.40 were selected. Total 26 items with five dimensions emerged through Exploratory Factor Analysis explaining 58.14% of the variance, which provided the evidence of factorial/construct validity of the scale. The scale can be used for research and human resource development programs in school/university and organizations.

  4. Developing the Spouse Emotional Jealousy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizildag, Seval; Yildirim, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The Spouse Emotional Jealousy Scale (SEJS) has been developed in order to measure spousal jealousy levels of married individuals in the frame of this study. In the process of developing the SEJS, which is the aim of this study, data was gathered from married people living in Ankara. SPSS and LISREL 8.7 were used for data analysis. After…

  5. Development of the Sport Injury Anxiety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Camille C.; Metzler, Jonathan N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a measure of sport injury anxiety (SIA), defined as the tendency to make threat appraisals in sport situations where injury is seen as possible and/or likely. The Sport Injury Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was developed in three stages. In Stage 1, expert raters evaluated items to determine their adequacy. In…

  6. Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongil Kim

    Full Text Available This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1 disturbance of adaptive functions, (2 virtual life orientation, (3 withdrawal, and (4 tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49. For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034. Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed.

  7. Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1) disturbance of adaptive functions, (2) virtual life orientation, (3) withdrawal, and (4) tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49). For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034). Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed.

  8. Asymptotic scalings of developing curved pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Jesse; Chen, Kevin; Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    Asymptotic velocity and pressure scalings are identified for the developing curved pipe flow problem in the limit of small pipe curvature and high Reynolds numbers. The continuity and Navier-Stokes equations in toroidal coordinates are linearized about Dean's analytical curved pipe flow solution (Dean 1927). Applying appropriate scaling arguments to the perturbation pressure and velocity components and taking the limits of small curvature and large Reynolds number yields a set of governing equations and boundary conditions for the perturbations, independent of any Reynolds number and pipe curvature dependence. Direct numerical simulations are used to confirm these scaling arguments. Fully developed straight pipe flow is simulated entering a curved pipe section for a range of Reynolds numbers and pipe-to-curvature radius ratios. The maximum values of the axial and secondary velocity perturbation components along with the maximum value of the pressure perturbation are plotted along the curved pipe section. The results collapse when the scaling arguments are applied. The numerically solved decay of the velocity perturbation is also used to determine the entrance/development lengths for the curved pipe flows, which are shown to scale linearly with the Reynolds number.

  9. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The scope of this paper is to develop and test a measurement scale for assessing the quality of dialogic conversations among companies and digital publics in social media. It is argued that dialogic conversations are the drivers of dialogic engagement and the result of dialogic...... interactivity. Dialogic conversations are defined as sequences of communicative actions and counteractions taken by social actors for different purposes based on specific linguistic choices and characterised by diverse communicative approaches and the role played by the involved parties. Design....../methodology/approach: A multidimensional scale for measuring dialogic conversations is developed from relevant literature concerning dialogue and public engagement in the fields of corporate communication, public relations, management studies and conversation analysis. The scale was pre-tested to redefine and purify it from irrelevant...

  10. Configuration management in large scale infrastructure development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, T.P.J. van; Belt, H. van de; Los, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Large Scale Infrastructure (LSI) development projects such as the construction of roads, rail-ways and other civil engineering (water)works is tendered differently today than a decade ago. Traditional workflow requested quotes from construction companies for construction works where the works to be

  11. Development of the Tilburg Pregnancy Distress Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Victor J M; Pommer, Antoinette M; Pop-Purceleanu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    and do not define items based on in-depth interviews of pregnant and recently delivered women. The current study developed a pregnancy specific scale that measures psychological functioning using in-depth interviews. METHODS: Three focus groups were formed to discuss issues most relevant to pregnancy...

  12. The Development of Critical Thinking Attitudes Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özelçi, Serap Yilmaz; Saracaloglu, A. Seda

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to develop an independent scale that measures the critical thinking attitudes of classroom teacher candidates. The research was designed in a screening model. The universe of the research was composed of 384 prospective teachers who are studying in the education faculty of a university in the western part of Turkey. In the…

  13. Development of the scale of economic abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris M; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R

    2008-05-01

    Economic abuse is part of the pattern of behaviors used by batterers to maintain power and control over their partners. However, no measure of economic abuse exists. This study describes the development of the Scale of Economic Abuse, which was designed to fill this gap. Interviews were conducted with 103 survivors of domestic abuse, each of whom responded to measures of economic, physical, and psychological abuse as well as economic hardship. Results provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the scale. This study is an important first step toward understanding the extent and impact of economic abuse experienced by survivors.

  14. Developing the Cyber Victimization Experiences and Cyberbullying Behaviors Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Lucy R; Spenser, Karin A

    2017-01-01

    The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11-15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability. The 3-factor cyber victimization experiences scale comprised threat, shared images, and personal attack. The 3-factor cyberbullying behaviors scale comprised sharing images, gossip, and personal attack. Both scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity.

  15. Developing the cyber victimisation experiences and cyber bullying behaviours scales

    OpenAIRE

    Betts, LR; Spenser, KA

    2017-01-01

    The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimisation experiences and cyber bullying behaviours vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalisations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through two studies, the current research developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimisation experiences and cyber bullying behaviours scales. In Study 1 393 (122 male, 171 female), and in Study...

  16. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  17. Development of the Attributed Dignity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacelon, Cynthia S; Dixon, Jane; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2009-07-01

    A sequential, multi-method approach to instrument development beginning with concept analysis, followed by (a) item generation from qualitative data, (b) review of items by expert and lay person panels, (c) cognitive appraisal interviews, (d) pilot testing, and (e) evaluating construct validity was used to develop a measure of attributed dignity in older adults. The resulting positively scored, 23-item scale has three dimensions: Self-Value, Behavioral Respect-Self, and Behavioral Respect-Others. Item-total correlations in the pilot study ranged from 0.39 to 0.85. Correlations between the Attributed Dignity Scale (ADS) and both Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (0.17) and Crowne and Marlowe's Social Desirability Scale (0.36) were modest and in the expected direction, indicating attributed dignity is a related but independent concept. Next steps include testing the ADS with a larger sample to complete factor analysis, test-retest stability, and further study of the relationships between attributed dignity and other concepts.

  18. [Development of meaning in life scale II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soon-Ock; Kim, Sook-Nam; Shin, Kyung-Il; Lee, Jong-Ji

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a meaning of life scale with high validity and reliability. A conceptual framework composed of 4 phases of meanings of life was identified. And 49 preliminary items on a 4-points scale were developed through content validity. A reliability and validity test of the 49 items was conducted on 564 adults. By means of internal consistency of the 49 items, 1 item was deleted. To verify the 48 items, factor analysis, reliability test, and LISEREL were done. Through exploratory factor analysis of the 48 items, 8 factors were extracted. These factors were labeled as 'self- awareness and self-acceptance', 'hope', 'responsibility awareness', 'love experience', 'self transcendence', 'relation experience', 'self contentedness', and 'Commitment'. Through LISEREL of the 48 items, 2 items were excluded and finally 46 items remained. Cronbach's Alpha of the 46 items was .94. The correlation coefficient of the Self-esteem scale was .79. By the above results, the researchers recommend the following: An exploratory study on the variables related to the meaning of life are needed for criterion validity of this scale. Studies on meaning of life of different group, and subjects are needed for reverification.

  19. Organizational Culture and Scale Development: Methodological Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavik Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining and measuring organizational culture (OC is of paramount importance to organizations because a strong culture could potentially increase service quality and yield sustainable competitive advantages. However, such process could be challenging to managers because the scope of OC has been defined differently across disciplines and industries, which has led to the development of various scales for measuring OC. In addition, previously developed OC scales may also not be fully applicable in the hospitality and tourism context. Therefore, by highlighting the key factors affecting the business environment and the unique characteristics of hospitality industry, this paper aims to align the scope of OC closely with the industry and to put forth the need for a new OC scale that accurately responds to the context of the hospitality industry.

  20. Scaling Health Information Systems in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Neilsen, Petter

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the issues of scaling health information system in the context of developing countries by taking a case study from Ethiopia. Concepts of information infrastructure have been used as an analytical lens to better understand scaling of Health Information systems. More...... specifically, we question the fruitfulness of focusing on not being installed base hostile and suggest focusing on how to be installed base “friendly” by underscoring how the installed base can also be draw upon and shaped by human agents. The paper conceptualizes health information infrastructure (HII......) building as an intertwined process of the evolution of the installed base and the construction activities of human agents. Overall, we argue that it is not only the adverse situation that determines how things develop, but HII builders need to navigate and take into account a wide range of issues related...

  1. [Developing Perceived Competence Scale (PCS) for Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Arif; Gençtanirim Kurt, Dilek; Kizildağ, Seval; Demırtaş Zorbaz, Selen; Arici Şahın, Fatma; Acar, Tülin; Ergene, Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Perceived Competence Scale was developed to measure high school students' perceived competence. Scale development process was verified on three different samples. Participants of the research are some high school students in 2011-2012 academic terms from Ankara. Participants' numbers are incorporated in exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and test-retest reliability respectively, as follows: 372, 668 and 75. Internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's and stratified α) are calculated separately for each group. For data analysis Factor 8.02 and LISREL 8.70 package programs were used. According to results of the analyses, internal consistency coefficients (α) are .90 - .93 for academic competence, .82 - .86 for social competence in the samples that exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis performed. For the whole scale internal consistency coefficient (stratified α) is calculated as .91. As a result of test-retest reliability, adjusted correlation coefficients (r) are .94 for social competence and .90 for academic competence. In addition, to fit indexes and regression weights obtained from factor analysis, findings related convergent and discriminant validity, indicating that competence can be addressed in two dimensions which are academic (16 items) and social (14 items).

  2. The development of a Codependency Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremonte, Mariana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Codependency is defined as a dysfunctional pattern of relating to others, present in relatives of those with a substance use disorder or other chronic disease. It is characterized by emotional dependence, extreme focus in the other person, and self-neglect. Aim: to present results of the process of development and validation of a new measure to evaluate codependency. Method: The Argentinean codependency scale was administered to a convenience sample of 347 subjects between 15 and 80 years, in Mar del Plata. AFE was used (main axes extraction method. The number of factors was determined by parallel analysis. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's Alpha. Item level statistics were also estimated. Results: Three factors were obtained. The internal consistency of the total scale and the three subscales was satisfactory. Relatives of alcohol or drugs dependents and of people with other chronic diseases had scores significantly higher in the codependency measure than those in the general population group.

  3. Development of a noise annoyance sensitivity scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, H. L.; Pearson, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Examining the problem of noise pollution from the psychological rather than the engineering view, a test of human sensitivity to noise was developed against the criterion of noise annoyance. Test development evolved from a previous study in which biographical, attitudinal, and personality data was collected on a sample of 166 subjects drawn from the adult community of Raleigh. Analysis revealed that only a small subset of the data collected was predictive of noise annoyance. Item analysis yielded 74 predictive items that composed the preliminary noise sensitivity test. This was administered to a sample of 80 adults who later rate the annoyance value of six sounds (equated in terms of peak sound pressure level) presented in a simulated home, living-room environment. A predictive model involving 20 test items was developed using multiple regression techniques, and an item weighting scheme was evaluated.

  4. [Development of the Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawarai, Tazuko; Morita, Noriaki; Nakatani, Youji

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for assessing the attributes of the heterosexual love of alcoholics. Using the characteristics and categories related to the heterosexual love of alcoholics found in previous research, we created a "Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics" and conducted a survey among 110 alcoholics (80 men and 30 women). The following three factors were extracted from the results: "mutual respect", "superficial intimacy", and "fear of being disliked", A high level of reliability was obtained on the scales indicated below (alpha = 63-82), and concurrent validity was confirmed between these and the Adult Attachment Scale (ECR: Experiences in Close Relationships inventory). Further, correlations were found between "mutual respect" and the benefit of heterosexual love in recovery, and between the other two factors and the impediment of heterosexual love, and between the Denial & Awareness Scale (for alcoholic). As this scale can be used to assess the type of heterosexual love of alcoholics, we predict that it will be useful in examining the effects of heterosexual love on recovery and as a tool for offering advice.

  5. The Development and Validation of the Online Shopping Addiction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiyan; Tian, Wei; Xin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    We report the development and validation of a scale to measure online shopping addiction. Inspired by previous theories and research on behavioral addiction, the Griffiths's widely accepted six-factor component model was referred to and an 18-item scale was constructed, with each component measured by three items. The results of exploratory factor analysis, based on Sample 1 (999 college students) and confirmatory factor analysis, based on Sample 2 (854 college students) showed the Griffiths's substantive six-factor structure underlay the online shopping addiction scale. Cronbach's alpha suggested that the resulting scale was highly reliable. Concurrent validity, based on Sample 3 (328 college students), was also satisfactory as indicated by correlations between the scale and measures of similar constructs. Finally, self-perceived online shopping addiction can be predicted to a relatively high degree. The present 18-item scale is a solid theory-based instrument to empirically measure online shopping addiction and can be used for understanding the phenomena among young adults.

  6. The Development and Validation of the Online Shopping Addiction Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiyan; Tian, Wei; Xin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    We report the development and validation of a scale to measure online shopping addiction. Inspired by previous theories and research on behavioral addiction, the Griffiths's widely accepted six-factor component model was referred to and an 18-item scale was constructed, with each component measured by three items. The results of exploratory factor analysis, based on Sample 1 (999 college students) and confirmatory factor analysis, based on Sample 2 (854 college students) showed the Griffiths's substantive six-factor structure underlay the online shopping addiction scale. Cronbach's alpha suggested that the resulting scale was highly reliable. Concurrent validity, based on Sample 3 (328 college students), was also satisfactory as indicated by correlations between the scale and measures of similar constructs. Finally, self-perceived online shopping addiction can be predicted to a relatively high degree. The present 18-item scale is a solid theory-based instrument to empirically measure online shopping addiction and can be used for understanding the phenomena among young adults. PMID:28559864

  7. The Development and Validation of the Online Shopping Addiction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the development and validation of a scale to measure online shopping addiction. Inspired by previous theories and research on behavioral addiction, the Griffiths's widely accepted six-factor component model was referred to and an 18-item scale was constructed, with each component measured by three items. The results of exploratory factor analysis, based on Sample 1 (999 college students and confirmatory factor analysis, based on Sample 2 (854 college students showed the Griffiths's substantive six-factor structure underlay the online shopping addiction scale. Cronbach's alpha suggested that the resulting scale was highly reliable. Concurrent validity, based on Sample 3 (328 college students, was also satisfactory as indicated by correlations between the scale and measures of similar constructs. Finally, self-perceived online shopping addiction can be predicted to a relatively high degree. The present 18-item scale is a solid theory-based instrument to empirically measure online shopping addiction and can be used for understanding the phenomena among young adults.

  8. A Measure of EFL Public Speaking Class Anxiety: Scale Development and Preliminary Validation and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaikhong, Kriangkrai; Usaha, Siriluck

    2012-01-01

    The present study contributes to developing a Public Speaking Class Anxiety Scale (PSCAS) to measure anxiety in the EFL public speaking class in the Thai context. Items were adopted from previous scales: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz et al. (1986); Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) and Personal…

  9. Validation of a Previously Developed Geospatial Model That Predicts the Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York State Produce Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Shiwakoti, Suvash; Bergholz, Peter; Grohn, Yrjo; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2016-02-01

    Technological advancements, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to predict the likelihood of foodborne pathogen contamination in produce production environments using geospatial models. Yet, few studies have examined the validity and robustness of such models. This study was performed to test and refine the rules associated with a previously developed geospatial model that predicts the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in produce farms in New York State (NYS). Produce fields for each of four enrolled produce farms were categorized into areas of high or low predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence using rules based on a field's available water storage (AWS) and its proximity to water, impervious cover, and pastures. Drag swabs (n = 1,056) were collected from plots assigned to each risk category. Logistic regression, which tested the ability of each rule to accurately predict the prevalence of L. monocytogenes, validated the rules based on water and pasture. Samples collected near water (odds ratio [OR], 3.0) and pasture (OR, 2.9) showed a significantly increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation compared to that for samples collected far from water and pasture. Generalized linear mixed models identified additional land cover factors associated with an increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation, such as proximity to wetlands. These findings validated a subset of previously developed rules that predict L. monocytogenes prevalence in produce production environments. This suggests that GIS and geospatial models can be used to accurately predict L. monocytogenes prevalence on farms and can be used prospectively to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination of produce. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Validation of a Previously Developed Geospatial Model That Predicts the Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York State Produce Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Shiwakoti, Suvash; Bergholz, Peter; Grohn, Yrjo; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Technological advancements, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to predict the likelihood of foodborne pathogen contamination in produce production environments using geospatial models. Yet, few studies have examined the validity and robustness of such models. This study was performed to test and refine the rules associated with a previously developed geospatial model that predicts the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in produce farms in New York State (NYS). Produce fields for each of four enrolled produce farms were categorized into areas of high or low predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence using rules based on a field's available water storage (AWS) and its proximity to water, impervious cover, and pastures. Drag swabs (n = 1,056) were collected from plots assigned to each risk category. Logistic regression, which tested the ability of each rule to accurately predict the prevalence of L. monocytogenes, validated the rules based on water and pasture. Samples collected near water (odds ratio [OR], 3.0) and pasture (OR, 2.9) showed a significantly increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation compared to that for samples collected far from water and pasture. Generalized linear mixed models identified additional land cover factors associated with an increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation, such as proximity to wetlands. These findings validated a subset of previously developed rules that predict L. monocytogenes prevalence in produce production environments. This suggests that GIS and geospatial models can be used to accurately predict L. monocytogenes prevalence on farms and can be used prospectively to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination of produce. PMID:26590280

  11. Development of a Facebook Addiction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-04-01

    The Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS), initially a pool of 18 items, three reflecting each of the six core elements of addiction (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, and relapse), was constructed and administered to 423 students together with several other standardized self-report scales (Addictive Tendencies Scale, Online Sociability Scale, Facebook Attitude Scale, NEO-FFI, BIS/BAS scales, and Sleep questions). That item within each of the six addiction elements with the highest corrected item-total correlation was retained in the final scale. The factor structure of the scale was good (RMSEA = .046, CFI = .99) and coefficient alpha was .83. The 3-week test-retest reliability coefficient was .82. The scores converged with scores for other scales of Facebook activity. Also, they were positively related to Neuroticism and Extraversion, and negatively related to Conscientiousness. High scores on the new scale were associated with delayed bedtimes and rising times.

  12. [Incidence and clinical risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Vigo, P; Álvarez-Silvares, E; Alves-Pérez M T; Domínguez-Sánchez, J; González-González, A

    2016-04-01

    Gestational diabetes is considered a variant of diabetes mellitus as they share a common pathophysiological basis: insulin resistance in target and insufficient secretion of it by pancreatic p-cell bodies. Pregnancy is a unique physiological situation provides an opportunity to identify future risk of diabetes mellitus. To determine the long-term incidence of diabetes mellitus in women who have previously been diagnosed with gestational diabetes and identifying clinical risk factors for developing the same. nested case-control cohort study. 671 patients between 1996 and 2009 were diagnosed with gestational diabetes were selected. The incidence of diabetes mellitus was estimated and 2 subgroups were formed: Group A or cases: women who develop diabetes mellitus after diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Group B or control: random sample of 71 women with a history of gestational diabetes in the follow-up period remained normoglycemic. Both groups were studied up to 18 years postpartum. By studying Kaplan Meier survival of the influence of different gestational variables it was obtained in the later development of diabetes mellitus with time parameter and COX models for categorical variables were applied. Significant variables were studied by multivariate Cox analysis. In all analyzes the Hazard ratio was calculated with confidence intervals at 95%. The incidence of diabetes mellitus was 10.3% in patients with a history of gestational diabetes. They were identified as risk factors in the index pregnancy to later development of diabetes mellitus: greater than 35 and younger than 27 years maternal age, BMI greater than 30 kg/m2, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, insulin therapy, poor metabolic control and more than a complicated pregnancy with gestational diabetes. Clinical factors have been identified in the pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes that determine a higher probability of progression to diabetes mellitus in the medium and long term.

  13. Planning policy, sustainability and housebuilder practices: The move into (and out of?) the redevelopment of previously developed land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadimitriou, Nikos

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores the transformations of the housebuilding industry under the policy requirement to build on previously developed land (PDL). This requirement was a key lever in promoting the sustainable urban development agenda of UK governments from the early 1990s to 2010 and has survived albeit somewhat relaxed and permutated in the latest National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF). The paper therefore looks at the way in which the policy push towards densification and mixed use affected housebuilders' business strategy and practices and their ability to cope with the 2007 downturn of the housing market and its aftermath. It also points out the eventual feedback of some of these practices into planning policy. Following the gradual shift of British urban policy focus towards sustainability which started in the early 1990s, new configurations of actors, new skills, strategies and approaches to managing risk emerged in property development and housebuilding. There were at least two ways in which housebuilders could have responded to the requirements of developing long term mixed use high density projects on PDL. One way was to develop new products and to employ practices and combinations of practices involving phasing, a flexible approach to planning applications and innovative production methods. Alternatively, they could approach PDL development as a temporary turn of policy or view mixed use high density schemes as a niche market to be explored without drastically overhauling the business model of the entire firm. These transformations of the UK housebuilding sector were unfolding during a long period of buoyancy in the housing market which came to an end in 2007. Very little is known both about how housebuilder strategies and production practices evolved during the boom years as well as about how these firms coped with the effects of the 2007 market downturn. The paper draws on published data (company annual reports, government statistics) and primary

  14. Planning policy, sustainability and housebuilder practices: The move into (and out of?) the redevelopment of previously developed land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadimitriou, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the transformations of the housebuilding industry under the policy requirement to build on previously developed land (PDL). This requirement was a key lever in promoting the sustainable urban development agenda of UK governments from the early 1990s to 2010 and has survived albeit somewhat relaxed and permutated in the latest National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF). The paper therefore looks at the way in which the policy push towards densification and mixed use affected housebuilders’ business strategy and practices and their ability to cope with the 2007 downturn of the housing market and its aftermath. It also points out the eventual feedback of some of these practices into planning policy. Following the gradual shift of British urban policy focus towards sustainability which started in the early 1990s, new configurations of actors, new skills, strategies and approaches to managing risk emerged in property development and housebuilding. There were at least two ways in which housebuilders could have responded to the requirements of developing long term mixed use high density projects on PDL. One way was to develop new products and to employ practices and combinations of practices involving phasing, a flexible approach to planning applications and innovative production methods. Alternatively, they could approach PDL development as a temporary turn of policy or view mixed use high density schemes as a niche market to be explored without drastically overhauling the business model of the entire firm. These transformations of the UK housebuilding sector were unfolding during a long period of buoyancy in the housing market which came to an end in 2007. Very little is known both about how housebuilder strategies and production practices evolved during the boom years as well as about how these firms coped with the effects of the 2007 market downturn. The paper draws on published data (company annual reports, government statistics) and primary

  15. Development of a Simple Tool for Identifying Alcohol Use Disorder in Female Korean Drinkers from Previous Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Ri; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Sung Soo; Yoon, Seok Joon; Suh, Won Yoon; Youn, Kwangmi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a simple tool for identifying alcohol use disorders in female Korean drinkers from previous questionnaires. This research was conducted on 400 women who consumed at least one alcoholic drink during the past month and visited the health promotion center at Chungnam National University Hospital between June 2013 to May 2014. Drinking habits and alcohol use disorders were assessed by structured interviews using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition diagnostic criteria. The subjects were also asked to answer the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), AUDIT-Consumption, CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener), TWEAK (Tolerance, Worried, Eye-opener, Amnesia, Kut down), TACE (Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut down, Eye-opener), and NET (Normal drinker, Eye-opener, Tolerance) questionnaires. The area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) of each question of the questionnaires on alcohol use disorders was assessed. After combining two questions with the largest AUROC, it was compared to other previous questionnaires. Among the 400 subjects, 58 (14.5%) were identified as having an alcohol use disorder. Two questions with the largest AUROC were question no. 7 in AUDIT, "How often during the last year have you had a feeling of guilt or remorse after drinking?" and question no. 5 in AUDIT, "How often during the past year have you failed to do what was normally expected from you because of drinking?" with an AUROC (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.886 (0.850-0.915) and 0.862 (0.824-0.894), respectively. The AUROC (95% CI) of the combination of the two questions was 0.958 (0.934-0.976) with no significant difference as compared to the existing AUDIT with the largest AUROC. The above results suggest that the simple tool consisting of questions no. 5 and no. 7 in AUDIT is useful in identifying alcohol use disorders in Korean female drinkers.

  16. Development of the Sources of Spirituality Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don E; Rice, Kenneth; Hook, Joshua N; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Choe, Elise; Worthington, Everett L

    2015-07-01

    Most measures of spirituality privilege religious spirituality, but people may experience spirituality in a variety of ways, including a sense of closeness, oneness, or connection with a theistic being, the transcendent (i.e., something outside space and time), oneself, humanity, or nature. The overall purpose of the present 4 studies was to develop the Sources of Spirituality (SOS) Scale to measure these different elements of spirituality. In Study 1, we created items, had them reviewed by experts, and used data from a sample of undergraduates (N = 218) to evaluate factor structure and inform initial measurement revisions. The factor structure replicated well in another sample of undergraduates (N = 200; Study 2), and in a sample of community adults (N = 140; Study 3). In a sample of undergraduates (N = 200; Study 4), we then evaluated evidence of construct validity by examining associations between SOS Scale scores and religious commitment, positive attitudes toward the Sacred, and dispositional connection with nature. Moreover, based on latent profile analyses results, we found 5 distinct patterns of spirituality based on SOS subscales. We consider implications for therapy and relevance of the findings for models of spirituality and future research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Coma Arousal Communication Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, Julie; Reina, Margot; DeiCas, Paula; Rousseaux, Marc

    To develop a Coma Arousal Communication Scale and perform preliminary validation. A group of experts developed a questionnaire to assess communication between patients emerging from coma and caregiver (participation, communication modes, and themes) and the strategies used to facilitate communication. To assess the scale's psychometric characteristics, it was presented to the caregivers of 40 inpatients admitted to 5 coma units and (to obtain reference data) to 29 control participants. The Coma Arousal Communication Scale displayed good intra- and interrater reliability as judged by intraclass correlation coefficients (between 0.76 and 0.98) and Bland and Altman plots. Cohen κ coefficient revealed moderate to almost perfect levels of agreement for most individual items and slight levels for a few items dealing with compensatory strategies. We observed good internal consistency, relations with the Wessex Head Injury Matrix, and sensitivity to change for patients who had sustained brain injury in the previous 6 months. The Coma Arousal Communication Scale provides accurate information about communication skills of individuals emerging from coma. However, some compensatory strategies adopted by caregivers are difficult to characterize.

  18. 34 CFR 606.24 - How does the Secretary use an applicant's performance under a previous development grant when...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... those goals and objectives, the Secretary may— (1) Decide not to fund the applicant; or (2) Fund the..., or is making substantial progress toward fulfilling, the goals and objectives of the previous grant... did not fulfill the goals and objectives of a previous grant or is not making substantial progress...

  19. 34 CFR 607.24 - How does the Secretary use an applicant's performance under a previous development grant when...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... objectives, the Secretary may— (1) Decide not to fund the applicant; or (2) Fund the applicant but impose... progress toward fulfilling, the goals and objectives of the previous grant, including, but not limited to... the goals and objectives of a previous grant or is not making substantial progress towards fulfilling...

  20. Development and Validation of the Transgender Attitudes and Beliefs Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Yasuko; Cornelius-White, Jeffrey H D; Pegors, Teresa K; Daniel, Todd; Hulgus, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, issues surrounding transgender have garnered media and legal attention, contributing to rapidly shifting views on gender in the U.S. Yet, there is a paucity of data-driven studies on the public's views of transgender identity. This study reports the development and validation of the Transgender Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (TABS). After constructing an initial 96-item pool from consulting experts and existing scales, Phase 1 of the study was launched, involving an exploratory factor analysis of 48 items. The initial factor analysis with 295 participants revealed three factors across 33 items-16 items on interpersonal comfort, 11 on sex/gender beliefs, and 6 on human value. The internal consistency of each factor was high-α = .97 for Factor 1, α = .95 for Factor 2, and α = .94 for Factor 3. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted in the second phase with an independent sample consisting of 238 participants. The Attitudes Toward Transgender Individual Scale and the Genderism and Transphobia Scale were also included to test for convergent validity, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the short form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were utilized to test discriminant validity. Both of the data collection phases employed MTurk, a form of online sampling with increased diversity compared to college student samples and more generalizability to the general U.S. TABS represents an addition to the literature in its ability to capture a more nuanced conceptualization of transgender attitude not found in previous scales.

  1. Emotional Presence in Online Learning Scale: A Scale Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsar, Firat; Kisla, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    Although emotions are not a new topic in learning environments, the emerging technologies have changed not only the type of learning environments but also the perspectives of emotions in learning environments. This study designed to develop a survey to assist online instructors to understand students' emotional statement in online learning…

  2. Development and psychometric properties of the Inner Strength Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundman, Berit; Viglund, Kerstin; Aléx, Lena; Jonsén, Elisabeth; Norberg, Astrid; Fischer, Regina Santamäki; Strandberg, Gunilla; Nygren, Björn

    2011-10-01

    Four dimensions of inner strength were previously identified in a meta-theoretical analysis: firmness, creativity, connectedness, and flexibility. The aim of this study was to develop an Inner Strength Scale (ISS) based on those four dimensions and to evaluate its psychometric properties. An initial version of ISS was distributed for validation purpose with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the resilience scale, and the sense of Coherence Scale. A convenience sample of 391 adults, aged 19-90 years participated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used in the process of exploring, evaluating, and reducing the 63-item ISS to the 20-item ISS. Cronbach's alpha and test-retest were used to measure reliability. CFA showed satisfactory goodness-of-fit for the 20-item ISS. The analysis supported a fourfactor solution explaining 51% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha on the 20-item ISS was 0.86, and the test-retest showed stability over time (r=0.79). The ISS was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for capturing a multifaceted understanding of inner strength. Further tests of psychometric properties of the ISS will be performed in forthcoming studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and initial validation of a cessation fatigue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Amanda R; Heckman, Bryan W; Meier, Ellen; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2017-07-01

    Smoking cessation fatigue, or tiredness of attempting to quit smoking, has been posited as a latent construct encompassing loss of motivation, loss of hope in cessation success, decreased self-efficacy, and exhaustion of self-control resources. Despite the potential clinical impact of characterizing cessation fatigue, there is currently no validated measure to assess it. Using a rational scale development approach, we developed a cessation fatigue measure and examined its reliability and construct validity in relation to a) smokers' experience of a recently failed quit attempt (QA) and b) readiness to engage in a subsequent QA. Data were drawn from an online cross-sectional survey of 484 smokers who relapsed from a QA within the past 30days. Exploratory factor analysis identified three factors within the 17-item Cessation Fatigue Scale (CFS), which we labeled: emotional exhaustion, pessimism, and devaluation. High internal consistency was observed for each factor and across the full scale. As expected, CFS overall was positively associated with withdrawal severity and difficulty quitting. CFS was negatively associated with previously validated measures of intention to quit, self-efficacy, and abstinence-related motivational engagement, even after adjusting for nicotine dependence. Findings provide initial validation for a new tool to assess cessation fatigue and contribute needed information on a theory-driven component of cessation-related motivation and relapse risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Measuring experience of hospitality : scale development and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls-Hoekstra, Ruth; Groen, Brenda H.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    This paper describes the development of the Experience of Hospitality Scale (EH-Scale) for assessing hospitality in service environments from a guest point of view. In contrast to other scales, which focus specifically on staff behaviour, the present scale focuses on the experience of hospitality

  5. A Parsimonious Instrument for Predicting Students' Intent to Pursue a Sales Career: Scale Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Cummins, Shannon; Pomirleanu, Nadia; Cross, James; Simon, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Students' desire and intention to pursue a career in sales continue to lag behind industry demand for sales professionals. This article develops and validates a reliable and parsimonious scale for measuring and predicting student intention to pursue a selling career. The instrument advances previous scales in three ways. The instrument is…

  6. Developing a "Social Presence Scale" for E-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic Cakmak, Ebru; Cebi, Ayça; Kan, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to develop a "social presence scale" for e-learning environments. A systematic approach was followed for developing the scale. The scale was applied to 461 students registered in seven different programs at Gazi University. The sample was split into two subsamples on a random basis (n1 = 261; n2 =…

  7. Perceived Coach Attitudes and Behaviors Scale: Development and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üzüm, Hanifi; Karli, Ünal; Yildiz, Nuh Osman

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a scale, which will serve to determine how attitudes and behaviors of the coaches are perceived by the athletes. The scale, named as "Perceived Coach Attitudes and Behaviors Scale" (PCABS) was developed through various processes including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Following the…

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium with arsenazo previous liquid-liquid extraction and colour development in organic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares Delgado, F.; Vera Palomino, J.; Petrement Eguiluz, J. C.

    1964-01-01

    The determination of uranium with arsenazo is hindered by a great number of cation which form stable complexes with the reactive and may given rise to serious interferences. By studying the optimum conditions of uranium the extraction be means of tributylphosphate solutions dissolved in methylisobuthylketone, under conditions for previous masking of the interfering cations, an organic extract was obtained containing all the uranium together with small amounts of iron. The possible interference derived from the latter element is avoided by reduction with hydroxylammoniumchlorid followed by complex formation of the Fe(II)-ortophenantroline compound in alcoholic medium. (Author) 17 refs

  9. Development of Service Quality Scale for Surgical Hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-I Teng

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: The SQSH has sufficient usefulness, reliability and validity. Future research on service quality can apply the SQSH scale to link with utilization intention and patient loyalty and attempt to develop a hospitalization quality scale for other departments.

  10. Toward a Common Ontology of Scaling Up in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April N. Frake

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Scaling up development measures to target global food insecurity has a distinctly spatial character and is often cited as a solution to the global hunger crisis. Development does not occur without scaling and consensus on the ontological meaning of scaling up is a vital component to developing sustainable solutions to the global hunger crisis across geographical scales. Yet ‘scaling up’, while frequently used throughout Research and Development (R&D and Natural Resource Management (NRM literature, lacks ontological agreement. We begin by considering the noun, ‘scale’ and existing literature on scaling up, then present a visual analysis of definitions provided for scaling up across development institutions. Our study finds that the organization of terms used across these definitions falls into three distinct categories: Interventions, Mechanisms, and Outcomes. Further, we contend that the continued uncertainty is linked to scale being applied in two fashions: as a noun (outcome and verb (process. Rather than calling for reformed definitions, we argue for precision of definitions. To that end, we present a conceptual framework of scaling up that gives greater emphasis on separating the noun scale, from the verb, to scale. Further, Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E in our model complements scaling efforts beginning with how scaling up is defined by program, through to final evaluation of success.

  11. The reliability of the Associate Platinum digital foot scanner in measuring previously developed footprint characteristics: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papuga, M Owen; Burke, Jeanmarie R

    2011-02-01

    An ink pad and paper, pressure-sensitive platforms, and photography have previously been used to collect footprint data used in clinical assessment. Digital scanners have been widely used more recently to collect such data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and interrater reliability of a flatbed digital image scanning technology to capture footprint data. This study used a repeated-measures design on 32 (16 male 16 female) healthy subjects. The following measured indices of footprint were recorded from 2-dimensional images of the plantar surface of the foot recorded with an Associate Platinum (Foot Levelers Inc, Roanoke, VA) digital foot scanner: Staheli index, Chippaux-Smirak index, arch angle, and arch index. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values were calculated to evaluate intrarater, interday, and interclinician reliability. The ICC values for intrarater reliability were greater than or equal to .817, indicating an excellent level of reproducibility in assessing the collected images. Analyses of variance revealed that there were no significant differences between raters for each index (P > .05). The ICC values also indicated excellent reliability (.881-.971) between days and clinicians in all but one of the indices of footprint, arch angle (.689), with good reliability between clinicians. The full-factorial analysis of variance model did not reveal any interaction effects (P > .05), which indicated that indices of footprint were not changing across days and clinicians. Scanning technology used in this study demonstrated good intra- and interrater reliability measurements of footprint indices, as demonstrated by high ICC values. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jenny Perlman; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    "Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries" tells the story of where and how quality education has scaled in low- and middle-income countries. The story emerges from wide-ranging research on scaling and learning, including 14 in-depth case studies from around the globe. Ultimately, "Millions…

  13. The Development of an Emotions Scale for Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jack L.; Brand, Alice G.

    1987-01-01

    The Brand Emotions Scale for Writers (BESW) is a 20-item scale designed to measure writers' emotions immediately before, during, and immediately after writing. This article describes the development of the BESW and the factor structure of the three different scale forms. (BS)

  14. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  15. Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carrier (HBOC) Development in Trauma: Previous Regulatory Challenges, Lessons Learned, and a Path Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keipert, Peter E

    2017-01-01

    Historically, hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) were being developed as "blood substitutes," despite their transient circulatory half-life (~ 24 h) vs. transfused red blood cells (RBCs). More recently, HBOC commercial development focused on "oxygen therapeutic" indications to provide a temporary oxygenation bridge until medical or surgical interventions (including RBC transfusion, if required) can be initiated. This included the early trauma trials with HemAssist ® (BAXTER), Hemopure ® (BIOPURE) and PolyHeme ® (NORTHFIELD) for resuscitating hypotensive shock. These trials all failed due to safety concerns (e.g., cardiac events, mortality) and certain protocol design limitations. In 2008 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) put all HBOC trials in the US on clinical hold due to the unfavorable benefit:risk profile demonstrated by various HBOCs in different clinical studies in a meta-analysis published by Natanson et al. (2008). During standard resuscitation in trauma, organ dysfunction and failure can occur due to ischemia in critical tissues, which can be detected by the degree of lactic acidosis. SANGART'S Phase 2 trauma program with MP4OX therefore added lactate >5 mmol/L as an inclusion criterion to enroll patients who had lost sufficient blood to cause a tissue oxygen debt. This was key to the successful conduct of their Phase 2 program (ex-US, from 2009 to 2012) to evaluate MP4OX as an adjunct to standard fluid resuscitation and transfusion of RBCs. In 2013, SANGART shared their Phase 2b results with the FDA, and succeeded in getting the FDA to agree that a planned Phase 2c higher dose comparison study of MP4OX in trauma could include clinical sites in the US. Unfortunately, SANGART failed to secure new funding and was forced to terminate development and operations in Dec 2013, even though a regulatory path forward with FDA approval to proceed in trauma had been achieved.

  16. Developing a Mathematics Education Quality Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, S. Koza; Karadag, Engin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of the quality of mathematics education and to develop a reliable and valid measurement tool. The research was conducted with 638 (first study) and 407 (second study) secondary school students in Eskisehir, Turkey. Item discrimination, structural validity (exploratory factor analysis and…

  17. Development of the Academic Performance Perception Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Recep

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: While numerous studies about academic performance that focused on only one factor, studies aiming to measure academicians' perceptions across many factors have not been observed in the literature. The current study aims to fill this gap and become a resource for upcoming studies. The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable…

  18. Development and Examination of Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Bijen FİLİZ; Gıyasettin DEMİRHAN

    2018-01-01

    In this study, “Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale (PSRB-S)” was developed in order to determine students’ responsibility behaviors in accordance with “Personal and Social Responsibility” model developed by Don Hellison and students’ personal and social responsibility levels were examined in terms of gender, age and years of sport practice through this scale. Pertaining to personal and social dimension of responsibility, four-category Likert type trial scale consisting of 52 i...

  19. Journalism Degree Motivations: The Development of a Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Serena; Grant, August E.; Hoag, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Scientific knowledge should reflect valid, consistent measurement. It is argued research on scale development needs to be more systematic and prevalent. The intent of this article is to address scale development by creating and validating a construct that measures the underlying reasons why undergraduate students seek a degree in journalism, the…

  20. Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Matthews, Molly R.; Weiner, Judith; Hogan, Kathryn M.; Popson, Halle C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish a short measure of attitudes toward sexual consent in the context of alcohol consumption. Methods: Using a multistage and systematic measurement development process, the investigators developed the Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale using a sample of college students. Results: The resulting 12-item scale, the Alcohol and…

  1. Development and Validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Ok, Ahmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Though environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) has been a focus of many studies in the field of environmental education, very few scales have been developed to assess children's ERB. In this regard, this article focuses on the development and validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale (CREBS) and also reports the…

  2. Organizational Health and Higher Education: Concept and Measurement Scale Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingele, William E.; Lyden, Julie A.; Vaughan, Beverly J.

    2001-01-01

    A scale to measure higher education institutions' organizational health was developed and tested using 198 survey responses. Scale dimensions include communication adequacy, participation/involvement, commitment/loyalty, morale, external reputation, ethics, performance recognition, goal alignment, leadership, development, and resource use.…

  3. The development for small scale soft X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Kexu; Jiang Shaoen; Yi Rongqing; Cui Yanli

    2004-12-01

    For the development of small-scale soft X-ray spectrometer, first, some small-scale soft X-ray detection elements are developed, it is included GaAs irradiated with neutron, GaAs irradiated with proton, multi-layer mirror, plane mirror and small scale X-ray diode et al. Soft X-ray spectrometers built of multi-layer mirror-GaAs (with neutron irradiation), and plane mirror-small-scale XRD, and plane mirror-GaAs (with proton irradiation) are prepared. These spectrometers are examined in Shen Guang-II laser facility, and some external estimation are given. (authors)

  4. Development of a Scale for Domain General Perceived Control Scale Primary School ChildrensAND#8217;

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Dereli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY AIM: This study aimed to develop a scale to measure domain general perceived control scale for elementary age children. METHOD: Participants were a total of 341 primary school children, 4th and f4th grade for 152 students, 6th, 7th and 8th grade for 162 students aged between 10-14.Skinner (1996, perceived control based on the theory is created 12-item scale of perceived control of the general form of the trial for primary education children and this form, within the scope of the research subjects, are given in order to make the validity and reliability studies. In order to test the validity of the scale developed, Satisfaction with Life was used. This scale was developed by Diener et al. (1985 and adapted into Turkish by Yetim (1993. RESULTS:Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysises and certain reliability analyses were used in the study. As a result of the analysis, four Likert-type five items scale were obtained. The findings revealed one -dimensional scale, 46.35% of whose variance was explained. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha provided evidence for the internal consistency of the exploratory the Scale. The reliability of the scale was 0.70 and indicated that the 5 item scale had good internal consistency for the sample. CONCLUSION: The scale that resulted was given the title “Scale for Primary School Children’ Time Orientation during Classroom Disengagement”. This instrument may be used in various studies in the future, thus contributing to the development of the field. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 331-338

  5. Benefits of transactive memory systems in large-scale development

    OpenAIRE

    Aivars, Sablis

    2016-01-01

    Context. Large-scale software development projects are those consisting of a large number of teams, maybe even spread across multiple locations, and working on large and complex software tasks. That means that neither a team member individually nor an entire team holds all the knowledge about the software being developed and teams have to communicate and coordinate their knowledge. Therefore, teams and team members in large-scale software development projects must acquire and manage expertise...

  6. Development and Validation of Academic Dishonesty Scale (ADS): Presenting a Multidimensional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Hilal; Bala, Ranjan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a scale measuring academic dishonesty of undergraduate students. The sample of the study constitutes nine hundred undergraduate students selected via random sampling technique. After receiving expert's opinions for the face and content validity of the scale, the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and…

  7. Development of a Work Climate Scale in Emergency Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Lozano-Lozano, José A; Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P

    2018-01-01

    An adequate work climate fosters productivity in organizations and increases employee satisfaction. Workers in emergency health services (EHS) have an extremely high degree of responsibility and consequent stress. Therefore, it is essential to foster a good work climate in this context. Despite this, scales with a full study of their psychometric properties (i.e., validity evidence based on test content, internal structure and relations to other variables, and reliability) are not available to measure work climate in EHS specifically. For this reason, our objective was to develop a scale to measure the quality of work climates in EHS. We carried out three studies. In Study 1, we used a mixed-method approach to identify the latent conceptual structure of the construct work climate . Thus, we integrated the results found in (a) a previous study, where a content analysis of seven in-depth interviews obtained from EHS professionals in two hospitals in Gibraltar Countryside County was carried out; and (b) the factor analysis of the responses given by 113 EHS professionals from these same centers to 18 items that measured the work climate in health organizations. As a result, we obtained 56 items grouped into four factors (work satisfaction, productivity/achievement of aims, interpersonal relationships, and performance at work). In Study 2, we presented validity evidence based on test content through experts' judgment. Fourteen experts from the methodology and health fields evaluated the representativeness, utility, and feasibility of each of the 56 items with respect to their factor (theoretical dimension). Forty items met the inclusion criterion, which was to obtain an Osterlind index value greater than or equal to 0.5 in the three aspects assessed. In Study 3, 201 EHS professionals from the same centers completed the resulting 40-item scale. This new instrument produced validity evidence based on the internal structure in a second-order factor model with four

  8. Development of a Work Climate Scale in Emergency Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sanduvete-Chaves

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An adequate work climate fosters productivity in organizations and increases employee satisfaction. Workers in emergency health services (EHS have an extremely high degree of responsibility and consequent stress. Therefore, it is essential to foster a good work climate in this context. Despite this, scales with a full study of their psychometric properties (i.e., validity evidence based on test content, internal structure and relations to other variables, and reliability are not available to measure work climate in EHS specifically. For this reason, our objective was to develop a scale to measure the quality of work climates in EHS. We carried out three studies. In Study 1, we used a mixed-method approach to identify the latent conceptual structure of the construct work climate. Thus, we integrated the results found in (a a previous study, where a content analysis of seven in-depth interviews obtained from EHS professionals in two hospitals in Gibraltar Countryside County was carried out; and (b the factor analysis of the responses given by 113 EHS professionals from these same centers to 18 items that measured the work climate in health organizations. As a result, we obtained 56 items grouped into four factors (work satisfaction, productivity/achievement of aims, interpersonal relationships, and performance at work. In Study 2, we presented validity evidence based on test content through experts' judgment. Fourteen experts from the methodology and health fields evaluated the representativeness, utility, and feasibility of each of the 56 items with respect to their factor (theoretical dimension. Forty items met the inclusion criterion, which was to obtain an Osterlind index value greater than or equal to 0.5 in the three aspects assessed. In Study 3, 201 EHS professionals from the same centers completed the resulting 40-item scale. This new instrument produced validity evidence based on the internal structure in a second-order factor model with

  9. Development and Assessment of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Linnemeyer, Rachel M.; Bahner, Angela D.; Misialek, Leah Hanson

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and the initial psychometric evaluation of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale in two studies. In the first study, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 278) revealed a four-factor scale, accounting for 71.4% of the variance, measuring different aspects of social issue advocacy: Political and Social Advocacy,…

  10. The Chip-Scale Atomic Clock - Recent Development Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 467 THE CHIP-SCALE ATOMIC CLOCK – RECENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRESS R. Lutwak ...1] R. Lutwak , et al., 2003, “The Chip-Scale Atomic Clock – Coherent Population Trapping vs. Conventional Interrogation,” in

  11. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Homophobic Bullying Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to develop the Homophobic Bullying Scale and to investigate its psychometric properties. The items of the Homophobic Bullying Scale were created to measure high school students' bullying behaviors motivated by homophobia, including verbal bullying, relational bullying, physical bullying, property bullying, sexual harassment, and…

  12. Development and Validation of the Organizational Dissent Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassing, Jeffrey W.

    1998-01-01

    Develops a measure for operationalizing how employees verbally express their contradictory opinions and disagreements about organizational phenomena. Tests the Organizational Dissent Scale (ODS) in a series of studies designed to generate evidence of validity/reliability for the measure. Indicates that the scale measures how employees express…

  13. Scale development for pre-service mathematics teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to determine pre-service mathematics teachers' perceptions related to their pedagogical content knowledge. Firstly, a preliminary perception scale of pedagogical content knowledge was constructed and then administered to 112 pre-service mathematics teachers who were ...

  14. Development of a Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Charlotte A.; Hebert, Edward; Daigle, Kay; Martin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Relationships have been found between teacher efficacy and many teaching and learning variables, but few researchers have examined teaching efficacy in physical education. The instrument reported here, the Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale, was developed based on the teaching efficacy literature, existing scales, and National Association…

  15. Development of Teachers' Attitude Scale towards Science Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a new scale for measuring teachers' attitude towards science fair. Teacher Attitude Scale towards Science Fair (TASSF) is an inventory made up of 19 items and five dimensions. The study included such stages as literature review, the preparation of the item pool and the reliability and validity analysis. First of…

  16. Development and Validation of the Mathematical Resilience Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooken, Janice; Welsh, Megan E.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Johnston-Wilder, Sue; Lee, Clare

    2016-01-01

    The Mathematical Resilience Scale measures students' attitudes toward studying mathematics, using three correlated factors: Value, Struggle, and Growth. The Mathematical Resilience Scale was developed and validated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across three samples. Results provide a new approach to gauge the likelihood of…

  17. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  18. Development of an Attitude Scale towards High School Physics Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavas, Pervin Ünlü; Çagan, Sultan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Likert type attitude scale for high school students with regard to high school physics lessons. The research was carried out with high school students who were studying in Ankara. First, the opinions of 105 high school students about physics lessons were obtained and then 55 scale items were determined from…

  19. Developing knowledge level scale of functional foods: Validity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to develop a scale to determine the knowledge levels of University students on functional foods and to investigate the validity and reliability of the scale. The research was conducted on 417 (209 girls and 208 boys) undergraduate students in Selcuk University regarding functional foods.

  20. The Development of Social Competence Scale for Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fu Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were 1 to develop a social behavior assessment system for adolescent - social competence scale; and 2 to evaluate the reliability and validity of this proposed scale. The social behavior assessment system for adolescent comprised three scales: the teacher rating scale (TRS, parent rating scale (PRS, and self-report scale (SRS. TRS, PRS, and SRS all included 110 items in two scales: social competence scale (SCS and problem behavior scale (PBS. The social competence scale consisted of 48 items divided into seven subscales for measuring three theoretical dimensions: self-control, interpersonal interaction, and academic behavior. The development of social competence scale yielded the following results regarding validity: 1 evidence based on test content was established and supported by exploring literature and expert validity; 2 TRS-SCS, PRS-SCS, and SRS-SCS all have high internal consistency reliability and 4-week-interval re-test reliability. Besides, the inter-rater reliability between teachers, parents and students were lower to moderate; 3 the concurrent criterion related evidence of the TRS-SCS and PRS-SCS to the behavioral and emotional rating scale and the SRS-SCS to the Beck youth inventories were all significant; 4 the discriminant evidence of TRS-SCS was found to be considerably satisfactory in discriminating children with emotional and behavioral problems from those without; 5 evidence based on internal structure indicates that the results of confirmatory factory analysis were found considerably satisfactory in TRS-SCS, PRS-SCS, and SRS-SCS. In general, the reliability and validity of the study were satisfactory. Finally, the percentile rank and t-score norms were developed for 607 subjects in TRS-SCS, 1,168 subjects in PRS-SCS and 1,246 subjects in SRS-SCS.

  1. The Online Social Support Scale: Measure development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Elizabeth A; Cole, David A; Cho, Sun-Joo; Smith, Darcy K; Carter, T Grace; Zelkowitz, Rachel L

    2018-05-21

    A new measure, the Online Social Support Scale, was developed based on previous theory, research, and measurement of in-person social support. It includes four subscales: Esteem/Emotional Support, Social Companionship, Informational Support, and Instrumental Support. In college and community samples, factor analytic and item response theory results suggest that subtypes of in-person social support also pertain in the online world. Evidence of reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity provide excellent psychometric support for the measure. Construct validity accrues to the measure vis-à-vis support for three hypotheses: (a) Various broad types of Internet platforms for social interactions are differentially associated with online social support and online victimization; (b) similar to in-person social support, online social support offsets the adverse effect of negative life events on self-esteem and depression-related outcome; and (c) online social support counteracts the effects of online victimization in much the same way that in-person friends in one social niche counterbalance rejection in other social niches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Scale of Academic Emotion in Science Education: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Wei; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2014-04-01

    Contemporary research into science education has generally been conducted from the perspective of 'conceptual change' in learning. This study sought to extend previous work by recognizing that human rationality can be influenced by the emotions generated by the learning environment and specific actions related to learning. Methods used in educational psychology were adopted to investigate the emotional experience of science students as affected by gender, teaching methods, feedback, and learning tasks. A multidisciplinary research approach combining brain activation measurement with multivariate psychological data theory was employed in the development of a questionnaire intended to reveal the academic emotions of university students in three situations: attending science class, learning scientific subjects, and problem solving. The reliability and validity of the scale was evaluated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results revealed differences between the genders in positive-activating and positive-deactivating academic emotions in all three situations; however, these differences manifested primarily during preparation for Science tests. In addition, the emotions experienced by male students were more intense than those of female students. Finally, the negative-deactivating emotions associated with participation in Science tests were more intense than those experienced by simply studying science. This study provides a valuable tool with which to evaluate the emotional response of students to a range of educational situations.

  3. Scaling-up Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Sri Lanka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of Sri Lanka is increasingly emphasizing aquaculture development as a means to foster ... Pilot interventions tested the effectiveness of mobile short text messaging to ... Building on this project, researchers will test three ways of scaling-up ...

  4. Systems of Systems: Scaling up the Development Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humphrey, Watts

    2006-01-01

    ... into system-of-systems structures. Section 3 points out how large-scale systems development efforts have typically failed because of project-management and not technical problems, and that the solutions to these problems...

  5. Systems of Systems: Scaling Up the Development Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humphrey, Watts

    2006-01-01

    ... of massive systems into system-of-systems structures Section 3 points out how large-scale systems development efforts have typically failed because of project-management and not technical problems...

  6. Development and external validation of a new PTA assessment scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Bram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA is a key symptom of traumatic brain injury (TBI. Accurate assessment of PTA is imperative in guiding clinical decision making. Our aim was to develop and externally validate a short, examiner independent and practical PTA scale, by selecting the most discriminative items from existing scales and using a three-word memory test. Methods Mild, moderate and severe TBI patients and control subjects were assessed in two separate cohorts, one for derivation and one for validation, using a questionnaire comprised of items from existing PTA scales. We tested which individual items best discriminated between TBI patients and controls, represented by sensitivity and specificity. We then created our PTA scale based on these results. This new scale was externally evaluated for its discriminative value using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis and compared to existing PTA scales. Results The derivation cohort included 126 TBI patients and 31 control subjects; the validation cohort consisted of 132 patients and 30 controls. A set of seven items was eventually selected to comprise the new PTA scale: age, name of hospital, time, day of week, month, mode of transport and recall of three words. This scale demonstrated adequate discriminative values compared to existing PTA scales on three consecutive administrations in the validation cohort. Conclusion We introduce a valid, practical and examiner independent PTA scale, which is suitable for mild TBI patients at the emergency department and yet still valuable for the follow-up of more severely injured TBI patients.

  7. Development of a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale for Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Research Product 2018-06 Development of a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale for Leadership Tatiana H. Toumbeva Krista L...anchored Rating Scale for Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W5J9CQ-11-D-0004 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62278 6...observer- based behavioral measure to help instructors more reliably and accurately evaluate the development of leadership attributes and competencies

  8. Predicting risk behaviors: development and validation of a diagnostic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, K; Cameron, K A; McKeon, J K; Berkowitz, J M

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and validate the Risk Behavior Diagnosis (RBD) Scale for use by health care providers and practitioners interested in promoting healthy behaviors. Theoretically guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM; a fear appeal theory), the RBD scale was designed to work in conjunction with an easy-to-use formula to determine which types of health risk messages would be most appropriate for a given individual or audience. Because some health risk messages promote behavior change and others backfire, this type of scale offers guidance to practitioners on how to develop the best persuasive message possible to motivate healthy behaviors. The results of the study demonstrate the RBD scale to have a high degree of content, construct, and predictive validity. Specific examples and practical suggestions are offered to facilitate use of the scale for health practitioners.

  9. Development and psychometric evaluation of supportive leadership scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilton, Katherine S

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of 2 supportive leadership scales, the Charge Nurse Support Scale and the Unit Manager Support Scale, designed for long-term-care environments. These 6-item self-report scales were administered to 70 nursing staff and their internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, content validity, factor structure, and construct validity investigated. Content validity was established with the assistance of experts. Both scales were deemed reliable. As hypothesized, a significant relationship was found between the measure of how nursing staff related to residents and measures of charge nurses' supportive behaviours (r = .42, p = .05). Reliable and valid measures of supportive leadership could be developed for use in identifying the quality of support provided to staff in long-term-care environments.

  10. Scaling open data for development in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Scaling open data for development in Latin America. Latin America is the most unequal region in the world and faces complex development challenges. Among these is the unprecedented number of corruption scandals in the region, which demonstrates the need to develop new approaches to foster accountability, ...

  11. Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min; Lee, Joon-Yeop; Won, Wang-Youn; Park, Jae-Woo; Min, Jung-Ah; Hahn, Changtae; Gu, Xinyu; Choi, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a self-diagnostic scale that could distinguish smartphone addicts based on the Korean self-diagnostic program for Internet addiction (K-scale) and the smartphone's own features. In addition, the reliability and validity of the smartphone addiction scale (SAS) was demonstrated. A total of 197 participants were selected from Nov. 2011 to Jan. 2012 to accomplish a set of questionnaires, including SAS, K-scale, modified Kimberly Young Internet addiction test (Y-scale), visual analogue scale (VAS), and substance dependence and abuse diagnosis of DSM-IV. There were 64 males and 133 females, with ages ranging from 18 to 53 years (M = 26.06; SD = 5.96). Factor analysis, internal-consistency test, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of SAS. Based on the factor analysis results, the subscale "disturbance of reality testing" was removed, and six factors were left. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified (Cronbach's alpha = 0.967). SAS and its subscales were significantly correlated with K-scale and Y-scale. The VAS of each factor also showed a significant correlation with each subscale. In addition, differences were found in the job (psmartphone addiction scores (psmartphone addiction aspect of the diagnostic manual. This scale was proven to be relatively reliable and valid.

  12. Multidisciplinary Delphi Development of a Scale to Evaluate Team Function in Obstetric Emergencies: The PETRA Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balki, Mrinalini; Hoppe, David; Monks, David; Cooke, Mary Ellen; Sharples, Lynn; Windrim, Rory

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new interdisciplinary teamwork scale, the Perinatal Emergency: Team Response Assessment (PETRA), for the management of obstetric crises, through consensus agreement of obstetric caregivers. This prospective study was performed using expert consensus, based on a Delphi method. The study investigators developed a new PETRA tool, specifically related to obstetric crisis management, based on the existing literature and discussions among themselves. The scale was distributed to a selected panel of experts in the field for the Delphi process. After each round of Delphi, every component of the scale was analyzed quantitatively by the percentage of agreement ratings and each comment reviewed by the blinded investigators. The assessment scale was then modified, with components of less than 80% agreement removed from the scale. The process was repeated on three occasions to reach a consensus and final PETRA scale. Fourteen of 24 invited experts participated in the Delphi process. The original PETRA scale included six categories and 48 items, one global scale item, and a 3-point rubric for rating. The overall percentage agreement by experts in the first, second, and third rounds was 95.0%, 93.2%, and 98.5%, respectively. The final scale after the third round of Delphi consisted of the following seven categories: shared mental model, communication, situational awareness, leadership, followership, workload management, and positive/effective behaviours and attitudes. There were 34 individual items within these categories, each with a 5-point rating rubric (1 = unacceptable to 5 = perfect). Using a structured Delphi method, we established the face and content validity of this assessment scale that focuses on important aspects of interdisciplinary teamwork in the management of obstetric crises. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada

  13. Developing scale for colleague solidarity among nurses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslusoy, Esin Cetinkaya; Alpar, Sule Ecevit

    2013-02-01

    There is a need for an appropriate instrument to measure colleague solidarity among nurses. This study was carried out to develop a Colleague Solidarity of Nurses' Scale (CSNS). This study was planned to be descriptive and methodological. The CSNS examined content validity, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability. The trial form of the CSNS, which was composed of 44 items, was given to 200 nurses, followed by validity and reliability analyses. Following the analyses, 21 items were excluded from the scale, leaving an attitude scale made up of 23 items. Factor analysis of the data showed that the scale has a three sub-factor structure: emotional solidarity, academic solidarity and negative opinions about solidarity. The Cronbach's alpha reliability of the whole scale was 0.80. This study provides evidence that the CSNS possesses robust solidarity among nurses. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. [Development of Autogenic Training Clinical Effectiveness Scale (ATCES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezuki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Koshikawa, Fusako

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a scale measuring clinical effectiveness of autogenic training. In Study 1, 167 undergraduates completed a survey of items concerning physical and mental states, which were thought to vary in the course of autogenic training. With item and factor analyses, 20 items were selected, and the resulting scale (ATCES) had high discrimination and clear factor structure. In Study 2, reliability and concurrent and clinical validity of the scale were examined with three groups of respondents: 85 mentally healthy, 31 control, 13 clinical persons. The scale showed a high test-retest correlation (r = .83) and alpha coefficient (alpha = .86). ATCES had a Pearson correlation coefficient of r = .56 with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and r = .73 with trait anxiety (STAI-T). And ATCES successfully discriminated the mentally healthy and clinical groups in terms of clinical effectiveness. These results demonstrated high reliability and sufficient concurrent and clinical validity of the new scale.

  15. Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kwon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a self-diagnostic scale that could distinguish smartphone addicts based on the Korean self-diagnostic program for Internet addiction (K-scale and the smartphone's own features. In addition, the reliability and validity of the smartphone addiction scale (SAS was demonstrated. METHODS: A total of 197 participants were selected from Nov. 2011 to Jan. 2012 to accomplish a set of questionnaires, including SAS, K-scale, modified Kimberly Young Internet addiction test (Y-scale, visual analogue scale (VAS, and substance dependence and abuse diagnosis of DSM-IV. There were 64 males and 133 females, with ages ranging from 18 to 53 years (M = 26.06; SD = 5.96. Factor analysis, internal-consistency test, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of SAS. RESULTS: Based on the factor analysis results, the subscale "disturbance of reality testing" was removed, and six factors were left. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified (Cronbach's alpha = 0.967. SAS and its subscales were significantly correlated with K-scale and Y-scale. The VAS of each factor also showed a significant correlation with each subscale. In addition, differences were found in the job (p<0.05, education (p<0.05, and self-reported smartphone addiction scores (p<0.001 in SAS. CONCLUSIONS: This study developed the first scale of the smartphone addiction aspect of the diagnostic manual. This scale was proven to be relatively reliable and valid.

  16. Scale up risk of developing oil shale processing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1991-01-01

    The experiences in oil shale processing in three large countries, China, the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. have demonstrated, that the relative scale up risk of developing oil shale processing units is related to the scale up factor. On the background of large programmes for developing the oil shale industry branch, i.e. the $30 billion investments in colorado and Utah or 50 million t/year oil shale processing in Estonia and Leningrad Region planned in the late seventies, the absolute scope of the scale up risk of developing single retorting plants, seems to be justified. But under the conditions of low crude oil prices, when the large-scale development of oil shale processing industry is stopped, the absolute scope of the scale up risk is to be divided between a small number of units. Therefore, it is reasonable to build the new commercial oil shale processing plants with a minimum scale up risk. For example, in Estonia a new oil shale processing plant with gas combustion retorts projected to start in the early nineties will be equipped with four units of 1500 t/day enriched oil shale throughput each, designed with scale up factor M=1.5 and with a minimum scale up risk, only r=2.5-4.5%. The oil shale retorting unit for the PAMA plant in Israel [1] is planned to develop in three steps, also with minimum scale up risk: feasibility studies in Colorado with Israel's shale at Paraho 250 t/day retort and other tests, demonstration retort of 700 t/day and M=2.8 in Israel, and commercial retorts in the early nineties with the capacity of about 1000 t/day with M=1.4. The scale up risk of the PAMA project r=2-4% is approximately the same as that in Estonia. the knowledge of the scope of the scale up risk of developing oil shale processing retorts assists on the calculation of production costs in erecting new units. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Postpartum IGF-I and IGFBP-2 levels are prospectively associated with the development of type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, M; Jinks, D; Shub, A; Willcox, J C; Georgiou, H M; Permezel, M

    2016-12-01

    Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In the general population, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if circulating IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 levels 12weeks following a GDM pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 levels were measured in 98 normal glucose tolerant women, 12weeks following an index GDM pregnancy using enzyme immunoassay. Women were assessed for up to 10years for the development of overt type 2 diabetes. Among the 98 women with previous GDM, 21 (21%) developed diabetes during the median follow-up period of 8.5years. After adjusting for age and BMI, IGF-I and IGFBP-2 were significantly associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. In a clinical model of prediction of type 2 diabetes that included age, BMI, pregnancy fasting glucose and postnatal fasting glucose, the addition of IGF-I and IGFBP-2 resulted in an improvement in the net reclassification index of 17.8%. High postpartum IGF-I and low postpartum IGFBP-2 levels are a significant risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes in women with a previous history of GDM. This is the first report that identifies IGF-I and IGFBP-2 as a potential biomarker for the prediction of type 2 diabetes in women with a history of GDM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Engineering development for a small-scale recirculator experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, M.A.; Deadrick, F.J.; Hanks, R.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Holm, K.A.; Kirbie, H.C.; Karpenko, V.P.; Nattrass, L.A.; Longinotti, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is evaluating the physics and technology of recirculating induction accelerators for heavy-ion inertial-fusion drivers. As part of this evaluation, the authors are building a small-scale recirculator to demonstrate the concept and to use as a test bed for the development of recirculator technologies. System designs have been completed and components are presently being designed and developed for the small-scale recirculator. This paper discusses results of the design and development activities that are presently being conducted to implement the small-scale recirculator experiments. An, overview of the system design is presented along with a discussion of the implications of this design on the mechanical and electrical hardware. The paper focuses primarily on discussions of the development and design of the half-lattice period hardware and the advanced solid-state modulator

  19. Student Misbehaviors in Online Classrooms: Scale Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Titsworth, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The current program of research included two studies that developed the Student Online Misbehaviors (SOMs) scale and explored relationships between the SOMs and various classroom communication processes and outcomes. The first study inductively developed initial SOM typologies and tested factor structure via an exploratory factor analysis.…

  20. The Bereavement Guilt Scale : Development and preliminary validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jie; Stroebe, Margaret; Chan, Cecilia L.W.; Chow, Amy Y.M.

    The rationale, development, and validation of the Bereavement Guilt Scale (BGS) are described in this article. The BGS was based on a theoretically developed, multidimensional conceptualization of guilt. Part 1 describes the generation of the item pool, derived from in-depth interviews, and review

  1. Large Scale Survey Data in Career Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Large scale survey datasets have been underutilized but offer numerous advantages for career development scholars, as they contain numerous career development constructs with large and diverse samples that are followed longitudinally. Constructs such as work salience, vocational expectations, educational expectations, work satisfaction, and…

  2. Farm-scale biogas development in Southern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeberle, E [Biogaskontor, Obermarchtal (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    This work provides a description of the development of farm-scale plants in Bayern and Baden-Wuerttemberg. The historical development is explained as well as the technical. Main topics are digester concepts, stirring system and co-generation with dual-fuel and gas-engines. (au)

  3. Development and Examination of Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijen FİLİZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, “Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale (PSRB-S” was developed in order to determine students’ responsibility behaviors in accordance with “Personal and Social Responsibility” model developed by Don Hellison and students’ personal and social responsibility levels were examined in terms of gender, age and years of sport practice through this scale. Pertaining to personal and social dimension of responsibility, four-category Likert type trial scale consisting of 52 items and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA were applied to 330 high-school students. Items that did not apply as a result of the analysis were omitted from 52-item trial scale and the scale was reduced to 14 items. A final scale consisting of two factors was created. Obtained scale was applied to different 250 high-school students for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. It has been determined that EFA and CFA results of two-factor PSRB-S and reliability and validity of internal consistency coefficients are at an acceptable level. It was not detected a significance difference in total scores of athlete students’ responsibility behaviors in terms of gender and age variables while there were significant difference in their total scores of years of sport practice.

  4. The development of an emotional regulation scale for adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Monique; Raubenheimer, Jacques E; Campher, Daleen; Coetzee, Charika; Diedericks, Amorise; Gevers, Heidi; Green, Karla; van Niekerk, Sandré

    2016-01-01

    Emotional regulation is an important skill enabling or disabling the occupational engagement of adolescent clients. Evaluation is a key concept in the occupational therapy process, informing treatment approaches and outcomes. The authors could not identify a scale measuring emotional regulation strategies used by adolescent in the literature. A quantitative, descriptive study was done following a process of scale development. A survey with 78 items was designed which 404 adolescents from a te...

  5. Development of scaling factor prediction method for radionuclide composition in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak

    1995-02-01

    Low-level radioactive waste management require the knowledge of the natures and quantities of radionuclides in the immobilized or packaged waste. U. S. NRC rules require programs that measure the concentrations of all relevant nuclides either directly or indirectly by relating difficult-to-measure radionuclides to other easy-to-measure radionuclides with application of scaling factors. Scaling factors previously developed through statistical approach can give only generic ones and have many difficult problem about sampling procedures. Generic scaling factors can not take into account for plant operation history. In this study, a method to predict plant-specific and operational history dependent scaling factors is developed. Realistic and detailed approach are taken to find scaling factors at reactor coolant. This approach begin with fission product release mechanisms and fundamental release properties of fuel-source nuclide such as fission product and transuranic nuclide. Scaling factors at various waste streams are derived from the predicted reactor coolant scaling factors with the aid of radionuclide retention and build up model. This model make use of radioactive material balance within the radioactive waste processing systems. Scaling factors at reactor coolant and waste streams which can include the effects of plant operation history have been developed according to input parameters of plant operation history

  6. Development of small-scale peat production; Pienturvetuotannon kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkkilae, A.; Kallio, E. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project is to develop production conditions, methods and technology of small-scale peat production to such a level that the productivity is improved and competitivity maintained. The aim in 1996 was to survey the present status of small-scale peat production, and research and development needs and to prepare a development plan for small-scale peat production for a continued project in 1997 and for the longer term. A questionnaire was sent to producers by mail, and its results were completed by phone interviews. Response was obtained from 164 producers, i.e. from about 75 - 85 % of small-scale peat producers. The quantity of energy peat produced by these amounted to 3.3 TWh and that of other peat to 265 000 m{sup 3}. The total production of energy peat (large- scale producers Vapo Oy and Turveruukki Oy included) amounted to 25.0 TWh in 1996 in Finland, of which 91 % (22.8 TWh) was milled peat and 9 % (2.2 TWh) of sod peat. The total production of peat other than energy peat amounted to 1.4 million m{sup 3}. The proportion of small-scale peat production was 13 % of energy peat, 11 % of milled peat and 38 % of sod peat. The proportion of small-scale producers was 18 % of other peat production. The results deviate clearly from those obtained in a study of small-scale production in the 1980s. The amount of small-scale production is clearly larger than generally assessed. Small-scale production focuses more on milled peat than on sod peat. The work will be continued in 1997. Based on development needs appeared in the questionnaire, the aim is to reduce environmental impacts and runoff effluents from small- scale production, to increase the efficiency of peat deliveries and to reduce peat production costs by improving the service value of machines by increasing co-operative use. (orig.)

  7. The development and validation of the Incivility from Customers Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicole L; Holmvall, Camilla M

    2013-07-01

    Scant research has examined customers as sources of workplace incivility, despite evidence suggesting that mistreatment is more common from organizational outsiders, including customers, than from organizational members (Grandey, Kern, & Frone, 2007; Schat & Kelloway, 2005). As an important step in extending the literature on customer incivility, we conducted two studies to develop and validate a measure of this construct. Study 1 used focus groups of retail and restaurant employees (n = 30) to elicit a list of uncivil customer behaviors, based on which we wrote initial scale items. Study 2 used a correlational survey design (n = 439) to pare down the number of scale items to 10 and to garner reliability and validity evidence for the scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses show that the scale is unidimensional and distinguishable from measures of the related, but distinct, constructs of interpersonal justice and psychological aggression from customers. Reliability analyses show that the scale is internally consistent. Significant correlations between the scale and individuals' job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and general and job-specific psychological strain provide evidence of criterion-related validity. Hierarchical regression analyses show that the scale significantly predicts three of four organizational and personal strain outcomes over and above a workplace incivility measure adapted for customer incivility, providing some evidence of incremental validity. Limitations and future research directions are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Development and testing of the circumvaginal muscles rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, A M; Dougherty, M C; McKey, P L

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop an instrument for clinical assessment of the circumvaginal muscles (CVM), to test the reliability of the instrument, and to correlate sample characteristics with this instrument. The 9-point CVM Rating Scale is based on four components: pressure, duration, muscle ribbing, and position of the examiner's finger during examination. Reliability of the CVM Rating Scale was ascertained by use of interrater and test-retest reliability. Interrater reliability was tested on two separate occasions, N = 10, rho = 0.6, p less than .04; N = 10, rho = 0.7, p less than .05. A test-retest sequence was conducted 10 days apart, N = 10, rho = 0.9, p less than .003. Results from these tests indicated that the CVM Rating Scale is a reliable instrument for assessing CVM. A convenience sample of 30 women, aged 18-37, in good general health was tested, using the CVM Rating Scale. Women with a history of pelvic floor reconstructive surgery were excluded. A significant positive correlation between self-reported orgasm and the CVM Rating Scale total scores was found, chi 2 = 7.5, p less than .02. No significant correlations were found between age, race, parity, episiotomy, or self-reported Kegel exercises and the CVM Rating Scale total scores. The scale is a cost-effective, time-efficient, systematic assessment, accessible in clinical settings.

  9. Development and Testing of the Nurse Manager EBP Competency Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Clayton J; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J; Titler, Marita G

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the validity and reliability of an instrument to measure nurse manager competencies regarding evidence-based practice (EBP). The Nurse Manager EBP Competency Scale consists of 16 items for respondents to indicate their perceived level of competency on a 0 to 3 Likert-type scale. Content validity was demonstrated through expert panel review and pilot testing. Principal axis factoring and Cronbach's alpha evaluated construct validity and internal consistency reliability, respectively. Eighty-three nurse managers completed the scale. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 16-item scale with two subscales, EBP Knowledge ( n = 6 items, α = .90) and EBP Activity ( n = 10 items, α = .94). Cronbach's alpha for the entire scale was .95. The Nurse Manager EBP Competency Scale is a brief measure of nurse manager EBP competency with evidence of validity and reliability. The scale can enhance our understanding in future studies regarding how nurse manager EBP competency affects implementation.

  10. New Developments in Mokken Scale Analysis in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Andries van der Ark

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mokken (1971 developed a scaling procedure for both dichotomous and polytomous items that was later coined Mokken scale analysis (MSA. MSA has been developed ever since, and the developments until 2000 have been implemented in the software package MSP (Molenaar and Sijtsma 2000 and the R package mokken (Van der Ark 2007. This paper describes the new developments in MSA since 2000 that have been implemented in mokken since its first release in 2007. These new developments pertain to invariant item ordering, a new automated item selection procedure based on a genetic algorithm, inclusion of reliability coefficients, and the computation of standard errors for the scalability coefficients. We demonstrate all new applications using data obtained with a transitive reasoning test and a personality test.

  11. A Perception Scale on the Use of Webquests in Mathematics Teaching: A Study of Scale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Mevhibe Kobak; Gür, Hülya

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to develop a valid and reliable perception scale in order to determine the perceptions of pre-service teachers towards the use of WebQuest in mathematics teaching. The study was conducted with 115 junior and senior pre-service teachers at Balikesir University's Faculty of Education, Computer Education and Instructional…

  12. Development, standardization and validation of social anxiety scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little attention has been given to social anxiety in Nigeria despite its debilitating effects on the sufferers. The objective of this study was to develop, standardize and validate an instrument (Social Anxiety Scale) with high coefficients of Cronbach Alpha Internal Consistency Split-half reliability and construct validity.

  13. Development of the Social Efficacy and Social Outcome Expectations Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen L.; Wright, Dorothy A.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study developed an 18-item scale measuring individuals' social expectations in relationships related to their efficacy expectations (Subscale 1) and outcome expectations (Subscale 2) based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, using an undergraduate sample ("N" = 486),…

  14. Development and validation of a game addiction scale for adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to measure computer and videogame addiction. Inspired by earlier theories and research on game addiction, we created 21 items to measure seven underlying criteria (i.e., salience, tolerance, mood modification, relapse, withdrawal, conflict,

  15. Development and validation of a game addiction scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to measure computer and videogame addiction. Inspired by earlier theories and research on game and internet addiction, we created 21 items to measure seven criteria for game addiction (i.e., salience, tolerance, mood modification, relapse,

  16. The Development and Validation of the Instructional Dissent Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodboy, Alan K.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies (N = 420) were conducted to develop and validate the instructional dissent scale (IDS) for use in the college classroom. Participants in study 1 were 210 students who completed the IDS pilot inventory which was subjected to an exploratory factor analysis yielding three distinct factors of dissent (i.e., expressive, rhetorical,…

  17. Development and utilization of spring water in small scale supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and utilization of spring water in small scale supply scheme for the Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, central Nigeria. Joseph Omada. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology 2005, Vol. 41(1): 131-135. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  18. Development and Psychometric Properties Gender Roles Attitude Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyneloglu, Simge; Terzioglu, Fusun

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted for the purpose of developing a scaling tool to determine university students' attitudes towards gender roles. University students' attitudes should first be determined in order to change this traditional view to gender and to achieve a more egalitarian view. The research sample was comprised of one university's…

  19. Team sport in organisations: the Development of a scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YT Joubert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop an organisational team sport scale (OTSS. A series of projects was undertaken before the development of this organisational team sport scale. The initial phase, which consisted of a qualitative study, was done to get an in-depth understanding of how employees perceive organisational team sport interventions in their organisations through focus group interviews and individual interviews (n = 72 and through the literature review. In phase 2, information obtained from phase 1 was used to develop a scale which consisted of 53 items. In phase 3, a total of 209 respondents completed the scale. The number of items was reduced to 52 through principal component analyses and a five-factor structure was suggested. The final version of the OTSS contains 52 items that assess coping skills or achieve goals, relationships among participants, physical activity and health, benefits of sport for the organisation and work/life balance. Specific issues with regard to the five-factor structure are discussed and suggestions for future research are made. The findings of this study will contribute valuable new knowledge to the literature on the development of the OTSS.

  20. Development of the Scale for "Convergence Thinking" in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to define the concept of "convergence thinking" as a trading zone for knowledge fusion in the engineering field, and develops its measuring scale. Design/ Methodology/Approach: Based on results from literature review, this study clarifies a theoretical ground for "convergence thinking."…

  1. Development of the Free Time Motivation Scale for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cheryl K.; Caldwell, Linda L.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a self-report measure of adolescent free time motivation based in self-determination theory, using data from 634 seventh graders. The scale measured five forms of motivation (amotivation, external, introjected, identified, and intrinsic motivation). Examination of each of the subscales indicated minimally acceptable levels of fit. The…

  2. Development of Malayalam Handwriting Scale for School Students in Kerala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, K. Abdul; Naseer, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    With a view to support instruction, formative and summative assessment and to provide model handwriting performance for students to compare their own performance, a Malayalam handwriting scale is developed. Data from 2640 school students belonging to Malappuram, Palakkad and Kozhikode districts, sampled by taking 240 students per each grade…

  3. Developing a competency scale for sport coaches | De Klerk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of operational competencies of sport coaches is widely acknowledged in the literature, yet there appears to be a lack of research in this field. The purpose of this research study was to develop a competency scale for sport coaches. Based on literature regarding operational competencies of sport coaches, ...

  4. Development of small-scale fisheries in Yemen: An exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, A.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2007-01-01

    Yemen is one of the poorest countries in the world. The development of its fishery sector is increasingly being mentioned as a source of livelihood creation. The aims of this paper are to: (a) provide an overview of the institutional environment in which small-scale fishermen in Yemen operate; (b)

  5. Development and validation of the Tinder Motives Scale (TMS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Elisabeth; De Caluwe, E.A.L.

    Recently, Tinder became the most popular mobile dating application. Although it is initially designed as a dating application, not much is known about actual motives for using this new medium. Consequently, this project aimed to develop and evaluate a new scale that assesses Tinder motives by

  6. Development and external validation of a new PTA assessment scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.; van Ekert, J.; Vernooy, L.P.; Dieperink, P.; Andriessen, T.M.J.C.; Hendriks, M.P.; van Vugt, A.B.; Emons, M.A.; Borm, G.F.; Vos, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) is a key symptom of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Accurate assessment of PTA is imperative in guiding clinical decision making. Our aim was to develop and externally validate a short, examiner independent and practical PTA scale, by selecting the most

  7. Policy alienation of public professionals: The development of a scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractToday, many public professionals feel estranged from the policy programs they implement. That is, they experience ‘policy alienation’. This is of concern as, for satisfactory implementation, some identification with the policy is required. We develop a quantitative scale to measure

  8. Development and Validation of the Game Perception Scale (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandercruysse, Sylke; Vandewaetere, Mieke; Maertens, Marie; ter Vrugte, Judith; Wouters, Pieter; de Jong, Ton; van Oostendorp, Herre; Elen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the pervasiveness of perception and considerable impact of perception on the use of ICT for educational purposes, there is a surprising paucity of perception assessment instruments. The present proposal expands on this through the development and initial validation of the Game Perception Scale (GPS). Based on perception literature,…

  9. Development of the Faith Activities in the Home Scale (FAITHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nathaniel M.; Dollahite, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the development of the Faith Activities In The Home Scale (FAITHS). The initial FAITHS measure was improved on and expanded by using qualitative data of two separate samples and then empirically tested on three separate samples. Study 1 comprised two samples totaling 57 highly religious families from New England and California…

  10. Development of the Artistic Supervision Model Scale (ASMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusuzoglu, Saduman; Dilekci, Umit

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop the Artistic Supervision Model Scale in accordance with the perception of inspectors and the elementary and secondary school teachers on artistic supervision. The lack of a measuring instrument related to the model of artistic supervision in the field of literature reveals the necessity of such study. 290…

  11. Development and Validation of the Enculturation Scale for Filipino Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Prado, Alicia M.; Church, A. Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Enculturation is the degree to which a person adheres to the values and behaviors of an indigenous or ethnic culture. This study was conducted to develop the Enculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ESFA). Items were generated from a literature review, interviews with 5 Filipino American academic experts, and a survey of 24 cultural informants.…

  12. Development of the Self-Directed Learning Skills Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, Yildizay; Tarhan, Leman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable scale for assessing high school students' self-directed learning skills. Based on a literature review and data obtained from similar instruments, all skills related to self-directed learning were identified. Next, an item pool was prepared and administered to 255 students from various…

  13. Development and Validation of Perceptions of Online Interaction Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagriacik Yilmaz, Ayse; Karatas, Serçin

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a measurement instrument which is compatible with literature, of which validity and reliability are proved with the aim of determining interaction perceived by learners in online learning environments. Accordingly, literature review was made, and outline form of the scale was formed with item pool by taking 14…

  14. Development and validation of 26-item dysfunctional attitude scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Samouei, Rahele; Mousavii, Sayyed Ghafour; Bornamanesh, Ali Reza

    2013-06-01

    Dysfunctional Attitude Scale is one of the most common instruments used to assess cognitive vulnerability. This study aimed to develop and validate a short form of Dysfunctional Attitude Scale appropriate for an Iranian clinical population. Participants were 160 psychiatric patients from medical centers affiliated with Isfahan Medical University, as well as 160 non-patients. Research instruments were clinical interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-TR, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale and General Heath Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Data was analyzed using multicorrelation calculations and factor analysis. Based on the results of factor analysis and item-total correlation, 14 items were judged candidates for omission. Analysis of the 26-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-26) revealed a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. Evidence for the concurrent criterion validity was obtained through calculating the correlation between the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale and psychiatric diagnosis (r = 0.55), GHQ -28 (r = 0.56) and somatization, anxiety, social dysfunction, and depression subscales (0.45,0.53,0.48, and 0.57, respectively). Factor analysis deemed a four-factor structure the best. The factors were labeled as success-perfectionism, need for approval, need for satisfying others, and vulnerability-performance evaluation. The results showed that the Iranian version of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-26) bears satisfactory psychometric properties suggesting that this cognitive instrument is appropriate for use in an Iranian cultural context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Financing small-scale infrastructure investments in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel L. Bond; Daniel Platz; Magnus Magnusson

    2012-01-01

    In most developing countries a shortage of long-term, local-currency financing for small-scale infrastructure projects impedes local economic development. Inadequate fiscal transfers, little own source revenue and low creditworthiness make it difficult for local governments to fully fund projects on their own. This paper proposes the use of project finance as a means to attract financing from domestic banks and institutional investors. Donors can play a catalytic role by providing technical a...

  16. Development of a Career Resilience Scale for University Students

    OpenAIRE

    児玉, 真樹子

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a career resilience scale for university students. The data of 114 university students was collected. Career resilience, career decision making anxiety, and the degree of career development were measured. The result of a confirmatory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure of career resilience with a high Cronbach’s alpha: ability to cope with problems and changes; social skills; interest in novelty; optimism about the future; and willingness...

  17. Development and validation of the Attitudes Towards Police Legitimacy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Joshua J; Estrada-Reynolds, Victoria; Nunez, Narina

    2018-04-01

    Although there is a substantial body of work examining attitudes towards the police, no measure has been developed to consistently capture citizens' beliefs regarding police legitimacy. Given that police conduct has garnered a great deal of attention, particularly in the last few years, the current research sought to develop a scale measuring perceptions of police legitimacy. Across multiple studies, items were created and the scale's factor structure explored (Study 1 and Study 2), the factor structure was confirmed (Study 3a), and the predictive validity of the scale was tested (Studies 3b-3d). Results provided evidence for a reliable and valid 34-item scale with a single-factor solution that predicted multiple outcomes, including justification of a police shooting (Study 3b) and resource allocation to a police charity (Study 3c), as well as correlations with self-reported criminal activity, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation (Study 3d). We hope this scale will be useful in the study of police legitimacy, expanding the current literature, and improving police-community relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Teachers’ Attitudes towards Teaching English Grammar: A Scale Development Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Polat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In most ELT classes, the importance of grammar, how it should be taught or how much it should be integrated into language teaching are still matters of discussion. Considering this fact, learning teachers’ attitudes towards teaching grammar is significantly valuable for researchers. This study thus aimed to design a scale that identifies teachers’ attitudes towards the role of grammar in the process of teaching English, to pilot it, and to find out the psychometric qualities like reliability and validity of the scale designed. The scale was developed in two phases; it was first aimed to explore the factor structure of the scale, then to confirm the structure gained from the exploration of the items. The study was carried out in 2015 and 247 volunteer language teachers from 3 state universities in Eskişehir and Kütahya were included. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the scale developed in this study was a considerably valid and reliable data collection tool including three factors. Finally, the analyses indicated that gender and graduate faculties did not create significant differences whereas age and the degrees obtained by the teachers created a considerable difference on language teachers’ attitudes towards grammar teaching (p<.05

  19. Heterogeneity and scale of sustainable development in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, Christa; Lobo, José; Hand, Joe; Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2017-08-22

    Rapid worldwide urbanization is at once the main cause and, potentially, the main solution to global sustainable development challenges. The growth of cities is typically associated with increases in socioeconomic productivity, but it also creates strong inequalities. Despite a growing body of evidence characterizing these heterogeneities in developed urban areas, not much is known systematically about their most extreme forms in developing cities and their consequences for sustainability. Here, we characterize the general patterns of income and access to services in a large number of developing cities, with an emphasis on an extensive, high-resolution analysis of the urban areas of Brazil and South Africa. We use detailed census data to construct sustainable development indices in hundreds of thousands of neighborhoods and show that their statistics are scale-dependent and point to the critical role of large cities in creating higher average incomes and greater access to services within their national context. We then quantify the general statistical trajectory toward universal basic service provision at different scales to show that it is characterized by varying levels of inequality, with initial increases in access being typically accompanied by growing disparities over characteristic spatial scales. These results demonstrate how extensions of these methods to other goals and data can be used over time and space to produce a simple but general quantitative assessment of progress toward internationally agreed sustainable development goals.

  20. Heterogeneity and scale of sustainable development in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, Christa; Lobo, José; Hand, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Rapid worldwide urbanization is at once the main cause and, potentially, the main solution to global sustainable development challenges. The growth of cities is typically associated with increases in socioeconomic productivity, but it also creates strong inequalities. Despite a growing body of evidence characterizing these heterogeneities in developed urban areas, not much is known systematically about their most extreme forms in developing cities and their consequences for sustainability. Here, we characterize the general patterns of income and access to services in a large number of developing cities, with an emphasis on an extensive, high-resolution analysis of the urban areas of Brazil and South Africa. We use detailed census data to construct sustainable development indices in hundreds of thousands of neighborhoods and show that their statistics are scale-dependent and point to the critical role of large cities in creating higher average incomes and greater access to services within their national context. We then quantify the general statistical trajectory toward universal basic service provision at different scales to show that it is characterized by varying levels of inequality, with initial increases in access being typically accompanied by growing disparities over characteristic spatial scales. These results demonstrate how extensions of these methods to other goals and data can be used over time and space to produce a simple but general quantitative assessment of progress toward internationally agreed sustainable development goals. PMID:28461489

  1. On the principles of microstructure scale development for titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolachev, B.A.; Mal'kov, A.V.; Gus'kova, L.N.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of an existing standard scale of microstructures for two-phase (α+#betta#)-titanium alloy semiproducts is given. The basic principles of development of control microstructure scales for titanium alloys are presented on the base of investigations and generalization of literature data on connection of microstructure of titanium intermediate products from (α+#betta#)-alloys with their mechanical properties and service life characteristics. A possibilities of changing mechanical and operating properties at the expense of obtaining qualitatively and quantitatively regulated microstructure in the alloy are disclosed on the example of the (α+#betta#)-titanium alloy

  2. Development and validation of the Stirling Eating Disorder Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G J; Power, K G; Miller, H R; Freeman, C P; Yellowlees, A; Dowds, T; Walker, M; Parry-Jones, W L

    1994-07-01

    The development and reliability/validity check of an 80-item, 8-scale measure for use with eating disorder patients is presented. The Stirling Eating Disorder Scales (SEDS) assess anorexic dietary behavior, anorexic dietary cognitions, bulimic dietary behavior, bulimic dietary cognitions, high perceived external control, low assertiveness, low self-esteem, and self-directed hostility. The SEDS were administered to 82 eating disorder patients and 85 controls. Results indicate that the SEDS are acceptable in terms of internal consistency, reliability, group validity, and concurrent validity.

  3. Development and Validation of Videogame Addiction Scale for Children (VASC)

    OpenAIRE

    Y?lmaz, Ey?p; Griffiths, Mark D.; Kan, Adnan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a valid and reliable Videogame Addiction Scale for Children (VASC). The data were derived from 780 children who completed the Videogame Addiction Scale (405 girls and 375 boys; 48.1% ranging in age from 9 to 12?years). The sample was randomly split into two different sub-samples (sample 1, n?=?400; sample 2, n?=?380). Sample 1 was used to perform exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to define the factorial structure of VASC. As a result of EFA, a four-...

  4. Rating scale for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: scale development and clinimetric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianci, Vittoria; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Condino, Francesca; Mauvais, Hélène Somma; Farnarier, Guy; Labate, Angelo; Latella, Maria Adele; Gasparini, Sara; Branca, Damiano; Pucci, Franco; Vazzana, Francesco; Gambardella, Antonio; Aguglia, Umberto

    2011-06-01

    Our aim was to develop a clinimetric scale evaluating motor phenomena, associated features, and severity of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Sixty video/EEG-recorded PNES induced by suggestion maneuvers were evaluated. We examined the relationship between results from this scale and results from the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale to validate this technique. Interrater reliabilities of the PNES scale for three raters were analyzed using the AC1 statistic, Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The relationship between the CGI and PNES scales was evaluated with Spearman correlations. The AC1 statistic demonstrated good interrater reliability for each phenomenon analyzed (tremor/oscillation, tonic; clonic/jerking, hypermotor/agitation, atonic/akinetic, automatisms, associated features). KCC and the ICC showed moderate interrater agreement for phenomenology, associated phenomena, and total PNES scores. Spearman's correlation of mean CGI score with mean total PNES score was 0.69 (Pscale described here accurately evaluates the phenomenology of PNES and could be used to assess and compare subgroups of patients with PNES. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Disruptive behavior scale for adolescents (DISBA): development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimy, Mahmood; Fakhri, Ahmad; Vali, Esmaeel; Vali, Farzaneh; Veiga, Feliciano H; Stein, L A R; Araban, Marzieh

    2018-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that if disruptive behavior is left unidentified and untreated, a significant proportion of these problems will persist and may develop into problems linked with delinquency, substance abuse, and violence. Research is needed to develop valid and reliable measures of disruptive behavior to assist recognition and impact of treatments on disruptive behavior. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a scale for disruptive behavior in adolescents. Six hundred high school students (50% girls), ages ranged 15-18 years old, selected through multi stage random sampling. Psychometrics of the disruptive behavior scale for adolescents (DISBA) (Persian version) was assessed through content validity, explanatory factor analysis (EFA) using Varimax rotation and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The reliability of this scale was assessed via internal consistency and test-retest reliability. EFA revealed four factors accounting for 59% of observed variance. The final 29-item scale contained four factors: (1) aggressive school behavior, (2) classroom defiant behavior, (3) unimportance of school, and (4) defiance to school authorities. Furthermore, CFA produced a sufficient Goodness of Fit Index > 0.90. Test-retest and internal consistency reliabilities were acceptable at 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. The findings from this study suggest that the Iranian version of DISBA questionnaire has content validity. Further studies are needed to evaluate stronger psychometric properties for DISBA.

  6. Interpreting "Personality" Taxonomies: Why Previous Models Cannot Capture Individual-Specific Experiencing, Behaviour, Functioning and Development. Major Taxonomic Tasks Still Lay Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    As science seeks to make generalisations, a science of individual peculiarities encounters intricate challenges. This article explores these challenges by applying the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) and by exploring taxonomic "personality" research as an example. Analyses of researchers' interpretations of the taxonomic "personality" models, constructs and data that have been generated in the field reveal widespread erroneous assumptions about the abilities of previous methodologies to appropriately represent individual-specificity in the targeted phenomena. These assumptions, rooted in everyday thinking, fail to consider that individual-specificity and others' minds cannot be directly perceived, that abstract descriptions cannot serve as causal explanations, that between-individual structures cannot be isomorphic to within-individual structures, and that knowledge of compositional structures cannot explain the process structures of their functioning and development. These erroneous assumptions and serious methodological deficiencies in widely used standardised questionnaires have effectively prevented psychologists from establishing taxonomies that can comprehensively model individual-specificity in most of the kinds of phenomena explored as "personality", especially in experiencing and behaviour and in individuals' functioning and development. Contrary to previous assumptions, it is not universal models but rather different kinds of taxonomic models that are required for each of the different kinds of phenomena, variations and structures that are commonly conceived of as "personality". Consequently, to comprehensively explore individual-specificity, researchers have to apply a portfolio of complementary methodologies and develop different kinds of taxonomies, most of which have yet to be developed. Closing, the article derives some meta-desiderata for future research on individuals' "personality".

  7. Health education and competency scale: Development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Huei-Lih; Kuo, Mei-Ling; Tu, Chin-Tang

    2018-02-01

    To develop a tool for measuring competency in conducting health education and to evaluate its psychometric properties in a population of entry-level nurses. Until now, no generic instrument has been developed specifically for measuring competency in health education, which is an essential competency for nurses. Existing scales are either insufficient for psychometric evaluation or are designed specifically for senior nurses. To evaluate curricula and courses designed for entry-level nurses, educators require an instrument for measuring improvement in core competency from baseline to determine whether the minimum level of ability has been achieved. Item development for the survey instrument used for data collection in this study was based on the results of a literature review. The self-evaluated Health Education Competency Scale developed in this study was used to survey 457 nursing students at two nursing schools and 165 clinical nurses at a medical centre in south Taiwan in 2016. The participants were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was analysed by exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation, and one group was analysed by confirmatory factor analysis. Factor analysis yielded a four-factor (assessment, pedagogy, motivation and empowerment) solution (18 items) that accounted for 75.9% of the variance. The total scale and subscales had good reliabilities and construct validity coefficients. For measuring competency in entry-level nurses, the Health Education Competency Scale had a good data fit and sound psychometric properties. The proposed scale can be used to assess health education competency for college nursing students and practising nurses. Furthermore, it can provide educators with valuable insight into the minimum competencies required for entry-level nurses to deliver quality health care to clients and can guide them in the practice of client-based teaching. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Development of free will and determinism scale in Japanese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Yuya; Kajimura, Shogo; Oka, Ryunosuke; Kusumi, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    We developed a free will and determinism scale in Japanese (FAD-J) to assess lay beliefs in free will, scientific determinism, fatalistic determinism, and unpredictability. In Study 1, we translated a free will and determinism scale (FAD-Plus) into Japanese and verified its reliability and validity. In Study 2, we examined the relationship between the FAD-J and eight other scales. Results suggested that lay beliefs in free will and determinism were related to self-regulation, critical thinking, other-oriented empathy, self-esteem, and regret and maximization in decision makings. We discuss the usefulness of the FAD-J for studying the psychological functions of lay beliefs in free will and determinism.

  9. Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiment Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, Ben

    2011-05-27

    The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle was deermined to be the best cycle for coupling to a high temperature reactor (HTR) because of its high efficiency and potential for further improvement. The Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has also selected the SI process for further development and has successfully completed bench-scale demonstrations of the SI process at atmospheric pressure. JEA also plans to proceed with pilot-scale demonstrations of the SI process and eventually plans to couple an SI demonstration plant to its High Temperature Test Reactor (HHTR). As part of an international NERI project, GA, SNL, and the Frech Commissariat L'Energie Atomique performed laboratory-scale demonstrations of the SI process at prototypical temperatures and pressures. This demonstration was performed at GA in San Diego, CA and concluded in April 2009.

  10. Evaluation of offshore wind resources by scale of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Lonsing, Reinhard

    -economic model operating in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment, which describes resources, costs and area constraints in a spatially explicit way, the relation between project size, location, costs and ownership is analysed. Two scenarios are presented, which describe a state......Offshore wind energy has developed rapidly in terms of turbine and project size, and currently undergoes a significant up-scaling to turbines and parks at greater distance to shore and deeper waters. Expectations to the positive effect of economies of scale on power production costs, however, have...... can be explained by deeper water, higher distance to shore, bottlenecks in supply or higher raw material costs. The present paper addresses the scale of offshore wind parks for Denmark and invites to reconsider the technological and institutional choices made. Based on a continuous resource...

  11. Evaluation of offshore wind resources by scale of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Lonsing, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    -economic model operating in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment, which describes resources, costs and area constraints in a spatially explicit way, the relation between project size, location, costs and ownership is analysed. Two scenarios are presented, which describe a state......Offshore wind energy has developed rapidly in terms of turbine and project size, and currently undergoes a significant up-scaling to turbines and parks at greater distance to shore and deeper waters. Expectations to the positive effect of economies of scale on power production costs, however, have...... can be explained by deeper water, higher distance to shore, bottlenecks in supply or higher raw material costs. The present paper addresses the scale of offshore wind parks for Denmark and invites to reconsider the technological and institutional choices made. Based on a continuous resource...

  12. Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiment Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle was determined to be the best cycle for coupling to a high temperature reactor (HTR) because of its high efficiency and potential for further improvement. The Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has also selected the SI process for further development and has successfully completed bench-scale demonstrations of the SI process at atmospheric pressure. JEA also plans to proceed with pilot-scale demonstrations of the SI process and eventually plans to couple an SI demonstration plant to its High Temperature Test Reactor (HHTR). As part of an international NERI project, GA, SNL, and the Frech Commissariat L'Energie Atomique performed laboratory-scale demonstrations of the SI process at prototypical temperatures and pressures. This demonstration was performed at GA in San Diego, CA and concluded in April 2009.

  13. [Development of the Parenting in Adolescence Scale (PAS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Shoka

    2013-08-01

    The present study developed the Parenting in Adolescence Scale (PAS) based on the three-factor model of parenting by Schaefer (1965), and examined its psychometric properties. Adolescents (n = 103 junior high, 273 high school and 667 university students) completed a questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis identified three distinct factors labeled "Acceptance" (6 items), "Psychological control" (6 items) and "Parental monitoring" (3 items). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated the stability of the factor structure with adequate goodness of fit indices. The three subscales of PAS had adequate internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The three scales also correlated significantly with measures of adolescent conduct problems, peer problems, risk-taking experience, prosocial behavior, self-esteem, and another parenting scale, which indicated construct and concurrent validity. The practical use of the PAS was discussed.

  14. Development and validation of the Alcohol Myopia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, Andrew; Berger, Dale E

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol myopia theory conceptualizes the ability of alcohol to narrow attention and how this demand on mental resources produces the impairments of self-inflation, relief, and excess. The current research was designed to develop and validate a scale based on this framework. People who were alcohol users rated items representing myopic experiences arising from drinking episodes in the past month. In Study 1 (N = 260), the preliminary 3-factor structure was supported by exploratory factor analysis. In Study 2 (N = 289), the 3-factor structure was substantiated with confirmatory factor analysis, and it was superior in fit to an empirically indefensible 1-factor structure. The final 14-item scale was evaluated with internal consistency reliability, discriminant validity, convergent validity, criterion validity, and incremental validity. The alcohol myopia scale (AMS) illuminates conceptual underpinnings of this theory and yields insights for understanding the tunnel vision that arises from intoxication.

  15. Development of an Internet-Administered Cognitive Behavior Therapy Program (ENGAGE) for Parents of Children Previously Treated for Cancer: Participatory Action Research Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman, Anna; Kukkola, Laura; Börjesson, Helene; Cernvall, Martin; Woodford, Joanne; Grönqvist, Helena; von Essen, Louise

    2018-04-18

    Parenting a child through cancer is a distressing experience, and a subgroup of parents report negative long-term psychological consequences years after treatment completion. However, there is a lack of evidence-based psychological interventions for parents who experience distress in relation to a child's cancer disease after end of treatment. One aim of this study was to develop an internet-administered, cognitive behavior therapy-based, psychological, guided, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) for parents of children previously treated for cancer. Another aim was to identify acceptable procedures for future feasibility and efficacy studies testing and evaluating the intervention. Participatory action research methodology was used. The study included face-to-face workshops and related Web-based exercises. A total of 6 parents (4 mothers, 2 fathers) of children previously treated for cancer were involved as parent research partners. Moreover, 2 clinical psychologists were involved as expert research partners. Research partners and research group members worked collaboratively throughout the study. Data were analyzed iteratively using written summaries of the workshops and Web-based exercises parallel to data collection. A 10-week, internet-administered, cognitive behavior therapy-based, psychological, guided, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) was developed in collaboration with parent research partners and expert research partners. The content of the intervention, mode and frequency of e-therapist support, and the individualized approach for feedback were modified based on the research partner input. Shared solutions were reached regarding the type and timing of support from an e-therapist (eg, initial video or telephone call, multiple methods of e-therapist contact), duration and timing of intervention (eg, 10 weeks, 30-min assessments), and the removal of unnecessary support functions (eg, removal of chat and forum functions). Preferences for study procedures in

  16. The fractional scaling methodology (FSM) Part 1. methodology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak Zuber; Ivan Catton; Upendra S Rohatgi; Wolfgang Wulff

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: a quantitative methodology is developed, based on the concepts of hierarchy and synthesis, to integrate and organize information and data. The methodology uses scaling to synthesize experimental data and analytical results, and to provide quantitative criteria for evaluating the effects of various design and operating parameters that influence processes in a complex system such as a nuclear power plant or a related test facility. Synthesis and scaling are performed on three hierarchical levels: the process, component and system levels. Scaling on the process level determines the effect of a selected process on a particular state variable during a selected scenario. At the component level this scaling determines the effects various processes have on a state variable, and it ranks the processes according to their importance by the magnitude of the fractional change they cause on that state variable. At the system level the scaling determines the governing processes and corresponding components, ranking these in the order of importance according to their effect on the fractional change of system-wide state variables. The scaling methodology reveals on all levels the fractional change of state variables and is called therefore the Fractional Scaling Methodology (FSM). FSM synthesizes process parameters and assigns to each thermohydraulic process a dimensionless effect metric Ω = ωt, that is the product of the specific rate of fractional change ω and the characteristic time t. The rate of fractional change ω is the ratio of process transport rate over content of a preserved quantity in a component. The effect metric Ω quantifies the contribution of the process to the fractional change of a state variable in a given component. Ordering of a component effect metrics provides the hierarchy of processes in a component, then in all components and the system. FSM separates quantitatively dominant from minor processes and components and

  17. We will make you like our research: The development of a susceptibility-to-persuasion scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modic, David; Anderson, Ross; Palomäki, Jussi

    2018-01-01

    Psychological and other persuasive mechanisms across diverse contexts are well researched, with many studies of the effectiveness of specific persuasive techniques on distinct types of human behaviour. In the present paper, our specific interest lies in the development of a generalized modular psychometric tool to measure individuals' susceptibility to persuasion. The scale is constructed using items from previously developed and validated particulate scales established in the domains of social psychology and behavioural economics. In the first study we establish the Susceptibility to Persuasion-II (StP-II) scale, containing 54 items, 10 subscales and further 6 sub-sub scales. In Study 2 we establish the scale's construct validity and reconfirm its reliability. We present a valid and reliable modular psychometric tool that measures general susceptibility to persuasive techniques. Since its inception, we have successfully implemented the StP-II scale to measure susceptibility to persuasion of IT security officers, the role of psychology of persuasion in cybercrime victims and general persuadability levels of Facebook users; these manuscripts are in preparation. We argue that the StP-II scale shows promise in measuring individual differences in susceptibility to persuasion, and is applicable across diverse contexts such as Internet security and cybercrime.

  18. Development of the bullying and health experiences scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Tanya; Stanton, Lauren; Hetherington, Ross; Mishna, Faye; Shariff, Shaheen

    2012-11-09

    Until recently, researchers have studied forms of bullying separately. For 40 years, research has looked at the traditional forms of bullying, including physical (eg, hitting), verbal (eg, threats), and social (eg, exclusion). Attention focused on cyberbullying in the early 2000s. Although accumulating research suggests that bullying has multiple negative effects for children who are targeted, these effects excluded cyberbullying from the definition of bullying. This paper responds to the need for a multidimensional measure of the impact of various forms of bullying. We used a comprehensive definition of bullying, which includes all of its forms, to identify children who had been targeted or who had participated in bullying. We then examined various ways in which they were impacted. We used an online method to administer 37 impact items to 377 (277 female, 100 male) children and youth, to develop and test the Bullying and Health Experience Scale. A principal components analysis of the bullying impact items with varimax rotation resulted in 8 factors with eigenvalues greater than one, explaining 68.0% of the variance. These scales include risk, relationships, anger, physical injury, drug use, anxiety, self-esteem, and eating problems, which represent many of the cognitive, psychological, and behavioral consequences of bullying. The Cronbach alpha coefficients for the 8 scales range from .73 to .90, indicating good inter-item consistency. Comparisons between the groups showed that children involved in bullying had significantly higher negative outcomes on all scales than children not involved in bullying. The high Cronbach alpha values indicate that the 8 impact scales provide reliable scores. In addition, comparisons between the groups indicate that the 8 scales provide accurate scores, with more negative outcomes reported by children involved in bullying compared to those who are not involved in bullying. This evidence of reliability and validity indicates that

  19. [Development of a cell phone addiction scale for korean adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Young

    2009-12-01

    This study was done to develop a cell phone addiction scale for Korean adolescents. The process included construction of a conceptual framework, generation of initial items, verification of content validity, selection of secondary items, preliminary study, and extraction of final items. The participants were 577 adolescents in two middle schools and three high schools. Item analysis, factor analysis, criterion related validity, and internal consistency were used to analyze the data. Twenty items were selected for the final scale, and categorized into 3 factors explaining 55.45% of total variance. The factors were labeled as withdrawal/tolerance (7 items), life dysfunction (6 items), and compulsion/persistence (7 items). The scores for the scale were significantly correlated with self-control, impulsiveness, and cell phone use. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the 20 items was .92. Scale scores identified students as cell phone addicted, heavy users, or average users. The above findings indicate that the cell phone addiction scale has good validity and reliability when used with Korean adolescents.

  20. Islam and Environmental Consciousness: A New Scale Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emari, Hossein; Vazifehdoust, Hossein; Nikoomaram, Hashem

    2017-04-01

    This research proposed a new construct, Islamic environmental consciousness (IEC), and developed a measurement scale to support this construct. Churchill's (J Mark Res 16(1):64-73, 1979) paradigm, adapted by Negra and Mzoughi (Internet Res 22(4):426-442, 2012), was utilized. A total of 32 items were generated based on the verses of the Qur'an from nine interviews with teachers in an Islamic seminary. This set of items was reduced to 19 after dropping redundant or non-representative items. In a pilot study, factor analysis of the 19-item scale yielded a two-factor structure scale of seven items with a reliability ranging from 0.7 to 0.8. The Islamic environmental consciousness scale (IECS) was statistically confirmed and validated in a subsequent investigation. The proposed measurement scale warrants further exploratory study. Future research should assess the IECS's validity across different Muslim countries, locales, and various Islamic schools of thought and practice. IEC is proposed as a new construct that focuses primarily on the Qur'an and seeks to achieve acceptance by both Sunni and Shia denominations. In this study, both cognitive attitudes and behavioral aspects were considered in the design of the IECS.

  1. Development of a performance anxiety scale for music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çirakoğlu, Okan Cem; Şentürk, Gülce Çoskun

    2013-12-01

    In the present research, the Performance Anxiety Scale for Music Students (PASMS) was developed in three successive studies. In Study 1, the factor structure of PASMS was explored and three components were found: fear of stage (FES), avoidance (AVD) and symptoms (SMP). The internal consistency of the subscales of PASMS, which consisted of 27 items, varied between 0.89 and 0.91. The internal consistency for the whole scale was found to be 0.95. The correlations among PASMS and other anxiety-related measures were significant and in the expected direction, indicating that the scale has convergent validity. The construct validity of the scale was assessed in Study 2 by confirmatory factor analysis. After several revisions, the final tested model achieved acceptable fits. In Study 3, the 14-day test-retest reliability of the final 24-item version of PASMS was tested and found to be extremely high (0.95). In all three studies, the whole scale and subscale scores of females were significantly higher than for males.

  2. A Social Development Assessment Scale for Mexican Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Aguiar Sierra

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work described the design of an instrument able to measure social development for Mexican children and the process of the establishment of its psychometric properties. Theoretical aspects considered for its construction and the process of validating forms for parents and teachers are described in a three stage processes that resulted in a final version of the Social Development Scale that measures, disruptive behavior, social interaction, cooperation, acceptance and attachment as core dimensions associated with the concept of social competence. The importance of assessing social development and competence for education, children rearing and general well being are analyzed and discussed.

  3. Medical staff organization in nursing homes: scale development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Paul R; Karuza, Jurgis; Intrator, Orna; Zinn, Jacqueline; Mor, Vincent; Caprio, Thomas; Caprio, Anthony; Dauenhauer, Jason; Lima, Julie

    2009-09-01

    To construct a multidimensional self-report scale to measure nursing home (NH) medical staff organization (NHMSO) dimensions and then pilot the scale using a national survey of medical directors to provide data on its psychometric properties. Instrument development process consisting of the proceedings from the Nursing Home Physician Workforce Conference and focus groups followed by cognitive interviews, which culminated in a survey of a random sample of American Medical Directors Association (AMDA) affiliated medical directors. Analyses were conducted on surveys matched to Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) data from freestanding nonpediatric nursing homes. A total of 202 surveys were available for analysis and comprised the final sample. Dimensions were identified that measured the extent of medical staff organization in nursing homes and included staff composition, appointment process, commitment (physiciancohesion; leadership turnover/capability), departmentalization (physician supervision, autonomy and interdisciplinary involvement), documentation, and informal dynamics. The items developed to measure each dimension were reliable (Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.81 to 0.65).Intercorrelations among the scale dimensions provided preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the scale. This report, for the first time ever, defines and validates NH medical staff organization dimensions, a critical first step in determining the relationship between physician practice and the quality of care delivered in the NH.

  4. Development of a foot impact scale for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, Philip; Reay, Naomi; Gilworth, Gill; Redmond, Anthony; Slade, Anita; Tennant, Alan; Woodburn, James

    2005-06-15

    To develop a new foot impact scale to assess foot status in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using established qualitative methodology and the latest item response techniques (Rasch analysis). Foot problems in RA were explored by conducting qualitative interviews that were then used to generate items for a new foot impact scale. Further validation was undertaken following postal surveys and Rasch analysis. Analysis of the first postal survey (n = 192 responses) produced a 63-item binary response, 4-subscale instrument. The 4 subscales covered the domains impairment, activities, participation, and footwear. Following test-retest postal surveys and additional analysis, the instrument was reduced to a 2 subscale, 51-item questionnaire covering the domains of impairments/shoes and activities/participation. Initial results of these subscales indicate good psychometric properties, external validity, and test-retest reliability. A foot impact scale to assess the impact of RA and to measure the effect of interventions has been developed. The 2 scales comprising the instrument demonstrate good psychometric properties.

  5. The development of fears of compassion scale Japanese version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kenichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Ishimura, Ikuo; Lin, Shuzhen; Matsumoto, Yuki; Miyata, Haruko; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Eiji; Gilbert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Cultivation of compassion is a useful way to treat mental problems, but some individuals show resistance. Fears of compassion can be an obstacle for clinicians when providing psychotherapy, and for clients when engaging in interpersonal relationships. Despite its importance, a Japanese version of fears of compassion scales (for others, from others, and for self) has not yet been developed. This study developed a Japanese version of the Fears of Compassion Scales and tested its reliability and validity. Design This study used a cross-sectional design, and a self-report procedure for collecting data. Methods A total of 485 students (121 males and 364 females) answered self-report questionnaires, including the draft Fears of Compassion Scales—Japanese version. Results There were distinctive factor structures for fear of compassion from others, and for self. The fear of compassion from others scale consisted of concern about compassion from others and avoidance of compassion from others. All scales had good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, face validity, and construct validity. Discrimination and difficulty were also calculated. Conclusions These results indicate that the Fears of Compassion Scales—Japanese version is a well-constructed and useful measure to assess fears of compassion and the existence of cultural differences in fears of compassion. PMID:29023461

  6. [Measuring job satisfaction: development of a multidimensional scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraci, Palmira; Valenti, Giusy

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been done on the topic ofjob satisfaction, as regards the Italian research, the construction of specific psychometric instruments is lacking. The present paper is aimed to develop a scale to measure job satisfaction referring to our cultural context. Participants were 222 workers (36.5% males, 63.5% females) with an average age of 38.39 years (SD = 10.91). The formulated items were selected from a large item pool on the basis of the evaluation by a group of expert judges, and the item analysis procedure. In order to establish test validity, the following instruments were also administered: Occupational Stress Indicator, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Beck Depression Inventory. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses highlighted a 6-factor structure. Those factors were responsible for 51.30% of the total variance. Reliability analyses indicated satisfying internal consistency (ranging from alpha = .73 to alpha = .86). Construct validity was supported by results obtained calculating correlations with the theoretically associated variables. Our findings suggest promising psychometric properties for the presented measure. The instrument could be used in specific programs developed to promote well-being conditions in work settings.

  7. Is Uric Acid a Missing Link between Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes at a Later Time of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molęda, Piotr; Fronczyk, Aneta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Majkowska, Lilianna

    2016-01-01

    A high level of uric acid (UA) is a strong, independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The relationship between UA levels and the development of type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) remains unclear. The aim of study was to evaluate the UA levels in pGDM women in relation to their current nutritional status and carbohydrate metabolism. 199 women with pGDM diagnoses based on oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) 5-12 years previously and a control group of 50 women without pGDM. The assessment included anthropometric parameters, body composition (Tanita SC-330S), current OGTT, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-%B), HbA1c, lipids, and uric acid. No differences between groups were found in terms of age, time from the index pregnancy, anthropometric parameters, lipids or creatinine levels. The incidences of overweight and obesity were similar. Carbohydrate abnormalities were more frequent in the pGDM group than the control group (43.2% vs 12.0% p1). The women with pGDM had significantly higher fasting glucose, HbA1c, glucose and insulin levels in the OGTTs, but similar HOMA-IR values. Their UA levels were significantly higher (258±58 vs 230±50 μmol/L, p1, p1), creatinine level (β = 0.23, 95% CI 0.11-0.35, pdiabetes (β = 0.13, 95% CI 0.01-0.25, pdiabetes) was statistically significant (odds ratio 3.62 [95% CI 1.8-7.3], p1). Higher UA levels may be associated with the development of type 2 diabetes in pGDM women, also in these with normal body weights.

  8. Development of an ecological momentary assessment scale for appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Hiroe; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inada, Shuji; Ando, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Background An understanding of eating behaviors is an important element of health education and treatment in clinical populations. To understand the biopsychosocial profile of eating behaviors in an ecologically valid way, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is appropriate because its use is able to overcome the recall bias in patient-reported outcomes (PROs). As appetite is a key PRO associated with eating behaviors, this study was done to develop an EMA scale to evaluate the within-indivi...

  9. Information Visualization for Agile Development in Large‐Scale Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoor, Numan; Shahzad, Umar

    2012-01-01

    Context: Agile/lean development has been successful situations where small teams collaborate over long periods of time with project stakeholders. Unclear is how such teams plan and coordinate their work in such situations where inter-dependencies with other projects exist. In large organizations, scattered teams and complex team structure makes it difficult for every stakeholder to have a clear understanding of project information. These factors make it difficult for large‐scale organizations...

  10. Development of a Customizable Health IT Usability Evaluation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Po-Yin; Wantland, Dean; Bakken, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    We developed a customizable questionnaire, the Health Information Technology (IT) Usability Evaluation Scale (Health-ITUES) and conducted an exploratory factor analysis to examine the scale’s psychometric properties. Nurses (n=377) completed Health-ITUES to rate the usability of a web-based communication system for scheduling nursing staff. The analysis revealed a four-factor structure of Health-ITUES. The results provided preliminary evidence for the factorial validity and internal consistency reliability of Health-ITUES. PMID:21347112

  11. Development of Norms for the Post-deployment Reintegration Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    left blank. DRDC Toronto TR 2010-168 iii Executive summary Development of Norms for the Post-deployment Reintegration Scale: Deniz...i  Executive summary...O O 26. Mon retour au Canada a été quelque peu un « choc culturel ». O O O O O 27. Je suis fier(ère) d’avoir été en poste outre-mer. O O O

  12. Development of a Scale Measuring Discursive Responsible Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Voegtlin Christian

    2012-01-01

    The paper advances the conceptual understanding of responsible leadership and develops an empirical scale of discursive responsible leadership. The concept of responsible leadership presented here draws on deliberative practices and discursive conflict resolution combining the macro view of the business firm as a political actor with the micro view of leadership. Ideal responsible leadership conduct thereby goes beyond the dyadic leader–follower interaction to include all stakeholders. The pa...

  13. SCALE Graphical Developments for Improved Criticality Safety Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.L.; Bowman, S.M.; Horwedel, J.E.; Petrie, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    New computer graphic developments at Oak Ridge National Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are being used to provide visualization of criticality safety models and calculational results as well as tools for criticality safety analysis input preparation. The purpose of this paper is to present the status of current development efforts to continue to enhance the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluations) computer software system. Applications for criticality safety analysis in the areas of 3-D model visualization, input preparation and execution via a graphical user interface (GUI), and two-dimensional (2-D) plotting of results are discussed

  14. The Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale: Development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about online gaming. We conducted two studies with samples of online gamers (n=225, n=348) to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale and examined its capacity to predict weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor solution: positive metacognitions about online gaming, negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming, and negative metacognitions about the dangers of online gaming. Internal consistency, predictive and divergent validity were acceptable. All the factors of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale correlated positively with weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Regression analyses showed that negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming and levels of Internet addiction were the only significant predictors of weekly online gaming hours, and that positive metacognitions about online gaming and negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming were the only significant predictors of Internet addiction. The Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as predictive and divergent validity within the populations that were tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Feelings about culture scales: development, factor structure, reliability, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffini, Cara S; Wong, Y Joel

    2015-04-01

    Although measures of cultural identity, values, and behavior exist in the multicultural psychological literature, there is currently no measure that explicitly assesses ethnic minority individuals' positive and negative affect toward culture. Therefore, we developed 2 new measures called the Feelings About Culture Scale--Ethnic Culture and Feelings About Culture Scale--Mainstream American Culture and tested their psychometric properties. In 6 studies, we piloted the measures, conducted factor analyses to clarify their factor structure, and examined reliability and validity. The factor structure revealed 2 dimensions reflecting positive and negative affect for each measure. Results provided evidence for convergent, discriminant, criterion-related, and incremental validity as well as the reliability of the scales. The Feelings About Culture Scales are the first known measures to examine both positive and negative affect toward an individual's ethnic culture and mainstream American culture. The focus on affect captures dimensions of psychological experiences that differ from cognitive and behavioral constructs often used to measure cultural orientation. These measures can serve as a valuable contribution to both research and counseling by providing insight into the nuanced affective experiences ethnic minority individuals have toward culture. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The initial development of the Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Robyn J; Dryer, Rachel; Saliba, Anthony; Kohlhoff, Jane

    2018-05-30

    Pregnancy-related anxiety is a distinct anxiety characterised by pregnancy-specific concerns. This anxiety is consistently associated with adverse birth outcomes, and obstetric and paediatric risk factors, associations generally not seen with other anxieties. The need exists for a psychometrically sound scale for this anxiety type. This study, therefore, reports on the initial development of the Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale. The item pool was developed following a literature review and the formulation of a definition for pregnancy-related anxiety. An Expert Review Panel reviewed the definition, item pool and test specifications. Pregnant women were recruited online (N=671). Using a subsample (N=262, M=27.94, SD=4.99), fourteen factors were extracted using Principal Components Analysis accounting for 63.18% of the variance. Further refinement resulted in 11 distinct factors. Confirmatory Factor Analysis further tested the model with a second subsample (N=369, M=26.59, SD=4.76). After additional refinement, the resulting model was a good fit with nine factors (childbirth, appearance, attitudes towards childbirth, motherhood, acceptance, anxiety, medical, avoidance, and baby concerns). Internal consistency reliability was good with the majority of subscales exceeding α=.80. The Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale is easy to administer with higher scores indicative of greater pregnancy-related anxiety. The inclusion of reverse-scored items is a potential limitation with poorer reliability evident for these factors. Although still in its development stage, the Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale will eventually be useful both clinically (affording early intervention) and in research settings. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bridging Scales: Developing a Framework to Build a City-Scale Environmental Scenario for Japanese Municipalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, S.; Fujita, T.; Nakayama, T.; Xu, K.

    2007-12-01

    There is an ongoing project on establishing environmental scenarios in Japan to evaluate middle to long-term environmental policy and technology options toward low carbon society. In this project, the time horizon of the scenarios is set for 2050 on the ground that a large part of social infrastructure in Japan is likely to be renovated by that time, and cities are supposed to play important roles in building low carbon society in Japan. This belief is held because cities or local governments could implement various policies and programs, such as land use planning and promotion of new technologies with low GHG emissions, which produce an effect in an ununiform manner, taking local socio-economic conditions into account, while higher governments, either national or prefectural, could impose environmental tax on electricity and gas to alleviate ongoing GHG emissions, which uniformly covers their jurisdictions. In order for local governments to devise and implement concrete administrative actions equipped with rational policies and technologies, referring the environmental scenarios developed for the entire nation, we need to localize the national scenarios, both in terms of spatial and temporal extent, so that they could better reflect local socio-economic and institutional conditions. In localizing the national scenarios, the participation of stakeholders is significant because they play major roles in shaping future society. Stakeholder participation in the localization process would bring both creative and realistic inputs on how future unfolds on a city scale. In this research, 1) we reviewed recent efforts on international and domestic scenario development to set a practical time horizon for a city-scale environmental scenario, which would lead to concrete environmental policies and programs, 2) designed a participatory scenario development/localization process, drawing on the framework of the 'Story-and-Simulation' or SAS approach, which Alcamo(2001) proposed

  18. The development and validation of an urbanicity scale in a multi-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Nicole L; Allender, Steven; Scarborough, Peter; West, Douglas

    2012-07-20

    Although urban residence is consistently identified as one of the primary correlates of non-communicable disease in low- and middle-income countries, it is not clear why or how urban settings predispose individuals and populations to non-communicable disease (NCD), or how this relationship could be modified to slow the spread of NCD. The urban-rural dichotomy used in most population health research lacks the nuance and specificity necessary to understand the complex relationship between urbanicity and NCD risk. Previous studies have developed and validated quantitative tools to measure urbanicity continuously along several dimensions but all have been isolated to a single country. The purposes of this study were 1) To assess the feasibility and validity of a multi-country urbanicity scale; 2) To report some of the considerations that arise in applying such a scale in different countries; and, 3) To assess how this scale compares with previously validated scales of urbanicity. Household and community-level data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty in 59 communities in Ethiopia, India and Peru collected in 2006/2007 were used. Household-level data include parents' occupations and education level, household possessions and access to resources. Community-level data include population size, availability of health facilities and types of roads. Variables were selected for inclusion in the urbanicity scale based on inspection of the data and a review of literature on urbanicity and health. Seven domains were constructed within the scale: Population Size, Economic Activity, Built Environment, Communication, Education, Diversity and Health Services. The scale ranged from 11 to 61 (mean 35) with significant between country differences in mean urbanicity; Ethiopia (30.7), India (33.2), Peru (39.4). Construct validity was supported by factor analysis and high corrected item-scale correlations suggest good internal consistency. High agreement was

  19. The development and validation of a psychological contract of safety scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Arlene

    2010-08-01

    This paper builds on previous research by the author and describes the development and validation of a new measure of the psychological contract of safety. The psychological contract of safety is defined as the beliefs of individuals about reciprocal safety obligations inferred from implicit and explicit promises. A psychological contract is established when an individual believes that perceived employer and employee safety obligations are contingent on each other. A pilot test of the measure is first undertaken with participants from three different occupations: nurses, construction workers, and meat processing workers (N=99). Item analysis is used to refine the measure and provide initial validation of the scale. A larger validation study is then conducted with a participant sample of health care workers (N=424) to further refine the measure and to determine the psychometric properties of the scale. Item and correlational analyses produced the final employer and employee obligations scales, consisting of 21 and 17 items, respectively. Factor analyses identified two underlying dimensions in each scale comparable to that previously established in the organizational literature. These transactional and relational-type obligations provided construct validity of the scale. Internal consistency ratings using Cronbach's alpha found the components of the psychological contract of safety measure to be reliable. The refined and validated psychological contract of safety measure will allow investigation of the positive and negative outcomes associated with fulfilment and breach of the psychological contract of safety in future research. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring patient engagement: development and psychometric properties of the Patient Health Engagement (PHE) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Bonanomi, Andrea; Lozza, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the rhetorical call for increasing patients' engagement, policy makers recognize the urgency to have an evidence-based measure of patients' engagement and capture its effect when planning and implementing initiatives aimed at sustaining the engagement of consumers in their health. In this paper, authors describe the Patient Health Engagement Scale (PHE-scale), a measure of patient engagement that is grounded in rigorous conceptualization and appropriate psychometric methods. The scale was developed based on our previous conceptualization of patient engagement (the PHE-model). In particular, the items of the PHE-scale were developed based on the findings from the literature review and from interviews with chronic patients. Initial psychometric analysis was performed to pilot test a preliminary version of the items. The items were then refined and administered to a national sample of chronic patients (N = 382) to assess the measure's psychometric performance. A final phase of test-retest reliability was performed. The analysis showed that the PHE Scale has good psychometric properties with good correlation with concurrent measures and solid reliability. Having a valid and reliable measure to assess patient engagement is the first step in understanding patient engagement and its role in health care quality, outcomes, and cost containment. The PHE Scale shows a promising clinical relevance, indicating that it can be used to tailor intervention and assess changes after patient engagement interventions.

  1. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  2. Policy Driven Development: Flexible Policy Insertion for Large Scale Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchak, Barry; Krüger, Ingolf

    2012-07-01

    The success of a software system depends critically on how well it reflects and adapts to stakeholder requirements. Traditional development methods often frustrate stakeholders by creating long latencies between requirement articulation and system deployment, especially in large scale systems. One source of latency is the maintenance of policy decisions encoded directly into system workflows at development time, including those involving access control and feature set selection. We created the Policy Driven Development (PDD) methodology to address these development latencies by enabling the flexible injection of decision points into existing workflows at runtime , thus enabling policy composition that integrates requirements furnished by multiple, oblivious stakeholder groups. Using PDD, we designed and implemented a production cyberinfrastructure that demonstrates policy and workflow injection that quickly implements stakeholder requirements, including features not contemplated in the original system design. PDD provides a path to quickly and cost effectively evolve such applications over a long lifetime.

  3. Development and initial validation of primary care provider mental illness management and team-based care self-efficacy scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Danielle F; Crane, Lori A; Leister, Erin; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Ludman, Evette; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Kline, Danielle M; Smith, Meredith; deGruy, Frank V; Nease, Donald E; Dickinson, L Miriam

    Develop and validate self-efficacy scales for primary care provider (PCP) mental illness management and team-based care participation. We developed three self-efficacy scales: team-based care (TBC), mental illness management (MIM), and chronic medical illness (CMI). We developed the scales using Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory as a guide. The survey instrument included items from previously validated scales on team-based care and mental illness management. We administered a mail survey to 900 randomly selected Colorado physicians. We conducted exploratory principal factor analysis with oblique rotation. We constructed self-efficacy scales and calculated standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficients to test internal consistency. We calculated correlation coefficients between the MIM and TBC scales and previously validated measures related to each scale to evaluate convergent validity. We tested correlations between the TBC and the measures expected to correlate with the MIM scale and vice versa to evaluate discriminant validity. PCPs (n=402, response rate=49%) from diverse practice settings completed surveys. Items grouped into factors as expected. Cronbach's alphas were 0.94, 0.88, and 0.83 for TBC, MIM, and CMI scales respectively. In convergent validity testing, the TBC scale was correlated as predicted with scales assessing communications strategies, attitudes toward teams, and other teamwork indicators (r=0.25 to 0.40, all statistically significant). Likewise, the MIM scale was significantly correlated with several items about knowledge and experience managing mental illness (r=0.24 to 41, all statistically significant). As expected in discriminant validity testing, the TBC scale had only very weak correlations with the mental illness knowledge and experience managing mental illness items (r=0.03 to 0.12). Likewise, the MIM scale was only weakly correlated with measures of team-based care (r=0.09 to.17). This validation study of MIM and TBC self-efficacy scales

  4. DEVELOPING OF INDIVIDUAL INSTRUMENT PERFORMANCE ANXIETY SCALE: VALIDITY - RELIABILITY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra DALKIRAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a scale unique to our culture, concerning  individual instrument performance anxiety of the students  who are getting instrument training  in the Department of Music Education. In the study, the descriptive research model is used and qualitative research techniques are utilized. The study population consists of the students attending the 23 universities which has Music Education Department. The sample of the study consists of 438 girls and 312 boys, totally 750 students  who are studying in the Department of Music Education of randomly selected 10 universities. As a result of the explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses that were performed, a one-dimensional structure consisting of 14 items was obtained. Also, t-scores and  the coefficient scores of total item correlation concerning the distinguishing power of the items, the difference in the scores of the set of lower and upper 27% was calculated, and it was observed that the items are distinguishing as a result of both analyses. Of the scale, Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .94, and test-retest reliability coefficient was calculated as .93. As a result, a valid and reliable assessment and evaluation instrument that measures the exam performance anxiety of the students studying in the Department of Music Education, has been developed.Extended AbstractsIntroductionAnxiety is a universal phenomenon which people experience once or a few times during lives. It was accepted as concern for the future or as an unpleasant emotional experience regarding probable hitches of the events (Di Tomasso & Gosch, 2002.In general, the occasions on which negative feelings are experienced cause anxiety to arise (Baltaş and Baltaş, 2000. People also feel anxious in dangerous situations. Anxiety may lead a person to be creative, while it may have hindering characteristics. Anxiety is that an individual considers him

  5. In-situ vitrification: pilot-scale development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Brouns, R.A.; Buelt, J.L.; Oma, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing in-situ vitrification (ISV) as an in-place stabilization technique for buried radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes. The process melts the wastes and surrounding soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form. These in situ vitrification process development testing and product evaluation studies are being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy. This report discusses the results of four ISV pilot-scale field tests simulating radioactive and hazardous waste site conditions. The primary objectives of the field tests were to: demonstrate process scale-up from engineering-scale laboratory tests; verify equipment performance of the power system, electrodes and off-gas system; characterize the behavior of simulated wastes in the vitrified soil; identify waste losses to the off-gas system; and evaluate waste form durability. Test results have been encouraging. Process scaleup has been successfully demonstrated, with equipment and electrode performance equally as successful. The off-gas system effectively contained any volatile or entrained hazardous species. Vitrified soil analysis also indicated effective containment and a homogeneous distribution of nonradioactive radionuclide and hazardous waste simulants due to convective mixing during vitrification. Waste form leaching studies revealed that the ISV product has a durability similar to Pyrex glass

  6. The development and performance testing of a biodegradable scale inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Julie; Fidoe, Steve; Jones, Chris

    2006-03-15

    The oil industry is currently facing severe restrictions concerning the discharge of oil field chemicals into the environment. Many commonly used materials in both topside and downhole applications are phased for substitution for use in the North Sea, and more will be identified. The development of biodegradable and low toxicity chemicals, which afford equal or improved efficacy, compared to conventional technology, available at a competitive price, is a current industry challenge. A range of biodegradable materials are increasingly available, however their limited performance can result in a restricted range of applications. This paper discusses the development and commercialization of a readily biodegradable scale inhibitor, ideal for use in topside applications. This material offers a broad spectrum of activity, notably efficiency against barium sulphate, calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate scales, in a range of water chemistries. A range of performance testing, compatibility, stability and OCNS dataset will be presented. Comparisons with commonly used chemicals have been made to identify the superior performance of this phosphate ester. This paper will discuss a scale inhibitor suitable for use in a variety of conditions which offers enhanced performance combined with a favourable biodegradation profile. This material is of great benefit to the industry, particularly in North Sea applications. (author) (tk)

  7. The development of a multi-dimensional gambling accessibility scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Haw, John

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop a scale of gambling accessibility that would have theoretical significance to exposure theory and also serve to highlight the accessibility risk factors for problem gambling. Scale items were generated from the Productivity Commission's (Australia's Gambling Industries: Report No. 10. AusInfo, Canberra, 1999) recommendations and tested on a group with high exposure to the gambling environment. In total, 533 gaming venue employees (aged 18-70 years; 67% women) completed a questionnaire that included six 13-item scales measuring accessibility across a range of gambling forms (gaming machines, keno, casino table games, lotteries, horse and dog racing, sports betting). Also included in the questionnaire was the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) along with measures of gambling frequency and expenditure. Principal components analysis indicated that a common three factor structure existed across all forms of gambling and these were labelled social accessibility, physical accessibility and cognitive accessibility. However, convergent validity was not demonstrated with inconsistent correlations between each subscale and measures of gambling behaviour. These results are discussed in light of exposure theory and the further development of a multi-dimensional measure of gambling accessibility.

  8. Development of a work environment rating scale for kindergarten teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yau-ho P

    2015-08-01

    Kindergarten education in Hong Kong serves children aged 32-68 months. However, there is no extant scale that measures kindergarten teachers' perceived work environment, an important influence on their well-being. To develop a new instrument, the Teachers' Perceived Work Environment (TPWE) scale, and to assess whether kindergarten teachers with higher TPWE ratings had higher scores for job satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health. A 25-item rating scale was developed and used with a sample of in-service kindergarten teachers. Their perceived work environment was represented by five factors (ergonomics, staffing, teaching space, work hours and social space). These teachers also completed three well-being inventories: the Job Satisfaction Survey, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire-12. In a second stage, a new sample of in-service kindergarten teachers was used to cross-validate the findings from the earlier assessment. In the first sample of 141 teachers and the second of 125, social space, staffing and work hours were associated with job satisfaction, while ergonomics was a significant negative predictor of mental health complaints. The TPWE exhibited satisfactory reliability and validity. Some factors were differentially associated with specific types of well-being. The results may inform future studies of the working conditions of kindergarten teachers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Development of a Scale-up Tool for Pervaporation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Thiess

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an engineering tool for the design and optimization of pervaporation processes is developed based on physico-chemical modelling coupled with laboratory/mini-plant experiments. The model incorporates the solution-diffusion-mechanism, polarization effects (concentration and temperature, axial dispersion, pressure drop and the temperature drop in the feed channel due to vaporization of the permeating components. The permeance, being the key model parameter, was determined via dehydration experiments on a mini-plant scale for the binary mixtures ethanol/water and ethyl acetate/water. A second set of experimental data was utilized for the validation of the model for two chemical systems. The industrially relevant ternary mixture, ethanol/ethyl acetate/water, was investigated close to its azeotropic point and compared to a simulation conducted with the determined binary permeance data. Experimental and simulation data proved to agree very well for the investigated process conditions. In order to test the scalability of the developed engineering tool, large-scale data from an industrial pervaporation plant used for the dehydration of ethanol was compared to a process simulation conducted with the validated physico-chemical model. Since the membranes employed in both mini-plant and industrial scale were of the same type, the permeance data could be transferred. The comparison of the measured and simulated data proved the scalability of the derived model.

  10. The development of the Adolescent Nervios Scale: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanis, Andrew; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2010-01-01

    This paper details the construction of a scale to measure the culture-bound syndrome of nervios in Latino early adolescents, ages 11 to 14. Informed by nervios literature and experts, we developed the 31-item Adolescent Nervios Scale (ANS) with items comprised of symptoms representing various psychiatric conditions common to Western culture. In contrast to 277 non-Latino early adolescents who responded to the items as representing disparate constructs, 307 Latino early adolescents responded to ANS items in a unitary fashion. For Latino early adolescents, the ANS demonstrated good internal consistency and stability as well as concurrent, discriminative, and criterion-based validity. The results support the measurement of nervios and its relationship to the school performance and adjustment of Latino youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures.

  12. Puntacana Ecological Foundation and the Scaling of Sustainable Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Uzzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The terms "sustainable tourism," "ecotourism," "sustainable development," and "sustainability" have all been applied to various aspects of the global tourism industry to indicate that operators in those industries have accounted for the environmental, social, and economic impacts of their endeavors on the geographical regions within which they function. However, there has been increasing criticism that models for sustainable tourism do not account well for the long-term impacts of resort operations and how they scale in terms of local and regional economies, environmental footprint, and effect on local culture. The case of the Puntacana Ecological Foundation is cited here as a successful example of how locally focused, adaptive, and integrated sustainability efforts may provide useful models for the scaling of durable sustainable tourism activities in other regions and globally.

  13. Psychometric development of the Problematic Pornography Use Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Ariel; Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; Fogel, Yehuda A; Mikulincer, Mario; Reid, Rory C; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-05-01

    Despite the increased social acceptance and widespread use of pornography over the past few decades, reliable and valid instruments assessing problematic use of pornography are lacking. This paper reports the findings of three studies aimed at developing and validating a new scale measuring problematic pornography use. The Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS) items showed high internal consistency, convergent validity, and construct validity. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed four core factors relating to proposed domains of problematic pornography use. High PPUS scores were positively correlated with measures of psychopathology, low self-esteem and poor attachment. Although PPUS scores were related to other behavioral addictions, problematic pornography use as operationalized in the current paper appears to be uniquely distinguished from features of behavioral addictions relating to gambling and Internet use. Findings highlight the potential use of the PPUS for future research and possible clinical applications by defining problematic pornography use as a behavioral addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamical scaling law in the development of drift wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Fujisaka, H.; Iwayama, T.

    1997-01-01

    The Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation, with random forcing at the narrow band wave-number region, which is set to be slightly larger than the characteristic wave number λ, evaluating the inverse ion Larmor radius in plasma, is numerically studied. It is shown that the Fourier spectrum of the potential vorticity fluctuation in the development of turbulence with an initial condition of quiescent state obeys a dynamic scaling law for k 1/2 ε 5/4 t 7/4 F(k/bar k(t))[bar k(t)∼λ 3/4 ε -1/8 t -3/8 ] with a scaling function F(x), which turns out to be in good agreement with numerical experiments. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Community-scale solar photovoltaics: housing and public development examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komoto, K.

    2008-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at community-scale photovoltaics. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The aim of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. This report provides examples of housing developments and incorporated townships that have integrated multiple stakeholder values into business solutions. The authors are of the opinion that builders, developers, architects and engineers need to consider orientation, aesthetics, load diversity, energy efficiency, grid infrastructure and end use. Residential and commercial building owners or occupants need to consider the design of electric services relative to loads, green image, and economic opportunities such as feed-in tariffs. Local government should give preference to granting permission to high-performance building projects. It is suggested that the finance and insurance sector consider the operational savings in overall debt allowances. System manufacturers and integrators should develop standardised systems. In the emerging PV community market, utilities are quickly gaining awareness of business opportunities. The need for professionals and skilled labour is quoted as having grown as drastically as the PV market itself.

  16. Intrapreneurial competencies: development and validation of a measurement scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Vargas-Halabí

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Few models have attempted to explain intrapreneurial behavior from the perspective of competencies. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to contribute along this line by developing and validating a scale to measure intrapreneurial competencies for a Costa Rican organizational context. Design/methodology/approach - A three stage process was followed. The first stage considered literature review, expert judgment, cognitive interviews, and back-translation. In the second stage, the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 543 university professionals who worked mainly in private organizations in Costa Rica. The third stage led to evaluate of the proposed scale’s psychometric properties, including, exploratory factor analysis procedure performing by SPSS 19; confirmatory factor analysis procedures by means of structural equation modeling using EQS 6.2 version and finally, a linear regression model to obtain evidence of external criterion-related validity, performed by SPSS 19. Findings - This study provides evidence of five sub-dimensions of employee attributes, i.e., “opportunity promoter”, “proactivity”, “flexibility”, “drive”, and “risk taking” that constitute a higher-level construct called intrapreneurial competencies. The scale provided evidence of convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity – the latter, using an employee innovative behavior scale. Originality/value - The model offers a first step to continue studies that aim at developing a robust model of intrapreneurial competencies. This potential predictive capacity of an instrument of this nature would be useful for the business sector, particularly as a diagnostic instrument to strengthen processes of staff development in areas that promote the development of innovation and the creation of new businesses for the company.

  17. The development and validation of the Memory Support Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason Y; Worrell, Frank C; Harvey, Allison G

    2016-06-01

    Patient memory for treatment information is poor, and worse memory for treatment information is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Memory support techniques have been harnessed to improve patient memory for treatment. However, a measure of memory support used by treatment providers during sessions has yet to be established. The present study reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Memory Support Rating Scale (MSRS)-an observer-rated scale designed to measure memory support. Adults with major depressive disorder (MDD; N = 42) were randomized to either cognitive therapy plus memory support (CT + MS; n = 22) or cognitive therapy as-usual (CT-as-usual; n = 20). At posttreatment, patients freely recalled treatment points via the patient recall task. Sessions (n = 171) were coded for memory support using the MSRS, 65% of which were also assessed for the quality of cognitive therapy via the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale (CTRS). A unidimensional scale composed of 8 items was developed using exploratory factor analysis, though a larger sample is needed to further assess the factor structure of MSRS scores. High interrater and test-retest reliabilities of MSRS scores were observed across 7 MSRS coders. MSRS scores were higher in the CT + MS condition compared with CT-as-usual, demonstrating group differentiation ability. MSRS scores were positively associated with patient recall task scores but not associated with CTRS scores, demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity, respectively. Results indicate that the MSRS yields reliable and valid scores for measuring treatment providers' use of memory support while delivering cognitive therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Is Uric Acid a Missing Link between Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes at a Later Time of Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Molęda

    Full Text Available A high level of uric acid (UA is a strong, independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The relationship between UA levels and the development of type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM remains unclear. The aim of study was to evaluate the UA levels in pGDM women in relation to their current nutritional status and carbohydrate metabolism.199 women with pGDM diagnoses based on oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs 5-12 years previously and a control group of 50 women without pGDM. The assessment included anthropometric parameters, body composition (Tanita SC-330S, current OGTT, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, β-cell function (HOMA-%B, HbA1c, lipids, and uric acid.No differences between groups were found in terms of age, time from the index pregnancy, anthropometric parameters, lipids or creatinine levels. The incidences of overweight and obesity were similar. Carbohydrate abnormalities were more frequent in the pGDM group than the control group (43.2% vs 12.0% p<0.001. The women with pGDM had significantly higher fasting glucose, HbA1c, glucose and insulin levels in the OGTTs, but similar HOMA-IR values. Their UA levels were significantly higher (258±58 vs 230±50 μmol/L, p<0.005 and correlated with BMI and the severity of carbohydrate disorders. The normal weight and normoglycemic pGDM women also demonstrated higher UA levels than a similar control subgroup (232±48 vs 208±48 μmol/L, p<0.05. Multivariate analysis revealed significant correlations of UA level with BMI (β = 0.38, 95% CI 0.25-0.51, p<0.0001, creatinine level (β = 0.23, 95% CI 0.11-0.35, p<0.0005, triglycerides (β = 0.20, 95% CI 0.07-0.33, p<0.005 and family history of diabetes (β = 0.13, 95% CI 0.01-0.25, p<0.05. In logistic regression analysis, the association between higher UA level (defined as value ≥297 μmol/L and presence of any carbohydrate metabolism disorder (IFG, IGT or diabetes was statistically significant (odds

  19. Conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of development ICT, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries setting out the previous new theoretical model and preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Smyrnova-Trybulska, Eugenia; Morze, Natalia; Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper, prepared by an international team of authors focuses on the conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of ICT development, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries, setting out the previous and new theoretical model and preliminary

  20. The development and validation of an urbanicity scale in a multi-country study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Nicole L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although urban residence is consistently identified as one of the primary correlates of non-communicable disease in low- and middle-income countries, it is not clear why or how urban settings predispose individuals and populations to non-communicable disease (NCD, or how this relationship could be modified to slow the spread of NCD. The urban–rural dichotomy used in most population health research lacks the nuance and specificity necessary to understand the complex relationship between urbanicity and NCD risk. Previous studies have developed and validated quantitative tools to measure urbanicity continuously along several dimensions but all have been isolated to a single country. The purposes of this study were 1 To assess the feasibility and validity of a multi-country urbanicity scale; 2 To report some of the considerations that arise in applying such a scale in different countries; and, 3 To assess how this scale compares with previously validated scales of urbanicity. Methods Household and community-level data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty in 59 communities in Ethiopia, India and Peru collected in 2006/2007 were used. Household-level data include parents’ occupations and education level, household possessions and access to resources. Community-level data include population size, availability of health facilities and types of roads. Variables were selected for inclusion in the urbanicity scale based on inspection of the data and a review of literature on urbanicity and health. Seven domains were constructed within the scale: Population Size, Economic Activity, Built Environment, Communication, Education, Diversity and Health Services. Results The scale ranged from 11 to 61 (mean 35 with significant between country differences in mean urbanicity; Ethiopia (30.7, India (33.2, Peru (39.4. Construct validity was supported by factor analysis and high corrected item-scale correlations suggest

  1. Development of engineering scale HLLW vitrification technique at PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaki, H.; Oguino, N.; Tsunoda, N.; Segawa, T.

    1979-01-01

    Some processes have been investigated to develop the technology of solidification of the high-level radioactive liquid waste generated from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant operated by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) at Tokai-mura. This report covers the present state of development of a Joule-heated ceramic melter and a direct megahertz induction-heated melter. Engineering-scale tests have been performed with both melters. The Joule-heated melter could produce 45 kg or 16 liters of glass per hour. The direct-induction furnace was able to melt 5 kg or 1.8 liters of glass per hour. Both melters were composed of electrofused cast refractory brick. Thus it was possible to melt the glass at above 1200 0 C. Glass produced at higher melting temperatures is generally superior. 3 figures, 2 tables

  2. Development of a body image scale for Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catiane Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Body image is an important parameter of body satisfaction and needs to be evaluated with instruments developed and validated for a specific population. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to assess body image in Brazilian women. A scale consisting of 11 silhouettes was prepared. Content validation was performed by seven experts from different health areas. To assess repeatability (two consecutive assessments and reproducibility (reassessment after one week, an intentional sample stratified into four groups according to the characterization of Brazilian women regarding nutritional status was selected. Participants were 125 women aged 18-55 years and body mass index (BMI between 18.5 and 38.6 kg/m2. The Kappa coefficient (k was used to assess repeatability and reproducibility, considering the isolated responses of the current body, ideal body and the difference between them, assumed as satisfactory when k≥0.6. For all trials, α=0.05. During the content validation phase, the instrument developed was changed following the evaluators’ suggestions and it was considered very suitable by six of seven evaluators. The Kappa coefficient was good in isolated issues and in the difference between them in both repeatability and reproducibility. The Body Image Scale was considered a valid content, with good repeatability and reproducibility. Considering the instrument as low cost and of rapid implementation/evaluation, it may be used to evaluate the body image of Brazilian women with BMI between 18.5 and 38.6 kg/m2, in different contexts.

  3. The development and psychometric validation of the Ethical Awareness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Aimee; Ludlow, Larry; DeSanto-Madeya, Susan; Grace, Pamela

    2018-04-19

    To develop and psychometrically assess the Ethical Awareness Scale using Rasch measurement principles and a Rasch item response theory model. Critical care nurses must be equipped to provide good (ethical) patient care. This requires ethical awareness, which involves recognizing the ethical implications of all nursing actions. Ethical awareness is imperative in successfully addressing patient needs. Evidence suggests that the ethical import of everyday issues may often go unnoticed by nurses in practice. Assessing nurses' ethical awareness is a necessary first step in preparing nurses to identify and manage ethical issues in the highly dynamic critical care environment. A cross-sectional design was used in two phases of instrument development. Using Rasch principles, an item bank representing nursing actions was developed (33 items). Content validity testing was performed. Eighteen items were selected for face validity testing. Two rounds of operational testing were performed with critical care nurses in Boston between February-April 2017. A Rasch analysis suggests sufficient item invariance across samples and sufficient construct validity. The analysis further demonstrates a progression of items uniformly along a hierarchical continuum; items that match respondent ability levels; response categories that are sufficiently used; and adequate internal consistency. Mean ethical awareness scores were in the low/moderate range. The results suggest the Ethical Awareness Scale is a psychometrically sound, reliable and valid measure of ethical awareness in critical care nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Development of the Professional Self-Care Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorociak, Katherine E; Rupert, Patricia A; Bryant, Fred B; Zahniser, Evan

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on the importance of self-care for psychologists and other mental health professionals. With the growth of positive psychology and preventive medicine, self-care is an emerging topic, promulgated as a means of avoiding the adverse effects of stress and promoting professional functioning and well-being. However, the research on self-care is limited because of the lack of an empirically based, psychometrically sound measure of this construct. Thus, the purpose of this project was to develop a measure of professional self-care. Professional psychologists were the focus of study, with the goal being to develop a measure that can be used in this population and similar groups of professionals. Based on expert feedback and a preliminary study of 422 licensed psychologists in Illinois, a 5-factor, 21-item scale was created. Factor analysis identified the following self-care factors: Professional Support, Professional Development, Life Balance, Cognitive Awareness, and Daily Balance. Preliminary analyses provided initial support for the validity of the 5 factors. A follow-up study was conducted with a second sample of clinical psychologists. The 5-factor structure provided a good fit to the data with the second sample. Thus, based on factor analysis and validity data, a 5-factor, 21-item Professional Self-Care Scale was established for further study and use in future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. [Development of a mother-preschool child interaction scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hee; Bang, Kyung-Sook

    2013-02-01

    This study was done to develop the self-report Mother-Preschool Child Interaction Scale (MPIS) for mothers of preschool children. The scale was based on items derived from literature review and in-depth interviews. A methodological study was used to check reliability and validity and participants were 334 mothers of preschool children enrolled in kindergarten or nursery. Data were analyzed using principal component factor analysis for construct validity, t-test for contrasted group validity, Pearson correlation for criterion related validity and test-retest reliability and Cronbach's α for reliability. In the final MPIS 34 items identified through factor analysis were included, 6 constructs were derived, and explanatory power was 64.2%. Items on the MPIS were verified through correlation with the interaction observation scale of Kim & Mahoney and MPIS. Results were significant as mothers in the normal group exhibited MPIS scores that were significantly higher than those of mothers in the depressed group. Reliability of MPIS was .96 and test-retest reliability was .92. MPIS has the advantage of being easy to use, economical, and useful. Consequently, it is expected to be used as a screening tool for promptly and simply identifying the mother-preschool child interaction in diverse nursing practice and research.

  6. Development and Validation of the Eating Loss of Control Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Roberto, Christina A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent objective bulimic episodes (OBE) are a defining diagnostic characteristic of binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). OBEs are characterized by experiencing loss of control (LOC) while eating an unusually large quantity of food. Despite nosological importance and complex heterogeneity across patients, measurement of LOC has been assessed dichotomously (present/absent). This study describes the development and initial validation of the Eating Loss of Control Scale (ELOCS), a self-report questionnaire that examines the complexity of the LOC construct. Participants were 168 obese treatment-seeking individuals with BED who completed the Eating Disorder Examination interview and self-report measures. Participants rated their LOC-related feelings or behaviors on continuous Likert-type scales and reported the number of LOC episodes in the past 28 days. Principal component analysis identified a single-factor, 18-item scale, which demonstrated good internal reliability (α=0.90). Frequency of LOC episodes was significantly correlated with frequency of OBEs and subjective bulimic episodes. The ELOCS demonstrated good convergent validity and was significantly correlated with greater eating pathology, greater emotion dysregulation, greater depression, and lower self-control, but not with BMI. The findings suggest that the ELOCS is a valid self-report questionnaire that may provide important clinical information regarding experiences of LOC in obese persons with BED. Future research should examine the ELOCS in other eating disorders and non-clinical samples. PMID:24219700

  7. The Manual Work Instability Scale: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilworth, G; Smyth, M G; Smith, J; Tennant, A

    2016-06-01

    Increasing awareness of the burden of absenteeism and reduced performance at work highlights the importance of early identification of individuals experiencing work instability (WI), a mismatch between functional and cognitive abilities and job demands. To develop and validate a screening questionnaire to measure WI in manual workers. Questionnaire items were generated via qualitative interviews with manual workers and a draft survey instrument was completed by workers in a variety of fields. Rasch analysis was used interactively to assess the psychometric aspects of the emerging scale, including unidimensionality and absence of item bias (differential item functioning). A total of 17 qualitative interviews generated 110 potential items for the questionnaire. The item set resolved to a 25-item scale, which satisfied model expectations (item residual mean = -0.13, SD = 1.04; person residual mean = -0.29, SD = 0.75), had good reliability (alpha = 0.86) and strict unidimensionality (t-test 7.5% confidence interval 3.8-11.2). The Manual Work Instability Scale is a short psychometrically robust questionnaire based on the concept of WI, which incorporates both musculoskeletal symptoms and relevant psychosocial factors. It may prove effective in screening and identifying WI in workers in predominantly physical occupations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Scaling of fecundity, growth and development in marine planktonic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Sabatini, M.

    1995-01-01

    We compiled information from the literature on female and egg sizes and maximum egg production, growth and developmental rates in marine planktonic copepods. While specific growth and developmental rates are invariant with body mass, weight- specific fecundity scales with female body mass(-0...... to 50% and have weight-specific fecundities that are 2.5 times and egg production rates that are 7.5 times those of the former, Nauplii develop faster (by a factor of 2) but grow slower (by 20 to 40%) than copepodites in both spawning types. The main demographic implications of these findings are (1...

  9. Status of large scale wind turbine technology development abroad?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye LI; Lei DUAN

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the large scale (multi-megawatt) wind turbine development in China, the foreign e?orts and achievements in the area are reviewed and summarized. Not only the popular horizontal axis wind turbines on-land but also the o?shore wind turbines, vertical axis wind turbines, airborne wind turbines, and shroud wind turbines are discussed. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive comment and assessment about the basic work principle, economic aspects, and environmental impacts of turbines.

  10. Development of an ecological momentary assessment scale for appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroe; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inada, Shuji; Ando, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of eating behaviors is an important element of health education and treatment in clinical populations. To understand the biopsychosocial profile of eating behaviors in an ecologically valid way, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is appropriate because its use is able to overcome the recall bias in patient-reported outcomes (PROs). As appetite is a key PRO associated with eating behaviors, this study was done to develop an EMA scale to evaluate the within-individual variation of momentary appetite and uses this scale to discuss the relationships between appetite and various psychological factors. Twenty healthy participants (age 23.6 ± 4.2 years old) wore a watch-type computer for a week. Several times a day, including just before and after meals, they recorded their momentary psychological stress, mood states, and ten items related to appetite. In addition, they recorded everything they ate and drank into a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based food diary. Multilevel factor analysis was used to investigate the factor structure of the scale, and the reliability and validity of the scale were also explored. Multilevel factor analyses found two factors at the within-individual level (hunger/fullness and cravings) and one factor at the between-individual level. Medians for the individually calculated Cronbach's alphas were 0.89 for hunger/fullness, 0.71 for cravings, and 0.86 for total appetite (the sum of all items). Hunger/fullness, cravings, and total appetite all decreased significantly after meals compared with those before meals, and hunger/fullness, cravings, and total appetite before meals were positively associated with energy intake. There were significant negative associations between both hunger/fullness and total appetite and anxiety and depression as well as between cravings, and depression, anxiety and stress. The within-individual reliability of the EMA scale to assess momentary appetite was confirmed in most subjects and it

  11. Development of the interRAI home care frailty scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Morris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of frailty, a relative state of weakness reflecting multiple functional and health domains, continues to receive attention within the geriatrics field. It offers a summary of key personal characteristics, providing perspective on an individual’s life course. There have been multiple attempts to measure frailty, some focusing on physiologic losses, others on specific diseases, disabilities or health deficits. Recently, multidimensional approaches to measuring frailty have included cognition, mood and social components. The purpose of this project was to develop and evaluate a Home Care Frailty Scale and provide a grounded basis for assessing a person’s risk for decline that included functional and cognitive health, social deficits and troubling diagnostic and clinical conditions. Methods A secondary analysis design was used to develop the Home Care Frailty Scale. The data set consisted of client level home care data from service agencies around the world. The baseline sample included 967,865 assessments while the 6-month follow-up sample of persons still being served by the home care agencies consisted of 464,788 assessments. A pool of 70 candidate independent variables were screened for possible inclusion and 16 problem outcomes referencing accumulating declines and clinical complications served as the dependent variables. Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze the data. Results The resulting Home Care Frailty Scale consisted of a final set of 29 items. The items fall across 6 categories of function, movement, cognition and communication, social life, nutrition, and clinical symptoms. The prevalence of the items ranged from a high of 87% for persons requiring help with meal preparation to 3.7% for persons who have experienced a recent decline in the amount of food eaten. Conclusions The interRAI Home Care Frailty Scale is based on a strong conceptual foundation and in our analysis, performed as

  12. Penile Dysmorphic Disorder: Development of a Screening Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-11-01

    Penile dysmorphic disorder (PDD) is shorthand for men diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder, in whom the size or shape of the penis is their main, if not their exclusive, preoccupation causing significant shame or handicap. There are no specific measures for identifying men with PDD compared to men who are anxious about the size of their penis but do not have PDD. Such a measure might be helpful for treatment planning, reducing unrealistic expectations, and measuring outcome after any psychological or physical intervention. Our aim was, therefore, to validate a specific measure, termed the Cosmetic Procedure Screening Scale for PDD (COPS-P). Eighty-one male participants were divided into three groups: a PDD group (n = 21), a small penis anxiety group (n = 37), and a control group (n = 23). All participants completed the COPS-P as well as standardized measures of depression, anxiety, social phobia, body image, quality of life, and erectile function. Penis size was also measured. The final COPS-P was based on nine items. The scale had good internal reliability and significant convergent validity with measures of related constructs. It discriminated between the PDD group, the small penis anxiety group, and the control group. This is the first study to develop a scale able to discriminate between those with PDD and men anxious about their size who did not have PDD. Clinicians and researchers may use the scale as part of an assessment for men presenting with anxiety about penis size and as an audit or outcome measure after any intervention for this population.

  13. Development and Psychometric Properties of the OCD Family Functioning (OFF) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S. Evelyn; Hu, Yu-Pei; Hezel, Dianne M.; Proujansky, Rachel; Lamstein, Abby; Walsh, Casey; Ben-Joseph, Elana Pearl; Gironda, Christina; Jenike, Michael; Geller, Daniel A.; Pauls, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) influences not only patients but also family members. Although the construct of family accommodation has received attention in OCD literature, no measures of overall family functioning are currently available. The OCD Family Functioning (OFF) Scale was developed to explore the context, extent, and perspectives of functional impairment in families affected by OCD. It is a three-part, self-report measure capturing independent perspectives of patients and relatives. A total of 400 subjects were enrolled between 2008 and 2010 from specialized OCD clinics and OCD research studies. Psychometric properties of this scale were examined including internal consistency, test–retest reliability, convergent and divergent validity, and exploratory factor analyses. Both patient and relative versions of the OFF Scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient = 0.96). The test–retest reliability was also adequate (ICC = 0.80). Factor analyses determined that the OFF Scale comprises a family functioning impairment factor and four OCD symptom factors that were consistent with previously reported OCD symptom dimension studies. The OFF Scale demonstrated excellent convergent validity with the Family Accommodation Scale and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Information gathered regarding emotional impact and family role-specific impairment was novel and not captured by other examined scales. The OFF Scale is a reliable and valid instrument for the clinical and research assessment of family functioning in pediatric and adult OCD. This will facilitate the exploration of family functioning impairment as a potential risk factor, as a moderator and as a treatment outcome measure in OCD. PMID:21553962

  14. Recent psychological explanations of infant development and scales of early mental development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews early infant measures based on standardised scales of development – both traditional ones and those based on Piaget's sensory-motor theory – and assesses their validity in predicting later mental development. The extremely low predictive power of test scores based on these measures in infancy has provided additional support for discontinuity theories of mental development from infancy to childhood. Conversely, the constructs implicit in earlier measures have been thoroughly criticised, and the search for valid measures of infant development that would reflect a construct similar to mental abilities in childhood has begun. At the outset, research was mostly influenced by the information processing theory. Two broad measures of information processing have been shown to be the most relevant indicators of an infant's mental development, namely habituation and dishabituation. Recent mental scales, such as the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, thus include items that measure the efficiency of an infant's information processing. Examples of such items are presented and interpreted, as are items reflecting the development of object permanence, the only early sensory-motor measure that shows better predictive effectiveness when compared to traditional developmental test scores. Several newly-developed indicators of infants' mental development, which utilize other measures than those derived from the information-processing approach, are surveyed (understanding causal relations, joint attention behaviours, representation of number, and their possible application within the context of potential items for early mental scales is discussed. Finally, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, currently one of the best measures of early development, and presently undergoing a standardisation procedure in Slovenia, is evaluated, with analyses of some items from the Mental scale presented within the text.

  15. Multi-scaling allometric analysis for urban and regional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2017-01-01

    The concept of allometric growth is based on scaling relations, and it has been applied to urban and regional analysis for a long time. However, most allometric analyses were devoted to the single proportional relation between two elements of a geographical system. Few researches focus on the allometric scaling of multielements. In this paper, a process of multiscaling allometric analysis is developed for the studies on spatio-temporal evolution of complex systems. By means of linear algebra, general system theory, and by analogy with the analytical hierarchy process, the concepts of allometric growth can be integrated with the ideas from fractal dimension. Thus a new methodology of geo-spatial analysis and the related theoretical models emerge. Based on the least squares regression and matrix operations, a simple algorithm is proposed to solve the multiscaling allometric equation. Applying the analytical method of multielement allometry to Chinese cities and regions yields satisfying results. A conclusion is reached that the multiscaling allometric analysis can be employed to make a comprehensive evaluation for the relative levels of urban and regional development, and explain spatial heterogeneity. The notion of multiscaling allometry may enrich the current theory and methodology of spatial analyses of urban and regional evolution.

  16. Development and psychometric evaluation of the breast size satisfaction scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan Sharif, Saeed

    2017-10-09

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop and evaluate psychometrically an instrument named the Breast Size Satisfaction Scale (BSSS) to assess breast size satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach The present scale was developed using a set of 16 computer-generated 3D images of breasts to overcome some of the limitations of existing instruments. The images were presented to participants and they were asked to select the figure that most accurately depicted their actual breast size and the figure that most closely represented their ideal breast size. Breast size satisfaction was computed by subtracting the absolute value of the difference between ideal and actual perceived size from 16, such that higher values indicate greater breast size satisfaction. Findings Study 1 ( n=65 female undergraduate students) showed good test-retest reliability and study 2 ( n=1,000 Iranian women, aged 18 years and above) provided support for convergent validity using a nomological network approach. Originality/value The BSSS demonstrated good psychometric properties and thus can be used in future studies to assess breast size satisfaction among women.

  17. Development of large-scale functional brain networks in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh Supekar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y. Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at the global level, they differ significantly in hierarchical organization and interregional connectivity. We found that subcortical areas were more strongly connected with primary sensory, association, and paralimbic areas in children, whereas young-adults showed stronger cortico-cortical connectivity between paralimbic, limbic, and association areas. Further, combined analysis of functional connectivity with wiring distance measures derived from white-matter fiber tracking revealed that the development of large-scale brain networks is characterized by weakening of short-range functional connectivity and strengthening of long-range functional connectivity. Importantly, our findings show that the dynamic process of over-connectivity followed by pruning, which rewires connectivity at the neuronal level, also operates at the systems level, helping to reconfigure and rebalance subcortical and paralimbic connectivity in the developing brain. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of network analysis of brain connectivity to elucidate key principles underlying functional brain maturation, paving the way for novel studies of disrupted brain connectivity in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  18. Development of large-scale functional brain networks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Musen, Mark; Menon, Vinod

    2009-07-01

    The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y) and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y). Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at the global level, they differ significantly in hierarchical organization and interregional connectivity. We found that subcortical areas were more strongly connected with primary sensory, association, and paralimbic areas in children, whereas young-adults showed stronger cortico-cortical connectivity between paralimbic, limbic, and association areas. Further, combined analysis of functional connectivity with wiring distance measures derived from white-matter fiber tracking revealed that the development of large-scale brain networks is characterized by weakening of short-range functional connectivity and strengthening of long-range functional connectivity. Importantly, our findings show that the dynamic process of over-connectivity followed by pruning, which rewires connectivity at the neuronal level, also operates at the systems level, helping to reconfigure and rebalance subcortical and paralimbic connectivity in the developing brain. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of network analysis of brain connectivity to elucidate key principles underlying functional brain maturation, paving the way for novel studies of disrupted brain connectivity in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  19. Development and validation of a toddler silhouette scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; McGill, Adrienne E; Black, Maureen M

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a toddler silhouette scale. A seven-point scale was developed by an artist based on photographs of 15 toddlers (6 males, 9 females) varying in race/ethnicity and body size, and a list of phenotypic descriptions of toddlers of varying body sizes. Content validity, age-appropriateness, and gender and race/ethnicity neutrality were assessed among 180 pediatric health professionals and 129 parents of toddlers. Inter- and intrarater reliability and concurrent validity were assessed by having 138 pediatric health professionals match the silhouettes with photographs of toddlers. Assessments of content validity revealed that most health professionals (74.6%) and parents of toddlers (63.6%) ordered all seven silhouettes correctly, and interobserver agreement for weight status classification was high (kappa = 0.710, r = 0.827, P gender (68.5%) and race/ethnicity (77.3%) neutral. The inter-rater reliability, based on matching silhouettes with photographs, was 0.787 (Cronbach's alpha) and the intrarater reliability was 0.855 (P parents' perception of and satisfaction with their toddler's body size. Interventions can be targeted toward parents who have inaccurate perceptions of or are dissatisfied with their toddler's body size.

  20. Construct validity of the Moral Development Scale for Professionals (MDSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderhamn O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Olle Söderhamn1,2, John Olav Bjørnestad1, Anne Skisland1, Christina Cliffordson21Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad and Kristiansand, Norway; 2Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, SwedenAbstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the Moral Development Scale for Professionals (MDSP using structural equation modeling. The instrument is a 12-item self-report instrument, developed in the Scandinavian cultural context and based on Kohlberg’s theory. A hypothesized simplex structure model underlying the MDSP was tested through structural equation modeling. Validity was also tested as the proportion of respondents older than 20 years that reached the highest moral level, which according to the theory should be small. A convenience sample of 339 nursing students with a mean age of 25.3 years participated. Results confirmed the simplex model structure, indicating that MDSP reflects a moral construct empirically organized from low to high. A minority of respondents >20 years of age (13.5% scored more than 80% on the highest moral level. The findings support the construct validity of the MDSP and the stages and levels in Kohlberg’s theory.Keywords: Kohlberg, scale testing, simplex structure model, structural equation modeling

  1. Development of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley M; Komton, Vilailert; Adegbite-Adeniyi, Clara; Dolansky, Mary A; Hardin, Heather K; Borawski, Elaine A

    2018-03-01

    This report describes the development and psychometric testing of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change (STS-AB). Following item development, initial assessments of understandability and stability of the STS-AB were conducted in a sample of nine adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Exploratory factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB and internal consistency assessments were then done with 359 adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Test-retest reliability of the STS-AB was .71, p = .03; internal consistency reliability was .87. Factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB indicated a one-factor solution with good factor loadings, ranging from .40 to .67. Evidence of construct validity was supported by significant correlations with established measures of variables associated with health behavior change. We provide beginning evidence of the reliability and validity of the STS-AB to measure systems thinking for health behavior change in young adolescents.

  2. Construct validity of the Moral Development Scale for Professionals (MDSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderhamn, Olle; Bjørnestad, John Olav; Skisland, Anne; Cliffordson, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the Moral Development Scale for Professionals (MDSP) using structural equation modeling. The instrument is a 12-item self-report instrument, developed in the Scandinavian cultural context and based on Kohlberg's theory. A hypothesized simplex structure model underlying the MDSP was tested through structural equation modeling. Validity was also tested as the proportion of respondents older than 20 years that reached the highest moral level, which according to the theory should be small. A convenience sample of 339 nursing students with a mean age of 25.3 years participated. Results confirmed the simplex model structure, indicating that MDSP reflects a moral construct empirically organized from low to high. A minority of respondents >20 years of age (13.5%) scored more than 80% on the highest moral level. The findings support the construct validity of the MDSP and the stages and levels in Kohlberg's theory.

  3. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the School Bullying Scales: A Rasch Measurement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Li-Ming; Liu, Kun-Shia; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to develop three school bullying scales--the Bully Scale, the Victim Scale, and the Witness Scale--to assess secondary school students' bullying behaviors, including physical bullying, verbal bullying, relational bullying, and cyber bullying. The items of the three scales were developed from viewpoints of bullies, victims, and…

  4. Development and psychometric testing of the Supportive Supervisory Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilton, Katherine S

    2010-06-01

    To describe the development and psychometric testing of the Supportive Supervisory Scale (SSS). The development of the items of the scale was based on Winnicott's relationship theory and on focus groups with 26 healthcare aides (HCAs) and 30 supervisors from six long-term care (LTC) facilities in Ontario, Canada. Content validity of the 15-item instrument was established by a panel of experts. Based on a secondary analysis of data collected from 222 HCAs in 10 LTC facilities in Ontario, Canada, the SSS was subjected to principal components analysis with oblique rotation. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with the theoretical conceptualization of the instrument. Factor I was labeled Respects Uniqueness and Factor II was labeled Being Reliable. Internal consistency of Factor I was .95, and that of Factor II was .91. Discriminant validity was also established. The focus groups revealed that "being available to staff" while "recognizing the HCA as an individual, and taking a moment to get to know them" was essential to feeling supported by their supervisor. The SSS is a reliable and valid measure of supervisory support of supervisors working in LTC facilities. At the core of supportive supervision is the supervisor's ability to develop and maintain positive relationships with each HCA. It is through respecting the uniqueness of each HCA and being reliable that supervisor-HCA relationships can flourish. Supportive leadership in LTC settings is a major contributor to HCAs' job satisfaction and retention and to quality of patient care. Therefore, a tool developed and tested to measure supervisors' supportive capacities in LTC is primal to evaluate the effectiveness of supervisors in these environments.

  5. Developing and validating the Perioperative Thirst Discomfort Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Pamela Rafaela; Fonseca, Lígia Fahl; Rossetto, Edilaine Giovanini

    2017-07-20

    Developing and validating a scale to assess perioperative thirst discomfort. A methodological research conducted in 2014 and 2015 at the surgical center of a public hospital in the north of Paraná, Brazil. The scale was developed after literature review, followed by face and content validation, and reliability assessment through its internal consistency and inter-observer equivalence. Seven items make up the scale: dry mouth; dry lips; thick tongue; thick saliva; dry throat, bad taste and desire to drink water. The content validity index for attributes and items was 0.98, and the reliability index was 1 for the scale attributes and items. Internal consistency assessed by Cronbach's alpha was 0.91 and inter-rater equivalence was 1, as measured by weighted kappa coefficient. ThePerioperative Thirst Discomfort Scaleshowed high content and reliability indexes. Elaborar e validar uma escala para avaliação do desconforto da sede perioperatória. Pesquisa metodológica realizada em 2014 e 2015, no centro cirúrgico de um hospital público do norte do Paraná. A escala foi elaborada após revisão bibliográfica, seguida de validação aparente e de conteúdo e avaliação da fidedignidade através de sua consistência interna e da equivalência inter observadores. Sete itens compuseram a escala: boca seca; lábios ressecados; língua grossa; saliva grossa; garganta seca; gosto ruim e vontade de beber água. O índice de validade de conteúdo para atributos e itens foi de 0,98, e o índice de fidedignidade foi de 1 para os atributos e itens da escala. A consistência interna avaliada pelo alfa de Cronbach foi de 0,91, e a equivalência interobservadores foi de 1, medida pelo coeficiente de kappa ponderado. A escala de desconforto da sede perioperatóriademonstrou altos índices de validade de conteúdo e fidedignidade.

  6. Previous ISD Program Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    report. The detail required for such a review would be unwieldy and would comsume inordinate amounts of time. The result of the document review will...attempts have been made at writing specific behavioral objectives (SBOs). These, however, have proven to be inadequate in that they are not stated in... behavioral terms (e.g., "will understand," "will have a knowledge of," etc.). C. Development of CRO/CRTs? In nearly all cases, ISD teams are just

  7. Optomechanical System Development of the AWARE Gigapixel Scale Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hui S.

    Electronic focal plane arrays (FPA) such as CMOS and CCD sensors have dramatically improved to the point that digital cameras have essentially phased out film (except in very niche applications such as hobby photography and cinema). However, the traditional method of mating a single lens assembly to a single detector plane, as required for film cameras, is still the dominant design used in cameras today. The use of electronic sensors and their ability to capture digital signals that can be processed and manipulated post acquisition offers much more freedom of design at system levels and opens up many interesting possibilities for the next generation of computational imaging systems. The AWARE gigapixel scale camera is one such computational imaging system. By utilizing a multiscale optical design, in which a large aperture objective lens is mated with an array of smaller, well corrected relay lenses, we are able to build an optically simple system that is capable of capturing gigapixel scale images via post acquisition stitching of the individual pictures from the array. Properly shaping the array of digital cameras allows us to form an effectively continuous focal surface using off the shelf (OTS) flat sensor technology. This dissertation details developments and physical implementations of the AWARE system architecture. It illustrates the optomechanical design principles and system integration strategies we have developed through the course of the project by summarizing the results of the two design phases for AWARE: AWARE-2 and AWARE-10. These systems represent significant advancements in the pursuit of scalable, commercially viable snapshot gigapixel imaging systems and should serve as a foundation for future development of such systems.

  8. Development of Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scale and tests for its reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-hong TANG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To develop Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scaleand verify its reliability and validity. Methods  The Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scalewas initiated, organized and compiled based upon open-ended questionnaire survey done in a systematic manner, and previous researches were taken as references. A total of 630 military personnel were chosen by random cluster sampling and tested with the Scale, among them 50 were tested with Social Support Rating Scale(SSRS and Chinese Military Psychosomatic Health Scale(CMPHS simultaneously, and the test was done solely a second time with CMPHS 2 weeks later. The reliability and validity were assessed and verified by exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and correlation analysis. Results  The Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scalecomprised three factors, namely subjective support, objective support and utility of social support. Eighteen items were left in official scale after amendment by factor analysis, and one lying subscale was added. The correlation coefficients between the public factors ranged from 0.477 to 0.589 (P<0.01, and the correlation coefficients between factors and total scale ranged from 0.721 to 0.823 (P<0.01. The test-retest correlation coefficients of total scale and subscales ranged from 0.622 to 0.803 (P<0.01, the Cronbach α coefficients ranged from 0.624 to 0.874, and the split-half correlation coefficients ranged from 0.551 to 0.828. Significant correlation existed between this Scale and two criterion scales, namely SSRS and CMPHS. Conclusion  It is verified that the Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scalehas excellent reliability and validity, and complying with psychometric standards, it may be used to evaluate the social support level of Chinese military personnel.

  9. [Development of the unexpected reality scale for childcare training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yuko; Shitara, Saeko; Hamada, Shoko

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to develop a scale for unexpected reality for childcare training (Study 1) and examine the change and influence it exerts on the efficacy of preschool teachers (Study 2). In Study 1, the sample consisted of 571 university and junior college students enrolled in a childcare course. After exploratory factor analysis, four factors were extracted: “actual feelings for childcare as a field of study,” “difficulties faced during involvement with children,” “negative aspects of the childcare worker,” and “severity of work.” The study’s scale was shown to be internally consistent and valid. In Study 2, the sample consisted of 122 junior college students enrolled in a childcare course. The results showed that the high-scoring groups of each unexpected reality subscales experienced less unexpected reality in the subsequent training session. Moreover, the results of multiple regression showed that preschool teacher efficacy was predicted positively by “actual feelings for childcare as a field of study” and negatively by “difficulties faced during involvement with children.” Thus, we suggest that for effective pre- and post-guidance of childcare training, unexpected realities should be considered.

  10. Development of small scale cluster computer for numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, N. H. N.; Sapit, A.; Mohammed, A. N.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, two units of personal computer were successfully networked together to form a small scale cluster. Each of the processor involved are multicore processor which has four cores in it, thus made this cluster to have eight processors. Here, the cluster incorporate Ubuntu 14.04 LINUX environment with MPI implementation (MPICH2). Two main tests were conducted in order to test the cluster, which is communication test and performance test. The communication test was done to make sure that the computers are able to pass the required information without any problem and were done by using simple MPI Hello Program where the program written in C language. Additional, performance test was also done to prove that this cluster calculation performance is much better than single CPU computer. In this performance test, four tests were done by running the same code by using single node, 2 processors, 4 processors, and 8 processors. The result shows that with additional processors, the time required to solve the problem decrease. Time required for the calculation shorten to half when we double the processors. To conclude, we successfully develop a small scale cluster computer using common hardware which capable of higher computing power when compare to single CPU processor, and this can be beneficial for research that require high computing power especially numerical analysis such as finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, and computational physics analysis.

  11. Development of Wagle Health-Specific Religiousness scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Ann M; Champion, Victoria L; Russell, Kathleen M; Rawl, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    African American women have a lower rate of regular mammography screening, resulting in higher incidence of advanced-stage breast cancer at diagnosis and a lower 5-year survival rate as compared with white women. Researchers have demonstrated that several health beliefs relate to mammography screening in African American women, but little attention has been paid to the importance of religiousness. Although some authors have attempted to determine a link between religiousness and health, we lack a valid and reliable instrument to measure religiousness that can be found in the context of health behaviors. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and psychometric testing of the Wagle Health-Specific Religiousness (WHSR) scale, an instrument used to measure religious beliefs and the influence of those beliefs on mammography screening for African American women. A sample of 344 low-income African American women who were nonadherent to mammography at accrual participating in a randomized trial completed the WHSR. Data from this trial were used to determine the validity and reliability of the WHSR. The 19-item WHSR scale had a Cronbach alpha of. 94. Construct validity was supported via factor analysis and analysis of theoretical relationships. Although further testing is warranted, this analysis indicates that the concept of religiousness is an important component of mammography behavior in African American women.

  12. Development and Validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    Main Objectives The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). Methods In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. Results The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. Significance The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures. PMID:25093508

  13. Development of a Cultural Connectedness Scale for First Nations youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowshoe, Angela; Crooks, Claire V; Tremblay, Paul F; Craig, Wendy M; Hinson, Riley E

    2015-03-01

    Despite a growing recognition of cultural connectedness as an important protective factor for First Nations (FN) peoples' health, there remains a clear need for a conceptual model that organizes, explains, and leads to an understanding of the resiliency mechanisms underlying this concept for FN youth. The current study involved the development of the Cultural Connectedness Scale (CCS) to identify a new scale of cultural connectedness. A sample of 319 FN, Métis, and Inuit youths enrolled in Grades 8-12 from reserve and urban areas in Saskatchewan and Southwestern Ontario, Canada, participated in the current study. A combination of rational expert judgments and empirical data were used to refine the pool of items to a set that is a representative sample of the indicators of the cultural connectedness construct. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to examine the latent structure of the cultural connectedness items, and a confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the fit of a more parsimonious version of the final EFA model. The resulting 29-item inventory consisted of 3 dimensions: identity, traditions, and spirituality. Criterion validity was demonstrated with cultural connectedness dimensions correlating well with other youth well-being indicators. The conceptualization and operationalization of the cultural connectedness has a number of potential applications both for research and prevention. This study provides an orienting framework that guides measurement of cultural connectedness that researchers need to further explore the role of culture in enhancing resiliency and well-being among FN youth in Canada. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Scale of Death Anxiety (SDA: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study developed and validated a new measure to assess the death anxiety (i.e., Scale of Death Anxiety, SDA on an individual’s somatic, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions from a symptomatic perspective in Chinese youth samples. Following a systematic process, a four-factor structure of the SDA was identified through principle components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis that revealed four aspects of death anxiety: Dysphoria, Death Intrusion, Fear of Death, and Avoidance of Death. The results of this study indicate that the SDA has a clear factor structure and good psychometric properties. The SDA supports death anxiety as a multidimensional construct, and the foundational role of fear of death in the generation of death anxiety. This scale is valuable and beneficial to research on death anxiety. This study makes a significant contribution to the literature because the SDA is the first assessment of death anxiety to include the constructs of dysphoria and somatic symptoms. And the potential clinical practice of the SDA was discussed.

  15. Development of a scale to evaluate mobility in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Carneiro Vasconcelos Basto Gonçalves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop and to assess the psychometric characteristics of a mobility scale for dogs. The original ten questions were reduced using validation process. One hundred and twenty three dog owners were invited to answer the questionnaire. Internal consistency, factor analysis, floor and ceiling effect and construct validity were studied. Good internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha=0.854 was determined with two items eliminated. The instrument comprises 8 final questions, each of which has five possible answers (never, rarely, sometimes, often and always scored between 0 and 4 or between 4 and 0 (for the items with inverse score. Three hypotheses proposed for the construct validity were verified: 1 gender does not influence dog mobility (P=0.584; 2 mobility decreases with age (P<0.001; 3 dogs with orthopaedic or neurological diagnosed pathologies have less mobility (median score (P25; P75 46.9% (31.3; 68.8 than healthy dogs (median score (P25; P75 81.3% (71.9; 93.8 (P<0.001. Total score range was 0 to 32 points, with higher values indicating greater mobility of dogs. The Dog Mobility Scale was capable of assessing mobility in dogs, with good psychometric characteristics, and is simple and inexpensive to apply in clinical practice.

  16. Development and Validation of Videogame Addiction Scale for Children (VASC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Eyüp; Griffiths, Mark D; Kan, Adnan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a valid and reliable Videogame Addiction Scale for Children (VASC). The data were derived from 780 children who completed the Videogame Addiction Scale (405 girls and 375 boys; 48.1% ranging in age from 9 to 12 years). The sample was randomly split into two different sub-samples (sample 1, n  = 400; sample 2, n  = 380). Sample 1 was used to perform exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to define the factorial structure of VASC. As a result of EFA, a four-factor structure comprising 21 items was obtained and explained 55% of the total variance (the four factors being "self-control," "reward/reinforcement," "problems," and "involvement"). The internal consistency reliability of VASC has found 0.89. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to confirm the factorial structure obtained by EFA in the remaining half of sample ( n  = 390). The obtained fit indices from the CFA confirmed the structure of the EFA. The 21-item VASC has good psychometric properties that can be used among Turkish schoolchildren populations.

  17. Development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Konrath

    Full Text Available MAIN OBJECTIVES: The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS. Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies. METHODS: In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250, we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. RESULTS: The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults, intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression, and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior. The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. SIGNIFICANCE: The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures.

  18. Development of scaling rules for Rutherford type superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.M.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    During the R and D phase of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) program, LBL was responsible for establishing the parameters for cables used in SSC dipole and quadrupole magnets. In addition, LBL has collaborated with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory on the design and fabrication of a new cable for use in the Low Beta Quadrupoles. As a result of the development work on these and other cables, we have arrived a set of scaling rules which provide guidelines for choosing the parameters for a wide range of superconducting cables. These parameters include strand size, strand number, keystone angle, percent compaction, cable pitch and compacted cable dimensions. In addition, we have defined the tolerance ranges for the key cable manufacturing parameters such as mandrel size and shape, strand tension, and Turkshead temperature control. In this paper, the authors present the results on cables ranging from 8 strands to 36 strands of 0.65mm wire and from 8 strands to 30 strands of 0.8mm wire. The authors use these results to demonstrate the application of the scaling rules for Rutherford-type cable

  19. Development of scaling rules for Rutherford type superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.M.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1990-09-01

    During the R ampersand D phase of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) program, LBL was responsible for establishing the parameters for cables used in SSC dipole and quadrupole magnets. In addition, the design and fabrication of a new cable for use in the Low Beta Quadrupoles. As a result of the development work on these and other cables, we have arrived a set of scaling rules which provide guidelines for choosing the parameters for a wide range of superconducting cables. These parameters include strand size, strand number, keystone angle, percent compaction, cable pitch and compacted cable dimensions. In addition, we have defined the tolerance ranges for the key cable manufacturing parameters such as mandrel size and shape, stand tension, and Turkshead temperature control. In this paper, we present the results on cables ranging from 8 strands to 36 strands of 0.65mm wire and from 8 strands to 30 strands of 0.8mm wire. We use these results to demonstrate the application of the scaling rules for Rutherford-type cable

  20. Development and Validation of the Transgender Inclusive Behavior Scale (TIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattari, Shanna K; O'Connor, Ashley A; Kattari, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Transgender-inclusive behaviors are actions and communication supporting transgender individuals. Examples include using language not reinforcing the gender binary, asking for and using correct pronouns, creation of spaces that welcome members of the transgender community, and acknowledging cisgender (non-transgender) privilege. A survey was developed measuring this behavior in individuals to examine the impact of transgender-inclusive behavior and the potential effect of interventions on promoting inclusive behavior. Data were collected utilizing an online survey (N = 1,051). The sample was split in half to run two sets of cases in a principal components analysis. Analysis of the full sample showed Cronbach's alpha to be .93 (n = 918). Findings suggest that the Transgender Inclusive Behavior Scale (TIBS) may be a useful instrument for identifying behaviors related to being inclusive of transgender individuals, groups, and communities. It may also be used to measure behavior change before and after transgender-specific educational and behavioral interventions.

  1. Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale: Development and Initial Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T; Allen, G E Kawika; Stokes, Hannah I; Suh, Han Na

    2017-05-03

    In this study, the Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale (PPGS) was developed with Latter-day Saints (Mormons) across two samples. Sample 1 (N = 421) was used for EFA to select items for the Perceived Standards from God (5 items) and the Perceived Discrepancy from God (5 items) subscales. Sample 2 (N = 420) was used for CFA and cross-validated the 2-factor oblique model as well as a bifactor model. Perceived Standards from God scores had Cronbach alphas ranging from .73 to .78, and Perceived Discrepancy from God scores had Cronbach alphas ranging from .82 to .84. Standards from God scores were positively correlated with positive affect, whereas Discrepancy from God scores was positively correlated with negative affect, shame and guilt. Moreover, these two PPGS subscale scores added significant incremental variances in predicting associated variables over and above corresponding personal perfectionism scores.

  2. Development and initial validation of an Aviation Safety Climate Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bronwyn; Glendon, A Ian; Creed, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    A need was identified for a consistent set of safety climate factors to provide a basis for aviation industry benchmarking. Six broad safety climate themes were identified from the literature and consultations with industry safety experts. Items representing each of the themes were prepared and administered to 940 Australian commercial pilots. Data from half of the sample (N=468) were used in an exploratory factor analysis that produced a 3-factor model of Management commitment and communication, Safety training and equipment, and Maintenance. A confirmatory factor analysis on the remaining half of the sample showed the 3-factor model to be an adequate fit to the data. The results of this study have produced a scale of safety climate for aviation that is both reliable and valid. This study developed a tool to assess the level of perceived safety climate, specifically of pilots, but may also, with minor modifications, be used to assess other groups' perceptions of safety climate.

  3. Developing a scale to measure "attachment to the local community" in late middle aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Taichi; Omori, Junko; Takahashi, Kazuko; Mitsumori, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Maasa; Ono, Wakanako; Miyazaki, Toshie; Anzai, Hitomi; Saito, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to develop a scale for measuring "attachment to the local community" for its use in health services. The scale is also intended to nurture new social relationships in late middle-aged individuals.Methods Thirty items were initially planned to be included in the scale to measure "attachment to the local community", according to a previous study that identified the concept. The study subjects were late middle-aged residents of City B in Prefecture A, located in Tokyo suburbs. From the basic resident register data, 1,000 individuals (local residents in the 50-69 year age group) were selected by a multi-stage random sampling technique, on the basis of their residential area, age, and sex (while maintaining the male to female ratio). An unsigned self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the subjects, and the responses were collected by postal mail. The collected data was analyzed using psychometric study of scale.Results Valid responses were obtained from 583 subjects, and the response rate was 58.3%. In an item analysis, none of the items were rejected. In a subsequent factor analysis, 7 items were eliminated. These items included 2 items with a factor loading of attachment to the local community" was 0.95, demonstrating internal consistency. We then examined the correlation with an existing scale to measure social support; the results revealed a statistically significant correlation and confirmed criterion-related validity (Pattachment to the local community."

  4. Development and Validation of the Sexual Contingent Self-Worth Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, Maria; Rosen, Natalie O; Vannier, Sarah; MacLellan, Margaret C

    2017-01-01

    Sexual contingent self-worth (CSW) refers to self-worth that is dependent on maintaining a sexual relationship, and has not been studied previously. This novel construct may have implications for sexual, relationship, and psychological well-being, because it could affect the cognitions, affect, and behaviors of individuals in sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to develop the Sexual Contingent Self-Worth Scale and examine its reliability and validity in community samples. Two separate online studies (N = 329 and N = 282) included men and women who were in committed, sexually active relationships. The Sexual CSW Scale was adapted from a validated measure of relationship CSW. In Study 1, participants completed the Sexual CSW Scale, whereas in Study 2, participants also responded to standardized measures of related constructs. In addition, participants completed the Sexual CSW Scale again two weeks later in Study 2. Factor analysis yielded two subscales: (a) sexual CSW dependent on positive sexual events in the relationship and (b) sexual CSW dependent on negative sexual events. Results indicated good construct validity, incremental validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability for the Sexual CSW Scale. This research contributes to the fields of both CSW and sexuality by introducing a novel domain of CSW.

  5. Comparison of the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 with the parent-rated Kinder Infant Development Scale (KIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sayaka; Hashimoto, Keiji; Ikeda, Natsuha; Takekoh, Makoto; Fujiwara, Takeo; Morisaki, Naho; Mezawa, Hidetoshi; Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to extend our understanding of the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development (KSPD) by comparison with a parent-rated scale, the Kinder Infant Development Scale (KIDS). The participants of this study were 229 children aged 0-4, who were referred to the Developmental Evaluation Center of the National Center for Child Health and Development, due to a suspected developmental disorder/delay. The participants were divided into subgroups, depending on age and overall DQ. For each group separately, correlation analyses were conducted between the Developmental Quotient (DQ) of each KSPD domain and DQ of each KIDS subscale. For high DQ group, in all ages, the KSPD Postural-Motor (P-M) domain DQ demonstrated a high correlation with the KIDS Physical-Motor DQ, and at young ages, it was also found to be moderately or strongly associated with the KIDS Manipulation DQ. For high DQ group, the KSPD Cognitive-Adaptive (C-A) domain DQ was most consistently related to the KIDS Manipulation DQ, and was also moderately correlated with the KIDS Physical-Motor DQ, Receptive Language DQ, Social Relationship with Adults DQ, Discipline DQ, and Feeding DQ, depending on age. For high DQ group, the KSPD Language-Social (L-S) DQ most consistently showed a moderate or high correlation with the KIDS Receptive Language DQ and the Manipulation DQ, and also related to Physical-Motor DQ, Expressive Language DQ, Language Conception DQ, Social Relationship with Adults DQ, and Social Relationship with Children DQ for some age groups. The low DQ group demonstrated stronger relationships on many of the pairs of the DQ of a KSPD subdomain and the DQ of a KIDS subscale, regardless of the type of subdomains and subscales. For high DQ group, the KSPD P-M domain was consistently related to parent-reported physical/motor development, the C-A domain primarily reflected a child's fine motor skills and his/her ability to understand and follow verbal instructions provided by adults

  6. Developing Affective Mental Imagery Stimuli with Multidimensional Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Facciani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to provide an example of how multidimensional scaling (MDS can be used for stimuli development. The study described in this paper illustrates this process by developing affective mental imagery stimuli using the circumplex model of affect as a guide. The circumplex model of affect argues that all emotions can be described in terms of two underlying primary dimensions: valence and arousal (Russel, 1980. We used MDS to determine if affective mental imagery stimuli obtained from verbal prompts could be separated by arousal and valence to create four distinct categories (high –positive, low-positive, high-negative, and low-negative as seen in other stimuli. 60 students from the University of South Carolina participated in the first experiment to evaluate three sets of stimuli. After being analyzed using MDS, selected stimuli were then assessed again in a second experiment to validate their robust valence and arousal distinctions. The second experiment was conducted with 34 subjects to validate 40 of the best stimuli from experiment 1. It was found that mental imagery stimuli can produce a reliable affective response for the dimensions of valence and arousal and that MDS can be an effective tool for stimuli development.

  7. Implementing Large-Scale Instructional Technology in Kenya: Changing Instructional Practice and Developing Accountability in a National Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Benjamin; Oyanga, Arbogast; Mejia, Jessica; Pouezevara, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Previous large-scale education technology interventions have shown only modest impacts on student achievement. Building on results from an earlier randomized controlled trial of three different applications of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on primary education in Kenya, the Tusome Early Grade Reading Activity developed the…

  8. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2017-01-07

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2018-01-01

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27717610

  10. Development and Psychometric Testing of the Caregiver Communication Competence Scale in Patients With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hui-Chen; Yang, Ya-Ping; Huang, Mei-Chih; Wang, Jing-Jy

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate communication skills are essential for understanding patient needs, particularly those of patients with dementia. Assessing health care providers' competence in communicating with patients with dementia is critical for planning a communication education program. However, no formally established scale can be used. The purpose of the current study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument for determining the communication competence of health care providers with patients with dementia. Through use of a literature review and previous clinical experience, an initial 28-item scale was developed to assess the frequency of use of each item by health care providers. Fourteen items were extracted and three factors were distinguished. Results indicated that the internal consistency reliability of the 14-item scale was 0.84. Favorable convergent and discriminant validities were reached. The communication competence scale provides administrators or educators with a useful tool for assessing communication competence of health care providers when interacting with patients with dementia so a suitable education program can be planned and implemented. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Measuring clinical management by physicians and nurses in European hospitals: development and validation of two scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plochg, Thomas; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Botje, Daan; Thompson, Caroline A; Klazinga, Niek S; Wagner, Cordula; Mannion, Russell; Lombarts, Kiki

    2014-04-01

    Clinical management is hypothesized to be critical for hospital management and hospital performance. The aims of this study were to develop and validate professional involvement scales for measuring the level of clinical management by physicians and nurses in European hospitals. Testing of validity and reliability of scales derived from a questionnaire of 21 items was developed on the basis of a previous study and expert opinion and administered in a cross-sectional seven-country research project 'Deepening our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe' (DUQuE). A sample of 3386 leading physicians and nurses working in 188 hospitals located in Czech Republic, France, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Turkey. Validity and reliability of professional involvement scales and subscales. Psychometric analysis yielded four subscales for leading physicians: (i) Administration and budgeting, (ii) Managing medical practice, (iii) Strategic management and (iv) Managing nursing practice. Only the first three factors applied well to the nurses. Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency ranged from 0.74 to 0.86 for the physicians, and from 0.61 to 0.81 for the nurses. Except for the 0.74 correlation between 'Administration and budgeting' and 'Managing medical practice' among physicians, all inter-scale correlations were measurement instrument can be used for international research on clinical management.

  12. Measuring the experience of hospitality : Scale development and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls-Hoekstra, Ruth; Groen, Brenda H.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies what customers experience as hospitality and subsequently presents a novel and compact assessment scale for measuring customers’ experience of hospitality at any kind of service organization. The Experience of Hospitality Scale (EH-Scale) takes a broader perspective compared to

  13. Development of The Viking Speech Scale to classify the speech of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Lindsay; Virella, Daniel; Mjøen, Tone; da Graça Andrada, Maria; Murray, Janice; Colver, Allan; Himmelmann, Kate; Rackauskaite, Gija; Greitane, Andra; Prasauskiene, Audrone; Andersen, Guro; de la Cruz, Javier

    2013-10-01

    Surveillance registers monitor the prevalence of cerebral palsy and the severity of resulting impairments across time and place. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy can affect children's speech production and limit their intelligibility. We describe the development of a scale to classify children's speech performance for use in cerebral palsy surveillance registers, and its reliability across raters and across time. Speech and language therapists, other healthcare professionals and parents classified the speech of 139 children with cerebral palsy (85 boys, 54 girls; mean age 6.03 years, SD 1.09) from observation and previous knowledge of the children. Another group of health professionals rated children's speech from information in their medical notes. With the exception of parents, raters reclassified children's speech at least four weeks after their initial classification. Raters were asked to rate how easy the scale was to use and how well the scale described the child's speech production using Likert scales. Inter-rater reliability was moderate to substantial (k>.58 for all comparisons). Test-retest reliability was substantial to almost perfect for all groups (k>.68). Over 74% of raters found the scale easy or very easy to use; 66% of parents and over 70% of health care professionals judged the scale to describe children's speech well or very well. We conclude that the Viking Speech Scale is a reliable tool to describe the speech performance of children with cerebral palsy, which can be applied through direct observation of children or through case note review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metingear: a development environment for annotating genome-scale metabolic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, John W; James, A Gordon; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models often lack annotations that would allow them to be used for further analysis. Previous efforts have focused on associating metabolites in the model with a cross reference, but this can be problematic if the reference is not freely available, multiple resources are used or the metabolite is added from a literature review. Associating each metabolite with chemical structure provides unambiguous identification of the components and a more detailed view of the metabolism. We have developed an open-source desktop application that simplifies the process of adding database cross references and chemical structures to genome-scale metabolic models. Annotated models can be exported to the Systems Biology Markup Language open interchange format. Source code, binaries, documentation and tutorials are freely available at http://johnmay.github.com/metingear. The application is implemented in Java with bundles available for MS Windows and Macintosh OS X.

  15. [Development of a Japanese version of the TALE scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Tsutomu; Oguchi, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Scale (Bluck & Alea, 2011) has three subscales that assess the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory. This study constructs a Japanese version of the TALE Scale and examines its reliability and validity. Fifteen items that assess the three functions of autobiographical memory were translated into Japanese. We conducted an online investigation with 600 men and women between 20-59 years of age. In Study 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis identified that the three-factor structure of the Japanese version of the TALE Scale was the same as the original TALE Scale. Sufficient internal consistency of the scale was found, and the construct validity of the scale was supported by correlation analysis. Study 2 confirmed that the test-retest reliabilities of the three subscales were sufficient. Thus, this Japanese version of the TALE Scale is useful to assess autobiographical memory functions in Japan.

  16. Development of the rubric self-efficacy scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Güneş

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool determining teachers’ self-efficacy regarding rubrics. Especially in educational environments, rubrics are measurement tools used in the assessment phase of student products usually based on higher-order thinking skills. Determination of teachers’ self-efficacy regarding rubrics can give researchers an idea on how often and how accurately teachers use such tools.  For this reason, the existence of a tool accurately measuring self-efficacy variable is necessary. This study’s sample consists of 641 elementary, middle and high school teachers. To determine teachers’ self-efficacy levels regarding rubrics, 47-item draft was developed. As a result of validity and reliability analyzes, a 28-item measurement tool with a four-factor structure was obtained. The total scale’s and sub-factors’ internal consistency is quite high. Using this scale, researchers can examine the relationships between teachers’ self-efficacy and various variables that play an important role in education. In addition, comparative studies on the intended use of rubrics can be conducted by determining teachers’ self-efficacy levels regarding rubrics.

  17. Workplace status: The development and validation of a scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjevic, Emilija; Stoverink, Adam C; Klotz, Anthony C; Koopman, Joel; da Motta Veiga, Serge P; Yam, Kai Chi; Chiang, Jack Ting-Ju

    2017-07-01

    Research suggests that employee status, and various status proxies, relate to a number of meaningful outcomes in the workplace. The advancement of the study of status in organizational settings has, however, been stymied by the lack of a validated workplace status measure. The purpose of this manuscript, therefore, is to develop and validate a measure of workplace status based on a theoretically grounded definition of status in organizations. Subject-matter experts were used to examine the content validity of the measure. Then, 2 separate samples were employed to assess the psychometric properties (i.e., factor structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity) and nomological network of a 5-item, self-report Workplace Status Scale (WSS). To allow for methodological flexibility, an additional 3 samples were used to extend the WSS to coworker reports of a focal employee's status, provide additional evidence for the validity and reliability of the WSS, and to demonstrate consensus among coworker ratings. Together, these studies provide evidence of the psychometric soundness of the WSS for assessing employee status using either self-reports or other-source reports. The implications of the development of the WSS for the study of status in organizations are discussed, and suggestions for future research using the new measure are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Salzburg Emotional Eating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Blechert, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Existing self-report questionnaires for the assessment of emotional eating do not differentiate between specific types of emotions and between increased or decreased food intake in response to these emotions. Therefore, we developed a new measure of emotional eating-the Salzburg Emotional Eating Scale (SEES)-for which higher scores indicate eating more than usual in response to emotions and lower scores indicate eating less than usual in response to emotions. In study 1, a pool of items describing 40 emotional states was used. Factor analysis yielded four factors, which represented both positive ( happiness subscale) and negative emotions ( sadness, anger , and anxiety subscales). Subsequently, the scale was reduced to 20 items (5 items for each subscale) and its four-factor structure was replicated in studies 2 and 3. In all three studies, internal consistencies of each subscale were α > 0.70 and mean subscale scores significantly differed from each other such that individuals reported the strongest tendency to eat more than usual when being sad and the strongest tendency to eat less than usual when being anxious (sadness > happiness > anger > anxiety). Higher scores on the happiness subscale related to lower scores on the negative emotions subscales, lower body mass index (BMI), and lower eating pathology. In contrast, higher scores on the negative emotions subscales related to lower scores on the happiness subscale, higher BMI, and higher eating pathology. The SEES represents a useful measure for the investigation of emotional eating by increasing both specificity (differentiation between specific emotional states) and breadth (differentiation between increase and decrease of food intake) in the assessment of the emotion-eating relationship.

  19. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  20. Development and Validation of a PTSD-Related Impairment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR) (58] Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) [59] Life Stressors and Social Resources Inventory ( LISRES ) [60] 3...measure that gauges on- 200 Social Resources lnven- 2. Spouse/partner going life stressors and social resources tory ( LISRES ; Moos & 3. Finances as well...measures (e.g., ICF checklist, LISRES ; Moos, Penn, & Billings, 1988) may nor be practical or desirable in many healthcare settings or in large-scale

  1. Are brand benefits perceived differently in less developed economies ? A scale development and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Lacoeuilhe , Jérôme; Ben Mrad , Selima; Belaïd , Samy; Petrescu , Maria

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale measuring consumers’ brand benefits in less developed economies. Based on the literature, items have been generated in qualitative and quantitative studies and tested by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The findings show that brand benefits converge into a two-factor structure (functional and symbolic) instead of three (functional, experiential and symbolic). These findings can be justified by the fact ...

  2. Development and validation of the Patriarchal Beliefs Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eunju; Adams, Kristen; Hogge, Ingrid; Bruner, John P; Surya, Shruti; Bryant, Fred B

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a conceptually and psychometrically solid measure for patriarchal beliefs in samples of U.S. American adults from diverse demographic and geographic backgrounds. In Study 1, we identified 3 correlated factors of the Patriarchal Beliefs Scale (PBS) in data collected from the Internet (N = 279): Institutional Power of Men, Inferiority of Women, and Gendered Domestic Roles. In Study 2, data collected from the Internet (N = 284) supported both an oblique 3-factor structure and a bifactor structure of the PBS, through confirmatory factor analyses. Construct validity of the PBS was supported in relation to other gender-related measures. The PBS was correlated in expected directions with modern sexism, antifeminist attitudes, and egalitarian attitudes toward women. In Study 3, we examined measurement invariance across gender by using combined data from Study 1 and Study 2. All 3 factors of the oblique 3-factor model indicated measurement invariance, whereas the general factor represented in the bifactor model indicated nonequivalence. Mean differences in patriarchal beliefs were found for such demographic variables as gender, sexual orientation, education, and social class. Recommendations for using the PBS, as well as implications for research and practice, are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Development of a small-scale computer cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jay; Smith, Justin T.; Smith, James E.

    2008-04-01

    An increase in demand for computing power in academia has necessitated the need for high performance machines. Computing power of a single processor has been steadily increasing, but lags behind the demand for fast simulations. Since a single processor has hard limits to its performance, a cluster of computers can have the ability to multiply the performance of a single computer with the proper software. Cluster computing has therefore become a much sought after technology. Typical desktop computers could be used for cluster computing, but are not intended for constant full speed operation and take up more space than rack mount servers. Specialty computers that are designed to be used in clusters meet high availability and space requirements, but can be costly. A market segment exists where custom built desktop computers can be arranged in a rack mount situation, gaining the space saving of traditional rack mount computers while remaining cost effective. To explore these possibilities, an experiment was performed to develop a computing cluster using desktop components for the purpose of decreasing computation time of advanced simulations. This study indicates that small-scale cluster can be built from off-the-shelf components which multiplies the performance of a single desktop machine, while minimizing occupied space and still remaining cost effective.

  4. Development of an assessment of functioning scale for prison environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah; Wakai, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a global assessment of functioning (GAF), modified from the DSM Axis V GAF for the prison environment. Focus groups, which were conducted with 36 correctional officers and clinicians in two prisons, provided descriptions of behavior in prison settings to re-align the GAF scale. Face validity was established. It was found that Habitation/Behavior, Social, and Symptoms emerged as important domains of functioning in prison. Gender differences were noted with regard to cleanliness, relationships and coping strategies. The cut-off score was identified at a score where offenders were unable to participate in a disciplinary process due to their mental illness. The structure of prison alters human functioning, requiring different assessment language and ratings to measure perceived behavioral norms and/or expectations. Front-line staff need the ability to observe and communicate behavioral changes quickly and accurately in a prison environment without undue burden upon their workload. This assessment was modified by front-line staff specifically for the prison environment to document quick and frequent assessments of observed changes over time in the offender population.

  5. Development of Full-Scale Ultrathin Shell Reflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmuş Türkmen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is aimed that a new ultrathin shell composite reflector is developed considering different design options to optimize the stiffness/mass ratio, cost, and manufacturing. The reflector is an offset parabolic reflector with a diameter of 6 m, a focal length of 4.8 m, and an offset of 0.3 m and has the ability of folding and self-deploying. For Ku-band missions a full-scale offset parabolic reflector antenna is designed by considering different concepts of stiffening: (i reflective surface and skirt, (ii reflective surface and radial ribs, and (iii reflective surface, skirt, and radial ribs. In a preliminary study, the options are modeled using ABAQUS finite element program and compared with respect to their mass, fundamental frequency, and thermal surface errors. It is found that the option of reflective surface and skirt is more advantageous. The option is further analyzed to optimize the stiffness/mass ratio considering the design parameters of material thickness, width of the skirt, and ply angles. Using the TOPSIS method is determined the best reflector concept among thirty different designs. Accordingly, new design can be said to have some advantages in terms of mass, natural frequency, number of parts, production, and assembly than both SSBR and AstroMesh reflectors.

  6. The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale: development and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T; Wei, Meifen; Zhao, Ran; Chuang, Chih-Chun; Li, Feihan

    2015-03-01

    The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale (CCLS), a measure of loss associated with crossing national boundaries, was developed across 2 samples of international students. With Sample 1 (N = 262), exploratory factor analyses were used to select the 14 CCLS items and to determine 3 factors: Belonging-Competency (α = .87), National Privileges (α = .68), and Access to Home Familiarity (α = .72). With Sample 2, confirmatory factor analyses (N = 256) cross-validated the 3-factor oblique model as well as a bifactor model. Cronbach alphas of CCLS subscale scores in Sample 2 ranged from .73 to .87. The validity of the CCLS scores was supported by its associations with related variables in the expected directions. Perceived cross-cultural losses were positively associated with negative affect, migration grief and loss, and discrimination and were negatively associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, general self-efficacy, and social connection with mainstream society. Moreover, the CCLS total and 2 subscale scores added significant incremental variance in predicting subjective well-being over and above related constructs. The results indicated measurement invariance and validity equivalency for the CCLS scores between men and women. The overall results from these 2 samples support CCLS as a psychometrically strong measure. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Assessing large-scale wildlife responses to human infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Aurora; Jaeger, Jochen A G; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2016-07-26

    Habitat loss and deterioration represent the main threats to wildlife species, and are closely linked to the expansion of roads and human settlements. Unfortunately, large-scale effects of these structures remain generally overlooked. Here, we analyzed the European transportation infrastructure network and found that 50% of the continent is within 1.5 km of transportation infrastructure. We present a method for assessing the impacts from infrastructure on wildlife, based on functional response curves describing density reductions in birds and mammals (e.g., road-effect zones), and apply it to Spain as a case study. The imprint of infrastructure extends over most of the country (55.5% in the case of birds and 97.9% for mammals), with moderate declines predicted for birds (22.6% of individuals) and severe declines predicted for mammals (46.6%). Despite certain limitations, we suggest the approach proposed is widely applicable to the evaluation of effects of planned infrastructure developments under multiple scenarios, and propose an internationally coordinated strategy to update and improve it in the future.

  8. The development and initial validation of the Countertransference Management Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rojas, Andrés E; Palma, Beatriz; Bhatia, Avantika; Jackson, John; Norwood, Earta; Hayes, Jeffrey A; Gelso, Charles J

    2017-09-01

    Countertransference is an important aspect of the therapeutic relationship that exists in therapies of all theoretical orientations, and depending on how it is managed, it can either help or hinder treatment. Management of countertransference has been measured almost exclusively with the Countertransference Factors Inventory (Van Wagoner, Gelso, Hayes, & Diemer, 1991) and its variations, all of which focus on 5 therapist qualities theorized to facilitate management: self-insight, conceptualizing ability, empathy, self-integration, and anxiety management. Existing versions of the Countertransference Factors Inventory, however, possess certain psychometric limitations that appear to constrain how well they assess actual management of countertransference during a therapy session. We thus sought to develop a new measure that addressed these limitations and that captured the 5 therapist qualities as constituents (rather than correlates) of countertransference management that manifest in the treatment hour. The development and initial validation of the resulting 22-item Countertransference Management Scale (CMS) is described here. Exploratory factor analysis of ratings of 286 therapy supervisors of current supervisees indicated that the 5 constituents of countertransference management could be grouped into 2 correlated factors: "Understanding Self and Client" and "Self-Integration and Regulation." Evidence of convergent and criterion-related validity was supported by CMS total and subscale scores correlating as expected with measures of theoretically relevant constructs, namely, therapist countertransference behavior, theoretical framework, self-esteem, observing ego, empathic understanding, and tolerance of anxiety. Results also supported the internal consistency of the CMS and its subscales. Research, clinical, and training implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Development of the Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, David O.; Young, Laura

    A study involving a sample of people selected to represent the nonimpaired American population, aged 16 to 74 years, was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of the Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised. The scale's subtests were designed to assess memory of personal and general knowledge, logical memory, verbal paired association, figural memory,…

  10. Development of the Abbreviated Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartout, Kevin M; Parrott, Dominic J; Cohn, Amy M; Hagman, Brett T; Gallagher, Kathryn E

    2015-06-01

    Data gathered from 6 independent samples (n = 1,729) that assessed men's masculine gender role stress in college and community males were aggregated used to determine the reliability and validity of an abbreviated version of the Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS) Scale. The 15 items with the highest item-to-total scale correlations were used to create an abbreviated MGRS Scale. Psychometric properties of each of the 15 items were examined with item response theory (IRT) analysis, using the discrimination and threshold parameters. IRT results showed that the abbreviated scale may hold promise at capturing the same amount of information as the full 40-item scale. Relative to the 40-item scale, the total score of the abbreviated MGRS Scale demonstrated comparable convergent validity using the measurement domains of masculine identity, hypermasculinity, trait anger, anger expression, and alcohol involvement. An abbreviated MGRS Scale may be recommended for use in clinical practice and research settings to reduce cost, time, and patient/participant burden. Additionally, IRT analyses identified items with higher discrimination and threshold parameters that may be used to screen for problematic gender role stress in men who may be seen in routine clinical or medical practice. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Developing A Large-Scale, Collaborative, Productive Geoscience Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Egger, A. E.; Fox, S.; Ledley, T. S.; Macdonald, H.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, the geoscience education community has grown substantially and developed broad and deep capacity for collaboration and dissemination of ideas. While this community is best viewed as emergent from complex interactions among changing educational needs and opportunities, we highlight the role of several large projects in the development of a network within this community. In the 1990s, three NSF projects came together to build a robust web infrastructure to support the production and dissemination of on-line resources: On The Cutting Edge (OTCE), Earth Exploration Toolbook, and Starting Point: Teaching Introductory Geoscience. Along with the contemporaneous Digital Library for Earth System Education, these projects engaged geoscience educators nationwide in exploring professional development experiences that produced lasting on-line resources, collaborative authoring of resources, and models for web-based support for geoscience teaching. As a result, a culture developed in the 2000s in which geoscience educators anticipated that resources for geoscience teaching would be shared broadly and that collaborative authoring would be productive and engaging. By this time, a diverse set of examples demonstrated the power of the web infrastructure in supporting collaboration, dissemination and professional development . Building on this foundation, more recent work has expanded both the size of the network and the scope of its work. Many large research projects initiated collaborations to disseminate resources supporting educational use of their data. Research results from the rapidly expanding geoscience education research community were integrated into the Pedagogies in Action website and OTCE. Projects engaged faculty across the nation in large-scale data collection and educational research. The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network and OTCE engaged community members in reviewing the expanding body of on-line resources. Building Strong

  12. Development and Psychometric Properties of a Scale to Measure Hospital Organizational Culture for Cardiovascular Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Brewster, Amanda L; Fosburgh, Heather; Cherlin, Emily J; Curry, Leslie A

    2017-03-01

    Because organizational culture is increasingly understood as fundamental to achieving high performance in hospital and other healthcare settings, the ability to measure this nuanced concept empirically has gained importance. Aside from measures of patient safety culture, no measure of organizational culture has been widely endorsed in the medical literature, limiting replication of previous findings and broader use in interventional studies. We sought to develop and assess the validity and reliability of a scale for assessing organizational culture in the context of hospitals' efforts to reducing 30-day risk-standardized mortality after acute myocardial infarction. The 31-item scale was completed by 147 individuals representing 10 hospitals during August and September 2014. The resulting organizational culture scale demonstrated high level of construct validity and internal consistency. Factor analyses indicated that the 31 items loaded well (loading values 0.48-0.90), supporting distinguishable domains of (1) learning environment, (2) psychological safety, (3) commitment to the organization, (4) senior management support, and (5) time for improvement efforts. Cronbach α coefficients were 0.94 for the scale and ranged from 0.77 to 0.88 for the subscales. The scale displayed reasonable convergent validity and statistically significant variability across hospitals, with hospital identity accounting for 11.3% of variance in culture scores across respondents. We developed and validated a relatively easy-to-administer survey that was able to detect substantial variability in organizational culture across different hospitals and may be useful in measuring hospital culture and evaluating changes in culture over time as part performance improvement efforts. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Development of a scale to assess cancer stigma in the non-patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane

    2014-04-23

    Illness-related stigma has attracted considerable research interest, but few studies have specifically examined stigmatisation of cancer in the non-patient population. The present study developed and validated a Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS) for use in the general population. An item pool was developed on the basis of previous research into illness-related stigma in the general population and patients with cancer. Two studies were carried out. The first study used Exploratory factor analysis to explore the structure of items in a sample of 462 postgraduate students recruited through a London university. The second study used Confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the structure among 238 adults recruited through an online market research panel. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability and construct validity were also assessed. Exploratory factor analysis suggested six subscales, representing: Awkwardness, Severity, Avoidance, Policy Opposition, Personal Responsibility and Financial Discrimination. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed this structure with a 25-item scale. All subscales showed adequate to good internal and test-retest reliability in both samples. Construct validity was also good, with mean scores for each subscale varying in the expected directions by age, gender, experience of cancer, awareness of lifestyle risk factors for cancer, and social desirability. Means for the subscales were consistent across the two samples. These findings highlight the complexity of cancer stigma and provide the Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS) which can be used to compare populations, types of cancer and evaluate the effects of interventions designed to reduce cancer stigma in non-patient populations.

  14. A Validity and Reliability Study of the Attitudes toward Sustainable Development Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele; Frate, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes toward Sustainable Development scale, a quantitative 20-item scale that measures Italian university students' attitudes toward sustainable development. A total of 484 undergraduate students completed the questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the scale was statistically…

  15. Developing a Scale to Measure Reader Self-Perception for EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunyarittigun, Dumrong

    2015-01-01

    The development of a scale for measuring self-perception for readers of English as a foreign language is discussed in this paper. The scale was developed from the four dimensions of self-efficacy theory proposed by Bandura (1977a): progress, observational comparison, social feedback and physiological states. A 36 item scale was developed to…

  16. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Core Nurse Resource Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michelle R

    2010-11-01

    To examine the factor structure, internal consistency reliability and concurrent-related validity of the Core Nurse Resource Scale. A cross-sectional survey study design was used to obtain a sample of 149 nurses and nursing staff [Registered Nurse (RNs), Licensed Practical Nurse (LPNs) and Certified Nursing Assistant (CNAs)] working in long-term care facilities. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha and bivariate correlations were used to evaluate validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a scale with 18 items on three factors, accounting for 52% of the variance in scores. Internal consistency reliability for the composite and Core Nurse Resource Scale factors ranged from 0.79 to 0.91. The Core Nurse Resource Scale composite scale and subscales correlated positively with a measure of work engagement (r=0.247-0.572). The initial psychometric evaluation of the Core Nurse Resource Scale demonstrates it is a sound measure. Further validity and reliability assessment will need to be explored and assessed among nurses and other nursing staff working in other practice settings. The intent of the Core Nurse Resource Scale is to evaluate the presence of physical, psychological and social resources of the nursing work environment, to identify workplaces at risk for disengaged (low work engagement) nursing staff and to provide useful diagnostic information to healthcare administrators interested in interventions to improve the nursing work environment. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The Erectile Performance Anxiety Index: scale development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telch, Michael J; Pujols, Yasisca

    2013-12-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a highly publicized and prevalent condition with marked adverse effects on men's social, emotional, and quality of life. Although several instruments have emerged for assessing erectile dysfunction and its impact on men's quality of life, none of the existing instruments provide a specific assessment of men's erectile performance anxiety. This article reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Erectile Performance Anxiety Index (EPAI)--a 10-item self-report scale designed to fill an important gap in the assessment of male erectile dysfunction. A total of 207 men ranging in age from 18 to 79 took part in the study. All subjects completed an online battery consisting of the EPAI, along with measures of related sexual functioning, social anxiety, state anxiety, and depressive symptoms. A small subset of study participants (N = 42) completed the EPAI a second time for determining test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was determined by Pearson's product-moment correlations. Internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Factor validity was evaluated by a maximum likelihood factor analysis with oblique rotation. Convergent and discriminant validity was assessed by comparing the strength of association between the EPAI and measures varying in their hypothesized shared variance with the construct of erectile performance anxiety. The EPAI demonstrated excellent internal consistency, with Cronbach's alpha = 0.93 and excellent test-retest reliability (r = 0.85) over an average period of 3.5 weeks. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution that accounted for 63% of the total variance. Preliminary evidence supports the convergent and discriminant validity of the EPAI. Results support the use of the EPAI as a reliable, valid, and efficient instrument for the assessment of erectile performance anxiety. Potential research and clinical applications are discussed. © 2013 International

  18. Using scale and feather traits for module construction provides a functional approach to chicken epidermal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Weier; Greenwold, Matthew J; Sawyer, Roger H

    2017-11-01

    Gene co-expression network analysis has been a research method widely used in systematically exploring gene function and interaction. Using the Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) approach to construct a gene co-expression network using data from a customized 44K microarray transcriptome of chicken epidermal embryogenesis, we have identified two distinct modules that are highly correlated with scale or feather development traits. Signaling pathways related to feather development were enriched in the traditional KEGG pathway analysis and functional terms relating specifically to embryonic epidermal development were also enriched in the Gene Ontology analysis. Significant enrichment annotations were discovered from customized enrichment tools such as Modular Single-Set Enrichment Test (MSET) and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Hub genes in both trait-correlated modules showed strong specific functional enrichment toward epidermal development. Also, regulatory elements, such as transcription factors and miRNAs, were targeted in the significant enrichment result. This work highlights the advantage of this methodology for functional prediction of genes not previously associated with scale- and feather trait-related modules.

  19. The Development and Validation of the Comprehensive Intellectual Humility Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei-Mancuso, Elizabeth J; Rouse, Steven V

    2016-01-01

    A series of studies was conducted to create the 22-item Comprehensive Intellectual Humility Scale on the basis of theoretical descriptions of intellectual humility, expert reviews, pilot studies, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The scale measures 4 distinct but intercorrelated aspects of intellectual humility, including independence of intellect and ego, openness to revising one's viewpoint, respect for others' viewpoints, and lack of intellectual overconfidence. Internal consistency and test-retest analyses provided reliable scale and subscale scores within numerous independent samples. Validation data were obtained from multiple, independent samples, supporting appropriate levels of convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. The analyses suggest that the scale has utility as a self-report measure for future research.

  20. Development and validation of the coping with terror scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Nathan R; Schorr, Yonit; Litz, Brett T; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W; Solomon, Zahava; Horesh, Danny

    2013-10-01

    Terrorism creates lingering anxiety about future attacks. In prior terror research, the conceptualization and measurement of coping behaviors were constrained by the use of existing coping scales that index reactions to daily hassles and demands. The authors created and validated the Coping with Terror Scale to fill the measurement gap. The authors emphasized content validity, leveraging the knowledge of terror experts and groups of Israelis. A multistep approach involved construct definition and item generation, trimming and refining the measure, exploring the factor structure underlying item responses, and garnering evidence for reliability and validity. The final scale comprised six factors that were generally consistent with the authors' original construct specifications. Scores on items linked to these factors demonstrate good reliability and validity. Future studies using the Coping with Terror Scale with other populations facing terrorist threats are needed to test its ability to predict resilience, functional impairment, and psychological distress.

  1. [Development of an activity of daily living scale for patients with COPD: the Activity of Daily Living Dyspnea scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoza, Yoshiyasu; Ariyoshi, Koya; Honda, Sumihisa; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2009-10-01

    Patients with COPD often experience restriction in their activities of daily living (ADL) due to dyspnea. This type of restriction is unique to patients with COPD and cannot be adequately evaluated by the generic ADL scales. This study developed an ADL scale (the Activity of Daily Living Dyspnea scale [ADL-D scale]) for patients with COPD and investigated its validity and internal consistency. Patients with stable COPD were recruited and completed a pilot 26-item questionnaire. Patients also performed the Incremental Shuttle Walk Test (ISWT), and completed the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea grade. There were 83 male participants who completed the pilot questionnaire. Following the pilot, 8 items that were not undertaken by the majority of subjects, and 3 items judged to be of low clinical importance by physical therapists were removed from the pilot questionnaire. The final ADL-D scale contained 15 items. Scores obtained with the ADL-D scale were significantly correlated with the MRC dyspnea grades, distance walked on the ISWT and SGRQ scores. The ADL-D scores were significantly different across the five grades of the MRC dyspnea grade. The ADL-D scale showed high consistency (Chronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.96). The ADL-D scale is a useful scale for assessing impairments in ADL in Japanese male patients with COPD.

  2. Development and Psychometric Validation of the Dementia Attitudes Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. O'Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employed qualitative construct mapping and factor analysis to construct a scale to measure attitudes toward dementia. Five family caregivers, five professionals, and five college students participated in structured interviews. Qualitative analysis of the interviews led to a 46-item scale, which was reduced to 20 items following principal axis factoring with two different samples: college students (=302 and certified nursing assistant students (=145. Confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted with another sample of college students (=157. The final scale, titled the Dementia Attitudes Scale (DAS, essentially had a two-factor structure; the factors were labeled “dementia knowledge” and “social comfort.” Total-scale Cronbach's alphas ranged 0.83–0.85. Evidence for convergent validity was promising, as the DAS correlated significantly with scales that measured ageism and attitudes toward disabilities (range of correlations = 0.44–0.55; mean correlation =0.50. These findings demonstrate the reliability and validity of the DAS, supporting its use as a research tool.

  3. Note on the development of a Brazilian version of a noise annoyance scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Hartmut; Iglesias, Fabio; de Sousa, Juliana Moraes

    2007-11-01

    In order to compare community responses to environmental noise across cultures and languages, international standardized annoyance scales are necessary. ICBEN Team 6 has organized the development of scales for eight European languages and for Japanese. More recently, scales for three other Asian languages were added. The present study reports on the use of the ICBEN method to construct an annoyance scale for Brazilian Portuguese.

  4. [Development of a New Scale for Gauging Smartphone Dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Masahiro; Nishio, Nobuhiro; Takeshita, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    We designed a scale to gauge smartphone dependence and assessed its reliability and validity. A prototype self-rating smartphone-dependence scale was tested on 133 medical students who use smartphones more frequently than other devices to access web pages. Each response was scored on a Likert scale (0, 1, 2, 3), with higher scores indicating greater dependence. To select items for the final scale, exploratory factor analysis was conducted. On the basis of factor analysis results, we designed the Wakayama Smartphone-Dependence Scale (WSDS) comprising 21 items with 3 subscales: immersion in Internet communication; using a smartphone for extended periods of time and neglecting social obligations and other tasks; using a smartphone while doing something else and neglect of etiquette. Our analysis confirmed the validity of the different elements of the WSDS: the reliability coefficient (Cronbach's alpha) values of all subscales and total WSDS were from 0.79 to 0.83 and 0.88, respectively. These findings suggest that the WSDS is a useful tool for rating smartphone dependence.

  5. Development of a scale of executive functioning for the RBANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Robert J; Kitchen Andren, Katherine A; Tolle, Kathryn A

    2018-01-01

    The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is a cognitive battery that contains scales of several cognitive abilities, but no scale in the instrument is exclusively dedicated to executive functioning. Although the subtests allow for observation of executive-type errors, each error is of fairly low base rate, and healthy and clinical normative data are lacking on the frequency of these types of errors, making their significance difficult to interpret in isolation. The aim of this project was to create an RBANS executive errors scale (RBANS EE) with items comprised of qualitatively dysexecutive errors committed throughout the test. Participants included Veterans referred for outpatient neuropsychological testing. Items were initially selected based on theoretical literature and were retained based on item-total correlations. The RBANS EE (a percentage calculated by dividing the number of dysexecutive errors by the total number of responses) was moderately related to each of seven established measures of executive functioning and was strongly predictive of dichotomous classification of executive impairment. Thus, the scale had solid concurrent validity, justifying its use as a supplementary scale. The RBANS EE requires no additional administration time and can provide a quantified measure of otherwise unmeasured aspects of executive functioning.

  6. The Development of Academic Self-Efficacy Scale for Filipino Junior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Reyes Dullas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Primarily the research is focused on the development and validation of the Academic Self-efficacy Scale (ASES-FJHS for Filipino junior high school students. Self-efficacy refers to people’s beliefs in their capabilities to produce certain effects and to learn or perform behaviors at designated levels (Bandura, 2006, 2012. In relation to test construction, most of the developed self-efficacy scale focuses on one source of self-efficacy and are constructed as subscale. Given the limited published ASES for Filipino junior high school students as well as the non-existence of published and established ASES in Philippine context, this study sought to develop and validate a self-efficacy scale that is more holistic than those previously published. The design of the research is Test Development and anchored on Classical Test Theory. Respondents comprised of 4,759 junior high school students from selected 20 public and private schools in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. The study followed the two stages of test development, i.e., the development of the initial, preliminary, and final forms and validation of the scale. The items were developed through consultation with experts and literature reviews. After the development of table of specification, items were validated by four expert judges. Results showed using Lawshe Content Validation Ratio (CVI = 0.87 and Intra-class Correlation [ICC (2,4 = 0.953, a = 0.000] that the expert validators have high agreement on the items of ASES. Moreover, Upper Limit-Lower Limit method (d = 0.43, Cronbach alpha (0.95, split-half method (Spearman-Brown Coefficient = 0.86, item to total correlation, and Principal Component Analysis were also utilized to test the reliability of test items. The factor structure verified the four iterations which includes perceived control (PC, competence (C, persistence (P, and self-regulated learning domains. Convergent (r = 0.498; p < 0.05 and concurrent validity (r

  7. The Development and Validation of the Student Response System Benefit Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, J. F.; Denker, K. J.; Summers, M. E.; Parker, M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research into the benefits student response systems (SRS) that have been brought into the classroom revealed that SRS can contribute positively to student experiences. However, while the benefits of SRS have been conceptualized and operationalized into a widely cited scale, the validity of this scale had not been tested. Furthermore,…

  8. Developing and validating the Youth Conduct Problems Scale-Rwanda: a mixed methods approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C Ng

    Full Text Available This study developed and validated the Youth Conduct Problems Scale-Rwanda (YCPS-R. Qualitative free listing (n = 74 and key informant interviews (n = 47 identified local conduct problems, which were compared to existing standardized conduct problem scales and used to develop the YCPS-R. The YCPS-R was cognitive tested by 12 youth and caregiver participants, and assessed for test-retest and inter-rater reliability in a sample of 64 youth. Finally, a purposive sample of 389 youth and their caregivers were enrolled in a validity study. Validity was assessed by comparing YCPS-R scores to conduct disorder, which was diagnosed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children, and functional impairment scores on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule Child Version. ROC analyses assessed the YCPS-R's ability to discriminate between youth with and without conduct disorder. Qualitative data identified a local presentation of youth conduct problems that did not match previously standardized measures. Therefore, the YCPS-R was developed solely from local conduct problems. Cognitive testing indicated that the YCPS-R was understandable and required little modification. The YCPS-R demonstrated good reliability, construct, criterion, and discriminant validity, and fair classification accuracy. The YCPS-R is a locally-derived measure of Rwandan youth conduct problems that demonstrated good psychometric properties and could be used for further research.

  9. The development and validation of the Dieting Intentions Scale (DIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; Platow, Michael J; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don G

    2013-03-01

    This article presents information on the psychometric properties of the Dieting Intentions Scale (DIS), a new scale of dieting that predicts future behavioral efforts to lose weight. We begin by reviewing recent research indicating theoretical and empirical problems with traditional approaches to measuring dieting. The DIS addresses several of these problems by (a) focusing on naturalistic dieting behavior and (b) being future-oriented. Four validation studies are presented with a total of 741 participants. We demonstrate that the DIS has predictive utility for dieting behaviors and is positively correlated with other measures related to eating, weight, and shape. Furthermore, the DIS demonstrates discriminant validity by not being related to constructs such as self-esteem and social desirability. The DIS also has high internal consistency, with a 1-factor solution replicated with confirmatory factor analysis. The potential uses of the scale in both research and clinical settings are considered. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Scale Development and Initial Tests of the Multidimensional Complex Adaptive Leadership Scale for School Principals: An Exploratory Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Hamit; Turan, Selahattin

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to develop the scale of the Complex Adaptive Leadership for School Principals (CAL-SP) and examine its psychometric properties. This was an exploratory mixed method research design (ES-MMD). Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to develop and assess psychometric properties of the questionnaire. This study…

  11. Developing a scale to measure parental attitudes towards preschool speech and language therapy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowska, M; Campbell, R; Peters, T J; Roulstone, S; Enderby, P

    2001-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing recognition of the need to involve clients in decisions about the healthcare they receive and in the evaluation of services offered. In health services research, survey and scaling methods have become important tools for research into 'consumer views' and the perspectives of people receiving healthcare. In spite of the increase in recent years in the participation of parents in their children's Speech and Language Therapy (SLT), there has been little attempt to investigate parents' perceptions and opinions of the services they receive. Moreover, there has been no previous attempt to derive a scale to measure these attitudes. The paper reports a study that explored the attitudes to therapy of 81 parents whose preschool children were receiving SLT intervention. Factor analysis of 12 items on a questionnaire revealed three issues salient in parental attitudes to therapy: practical help, emotional support and the perceived effectiveness of the service. The validity of these factors was supported by other findings from the questionnaire. The properties of the resulting scales are discussed and the ways in which they might be further refined and developed for use in SLT are suggested.

  12. Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Suckewer, S.; Princeton Univ., NJ; Skinner, C.H.; Voorhees, D.

    1991-05-01

    At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183 angstrom has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a ''portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs

  13. Personal Professional Development Efforts Scale for Science and Technology Teachers Regarding Their Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Aysegül; Balbag, Mustafa Zafer

    2016-01-01

    This study has developed "Personal Professional Development Efforts Scale for Science and Technology Teachers Regarding Their Fields". Exploratory factor analysis of the scale has been conducted based on the data collected from 200 science and technology teachers across Turkey. The scale has been observed through varimax rotation method,…

  14. Developing the University of the Philippines Loneliness Assessment Scale: A Cross-Cultural Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharayil, Davis Porinchu

    2012-01-01

    As the existing scales to measure loneliness are almost all Western and there is no single scale developed cross-culturally for this purpose, this study is designed to develop a reliable and valid scale to measure the experience of loneliness of individuals from individualistic or collectivistic cultures. There are three samples for this study…

  15. Frontal impact response of a virtual low percentile six years old human thorax developed by automatic down-scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špička J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents cause one of the highest numbers of severe injuries in the whole population spectrum. The numbers of deaths and seriously injured citizens prove that traffic accidents and their consequences are still a serious problem to be solved. The paper contributes to the field of vehicle safety technology with a virtual approach. Exploitation of the previously developed scaling algorithm enables the creation of a specific anthropometric model based on a validated reference model. The aim of the paper is to prove the biofidelity of the small percentile six years old virtual human model developed by automatic down-scaling in a frontal impact. For the automatically developed six years old virtual specific anthropometric model, the Kroell impact test is simulated and the results are compared to the experimental data. The chosen approach shows good correspondence of the scaled model performance to the experimental corridors.

  16. Research on the Construction Management and Sustainable Development of Large-Scale Scientific Facilities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiquan, Xi; Lin, Cong; Xuehui, Jin

    2018-05-01

    As an important platform for scientific and technological development, large -scale scientific facilities are the cornerstone of technological innovation and a guarantee for economic and social development. Researching management of large-scale scientific facilities can play a key role in scientific research, sociology and key national strategy. This paper reviews the characteristics of large-scale scientific facilities, and summarizes development status of China's large-scale scientific facilities. At last, the construction, management, operation and evaluation of large-scale scientific facilities is analyzed from the perspective of sustainable development.

  17. Scaling under REACH. Development of a guideline for the evaluation of the safe recommendations for use of chemicals by scaling; Scaling unter REACH. Entwicklung einer Handlungsanleitung zur Bestimmung der sicheren Verwendungsbedingungen von Chemikalien durch Scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunke, Dirk; Gross, Rita; Vogel, Steffen [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Scaling in the context of REACH means: use of simple mathematics to check, whether chemi-cals are used in a safe way. Even in case if certain conditions of use deviate from the exposure scenario. In specific cases, scaling offers downstream users the opportunity to demonstrate coverage by an exposure scenario for their individual conditions of use. In this report we describe the duty of downstream users to check their conditions of use. We give a definition of scaling related to REACH. We describe objectives and results of scaling. We characterise available scaling tools in a structured way. We describe options for further development and harmonisation of scaling tools. Under use of the experience with existing tools, we develop a guidance document on scaling. Three examples in this guidance make clear how scaling works. In five steps. The guidance is addressed to persons using substances in industrial or professional applications - downstream users according to REACH. In addition, the guidance supports producers of substances and formulators who want to develop scaling tools for their customers. The report includes a calculation table for scaling related to the environment (REACH Scale Environment). In addition, it includes a template to generate product-specific scaling tools. This report focuses on scaling related to environmental exposure assessment. Scaling is possible related to workers and consumer exposure, too. References for this are given in chapter 7. (orig.)

  18. Development and Validation of the Negative Attitudes towards CBT Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Zachary J; Waller, Glenn

    2017-11-01

    Clinicians commonly fail to use cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) adequately, but the reasons for such omissions are not well understood. The objective of this study was to create and validate a measure to assess clinicians' attitudes towards CBT - the Negative Attitudes towards CBT Scale (NACS). The participants were 204 clinicians from various mental healthcare fields. Each completed the NACS, measures of anxiety and self-esteem, and a measure of therapists' use of CBT and non-CBT techniques and their confidence in using those techniques. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the factor structure of the NACS, and scale internal consistency was tested. A single, 16-item scale emerged from the factor analysis of the NACS, and that scale had good internal consistency. Clinicians' negative attitudes and their anxiety had different patterns of association with the use of CBT and other therapeutic techniques. The findings suggest that clinicians' attitudes and emotions each need to be considered when understanding why many clinicians fail to deliver the optimum version of evidence-based CBT. They also suggest that training effective CBT clinicians might depend on understanding and targeting such internal states.

  19. Two-scale analysis of intermittency in fully developed turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badii, R; Talkner, P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A self-affinity test for turbulent time series is applied to experimental data for the estimation of intermittency exponents. The method employs exact relations satisfied by joint expectations of observables computed across two different length scales. One of these constitutes a verification tool for the existence and the extent of the inertial range. (author) 2 figs., 13 refs.

  20. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dunner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe approx.70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at approx.10Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  1. Development of a Scale To Assess Emotional Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Michael H.; Cullinan, Douglas; Ryser, Gail; Pearson, Nils

    2002-01-01

    This study reports on the standardization of the Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance. Data collected on 2,266 typical students (ages 5- 18) and 1,371 students with emotional disturbances led to the identification of six behavioral problem factors that correspond to the federal definition of emotional disturbance and were highly internally…

  2. The Development of the Post-Divorce Parental Conflict Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenblick, Renee; Schwarz, J. Conrad

    One difficulty in studying the long-term impact of divorce on children has been the lack of a reliable and valid measure of parental conflict for divorced parents. Items for a post-divorce conflict scale were written and tested using 32 male and 63 female college students from divorced families for Study 1 and 60 male and 75 female students from…

  3. Development of a Scale to Measure Attitudes toward Inclusive Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczenski, Felicia L.

    1995-01-01

    The Attitudes toward Inclusive Education Scale (ATIES) is a measure of positive and negative attitudes toward integrating children with disabilities into regular classes. Results with 445 teachers show that the ATIES defines a unidimensional attitudinal variable and yields interval measures of attitudes toward inclusive education. (SLD)

  4. Development of a Scaling Technique for Sociometric Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, John B.; Chansky, Norman M.

    This study explored the stability and interjudge agreements of a sociometric scaling device to which children could easily respond, which teachers could easily administer and score, and which provided scores that researchers could use in parametric statistical analyses. Each student was paired with every other member of his class. He voted on each…

  5. Scale of Academic Emotion in Science Education: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Wei; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary research into science education has generally been conducted from the perspective of "conceptual change" in learning. This study sought to extend previous work by recognizing that human rationality can be influenced by the emotions generated by the learning environment and specific actions related to learning. Methods used…

  6. Further developments and field deployment of phosphorus functionalized polymeric scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Malcolm J.; Thornton, Alex R.; Wylde, Jonathan J.; Strachan, Catherine J.; Moir, Gordon [Clariant Oil Services, Muttenz (Switzerland); Goulding, John [John Goulding Consultancy, York (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    As the oil and gas industry strives to replace ageing, environmentally undesirable scale inhibitors there is an ever increasing use of polymeric inhibitors. The incorporation of phosphorous functionality into a polymer backbone has been shown to improve inhibition efficiency, enhance adsorption characteristics and allow the polymer concentration to be analyzed by elemental phosphorus. It is known that some phosphorus tagged polymers can be problematic to analyze in oil field brines as they typically have a low phosphorus content which is difficult to determine from the background. The development of novel phosphorus functionalized polymeric scale inhibitors was previously described (IBP3530-10). This paper follows the development of the inhibitor class. Utilizing extensive laboratory testing the interactive nature of the scale inhibitors and reservoir lithology was studied. These novel phosphorus functionalized inhibitors were compared to a number of other available scale inhibitors. The incorporation of phosphorus functionality into polymeric inhibitors can be expensive utilizing traditional methods as the phosphorus containing monomers are the financially limiting factor. These are typically vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA), or vinyl diphosphonic acid (VDPA). The novel phosphorus functionalized monomers utilized herein are simpler to manufacture allowing higher phosphorus content within the polymer backbone. The addition of phosphorus into a polymer backbone has previously been known to exacerbate analysis issues in some commercially available scale inhibitors. This is due to incomplete polymerization reactions leaving free and/or inorganic phosphorus containing moieties which can interfere with the analysis, or low levels of phosphorus within end-capped polymers can make it difficult to determine the active concentration accurately within field brines which contain many impuritie. Polymeric inhibitors are known to contain a range of molecular weights with varying

  7. Development of the cat-owner relationship scale (CORS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Tiffani J; Bowen, Jonathan; Fatjó, Jaume; Calvo, Paula; Holloway, Anna; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2017-08-01

    Characteristics of the human-animal bond can be influenced by both owner-related and pet-related factors, which likely differ between species. Three studies adapted the Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) to permit assessment of human-cat interactions as perceived by the cat's owner. In Study 1293 female cat owners completed a modified version of the MDORS, where 'dog' was replaced with 'cat' for all items. Responses were compared with a matched sample of female dog owners. A partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed systematic differences between cat and dog owners in the Dog (Cat)-Owner Interaction subscale (MDORS subscale 1), but not for Perceived Emotional Closeness or Perceived Costs (Subscales 2 and 3). Study 2 involved analysis of free-text descriptions of cat-owner interactions provided by 61 female cat owners. Text mining identified key words which were used to create additional questions for a new Cat-Owner Interaction subscale. In Study 3, the resulting cat-owner relationship scale (CORS) was tested in a group of 570 cat owners. The main psychometric properties of the scale, including internal consistency and factor structure, were evaluated. We propose that this scale can be used to accurately assess owner perceptions of their relationship with their cat. A modified scale, combining items from the CORS and MDORS (a C/DORS), is also provided for when researchers would find it desirable to compare human-cat and human-dog interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Developments in regional scale simulation: modelling ecologically sustainable development in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffatt, I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines one way in which researchers can make a positive methodological contribution to the debate on ecologically sustainable development (ESD) by integrating dynamic modelling and geographical information systems to form the basis for regional scale simulations. Some of the orthodox uses of Geographic Information System (GIS) are described and it is argued that most applications do not incorporate process based causal models. A description of a pilot study into developing a processed base model of ESD in the Northern Territory is given. This dynamic process based simulation model consists of two regions namely the 'Top End' and the 'Central' district. Each region consists of ten sub-sectors and the pattern of land use represents a common sector to both regions. The role of environmental defence expenditure, including environmental rehabilitation of uranium mines, in the model is noted. Similarly, it is hypothesized that the impact of exogenous changes such as the greenhouse effect and global economic fluctuations can have a differential impact on the behaviour of several sectors of the model. Some of the problems associated with calibrating and testing the model are reviewed. Finally, it is suggested that further refinement of this model can be achieved with the pooling of data sets and the development of PC based transputers for more detailed and accurate regional scale simulations. When fully developed it is anticipated that this pilot model can be of service to environmental managers and other groups involved in promoting ESD in the Northern Territory. 54 refs., 6 figs

  9. e-Learning quality: Scale development and validation in Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Agariya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a reliable and valid e-learning quality measurement scales from the learner as well as faculty perspectives in Indian context. Exploratory factor analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis was done which is presented in two forms; covariance model and the structural model. The covariance model shows that the factors namely collaboration, industry acceptance and value addition are important from the learner’s point of view whereas the factors namely transparency in assessment, technical know-how and engagement (from students are important from faculty point of view. Factors namely course content and design structures (technology/website design are found equally important for learner’s as well as faculty’s perspective. The structural models validate the previously extracted factors along with their indicators. The findings of this study validate the long held belief that e-learning quality is a multidimensional construct and serves as a critical success factor. The proposed scale will help in identifying issues that contribute towards e-learning quality in Indian context and thereby formulating strategies accordingly, resulting in efficient (in terms of cost and effective (outcomes e-learning practices, which is the necessity of the hour for the economic development of the country. A fair amount of literature on e-learning dealt with identifying factors explaining the constructs of quality, perceived value and satisfaction. But there is paucity of research pertaining to e-learning quality scale development and validation from the learner as well as faculty perspective. This study is an attempt to bridge this gap in the existing literature.

  10. Development of new geomagnetic storm ground response scaling factors for utilization in hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A. A.; Bernabeu, E.; Weigel, R. S.; Kelbert, A.; Rigler, E. J.; Bedrosian, P.; Love, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Development of realistic storm scenarios that can be played through the exposed systems is one of the key requirements for carrying out quantitative space weather hazards assessments. In the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) and power grids context, these scenarios have to quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of the geoelectric field that drives the potentially hazardous currents in the system. In response to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) order 779, a team of scientists and engineers that worked under the auspices of North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), has developed extreme geomagnetic storm and geoelectric field benchmark(s) that use various scaling factors that account for geomagnetic latitude and ground structure of the locations of interest. These benchmarks, together with the information generated in the National Space Weather Action Plan, are the foundation for the hazards assessments that the industry will be carrying out in response to the FERC order and under the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council. While the scaling factors developed in the past work were based on the best available information, there is now significant new information available for parts of the U.S. pertaining to the ground response to external geomagnetic field excitation. The significant new information includes the results magnetotelluric surveys that have been conducted over the past few years across the contiguous US and results from previous surveys that have been made available in a combined online database. In this paper, we distill this new information in the framework of the NERC benchmark and in terms of updated ground response scaling factors thereby allowing straightforward utilization in the hazard assessments. We also outline the path forward for improving the overall extreme event benchmark scenario(s) including generalization of the storm waveforms and geoelectric field spatial patterns.

  11. Development of modern CANDU PHWR cross-section libraries for SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoman, Nathan T.; Skutnik, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New ORIGEN libraries for CANDU 28 and 37-element fuel assemblies have been created. • These new reactor data libraries are based on modern ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section data. • The updated CANDU data libraries show good agreement with radiochemical assay data. • Eu-154 overestimated when using ENDF-VII.0 due to a lower thermal capture cross-section. - Abstract: A new set of SCALE fuel lattice models have been developed for the 28-element and 37-element CANDU fuel assembly designs using modern cross-section data from ENDF-B/VII.0 in order to produce new reactor data libraries for SCALE/ORIGEN depletion analyses. These new libraries are intended to provide users with a convenient means of evaluating depletion of CANDU fuel assemblies using ORIGEN through pre-generated cross sections based on SCALE lattice physics calculations. The performance of the new CANDU ORIGEN libraries in depletion analysis benchmarks to radiochemical assay data were compared to the previous version of the CANDU libraries provided with SCALE (based on WIMS-AECL models). Benchmark comparisons with available radiochemical assay data indicate that the new cross-section libraries perform well at matching major actinide species (U/Pu), which are generally within 1–4% of experimental values. The library also showed similar or better results over the WIMS-AECL library regarding fission product species and minor actinoids (Np, Am, and Cm). However, a notable exception was in calculated inventories of "1"5"4Eu and "1"5"5Eu, where the new library employing modern nuclear data (ENDF/B-VII.0) performed substantially poorer than the previous WIMS-AECL library (which used ENDF-B/VI.8 cross-sections for these species). The cause for this discrepancy appears to be due to differences in the "1"5"4Eu thermal capture cross-section between ENDF/B-VI.8 and ENDF/B-VII.0, an effect which is exacerbated by the highly thermalized flux of a CANDU heavy water reactor compared to that of a typical

  12. Development of an international scale of socio-economic position based on household assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, John; Minelli, Cosetta; Harrabi, Imed; Obaseki, Daniel O; El-Rhazi, Karima; Patel, Jaymini; Burney, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The importance of studying associations between socio-economic position and health has often been highlighted. Previous studies have linked the prevalence and severity of lung disease with national wealth and with socio-economic position within some countries but there has been no systematic evaluation of the association between lung function and poverty at the individual level on a global scale. The BOLD study has collected data on lung function for individuals in a wide range of countries, however a barrier to relating this to personal socio-economic position is the need for a suitable measure to compare individuals within and between countries. In this paper we test a method for assessing socio-economic position based on the scalability of a set of durable assets (Mokken scaling), and compare its usefulness across countries of varying gross national income per capita. Ten out of 15 candidate asset questions included in the questionnaire were found to form a Mokken type scale closely associated with GNI per capita (Spearman's rank rs = 0.91, p = 0.002). The same set of assets conformed to a scale in 7 out of the 8 countries, the remaining country being Saudi Arabia where most respondents owned most of the assets. There was good consistency in the rank ordering of ownership of the assets in the different countries (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96). Scores on the Mokken scale were highly correlated with scores developed using principal component analysis (rs = 0.977). Mokken scaling is a potentially valuable tool for uncovering links between disease and socio-economic position within and between countries. It provides an alternative to currently used methods such as principal component analysis for combining personal asset data to give an indication of individuals' relative wealth. Relative strengths of the Mokken scale method were considered to be ease of interpretation, adaptability for comparison with other datasets, and reliability of imputation for even quite

  13. Development and preliminary validation of a Korean version of the Personal Relative Deprivation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunji; Kim, Eunbee; Suh, Eunkook M; Callan, Mitchell J

    2018-01-01

    The current research developed and validated a Korean-translated version of the Personal Relative Deprivation Scale (PRDS). The PRDS measures individual differences in people's tendencies to feel resentful about what they have compared to what other people like them have. Across 2 studies, Exploratory Factor Analyses revealed that the two reverse-worded items from the original PRDS did not load onto the primary factor for the Korean-translated PRDS. A reduced 3-item Korean PRDS, however, showed good convergent validity. Replicating previous findings using Western samples, greater tendencies to make social comparisons of abilities (but not opinions) were associated with higher PRDS (Studies 1 and 2), and participants scoring higher on the 3-item Korean PRDS were more materialistic (Studies 1 and 2), reported worse physical health (Study 1), had lower self-esteem (Study 2) and experienced higher stress (Study 2).

  14. Developing and validating a psychometric scale for image quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraity, H.; England, A.; Hogg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Using AP pelvis as a catalyst, this paper explains how a psychometric scale for image quality assessment can be created using Bandura's theory for self-efficacy. Background: Establishing an accurate diagnosis is highly dependent upon the quality of the radiographic image. Image quality, as a construct (i.e. set of attributes that makes up the image quality), continues to play an essential role in the field of diagnostic radiography. The process of assessing image quality can be facilitated by using criteria, such as the European Commission (EC) guidelines for quality criteria as published in 1996. However, with the advent of new technology (Computed Radiography and Digital Radiography), some of the EC criteria may no longer be suitable for assessing the visual quality of a digital radiographic image. Moreover, a lack of validated visual image quality scales in the literature can also lead to significant variations in image quality evaluation. Creating and validating visual image quality scales, using a robust methodology, could reduce variability and improve the validity and reliability of perceptual image quality evaluations

  15. Development of a clinical spasticity scale for evaluation of dogs with chronic thoracolumbar spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa J; Olby, Natasha J

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a spasticity scale for dogs with chronic deficits following severe spinal cord injury (SCI) for use in clinical assessment and outcome measurement in clinical trials. ANIMALS 20 chronically paralyzed dogs with a persistent lack of hind limb pain perception caused by an acute SCI at least 3 months previously. PROCEDURES Spasticity was assessed in both hind limbs via tests of muscle tone, clonus, and flexor and extensor spasms adapted from human scales. Measurement of patellar clonus duration and flexor spasm duration and degree was feasible. These components were used to create a canine spasticity scale (CSS; overall score range, 0 to 18). Temporal variation for individual dogs and interrater reliability were evaluated. Gait was quantified with published gait scales, and CSS scores were compared with gait scores and clinical variables. Owners were questioned regarding spasticity observed at home. RESULTS 20 dogs were enrolled: 18 with no apparent hind limb pain perception and 2 with blunted responses; 5 were ambulatory. Testing was well tolerated, and scores were repeatable between raters. Median overall CSS score was 7 (range, 3 to 11), and flexor spasms were the most prominent finding. Overall CSS score was not associated with age, SCI duration, lesion location, or owner-reported spasticity. Overall CSS score and flexor spasm duration were associated with gait scores. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The CSS could be used to quantify hind limb spasticity in dogs with chronic thoracolumbar SCI and might be a useful outcome measure. Flexor spasms may represent an integral part of stepping in dogs with severe SCI.

  16. Development and preliminary testing of the Schizophrenia Hope Scale, a brief scale to measure hope in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Kwisoon

    2014-06-01

    Hope has received attention as a central component of recovery from mental illness; however, most instruments measuring hope were developed outside the mental health field. To measure the effects of mental health programs on hope in people with schizophrenia, a specialized scale is needed. This study examined the psychometric properties of the newly developed 9-item Schizophrenia Hope Scale (SHS-9) designed to measure hope in individuals with schizophrenia. A descriptive survey design. Participants were recruited from three psychiatric hospitals and two community mental health centers in South Korea. A total of 347 individuals over age 18 with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or schizophrenia spectrum disorders (competent to provide written informed consent) participated in this study; 149 (94 men, 55 women) completed a preliminary scale consisting of 40 revised items, and 198 (110 men, 88 women) completed the second scale of 17 items. Scale items were first selected from extensive literature reviews and a qualitative study on hope in people with schizophrenia; the validity and reliability of a preliminary scale was then evaluated by an expert panel and exploratory factor analysis. The remaining 9 items forming the Schizophrenia Hope Scale (SHS-9) were evaluated through confirmatory factor analysis. The SHS-9 demonstrates promising psychometric integrity. The internal consistency alpha coefficient was 0.92 with a score range of 0-18 and a mean total score of 12.06 (SD=4.96), with higher scores indicating higher levels of hope. Convergent validity was established by correlating the SHS-9 to the State-Trait Hope Inventory, r=0.61 (phope accounting for 61.77% of the total item variance. As hope has been shown to facilitate recovery from mental illness, the accurate assessment of hope provided by the short, easy-to-use Schizophrenia Hope Scale (SHS-9) may aid clinicians in improving the quality of life of individuals with schizophrenia. Copyright

  17. DOE Research and Development Accomplishments Previous Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    through his Nobel Lecture in 1961, about unraveling the secrets of photosynthesis -- the process by which . March 10, 2015 Twenty years ago, the top quark was first observed in experiments at the Tevatron proton sophisticated detectors, the top was hard to find. After a top is made from a proton-antiproton collision, a

  18. Developing and Validating the Scale of Economic Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Gretchen L; Stylianou, Amanda M; Hetling, Andrea; Postmus, Judy L

    2017-05-01

    Experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) and financial hardship are often intertwined. The dynamics of an abusive relationship may include economic abuse tactics that compromise a survivor's ability to work, pursue education, have access to financial resources, and establish financial skills, knowledge, and security. An increasingly common goal among programs serving IPV survivors is increasing financial empowerment through financial literacy. However, providing financial education alone may not be enough to improve financial behaviors. Psychological factors also play a role when individuals make financial choices. Economic self-efficacy focuses on the individual's perceived ability to perform economic or financial tasks, and may be considered a primary influence on one's ability to improve financial decisions and behaviors. The current study tests the reliability and validity of a Scale of Economic Self-Efficacy with a sample of female survivors of IPV. This study uses a calibration and validation analysis model including full and split-sample exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, assesses for internal consistency, and examines correlation coefficients between economic self-efficacy, economic self-sufficiency, financial strain, and difficulty living with income. Findings indicate that the 10-item, unidimensional Scale of Economic Self-Efficacy demonstrates strong reliability and validity among this sample of IPV survivors. An ability to understand economic self-efficacy could facilitate individualized service approaches and allow practitioners to better support IPV survivors on their journey toward financial empowerment. Given the increase in programs focused on assets, financial empowerment, and economic well-being, the Scale of Economic Self-Efficacy has potential as a very timely and relevant tool in the design, implementation, and evaluation of such programs, and specifically for programs created for IPV survivors.

  19. Development of Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos

    2013-01-01

    exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit and accordingly, more complex in terms of operations, logistics, and safety. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for the crew throughout the mission. Based on our fundamental uncertainty of the behavior of fires in low...... of the spacecraft fire safety risk. The activity of this project is supported by an international topical team of fire experts from other space agencies who conduct research that is integrated into the overall experiment design. The large-scale space flight experiment will be conducted in an Orbital Sciences...

  20. Development of a scale to assess cancer stigma in the non-patient population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Illness-related stigma has attracted considerable research interest, but few studies have specifically examined stigmatisation of cancer in the non-patient population. The present study developed and validated a Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS) for use in the general population. Methods An item pool was developed on the basis of previous research into illness-related stigma in the general population and patients with cancer. Two studies were carried out. The first study used Exploratory factor analysis to explore the structure of items in a sample of 462 postgraduate students recruited through a London university. The second study used Confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the structure among 238 adults recruited through an online market research panel. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability and construct validity were also assessed. Results Exploratory factor analysis suggested six subscales, representing: Awkwardness, Severity, Avoidance, Policy Opposition, Personal Responsibility and Financial Discrimination. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed this structure with a 25-item scale. All subscales showed adequate to good internal and test-retest reliability in both samples. Construct validity was also good, with mean scores for each subscale varying in the expected directions by age, gender, experience of cancer, awareness of lifestyle risk factors for cancer, and social desirability. Means for the subscales were consistent across the two samples. Conclusions These findings highlight the complexity of cancer stigma and provide the Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS) which can be used to compare populations, types of cancer and evaluate the effects of interventions designed to reduce cancer stigma in non-patient populations. PMID:24758482

  1. Efficient development of memory bounded geo-applications to scale on modern supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räss, Ludovic; Omlin, Samuel; Licul, Aleksandar; Podladchikov, Yuri; Herman, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Numerical modeling is an actual key tool in the area of geosciences. The current challenge is to solve problems that are multi-physics and for which the length scale and the place of occurrence might not be known in advance. Also, the spatial extend of the investigated domain might strongly vary in size, ranging from millimeters for reactive transport to kilometers for glacier erosion dynamics. An efficient way to proceed is to develop simple but robust algorithms that perform well and scale on modern supercomputers and permit therefore very high-resolution simulations. We propose an efficient approach to solve memory bounded real-world applications on modern supercomputers architectures. We optimize the software to run on our newly acquired state-of-the-art GPU cluster "octopus". Our approach shows promising preliminary results on important geodynamical and geomechanical problematics: we have developed a Stokes solver for glacier flow and a poromechanical solver including complex rheologies for nonlinear waves in stressed rocks porous rocks. We solve the system of partial differential equations on a regular Cartesian grid and use an iterative finite difference scheme with preconditioning of the residuals. The MPI communication happens only locally (point-to-point); this method is known to scale linearly by construction. The "octopus" GPU cluster, which we use for the computations, has been designed to achieve maximal data transfer throughput at minimal hardware cost. It is composed of twenty compute nodes, each hosting four Nvidia Titan X GPU accelerators. These high-density nodes are interconnected with a parallel (dual-rail) FDR InfiniBand network. Our efforts show promising preliminary results for the different physics investigated. The glacier flow solver achieves good accuracy in the relevant benchmarks and the coupled poromechanical solver permits to explain previously unresolvable focused fluid flow as a natural outcome of the porosity setup. In both cases

  2. Consumer-company Identification: Development and Validation of a Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Fajardo Nunes Hildebrand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer-Company Identification is a relatively new issue in the marketing academia. Bhattacharya and Sen(2003 explored the Social Identity theory and established Consumer-Company Identification as the primary psychological substrate for deep relationships between the organization and its customers. In the present study a new instrument was constructed and validated that permits the empirical verification of the phenomenon described by Bhattacharya and Sen (2003. The scale validated in the present study is the first to embrace the idiosyncrasies of the identification between consumers and organizations. The process was conducted through 3 independent data collections. The first one was collected using literature search and in-depth interviews with 12 undergraduate students and bachelors from different professional fields. The second data base was obtained from a survey of 226 undergraduate students from 3 universities in 2 big Brazilian cities. This data base was used for purification purposes using Explanatory Factorial Analysis. Finally, the Structural Equation Modeling technique was applied to analyze a third data base composed of 387 observations collected from the same 3 universities of the second study. The results confirm the content, convergent and discriminant validity of the new scale proposed.

  3. The waterfall model in large-scale development

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Kai; Wohlin, Claes; Baca, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Waterfall development is still a widely used way of working in software development companies. Many problems have been reported related to the model. Commonly accepted problems are for example to cope with change and that defects all too often are detected too late in the software development process. However, many of the problems mentioned in literature are based on beliefs and experiences, and not on empirical evidence. To address this research gap, we compare the problems in literature wit...

  4. Assistance in MSD Research and Development: Part 1, Small scale research, development and testing: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsey, P.N.; Canon, C.

    1988-03-01

    The development and testing of a simple mechanical stemming aid is described. The aid comprises a solid unit placed in the stemming above the explosive column and is designed to improve blasting efficiency and reduce drilling and blasting costs. It is designed to work with back filled drill cuttings or any other suitable stemming material. To date it has consisted of the testing of the aid in small diameter (1.5 and 1.625 inch) holes in Jefferson City Dolomite for both bench and crater blasting configurations. Full scale field trials are being conducted nearby in similar rock in an aggregate quarry. The data acquisition equipment used in Phase 1 included both a Spin Physics SP2000 high speed video motion analysis system and acoustic and seismic monitoring units. Measurements for each test included peak air over pressure, ground surface ppv, stemming displacement and velocity and face movement and extent. The results illustrate that the concept is sound and that its successful application to production blasting at full scale will be a function of manufacturing cost, the development of suitable insertion techniques for large diameter boreholes and the selection of a suitable low cost material for the aid. 17 refs., 20 figs.

  5. A Validity and Reliability Study on the Development of the Values Scale in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmac, Bulent; Aricak, Osman Tolga; Cesur, Sevim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the initial psychometric properties of the Values Scale for adults. While developing the first stage of the Values Scale, open-ended data on the values held by 216 university students were obtained. During the second stage, the validity and reliability studies of the 60-item Values Scale obtained by…

  6. The Student Perception of University Support and Structure Scale: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintre, Maxine G.; Gates, Shawn K. E.; Pancer, W. Mark; Pratt, Michael S.; Polivy, Janet; Birnie-Lefcovitch, S.; Adams, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    A new scale, the Student Perception of University Support and Structure Scale (SPUSS), was developed for research on the transition to university. The scale was based on concepts derived from Baumrind's (1971) theory of parenting styles. Data were obtained from two separate cohorts of freshmen (n=759 and 397) attending six Canadian universities of…

  7. Peer-Driven Justice: Development and Validation of the Teen Court Peer Influence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott; Chonody, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report a validation study of the Teen Court Peer Influence Scale (TCPIS), a newly developed scale, to examine its factor structure, reliability, and evidence of validity. Methods: The scale was disseminated to 202 participants in six teen courts in the state of Florida, and the authors conducted exploratory factor analyses. Content…

  8. Nursing-care dependency : Development of an assessment scale for demented and mentally handicapped patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Buist, Girbe; Dassen, T

    1996-01-01

    This article describing the first phase in the development of an assessment scale of nursing-care dependency (NCD) for Dutch demented and mentally handicapped patients focuses on the background to the study and the content validation of the nursing-care dependency scale. The scale aims to

  9. Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record…

  10. Development of a Scale to Assess Knowledge about Suicide Postvention Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Ingo W.; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Schild, Anne H. E.; Koller, Ingrid; Tran, Ulrich S.; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Sonneck, Gernot; Voracek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about suicide postvention (KSPV) is an important distal outcome in the evaluation of suicide prevention programs that focus on the bereaved. However, most scales are specifically tailored to the evaluation study in question and psychometric properties are often unsatisfactory. Therefore, we developed the KSPV scale. Scale properties were…

  11. Student Off-Task Electronic Multitasking Predictors: Scale Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuxia; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand factors contributing to students' off-task electronic multitasking behavior in class, the research included two studies that developed a scale of students' off-task electronic multitasking predictors (the SOTEMP scale), and explored relationships between the scale and various classroom communication processes and…

  12. The mind behind the message: Advancing theory of mind scales for typically developing children, and those with deafness, autism, or Asperger Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Candida C.; Wellman, Henry M.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Children aged 3 to 12 years (n=184) with typical development, deafness, autism or Asperger Syndrome took a series of theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks to confirm and extend previous developmental scaling evidence. A new sarcasm task, in the format of Wellman and Liu’s (2004) 5-step ToM scale, added a statistically reliable sixth step to the scale for all diagnostic groups. A key previous finding, divergence in task sequencing for children with autism, was confirmed. Comparisons among diagnostic grou...

  13. Entrepreneurial developments and small scale industry contribution to Nigerian national development- A marketing interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available : In both developed and developing countries, the government is turning to small and medium scale industries and entrepreneurs, as a means of economic development and a veritable means of solving problems. It is a seedbed of innovations, inventions and employment. Entrepreneurship is as old as Nigeria and had contributed to the growth of the economy. Presently in Nigeria, SMEs assist in promoting the growth of the country’s economy, hence all the levels of government at different times havepolicies which promote the growth and sustenance of SMEs. This paper identifies the orientation of SME’s and entrepreneurial trends in Nigeria, tackles the operational definition and scopes, and describes the role of the Nigerian government as a participant, regulator and facilitator, both legally and politically in the growth of SMEs and entrepreneurship. It identifies the marketing problems of SMEs and entrepreneurships in Nigeria, the provision and enactment of beneficial and supportive laws, the provision of infrastructural facilities, constant man-power and development, direct financial assistance to SMEs and the establishment of finance institutions to support SMEs. It identifies the roles of SMEs in Nigeria’s development and growth. It discusses the entrepreneurial thoughts, problems and advance practical marketing solution. It concludes by clearly specifying the role of marketing to the survival of SMEsand entrepreneurship in Nigeria, and relevant recommendations. For SMEs to survive marketing practice and principles must be given prominence.

  14. Residents' Perceptions toward Utility-Scale Wind Farm Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joseph; Romich, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Increased development of wind farms in the U.S. has fostered debates surrounding the siting and support for the projects. Prior research demonstrates the importance of understanding the attitudes and opinions of community members when developing projects. This article reviews a case study of an Ohio community that integrated a local survey to…

  15. Development and Validation of the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Hicks, Brian M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Although large epidemiological data sets can inform research on the etiology and development of borderline personality disorder (BPD), they rarely include BPD measures. In some cases, however, proxy measures can be constructed using instruments already in these data sets. In this study, the authors developed and validated a self-report measure of…

  16. Recent development of linear scaling quantum theories in GAMESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Cheol Ho [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Linear scaling quantum theories are reviewed especially focusing on the method adopted in GAMESS. The three key translation equations of the fast multipole method (FMM) are deduced from the general polypolar expansions given earlier by Steinborn and Rudenberg. Simplifications are introduced for the rotation-based FMM that lead to a very compact FMM formalism. The OPS (optimum parameter searching) procedure, a stable and efficient way of obtaining the optimum set of FMM parameters, is established with complete control over the tolerable error {epsilon}. In addition, a new parallel FMM algorithm requiring virtually no inter-node communication, is suggested which is suitable for the parallel construction of Fock matrices in electronic structure calculations.

  17. Scaling up climate finance for sustainable infrastructure in developing cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun

    2010-09-15

    This article investigates the role of carbon finance and seeks to establish a policy framework that allows reorientation of upfront investment in urban infrastructure for facilitating transition towards low-carbon development trajectory in developing cities. It draws on an in-depth exploration of different climate finance mechanisms and their applicability in the context of fast urbanization. We suggest an integrated approach should be adopted to aggregate city-based multiple individual GHG mitigation projects dealing with buildings and transport efficiency. The sectoral approach and NAMAs-based financing schemes be included in post-Kyoto regime for shifting the current trajectories in fast growing developing cities.

  18. Further validation of the Health Promoting Activities Scale with mothers of typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Lalor, Aislinn; Farnworth, Louise; Pallant, Julie F

    2014-10-01

    The Health Promoting Activities Scale (HPAS) measures the frequency that mothers participate in self-selected leisure activities that promote health and wellbeing. The scale was originally validated on mothers of school-aged children with disabilities, and the current article extends this research using a comparative sample of mothers of typically developing school-aged children. Australian mothers (N = 263) completed a questionnaire containing the HPAS, a measure of depression, anxiety and stress (DASS-21) and questions concerning their weight, height, sleep quality and demographics. Statistical analysis assessed the underlying structure, internal consistency and construct validity of the HPAS. Inferential statistics were utilised to investigate the construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis supported the unidimensionality of the HPAS. It showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.78). Significantly lower HPAS scores were recorded for women who were obese; had elevated levels of depression, anxiety and stress; had poor quality sleep or had heavy caring commitments. The mean HPAS score in this sample (M = 32.2) was significantly higher than was previously reported for women of children with a disability (M = 21.6: P < 0.001). Further psychometric evaluation of the HPAS continues to support the HPAS as a sound instrument that measures the frequency that women participate in meaningful occupation that is associated with differences in mental health and wellbeing and other health indicators. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  19. The development of an industrial-scale fed-batch fermentation simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick, Stephen; Ştefan, Andrei; Lovett, David; Montague, Gary; Lennox, Barry

    2015-01-10

    This paper describes a simulation of an industrial-scale fed-batch fermentation that can be used as a benchmark in process systems analysis and control studies. The simulation was developed using a mechanistic model and validated using historical data collected from an industrial-scale penicillin fermentation process. Each batch was carried out in a 100,000 L bioreactor that used an industrial strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. The manipulated variables recorded during each batch were used as inputs to the simulator and the predicted outputs were then compared with the on-line and off-line measurements recorded in the real process. The simulator adapted a previously published structured model to describe the penicillin fermentation and extended it to include the main environmental effects of dissolved oxygen, viscosity, temperature, pH and dissolved carbon dioxide. In addition the effects of nitrogen and phenylacetic acid concentrations on the biomass and penicillin production rates were also included. The simulated model predictions of all the on-line and off-line process measurements, including the off-gas analysis, were in good agreement with the batch records. The simulator and industrial process data are available to download at www.industrialpenicillinsimulation.com and can be used to evaluate, study and improve on the current control strategy implemented on this facility. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Linking Supply Chain Network Complexity to Interdependence and Risk-Assessment: Scale Development and Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyadip Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concepts like supply chain network complexity, interdependence and risk assessment have been prominently discussed directly and indirectly in management literature over past decades and plenty of frameworks and conceptual prescriptive research works have been published contributing towards building the body of knowledge. However previous studies often lacked quantification of the findings. Consequently, the need for suitable scales becomes prominent for measuring those constructs to empirically support the conceptualized relationships. This paper expands the understanding of supply chain network complexity (SCNC and also highlights its implications on interdependence (ID between the actors and risk assessment (RAS in transaction relationships. In doing so, SCNC and RAS are operationalized to understand how SCNC affects interdependence and risk assessment between the actors in the supply chain network. The contribution of this study lies in developing and validating multi-item scales for these constructs and empirically establishing the hypothesized relationships in the Indian context based on firm data collected using survey–based questionnaire. The methodology followed included structural equation modeling. The study findings indicate that SCNC had significant relationship with interdependence, which in turn significantly affected risk assessment. This study carries both academic and managerial implications and provides an empirically supported framework linking network complexity with the two key variables (ID and RAS, playing crucial roles in managerial decision making. This study contributes to the body of knowledge and aims at guiding managers in better understanding transaction relationships.

  1. The Waterfall Model in Large-Scale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kai; Wohlin, Claes; Baca, Dejan

    Waterfall development is still a widely used way of working in software development companies. Many problems have been reported related to the model. Commonly accepted problems are for example to cope with change and that defects all too often are detected too late in the software development process. However, many of the problems mentioned in literature are based on beliefs and experiences, and not on empirical evidence. To address this research gap, we compare the problems in literature with the results of a case study at Ericsson AB in Sweden, investigating issues in the waterfall model. The case study aims at validating or contradicting the beliefs of what the problems are in waterfall development through empirical research.

  2. Advancing Early Childhood Development: from Science to Scale 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Prof Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. PMID:27717614

  3. Initial Scale Development of the Contextual Support for Post-Secondary Planning Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Martens, Jessica Kelly; Button, Christopher; Larma, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    Vocational psychologists and career theorists have articulated the importance of social support in the development of career plans for high school youth. More recently, Lent, Brown, and Hackett carefully articulated the location of contextual supports in the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) framework. However, there is a paucity of research…

  4. Developing a comprehensive scale to assess college multicultural programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; Miles, Joseph R; Bhaskar, Tripti; Chery, Nicole; Choi, Gahee; Sung, Mi-Ra

    2014-01-01

    A barrier to assessing effectiveness of multicultural programming is lack of a relatively brief instrument to measure the wide range of intended outcomes. A frequent goal of programming is to increase cultural empathy, but this is rarely the only intended outcome. We conducted focus groups of campus administrators, student affairs staff, and undergraduate instructors who identified a full range of racial/ethnic multicultural competencies that undergraduates should possess. An 84-item pool generated from these focus groups was combined with the 31-item Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE; Wang et al., 2003). These 115 items, together with instruments used to gauge concurrent validity, were administered to White undergraduate students in introductory psychology courses at the midpoint (n = 602) and end (n = 676) of fall semester. Exploratory factor analysis suggested 6 subscales for the Everyday Multicultural Competencies/Revised SEE (EMC/RSEE): (a) Cultural Openness and Desire to Learn; (b) Resentment and Cultural Dominance; (c) Anxiety and Lack of Multicultural Self-Efficacy; (d) Empathic Perspective-Taking; (e) Awareness of Contemporary Racism and Privilege; and (f) Empathic Feeling and Acting as an Ally. Item response theory principles guided final selection of subscale items. Analyses suggested good factor stability, reliability, and discriminant validity of the 48-item EMC/RSEE in these undergraduate samples. EMC/RSEE subscales were not strongly correlated with a measure of impression management and were significantly associated with measures of Openness to Diversity Challenge, and Universal-Diverse Orientation. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Scaling predictive modeling in drug development with cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Behrooz Torabi; Alvarsson, Jonathan; Holm, Marcus; Eklund, Martin; Carlsson, Lars; Spjuth, Ola

    2015-01-26

    Growing data sets with increased time for analysis is hampering predictive modeling in drug discovery. Model building can be carried out on high-performance computer clusters, but these can be expensive to purchase and maintain. We have evaluated ligand-based modeling on cloud computing resources where computations are parallelized and run on the Amazon Elastic Cloud. We trained models on open data sets of varying sizes for the end points logP and Ames mutagenicity and compare with model building parallelized on a traditional high-performance computing cluster. We show that while high-performance computing results in faster model building, the use of cloud computing resources is feasible for large data sets and scales well within cloud instances. An additional advantage of cloud computing is that the costs of predictive models can be easily quantified, and a choice can be made between speed and economy. The easy access to computational resources with no up-front investments makes cloud computing an attractive alternative for scientists, especially for those without access to a supercomputer, and our study shows that it enables cost-efficient modeling of large data sets on demand within reasonable time.

  6. Development of the scale for measuring fear from obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoiljković Danica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity represents cumulation of adipose tissue to the extent that it decreases physical activity and psychosocial well-being, and Body Mass Index is > 30. In obese males adipose tissue makes 20% or more of the total body weight, while this percentage in females is 25%. According to epidemiological data more than half of the adult population of Serbia (54% has a problem with obesity or pre-obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was creation of a questionnaire which will measure fear of obesity reliably and accurately. Materials and Methods: The study involved the students of medicine and pharmacy from all years at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac. They were offered to express their level of agreement with the statements from the survey (21 in total using a Likert scale, which provided seven answers. After collecting the data, a statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 18. Results: Within the first reliability analysis, a correlation matrix was constructed, which was used to assess whether any of the questions should be eliminated. The value of Cronbach's alpha was 0.871. After the exploratory factor analysis, five factors were revealed: fear, social effects, avoiding meals, eating habits and diet. Conclusion: The questionnaire created in this study measures fear from obesity with satisfactory reliability, but further studies are necessary to test its validity.

  7. Assessing motivation orientations in schizophrenia: Scale development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Shanna; Lavaysse, Lindsey M; Gard, David E

    2015-01-30

    Motivation deficits are common in several disorders including schizophrenia, and are an important factor in both functioning and treatment adherence. Self-Determination Theory (SDT), a leading macro-theory of motivation, has contributed a number of insights into how motivation is impaired in schizophrenia. Nonetheless, self-report measures of motivation appropriate for people with severe mental illness (including those that emphasize SDT) are generally lacking in the literature. To fill this gap, we adapted and abbreviated the well-validated General Causality Orientation Scale for use with people with schizophrenia and with other severe mental disorders (GCOS-clinical populations; GCOS-CP). In Study 1, we tested the similarity of our measure to the existing GCOS (using a college sample) and then validated this new measure in a schizophrenia and healthy control sample (Study 2). Results from Study 1 (N=360) indicated that the GCOS-CP was psychometrically similar to the original GCOS and provided good convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 2, the GCOS-CP was given to individuals with (N=44) and without schizophrenia (N=42). In line with both laboratory-based and observer-based research, people with schizophrenia showed lower motivational autonomy and higher impersonal/amotivated orientations. Additional applications of the GCOS-CP are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Science of NIF scale capsule development (activities for FY97)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, K.E.; Buckley, S.R.; Cook, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    The focus of this work is the production of 2-mm PαMS mandrels by microencapsulation for use as National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser targets. It is our findings thus far that the processing techniques used previously for the 0.5-mm and 1.0-mm targets are no longer useful for preparation of the larger targets for a few fundamental reasons. The driving force for sphericity (from the minimization of interracial energy) decreases as the radius of curvature increases. Simultaneously, the mechanical robustness /stability of the water-oil-water emulsion droplets decreases as the droplet size increases. The impact of these physical conditions and the possibilities of circumventing these limitations have been examined while attempting to meet the NIF shell power spectrum criteria. Identifying the key parameters in the transition (solidification) from a w-o-w droplet to a solid polymer shell has been understood implicitly to be the paramount goal. It is believed through the knowledge gained that it will be possible to minimize the deleterious forces and maximize shell sphericity. At this point it is believed that properties intrinsic to the polymer (i.e., PαMS) such as its solution behavior and evolution of film stresses control the overall shell sphericity

  9. Science of NIF scale capsule development (activities for FY97)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, K.E.; Buckley, S.R.; Cook, R.R.

    1997-11-12

    The focus of this work is the production of 2-mm P{alpha}MS mandrels by microencapsulation for use as National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser targets. It is our findings thus far that the processing techniques used previously for the 0.5-mm and 1.0-mm targets are no longer useful for preparation of the larger targets for a few fundamental reasons. The driving force for sphericity (from the minimization of interracial energy) decreases as the radius of curvature increases. Simultaneously, the mechanical robustness /stability of the water-oil-water emulsion droplets decreases as the droplet size increases. The impact of these physical conditions and the possibilities of circumventing these limitations have been examined while attempting to meet the NIF shell power spectrum criteria. Identifying the key parameters in the transition (solidification) from a w-o-w droplet to a solid polymer shell has been understood implicitly to be the paramount goal. It is believed through the knowledge gained that it will be possible to minimize the deleterious forces and maximize shell sphericity. At this point it is believed that properties intrinsic to the polymer (i.e., P{alpha}MS) such as its solution behavior and evolution of film stresses control the overall shell sphericity.

  10. Development of a scanning tunneling potentiometry system for measurement of electronic transport at short length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozler, Michael

    It is clear that complete understanding of macroscopic properties of materials is impossible without a thorough knowledge of behavior at the smallest length scales. While the past 25 years have witnessed major advances in a variety of techniques that probe the nanoscale properties of matter, electrical transport measurements -- the heart of condensed matter research -- have lagged behind, never progressing beyond bulk measurements. This thesis describes a scanning tunneling potentiometry (STP) system developed to simultaneously map the transport-related electrochemical potential distribution of a biased sample along with its surface topography, extending electronic transport measurements to the nanoscale. Combining a novel sample biasing technique with a continuous current-nulling feedback scheme pushes the noise performance of the measurement to its fundamental limit - the Johnson noise of the STM tunnel junction. The resulting 130 nV voltage sensitivity allows us to spatially resolve local potentials at scales down to 2 nm, while maintaining atomic scale STM imaging, all at scan sizes of up to 15 microns. A mm-range two-dimensional coarse positioning stage and the ability to operate from liquid helium to room temperature with a fast turn-around time greatly expand the versatility of the instrument. Use of carefully selected model materials, combined with excellent topographic and voltage resolution has allowed us to distinguish measurement artifacts caused by surface roughness from true potentiometric features, a major problem in previous STP measurements. The measurements demonstrate that STP can produce physically meaningful results for homogeneous transport as well as non-uniform conduction dominated by material microstructures. Measurements of several physically interesting materials systems are presented as well, revealing new behaviors at the smallest length sales. The results establish scanning tunneling potentiometry as a useful tool for physics and

  11. University's Multi-Scale Initiatives for Redefining City Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczyk, Natalia; Wagner, Iwona; Wolanska-Kaminska, Agnieszka; Jurczak, Tomasz; Zalewski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the varied roles played by the University of Lódz (UL) in maintaining and restoring the natural capital of a city as a driver for sustainable city development. The higher education institution can be perceived as visionary, originator and executor of natural capital projects.…

  12. Developing a Scale for Perceptions of Competency in Teaching Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasci, Guntay; Atar, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement instrument for determining pre-service teachers' perceptions of competency in providing quality teaching. The initial phase of the instrument was consisted of 54 items that were composed based on theory and literature. The initial form was applied to 232 pre-service teachers. An exploratory…

  13. The Trichotillomania Scale for Children: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolin, David F.; Diefenbach, Gretchen J.; Flessner, Christopher A.; Franklin, Martin E.; Keuthen, Nancy J.; Moore, Phoebe; Piacentini, John; Stein, Dan J.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is a chronic impulse control disorder characterized by repetitive hair-pulling resulting in alopecia. Although this condition is frequently observed in children and adolescents, research on pediatric TTM has been hampered by the absence of validated measures. The aim of the present study was to develop and test a new…

  14. Development and Validation of the Internet Gratification Scale for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Amandeep; Chen, Sufen; Nieminen, Marko

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of Internet usage has motivated Internet researchers and practitioners to study possible gratifications underlying Internet use. Despite the fact that research examining Internet gratification is more than two decades old, no attempt has been made in the last decade to develop an instrument that has known reliability of scores…

  15. Development and Validation of a Clarinet Performance Adjudication Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Harold F.

    1973-01-01

    A basic assumption of this study is that there are generally agreed upon performance standards as evidenced by the use of adjudicators for evaluations at contests and festivals. An evaluation instrument was developed to enable raters to measure effectively those aspects of performance that have common standards of proficiency. (Author/RK)

  16. Developing an English Mobile Learning Attitude Scale for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Ying

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of mobile devices, mobile learning (m-learning) has becoming another popular topic. There is a strong need for both researchers and educators to be aware of adult learners' attitudes toward English mobile learning, yet relevant studies on mobile learning to promote English learning for adult learners are…

  17. Defining Teachers' Technostress Levels: A Scale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Efilti, Erkan; Sahin, Levent

    2017-01-01

    With the integration of technology in recent years, use of technology has rapidly increased in educational system, and has become almost a must rather than an option. The use of technology in educational processes accompanies some adaptation issues due to the nature of technology (rapid development, cost, need for electricity, change of roles,…

  18. Diversity Leadership Skills of School Administrators: A Scale Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Soner; Arslan, Yaser; Ölçüm, Dinçer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument to determine the level of school administrators' diversity leadership based on teachers' perceptions. For this purpose, an item pool was created which includes 68 questions based on the literature, and data were obtained from 343 teachers. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was…

  19. Development and validation of the Body Concealment Scale for Scleroderma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jewett, L.R.; Malcarne, V.L.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Harcourt, D.; Rumsey, N.; Körner, A.; Steele, R.J.; Hudson, M.; Baron, M.; Haythornthwaite, J.A.; Heinberg, L.; Wigley, F.M.; Thombs, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Body concealment is a component of social avoidance among people with visible differences from disfiguring conditions, including systemic sclerosis (SSc). The study objective was to develop a measure of body concealment related to avoidance behaviors in SSc. Methods: Initial items for the

  20. The Development and Validation of the Perceived Academic Underachievement Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kate E.; Adelson, Jill L.

    2017-01-01

    Academic competence beliefs have been widely studied. However, conceptual and measurement efforts have not yet been directed toward understanding perceived underachievement (feeling that one's accomplishments fall below perceived capability). We conducted two studies in order to develop and examine validity evidence for the Perceived Academic…

  1. Teachers' Acceptance of Absenteeism: Towards Developing a Specific Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Ishan, Gamal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to develop and validate a measure of a specific attitude toward teachers' absenteeism that predicts this behavior more accurately than other general measures of job attitudes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 443 teachers from 21 secondary schools in Israel. In the first phase, the teachers answered anonymous…

  2. Development of USPS Laboratory and pilot-scale testing protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Nancy Ross Sutherland; David Bormett; Donald Donermeyer

    2000-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the US Postal Service (USPS) Environmentally Benign Stamp Program is to develop stamp adhesives that can be removed by unit operations found in recycling mills. The maintenance of final product quality specifications for a recycling mill while loading the feedstock with a significant quantity of adhesive is the criterion for success of this program...

  3. The City MISS: development of a scale to measure stigma of perinatal mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, D.; Ayers, S.; Drey, N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to develop and validate a scale to measure perceived stigma for perinatal mental illness in women. \\ud \\ud Background: Stigma is one of the most frequently cited barriers to seeking treatment and many women with perinatal mental illness fail to get the treatment they need. However, there is no psychometric scale that measures how women may experience the unique aspects of perinatal mental illness stigma.\\ud \\ud Method: A draft scale of 30 items was developed from a...

  4. Development of a community's self-efficacy scale for preventing social isolation among community-dwelling older people (Mimamori Scale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadaka, Etsuko; Kono, Ayumi; Ito, Eriko; Kanaya, Yukiko; Dai, Yuka; Imamatsu, Yuki; Itoi, Waka

    2016-11-28

    Among older people in developed countries, social isolation leading to solitary death has become a public health issue of vital importance. Such isolation could be prevented by monitoring at-risk individuals at the neighborhood level and by implementing supportive networks at the community level. However, a means of measuring community confidence in these measures has not been established. This study is aimed at developing the Community's Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES; Mimamori scale in Japanese) for community members preventing social isolation among older people. The CSES is a self-administered questionnaire developed on the basis of Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The survey was given to a general population (GEN) sample (n = 6,000) and community volunteer (CVOL) sample (n = 1,297). Construct validity was determined using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach's alpha. The Generative Concern Scale (GCS-R) and Brief Sense of Community Scale (BSCS) were also administered to assess criterion-related validity of the CSES. In total, 3,484 and 859 valid responses were received in the GEN and CVOL groups, respectively. The confirmatory factor analysis identified eight items from two domains-community network and neighborhood watch-with goodness of fit index = 0.984, adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.970, comparative fit index = 0.988, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.047. Cronbach's alpha for the entire CSES was 0.87 and for the subscales was 0.80 and higher. The score of the entire CSES was positively correlated with the GCS-R in both the GEN (r = 0.80, p social isolation among older people. The scale is potentially useful for promoting health policies, practices, and interventions within communities. This may help prevent social isolation among older people and contribute to overall well-being in aging societies in Japan and abroad.

  5. Personal Professional Development Efforts Scale for Middle School Mathematics Teachers: An Adaptation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbag, M. Zafer; Yenilmez, Kürsat; Turgut, Melih

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at adapting the personal professional development efforts scale developed for science and technology teachers to be applied for middle school mathematics teachers. For this purpose, first of all, the items of the original scale were adjusted for the middle school mathematics teachers by a team of experts. Data obtained by the new…

  6. Development and Validation of Children's Environmental Affect (Attitude, Sensitivity and Willingness to Take Action) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the design, development, validation, and psychometric properties of the Children's Environmental Affect Scale (CEAS). The following steps were taken in developing the CEAS. A substantial review of literature on environmental affect and EL helped the researchers identify several scales and questionnaires that, in turn, help…

  7. Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices with Children Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeel, Lorri S.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews existing measures related to evidence-based practices with children and self-efficacy and describes the development and psychometric properties of the Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices With Children Efficacy Scale. This scale was developed to assess students' and clinicians' self-efficacy in their abilities to use…

  8. Development of the Community Impact Scale Measuring Community Organization Perceptions of Partnership Benefits and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Tejaswinhi; Meenan, Chelsea E.; Drogin, Elizabeth; DePrince, Anne P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the Community Impact Scale (CIS), a measure of benefits and costs of community-university partnerships across a range of outcomes as perceived by community partners. Scale development was carried out in two phases: (a) item generation, through which the research team, in close…

  9. Development and Standardization of an Alienation Scale for Visually Impaired Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punia, Poonam; Berwal, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was undertaken to develop a valid and reliable scale for measuring a feeling of alienation in students with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision). Methods: In this study, a pool of 60 items was generated to develop an Alienation Scale for Visually Impaired Students (AL-VI) based on a…

  10. Interim development report: engineering-scale HTGR fuel particle crusher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, J.W.; Strand, J.B.

    1978-09-01

    During the reprocessing of HTGR fuel, a double-roll crusher is used to fracture the silicon carbide coatings on the fuel particles. This report describes the development of the roll crusher used for crushing Fort-St.Vrain type fissile and fertile fuel particles, and large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (LHTGR) fissile fuel particles. Recommendations are made for design improvements and further testing

  11. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  12. Developing and Deploying Knowledge on a Global Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Borron, James; Morales, David; Klahr, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Reuters is a worldwide company focused on supplying financial and news information to its more than 40,000 subscribers around the world. To enhance the quality and consistency of its customer- support organization, Reuters embarked on a global knowledge development and reuse project. The resulting system is in operational use in North America, Europe, and Asia. The system supports 38 Reuter products worldwide. This article presents a case study of Reuter experience in putting a global knowled...

  13. Development of large-scale thyristor dc circuit breaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, S.; Tanoue, Y.; Ikegame, H.; Matushita, T.; Sato, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A study for developing a thyristor dc circuit breaker that is applicable to the Tokamak device for engineering feasibility is presented. The design and test of a unit circuit breaker consisting of 4kV-3kA thyristors connected 2 in series and 12 in parallel are described. And based on the results a 50kV-24kA thyristor dc circuit breaker is conceptually designed

  14. District heating systems for small scale development areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, Rory e-mail: rory.mcdougall@online.no; Jensen, Bjoernulf

    2008-09-15

    Building projects are normally developed without considering integrated heating systems, especially where properties are for further sale. Due to focus on energy efficiency and environmental impact it is worth considering district heating systems, which include several energy carriers. The choice of energy carrier is assessed to optimize energy costs, account for environmental impact and obtain reliable heating supply, thus giving an energy flexible system for several buildings as opposed to individual heating systems in each building

  15. [Development of critical thinking skill evaluation scale for nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, So Young; Kim, Nam Cho

    2014-04-01

    To develop a Critical Thinking Skill Test for Nursing Students. The construct concepts were drawn from a literature review and in-depth interviews with hospital nurses and surveys were conducted among students (n=607) from nursing colleges. The data were collected from September 13 to November 23, 2012 and analyzed using the SAS program, 9.2 version. The KR 20 coefficient for reliability, difficulty index, discrimination index, item-total correlation and known group technique for validity were performed. Four domains and 27 skills were identified and 35 multiple choice items were developed. Thirty multiple choice items which had scores higher than .80 on the content validity index were selected for the pre test. From the analysis of the pre test data, a modified 30 items were selected for the main test. In the main test, the KR 20 coefficient was .70 and Corrected Item-Total Correlations range was .11-.38. There was a statistically significant difference between two academic systems (p=.001). The developed instrument is the first critical thinking skill test reflecting nursing perspectives in hospital settings and is expected to be utilized as a tool which contributes to improvement of the critical thinking ability of nursing students.

  16. Development of the Chinese version of Meaning in Life Scale for cancer patients and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hao-Zhi; Gao, Lei; Wang, Yang; Song, Hui; Shi, Bao-Xin

    2017-11-01

    To develop a Meaning in Life Scale for cancer patients in Chinese version and to test the validity and reliability. Meaning in life is a protective factor of psychological well-being and is negatively related to depression and demoralisation among cancer patients. The existing scales measuring meaning in life are mostly designed in English and there is no scale designed for Chinese cancer patients based on Chinese cultural background. Process of instrument development and psychometric evaluation were used. Items were generated from literature review and a focus group interview. Delphi technique was used to test the content validity. Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed with data from 251 cancer patients. The internal consistency of the scale was tested by Cronbach's alpha. A 25-item Meaning in Life Scale in Chinese version with five domains was developed. The five factors explained 62·686% of the variance. The Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0·897. The Meaning in Life Scale in Chinese version has acceptable internal consistency reliability and good content validity and acceptable construct validity. The content of the scale reflected the attitudes of cancer patients towards meaning in life based on Chinese cultural background. The Chinese version of Meaning in Life Scale for Cancer Patients appears to be a new scale to assess meaning in life among Chinese cancer patients exactly and the concept of meaning in life presented in this scale provides new ideas of meaning intervention in routine clinical practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  18. Development of Commercial-scale Fission Mo-99 Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Kon; Lee, Suseung; Hong, Soon-Bog; Jang, Kyung-Duk; Park, Ul Jael; Lee, Jun Sig [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    These days, worldwide {sup 99} Mo supply is not only insufficient but also unstable. Because, most of the main {sup 99}Mo production reactors are more than years old and suffered from frequent and unscheduled shutdown. Therefore, movement to replace old reactors to keep stable supply is now active. Under these conditions, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is developing LEU-based fission {sup 99}Mo production process which is connected to the new research reactor (Kijang New Research Reactor, KJRR), which is being constructed in Gijang, Busan, Korea. Historically, the most fission {sup 99}Mo producers have been used highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets so far. However, to reduce the use of HEU in private sector for non-proliferation, {sup 99}Mo producers are forced to convert their HEU-based process to use low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. Economic impact of a target conversion from HEU to LEU is significant. In this study, fission {sup 99}Mo process with non-irradiated LEU targets was presented except separation and purification steps. Pre- and post-irradiation tests of the fission {sup 99}Mo target will be done in 4th quarter of 2016. For the fission Mo production process development, hot experiments with irradiated LEU targets will be done in 4th quarter of 2016. Then, verification of the production process with quality control will be followed until the commercial production of fission {sup 99}Mo scheduled in 2019.

  19. Overcoming Ex-Post Development Stagnation: Interventions with Continuity and Scaling in Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley T. Hiller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Project interventions are important vehicles for development globally. However, while there is often allocation of resources for new and innovative (pilot projects—with varying levels of success—there is seemingly less focus on consolidating and/or scaling the positive impacts of successful larger interventions. Assuming an overarching development goal to have long lasting impact at scale, this approach seems somewhat contradictory. Scaling is often not integrated into project planning, design and implementation and rarely pursued genuinely in the ex-post. However, where demand for further development remains outstanding beyond project completion, opportunities may exist to build upon project platforms and extend benefits in a cost effective manner. This paper examines existing scaling typologies, before introducing “scaling-within” as a concept to promote greater continuity of development to a wider range of stakeholders. Scaling-within offers the opportunity to “in-fill” intervention principles and practices to both project and non-project communities within a broader strategic framework to address disparities and to promote sustainable development. The authors draw on research from case studies of large-scale integrated watershed rehabilitation projects and assess scaling-within against a contemporary scaling framework drawn from the literature. While the concept is tested with watersheds as the administrative unit, the authors anticipate applications for other project management units.

  20. Pro website development and operations streamlining DevOps for large-scale websites

    CERN Document Server

    Sacks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Pro Website Development and Operations gives you the experience you need to create and operate a large-scale production website. Large-scale websites have their own unique set of problems regarding their design-problems that can get worse when agile methodologies are adopted for rapid results. Managing large-scale websites, deploying applications, and ensuring they are performing well often requires a full scale team involving the development and operations sides of the company-two departments that don't always see eye to eye. When departments struggle with each other, it adds unnecessary comp

  1. Development of large scale fusion plasma simulation and storage grid on JAERI Origin3800 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idomura, Yasuhiro; Wang, Xin

    2003-01-01

    Under the Numerical EXperiment of Tokamak (NEXT) research project, various fluid, particle, and hybrid codes have been developed. These codes require a computational environment which consists of high performance processors, high speed storage system, and high speed parallelized visualization system. In this paper, the performance of the JAERI Origin3800 system is examined from a point of view of these requests. In the performance tests, it is shown that the representative particle and fluid codes operate with 15 - 40% of processing efficiency up to 512 processors. A storage area network (SAN) provides high speed parallel data transfer. A parallel visualization system enables order to magnitude faster visualization of a large scale simulation data compared with the previous graphic workstations. Accordingly, an extremely advanced simulation environment is realized on the JAERI Origin3800 system. Recently, development of a storage grid is underway in order to improve a computational environment of remote users. The storage grid is constructed by a combination of SAN and a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). The preliminary tests show that compared with the existing data transfer methods, it enables dramatically high speed data transfer ∼100 Gbps over a wide area network. (author)

  2. Organizational capacity for change in health care: Development and validation of a scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Aaron; Kash, Bita A; Johnson, Christopher E; Gamm, Larry

    We do not have a strong understanding of a health care organization's capacity for attempting and completing multiple and sometimes competing change initiatives. Capacity for change implementation is a critical success factor as the health care industry is faced with ongoing demands for change and transformation because of technological advances, market forces, and regulatory environment. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a tool to measure health care organizations' capacity to change by building upon previous conceptualizations of absorptive capacity and organizational readiness for change. A multistep process was used to develop the organizational capacity for change survey. The survey was sent to two populations requesting answers to questions about the organization's leadership, culture, and technologies in use throughout the organization. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to validate the survey as a measurement tool for organizational capacity for change in the health care setting. The resulting organizational capacity for change measurement tool proves to be a valid and reliable method of evaluating a hospital's capacity for change through the measurement of the population's perceptions related to leadership, culture, and organizational technologies. The organizational capacity for change measurement tool can help health care managers and leaders evaluate the capacity of employees, departments, and teams for change before large-scale implementation.

  3. Reduction of Bacterial Pathogenic Risk during Ex-situ Stabilization of Previously Buried Foot-and-Mouth Disease Carcasses in a Pilot-scale Bio-augmented Aerobic Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Park, J.; Park, J. K.; Park, S.; Jeon, H.; Kwon, H.

    2017-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease outbreaks globally occur. Although livestock suspected to be infected or actually infected by animal infectious diseases is typically treated with various methods including burial, burning, incineration, rendering, and composting, burial into soil is currently the major treatment method in Korea. However, buried carcasses are often found to remain undecomposed or incompletely decomposed even after the legal burial period (3 years). To reuse the land used for the burial purposes, Korea government is considering a novel approach to conduct in-situ burial treatment and then to move remaining carcasses from the burial sites to other sites designated for further ex-situ stabilization treatment (burial-composting sequential treatment). In this work, the feasibility of the novel approach was evaluated at a pilot scale facility. For the ex-situ stabilization, we tested the validity of use of a bio-augmented aerobic composting with carcass-degrading microorganisms, with emphasis on examining if the novel aerobic composting has reducing effects on potential pathogenic bacteria. As results, the decreased chemical oxygen demand (COD, 160,000 mg/kg to 40,000 mg/kg) and inorganic nitrogen species (total nitrogen, 5,000 mg/kg to 2,000 mg/kg) indicated effective bio-stabilization of carcasses. During the stabilization, bacterial community structure and dynamics determined by bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing were significantly changed. The prediction of potential pathogenic bacteria showed that bacterial pathogenic risk was significantly reduced up to a normal soil level during the ex-situ stabilization. The conclusion was confirmed by the following functional analysis of dominant bacteria using PICRUST. The findings support the microbiological safety of the ex-site use of the novel burial-composting sequential treatment. Acknowledgement : This study is supported by Korea Ministry of Environmental as "The GAIA Project"

  4. Measuring Subjective Happiness by Newly Developed Scale in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Happiness as one of the main positive health indicators has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. There are few studies performed to measure happiness in population-based settings in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians subjective happiness in Tehran, Capital city of Iran.Materials and Methods: Present study was conducted in Tehran, Capital of Iran, with more than 7 Million populations in January 2013, using a two-step approach. In first step c conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness was developed. In the second phase of study, a survey recruiting 700 participants was conducted. Stratified cluster sampling method was employed. Participants were recruited from all the 22 municipal divisions of Tehran as strata, proportional to the population size and its gender and age distribution. Happiness was measure by a 40-item questionnaire with scores ranged among 40 to 200.Results: Conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness based on reviewed documents and consensus building process was the product of first step. At second step, from a pool of 700 persons, 696 (97% agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of happiness score was 143.9 (95% confidence interval, 142.5 to 145.4. The results show that the happiness score of jobless people (135.1, 95%CI: 128.1-142.0 and widowed singles (126.6, 95%CI: 113.0-140.2 were significantly lower than other corresponding groups. There was no significant association between gender, age group, educational level as determinants and happiness.Conclusion: Happiness level of Tehranians is somewhat higher than the moderate level. This finding is consistent with findings of other conducted studies in country. However, it is not consistent with some of international reports of happiness, For instance, Happy Planet Index. Due to inadequate information, it is necessary to conduct more research to

  5. Development of a Digital Citizenship Scale for Youth: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer KUŞ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale for identifying digital citizenship perceptions of young people in the most common age groups. The study was conducted as a survey study. The study group of this study is composed of 438 people in Turkey who are among 16-24 age group with the highest rate of internet use in Turkey. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine the validity of the scale and the item discrimination powers were calculated. The total variance of the scale was determined that the scale had 8-factor structure and was found to be 49,70%. The internal consistency level was also calculated to determine the reliability of the scale. As a result, it can be said that this scale is a valid and reliable scale that can be used to determine the digital citizenship perceptions of young people.

  6. The interplay between value and service quality experience: e-loyalty development process through the eTailQ scale and value perception

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Honglei; Aham-Anyanwu, Nnanyelugo; Tevrizci, Cemal; Luo, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the process and factors relevant for developing customer e-loyalty from an e-service quality experience perspective. Based on previously published loyalty studies and e-commerce literature, an integrated model of e-loyalty development process is proposed by including and validating value perception and the e-service quality scale eTailQ scale. The eTailQ scale consists of website design, security/privacy, value perception, reliability and customer support and...

  7. Scaling laws and technology development strategies for biorefineries and bioenergy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Michael W

    2009-12-01

    The economies of scale of larger biorefineries or bioenergy plants compete with the diseconomies of scale of transporting geographically distributed biomass to a central location. This results in an optimum plant size that depends on the scaling parameters of the two contributions. This is a fundamental aspect of biorefineries and bioenergy plants and has important consequences for technology development as "bigger is better" is not necessarily true. In this paper we explore the consequences of these scaling effects via a simplified model of biomass transportation and plant costs. Analysis of this model suggests that there is a need for much more sophisticated technology development strategies to exploit the consequences of these scaling effects. We suggest three potential strategies in terms of the scaling parameters of the system.

  8. Development and Validation of the Elder Learning Barriers Scale Among Older Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renfeng; De Donder, Liesbeth; De Backer, Free; He, Tao; Van Regenmortel, Sofie; Li, Shihua; Lombaerts, Koen

    2017-12-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Elder Learning Barriers (ELB) scale, which seeks to identify the obstacles that affect the level of educational participation of older adults. The process of item pool design and scale development is presented, as well as the testing and scale refinement procedure. The data were collected from a sample of 579 older Chinese adults (aged over 55) in the Xi'an region of China. After randomly splitting the sample for cross-validation purposes, the construct validity of the ELB scale was confirmed containing five dimensions: dispositional, informational, physical, situational, and institutional barriers. Furthermore, developmental differences in factor structure have been examined among older age groups. The results indicated that the scale demonstrated good reliability and validity. We conclude in general that the ELB scale appears to be a valuable instrument for examining the learning barriers that older Chinese citizens experience for participating in organized educational activities.

  9. Developing an Attitude Scale for Discussion Ability of Pre-service Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz OCAK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, developing a scale to measure the attitudes towards the discussion ability of pre-service teachers indented. The application scale of the discussion ability was developed in the direction of the pre-service teachers. The scale is likert-type comprising of 57 items. The validity and reliability of the scale is done on the data gained from 200 students elected by the method of coincidental exemplification amount of the sophomore students. As a result of the factorial validity of the scale, items change between 0.59 and 0.76 and that the KMO Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value is 0.867 and the value of (Cronbach alpha calculated for reliability study is 0.865. Findings related to the studies of validity and reliability show that the scale has a valid and reliable form.

  10. [Development and Testing of the Taiwanese Hospital Nurses' Job Satisfaction Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Lin, Chiou-Fen; Lin, Lih-Ying; Lu, Meei-Shiow; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2017-04-01

    In the context of professional nursing, the concept of job satisfaction includes the degree to which a nurse is satisfied with the nursing profession, his/her personal adaptation to this profession, and his/her current working environment. No validated scale that addresses the job satisfaction of nurses working in hospitals currently exists in Taiwan. To develop a reliable and validated scale for measuring the job satisfaction of hospital nurses in Taiwan. A three-phase, cross-sectional study design was used. First, a literature review and expert focus group discussion were conducted to develop the initial scale items. Second, experts were invited to validate the content of the draft scale. Finally, convenience sampling was used to recruit 427 hospital nurses from 6 hospitals. These nurses completed the scale and the results were analyzed using item analysis, factor analysis, and internal consistency analysis. The 31-item Taiwanese hospital nurse job satisfaction scale developed in the present study addresses 5 factors, including supportive working environment, professional autonomy and growth, interpersonal interaction and collaboration, leadership style, and nursing workload. The overall Cronbach's α was .96. The results indicate that the developed scale provides good reliability and validity. This study confirms the validity and reliability of the developed scale. It may be used to measure the job satisfaction of nurses working in hospitals.

  11. Comparison of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition, and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattone, Dorothy; Raggio, Donald J; May, Warren

    2011-10-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II), and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) were administered to 65 children between the ages of 12 and 42 months referred for developmental delays. Standard scores and age equivalents were compared across instruments. Analyses showed no statistical difference between Vineland-II ABC standard scores and cognitive levels obtained from the Bayley-III. However, Vineland-II Communication and Motor domain standard scores were significantly higher than corresponding scores on the Bayley-III. In addition, age equivalent scores were significantly higher on the Vineland-II for the fine motor subdomain. Implications for early intervention are discussed.

  12. The Mind behind the Message: Advancing Theory-of-Mind Scales for Typically Developing Children, and Those with Deafness, Autism, or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.; Wellman, Henry M.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Children aged 3-2 years (n = 184) with typical development, deafness, autism, or Asperger syndrome took a series of theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks to confirm and extend previous developmental scaling evidence. A new sarcasm task, in the format of H. M. Wellman and D. Liu's (2004) 5-step ToM Scale, added a statistically reliable 6th step to the scale…

  13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL-SCALE BUSINESS IN RUSSIA, TYPES OF FUNDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill O. Voronin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Russia small-scale business originated in the end of 1980s duringRestructuring. It has been developing as fast as Russian economics.Unlike large industrial companies, which just continued to run businessas they used to, small-scale businessmen had to start from scratch ordisaffiliate with large organizations. Basically, in 1990-s small-scale business as a financial institute was self-regulated due to its highcriminalization and nonpayment of tax.For a period of only 25 years small-scale business has improved muchand now provides well-being to the country. The improvement happeneddue to the following factors:- propitious economic and political climate of the country against thebackground of global economy and the years of restricting- important and useful measures for economic development were taken - important and useful measures for development of small-scale enterprises were takenThe development of this new financial institute is quite fast, but historyhas other examples of such phenomenon. In the 21st century RussianFederation adopted experience of advanced countries and imposed it onits historic experience. However, we can’t say that small-scale business is on its top of development in our country. Nowadays development of small-scale business is one of the priorities of the Russian government.

  14. Development of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Lian-Hwang

    1987-01-01

    Developed a teacher's rating scale of self-esteem for children. Participants were 231 school children in grades K-7. Used sociometric measures, popularity ranking by teachers, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to estimate validity. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (SERSC) included 12 behavioral characteristics rated most…

  15. Self-Efficacy for Science Teaching Scale Development: Construct Validation with Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangin, Selami; Sidekli, Sabri

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of teacher self-efficacy has a history of more than 30 years. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the development and validation of a new scale to measure the science teaching self-efficacy of elementary school teachers. Therefore, a scale has been created to measure elementary teachers' science teaching self-efficacy and…

  16. Development and Validation of the Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyk, Ekaterina; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gorin, Joanna S.; Gray, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the development and validation of a criterion-referenced Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS) that was designed to assess the oral language skills of sequential bilingual children ages 4-8. This article reports results for the English proficiency portion of the scale. Method: The SELPS assesses syntactic…

  17. Development and Validation of a Response Bias Scale (RBS) for the MMPI-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Roger O.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Wygant, Dustin B.; Green, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the development of a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) scale designed to detect negative response bias in forensic neuropsychological or disability assessment settings. The Response Bias Scale (RBS) consists of 28 MMPI-2 items that discriminated between persons who passed or failed the Word Memory Test…

  18. A Replication of the MMPI-A PSY-5 Scales and Development of Facet Subscales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinskey, P. Kevin; Arnau, Randolph C.; Archer, Robert P.; Handel, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    McNulty, Harkness, Ben-Porath and Williams recently developed Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) scales for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory A (MMPI-A). This study examined these new scales in a sample of 545 adolescents receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment. Item-level principal components analyses were employed to…

  19. Development of the Children's Scale of Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive (C-SHARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan A.; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas some scales exist for assessing aggression in typically developing children, they do not give a detailed analysis, and none is available for populations with developmental disabilities (DD). Parents of 365 children with DD completed the Children's Scale of Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive (C-SHARP), which surveys the severity…

  20. Developing a New Computer Game Attitude Scale for Taiwanese Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Jen-Huang

    2013-01-01

    With ever increasing exposure to computer games, gaining an understanding of the attitudes held by young adolescents toward such activities is crucial; however, few studies have provided scales with which to accomplish this. This study revisited the Computer Game Attitude Scale developed by Chappell and Taylor in 1997, reworking the overall…

  1. Development and Validation of the Work Role Motivation Scale for School Principals (WRMS-SP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernet, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to assess work role motivation in school principals: the Work Role Motivation Scale for School Principals (WRMS-SP). The WRMS-SP is designed to measure intrinsic motivation, three types of extrinsic motivation (identified, introjected, and external), and amotivation with respect to…

  2. A Study of Developing an Attitude Scale towards Authentic Learning Environments and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Murat

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research is to improve a valid and reliable attributing scale which identifies authentic learning environments and evaluation attributes of the science teacher candidates. The study has been designed on the base of validity and reliability of the scale developed to evaluate the authentic learning environments. The research group is…

  3. How to develop a customer satisfaction scale with optimal construct validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, M.J.; Kuijlen, A.A.A.; Sijtsma, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigate how to construct a customer satisfaction (CS) scale which yields optimally valid measurements of the construct of interest. For this purpose we compare three alternative methodologies for scale development and construct validation. Furthermore, we discuss a

  4. Large-Scale Urban Decontamination; Developments, Historical Examples and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer

    2007-02-01

    cleanup responses, has a sound approach for decontamination decision-making that has been applied several times. The anthrax contamination at the U. S. Hart Senate Office Building and numerous U. S. Post Office facilities are examples of employing novel technical responses. Decontamination of the Hart Office building required development of a new approach for high level decontamination of biological contamination as well as techniques for evaluating the technology effectiveness. The World Trade Center destruction also demonstrated the need for, and successful implementation of, appropriate cleanup methodologies. There are a number of significant lessons that can be gained from a look at previous large scale cleanup projects. Too often we are quick to apply a costly “package and dispose” method when sound technological cleaning approaches are available. Understanding historical perspectives, advanced planning and constant technology improvement are essential to successful decontamination.

  5. A psychometric assessment of the LPME scale for the South African skills development context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maelekanyo Christopher Tshilongamulenzhe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A thorough examination of psychometric properties of measurement scales is necessary to ensure that these scales comply with the existing scientific conventions. This article assesses the psychometric properties of the Learning Programme Management and Evaluation (LPME scale. A quantitative, non-experimental cross-sectional survey design was used. Data were collected from a sample of 652 respondents comprising skills development practitioners and learners/apprentices. Data were analyzed using Winsteps, SPSS and AMOS computer software. The findings show that the LPME scale meets the psychometric expectations and complies with the established scientific conventions in terms of validity, reliability, fit and unidimensionality.

  6. Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS): A Study on Development, Validity and Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Erkoc, Sultan Baliz; Isikli, Burhanettin; Metintas, Selma; Kalyoncu, Cemalettin

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a scale to measure knowledge about hypertension among Turkish adults. The Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS) was generated based on content, face, and construct validity, internal consistency, test re-test reliability, and discriminative validity procedures. The final scale had 22 items with six sub-dimensions. The scale was applied to 457 individuals aged ≥18 years, and 414 of them were re-evaluated for test-retest reliability. The six sub-dimensio...

  7. Development of a self-consistent lightning NOx simulation in large-scale 3-D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Wang, Yuhang; Koshak, William J.

    2017-03-01

    We seek to develop a self-consistent representation of lightning NOx (LNOx) simulation in a large-scale 3-D model. Lightning flash rates are parameterized functions of meteorological variables related to convection. We examine a suite of such variables and find that convective available potential energy and cloud top height give the best estimates compared to July 2010 observations from ground-based lightning observation networks. Previous models often use lightning NOx vertical profiles derived from cloud-resolving model simulations. An implicit assumption of such an approach is that the postconvection lightning NOx vertical distribution is the same for all deep convection, regardless of geographic location, time of year, or meteorological environment. Detailed observations of the lightning channel segment altitude distribution derived from the NASA Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model can be used to obtain the LNOx emission profile. Coupling such a profile with model convective transport leads to a more self-consistent lightning distribution compared to using prescribed postconvection profiles. We find that convective redistribution appears to be a more important factor than preconvection LNOx profile selection, providing another reason for linking the strength of convective transport to LNOx distribution.

  8. Measuring Supportive Music and Imagery Interventions: The Development of the Music Therapy Self-Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Anthony; Burns, Debra S; Perkins, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated modest benefits from music-based interventions, specifically music and imagery interventions, during cancer care. However, little attention has been paid to measuring the benefits of music-based interventions using measurement instruments specifically designed to account for the multidimensional nature of music-imagery experiences. The purpose of this study was to describe the development of, and psychometrically evaluate, the Music Therapy Self-Rating Scale (MTSRS) as a measure for cancer patients engaged in supportive music and imagery interventions. An exploratory factor analysis using baseline data from 76 patients who consented to participate in a music-based intervention study during chemotherapy. Factor analysis of 14 items revealed four domains: Awareness of Body, Emotionally Focused, Personal Resources, and Treatment Specific. Internal reliability was excellent (Cronbach alphas ranging from 0.75 to 0.88) and construct and divergent-discriminant validity supported. The MTSRS is a psychometrically sound, brief instrument that captures essential elements of patient experience during music and imagery interventions. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The City MISS: development of a scale to measure stigma of perinatal mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Donna; Ayers, Susan; Drey, Nicholas

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a scale to measure perceived stigma for perinatal mental illness in women. Stigma is one of the most frequently cited barriers to seeking treatment and many women with perinatal mental illness fail to get the treatment they need. However, there is no psychometric scale that measures how women may experience the unique aspects of perinatal mental illness stigma. A draft scale of 30 items was developed from a literature review. Women with perinatal mental illness (n = 279) were recruited to complete the City Mental Illness Stigma Scale. Concurrent validity was measured using the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness Scale. Factor analysis was used to create the final scale. The final 15-item City Mental Illness Stigma Scale has a three-factor structure: perceived external stigma, internal stigma and disclosure stigma. The scale accounted for 54% of the variance and had good internal reliability and concurrent validity. The City Mental Illness Stigma Scale appears to be a valid measure which provides a potentially useful tool for clinical practice and research in stigma and perinatal mental illness, including assessing the prevalence and characteristics of stigma. This research can be used to inform interventions to reduce or address the stigma experienced by some women with perinatal mental illness.

  10. Development and testing of a scale to assess physician attitudes about handheld computers with decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Midge N; Houston, Thomas K; Yu, Feliciano B; Menachemi, Nir; Maisiak, Richard S; Allison, Jeroan J; Berner, Eta S

    2006-01-01

    The authors developed and evaluated a rating scale, the Attitudes toward Handheld Decision Support Software Scale (H-DSS), to assess physician attitudes about handheld decision support systems. The authors conducted a prospective assessment of psychometric characteristics of the H-DSS including reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Participants were 82 Internal Medicine residents. A higher score on each of the 14 five-point Likert scale items reflected a more positive attitude about handheld DSS. The H-DSS score is the mean across the fourteen items. Attitudes toward the use of the handheld DSS were assessed prior to and six months after receiving the handheld device. Cronbach's Alpha was used to assess internal consistency reliability. Pearson correlations were used to estimate and detect significant associations between scale scores and other measures (validity). Paired sample t-tests were used to test for changes in the mean attitude scale score (responsiveness) and for differences between groups. Internal consistency reliability for the scale was alpha = 0.73. In testing validity, moderate correlations were noted between the attitude scale scores and self-reported Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) usage in the hospital (correlation coefficient = 0.55) and clinic (0.48), p DSS scale was reliable, valid, and responsive. The scale can be used to guide future handheld DSS development and implementation.

  11. Multifractal aspects of the scaling laws in fully developed compressible turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivamoggi, B.K.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, multifractal aspects of the scalings laws in fully developed compressible turbulence are considered. Compressibility effects on known results of incompressible turbulence are pointed out. copyright 1995 Academic Press, Inc

  12. A Dynamical System Approach Explaining the Process of Development by Introducing Different Time-scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Kamangar, Somayeh Sadat; Moradimanesh, Zahra; Mokhtari, Setareh; Bakouie, Fatemeh

    2018-06-11

    A developmental process can be described as changes through time within a complex dynamic system. The self-organized changes and emergent behaviour during development can be described and modeled as a dynamical system. We propose a dynamical system approach to answer the main question in human cognitive development i.e. the changes during development happens continuously or in discontinuous stages. Within this approach there is a concept; the size of time scales, which can be used to address the aforementioned question. We introduce a framework, by considering the concept of time-scale, in which "fast" and "slow" is defined by the size of time-scales. According to our suggested model, the overall pattern of development can be seen as one continuous function, with different time-scales in different time intervals.

  13. Development and Measurement through Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Young Adult Social Behavior Scale (YASB): An Assessment of Relational Aggression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Laura M.; Schreiber, James B.; Field, Julaine E.; Kolbert, Jered B.

    2009-01-01

    The Young Adult Social Behavior Scale was developed for the purpose of measuring self-reported relational and social aggression and behaviors of interpersonal maturity in adolescents and young adults (the sample included 629 university students; 66% female; 91.6% White). Despite previous research suggesting that relational and social aggression…

  14. Development, reliability and validity of the psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson's disease in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Yin, Anchun; Sun, Xiaohong; Liu, Qigui; Song, Guirong; Li, Lianhong

    2015-01-01

    To develop psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson's disease (PD) in Chinese population and evaluate its reliability and validity. The items were designed by literature review, expert consultation and semi-structured interview. The methods of corrected item-total correlation, discrimination analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used for items selection. 427 valid scales from PD patients were collected in the study to test the reliability and validity. The scale incorporated six dimensions: anxiety, self-esteem, attitude, self-acceptance, self-efficacy and social support, a total of 32 items. The scale possessed good internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.99 and average content validation rate was 0.97. The Hoehn and Yahr stage were correlated with total score of the scale. The psychosocial adaptation scale in this study showed good reliability and validity, it can be used as a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the psychosocial adaptation of PD objectively and effectively.

  15. Development of the Teacher Candidates’ Level of being Affected from Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a scale to evaluate teacher candidates' level of being affected from the public personnel selection examination. The participants of the study consisted of the final year students at Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The participants were 207 teacher candidates, of whom 143 were female and 64 were male. The validity and reliability study of the scale was conducted on the data gathered from teacher candidates studying at Art Teaching, Music Teaching, Turkish Language Teaching, Social Studies Education, Science Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance Education, Elementary Education and Preschool Education departments of Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The Lawshe technique was used in the evaluation of the scale by experts. To determine the construct validity, factor analysis was performed on the data, and two sub-scales were identified. The factor loading values of the items in the first sub-scale ranged between 0,65 and 0,35, and those in the second sub-scale between 0,75 and 0,39. As a result of the analyses, the "Teacher Candidates' Level of Being Affected From Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale" (TCLBAPPSES including 33 items, 23 negative and 10 positive, and two sub-scales was produced. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was found as 0,86 for the first sub-dimension, 0,73 for the second sub-dimension, and 0,91 for the whole scale. As a result, it can be argued that the scale is reliable

  16. Understanding Emerging Impacts and Requirements Related to Utility-Scale Solar Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Heidi M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heath, Garvin A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Karen P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, Robert G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Walston, Leroy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wescott, Konstance L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Utility-scale solar energy plays an important role in the nation’s strategy to address climate change threats through increased deployment of renewable energy technologies, and both the federal government and individual states have established specific goals for increased solar energy development. In order to achieve these goals, much attention is paid to making utility-scale solar energy cost-competitive with other conventional energy sources, while concurrently conducting solar development in an environmentally sound manner.

  17. Development of a Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale and Its Validation in a Spanish Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    José De-Sola; Hernán Talledo; Hernán Talledo; Gabriel Rubio; Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca; Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca

    2017-01-01

    In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS). It consists of eight Likert-style...

  18. Affective commitment to the employer brand: Development and validation of a scale

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Lores, Susana; Gavilan, Diana; Avello, Maria; Blasco, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    In recent years employer branding has become increasingly important as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Companies are trying to engender affective commitment in the best employees in a global labor market. We develop and validate a multidimensional scale to measure the strength of an employee´s affective commitment to the employer brand in five separate studies. In Study 1 and 2 the Affective Commitment to the Employer Brand (ACEB) scale was developed and tested for its factor s...

  19. Development of a mobile phone addiction craving scale and its validation in a Spanish adult population

    OpenAIRE

    De-Sola, José; Talledo, Hernán; Rubio, Gabriel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS). It consists of eight Likert-style...

  20. Development and validation of the Kilifi Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitude Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Mbuba, Caroline K.; Abubakar, Amina; Hartley, Sally; Odermatt, Peter; Newton, Charles R.; Carter, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy remains misunderstood, particularly in resource poor countries (RPC). We developed and validated a tool to assess beliefs and attitudes about epilepsy among people with epilepsy (PWE) in Kilifi, Kenya. The 50-item scale was developed through a literature review and qualitative study findings, and its reliability and validity were assessed with 673 PWE. A final scale of 34 items had Cronbach's alpha scores for the five subscales: causes of epilepsy (??=?0.71); biomedical treatment of ...

  1. Development and Validation of the Collaborative Parent Involvement Scale for Youths with Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Nansel, Tonja R.; Rovner, Alisha J.; Haynie, Denise; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Wysocki, Timothy; Anderson, Barbara; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Laffel, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop and test a youth-report measure of collaborative parent involvement in type 1 diabetes management. Methods Initial item development and testing were conducted with 81 youths; scale refinement and validation were conducted with 122 youths from four geographic regions. Descriptive statistics, Cronbach's α, and factor analyses were conducted to select items comprising the scale. Correlations with parenting style and parent diabetes responsibility were examined. Multiple regr...

  2. Developing an Assessment Method of Active Aging: University of Jyvaskyla Active Aging Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Taina; Portegijs, Erja; Kokko, Katja; Rantakokko, Merja; Törmäkangas, Timo; Saajanaho, Milla

    2018-01-01

    To develop an assessment method of active aging for research on older people. A multiphase process that included drafting by an expert panel, a pilot study for item analysis and scale validity, a feedback study with focus groups and questionnaire respondents, and a test-retest study. Altogether 235 people aged 60 to 94 years provided responses and/or feedback. We developed a 17-item University of Jyvaskyla Active Aging Scale with four aspects in each item (goals, ability, opportunity, and activity; range 0-272). The psychometric and item properties are good and the scale assesses a unidimensional latent construct of active aging. Our scale assesses older people's striving for well-being through activities pertaining to their goals, abilities, and opportunities. The University of Jyvaskyla Active Aging Scale provides a quantifiable measure of active aging that may be used in postal questionnaires or interviews in research and practice.

  3. A Scale for E-Content Preparation Skills: Development, Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Ahmet; Polat, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: For an effective teaching and learning process it is critical to provide support for teachers in the development of e-content, and teachers should play an active role in this development. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable Likert-type scale that will determine pre-service teachers'…

  4. REQUIREMENTS FOR SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE MODELS FOR LARGE-SCALE DEFENSE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan DEMIR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available TLarge-scale defense system projects are strategic for maintaining and increasing the national defense capability. Therefore, governments spend billions of dollars in the acquisition and development of large-scale defense systems. The scale of defense systems is always increasing and the costs to build them are skyrocketing. Today, defense systems are software intensive and they are either a system of systems or a part of it. Historically, the project performances observed in the development of these systems have been signifi cantly poor when compared to other types of projects. It is obvious that the currently used systems development life cycle models are insuffi cient to address today’s challenges of building these systems. Using a systems development life cycle model that is specifi cally designed for largescale defense system developments and is effective in dealing with today’s and near-future challenges will help to improve project performances. The fi rst step in the development a large-scale defense systems development life cycle model is the identifi cation of requirements for such a model. This paper contributes to the body of literature in the fi eld by providing a set of requirements for system development life cycle models for large-scale defense systems. Furthermore, a research agenda is proposed.

  5. Development of scales to assess children's perceptions of friend and parental influences on physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockman Rowan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children do not meet physical activity guidelines. Parents and friends are likely to influence children's physical activity but there is a shortage of measures that are able to capture these influences. Methods A new questionnaire with the following three scales was developed: 1 Parental influence on physical activity; 2 Motives for activity with friends scale; and 3 Physical activity and sedentary group normative values. Content for each scale was informed by qualitative work. One hundred and seventy three, 10-11 year old children completed the new questionnaire twice, one week apart. Participants also wore an accelerometer for 5 days and mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, light physical activity and sedentary time per day were obtained. Test-retest reliability of the items was calculated and Principal Component analysis of the scales performed and sub-scales produced. Alphas were calculated for main scales and sub-scales. Correlations were calculated among sub-scales. Correlations between each sub-scale and accelerometer physical activity variables were calculated for all participants and stratified by sex. Results The Parental influence scale yielded four factors which accounted for 67.5% of the variance in the items and had good (α > 0.7 internal consistency. The Motives for physical activity scale yielded four factors that accounted for 66.1% and had good internal consistency. The Physical activity norms scale yielded 4 factors that accounted for 67.4% of the variance, with good internal consistency for the sub-scales and alpha of .642 for the overall scale. Associations between the sub-scales and physical activity differed by sex. Although only 6 of the 11 sub-scales were significantly correlated with physical activity there were a number of associations that were positively correlated >0.15 indicating that these factors may contribute to the explanation of children's physical activity

  6. Affective commitment to the employer brand: Development and validation of a scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Fernandez-Lores

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years employer branding has become increasingly important as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Companies are trying to engender affective commitment in the best employees in a global labour market. In this study, we develop and validate a multidimensional scale to measure the strength of an employee's affective commitment to the employer brand in five separate studies. In Studies 1 and 2 the Affective Commitment to the Employer Brand (ACEB scale was developed and tested for its structure, reliability and convergent validity. Study 3 examines additional reliability and discriminant validity. Study 4 provides evidence of external validity. Study 5 examines the scale's nomological validity showing that a positive experience with the employer brand is important in making the employee develop affective commitment towards it. The limitations of the scale and the boundary conditions of its applicability are also discussed.

  7. Development and Validation of a Safety Attitude Scale for Coal Miners in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Safety attitude is of vital importance to accident prevention, and the high accident rate in the coal mining industry makes it urgent to undertake research on coal miners’ safety attitude. However, the current literature still lacks a valid and reliable safety attitude measurement scale for coal miners, which stands as a barrier against their safety attitude improvement. In this study, a scale is developed that can be used to measure coal miners’ safety attitude. The preliminary scale was based on an extended literature review. Empirical data were then collected from 725 coal miners using the preliminary scale. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were undertaken to validate and improve the scale. The final scale, which consists of 17 items, contains four dimensions: management safety commitment, team safety climate, fatalism and work pressure. Results show that this safety attitude scale can effectively measure the safety attitude of coal miners, showing high psychological measurement validity. This paper contributes to the occupational safety research by developing the factor structure and indicator system of coal miners’ safety attitude, thus providing more profound interpretation of this crucial construct in the safety research domain. The measurement scale serves as an important tool for safety attitude benchmarking among different coal mining enterprises and, thus, can boost the overall safety improvement of the whole industry. These findings can facilitate improvement of both theories and practices related to occupational safety attitude.

  8. The Development and Psychometric Properties of the Immigration Law Concerns Scale (ILCS) for HIV Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Galletly, Carol L; Broaddus, Michelle R; Dickson-Gomez, Julia B; Glasman, Laura R; McAuliffe, Timothy L; Vega, Miriam Y; LeGrand, Sarah; Mena, Carla A; Barlow, Morgan L; Valera, Erik; Montenegro, Judith I

    2017-11-08

    To develop, pilot test, and conduct psychometric analyses of an innovative scale measuring the influence of perceived immigration laws on Latino migrants' HIV-testing behavior. The Immigration Law Concerns Scale (ILCS) was developed in three phases: Phase 1 involved a review of law and literature, generation of scale items, consultation with project advisors, and subsequent revision of the scale. Phase 2 involved systematic translation- back translation and consensus-based editorial processes conducted by members of a bilingual and multi-national study team. In Phase 3, 339 sexually active, HIV-negative Spanish-speaking, non-citizen Latino migrant adults (both documented and undocumented) completed the scale via audio computer-assisted self-interview. The psychometric properties of the scale were tested with exploratory factor analysis and estimates of reliability coefficients were generated. Bivariate correlations were conducted to test the discriminant and predictive validity of identified factors. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor, 17-item scale. subscale reliability ranged from 0.72 to 0.79. There were significant associations between the ILCS and the HIV-testing behaviors of participants. Results of the pilot test and psychometric analysis of the ILCS are promising. The scale is reliable and significantly associated with the HIV-testing behaviors of participants. Subscales related to unwanted government attention and concerns about meeting moral character requirements should be refined.

  9. Development and validation of a psychometric scale for assessing PA chest image quality: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraity, H.; England, A.; Akhtar, I.; Aslam, A.; De Lange, R.; Momoniat, H.; Nicoulaz, S.; Ribeiro, A.; Mazhir, S.; Hogg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate a psychometric scale for assessing image quality perception for chest X-ray images. Methods: Bandura's theory was used to guide scale development. A review of the literature was undertaken to identify items/factors which could be used to evaluate image quality using a perceptual approach. A draft scale was then created (22 items) and presented to a focus group (student and qualified radiographers). Within the focus group the draft scale was discussed and modified. A series of seven postero-anterior chest images were generated using a phantom with a range of image qualities. Image quality perception was confirmed for the seven images using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR 17.2–36.5). Participants (student and qualified radiographers and radiology trainees) were then invited to independently score each of the seven images using the draft image quality perception scale. Cronbach alpha was used to test interval reliability. Results: Fifty three participants used the scale to grade image quality perception on each of the seven images. Aggregated mean scale score increased with increasing SNR from 42.1 to 87.7 (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). For each of the 22 individual scale items there was clear differentiation of low, mid and high quality images. A Cronbach alpha coefficient of >0.7 was obtained across each of the seven images. Conclusion: This study represents the first development of a chest image quality perception scale based on Bandura's theory. There was excellent correlation between the image quality perception scores derived using the scale and the SNR. Further research will involve a more detailed item and factor analysis

  10. Development and psychometric validation of social cognitive theory scales in an oral health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly; Parker, Eleanor J; Steffens, Margaret A; Logan, Richard M; Brennan, David; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate scales reflecting potentially modifiable social cognitive theory-based risk indicators associated with homeless populations' oral health. The scales are referred to as the social cognitive theory risk scales in an oral health context (SCTOH) and are referred to as SCTOH(SE), SCTOH(K) and SCTOH(F), respectively. The three SCTOH scales assess the key constructs of social cognitive theory: self-efficacy, knowledge and fatalism. The reliability and validity of the three scales were evaluated in a convenience sample of 248 homeless participants (age range 17-78 years, 79% male) located in a metropolitan setting in Australia. The scales were supported by exploratory factor analysis and established three distinct and internally consistent domains of social cognition: oral health-related self-efficacy, oral health-related knowledge and oral health-related fatalism, with Cronbach's alphas of 0.95, 0.85 and Spearman's-Brown ρ of 0.69. Concurrent ability was confirmed by each SCTOH scale's association with oral health status in the expected directions. The three SCTOH scales appear to be internally valid and reliable. If confirmed by further research, these scales could potentially be used for tailored educational and cognitive-behavioural interventions to reduce oral health inequalities among homeless and other vulnerable populations. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Development of Physical Activity-Related Parenting Practices Scales for Urban Chinese Parents of Preschoolers: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Yi-Nam; Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Huang, Wendy Y J; Mellecker, Robin R

    2017-09-01

    Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children's physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers' PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong. Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined. The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child's PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89). We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.

  12. The mind behind the message: Advancing theory of mind scales for typically developing children, and those with deafness, autism, or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.; Wellman, Henry M.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Children aged 3 to 12 years (n=184) with typical development, deafness, autism or Asperger Syndrome took a series of theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks to confirm and extend previous developmental scaling evidence. A new sarcasm task, in the format of Wellman and Liu’s (2004) 5-step ToM scale, added a statistically reliable sixth step to the scale for all diagnostic groups. A key previous finding, divergence in task sequencing for children with autism, was confirmed. Comparisons among diagnostic groups, controlling age and language ability, showed that typical developers mastered the six ToM steps ahead of each of the three disabled groups, with implications for ToM theories. The final (sarcasm) task challenged even nondisabled 9-year-olds, demonstrating the new scale’s sensitivity to post-preschool ToM growth. PMID:22304467

  13. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  14. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  15. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  16. Development and validation of a smoking rationalization scale for male smokers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyuan; Fu, Wenjie; Zhang, Haiying; Li, Hong; Li, Xiaoxia; Yang, Yong; Wang, Fan; Gao, Junling; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua; Ding, Ding; Chapman, Simon

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a smoking rationalization scale for Chinese male smokers. A total of 35 focus groups and 19 one-on-one interviews were conducted to collect items of the scale. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to identify the underlying structure of the scale. Results found a 26-item scale within six dimensions (smoking functional beliefs, risk generalization beliefs, social acceptability beliefs, safe smoking beliefs, self-exempting beliefs, and quitting is harmful beliefs). The scale showed acceptable validity and reliability. Results highlight that smoking rationalization is common among Chinese male smokers, and some beliefs of smoking rationalization seem to be peculiar to China.

  17. A partnership development process assessment scale for public health nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Yukako; Hatano, Yoko; Kimura, Hitoe

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and test a Partnership Development Process Assessment (PDPA) scale for content and construct validity and internal consistency reliability. This is needed to document and evaluate community health partnership development processes between public health nurses and community-based organizations in Japan. The study was conducted in three phases. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted to generate items for a new scale. Thirty items were generated and reviewed by an expert panel for content validity and item refinement. A national postal survey of public health nurses was conducted to determine the scale's internal structure, evaluate its reliability, and explore its construct and criterion validity. Validity and reliability testing of the PDPA scale using a content validity index and analysis of correlations with an existing scale were performed. Twenty-six items were selected and grouped into four factors: activities to share roles to manage community health issues, platform activities to support partnerships, activities to evaluate partnership practices, and activities to share information regarding community health issues. After factor analysis, 23 items were retained. The PDPA scale is a valid and reliable instrument for public health nurses to assess partnership development activities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of polygon elements based on the scaled boundary finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiong, Irene; Song Chongmin

    2010-01-01

    We aim to extend the scaled boundary finite element method to construct conforming polygon elements. The development of the polygonal finite element is highly anticipated in computational mechanics as greater flexibility and accuracy can be achieved using these elements. The scaled boundary polygonal finite element will enable new developments in mesh generation, better accuracy from a higher order approximation and better transition elements in finite element meshes. Polygon elements of arbitrary number of edges and order have been developed successfully. The edges of an element are discretised with line elements. The displacement solution of the scaled boundary finite element method is used in the development of shape functions. They are shown to be smooth and continuous within the element, and satisfy compatibility and completeness requirements. Furthermore, eigenvalue decomposition has been used to depict element modes and outcomes indicate the ability of the scaled boundary polygonal element to express rigid body and constant strain modes. Numerical tests are presented; the patch test is passed and constant strain modes verified. Accuracy and convergence of the method are also presented and the performance of the scaled boundary polygonal finite element is verified on Cook's swept panel problem. Results show that the scaled boundary polygonal finite element method outperforms a traditional mesh and accuracy and convergence are achieved from fewer nodes. The proposed method is also shown to be truly flexible, and applies to arbitrary n-gons formed of irregular and non-convex polygons.

  19. Development of porous structure simulator for multi-scale simulation of irregular porous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Michihisa; Suzuki, Ai; Sahnoun, Riadh; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Kubo, Momoji; Del Carpio, Carlos A.; Miyamoto, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Efficient development of highly functional porous materials, used as catalysts in the automobile industry, demands a meticulous knowledge of the nano-scale interface at the electronic and atomistic scale. However, it is often difficult to correlate the microscopic interfacial interactions with macroscopic characteristics of the materials; for instance, the interaction between a precious metal and its support oxide with long-term sintering properties of the catalyst. Multi-scale computational chemistry approaches can contribute to bridge the gap between micro- and macroscopic characteristics of these materials; however this type of multi-scale simulations has been difficult to apply especially to porous materials. To overcome this problem, we have developed a novel mesoscopic approach based on a porous structure simulator. This simulator can construct automatically irregular porous structures on a computer, enabling simulations with complex meso-scale structures. Moreover, in this work we have developed a new method to simulate long-term sintering properties of metal particles on porous catalysts. Finally, we have applied the method to the simulation of sintering properties of Pt on alumina support. This newly developed method has enabled us to propose a multi-scale simulation approach for porous catalysts

  20. Testing, development and demonstration of large scale solar district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua; Perers, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    In 2013-2014 the project “Testing, development and demonstration of large scale solar district heating systems” was carried out within the Sino-Danish Renewable Energy Development Programme, the so called RED programme jointly developed by the Chinese and Danish governments. In the project Danish...... know how on solar heating plants and solar heating test technology have been transferred from Denmark to China, large solar heating systems have been promoted in China, test capabilities on solar collectors and large scale solar heating systems have been improved in China and Danish-Chinese cooperation...

  1. The development and validation of the core competencies scale (CCS) for the college and university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Bin; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Edginton, Christopher R; Chin, Ming Kai

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Core Competencies Scale (CCS) using Bok's (2006) competency framework for undergraduate education. The framework included: communication, critical thinking, character development, citizenship, diversity, global understanding, widening of interest, and career and vocational development. The sample comprised 70 college and university students. Results of analysis using Rasch rating scale modelling showed that there was strong empirical evidence on the validity of the measures in contents, structure, interpretation, generalizability, and response options of the CCS scale. The implication of having developed Rasch-based valid and dependable measures in this study for gauging the value added of college and university education to their students is that the feedback generated from CCS will enable evidence-based decision and policy making to be implemented and strategized. Further, program effectiveness can be measured and thus accountability on the achievement of the program objectives.

  2. Micro-scaled products development via microforming deformation behaviours, processes, tooling and its realization

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Ming Wang

    2014-01-01

    ‘Micro-scaled Products Development via Microforming’ presents state-of-the-art research on microforming processes, and focuses on the development of micro-scaled metallic parts via microforming processes. Microforming refers to the fabrication of microparts via micro-scaled plastic deformation and  presents a promising micromanufacturing process. When compared to other  micromanufacturing processes, microforming offers advantages such as high productivity and good mechanical properties of the deformed microparts. This book provides extensive and informative illustrations, tables and photos in order to convey this information clearly and directly to readers. Although the knowledge of macroforming processes is abundant and widely used in industry, microparts cannot be developed by leveraging existing knowledge of macroforming because the size effect presents a barrier to this knowledge transfer. Therefore systematic knowledge of microforming needs to be developed. In tandem with product miniaturization, t...

  3. Scale development of safety management system evaluation for the airline industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Fu; Chen, Shu-Chuan

    2012-07-01

    The airline industry relies on the implementation of Safety Management System (SMS) to integrate safety policies and augment safety performance at both organizational and individual levels. Although there are various degrees of SMS implementation in practice, a comprehensive scale measuring the essential dimensions of SMS is still lacking. This paper thus aims to develop an SMS measurement scale from the perspective of aviation experts and airline managers to evaluate the performance of company's safety management system, by adopting Schwab's (1980) three-stage scale development procedure. The results reveal a five-factor structure consisting of 23 items. The five factors include documentation and commands, safety promotion and training, executive management commitment, emergency preparedness and response plan and safety management policy. The implications of this SMS evaluation scale for practitioners and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of large scale production of Nd-doped phosphate glasses for megajoule-scale laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficini, G.; Campbell, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Nd-doped phosphate glasses are the preferred gain medium for high-peak-power lasers used for Inertial Confinement Fusion research because they have excellent energy storage and extraction characteristics. In addition, these glasses can be manufactured defect-free in large sizes and at relatively low cost. To meet the requirements of the future mega-joule size lasers, advanced laser glass manufacturing methods are being developed that would enable laser glass to be continuously produced at the rate of several thousand large (790 x 440 x 44 mm 3 ) plates of glass per year. This represents more than a 10 to 100-fold improvement in the scale of the present manufacturing technology

  5. Development and validity of a scale of perception of velocity in resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Iker J; Chirosa, Ignacio J; Chirosa, Luis J; Martín, Ignacio; González, Andrés; Robertson, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    This aims of this study were twofold; 1) to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2) to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal) of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light loads [ 70% 1RM]) were measured randomly during 5 days of testing. Perceived velocity (Velscale) was measured immediately after each exercise set using the new scale. A positive linear correlation (r range = 0.69 to 0.81) was found in all three intensities, analyzed individually, between the Velreal and Velscale. Pearson correlations showed a greater frequency of scale use resulted higher correlation values (range r = 0.88 to 0.96). This study provides evidence of the concurrent validity of a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise in trained adult males. These results suggest the exercise intensity of the bench press can be quantified quickly and effective using this new scale of perceived velocity, particularly when training for maximum power. Key PointsMeasurement of perception of velocity can complement other scales of perception such as the 15 category Borg scale or the OMNI-RES.The results obtained in this study show that there was a positive correlation between the perceived velocity measured by the scale and actual velocityRegular use of the new scale of perceived velocity in external resistance training provides athletes with continuous feedback of execution velocity in each repetition and set, especially with high power loads.

  6. Development and Validation of Information Technology Mentor Teacher Attitude Scale: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltan, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study development and validation of a teacher attitude scale toward Information Technology Mentor Teachers (ITMT). ITMTs give technological support to other teachers for integration of technology in their lessons. In the literature, many instruments have been developed to measure teachers' attitudes towards the technological tools…

  7. The Development of a Scale on Assessing Peer Mentoring at the College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadere, Selay Arkün

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of my study was to develop and validate a scale to assess peer mentoring practices that aim to enhance learning. In the development process, 4 focus group interviews were conducted with 10 mentors and 12 mentees who participated in 8 weeks of peer mentoring. In addition to the literature, the findings from interviews were used to…

  8. Development of the Childbirth Perception Scale (CPS) : Perception of delivery and the first postpartum week

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truijens, Sophie E. M.; Wijnen, Hennie A.; Pommer, Antoinette M.; Oei, S. Guid; Pop, Victor J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Some caregivers suggest a more positive experience of childbirth when giving birth at home. Since properly developed instruments that assess women’s perception of delivery and the early postpartum are missing, the aim of the current study is to develop a Childbirth Perception Scale (CPS). Three

  9. Development and Factor Structure of the Helping Professional Wellness Discrepancy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Ashley J.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2018-01-01

    The authors present the development of the Helping Professional Wellness Discrepancy Scale (HPWDS). The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) present a rationale for the HPWDS; (b) review statistical analyses procedures used to develop the HPWDS; and (c) offer implications for counselors, other helping professionals, and future research.

  10. Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised: Scale Development and Psychometric Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Shamah, Renee

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the scale development and psychometric characteristics of the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R). To develop this measure, 502 subject matter experts (SMEs) evaluated 91 parenting behaviors in terms of parenting behavior specificity (e.g., bonding, discipline), importance level, and appropriateness for…

  11. Factor Analysis of the HEW National Strategy for Youth Development Model's Community Program Impact Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truckenmiller, James L.

    The former HEW (Health, Education, and Welfare) National Strategy for Youth Development Model proposed a community-based program to promote positive youth development and to prevent delinquency through a sequence of youth needs assessments, needs-targeted programs, and program impact evaluation. HEW Community Program Impact Scales data obtained…

  12. Can Large Scale Land Acquisition for Agro-Development in Indonesia be Managed Sustainably?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obidzinski, K.; Takahashi, I.; Dermawan, A.; Komarudin, H.; Andrianto, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the impacts of large scale land acquisition for agro-development by analyzing the Merauke Integrated Food and Energy Estate (MIFEE) in Indonesia. It also examines the potential for MIFEE to meet sustainability requirements under RSPO, ISPO, and FSC. The plantation development

  13. Development and Validation of a Life Satisfaction Scale for Chinese Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, W. Q. Vivian; Chi, Iris; Mjelde-Mossey, Lee Ann

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the development and validation of a culturally sensitive, domain-specific measure of life satisfaction for Chinese Elders--The Life Satisfaction Scale-Chinese ("LSS-C"). The "LSS-C" was administered to 1,502 randomly-selected older Chinese persons in three newly developed towns in Mainland China. Confirmatory…

  14. Negotiating development narratives within large-scale oil palm projects on village lands in Sarawak, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Egay, Kelvin

    2016-01-01

    the narratives that suggest that large-scale land development projects ‘bring development to the people’, utilising ‘idle lands’ and ‘creating employment’ to lift them out of poverty, we argue that political and economic processes related to cultivation of oil palm intersect with local community differences...

  15. Development of the Ethical and Legal Issues in Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Patrick R.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Conley, Abigail H.

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the development of the Ethical and Legal Issues in Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale (ELICSES). The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) present a rationale for the ELICSES, (b) review statistical analysis procedures used to develop the ELICSES, and (c) offer implications for future research and counselor education.

  16. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Emotional Intelligence Admission Essay Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A. Gutman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to describe the development and psychometric properties of the Emotional Intelligence Admission Essay scale. The authors developed an admission essay question and rating scale designed to provide information about applicants’ emotional intelligence (EI. Content validity, convergent validity, interrater reliability, and internal consistency were established. The scale was also examined to determine if it could discriminate between students with and without professional behavior problems in the academic and fieldwork settings. Content validity was found to be high by a panel of three experts in EI (content validity index = 1.0. Convergent validity with the Assessing Emotions Scale was moderate (r = .46, p < .02. Interrater reliability between two trained faculty raters was high (ICC = .91, p < .000. Internal consistency of the scale was high with a Cronbach’s alpha of .95. This version of the scale was not able to discriminate between students with and without professional behavior problems. The moderate to strong psychometric properties suggest that the EI Admission Essay Scale has the ability to provide information about applicants’ EI. The wording of the essay question must be modified to better instruct applicants to address interpersonal conflict.

  17. Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS: A Study on Development, Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemalettin Kalyoncu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop a scale to measure knowledge about hypertension among Turkish adults. The Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS was generated based on content, face, and construct validity, internal consistency, test re-test reliability, and discriminative validity procedures. The final scale had 22 items with six sub-dimensions. The scale was applied to 457 individuals aged ≥18 years, and 414 of them were re-evaluated for test-retest reliability. The six sub-dimensions encompassed 60.3% of the total variance. Cronbach alpha coefficients were 0.82 for the entire scale and 0.92, 0.59, 0.67, 0.77, 0.72, and 0.76 for the sub-dimensions of definition, medical treatment, drug compliance, lifestyle, diet, and complications, respectively. The scale ensured internal consistency in reliability and construct validity, as well as stability over time. Significant relationships were found between knowledge score and age, gender, educational level, and history of hypertension of the participants. No correlation was found between knowledge score and working at an income-generating job. The present scale, developed to measure the knowledge level of hypertension among Turkish adults, was found to be valid and reliable.

  18. Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS): a study on development, validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkoc, Sultan Baliz; Isikli, Burhanettin; Metintas, Selma; Kalyoncu, Cemalettin

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to develop a scale to measure knowledge about hypertension among Turkish adults. The Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS) was generated based on content, face, and construct validity, internal consistency, test re-test reliability, and discriminative validity procedures. The final scale had 22 items with six sub-dimensions. The scale was applied to 457 individuals aged ≥ 18 years, and 414 of them were re-evaluated for test-retest reliability. The six sub-dimensions encompassed 60.3% of the total variance. Cronbach alpha coefficients were 0.82 for the entire scale and 0.92, 0.59, 0.67, 0.77, 0.72, and 0.76 for the sub-dimensions of definition, medical treatment, drug compliance, lifestyle, diet, and complications, respectively. The scale ensured internal consistency in reliability and construct validity, as well as stability over time. Significant relationships were found between knowledge score and age, gender, educational level, and history of hypertension of the participants. No correlation was found between knowledge score and working at an income-generating job. The present scale, developed to measure the knowledge level of hypertension among Turkish adults, was found to be valid and reliable.

  19. Development and testing of a scale for assessing the quality of home nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chii-Jun; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2016-03-01

    To develop a home nursing quality scale and to evaluate its psychometric properties. This was a 3-year study. In the first year, 19 focus group interviews with caregivers of people using home nursing services were carried out in northern, central and southern Taiwan. Content analysis was carried out and a pool of questionnaire items compiled. In the second year (2007), study was carried out on a stratified random sample selected from home nursing organizations covered by the national health insurance scheme in southern Taiwan. The study population was the co-resident primary caregivers of home care nursing service users. Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were carried out on data from 365 self-administered questionnaires collected from 13 selected home care organizations. In the third year (2008), a random sample of participants was selected from 206 hospital-based home care nursing organizations throughout Taiwan, resulting in completion of 294 questionnaires from 27 organizations. Confirmatory factor analysis was then carried out on the scale, and the validity and reliability of the scale assessed. The present study developed a reliable and valid home nursing quality scale from the perspective of users of home nursing services. The scale comprised three factors: dependability, communication skills and service usefulness. This scale is of practical value for the promotion of long-term community care aging in local policies. The scale is ready to be used to assess the quality of services provided by home care nursing organizations. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Development and Validation of MMPI-2-RF Scales for Indexing Triarchic Psychopathy Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Drislane, Laura E; Johnson, Alexandria K; Goodwin, Brandee E; Phillips, Tasha R; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    The triarchic model characterizes psychopathy in terms of three distinct dispositional constructs of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. The model can be operationalized through scales designed specifically to index these domains or by using items from other inventories that provide coverage of related constructs. The present study sought to develop and validate scales for assessing the triarchic model domains using items from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). A consensus rating approach was used to identify items relevant to each triarchic domain, and following psychometric refinement, the resulting MMPI-2-RF-based triarchic scales were evaluated for convergent and discriminant validity in relation to multiple psychopathy-relevant criterion variables in offender and nonoffender samples. Expected convergent and discriminant associations were evident very clearly for the Boldness and Disinhibition scales and somewhat less clearly for the Meanness scale. Moreover, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that all MMPI-2-RF triarchic scales incremented standard MMPI-2-RF scale scores in predicting extant triarchic model scale scores. The widespread use of MMPI-2-RF in clinical and forensic settings provides avenues for both clinical and research applications in contexts where traditional psychopathy measures are less likely to be administered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. You've got 'scale' : developments in well-bore remediation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemlak, Z. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kortash, B. [Amoco Canada Petroleum Co. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The Kaybob field Beaver Hill Lake formation in Central Alberta is an aquifer driven maturing gas reservoir with high concentrations of iron sulfide scale. This scale, in combination with a time layered asphaltenes has an impact on production. Since the scale forms on tubular walls and results in corrosion of metal, it also increases risks during well intervention. Past techniques to remove the scale have not proven to be successful. This study presents a newly developed Blaster scale removal system to clean tubings. Blaster techniques use high-pressure jetting in combination with special abrasives to remove extremely hard, inert scales without damaging the tubing or completion components. Amoco Canada has been involved in the continual improvement and modification of the method since its introduction in 1998. To date, a total of 19 wells have been completed, providing valuable data about the method. It was concluded that although iron sulfide scale is common throughout the gas reservoir, the composition and solubility varies from well to well. Amoco Canada has found that Blaster techniques are a safe, low risk method of cleaning coiled tubulars to known drift parameters, in areas where scale and corrosion have been uncontrollable. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  2. A RELIABILITY TEST USED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A LOYALTY SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Alexandru LUCA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of a loyalty model involves the construction of a proper research instrument. For the loyalty model of the clients for financial services, the pre-testing of the research questionnaire represents a significant stage. This article presents the methodology used in this stage for testing the reliability of a loyalty scale. Firstly, this implies choosing the appropriate scales for each variable included in the suggested research model. Secondly, the internal consistency for each of these scales is measured as an indicator of their reliability. The reliability analysis described represents an essential stage in building a measurement instrument for a loyalty model.

  3. Development and Validity of a Scale of Perception of Velocity in Resistance Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Iker J.; Chirosa, Ignacio J.; Chirosa, Luis J.; Martín, Ignacio; González, Andrés; Robertson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This aims of this study were twofold; 1) to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2) to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal) of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light ...

  4. Development of the simulation package 'ELSES' for extra-large-scale electronic structure calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, T; Fujiwara, T

    2009-01-01

    An early-stage version of the simulation package 'ELSES' (extra-large-scale electronic structure calculation) is developed for simulating the electronic structure and dynamics of large systems, particularly nanometer-scale and ten-nanometer-scale systems (see www.elses.jp). Input and output files are written in the extensible markup language (XML) style for general users. Related pre-/post-simulation tools are also available. A practical workflow and an example are described. A test calculation for the GaAs bulk system is shown, to demonstrate that the present code can handle systems with more than one atom species. Several future aspects are also discussed.

  5. “The Development of Spence and Robbins Workaholism Scale with its Validity and Reliability Measurement”

    OpenAIRE

    Turhan Erkmen; Sule Cerik; Serdar Bozkurt; Emel Ozarslan

    2010-01-01

    Oates (1971) determined the first definition of workaholism as an excessive and uncontrollable need to work that permanently disturbs health, happiness and relationships. In this study, workaholism scale which was developed by Spence and Robbins and was widely used in workaholism research with its three dimensions: work involvement, feeling driven to work and work enjoyment will be assessed. So the purpose of the study is to determine the validity and reliability of workaholism scale in the c...

  6. Design, development and integration of a large scale multiple source X-ray computed tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, Andrew A.; Liu, Tong; Ng, Ivan Kee Beng; Teng, Wei Yuen; Yap, Tsi Tung; Wan, Siew Ping; Kong, Chun Jeng

    2013-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) allows visualisation of the physical structures in the interior of an object without physically opening or cutting it. This technology supports a wide range of applications in the non-destructive testing, failure analysis or performance evaluation of industrial products and components. Of the numerous factors that influence the performance characteristics of an X-ray CT system the energy level in the X-ray spectrum to be used is one of the most significant. The ability of the X-ray beam to penetrate a given thickness of a specific material is directly related to the maximum available energy level in the beam. Higher energy levels allow penetration of thicker components made of more dense materials. In response to local industry demand and in support of on-going research activity in the area of 3D X-ray imaging for industrial inspection the Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (SIMTech) engaged in the design, development and integration of large scale multiple source X-ray computed tomography system based on X-ray sources operating at higher energies than previously available in the Institute. The system consists of a large area direct digital X-ray detector (410 x 410 mm), a multiple-axis manipulator system, a 225 kV open tube microfocus X-ray source and a 450 kV closed tube millifocus X-ray source. The 225 kV X-ray source can be operated in either transmission or reflection mode. The body of the 6-axis manipulator system is fabricated from heavy-duty steel onto which high precision linear and rotary motors have been mounted in order to achieve high accuracy, stability and repeatability. A source-detector distance of up to 2.5 m can be achieved. The system is controlled by a proprietary X-ray CT operating system developed by SIMTech. The system currently can accommodate samples up to 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m in size with weight up to 50 kg. These specifications will be increased to 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 m and 100 kg in future

  7. Outcome assessment in epilepsy: available rating scales for adults and methodological issues pertaining to the development of scales for childhood epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F.M. Arts (Willem Frans); J.A. Carpay (Hans)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractDuring the past decade, several scales have been developed to improve the assessment of outcome in epilepsy. These scales were developed for adults and their reliability, validity and usefulness have been established. However, there is also a need for alternative measures of outcome in

  8. Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

    2011-01-27

    The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

  9. Groundwater development stress: Global-scale indices compared to regional modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William; Clark, Brian R.; Ely, Matt; Faunt, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The increased availability of global datasets and technologies such as global hydrologic models and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have resulted in a growing number of global-scale assessments of water availability using simple indices of water stress. Developed initially for surface water, such indices are increasingly used to evaluate global groundwater resources. We compare indices of groundwater development stress for three major agricultural areas of the United States to information available from regional water budgets developed from detailed groundwater modeling. These comparisons illustrate the potential value of regional-scale analyses to supplement global hydrological models and GRACE analyses of groundwater depletion. Regional-scale analyses allow assessments of water stress that better account for scale effects, the dynamics of groundwater flow systems, the complexities of irrigated agricultural systems, and the laws, regulations, engineering, and socioeconomic factors that govern groundwater use. Strategic use of regional-scale models with global-scale analyses would greatly enhance knowledge of the global groundwater depletion problem.

  10. The development and psychometric evaluation of the Internet Disorder Scale (IDS-15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Halley M; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-01-01

    Previously published research suggests that improvement in the assessment of Internet addiction (IA) is paramount in advancing the field. However, little has been done to address inconsistencies in the assessment of IA using a more updated framework. The aim of the present study was to develop a new instrument to assess IA based on a modification of the nine Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) criteria as suggested by the American Psychiatric Association in the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), and to provide a taxonomy of the potential risk of IA risk among participants. A heterogeneous sample of Internet users (n=1105) was recruited online (61.3% males, mean age 33years). Construct validity of the new instrument - Internet Disorder Scale (IDS-15) - was assessed by means of factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity. Criterion-related validity and reliability were also investigated. Additionally, latent profile analysis (LPA) was carried out to differentiate and characterize Internet users based on their potential IA risk. The construct and criterion-related validity of the IDS-15 were both warranted. The IDS-15 proved to be a valid and reliable tool. Using the LPA, participants were classed as "low addiction risk" (n=183, 18.2%), "medium addiction risk" (n=456, 41.1%), and "high addiction risk" (n=455, 40.77%). Furthermore, key differences emerged among these classes in terms of age, relationship status, cigarette consumption, weekly Internet usage, age of Internet use initiation, and IDS-15 total scores. The present findings support the viability of using adapted IGD criteria as a framework to assess IA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pore-scale investigation of biomass plug development and propagation in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Terri L; Scott Fogler, H

    2002-03-05

    Biomass plugging of porous media finds application in enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation. An understanding of biomass plugging of porous media was sought by using a porous glass micromodel through which biomass and nutrient were passed. This study describes the pore-scale physics of biomass plug propagation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides under nutrient-rich conditions. It was found that, as the nutrient flowed through the micromodel, the initial biomass plug occurred at the nutrient-inoculum interface due to growth in the larger pore throats. As growth proceeded, biomass filled and closed these larger pore throats, until only isolated groupings of pore throats with smaller radii remained empty. As nutrient flow continued, a maximum pressure drop was reached. At the maximum pressure drop, the biomass yielded in a manner similar to a Bingham plastic to form a breakthrough channel consisting of a path of interconnected pore throats. The channel incorporated the isolated groupings of empty pore throats that had been present before breakthrough. As the nutrient flow continued, subsequent plugs developed as breakthrough channels refilled with biomass and in situ growth was stimulated in the region just downstream of the previous plug. The downstream plugs had a higher fraction of isolated groupings of empty pore throats, which can be attributed to depletion of nutrient downstream. When the next breakthrough channel formed, it incorporated these isolated groupings, causing the breakthrough channels to be branched. It was observed that the newly formed plug could be less stable with this higher fraction of empty pore throats and that the location of breakthrough channels changed in subsequent plugs. This change in breakthrough channel location could be attributed to the redistribution of nutrient flow and the changes in flowrate in the pore throats. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 77: 577-588, 2002; DOI 10.1002/bit.10044

  12. Development of the Plastic Melt Waste Compactor- Design and Fabrication of the Half-Scale Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Gregory S.; Fisher, John

    2005-01-01

    A half scale version of a device called the Plastic Melt Waste Compactor prototype has been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to deal with plastic based wastes that are expected to be encountered in future human space exploration scenarios such as Lunar or Martian Missions. The Plastic Melt Waste Compactor design was based on the types of wastes produced on the International Space Station, Space Shuttle, MIR and Skylab missions. The half scale prototype unit will lead to the development of a full scale Plastic Melt Waste Compactor prototype that is representative of flight hardware that would be used on near and far term space missions. This report details the progress of the Plastic Melt Waste Compactor Development effort by the Solid Waste Management group at NASA Ames Research Center.

  13. A computer literacy scale for newly enrolled nursing college students: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung-Cheng

    2011-12-01

    Increasing application and use of information systems and mobile technologies in the healthcare industry require increasing nurse competency in computer use. Computer literacy is defined as basic computer skills, whereas computer competency is defined as the computer skills necessary to accomplish job tasks. Inadequate attention has been paid to computer literacy and computer competency scale validity. This study developed a computer literacy scale with good reliability and validity and investigated the current computer literacy of newly enrolled students to develop computer courses appropriate to students' skill levels and needs. This study referenced Hinkin's process to develop a computer literacy scale. Participants were newly enrolled first-year undergraduate students, with nursing or nursing-related backgrounds, currently attending a course entitled Information Literacy and Internet Applications. Researchers examined reliability and validity using confirmatory factor analysis. The final version of the developed computer literacy scale included six constructs (software, hardware, multimedia, networks, information ethics, and information security) and 22 measurement items. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the scale possessed good content validity, reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. This study also found that participants earned the highest scores for the network domain and the lowest score for the hardware domain. With increasing use of information technology applications, courses related to hardware topic should be increased to improve nurse problem-solving abilities. This study recommends that emphases on word processing and network-related topics may be reduced in favor of an increased emphasis on database, statistical software, hospital information systems, and information ethics.

  14. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  15. Development, modelling, optimisation and scale-up of chromatographic purification of a therapeutic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen; Hansen, Thomas Budde; Kidal, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Development of a chromatographic purification step proceeds through a number of stages. High-throughput screening techniques are used to identify suitable resins. This technique is also suitable for the design of a capture step and some intermediate chromatographic steps, but development and true...... by industry. The theory of residence time based scale-up is developed and applied. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF THE PARENT-CHILD PLAY SCALE FOR USE IN CHILDREN WITH FEEDING DISORDERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoor, Irene; Hommel, Susanne; Sechi, Cristina; Lucarelli, Loredana

    2018-03-01

    The Parent-Child Play Scale was developed as a scale that complements the Parent-Child Feeding Scale, created by I. Chatoor et al. (1997), to evaluate mother-infant/toddler interactions in two different caregiving contexts of a young child's everyday life, specifically play and feeding. This Play Scale can be used with infants and toddlers ranging in age from 1 month to 3 years and provides reliable global ratings of mother-child interactions during 10 min of videotaped free-play in a laboratory setting. The scale consists of 32 mother and infant/toddler interactive behaviors which are rated by trained observers from videotaped observations. Four subscales are derived: Dyadic Reciprocity, Maternal Unresponsiveness to Infant's/Toddler's Cues, Dyadic Conflict, and Maternal Intrusiveness. Construct validity and interrater and test-retest reliability of the Play Scale have been demonstrated. This Play Scale discriminates between children with and without feeding disorders as well as between children with different subtypes of feeding disorders as defined by the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, Revised (DC:0-3R) (Feeding Disorder of State Regulation, Feeding Disorder of Caregiver-Infant Reciprocity, and Infantile Anorexia). It can be used for research or clinical practice in the diagnosis and treatment of early feeding problems, to assess the pervasiveness of mother-infant/toddler difficulties and to monitor changes following therapy. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. Development and Validity of a Scale of Perception of Velocity in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker J. Bautista

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This aims of this study were twofold; 1 to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2 to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light loads [ 70% 1RM] were measured randomly during 5 days of testing. Perceived velocity (Velscale was measured immediately after each exercise set using the new scale. A positive linear correlation (r range = 0.69 to 0.81 was found in all three intensities, analyzed individually, between the Velreal and Velscale. Pearson correlations showed a greater frequency of scale use resulted higher correlation values (range r = 0.88 to 0.96. This study provides evidence of the concurrent validity of a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise in trained adult males. These results suggest the exercise intensity of the bench press can be quantified quickly and effective using this new scale of perceived velocity, particularly when training for maximum power.

  18. The MMPI-2-RF Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5-RF) scales: development and validity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Allan R; McNulty, John L; Finn, Jacob A; Reynolds, Shannon M; Shields, Susan M; Arbisi, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, internal psychometric, and external validation studies on scales designed to measure the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) from MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) items. Diverse and comprehensive data sets, representing various clinical and nonclinical populations, were classified into development and validation research samples. Item selection, retention, and exclusion procedures are detailed. The final set of PSY-5-RF scales contain 104 items, with no item overlap between scales (same as the original MMPI-2 PSY-5 scales), and no item overlap with the Demoralization scale. Internal consistency estimates are comparable to the longer MMPI-2 PSY-5 scales. Appropriate convergent and discriminant validity findings utilizing various self-report, collateral rating, and record review data are reported and discussed. A particular emphasis is offered for the unique aspects of the PSY-5 model: psychoticism and disconstraint. The findings are connected to the broader PSY-5 literature and the recommended review of systems (Harkness, Reynolds, & Lilienfeld, this issue) presented in this series of articles.

  19. Scaling behavior in urban development process of Tokyo City and hierarchical dynamical structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuba, Ikuo; Namatame, Masanori

    2003-01-01

    We study a geometric structure of urban development process which pays particular attention to scaling properties in the settlement area and inhabitant population through changes in the scaling exponents. Both the degree to which the space is fulfilled and the rate at which it is filled are obtained for the residential development in Tokyo. For distances larger than the city boundary, there is a sharp cross-over to a suburban region with a quite intriguing variation with a distance from the center of the city. The population densities in this region are found to collapse into a single scaling function with the scaling exponent 0.678 in the early 1990s in which the growth of the population attenuates. We propose a cellular automata model using the simulated annealing method that succeeds in reproducing the qualitative similar structural complexity of the actual city by taking into account the transportation system, especially railroad network. Finally, a possible theoretical consideration is given in analogous with fluid dynamics. Scaling of the population density is obtained assuming that there is a dynamical hierarchical structure in the scaling region where the stationarity is fulfilled. The theoretically obtained exponent 2/3 agrees well with the observed one

  20. Development and validation of a new safety climate scale for petrochemical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Eskandari, Davood; Valipour, Firouz; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Charkhand, Hossein; Mirghotbi, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    While a considerable body of research has studied safety climate and its role as a leading indicator of organizational safety, much of this work has been conducted with Western manufacturing samples. The current study puts emphasis on the cross-validation of a safety climate model in the non-Western industrial context of Iranian petrochemical industries. The current study was performed in one petrochemical company in Iran. The scale was developed through conducting a literature review followed by a qualitative study with expert participation. After performing a screening process, the initial number of items on the scale was reduced to 68. Ten dimensions (including management commitment, workers' empowerment, communication, blame culture, safety training, job satisfaction, interpersonal relationship, supervision, continuous improvement, and reward system) together with 37 items were extracted from the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to measure safety climate. Acceptable ranges of internal consistency statistics for the sub-scales were observed. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the construct validity of the developed safety climate scale for the petrochemical industry workers. The results of reliability showed that the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the designed scale was 0.94. The ICC was obtained 0.92. This study created a valid and reliable scale for measuring safety climate in petrochemical industries.