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Sample records for previously determined age

  1. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  2. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  3. Age determination and geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.D.; Delabio, R.N.; Lachance, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and eight potassium-argon age determinations carried out on Canadian rocks and minerals are reported. Each age determination is accompanied by a description of the rock and mineral concentrate used; brief interpretative comments regarding the geological significance of each age are also provided where possible. The experimental procedures employed are described in brief outline and the constants used in the calculation of ages are listed. Two geological time-scales are reproduced in tabular form for ready reference and an index of all Geological Survey of Canada K-Ar age determinations published in this format has been prepared using NTS quadrangles as the primary reference

  4. Long- term effects of previous experience determine nutrient discrimination abilities in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Kathrin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foraging behaviour is an essential ecological process linking different trophic levels. A central assumption of foraging theory is that food selection maximises the fitness of the consumer. It remains unknown, however, whether animals use innate or learned behaviour to discriminate food rewards. While many studies demonstrated that previous experience is a strong determinant of complex food choices such as diet mixing, the response to simple nutritional stimuli, such as sugar concentrations, is often believed to be innate. Results Here we show that previous experience determines the ability to track changes in sugar composition in same-aged individuals of a short-lived migratory songbird, the garden warbler (Sylvia borin. Although birds received identical foods for seven months prior to the experiment, wild-caught birds achieved higher sugar intake rates than hand-raised birds when confronted with alternative, differently coloured, novel food types. Hand-raised and wild birds did not differ in their initial colour selection or overall food intake, but wild birds were quicker to adjust food choice to varying sugar intake. Conclusion Over a period of at least seven months, broader previous experience translates into a higher plasticity of food choice leading to higher nutrient intake. Our results thus highlight the need to address previous long-term experience in foraging experiments. Furthermore, they show that hand-raised animals are often poor surrogates for testing the foraging behaviour of wild animals.

  5. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; Trigt, van Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree

  6. Impact of Vocational Interests, Previous Academic Experience, Gender and Age on Situational Judgement Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; van Trigt, Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-01-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the…

  7. The influence of general anesthesia on the brain in aged patients with previous ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubo, Yasuaki; Kayama, Takamasa; Kondo, Rei; Oki, Masato; Takaoka, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    Whenever we discuss the overall results of surgical treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms, especially in aged patients, we tend to consider advanced age or general anesthesia as causes for unfavorable results. There are no reports concerning ischemic stroke events following general anesthesia in aged patients with a prior history of cerebrovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of general anesthesia on the brats in aged patients with a previous history of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The subjects were 30 consecutive patients over 70 years of age with previous ischemic cerebrovascular disease who underwent various surgeries except brain and cardiac surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were 70 to 85 years old, with a mean age of 76. Twenty-three were men and 7 were women. Surgical procedures were 12 gastrointestinal, 6 orthopedic and 4 urogenital and others. The type of cerebrovascular disease evaluated by neuroradiologist and anesthesiologist based on MR imaging was devided as follows: 16 patients had minor stroke, 7 had transient ischemic attack/reversible ischemic neurological deficit (TIA/RIND) and 7 had asymptomatic cerebral infarction. MR angiography was also assessed to evaluate the main artery in the brain. Blood pressure and arterial blood gas (PaCO 2 ) during general anesthesia were analyzed, and the rate of systemic and neurological complications following general anesthesia were evaluated. MR angiography revealed no occlusion or severe stenosis of the main artery in the brain of any of the patients. The minimum systolic blood pressure showed less than 100 mmHg transiently for 5-20 minutes in 28 of 30 patients during general anesthesia. The minimum value was 65 mmHg maintained for 5 minutes. The minimum PaCO 2 during general anesthesia was as follows: 1 case 36 mmHg. There were no neurological complications following general anesthesia in this study. One of 30 patients (3.3%) had suffered from pneumonia

  8. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p performance on three scenarios (p performance on two scenarios (p performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.

  9. Determination of grasscutter age (Thryonomys swinderianus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... breeding (Adjanohoun, 1988). Weighing of dry crystalline, a method of age determination can also determine age of some rodents (Martinet, 1966; Le. Louarn, 1971 ... according to age, with age on a logarithmic scale. The reference curves ... agro-industrial and feed supplementing that diet. This feed was ...

  10. Age determination and age structure of a striped fieldmouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thereafter, the only reliable technique of age determination Involves a visual evaluation of the degree of molar tooth wear. Five wear classes are described and used to assess the age of 780 R. pumilio collected during a five-year period. The annual cycles of population age structure and size were dependent on seasonal ...

  11. Age determination methods for northwest Atlantic species

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The successful application of techniques to enhance detection of age marks in biological specimens is of vital importance in fisheries research. This manual documents age determination techniques used by staff at the Woods Hole Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service. General information on procedures for preparing anatomical structures is described, together with criteria used to interpret growth patterns and assign ages. Annotated photographs of age structures are provided to illus...

  12. Analysis on Population Level Reveals Trappability of Wild Rodents Is Determined by Previous Trap Occupant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J Brouard

    Full Text Available Live trapping is central to the study of small mammals. Thus, any bias needs to be understood and accounted for in subsequent analyses to ensure accurate population estimates. One rarely considered bias is the behavioural response of individuals to the trap, in particular the olfactory cues left behind by previous occupants (PO. We used a data set of 8,115 trap nights spanning 17 separate trapping sessions between August 2002 and November 2013 in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK to examine if the decision to enter a trap was affected by the PO, if this was detectable in traditional Capture-Mark-Recapture trapping data (i.e., individuals not uniquely marked, and if it was possible for this effect to bias the population estimates obtained. Data were collected on Apodemus sylvaticus, Myodes glareolus, and Microtus agrestis. Three Generalised Linear Models revealed a significant tendency for the three species to enter traps with same-species PO. With, for example, A. sylvaticus 9.1 times more likely to enter a same species PO trap compared to one that contained a M. agrestis in the grassland during the nocturnal period. Simulation highlighted that, when all other factors are equal, the species with the highest PO effect will have the highest capture rate and therefore return more accurate population estimates. Despite the large dataset, certain species-, sex-, and/ or age-combinations were under-represented, and thus no effects of any additional individual-specific characteristics could be evaluated. Uniquely marking individuals would allow for the PO effect to be disentangled from other biases such as trap-shyness and spatial heterogeneity, but may not be possible in all cases and will depend on the aims of the study and the resources available.

  13. Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H; de Bruin, Karla G; van Gemert, Martin J C; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2012-03-10

    Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time elapsed since the crime was committed is still not possible. From a criminalistic point of view, an accurate estimation of when the crime was committed enables to verify witnesses' statements, limits the number of suspects and assesses alibis. Despite several attempts and exploration of many technologies during a century, no method has been materialized into forensic practice. This review gives an overview of an extensive search in scientific literature of techniques that address the quest for age determination of bloodstains. We found that most techniques are complementary to each other, in short as well as long term age determination. Techniques are compared concerning their sensitivity for short and long term ageing of bloodstains and concerning their possible applicability to be used on a crime scene. In addition, experimental challenges like substrate variation, interdonor variation and environmental influences are addressed. Comparison of these techniques contributes to our knowledge of the physics and biochemistry in an ageing bloodstain. Further improvement and incorporation of environmental factors are necessary to enable age determination of bloodstains to be acceptable in court. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Age determination of miombo species Brachystegia spiciformis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past the production of effective cutting rotations and sound management plans for native miombo woodland in southern Africa has been hindered by the difficulty in determining the ages of the trees, and therefore their growth rates, because it was assumed that tropical trees did not form annual rings. This research ...

  15. Determining the age of young embedded clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, J. J.; Hoare, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    A new Monte Carlo method has been developed in order to derive ages of young embedded clusters in massive star-forming regions where there is strong differential reddening. After foreground and infrared excess source candidates are removed, each cluster candidate star is individually dereddened. Simulated clusters are constructed using isochrones, an initial mass function, realistic photometric errors, simulated background field populations and extinction distributions. These synthetic clusters are then dereddened in the same way as the real data, obtained from a deep near-infrared survey, and used to derive the ages of three embedded clusters. Results were found to be consistent with those determined using spectrophotometric methods. This new method provides way to determine the ages of embedded clusters when only photometric data are available and there is strong differential reddening.

  16. Common diseases as determinants of menopausal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Mikael; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A

    2016-12-01

    .08-0.50) and 0.91 (0.85-0.98), respectively). None of the other diseases examined were significantly associated with ANM. Information from the questionnaire was self-reported, making recall possible, but it is unlikely that any bias was different in the strata of different factors considered. Misclassification could also have occurred in cases where the diagnoses of common diseases were close to age at last follow-up. In addition, observational studies cannot establish that the associations identified represent cause-and-effect relationships. Our study is the first in examining multiple common diseases simultaneously as determinants of ANM. Contrary to previous reports, we did not find any significant accelerating effect of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes on ANM. KARMA was financed by the Märit and Hans Rausing's Initiative Against Breast Cancer. K.R.W. is supported by the Swedish Society of Medicine and by Stockholm County Council. J.L. is a recipient of an Alex and Eva Wallström Foundation award. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Investigating physiological methods to determine previous exposure of immature insects to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Effect of gamma radiation on phenoloxidase activity in codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., larvae was investigated. Phenoloxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in optical density at 490 nm, or by observing the degree of melanization in larvae killed by freezing. Results showed that, in unirradiated larvae, phenoloxidase activity could be detected in 7 day old larvae and activity continued to increase throughout the larval stage. This increase was not observed when larvae were irradiated with a minimum dose of 50 Gy during the 1st week of their development. However, irradiating larvae in which enzyme activity was already high (24 week old) did not eliminate the activity but reduced further increase. Larval melanization studies were in general agreement with the results of the phenoloxidase assay. (author)

  18. Counting the Homeless: A Previously Incalculable Tuberculosis Risk and Its Social Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, Larry D.; Musser, James M.; Graviss, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) surveillance among the homeless is not supported by the political will necessary for TB elimination. We merged the first stakeholder-accepted enumeration of homeless persons with existing surveillance data to assess TB risk among the homeless in Houston, Texas. The average incidence per 100 000 was 411 among homeless and 9.5 among housed persons. The homeless were more likely than the housed to be US-born, clustered, and in a larger-sized cluster. Multivariate analysis revealed that TB rates among the homeless were driven not by comorbidities but by social determinants. Homeless patients were hospitalized more days than the housed and required more follow-up time. Reporting of TB rates for populations with known health disparities could help reframe TB prevention and better target limited funds. PMID:23488504

  19. Determinants of acetylcholine levels in aged rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.O.

    1986-01-01

    This paper assesses the ACh content and release in aged rats. Levels of ACh were found to decrease in older animals. Possible reasons for this decline are also examined. Radiolabeled incubation medium was substitued for bath saline. The incubation medium consisted of the bath saline containing a known amount of unlabeled choline, tritium-methyl choline chloride, U- C 14 sucrose, and physostigmine. To determine thekinetics, choline uptake was measured after a 4-min incubation. Unlabled choline chloride and tritium-choline were added to the saline. the results of the study demonstrate an age-related decline in the amount of transmetter, ACh, in nerve terminals at the rat neuromuscular junction

  20. Impact of aging on neurocognitive performance in previously antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected individuals on their first suppressive regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Hamza; Robertson, Kevin; Smurzynski, Marlene; Krishnan, Supriya; Wu, Kunling; Bosch, Ronald J; Collier, Ann C; Ellis, Ronald J

    2017-07-17

    Despite treatment with virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), neurocognitive impairment may persist or develop de novo in aging HIV-infected individuals. We evaluated advancing age as a predictor of neurocognitive impairment in a large cohort of previously ART-naive individuals on long-term ART. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials was a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected individuals originally enrolled in randomized ART trials. This analysis examined neurocognitive outcomes at least 2 years after ART initiation. All participants underwent annual neurocognitive testing consisting of Trail making A and B, the wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised Digit Symbol and Hopkins Verbal Learning Tests. Uni and multivariable repeated measures regression models evaluated factors associated with neurocognitive performance. Predictors at parent study entry (ART naive) included entry demographics, smoking, injection drug use, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C virus serostatus, history of stroke, ART regimen type, pre-ART nadir CD4 cell count, and plasma viral load and as well as time-updated plasma viral load and CD4 cell count. The cohort comprised 3313 individuals with median pre-ART age of 38 years, 20% women; 36% Black, non-Hispanic; 22% Hispanic. Virologic suppression was maintained at 91% of follow-up visits. Neurocognitive performance improved with years of ART. After adjusting for the expected effects of age using norms from HIV-negative individuals, the odds of neurocognitive impairment at follow-up visits among the HIV infected increased by nearly 20% for each decade of advancing age. Despite continued virologic suppression and neurocognitive improvement in the cohort as a whole, older individuals were more likely to have neurocognitive impairment than younger individuals.

  1. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of birth...

  2. Worsening anatomic outcomes following aflibercept for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in eyes previously well controlled with ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nudleman E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eric Nudleman,1 Jeremy D Wolfe,2,3 Maria A Woodward,4 Yoshihiro Yonekawa,2,3 George A Williams,2,3 Tarek S Hassan2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Shiley Eye Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2Beaumont Eye Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, 3Associated Retinal Consultants, Royal Oak, 4Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Purpose: Antivascular endothelial growth factor injection is the mainstay of treating neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Previous studies have shown that switching treatment from ranibizumab to aflibercept led to an improvement in eyes with recalcitrant activity. Herein, we identify a unique subset of patients whose eyes with neovascular AMD were previously well controlled with ranibizumab injections were then worsened after being switched to aflibercept. Methods: This is a retrospective interventional case series. Eyes with neovascular AMD, previously well controlled with monthly injections of ranibizumab, which then developed worsening of subretinal fluid after being switched to aflibercept were included. Results: A total of 17 eyes were included. All eyes developed increased subretinal fluid when switched from ranibizumab to aflibercept. Fourteen patients were switched back to ranibizumab after a single injection of aflibercept and had subsequent rapid resolution of subretinal fluid. Three patients continued with monthly aflibercept injections for two subsequent months and demonstrated the persistence of the increased subretinal fluid until they were switched back to treatment with ranibizumab at which time the fluid resolved. No eye had persistent decline in visual acuity. Conclusion: Switching from intravitreal ranibizumab to aflibercept in eyes with well-controlled neovascular AMD may result in worsening in a subset of patients and resolves when therapy is switched back to ranibizumab. Keywords: anti

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium with arsenazo previous liquid-liquid extraction and colour development in organic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares Delgado, F.; Vera Palomino, J.; Petrement Eguiluz, J. C.

    1964-01-01

    The determination of uranium with arsenazo is hindered by a great number of cation which form stable complexes with the reactive and may given rise to serious interferences. By studying the optimum conditions of uranium the extraction be means of tributylphosphate solutions dissolved in methylisobuthylketone, under conditions for previous masking of the interfering cations, an organic extract was obtained containing all the uranium together with small amounts of iron. The possible interference derived from the latter element is avoided by reduction with hydroxylammoniumchlorid followed by complex formation of the Fe(II)-ortophenantroline compound in alcoholic medium. (Author) 17 refs

  4. Age determination of eland Taurotragus oryx (Pallas, 1766) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Techniques for the age determination of highveld eland in Natal were investigated. Tooth eruption and replacement sequence, and growth in horn length, were suitable criteria for the age determination of young eland with deciduous dentition. The most accurate technique for the age determination of post mortem adult ...

  5. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik

    2000-03-01

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results

  6. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-03-15

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results.

  7. Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; de Bruin, Karla G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2012-01-01

    Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time

  8. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  9. Age Determination at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: African doctors, besides their enormous work load, are frequently involved in indirect clinical practices like age determination, disability evaluation and writing various kinds of certificates. This is a retrospective study aimed at assessing profile of subjects presenting for age determination. It determines different ...

  10. Determining the Ages and Distances of 4 Open Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawczynec, Erica A.; James D. Armstrong, Joe M. Ritter, Jeff Kuhn

    2018-01-01

    The study of nearby young open clusters can give insight into star formation and potentially the local rate of metal enrichment. Presented is a BVRI photometric analysis of 4 open clusters; NGC 2509, NGC 2483, NGC 2482, and NGC 6705, in order to reevaluate previously published ages and distances using modern CCD photometry, and newer stellar models. Observations were obtained from the Cerro Tololo node of the Las Cumbres Observatory 1.0 meter network. Color magnitude diagrams were compared to modeled isochrones and the updated ages and distances determined. An interesting stellar association was found in the color magnitude diagram of NGC 6705. The structure is suggestive of two epochs of stellar formation. Members of this structure were evaluated using the Gaia Archive in order to explore the possibility of a heterogeneous population. The status of NGC 2483 as an open cluster has been debated; however, it has been noted that there is a high concentration of Be stars found in the region. It is concluded that NGC 2483 is an open cluster.

  11. Age determination using ultrasonography in young football players

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, Mehdi; Moshirfatemi, Alireza; Daneshvar, Pooya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasing of age cheating in sports makes problems to athletes comparable to taking illegal substances. Current method used by AFC and FIFA is applying MRI of growth plate of distal of radius to determine the bone age. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in bone age determination by measuring the width of growth plate in distal of radius, and comparing it with identity documents. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from Se...

  12. Previous cesarean section, gestational age at first delivery and subsequent risk of pre-eclampsia in obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, Alfred K; Sharma, Puza P; Alio, Amina P; Fombo, Doris W; Bruder, Karen; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2012-05-01

    We examine the association between prior C-section and subsequent pre-eclampsia; and describe the effect of gestational age at prior C-section, and obesity status on this association. The study population included women with two subsequent singleton births in Missouri between 1998 and 2005. The risk for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia was assessed among women with and without prior cesarean delivery. The two groups were followed to their second pregnancy and the occurrence of pre-eclampsia was documented. Additionally, the history of pre-eclampsia, prior cesarean at preterm, and obesity status were examined for their differential effects on the risk of pre-eclamsia. Women with prior C-section were 28% more likely to have pre-eclampsia in their subsequent pregnancy [OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.20-1.37]. However, this result was not significant when women with pre-eclampsia in their first pregnancy were excluded. After this exclusion, a more than threefold increased risk for subsequent pre-eclampsia was observed in women with prior early C-section [OR = 3.15; 95% CI= 2.43-4.08], while the level of risk did not change in the prior late C-section group [OR = 0.90; 95% CI= 0.82-1.00]. Subgroup analysis suggested that obesity status modified the risk of prior early C-section but did not affect the risk for prior late C-section. Preterm C-section in the first pregnancy may be associated with subsequent pre-eclampsia regardless of prior pre-eclampsia status.

  13. A non-invasive technique for age at death determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N; Thomsen, I; Frohlich, B

    1990-01-01

    Several methods for age at death determination of human skeletal remains have been developed. These methods have, especially in combination, proved to be useful in making individual identification of skeletal material in forensic cases. This study is based on the known correlation between actual...... by identification of one of the five phases. An exact age determination of a single individual was not possible, but could be approximated to within 20 years. In forensic cases, however, where the removal of soft tissue is not always possible, this method can contribute to the final age determination when used...... age and structural changes in trabecular bone tissue. Using X-rays taken from live individuals, it provides a useful non-invasive ageing technique for the forensic examiner. An initial pilot study defined five phases of age-related changes in the trabecular tissue of the proximal end of the femur...

  14. Age determination in roe deer - a new approach to tooth wear evaluated on known age individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas

    2006-01-01

    integrated in a scoring system. Permanent cheek teeth emerge in May-July in the year after birth, which enables precise age determination of individuals with deciduous premolars. For individuals with permanent cheek teeth, the method provides the correct age for all individuals younger than 13 months...... measures of tooth wear can provide the basis for age determination in ungulate species that are otherwise difficult to age....

  15. Happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chiung; Chong, Young-Sook; An, Jeong Shin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan. The data were obtained from the 2011 Taiwan Social Change Survey (aged 18 +, n = 2,199). The social determinants of happiness included socioeconomic status and social connection. Happiness was not different across the age groups. Receiving less family support, less formal support, more social trust and more control over life were significant for the younger group. Being married and having more social participation were significant for the middle-aged. Receiving less family support and having a higher economic status were significant for the older group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Effects of growth hormone plus gonadotropins on controlled ovarian stimulation in infertile women of advanced age, poor responders, and previous in vitro fertilization failure patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Kai Ho

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: No significant differences were observed in infertile women of advanced age, which may be due to the low GH dose. The GH adjuvant therapy for patients with one or more previous IVF treatment failures and for poor responders significantly improved the oocyte and embryo numbers as well as implantation and pregnancy rates.

  17. A non-invasive technique for age at death determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N; Thomsen, I; Frohlich, B

    1990-01-01

    age and structural changes in trabecular bone tissue. Using X-rays taken from live individuals, it provides a useful non-invasive ageing technique for the forensic examiner. An initial pilot study defined five phases of age-related changes in the trabecular tissue of the proximal end of the femur...... by identification of one of the five phases. An exact age determination of a single individual was not possible, but could be approximated to within 20 years. In forensic cases, however, where the removal of soft tissue is not always possible, this method can contribute to the final age determination when used...... in conjunction with other well-known methods, and thereby strengthen the final age estimate....

  18. Determination OF Economic Age OF Marketing Local | Ugwuene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the economic age of marketing for local broiler turkeys. The age groups used were 16, 20, 24 and 28 weeks. Three rations; turkey starter, grower and finisher were formulated. Eighty four poults were fed the three rations in the study which lasted 28 weeks. A Completely Randomised ...

  19. Determining ethnic-, gender-, and age-specific waist circumference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-06

    Nov 6, 2012 ... Original Research: Determining ethnic-, gender-, and age-specific waist circumference cut-off points to predict MetS. 89. 2013 Volume 18 No 2. JEMDSA. The aim of this study was firstly to develop a WC cut- off point for Africans and Caucasians in ethnic-, gender- and age-specific groups (25-45 years and ...

  20. Determinants Of Under Nutrition Among School Age Children In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. Objective: To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income ...

  1. Age determination in jackals ( Canis adustus Sundevall, 1846, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method of ageing based on relative pulp cavity width of canine teeth differentiated young adults (one year old) from mature adults, but was of no value in determining the age after one year. A method based on cementum incremental growth layers was of no value as the layers were irregular and did not correspond with ...

  2. Age determination in the bush squirrel, Paraxerus cepapi cepapi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tooth eruption and wear, measurements of skulls, eye-lens mass determination and different aspects of phallic morphology were used in an attempt at age classification in the bush squirrel, Paraxerus c. cepapi. The first method proved the most practical and allowed for three immature and three adult age classes.

  3. DNA damage: A main determinant of vascular aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.K. Bautista-Niño (Paula); E. Portilla-Fernandez (Eliana); D.E. Vaughan (Douglas E.); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); A.J.M. Roks (Anton)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVascular aging plays a central role in health problems and mortality in older people. Apart from the impact of several classical cardiovascular risk factors on the vasculature, chronological aging remains the single most important determinant of cardiovascular problems. The causative

  4. Investigating physiological methods to determine previous exposure of immature insects to ionizing radiation and estimating the exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    1999-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on pupation and adult emergence in mature (diapausing and non-diapausing) codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., larvae and on phenoloxidase activity in larvae killed by freezing were investigated. Results showed that, a dose of 50 Gy reduced adult emergence (and pupation) significantly and a dose of 200 Gy completely prevented it. Diapausing larvae were more susceptible to irradiation than non-diapausing larvae, and female moths were more susceptible to irradiation injury than males. Phenoloxidase activity in codling moth larvae was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in optical density at 490 nm, or by observing the degree of melanization in larvae killed by freezing. Results showed that, in un-irradiated larvae, phenoloxidase activity can be detected in 7 days old larvae and it continues to accumulate throughout the larvae stage. This accumulation was not observed when larvae were irradiated with a minimum dose of 50 Gy during the 1st week of their development. However, irradiating larvae in which enzyme activity was already high (2-3 week old) did not remove activity but only reduced further accumulation. Larval melanization studies were in agreement with results of the phenoloxidase assay.(author)

  5. Investigating physiological methods to determine previous exposure of immature insects to ionizing radiation and estimating the exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    1998-10-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on pupation and adult emergence in mature (diapausing and non-diapausing) codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., larvae and on phenoloxidase activity in larvae killed by freezing were investigated. Results showed that, a dose of 50 Gy reduced adult emergence (and pupation) significantly and 200 Gy completely prevented it. Diapausing larvae were more susceptible to irradiation that non-diapausing larvae and female moths were more susceptible to irradiation injury than males. Phenoloxidase activity in codling moth larvae was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in optical density at 490 nm, or by observing the degree of melanization in larvae killed by freezing. Results showed that, in un-irradiated larvae, phenoloxidase activity can be detected in 7 day old larvae and activity continued to accumulate throughout the larval stage. This accumulation was not observed when larvae were irradiated with a minimum dose of 50 Gy during the 1st week of their development. However, irradiating larvae in which enzyme activity was already high (2-3 week old) did not remove activity but only reduced further accumulation. Larval melanization studies were in agreement with results of the phenoloxidase assay. (author)

  6. Determining optimum aging time using novel core flooding equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahkami, Mehrdad; Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Xiarchos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    New methods for enhanced oil recovery are typically developed using core flooding techniques. Establishing reservoir conditions is essential before the experimental campaign commences. The realistic oil-rock wettability can be obtained through optimum aging of the core. Aging time is affected...... by temperature, crude oil, formation brine, and coreplug lithology. Minimum time can significantly reduce the experimental cost while insufficient aging time can result in false conclusions. Real-time online resistivity measurements of coreplugs are presented and a novel method is introduced for determining...... the optimum aging time regardless of variations in crude oil, rock, and brine properties. State of the art core flooding equipment has been developed that can be used for consistently determining the resistivity of the coreplug during aging and waterflooding using advanced data acquisition software...

  7. Approaches to otolith age determination: image signal treatment and age attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Morales-Nin

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Population studies of fish depend upon correct age estimates. However ageing from otoliths is often a subjective activity, based on experience. To produce more objective and reproducible results, image analysis systems for semi-automatic otolith reading are being developed. We propose determinig the daily growth and annual structures in each otolith by means of Fourier analysis of the luminous signal, after filtering the high frequencies by means of a moving threshold. A new approach using spatio-frequential wavelet analysis is discussed for otolith age determination. The different readings of each otolith are standardised and weighted to obtain a combined age determination and vector of increment widths.

  8. Age determination of 15 old to intermediate-age small Magellanic cloud star clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Geisler, D.; Leiton, R.; Carraro, G.; Costa, E.; Grocholski, A. J.; Sarajedini, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present color-magnitude diagrams in the V and I bands for 15 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile). We selected these clusters from our previous work, wherein we derived cluster radial velocities and metallicities from calcium II infrared triplet (CaT) spectra also taken with the VLT. We discovered that the ages of six of our clusters have been appreciably underestimated by previous studies, which used comparatively small telescopes, graphically illustrating the need for large apertures to obtain reliable ages of old and intermediate-age SMC star clusters. In particular, three of these clusters, L4, L6, and L110, turn out to be among the oldest SMC clusters known, with ages of 7.9 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.2, and 7.6 ± 1.0 Gyr, respectively, helping to fill a possible 'SMC cluster age gap'. Using the current ages and metallicities from Parisi et al., we analyze the age distribution, age gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a sample of SMC clusters measured homogeneously. There is a suggestion of bimodality in the age distribution but it does not show a constant slope for the first 4 Gyr, and we find no evidence for an age gradient. Due to the improved ages of our cluster sample, we find that our AMR is now better represented in the intermediate/old period than we had derived in Parisi et al., where we simply took ages available in the literature. Additionally, clusters younger than ∼4 Gyr now show better agreement with the bursting model of Pagel and Tautvaišienė, but we confirm that this model is not a good representation of the AMR during the intermediate/old period. A more complicated model is needed to explain the SMC chemical evolution in that period.

  9. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dziechciaż

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging. The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists’ assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  10. Determinants of institutional care at older ages in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Einiö

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With growing pressure from an ageing population on social and health-care expenditure, it is of policy importance to analyze the reasons for admission to long-term institutional care at older ages. Although there is increasing evidence that cognitive and functional disabilities are not the only major risk factors, and that the social situation and the lack of family members play an important role in explaining admissions, further research is needed. There is a lack of evidence on the effects of a spouse’s death, and previous findings on how income is associated with institutional care are inconsistent, and results on poor housing are seldom available. Furthermore, there is little systematic evidence showing how chronic medical conditions other than dementia affect the risk of admission in the general older population. This study used population-based register data on Finnish older adults aged 65 and over (n=280,722 to analyse individual-level determinants of admission to long-term institutional care from January 1998 to September 2003. The main focus was on how chronic medical conditions, household income and other socio-economic factors, living with a spouse, and the death of a spouse were associated with admissions. The results of the study indicated that dementia, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, depressive symptoms, other mental-health problems, hip fracture, and diabetes were strongly associated with an increased risk of admission when socio-demographic confounders and co-morbid conditions were controlled for. It was also shown that older men and women in the lowest household-income quintile group were more likely to be admitted to institutional care than those in the highest group, when age, first language, and area characteristics were accounted for. Controlling further for living arrangements and other socio-economic and chronic medical conditions markedly reduced these income differences in admission, but they still remained significant

  11. Age determination by back length for African savanna elephants: extending age assessment techniques for aerial-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Morgan J; van Aarde, Rudi J; Ferreira, Sam M; Nørgaard, Camilla F; Fourie, Johan; Lee, Phyllis C; Moss, Cynthia J

    2011-01-01

    Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables.

  12. Age Determination by Back Length for African Savanna Elephants: Extending Age Assessment Techniques for Aerial-Based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Morgan J.; van Aarde, Rudi J.; Ferreira, Sam M.; Nørgaard, Camilla F.; Fourie, Johan; Lee, Phyllis C.; Moss, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables. PMID:22028925

  13. Age determination by back length for African savanna elephants: extending age assessment techniques for aerial-based surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan J Trimble

    Full Text Available Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables.

  14. Age determination of Precambrian rocks from Greenland: past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsbeek, F.

    1997-01-01

    For Precambrian rocks as well as for younger igneous intrusions, precise ages can only be obtained by isotopic analysis of minerals or rocks. Isotopic (radiometric) age determination of Greenland rocks began in the early 1960s and has continued since with gradually improving methods. In this contribution, the development of geochronological knowledge of the Precambrian of Greenland is described in historical perspective, and an outline of new results is given. The history of geochronology can be roughly divided into three periods: 1) a period of single-sample K-Ar and Rb-Sr mineral or whole-rock age determinations; 2) a time when most ages were determined with the help of Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb whole-rock isochrones and multi-grain zircon U-Pb isotope data; 3) the present, where 'single' zircon U-Pb data are the preferred method to obtain rock ages. These stages in the development of radiometric dating methods partly overlap in time, and each has yielded very significant contributions to the knowledge of Precambiran evolution in Greenland. (EG)

  15. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Traldi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval determined for each breeder age were weighed, broken, and their components were separated and weighed. At hatch, hatchlings were sexed and weighed, determining the average initial weight of the progeny of each breeder age. Data were analyzed using the Analyst program of SAS® software package. In Experiment 1, the weight difference between eggs produced by young and mature breeders was 10.92 g, and the component that mostly influenced this difference was the yolk (7.51 g heavier in mature breeders, compared with 4.23 g difference in albumen and 0.8 g in eggshell weights. Hatchling weight difference was 9.4 g higher in eggs from mature breeders. In Experiment 2, egg weight difference was only 0.74 g, but yolk weight was 4.59 g higher in the eggs of mature breeders. The results obtained in the present study indicate that hatchling weight is influenced by egg weight, and not by breeder age.

  16. AGE DETERMINATION FROM PUBIC SYMPHYSEAL CHANGES- AN AUTOPSY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinesh Parambathettu Sasidharan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Biological identity is one of the first things to be established when analysing skeletal, badly decomposed or otherwise unidentified human remains. The determination of age at death is an important component of identity establishment. Pubic symphysis examination is one of the reliable methods of age estimation. We attempt to determine the age of deceased from pubic symphysis using Suchey-Brooks method and to find the accuracy of Suchey-Brooks method in our population. From among the cases brought for autopsy at Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, from 01/03/2012 to 28/02/2013, 316 cases were included in the study. Their pubic symphysis were harvested. Age determined using SucheyBrooks method and compared with their chronological age. The aim of the study is to- 1. Determine the age of deceased from pubic symphysis using Suchey-Brooks method. 2. Compare the age determined by Suchey-Brooks method and chronological age and find the accuracy of Suchey-Brooks method in our population. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Design- Descriptive study- Cross-sectional study, Centre of Study- Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Study Sample- From the cases brought for medicolegal postmortem examination in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, a sample of 316 cases were selected. To make the distribution among various age groups, even the total sample divided for the age group, which resulted in having 60 samples per age group. Age groups were considered as Group 1- Age between 18-25 years; Group 2- Age between 25-35 years; Group 3- Age between 35-45 years; Group 4- Age between 45-55 years; Group 5- Age between 55-65 years. Inclusion Criteria- 1. Cases with known age; 2. Cases whose age between 18 and 65 years. Exclusion Criteria- 1. Unknown cases; 2. Known cases with doubtful age; 3. Individuals having pubic bone trauma involving the

  17. Age determination of subdural hematomas: survey among radiologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, F. A. M.; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Majoie, C. B. L. M.; van Rijn, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Abusive head trauma is a severe form of child abuse. One important diagnostic finding is the presence of a subdural hematoma. Age determination of subdural hematomas is important to relate radiological findings to the clinical history presented by the caregivers. In court this topic is relevant as

  18. Determination of gestational age through trans-abdominal scan of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usefulness of placentome diameter measurement for the determination of gestational age in Nigerian breed of sheep and goats was investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment, cross-sectional design was used and placentome diameters were measured in 18 Yankasa/Uda crossbred ewes and 20 Sahel ...

  19. Thermal studies to determine the accelerated ageing of flares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Krabbendam-La Haye, E.L.M.; Berger, B.; Brechbuhl, H.; Popescu, C.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal analysis is an interesting technique to determine kinetic parameters of separate components, and also of a complete system to receive adequate information on the ageing process of pyrotechnic compositions. The investigated tracer is a tracking tracer of a Swiss missile. It is attached to a

  20. Determination of parathormone by RIA in different age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhaieg, M.O.; Megahed, Y.M.; Ibrahim, I.A.; Refaat, M.A.; Elgohary, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Using RIA technique for determination of the carboxyl-terminal fragments of serum parthiroid hormone (PTH), a significant rise of serum PTH was observed with age increase in 119 normal subjects, (62 Male and 57 Female) ranging from 30 to 83 years. This significant rise in serum PTH may explain the pathogenesis of senile and postmenopausal osteoporosis

  1. Growth, Age Determination and Longevity in the Giant African Snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth rates in terms of shell lengths were investigated in four subspecies of Archachatina marginata (Swainson) under culture conditions. Number of shell whorls, shell pigmentation and microsculpture were also studied to assess their usefulness in age determination. The snails displayed a sigmoid growth pattern, with ...

  2. Determinants of iron accumulation in the normal aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Gesierich, Benno; De Guio, François; Freudenberger, Paul; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Duchesnay, Edouard; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2016-07-01

    In a recent postmortem study, R2* relaxometry in gray matter (GM) of the brain has been validated as a noninvasive measure for iron content in brain tissue. Iron accumulation in the normal aging brain is a common finding and relates to brain maturation and degeneration. The goal of this study was to assess the determinants of iron accumulation during brain aging. The study cohort consisted of 314 healthy community-dwelling participants of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. Their age ranged from 38-82 years. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 3T and included R2* mapping, based on a 3D multi-echo gradient echo sequence. The median of R2* values was measured in all GM regions, which were segmented automatically using FreeSurfer. We investigated 25 possible determinants for cerebral iron deposition. These included demographics, brain volume, lifestyle factors, cerebrovascular risk factors, serum levels of iron, and single nucleotide polymorphisms related to iron regulating genes (rs1800562, rs3811647, rs1799945, and rs1049296). The body mass index (BMI) was significantly related to R2* in 15/32 analyzed brain regions with the strongest correlations found in the amygdala (p = 0.0091), medial temporal lobe (p = 0.0002), and hippocampus (p ≤ 0.0001). Further associations to R2* values were found in deep GM for age and smoking. No significant associations were found for gender, GM volume, serum levels of iron, or iron-associated genetic polymorphisms. In conclusion, besides age, the BMI and smoking are the only significant determinants of brain iron accumulation in normally aging subjects. Smoking relates to iron deposition in the basal ganglia, whereas higher BMI is associated with iron content in the neocortex following an Alzheimer-like distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of dental radiography in age determination: Concepts and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Hossein Mirhashemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available   The need to identify and determine the age of the unidentified dead person s or accident victims of natural disasters is clear. Also, some remedial measures in the field of orthodontics and pediatric dentistry depend on knowing the patient’s physiological age. Previous studies suggested that dental age have a good correlation with physiological age more than skeletal or o ther common methods of age determination. Among the various methods used to determine dental age , dental radiography provides wide facilities for clinicians. Being noninvasive and the ability of performing the technique on live subjects as well as simplicity and low cost and reliable results , have led researchers to investigate further on that . The formation and calcification process of teeth and changes during aging has been regarded by many, leading to introduce various methods in which the field. In this study, 36 related articles were achieved by searching PUBMED, Science Direct and Google Scholar resources and discussed. Provided what diversified means of determining age using dental radiographs is encouraged , it is recommended to be not restricted to use only one of the methods because the multilateral approach is more reliable.

  4. Patient's anxiety and fear of anesthesia: effect of gender, age, education, and previous experience of anesthesia. A survey of 400 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridou, Paraskevi; Dimitriou, Varvara; Manataki, Adamantia; Arnaoutoglou, Elena; Papadopoulos, Georgios

    2013-02-01

    Patients express high anxiety preoperatively, because of fears related to anesthesia and its implications. The purpose of this survey was to gain insight into these fears and to study whether they are affected by patients' sex, age, education, or previous experience of anesthesia. Questionnaires with fixed questions were distributed to consenting, consecutive surgical patients before the pre-anesthetic visit. The questionnaires included patients' demographics and questions related to their fears about anesthesia. Four-hundred questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Eighty-one percent of patients experience preoperative anxiety. The main sources of their anxiety were fear of postoperative pain (84 %), of not waking up after surgery (64.8 %), of being nauseous or vomiting (60.2 %), and of drains and needles (59.5 %). Patients are less concerned about being paralyzed because of anesthesia (33.5 %) or of revealing personal issues (18.8 %). Gender seems to affect patients fears, with women being more afraid (85.3 vs. 75.6 % of men, p = 0.014). The effects of patients' age, level of education, and previous experience of anesthesia are minor, except for individual questions. Sixty-three percent of our patients (mostly women 67.4 vs. 57.4 % of men, p = 0.039) talk about these fears with their relatives, although a vast majority of 95.5 % would prefer to talk with the anesthesiologist and be reassured by him. All patients, mostly women, express fears about anesthesia; this fear leads to preoperative anxiety. Slight differences are observed for some individual questions among patients of different sex, education level, and previous experience of anesthesia.

  5. Complex adjustments of photosynthetic potentials and internal diffusion conductance to current and previous light availabilities and leaf age in Mediterranean evergreen species Quercus ilex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ulo; Cescatti, Alessandro; Rodeghiero, Mirco; Tosens, Tiina

    2006-06-01

    mass (g(m)M) was negatively associated with light in current-year leaves. Greater photosynthetic potentials and moderate changes in diffusion conductance resulted in greater internal diffusion limitations of photosynthesis in higher light. Both area- and mass-based g(m) decreased with increasing leaf age. The decrease in diffusion conductance was larger than changes in photosynthetic potentials, leading to larger CO2 drawdown from leaf internal air space to chloroplasts (delta(c)) in older leaves. The increases in diffusion limitations in older leaves and at higher light scaled with age- and light-dependent increases in MA and D(F). Overall, our study demonstrates a large potential of foliage photosynthetic acclimation to changes in leaf light environment, but also highlights enhanced structural diffusion limitations in older leaves that result from leaf structural acclimation to previous rather than to current light environment and accumulation of structural compounds with leaf age.

  6. Intravenous intralipid therapy is not beneficial in having a live delivery in women aged 40-42 years with a previous history of miscarriage or failure to conceive despite embryo transfer undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Check, D L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intralipid intravenous infusion in achieving a live pregnancy following IVF--embryo transfer in women of advanced reproductive age (40-42 years). A matched control was performed. Women aged 40-42 with a previous history of miscarriage or who failed to conceive despite previous embryo transfer who entered an IVF program were offered intravenous intralipid therapy (four ml of 20% liposyn II in 100 ml normal saline over one hour) during the mid-follicular phase. Clinical pregnancy rates (eight weeks with viable gestation) and live delivered pregnancy rates were then determined and compared. The results were evaluated after ten matched cycles. There were no clinical pregnancies in those receiving intralipid vs. a 40% clinical and a 30% live delivered pregnancy rate in the untreated controls (p = 0.087, Fisher's exact test). The study was terminated because of these preliminary data. In the test tube, adding intralipid to natural killer cells can inhibit their cytolytic action. However, the use of intravenous intralipid to suppress natural killer cell activity does not seem to improve the chance of a live delivery in women aged 40-42 years with a previous history of miscarriage. In fact this therapy may actually be detrimental in this age group. Since efficacy of this therapy was not found in a group of advanced reproductive age, it is not clear why this should be effective for a younger population. A controlled study for the younger group is needed. Perhaps such a study could be limited to only those with miscarriage rather than also concluding failure to conceive despite embryo transfer. Intralipid failed to improve live delivered pregnancy rates in women with prior miscarriage or previous failure with embryo transfer.

  7. Influence of 12 weeks of jogging on magnetic resonance-determined left ventricular characteristics in previously sedentary subjects free of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipola, Petri; Heikkinen, Jari; Laaksonen, David E; Kettunen, Raimo

    2009-02-15

    Hypertrophy of the left ventricle is a diagnostic dilemma in subjects who engage in regular endurance exercise. We studied prospectively whether endurance training in previously sedentary young and middle-aged men and women can alter left ventricular (LV) characteristics. We recruited 33 healthy young and middle-aged subjects (18 women, 15 men, ages 21 to 59 years) to undergo 12 weeks of home-based brisk walking and jogging at a target heart rate > or =120 beats/min for > or =30 minutes 3 times a week. LV characteristics were measured by cine magnetic resonance imaging. Training intensity as estimated by heart rate correlated positively with the increase in LV myocardial area (r = 0.51, p = 0.005) in the 28 men and women completing the study. In the 13 men and women who trained with heart rate of > or =120 beats/min, LV myocardial area was larger after than before training (17.7 +/- 2.9 vs 16.8 +/- 2.8 cm(2), p <0.05). Moreover, in these subjects LV myocardial area increased more (5.5 +/- 9.0% vs -3.0 +/- 5.0%) than in the 15 men and women who trained at a lower intensity (p <0.05). LV end-systolic and end-diastolic area and ejection fraction did not change significantly. In conclusion, moderate-to-vigorous endurance training at moderate volumes does not influence LV end-diastolic volume or ejection fraction, but has a minor influence on LV hypertrophy in previously sedentary young and middle-aged men and women.

  8. Metabolic reserve as a determinant of cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranahan, Alexis M; Mattson, Mark P

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) represent points on a continuum of cognitive performance in aged populations. Cognition may be impaired or preserved in the context of brain aging. One theory to account for memory maintenance in the context of extensive pathology involves 'cognitive reserve', or the ability to compensate for neuropathology through greater recruitment of remaining neurons. In this review, we propose a complementary hypothesis of 'metabolic reserve', where a brain with high metabolic reserve is characterized by the presence of neuronal circuits that respond adaptively to perturbations in cellular and somatic energy metabolism and thereby protects against declining cognition. Lifestyle determinants of metabolic reserve, such as exercise, reduced caloric intake, and intake of specific dietary components can promote neuroprotection, while pathological states arising from sedentary lifestyles and excessive caloric intake contribute to neuronal endangerment. This bidirectional relationship between metabolism and cognition may be mediated by alterations in central insulin and neurotrophic factor signaling and glucose metabolism, with downstream consequences for accumulation of amyloid-β and hyperphosphorylated tau. The metabolic reserve hypothesis is supported by epidemiological findings and the spectrum of individual cognitive trajectories during aging, with additional data from animal models identifying potential mechanisms for this relationship. Identification of biomarkers for metabolic reserve could assist in generating a predictive model for the likelihood of cognitive decline with aging.

  9. Platelet size and age determine platelet function independently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.B.; Jakubowski, J.A.; Quinn, P.G.; Deykin, D.; Valeri, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the interaction of platelet size and age in determining in vitro platelet function. Baboon megakaryocytes were labeled in vivo by the injection of 75Se-methionine. Blood was collected when the label was predominantly associated with younger platelets (day 2) and with older platelets (day 9). Size-dependent platelet subpopulations were prepared on both days by counterflow centrifugation. The reactivity of each platelet subpopulation was determined on both days by measuring thrombin-induced aggregation. Platelets were fixed after partial aggregation had occurred by the addition of EDTA/formalin. After removal of the aggregated platelets by differential centrifugation, the supernatant medium was assayed for remaining platelets and 75Se radioactivity. Comparing day 2 and day 9, no significant difference was seen in the rate of aggregation of a given subpopulation. However, aggregation was more rapid in the larger platelet fractions than in the smaller ones on both days. A greater percentage of the 75Se radioactivity appeared in the platelet aggregates on day 2 than on day 9. This effect was independent of platelet size, as it occurred to a similar extent in the unfractionated platelets and in each of the size-dependent platelet subpopulations. The data indicate that young platelets are more active than older platelets. This study demonstrates that size and age are both determinants of platelet function, but by independent mechanisms

  10. ESR and TL age determination of caliche nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezer, A.M. (Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey)); Wieser, A.; Goeksu, H.Y.; Mueller, P.; Regulla, D.F. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz); Erol, O. (Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). School of Geography and Marine Sciences)

    1989-01-01

    Feasibility of dating caliche nodules by ESR and TL is investigated. For both methods the properties of the dating signal are described. Chemical composition as well as TL glow curves of caliches originating from different localities exhibit some differences. Due to the complexity of the TL glow curves, some samples required a special post-annealing procedure in order to resolve the main TL peak for age determination. Typical ESR calcite signals do not exist in caliche, therefore usefulness of the g=2.0040 ESR signal is studied. The results of TL and ESR ages are found to be compatible except for two samples. Possible causes of the discrepancy in these samples are discussed. It is shown that, with proper treatment of the radiation-induced signals, it was possible to date caliche formations older than 350 ka, which is not achievable with other methods like uranium series disequilibrium and/or radiocarbon dating. (author).

  11. ESR and TL age determination of caliche nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezer, A.M.; Wieser, A.; Goeksu, H.Y.; Mueller, P.; Regulla, D.F.; Erol, O.

    1989-01-01

    Feasibility of dating caliche nodules by ESR and TL is investigated. For both methods the properties of the dating signal are described. Chemical composition as well as TL glow curves of caliches originating from different localities exhibit some differences. Due to the complexity of the TL glow curves, some samples required a special post-annealing procedure in order to resolve the main TL peak for age determination. Typical ESR calcite signals do not exist in caliche, therefore usefulness of the g=2.0040 ESR signal is studied. The results of TL and ESR ages are found to be compatible except for two samples. Possible causes of the discrepancy in these samples are discussed. It is shown that, with proper treatment of the radiation-induced signals, it was possible to date caliche formations older than 350 ka, which is not achievable with other methods like uranium series disequilibrium and/or radiocarbon dating. (author)

  12. The effects of temperature and diet on age grading and population age structure determination in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Wen C; Ballard, J William O

    2013-10-01

    The age structure of natural population is of interest in physiological, life history and ecological studies but it is often difficult to determine. One methodological problem is that samples may need to be invasively sampled preventing subsequent taxonomic curation. A second problem is that it can be very expensive to accurately determine the age structure of given population because large sample sizes are often necessary. In this study, we test the effects of temperature (17 °C, 23 °C and 26 °C) and diet (standard cornmeal and low calorie diet) on the accuracy of the non-invasive, inexpensive and high throughput near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique to determine the age of Drosophila flies. Composite and simplified calibration models were developed for each sex. Independent sets for each temperature and diet treatments with flies not involved in calibration model were then used to validate the accuracy of the calibration models. The composite NIRS calibration model was generated by including flies reared under all temperatures and diets. This approach permits rapid age measurement and age structure determination in large population of flies as less than or equal to 9 days, or more than 9 days old with 85-97% and 64-99% accuracy, respectively. The simplified calibration models were generated by including flies reared at 23 °C on standard diet. Low accuracy rates were observed when simplified calibration models were used to identify (a) Drosophila reared at 17 °C and 26 °C and (b) 23 °C with low calorie diet. These results strongly suggest that appropriate calibration models need to be developed in the laboratory before this technique can be reliably used in field. These calibration models should include the major environmental variables that change across space and time in the particular natural population to be studied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The utility of clinical care pathways in determining perinatal outcomes for women with one previous caesarean section; a retrospective service evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuga Robinson N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising rates of primary caesarean section have resulted in a larger obstetric population with scarred uteri. Subsequent pregnancies in these women are risk-prone and may complicate. Besides ensuring standardised management, care pathways could be used to evaluate for perinatal outcomes in these high risk pregnancies. We aim to demonstrate the use of a care pathway for vaginal birth after caesarean section as a service evaluation tool to determine perinatal outcomes. Methods A retrospective service evaluation by review of delivery case notes and records was undertaken at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya between January 2008 and December 2009 Women with ≥2 previous caesarean sections, previous classical caesarean section, multiple gestation, breech presentation, severe pre-eclampsia, transverse lie, placenta praevia, conditions requiring induction of labour and incomplete records were excluded. Outcome measures included the proportion of eligible women who opted for test of scar (ToS, success rate of vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC; proportion on women opting for elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS and their perinatal outcomes. Results A total of 215 women with one previous caesarean section were followed up using a standard care pathway. The median parity (minimum-maximum was 1.01234. The other demographic characteristics were comparable. Only 44.6% of eligible mothers opted to have a ToS. The success rate for VBAC was 49.4% with the commonest (31.8% reason for failure being protracted active phase of labour. Maternal morbidity was comparable for the failed and successful VBAC group. The incidence of hemorrhage was 2.3% and 4.4% for the successful and failed VBAC groups respectively. The proportion of babies with acidotic arterial PH ( Conclusions Besides ensuring standardised management, care pathways could be objective audit and service evaluation tools for determining perinatal outcomes.

  14. Single injection techniques in determining age-related changes in porcine renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.E.C.

    1984-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were determined in 32 anaesthetised female Large White pigs, aged 4-24 months, from the plasma disappearance curves of [sup(99m)Tc]DTPA and [ 131 I]hippuran respectively. Clearance was also monitored by external counting over the heart. GFR and ERPF increased markedly with age in pigs up to 12 months old, reaching mean values of 242.06 +- 5.89 and 919.39 +- 79.01 mL/min. In pigs aged 12-24 months ERPF increased slightly but renal function remained essentially unchanged after 1 yr of age. These results for renal function were similar to previous estimates, using continuous infusion techniques inferring that GFR and ERPF could be accurately monitored using single injection procedures. (author)

  15. Determinants of developmental delay in infants aged 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slykerman, Rebecca F; Thompson, John M D; Clark, Phillipa M; Becroft, David M O; Robinson, Elizabeth; Pryor, Jan E; Wild, Chris J; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which demographic, maternal, obstetric and postnatal variables were associated with achievement of developmental milestones at the age of 12 months in term infants. Mothers and babies were enrolled in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study shortly after birth. All infants were full term (gestation >or= 37 weeks). Approximately half of the sample were small for gestational age (SGA = birthweight 10th percentile). A maternal interview was conducted soon after birth. Phase 2 of the study occurred 12 months later when mothers were sent a postal questionnaire requesting information about the child's health and development during the first year of life using the Denver Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire. Seven hundred and forty-four (85.4%) European mothers returned the postal questionnaire. SGA children were not at increased risk of developmental delay at 12 months of age. In a sample representative of New Zealand European children, after adjustment for the effects of potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.1 [95% CI 1.1, 4.0]), maternal smoking during the first year of life (OR = 1.9 [95% CI 1.0, 3.8]) and low levels of satisfaction with parenting (OR = 2.4 [95% CI 1.1, 5.2]) were associated with significantly increased risk of developmental delay. In the subgroup of SGA children, maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.9 [95% CI 1.4, 6.2]), high levels of stress associated with parenting (OR = 2.2 [95% CI 1.2, 4.0]), and low levels of satisfaction with parenting (OR = 4.3 [95% CI 1.3, 13.5]) were significantly associated with developmental delay after adjustment for the effects of potential confounders. In conclusion, maternal and postnatal factors were better predictors of developmental delay than demographic variables.

  16. Investigations of nephrotoxicity caused by ionic and non-ionic contrast media in rats with previously damaged and not previously damaged kidneys and special view to urinary enzyme determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmeister, R.

    1988-01-01

    In this study ionic (meglumine amidotrizoate) and non-ionic contrast media (SHH 340 AB, Iohexol, Iopromide, Iosimide and Iopamidol) were tested for their nephrotoxicity in rats. During the experiment detections of urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary enzymes as well as histological examinations of the kidneys were carried out for the diagnosis of acute renal damage. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that rats are not very sensitive to non-ionic contrast media with regard to kidney damage and determinations of urinary enzymes are valuable for the diagnosis of contrast media induced acute kidney damage in living animals. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Age of menopause and determinants of menopause age: A PAN India survey by IMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Maninder

    2016-01-01

    Age of menopause is a very important biomarker of not only the loss of fertility but also an increased risk for various mid-life diseases and problems. Many of these diseases can be prevented by timely intervention of lifestyle modification, menopausal hormone therapy, or other supplementations such as calcium, Vitamin D, and micronutrients. In India age of menopause is less than our counterparts in the Western world. This means that the fertility potential of Indian women starts compromising early, so we need to start with the preventive measures much early. Earlier studies in India have been done on a limited population, and small sample size and not all the determinants of menopause age were considered. Survey was conducted in 21 chapters of Indian Menopause Society and all regions South, West, East and North were covered. There were 23 Medical practitioners who participated. Consent was taken and inclusion and exclusion criteria was set. Set questions were asked The questionnaire comprised of identification of the participants' religion, education, and various socioeconomic parameters. They were also inquired about their marital and parity status, abortion, or contraceptive use. The menopausal women were asked their menopause age and whether it was natural or surgical. The perimenopausal women were asked to enlist the date of their last period. All women with <1 year to menopause were classified as perimenopausal. The height, weight, and waist circumference were noted for all the women, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The women were also inquired about their food habits and social habits including alcohol consumption or smoking. Hence, this study was planned as a PAN India study. Average age of menopause of an Indian woman is 46.2 years much less than their Western counter parts (51 years). A definite rural and urban division was also seen. There was a correlation between the age of menopause and social and economic status, married status, and parity

  18. [Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Candida species to amphotericin B by E-test and previously proposed MIC breakpoints on two different media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Sehnaz; Sancak, Banu; Arikan, Sevtap

    2008-04-01

    Although much work has concentrated on defining a reliable and reproducible method for determining in vitro susceptibility of Candida species to amphotericin B, there still has been limitations of the proposed techniques. In this study, amphotericin B minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and susceptibility categories of 212 Candida strains (57 C. glabrata, 53 C. lusitaniae, 51 C. krusei and 51 C. tropicalis) were determined by E-test on RPMI agar (RPG) and antibiotic medium 3 agar (AM3) both supplemented with 2% glucose. The results were interpreted according to the proposed MIC breakpoints (> or = 0.38 microg/ml on RPG, >1 microg/ml on AM3) and discrepancies between susceptibility categories were investigated. While all Candida strains included in the study were determined to be susceptible on AM3 by amphotericin B E-test at 48h, 36.3% of the isolates were classified as resistant on RPG at 48 hours. On RPG, C. krusei strains showed the highest resistance rate (94.1% at 48 h), followed by C. tropicalis (35.3% at 48 h) and C. glabrata (17.5% at 48h). At 48h of incubation, 98.1% of C. lusitaniae isolates were found to be susceptible on RPG. The categorical agreement rates between the results obtained on two media and for C. lusitaniae and C. glabrata were 98.1% and 82.5% at 48 hours. For C. tropicalis and C. krusei, the rates of agreement were 64.7% and 5.9% at 48 hours. Conclusively, according to the previously proposed MIC breakpoints for amphotericin B E-test on RPG and AM3, discrepancies between susceptibility categories of Candida species were of remarkable significance.

  19. Nongenetic Determinants of Age at Menarche: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Yermachenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The acceleration of pubertal development is an important medical and social problem, as it may result in increased morbidity and mortality in later life. This systematic review summarizes relevant data about nongenetic factors, which contribute to age at menarche (AAM, and suggests those which may be the most important. Methods. The available literature from 1980 till July 2013 was searched using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Finally, 154 papers were selected for the analysis. Results. Environmental factors, which may affect AAM, vary in populations of different ethnicity. The prenatal, infancy, and early childhood periods are the most susceptible to these factors. Body weight, high animal protein intake, family stressors (e.g., single parenting, and physical activity seem to influence AAM in most populations. Conclusions. The data about influence of nongenetic factors on AAM are still inconsistent. The factors affecting prenatal and early childhood growth seem to have a larger effect on further sexual maturation. Further studies are needed in order to validate the association between other environmental determinants and AAM in different ethnical groups.

  20. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants.

  1. Age determination of eland Taurotragus oryx (pallas, 1766) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals without distinctive cementum annuli may be assigned ages from measurements of M3 crown height. The ages of live restrained eland could be derived from measurements of 11 occlusal width or 11 crown height. Horn morphology was adequate for age and sex classification of free-ranging eland up to adult status.

  2. Determining Age and Origin of Spodumene-Bearing Pegmatites in Southeastern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. A.; Barros, R.; Menuge, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Exploration prospecting around Caldonian Leinster Granite has revealed pegmatite intrusions containing spodumene, a lithium ore, on the eastern margin of the Tullow Lowlands Pluton. Drill cores of these pegmatites have been extracted and studied due to increasing economic interest. Ages between 430 and 400 Ma for spodumene pegmatites have been previously determined using the in situ Rb-Sr isochron method [1]. Here we use the Sm-Nd isochron method to see if the less-mobile nature of REEs during contact metamorphism and deformation impacts ages. Suitable samples containing garnet and feldspar from spodumene and barren pegmatites were studied using regular microscopy and SEM; minerals were then isolated manually. After mineral dissolution and elemental separation via ion exchange columns, a Neptune MS measured Sm and Nd isotope ratios. Blank corrections were applied. Both types of pegmatites were used to calculate an isochron using Isoplot 3.7 [2] which yielded an initial 143Nd/144Nd ratio of 0.51190±0.00009, and an age of 414±52 Ma. Ages and ɛNd, relating to the initial Nd ratio, were compared with previous whole rock data of Leinster Granite [3] and Rb-Sr multimineral data [1]. Comparable ages from both methods likely represent crystallization age. At the minimum possible age considering uncertainty, the origins of pegmatites and granitic rocks are indistinguishable, but at the maximum age, pegmatites show lower ɛNd values suggesting heterogeneous sources. All representative data points held negative ɛNd values signifying crustal assimilation. The Sm-Nd method was found suitable for age/ source investigation; however, Leinster pegmatite garnet is particularly depleted in Nd (<1 ppm), yielding poor precision, and further study using less depleted samples should be conducted for better age determination. [1] Barros, Renata, Julian F. Menuge and Thomas Zack (2016): "Hints on the Origin and Evolution of Spodumene Pegmatites in Southeast Ireland" Proceedings of the

  3. Determinants of health-promoting behavior among women ages 65 and above living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J A; Orshan, S A; Cook, F

    2000-01-01

    This study utilized Pender's Health Promotion Model to investigate through canonical correlation analysis the role that select cognitive-perceptual factors (health self-determinism, learned helplessness, self-esteem, and perceived health) and modifying factors (age, race, marital status, education, and income) play in understanding participation of community-living older adult women (age > or = 65) in the health-promoting behaviors of health responsibility, physical activity, nutrition, spiritual growth, interpersonal relations, and stress management. These were measured by the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II in a convenience sample of 107 community-living older adult women (mean age 76.7 years). Gender-specific benefits and barriers to participating in health-promoting behaviors were also explored using open-ended questions. Two significant canonical variates were demonstrated. These indicated that age, marital status, race, education, and self-esteem and the two health-related factors of perceived health and health self-determinism made statistically significant contributions to the health-promoting behaviors of physical activity, nutrition, spiritual growth, and interpersonal relations. Benefits identified included better psychological well-being, coping with the general issues of aging, social interaction, improved function, and management of existing health problems. Internal barriers focused on perceived physical difficulties with all types of health-promoting behaviors; external barriers included aspects of the activity itself, lack of support from others and structural barriers. Study results suggest that older adult women (age > or = 65) participate in health-promoting behaviors for both health enhancement and health management reasons and that barriers may be a more important determinant of older women's health-promoting lifestyle behaviors than previously described in the model.

  4. Methods for determination of the age of Pleistocene tephra, derived ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    much older glass shards from another source. Morgan et al (2009) recently presented an. Ar–Ar analysis of a single sample of Pleistocene tephra from Ethiopia. Analysis of glass shards yielded a seemingly excellent age plateau indicat- ing an age of ∼800 ka, whereas separate analyses of mineral crystals from the tephra ...

  5. Midlife Determinants Associated with Sedentary Behavior in Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Berg, Julianne D; Bosma, Hans; Caserotti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is associated with adverse health effects. To prevent sedentary behavior and limit health risks, insights into associated determinants are essential. Sedentary behavior should be viewed as a distinct health behavior, therefore its determinants should be independently identified...

  6. OSL age determinations of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio A.A. Soares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Absolute dating methods have been used in chronological studies of geological processes and sedimentary units of Quaternary age in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Although radiocarbon dating has been very useful in archaeological research and soil studies, the temporal interval of this method is inefficient in evaluating the sedimentation aspects and geological events from the beginning of the Quaternary in the Amazon basin. The use of crystal luminescence dating has been one of the most promising tool for determining the absolute dating of Quaternary deposits in the Amazonian region. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating, following the MAR and SAR protocols, in a tectonic-sedimentary study of Quaternary fluvial deposits in the confluence area of the Negro and Solimões rivers, indicated ages from 1.3 (Holocene to about 67.4 kyears (Late Pleistocene for these sediments. Low radioactive isotope concentrations were found about 2ppm for 235U and 238U; 5ppm for 232Th; and the 40K concentrations were almost zero. A comparison was made between MAR and SAR protocols taking into account the fluvial depositional process.Métodos de datação absoluta têm sido usados em estudos cronológicos de processos geológicos e unidades sedimentares de idade quaternária na Amazônia Central, Brasil. Embora as datações pelo 14C tenham sido muito úteis na pesquisa arqueológica e estudos de solos, o intervalo de tempo abrangido por este método é ineficiente para avaliar aspectos da sedimentação e eventos geológicos do início do Quaternário na bacia Amazônica. O uso da datação por luminescência de cristais tem sido uma das ferramentas mais promissoras para a determinação da idade absoluta de depósitos quaternários na região amazônica. A datação por luminescência opticamente estimulada (LOE, seguindo os protocolos MAR e SAR, em um estudo tectono-sedimentar de depósitos aluviais quaternários da área de confluência dos rios Negro e Solim

  7. Absolute age determination of quaternary fault and formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Man Sik

    2003-03-01

    Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating results for the fault rocks suggest the occurrence of recurrent fault activity around 80-95 Ma, 70 Ma, 50 Ma, 30 Ma and 23 Ma along the Yangsan fault zone. The apparent K-Ar ages tend to be older than Rb-Sr ages, probably indicating the effect of excess radiogenic Ar, which will be furthur investigated by Ar-Ar method. The OSL SAR protocol using 220 .deg. C cut-heat yields reproducible and stratigraphically consistent OSL ages ranging from 71 ka to 48 ka for beach deposits of the marine terrace No 2. The apparent OSL ages for the marine terrace No 3 range from 92 ka to 61 ka. These ages constrain the minimum age of the platform considering the underestimation effect resulted from deposition underwater. Therefore we regard the formation age of the terrace No 3 as MIS(Marine Isotopic Stage) 5c or 5e. Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating results for the fault rocks suggest the occurrence of recurrent fault activity around 40 Ma, 30 Ma and 23 Ma along the Ulsan fault zone. Relatively young (< 10 Ma) fault activities are recognized in the Oesa, Janghangri and Wonwonsa sites

  8. Absolute age determination of quaternary fault and formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating results for the fault rocks suggest the occurrence of recurrent fault activity around 80-95 Ma, 70 Ma, 50 Ma, 30 Ma and 23 Ma along the Yangsan fault zone. The apparent K-Ar ages tend to be older than Rb-Sr ages, probably indicating the effect of excess radiogenic Ar, which will be furthur investigated by Ar-Ar method. The OSL SAR protocol using 220 .deg. C cut-heat yields reproducible and stratigraphically consistent OSL ages ranging from 71 ka to 48 ka for beach deposits of the marine terrace No 2. The apparent OSL ages for the marine terrace No 3 range from 92 ka to 61 ka. These ages constrain the minimum age of the platform considering the underestimation effect resulted from deposition underwater. Therefore we regard the formation age of the terrace No 3 as MIS(Marine Isotopic Stage) 5c or 5e. Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating results for the fault rocks suggest the occurrence of recurrent fault activity around 40 Ma, 30 Ma and 23 Ma along the Ulsan fault zone. Relatively young (< 10 Ma) fault activities are recognized in the Oesa, Janghangri and Wonwonsa sites.

  9. Use of cervical vertebral maturation to determine skeletal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ricky W K; Alkhal, Hessa A; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method as an indicator of skeletal age in the circumpubertal period by correlating it to the hand-wrist method (HWM). Hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 400 Chinese subjects were randomly selected. Their ages were 10 to 15 years for girls and 12 to 17 years for boys, so they were within the circumpubertal period. Skeletal ages were assessed according to the CVM method and the HWM. The CVM was significantly correlated with HWM skeletal age (Spearman r = 0.9521 [boys] and 0.9408 [girls]). All patients in cervical vertebral stage 3 of the CVM corresponded to stages MP3-FG or MP3-G (around the peak of the growth spurt) in the HWM. The CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth during the circumpubertal period, providing information for timing of growth modification.

  10. Age determination of trace plutonium using liquid scintillation counting and α-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Chang Zhiyuan; Zhao Yonggang; Li Jinghuai; Shu Fujun

    2010-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting combined with α-spectrometry through measuring 241 Pu/ 241 Am ratio to determine the age of trace Pu was studied. The technique was explored for the age determination of nanogram grade Pu sample on the basis of Pu/Am separation. The ages of two Pu samples-one with known and the other with unknown age were determined by the method. The determined age by the method is in agreement with the reference value. The established method for determining the age of trace Pu can be adopted in the verification activities of nuclear safeguards and nuclear arms control. (authors)

  11. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  12. Age and growth determination in Citharinus citharus (Geoffrey and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An observation of the rings impressed on the polished sagittae otoliths of Citharinus citharus in the present study revealed reliable age data. Two daily rings were counted on the otoliths. These rings resulted from other factors including growth increments. Two types of rings (periodic and daily) were described. Two periodic ...

  13. Determination of lunar surface ages from crater frequency–size ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... mission in 1994.Simple techniques of measurement of the diameter of the craters (in pixels)are used and converted into linear dimensions.Among the several maria studied,the results of Mare Humorum and the central region of Mare Imbrium are reported.The results are compared with age estimates from other sources.

  14. Relative size and stand age determine Pinus banksiana mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han Y. H. Chen; Songling Fu; Robert A. Monserud; Ian C. Gillies

    2008-01-01

    Tree mortality is a poorly understood process in the boreal forest. Whereas large disturbances reset succession by killing all or most trees, background tree mortality was hypothesized to be affected by competition, ageing, and stand composition. We tested these hypotheses on jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) mortality using data from long-term...

  15. Determination of lunar surface ages from crater frequency–size ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3.2by BP). The oldest are Serentitatis and Imbrium. However,. Imbrian age has been regrouped into upper. Imbrian (3.22 to about 3.8by) and lower Imbrian which is a small band of 0.2 billion years due to an extended period of volcanism. Table 1.

  16. Age determination of Cape porcupines, Hystrix africaeaustralis | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation due to ramification and absorption of cementum and periosteal lines resulted in counts of these lines being unreliable indicators of age. Variation in counts of cementum lines apparently results from continual growth of the hypsodontic open-rooted premolars and molars. Heteroscadasticity resulted in the ...

  17. MRI to determine the chronological age of Ghanaian footballers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the age of Ghanaian soccer players who are aspiring to play for the national under-17 (U17) team, using the degree of fusion of the distal radius on magentic resonance imaging (MRI) and comparing it with the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) MRI grading. Methods. MRI scans of the left ...

  18. Determinants of age at first marriage in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high unemployment rate and increased cost of living in the city had tended to delay the timing of family formation in Addis Ababa. However, educated women, though delayingtheir marriage for the purposes of pursuing their education goal, had a better chance of getting married. Keywords: Age, first marriage, delayed ...

  19. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b..., or disabled individuals, the agency must use the popular usage method, if the plan provides under...

  20. Determinants of undernutrition among women of reproductive age in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-01

    May 1, 2015 ... who gave birth two months prior to the survey, had undernutrition, while 48% of women aged ... In order to improve women's nutritional status, policies should focus on improving family wealth and education. Peer reviewed. ..... In: Marge Koblinsky, Judith Timyan and Jill Gay, editors. The health of women: a ...

  1. Determination of lunar surface ages from crater frequency–size ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Crater size–frequency distribution is one of the powerful techniques to estimate the ages of planetary surfaces, especially from remote sensing studies. This has been applied to images of the Moon obtained from Clementine mission in 1994. Simple techniques of measurement of the diameter of the craters (in pixels) are ...

  2. Predicting the Risk to Develop Preeclampsia in the First Trimester Combining Promoter Variant -98A/C of LGALS13 (Placental Protein 13), Black Ethnicity, Previous Preeclampsia, Obesity, and Maternal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar-Shapiro, Liora; Karady, Ido; Trahtenherts, Alla; Syngelaki, Argryo; Akolekar, Ranjit; Poon, Liona; Cohen, Ruth; Sharabi-Nov, Adi; Huppertz, Berthold; Sammar, Marei; Juhasz, Kata; Than, Nandor Gabor; Papp, Zoltan; Romero, Roberto; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Meiri, Hamutal

    2017-07-21

    LGALS13 (placental protein 13 [PP13]) promoter DNA polymorphisms was evaluated in predicting preeclampsia (PE), given PP13's effects on hypotension, angiogenesis, and immune tolerance. First-trimester plasma samples (49 term and 18 intermediate) of PE cases matched with 196 controls were collected from King's College Hospital, London, repository. Cell-free DNA was extracted and the LGALS13 exons were sequenced after PCR amplification. Expression of LGALS13 promoter reporter constructs was determined in BeWo trophoblast-like cells with luciferase assays. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated for the A/A genotype combined with maternal risk factors. The A/A, A/C, and C/C genotypes in the -98 promoter position were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the control but not in the PE group (p 35, black ethnicity, and maternal age >40 were 15.6 and 11.0, respectively (p promoter variant had lower expression than the "-98C" variant in non-differentiated (-13%, p = 0.04) and differentiated (-26%, p promoter region position (compared to "C") and high OR calculated for the A/A genotype in the -98A/C promoter region position, history of previous PE, BMI >35, advanced maternal age >40, and black ethnicity could serve to aid in PE prediction in the first trimester. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Dysfunction elimination syndrome: is age at toilet training a determinant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Eliane Maria Garcez Oliveira; Santana, Priscila G R; Gomes, Fernanda Alves Pinto Mosqueira; Bastos, Marcelly Dias

    2011-06-01

    To study the relationship between the age of completion of toilet training during daytime and the onset of dysfunctional elimination syndrome (DES). The present study was designed as a case-control study. A total of 80 patients with DES were allocated to the case group and 80 patients age- and gender-matched without DES were allocated to the control group. The patients with DES were seen in a tertiary center and the control patients were seen in a primary care center. Early completion of toilet training was considered to be before 24 months. Patients were aged 3-17 years (mean: 7.55); 24 were male (30%) and 56 female (70%). The most frequent lower urinary tract symptoms were: urgency (77%), incontinence (75%), holding maneuvers (30%), high urinary frequency (61%) and low urinary frequency (16%). There was a history of urinary tract infection (UTI) in 62% of the DES group. The first UTI episode was before toilet training in 40%. The completion of toilet training was before the age of 2 years in 48% of DES patients and in 50% of the control group (p = 0.752) [odds ratio (OR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-1.62]. The completion of toilet training before 24 months of age was not associated with DES. Some patients had DES symptoms such as UTI, infrequent voiding and constipation before toilet training. These findings suggest that DES may precede toilet training and this possibility should be confirmed in further studies. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. BioAge: Toward A Multi-Determined, Mechanistic Account of Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Correne A.; Tuokko, Holly A.; Williams, Dorothy; Dixon, Roger A.; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.

    2014-01-01

    The search for reliable early indicators of age-related cognitive decline represents a critical avenue for progress in aging research. Chronological age is a commonly used developmental index; however, it offers little insight into the mechanisms underlying cognitive decline. In contrast, biological age (BioAge), reflecting the vitality of essential biological systems, represents a promising operationalization of developmental time. Current BioAge models have successfully predicted age-related cognitive deficits. Research on aging-related cognitive function indicates that the interaction of multiple risk and protective factors across the human lifespan confers individual risk for late-life cognitive decline, implicating a multi-causal explanation. In this review, we explore current BioAge models, describe three broad yet pathologically relevant biological processes linked to cognitive decline, and propose a novel operationalization of BioAge accounting for both moderating and causal mechanisms of cognitive decline and dementia. We argue that a multivariate and mechanistic BioAge approach will lead to a greater understanding of disease pathology as well as more accurate prediction and early identification of late-life cognitive decline. PMID:25278166

  5. BioAge: toward a multi-determined, mechanistic account of cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Correne A; Tuokko, Holly A; Williams, Dorothy; Dixon, Roger A; MacDonald, Stuart W S

    2014-11-01

    The search for reliable early indicators of age-related cognitive decline represents a critical avenue for progress in aging research. Chronological age is a commonly used developmental index; however, it offers little insight into the mechanisms underlying cognitive decline. In contrast, biological age (BioAge), reflecting the vitality of essential biological systems, represents a promising operationalization of developmental time. Current BioAge models have successfully predicted age-related cognitive deficits. Research on aging-related cognitive function indicates that the interaction of multiple risk and protective factors across the human lifespan confers individual risk for late-life cognitive decline, implicating a multi-causal explanation. In this review, we explore current BioAge models, describe three broad yet pathologically relevant biological processes linked to cognitive decline, and propose a novel operationalization of BioAge accounting for both moderating and causal mechanisms of cognitive decline and dementia. We argue that a multivariate and mechanistic BioAge approach will lead to a greater understanding of disease pathology as well as more accurate prediction and early identification of late-life cognitive decline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bortezomib Added to Daunorubicin and Cytarabine During Induction Therapy and to Intermediate-Dose Cytarabine for Consolidation in Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia Age 60 to 75 Years: CALGB (Alliance) Study 10502

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Eyal C.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Amrein, Philip C.; Lozanski, Gerard; Wadleigh, Martha; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Powell, Bayard L.; Voorhees, Peter; Wang, Eunice S.; Blum, William; Stone, Richard M.; Marcucci, Guido; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Moser, Barry; Larson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine remission induction frequency when bortezomib was combined with daunorubicin and cytarabine in previously untreated older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and safety of bortezomib in combination with consolidation chemotherapy consisting of intermediate-dose cytarabine (Int-DAC). Patients and Methods Ninety-five adults (age 60 to 75 years; median, 67 years) with previously untreated AML (including therapy-related and previous myelodysplastic syndrome) received bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 with daunorubicin 60 mg/m2 on days 1 through 3 and cytarabine 100 mg/m2 by continuous IV infusion on days 1 through 7. Patients who achieved complete remission (CR) received up to two courses of consolidation chemotherapy with cytarabine 2 gm/m2 on days 1 through 5 with bortezomib. Three cohorts with escalating dose levels of bortezomib were tested (0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 mg/m2). Dose-limiting toxicities were assessed during the first cycle of consolidation. The relationship between cell surface expression of CD74 and clinical outcome was assessed. Results Frequency of CR was 65% (62 of 95), and 4% of patients (four of 95) achieved CR with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp). Eleven patients developed grade 3 sensory neuropathy. Bortezomib plus Int-DAC proved tolerable at the highest dose tested. Lower CD74 expression was associated with CR/CRp (P = .04) but not with disease-free or overall survival. Conclusion The addition of bortezomib to standard 3 + 7 daunorubicin and cytarabine induction chemotherapy for AML resulted in an encouraging remission rate. The maximum tested dose of bortezomib administered in combination with Int-DAC for remission consolidation was 1.3 mg/m2 and proved tolerable. Further testing of this regimen is planned. PMID:23129738

  7. OSL age determinations of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    SOARES, Emílio A.A.; TATUMI, Sonia H.; Riccomini, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Absolute dating methods have been used in chronological studies of geological processes and sedimentary units of Quaternary age in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Although radiocarbon dating has been very useful in archaeological research and soil studies, the temporal interval of this method is inefficient in evaluating the sedimentation aspects and geological events from the beginning of the Quaternary in the Amazon basin. The use of crystal luminescence dating has been one of the most promising ...

  8. Young patient's age determines pterygium recurrence after surgery.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... and degree of fleshiness, and laterality were compared between recurrent and no recurrent pterygia. ... was performed to determine the predictors of pterygium recurrence. Recurrence rates after surgery were compared between. CAT and LCAT. Results. ... obstruction of vision, disfigurement, or frequent.

  9. Determining ethnic-, gender-, and age-specific waist circumference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim was to determine receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) waist circumference (WC) cut-off points best associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a cohort of South African teachers. Design: Target population study. Setting and subjects: Four hundred and nine urban black (Africans) and white ...

  10. Social relations as determinant of onset of disability in aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze whether social relations are related to onset of disability among old people at 1.5 year follow-up and whether these relations vary by age and gender. The study is based on baseline and 1.5 year follow-up data on 1396 older non-disabled adults. Social...... relations were measured by questions about diversity in social relations, social participation, satisfaction with social relations and instrumental social support. Onset of disability was described as developing need of help in at least one of six mobility activities. The results showed that a large...

  11. Social relations as determinant of onset of disability in aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze whether social relations are related to onset of disability among old people at 1.5 year follow-up and whether these relations vary by age and gender. The study is based on baseline and 1.5 year follow-up data on 1396 older non-disabled adults. Social...... relations were measured by questions about diversity in social relations, social participation, satisfaction with social relations and instrumental social support. Onset of disability was described as developing need of help in at least one of six mobility activities. The results showed that a large...

  12. Determination of dideoxyosone precursors of AGEs in human lens proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linetsky, Mikhail; Kaid Johar, S R; Meltretter, Jasmin; Padmanabha, Smitha; Parmar, Trilok; Vasavada, Abhay R; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Nagaraj, Ram H

    2011-10-01

    Dideoxyosones (DDOs) are intermediates in the synthesis of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), such as pentosidine and glucosepane. Although the formation of pentosidine and glucosepane in the human lens has been firmly established, the formation of DDOs has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method to detect DDOs in lens proteins. A specific DDO trapping agent, biotinyl-diaminobenzene (3,4-diamino-N-(3-[5-(2-oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoyl]aminopropyl)benzamide) (BDAB) was added during in vitro protein glycation or during protein extraction from human lenses. In vitro glycated human lens protein showed strong reaction in monomeric and polymeric crosslinked proteins by Western blot and ELISA. Glycation of BSA in the presence of BDAB resulted in covalent binding of BDAB to the protein and inhibited pentosidine formation. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysozyme glycated in the presence of BDAB showed the presence of quinoxalines at lysine residues at positions K1, K33, K96, and K116. The ELISA results indicated that cataractous lens proteins contain significantly higher levels of DDO than non-cataractous lenses (101.9±67.8 vs. 31.7±19.5AU/mg protein, p<0.0001). This study provides first direct evidence of DDO presence in human tissue proteins and establishes that AGE crosslink synthesis in the human lens occurs via DDO intermediates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Age of menopause and determinants of menopause age: A PAN India survey by IMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Ahuja

    2016-01-01

    Results: Average age of menopause of an Indian woman is 46.2 years much less than their Western counter parts (51 years. A definite rural and urban division was also seen. There was a correlation between the age of menopause and social and economic status, married status, and parity status.

  14. Non-perforation tension pneumoperitoneum resulting from primary non-aerobic bacterial peritonitis in a previously healthy middle-aged man: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, Ognyan Georgiev; Nikolov, Plamen Cekov

    2016-06-06

    Tension pneumoperitoneum is a rare surgical emergency in which free intraperitoneal gas accumulates under pressure. The known sources of free gas are perforated hollow viscera. We believe this is the first published case of a tension non-perforation pneumoperitoneum secondary to anaerobic gas production. This occurred in a background of primary non-aerobic bacterial peritonitis, which developed in an immunocompetent adult man. A previously healthy 45-year-old Bulgarian man presented with a 3-week history of abdominal pain. He displayed signs of shock, peritonitis, and abdominal compartment syndrome. A plain abdominal X-ray showed the pathognomonic "saddlebag sign" with his liver displaced downwards and medially. An emergency laparotomy released pressurized gas, accompanied by 3100 mL of foamy pus. A sudden hemodynamic deterioration occurred soon after decompression. The sources of infection and tension pneumoperitoneum were not found. The peritoneal exudate sample did not recover aerobes. A laparostomy was created and three planned re-operations were performed. During the second re-laparotomy we placed an intraperitoneal silo and his abdomen was closed with skin sutures. Definitive fascial closure was achieved through separation of his two rectus muscles from their posterior sheaths. He was discharged in good health on the 25th postoperative day. Our case provides evidence supporting the theory that anaerobic infection may underlie the etiology of tension pneumoperitoneum. Prior to decompressive laparotomy the patient should receive an intravenous volume bolus to compensate for possible hypotension. If laparostomy leads to lateralization of the rectus muscles with a gap of 6 cm or less, the posterior part of the components separation technique is effective in achieving fascial closure. We present an original classification of tension pneumoperitoneum defining it as primary or secondary.

  15. Social relations as determinant of onset of disability in aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze whether social relations are related to onset of disability among old people at 1.5 year follow-up and whether these relations vary by age and gender. The study is based on baseline and 1.5 year follow-up data on 1396 older non-disabled adults. Social...... relations were measured by questions about diversity in social relations, social participation, satisfaction with social relations and instrumental social support. Onset of disability was described as developing need of help in at least one of six mobility activities. The results showed that a large...... diversity in social relations and high social participation were important factors for maintaining functional ability among the 75-year-old men and women, while social support was a risk factor for functional decline among the 80-year-old men. The present study suggests that being "embedded" in a strong...

  16. Social relations as determinant of onset of disability in aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze whether social relations are related to onset of disability among old people at 1.5 year follow-up and whether these relations vary by age and gender. The study is based on baseline and 1.5 year follow-up data on 1396 older non-disabled adults. Social...... relations were measured by questions about diversity in social relations, social participation, satisfaction with social relations and instrumental social support. Onset of disability was described as developing need of help in at least one of six mobility activities. The results showed that a large...... diversity in social relations and high social participation were important factors for maintaining functional ability among the 75-year-old men and women, while social support was a risk factor for functional decline among the 80-year-old men. The present study suggests that being "embedded" in a strong...

  17. Aging related changes in determinants of muscle force generating capacity: a comparison of muscle aging in men and male rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballak, Sam B; Degens, Hans; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    Human aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and force generating capacity, however the exact mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. Rodents models have often been used to enhance our understanding of mechanisms of age-related changes in human skeletal muscle. However, to what extent age-related alterations in determinants of muscle force generating capacity observed in rodents resemble those in humans has not been considered thoroughly. This review compares the effect of aging on muscle force generating determinants (muscle mass, fiber size, fiber number, fiber type distribution and muscle specific tension), in men and male rodents at similar relative age. It appears that muscle aging in male F344*BN rat resembles that in men most; 32-35-month-old rats exhibit similar signs of muscle weakness to those of 70-80-yr-old men, and the decline in 36-38-month-old rats is similar to that in men aged over 80 yrs. For male C57BL/6 mice, age-related decline in muscle force generating capacity seems to occur only at higher relative age than in men. We conclude that the effects on determinants of muscle force differ between species as well as within species, but qualitatively show the same pattern as that observed in men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The TL and age determination of the impacted quartz sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingfa; Hu Suimin; Li Dahong

    1999-01-01

    When a quartz sandstone target was shocked by a steel ball (6 mm in diameter) accelerated to 7 km/s by using a two-stage light gas gun, the crystal structure and physical characteristics of the quartz was changed. By measuring the TL of the quartz sandstone before and after shocking it was found that the TL of the quartz sandstone decreased with the increasing shocking pressure and there was a TL gradient from outside to inside around the shocked point. The induced TL test was made for the sample taken from the shocked point at the same time, and an induced TL gradient from outside to inside was also found, though it was less than natural TL gradient. A sample with TL gradient is often valuable for meteoric crater determination

  19. Reciprocal Changes in Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase and Pyruvate Kinase with Age Are a Determinant of Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yiyuan; Hakimi, Parvin; Kao, Clara; Kao, Allison; Liu, Ruifu; Janocha, Allison; Boyd-Tressler, Andrea; Hang, Xi; Alhoraibi, Hanna; Slater, Erin; Xia, Kevin; Cao, Pengxiu; Shue, Quinn; Ching, Tsui-Ting; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Erzurum, Serpil C; Dubyak, George R; Berger, Nathan A; Hanson, Richard W; Feng, Zhaoyang

    2016-01-15

    Aging involves progressive loss of cellular function and integrity, presumably caused by accumulated stochastic damage to cells. Alterations in energy metabolism contribute to aging, but how energy metabolism changes with age, how these changes affect aging, and whether they can be modified to modulate aging remain unclear. In locomotory muscle of post-fertile Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a progressive decrease in cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), a longevity-associated metabolic enzyme, and a reciprocal increase in glycolytic pyruvate kinase (PK) that were necessary and sufficient to limit lifespan. Decline in PEPCK-C with age also led to loss of cellular function and integrity including muscle activity, and cellular senescence. Genetic and pharmacologic interventions of PEPCK-C, muscle activity, and AMPK signaling demonstrate that declines in PEPCK-C and muscle function with age interacted to limit reproductive life and lifespan via disrupted energy homeostasis. Quantifications of metabolic flux show that reciprocal changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age shunted energy metabolism toward glycolysis, reducing mitochondrial bioenergetics. Last, calorie restriction countered changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age to elicit anti-aging effects via TOR inhibition. Thus, a programmed metabolic event involving PEPCK-C and PK is a determinant of aging that can be modified to modulate aging. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs of human genes differentially expressed with age are enriched for determinants of longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, George L; Backer, Grant; Sheehan, Susan; Bean, Shannon; Corban, Caroline; Liu, Teresa; Peters, Marjolein J; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Murabito, Joanne M; Johnson, Andrew D; Korstanje, Ron

    2017-08-01

    We report a systematic RNAi longevity screen of 82 Caenorhabditis elegans genes selected based on orthology to human genes differentially expressed with age. We find substantial enrichment in genes for which knockdown increased lifespan. This enrichment is markedly higher than published genomewide longevity screens in C. elegans and similar to screens that preselected candidates based on longevity-correlated metrics (e.g., stress resistance). Of the 50 genes that affected lifespan, 46 were previously unreported. The five genes with the greatest impact on lifespan (>20% extension) encode the enzyme kynureninase (kynu-1), a neuronal leucine-rich repeat protein (iglr-1), a tetraspanin (tsp-3), a regulator of calcineurin (rcan-1), and a voltage-gated calcium channel subunit (unc-36). Knockdown of each gene extended healthspan without impairing reproduction. kynu-1(RNAi) alone delayed pathology in C. elegans models of Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Each gene displayed a distinct pattern of interaction with known aging pathways. In the context of published work, kynu-1, tsp-3, and rcan-1 are of particular interest for immediate follow-up. kynu-1 is an understudied member of the kynurenine metabolic pathway with a mechanistically distinct impact on lifespan. Our data suggest that tsp-3 is a novel modulator of hypoxic signaling and rcan-1 is a context-specific calcineurin regulator. Our results validate C. elegans as a comparative tool for prioritizing human candidate aging genes, confirm age-associated gene expression data as valuable source of novel longevity determinants, and prioritize select genes for mechanistic follow-up. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Determinants of health and disability in ageing population: the COURAGE in Europe Project (collaborative research on ageing in Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Matilde; Chatterji, Somnath; Koskinen, Seppo; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Haro, Josep Maria; Frisoni, Giovanni; Frattura, Lucilla; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Gmurek, Michal; Serrano, Ramon; Finocchiaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    COURAGE in Europe was a 3-year project involving 12 partners from four European countries and the World Health Organization. It was inspired by the pressing need to integrate international studies on disability and ageing in light of an innovative perspective based on a validated data-collection protocol. COURAGE in Europe Project collected data on the determinants of health and disability in an ageing population, with specific tools for the evaluation of the role of the built environment and social networks on health, disability, quality of life and well-being. The main survey was conducted by partners in Finland, Poland and Spain where the survey has been administered to a sample of 10,800 persons, which was completed in March 2012. The newly developed and validated COURAGE Protocol for Ageing Studies has proven to be a valid tool for collecting comparable data in ageing population, and the COURAGE in Europe Project has created valid and reliable scientific evidence, demonstrating cross-country comparability, for disability and ageing research and policy development. It is therefore recommended that future studies exploring determinants of health and disability in ageing use the COURAGE-derived methodology. COURAGE in Europe Project collected data on the determinants of health and disability in an ageing population, with specific tools for the evaluation of the role of built environment and social networks on health, disability quality of life and well-being. The COURAGE Protocol for Ageing Studies has proven to be a valid tool for collecting comparable data in the ageing population. The COURAGE in Europe Consortium recommends that future studies exploring determinants of health and disability in ageing use COURAGE-derived methodology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Lens aging in relation to nutritional determinants and possible risk factors for age-related cataract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; Broekmans, W.M.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Poppel, G. van; Norren, D. van

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether nutritional factors and possible risk factors for cataract influence the lens optical density (LOD). Design: Three hundred seventy-six subjects, aged 18 to 75 years, were recruited. In a cross-sectional design, serum was analyzed for lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin C,

  3. Survey to determine the efficacy and safety of guideline-based pharmacological therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients not previously receiving maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoguchi, Yasuhiro; Izumi, Shinyu; Nakamura, Hidenori; Hanada, Shigeo; Marumo, Kazuyoshi; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Akata, Shouichi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the potential beneficial effects of guideline-based pharmacological therapy on pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL) in Japanese chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients without prior treatment. Multicenter survey, open-label study of 49 Japanese COPD patients aged ≥ 40 years; outpatients with >10 pack years of smoking history; ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) patients. Significant changes over time were not observed for FEV1 and FVC, indicating lung function at initiation of treatment was maintained during the observation period. COPD assessment test scores showed statistical and clinical improvements. Cough, sputum, breathlessness, and shortness of breath were significantly improved. Lung function and QOL of untreated Japanese COPD patients improved and improvements were maintained by performing a therapeutic intervention that conformed to published guidelines.

  4. Determination of skeletal age in children with Osgood-Schlatter disease by using radiographs of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashar, A; Loder, R T; Hensinger, R N

    1995-01-01

    We determined the skeletal age in 26 children (12 girls, 14 boys) with Osgood-Schlatter disease using knee radiographs. The average chronological age was 13.2 +/- 2.2 years, and the average bone age was 13.1 +/- 2.3 years (p > 0.01). All but one of the skeletal ages fell within the normal range. Skeletal maturation in children with Osgood-Schlatter disease is thus normal. With normal skeletal maturation and normal physes histologically (previously shown), it is unlikely that an abnormality of physeal development or structure is the etiology of Osgood-Schlatter disease. Rather, it is most likely a result of tensile stresses on the tibial tuberosity. This is in contrast to slipped capital femoral epiphysis, another common disorder affecting children of the same ages as those with Osgood-Schlatter disease, in which physeal abnormalities and skeletal maturation anomalies do occur.

  5. Revisiting chlorophyll extraction methods in biological soil crusts – methodology for determination of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll a + b as compared to previous methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Caesar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll concentrations of biological soil crust (biocrust samples are commonly determined to quantify the relevance of photosynthetically active organisms within these surface soil communities. Whereas chlorophyll extraction methods for freshwater algae and leaf tissues of vascular plants are well established, there is still some uncertainty regarding the optimal extraction method for biocrusts, where organism composition is highly variable and samples comprise major amounts of soil. In this study we analyzed the efficiency of two different chlorophyll extraction solvents, the effect of grinding the soil samples prior to the extraction procedure, and the impact of shaking as an intermediate step during extraction. The analyses were conducted on four different types of biocrusts. Our results show that for all biocrust types chlorophyll contents obtained with ethanol were significantly lower than those obtained using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as a solvent. Grinding of biocrust samples prior to analysis caused a highly significant decrease in chlorophyll content for green algal lichen- and cyanolichen-dominated biocrusts, and a tendency towards lower values for moss- and algae-dominated biocrusts. Shaking of the samples after each extraction step had a significant positive effect on the chlorophyll content of green algal lichen- and cyanolichen-dominated biocrusts. Based on our results we confirm a DMSO-based chlorophyll extraction method without grinding pretreatment and suggest the addition of an intermediate shaking step for complete chlorophyll extraction (see Supplement S6 for detailed manual. Determination of a universal chlorophyll extraction method for biocrusts is essential for the inter-comparability of publications conducted across all continents.

  6. Evaluation of the Applicability of Different Age Determination Methods for Estimating Age of the Endangered African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreangels M Mbizah

    Full Text Available African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus are endangered and their population continues to decline throughout their range. Given their conservation status, more research focused on their population dynamics, population growth and age specific mortality is needed and this requires reliable estimates of age and age of mortality. Various age determination methods from teeth and skull measurements have been applied in numerous studies and it is fundamental to test the validity of these methods and their applicability to different species. In this study we assessed the accuracy of estimating chronological age and age class of African wild dogs, from dental age measured by (i counting cementum annuli (ii pulp cavity/tooth width ratio, (iii tooth wear (measured by tooth crown height (iv tooth wear (measured by tooth crown width/crown height ratio (v tooth weight and (vi skull measurements (length, width and height. A sample of 29 African wild dog skulls, from opportunistically located carcasses was analysed. Linear and ordinal regression analysis was done to investigate the performance of each of the six age determination methods in predicting wild dog chronological age and age class. Counting cementum annuli was the most accurate method for estimating chronological age of wild dogs with a 79% predictive capacity, while pulp cavity/tooth width ratio was also a reliable method with a 68% predictive capacity. Counting cementum annuli and pulp cavity/tooth width ratio were again the most accurate methods for separating wild dogs into three age classes (6-24 months; 25-60 months and > 60 months, with a McFadden's Pseudo-R2 of 0.705 and 0.412 respectively. The use of the cementum annuli method is recommended when estimating age of wild dogs since it is the most reliable method. However, its use is limited as it requires tooth extraction and shipping, is time consuming and expensive, and is not applicable to living individuals. Pulp cavity/tooth width ratio is a

  7. 77 FR 4858 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century)'' AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION... to the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century). The referenced notice... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century...

  8. Reflectance-based determination of age and species of blowfly puparia

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, SC; Magni, P; Dadour, I; Nansen, C

    2017-01-01

    © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Forensic entomology is primarily concerned with the estimation of time since death and involves determination of the age of immature insects colonising decomposing remains. Accurate age determination of puparia is usually accomplished by dissection, which means destructive sampling of evidence. As part of improving abilities to correctly identify species and developmental age, it is highly desirable to have available non-destructive methods. In this ...

  9. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  10. The utility of ultrasonographic bone age determination in detecting growth disturbances; a comparative study with the conventional radiographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajalioghli, Parisa; Tarzamni, Mohammad Kazem; Arami, Sara [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fouladi, Daniel Fadaei [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghojazadeh, Morteza [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To test whether the conventional radiographic technique in determining bone age abnormalities can be replaced by ultrasonography. A total of 54 Caucasian subjects up to 7 years of age with clinically suspected growth problems underwent left hand and wrist radiographic and ultrasonographic bone age estimations with the use of the Greulich-Pyle atlas. The ultrasonographic scans targeted the ossification centers in the radius and ulna distal epiphysis, carpal bones, epiphyses of the first and third metacarpals, and epiphysis of the middle phalanx, as described in previous reports. The degree of agreement between the two sets of data, as well as the accuracy of the ultrasonographic method in detecting radiographically suggested bone age abnormities, was examined. The mean chronological age, radiographic bone age, and ultrasonographic bone age (all in months) were 41.96 ± 22.25, 26.68 ± 14.08, and 26.71 ± 13.50 in 28 boys and 43.62 ± 24.63, 30.12 ± 17.69, and 31.27 ± 18.06 in 26 girls, respectively. According to the Bland-Altman plot there was high agreement between the results of the two methods with only three outliers. The deviations in bone age from the chronological age taken by the two techniques had the same sign in all patients. Supposing radiography to be the method of reference, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of sonography in detecting growth abnormalities were all 100 % in males and 90.9, 100, 100, and 93.8 %, respectively, in females. The conventional radiographic technique for determining bone age abnormalities could be replaced by ultrasonography. (orig.)

  11. [Determinants of active aging according to quality of life and gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte

    2015-07-01

    The scope of this study was to construct an indicator of active aging and assess its association with quality of life and possible determinants according to gender. The AGEQOL (Aging, Gender and Quality of Life) study was used to interview 2052 individuals aged 60 years and older residing in Sete Lagoas in the State of Minas Gerais. The association between active aging, quality of life and possible determinants was performed by multiple logistic regression with a 5% level of statistical significance separately for each gender. Most men were in the active aging group (58%), and 51.8% of women were in the normal aging group (p active aging. Women with higher incomes, who did not suffer falls and engaged in community participation, had a better chance of belonging to the active aging group. The conclusion drawn is that quality of life and participation in groups are the main determinants of active aging, and the other factors associated with active aging are different for each gender.

  12. Microscopic age determination of human skeletons including an unknown but calculable variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Johan Albert; Tkocz, Izabella; Kristensen, Gustav

    1994-01-01

    estimation, which includes the covariance matrix of four single equation residuals, improves the accuracy of age determination. The standard deviation, however, of age prediction remains 12.58 years. An experimental split of the data was made in order to demonstrate that the use of subgroups gives a false...... impression of higher precision of age determination. The present study demonstrates that determination of age at death through microscopic bone morphometry is considerably less precise than generally stated in the literature.......Histomorphometric semi-automatic image analysis of cross-sections of 101 femoral diaphyseal bone sections were performed to reconsider to what degree osteon remodelling in the outer cortex is affected by age. The data were analysed statistically using the generalized least squares method. The model...

  13. 20 CFR 410.426 - Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.426 Determining total disability: Age, education, and work...

  14. Age at menarche and its socioeconomic determinants among female students in an urban area in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Serajul; Hussain, Md Altaf; Islam, Saimul; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Biswas, Tuhin; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the age at menarche and its socioeconomic determinants among urban female students (n=680) in Bangladesh. The mean age of the respondents was 14±1.43years. Majority of the respondents were unmarried (98.4%). The mean age at menarche was 11.6±3.6years, median 12years. Almost one-third (35.7%) of the participants had menarche at the age of 12years. There was no statistically significant difference between age at menarche before and after 12years with the socio-economic characteristics, except education (p=<0.001). In the multivariate model, only higher education was statistically significant predictor of age at menarche. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Age estimation of blood stains by hemoglobin derivative determination using reflectance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; Nadort, Annemarie; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Blood stains can be crucial in reconstructing crime events. However, no reliable methods are currently available to establish the age of a blood stain on the crime scene. We show that determining the fractions of three hemoglobin derivatives in a blood stain at various ages enables relating these

  16. Lunar chronology as determined from the radiometric ages of returned lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, O.A.

    1977-01-01

    Arguments based on radiometric age determination measurements are presented which lead to the conclusion that Imbrium ejecta probably dominate most lunar highland samples and that it seems possible to date several major basins at times considerably older than 3.9 Ga ago. A complete picture of the ages of highland rocks is considered by using K-Ar method results. (U.K.)

  17. Work characteristics and determinants of job satisfaction in four age groups: university employees' point of view.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.T.; Donders, N.C.G.M.; Bouwman-Brouwer, K.M.; Gulden, J.W.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate (a) differences in work characteristics and (b) determinants of job satisfaction among employees in different age groups. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire was filled in by 1,112 university employees, classified into four age groups. (a) Work characteristics were

  18. Microscopic age determination of human skeletons including an unknown but calculable variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Johan Albert; Tkocz, Izabella; Kristensen, Gustav

    1994-01-01

    estimation, which includes the covariance matrix of four single equation residuals, improves the accuracy of age determination. The standard deviation, however, of age prediction remains 12.58 years. An experimental split of the data was made in order to demonstrate that the use of subgroups gives a false...

  19. 76 FR 60112 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7615] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century)'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of... included in the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from...

  20. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  1. Determination of gestational age by ultrasonography - wrong, wrong and wrong again?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratlid, D.

    1991-01-01

    The article is a critical review of principal weaknesses in the current use of ultrasonography for determination of gestational age and discusses the fact that the method in its practical use disregards any biological variation in biparietal diameter. It is concluded that second trimester determination of gestational age by ultrasonography has an accuracy no greater than ±1.5 weeks. This is comparable to the accuracy of the clinical assessment of maturation in the newborn baby. Ultrasonography as the main indicator of gestational age should be used only when the pregnant woman's own menstrual history is obviously incorrect. 6 refs., 1 fig

  2. MRI of the wrist is not recommended for age determination in female football players of U-16/U-17 competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscholl, P M; Junge, A; Dvorak, J; Zubler, V

    2016-03-01

    Age determination on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the wrist is a reliable method in male football players to evaluate their eligibility to participate in Under 17 tournaments. MRI of the wrist was performed in 487 female volunteers aged 13-19 years from Brazil, Germany, Malaysia, and Tanzania, and in 139 female football players participating in Under-16 and Under-17 football tournaments. A previously validated method for grading fusion of the distal radial epiphysis in male adolescent was used. Moderate correlation of chronological age and epiphyseal fusion was found in the normative control group (r = .59) and weak correlation in female football players (r = .27). Complete fusion of the distal radial epiphysis was observed in two 15-year-old volunteers of the control group (1.7%) and in 17.6% (3 of 17) of 14-year-old football players. Up to 10.8% (47 of 437) in the control group and 14.4% (20 of 139) of the football players 17 years or younger had complete fused epiphysis. Because of earlier osseous maturity in female adolescents, the grade of fusion of the distal radial epiphysis on MRI is not recommended for pretournament age determination for the age of 17 and younger in female. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Automatic determination of Greulich and Pyle bone age in healthy Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Rick R.; Lequin, Maarten H.; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Bone age (BA) assessment is a routine procedure in paediatric radiology, for which the Greulich and Pyle (GP) atlas is mostly used. There is rater variability, but the advent of automatic BA determination eliminates this. To validate the BoneXpert method for automatic determination of skeletal

  4. Utility of telomere length measurements for age determination of humpback whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tange Olsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the applicability of telomere length measurements by quantitative PCR as a tool for minimally invasive age determination of free-ranging cetaceans. We analysed telomere length in skin samples from 28 North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, ranging from 0 to 26 years of age. The results suggested a significant correlation between telomere length and age in humpback whales. However, telomere length was highly variable among individuals of similar age, suggesting that telomere length measured by quantitative PCR is an imprecise determinant of age in humpback whales. The observed variation in individual telomere length was found to be a function of both experimental and biological variability, with the latter perhaps reflecting patterns of inheritance, resource allocation trade-offs, and stochasticity of the marine environment.

  5. Use of reflectance spectrophotometry and colorimetry in a general linear model for the determination of the age of bruises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Vanessa K; Langlois, Neil E I

    2010-12-01

    Bruises can have medicolegal significance such that the age of a bruise may be an important issue. This study sought to determine if colorimetry or reflectance spectrophotometry could be employed to objectively estimate the age of bruises. Based on a previously described method, reflectance spectrophotometric scans were obtained from bruises using a Cary 100 Bio spectrophotometer fitted with a fibre-optic reflectance probe. Measurements were taken from the bruise and a control area. Software was used to calculate the first derivative at 490 and 480 nm; the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin was calculated using an isobestic point method and a software application converted the scan data into colorimetry data. In addition, data on factors that might be associated with the determination of the age of a bruise: subject age, subject sex, degree of trauma, bruise size, skin color, body build, and depth of bruise were recorded. From 147 subjects, 233 reflectance spectrophotometry scans were obtained for analysis. The age of the bruises ranged from 0.5 to 231.5 h. A General Linear Model analysis method was used. This revealed that colorimetric measurement of the yellowness of a bruise accounted for 13% of the bruise age. By incorporation of the other recorded data (as above), yellowness could predict up to 32% of the age of a bruise-implying that 68% of the variation was dependent on other factors. However, critical appraisal of the model revealed that the colorimetry method of determining the age of a bruise was affected by skin tone and required a measure of the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin, which is obtained by spectrophotometric methods. Using spectrophotometry, the first derivative at 490 nm alone accounted for 18% of the bruise age estimate. When additional factors (subject sex, bruise depth and oxygenation of hemoglobin) were included in the General Linear Model this increased to 31%-implying that 69% of the variation was dependent on other factors. This

  6. Development changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in Chrysomya rufifacies larvae: potential for determining larval age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G H; Ye, G Y; Hu, C; Xu, X H; Li, K

    2006-12-01

    Age determination is the basis of determining the postmortem interval using necrophagous fly larvae. To explore the potential of using cuticular hydrocarbons for determining the ages of fly larvae, changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in developing larvae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were investigated using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study showed that the larvae produced cuticular hydrocarbons typical of insects. Most of the hydrocarbons identified were alkanes with the carbon chain length of 21-31, plus six kinds of alkenes. The hydrocarbon composition of the larvae correlated with age. The statistical results showed that simple peak ratios of n-C29 divided by another eight selected peaks increased significantly with age; their relationships with age could be modelled using exponential or power functions with R(2) close to or > 0.80. These results suggest that cuticular hydrocarbon composition is a useful indicator for determining the age of larval C. rufifacies, especially for post-feeding larvae, which are difficult to differentiate by morphology.

  7. Age determination of marine sediments in the western North Pacific by aspartic acid chronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Naomi; Kusakabe, Masashi; Handa, Nobuhiko; Oba, Tadamichi; Matsuoka, Hiromi; Kimoto, Katsunori.

    1997-01-01

    The ages of fossil planktonic foraminifera, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, in sediments (core 3bPC) from the western North Pacific were determined by aspartic acid chronology, which uses the racemization reaction rate constant of aspartic acid (k Asp ). Aspartic acid racemization-based ages (Asp ages) ranged from 7,600 yrBP at the surface, to 307,000 yrBP at a depth of 352.9 cm in the sediments. This sediment core was also dated by the glacial-interglacial fluctuation of σ 18 O chronology, and the ages determined by both chronologies were compared. The ages derived from aspartic acid chronology and σ 18 O stratigraphy were more or less consistent, but there appeared to be some differences in age estimates between these two dating methods at some depths within the core. In the core top sediments, the likely cause for the age discrepancy could be the loss of the surface sediment during sampling of the core. At depths of 66.3 and 139 cm within the core, Asp ages indicated reduced sedimentation rates during ca. 60,000-80,000 yrBP and ca. 140,000-190,000 yrBP. The maximum age differences in both chronologies are 33,000 yr and 46,600 yr during each of these periods. These anomalous reductions in sedimentation rates occurring during these periods could possibly be related to some geological events, such as an increased dissolution effect of the calcium carbonate in the western North Pacific. Another possible reason for these age differences could be the unreliability in σ 18 O ages of core 3bPC as they were estimated by σ 18 O ages of another core, 3aPC. (author)

  8. Determinants of successful aging using a multidimensional definition among Chinese elderly in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tze Pin; Broekman, Birit F P; Niti, Matthew; Gwee, Xinyi; Kua, Ee Heok

    2009-05-01

    Most studies of successful aging have used restricted definitions based on the absence of disability and identified a small number of predictors. The authors aimed to examine whether a broad multidimensional definition of successful aging has good construct validity and identified a wider range of predictors that are relevant for multifaceted interventions. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data analyses were performed on 1,281 community-living Chinese elderly of 65 years and above in the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study cohort. Successful aging was measured in multiple dimensions of functioning and wellness: cognitive and affective status, physical health, social functioning and engagement and life satisfaction, and a summary composite measure created across dimensions to form a dichotomous variable. Potential determinants included sociodemographic, psychosocial, behavioral variables. Successful aging was determined in 28.6% of respondents and in multivariate models was significantly (p or =6 years of education (OR = 2.31), better housing (OR = 1.41), religious or spiritual beliefs (OR = 1.64), physical activities and exercise (OR = 1.90), and low or no nutritional risk (OR = 2.16). In contrast to findings based on more restricted biomedical definitions of successful aging, a multidimensional definition of successful aging identified more variables including demographic status, psychosocial support, spirituality, and nutrition as salient determinants.

  9. Ultrasound determination of gestational age using placental thickness in female dogs: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, André Luiz Louzada; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Mendonça, Débora Sartori; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To verify if the placental thickness allows determining the gestational age, evaluating the correlation between the referred gestational age with the studied one, and the accuracy of the placental thickness measurement (biometry) with fetal morphologic parameters in bitches. Methods. The placental thickness of 336 bitches of diverse breeds was evaluated. Bitches were divided in three groups by body weight: small, medium, and big large size. The gestations pregnancies were evaluated by ultrasound from the third week of gestation. An analysis was performed between the mean values of the gestational age obtained of placental thickness by adjustment of curves and the reported gestational age. Student's t-test was applied to compare the mean of reported and placental thickness gestational age. Significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results. A positive and statistically significant correlation exists between the placental thickness and gestational age. The expression that presents the best correlation coefficient and explanation was thickness of placenta = 0.021x gestational age -0.314. Conclusion. It is possible to determine the gestational age in relation to the placental thickness measured by ultrasound in bitches with a satisfactory accuracy in relation to fetal morphologic parameters as gestational vesicle, ribs, or kidneys.

  10. Ultrasound Determination of Gestational Age Using Placental Thickness in Female Dogs: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Louzada Maldonado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To verify if the placental thickness allows determining the gestational age, evaluating the correlation between the referred gestational age with the studied one, and the accuracy of the placental thickness measurement (biometry with fetal morphologic parameters in bitches. Methods. The placental thickness of 336 bitches of diverse breeds was evaluated. Bitches were divided in three groups by body weight: small, medium, and big large size. The gestations pregnancies were evaluated by ultrasound from the third week of gestation. An analysis was performed between the mean values of the gestational age obtained of placental thickness by adjustment of curves and the reported gestational age. Student's t-test was applied to compare the mean of reported and placental thickness gestational age. Significance was defined as P<0.05. Results. A positive and statistically significant correlation exists between the placental thickness and gestational age. The expression that presents the best correlation coefficient and explanation was thickness of placenta = 0.021x gestational age −0.314. Conclusion. It is possible to determine the gestational age in relation to the placental thickness measured by ultrasound in bitches with a satisfactory accuracy in relation to fetal morphologic parameters as gestational vesicle, ribs, or kidneys.

  11. Socioeconomic determinants of age at first birth in rural areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminul Haque, Md; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    The age at first birth is very low under existing rural sociocultural settings in Bangladesh. This study examined the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of age at first birth. The study subjects were married women aged 15 to 29 years in 2 rural areas that were identified through a multistage sampling technique. To collect the relevant information, a semistructured interviewer schedule was applied to the eligible women. This study found that 72.8% women gave first birth at determinants, family pressure explained the most significant variance. It is really difficult to reduce fertility in complex sociocultural settings in rural Bangladesh. However, the findings of this study may provide an answer to increase the age at first birth and hence to reduce the high fertility among these group of women.

  12. Change in Body Weight from Age 20 Years Is a Powerful Determinant of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lars; Elmståhl, Sölve; Ärnlöv, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Higher body weight is a well-known determinant of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. It is however less well studied how the change in weight from age 20 years to middle age or old age affects MetS development. In the community-based EpiHealth (n = 19,000, age range 45 to 75 years, 56% females) and PIVUS (n = 1000, all aged 70 years, 50% females) studies, the participants were asked about their body weight at age 20 years. Data were collected to determine MetS prevalence (NCEP ATP III criteria). In EpiHealth, the probability of having MetS increased fairly linearly with increasing weight from age 20 in the obese [odds ratios (OR) 1.04 per kg change in weight, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.05, P weight (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.14-1.21, P body mass index (BMI) at age 20, alcohol intake, smoking, education, and exercise habits. Also in the PIVUS study, the change in weight over 50 years was related to prevalent MetS (OR 1.08 per kg change in weight, 95% CI 1.06-1.10, P weight gain from age 20 was strongly and independently associated with prevalent MetS both in middle age or old age. Interestingly, this relationship was not restricted only to obese subjects. Our data provide additional support for the importance of maintaining a stable weight throughout life.

  13. An analysis of vascular surgery in elderly patients to determine whether age affects treatment strategy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of arterial disease increases with age. Increasing life expectancy in the western world will intensify demands on vascular surgeons with regard to increasing caseload, expanding patient selection criteria, and more complex and minimally-invasive treatment options. We analysed our arterial cases over the past 31 years (n = 6,144) and compared our methods of intervention and complication rates in the elderly population (>75) with the younger cohort, in order to determine whether age should influence our management strategies.

  14. Determination of age and its correlation with biometric variables and seasonal reproductive indices of Leporinus obtusidens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Oliveira Felizardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the age and its correlation with biometric variables and reproductive indices of piapara Leporinus obtusidens caught at the Funil Reservoir. We caught 133 specimens between September 2006 and August 2007. Weight, total length, standard length, depth, height, head length and radius of the scales were measured. The sex was determined by macroscopic examination of gonads. The age of each fish was determined by analyzing the growth rings on the scales. Seasonal differences in biometric variables were tested using the NK test at 5%. The correlation of age and radius of the scales with the biometric variables and reproductive indices were analyzed using the SAEG software. Fish individuals ranging from 3 to 14 years of age were caught. In the spring and summer, smaller fish were captured compared to those caught during the fall and winter. Females tended to have higher weight and morphometric values when compared to males. Age and radius of the scales were correlated with biometric variables in L. obtusidens. It can be concluded that the biometric variables of this species can be used as an indicator of age.

  15. Thermoluminescence age determination of Mt. Fuji lava dome, Takahara volcano, North Kanto, Central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Isao

    1999-01-01

    Mt. Fuji lava dome thought to be formed by recent action of Takahara volcano, is reported to be due to eruption at the Holocene epoch age on 1,000 or 6,500 years ago. However, on either of them the lava dome did not directly conduct its age measurement, and its age is obtained indirectly from eruption age of tephra estimated to be same age. Recently, precision thermo-luminescence (TL) method is improved and upgraded, by using which formulation of the Mayu-yama in the Unzen volcano was cleared to be about 4,000 years ago which corresponded to be very young. In this paper, by using the TL method for lava dome racks, it was attempted to remove uncertainty forming an indirect age estimation shown as previously. As a result, adopted samples showed 6.5 to 7.4 ka in age value, which showed a good agreement under considering of error. This result was older than 1,000 and some years, and was younger than 20,000 to 25,000 years, which showed a good agreement with 6,500 years ago, obtained by combining closed layer order survey and 14-C age. It is thought to be an important contribution in future forecasting of volcano eruption that the last period action of the Takahara volcano must be at the Holocene epoch age. And, as limited to a quartz containing sample, this can be said to show priority of TL method for a method to directly obtain age of younger dome rock than 10,000 years. (G.K.)

  16. Age determination of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) from the west coast of Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Sussie; Chriél, Mariann; Hedayat, Abdi

    Age determination of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) by counting growth layer groups (GLG´s) in the teeth is to some extent considered to be subjective and only relative, due to: 1) Limited validation of GLG counts to “known age” of the individual; 2) Variation in methods for preparation of...... teeth. Pulp stones were seen in both erupted and non-erupted teeth from all three whales. Further studies are needed to develop the current preparation techniques to make clear and more easily readable GLG´s to obtain more accurate age determination of sperm whales....

  17. Determination of bone age in adolescents and in subjects in the third decade of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willich, E.

    1986-01-01

    The determination of bone age of hand and wrist focussing primarily on bone centre development is limited to childhood and during this period has diagnostic significance as well as therapeutic consequences. At puberty the fusion of epiphyseal growth plates is more important: it reflects the termination of growth and the biological stage of development. An extension of knowledge can be obtained by correlating age beyond 18 years into the third decade of life. This allows sex determination and reflects maturation processes trough the appearance and fusion of the apophyses of the iliac crest and the ischial bone. The indications are mainly forensic and for an individual's identification. (orig.)

  18. Recent understanding of the Svalbard basement in the light of new radiometric age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Several tectonothermal events in the pre-Carboniferous basement of Svalbard during Caledonian and Proterozoic times have been dated recently by radiometric age determinations. Three or four stages have been recognized in the Caledonian period; a post-orogentic graben formation during the Devonian, a late Caledonian event in the Middle Silurian, an earely Caledonian event in the Middle Ordovician and possibly an earliest event in the Middle to Late Cambrian. The Grenvillian event, 950-1270 Ma, has been well established by both radiometric ages and unconformities in Nordaustlandet and southwestern Spitsbergen. Sveco-Karelian ages, 1670-1750 Ma, also have been obtained from Ny Friesland, northerneastern Spitsbergen. Two even older ages (zircon U-Pb) upper intercept ages), 2.1 and 3.2 Ga, may suggest the presence of still older crust in Svalbard and adjacent areas. 40 refs., 2 figs

  19. Female reproductive decline is determined by remaining ovarian reserve and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wilkosz

    Full Text Available The early decline and loss of female fertility in humans and other species represents an evolutionary paradox. Despite being born with a vast stock of oocytes, females encounter an exhaustion of ovarian reserve and sterility half way through their natural lives. Female reproductive ageing has been proposed to proceed as an ongoing decline in ovarian reserve, determined by remaining ovarian follicle number. However, despite extensive modelling, the respective contributions of intra-, inter-, and extra-ovarian signalling have not been fully characterised. It remains unclear whether reproductive ageing progresses simply as a pre-determined function of remaining ovarian follicles, or as an age-dependent process in humans. Here, we have analysed ovarian response to hormonal stimulation in women who have undergone surgical removal of a single ovary, in order to investigate the relative contributions of intra-, inter, and extra-ovarian signalling on reproductive ageing. Our data show that in unilaterally oophorectomised women, ovarian response to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH declines beyond levels predicted by a total ovarian follicle pool model of reproductive ageing. Maintenance of ovarian function later in reproductive life, despite the removal of half of the total ovarian reserve, suggests a role for an extra-ovarian age-dependent regulation of reproductive decline. This highlights the need for further work to identify signalling factors that communicate age-related signals between the soma and the germline.

  20. Preliminary age determinations of crown of thorns starfish spicules by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, R.J.; Wallace, G.; Lowe, D.C.; Manning, M.R.

    1986-12-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Sciences accelerator mass spectrometry system has been used to determine the ages of a selection of spicules from crown of thorns starfish, collected at the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland. The measurements constitute a pilot study to determine the feasibility of using the technique to establish whether or not there is a periodicity in the invasion of The Great Barrier Reef by Crown of Thorns starfish

  1. Interaction between age and aerobic fitness in determining heart rate dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNarry, M A; Lewis, M J

    2012-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) and phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) estimates of heart rate dynamics are diminished in older people compared with younger people. However, it is not fully elucidated whether these differences are related to age per se or to the concomitant influence of aerobic fitness. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen uptake, gas exchange threshold, oxygen uptake kinetics, exercise economy) was assessed in 70 healthy adults (41 male) aged 18-57 years. Participants also underwent a 24 h, ambulatory ECG for the derivation of HRV and PRSA variables. HRV was most sensitive to age and aerobic fitness when measured during the morning period (6 am-12 pm). HRV and PRSA were both diminished with age and were higher in aerobically superior participants. The decline in HRV with age was predominantly attributable to age itself (33%), with aerobic fitness representing an additional modulating factor. The present study also provides tentative evidence that assessment of the influence of aerobic fitness should not rely on [Formula: see text]O(2peak) alone. These findings demonstrate that age per se is an important factor in determining HRV. However, given the clinical importance of diminished HRV and the immutable nature of aging, the potential significance of physical activity/training to enhance cardiac regulatory function should not be underestimated.

  2. Validation of band counts in eyestalks for the determination of age of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf Kilada

    Full Text Available Using known-age Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba grown from eggs hatched at two different laboratories, we validate the annual pattern of bands deposited in the eyestalks of krill and determine the absolute age of these animals. Ages two through five years were validated, and these animals ranged from 37.1 to 62.6 mm in total length. The band counts in these individuals were either identical to their absolute ages, or only failed to agree by a few months, which demonstrates the accuracy of this method. Precision and bias were estimated graphically using Chang's index (Coefficient of Variation = 5.03%. High accuracy and precision between readers and low ageing bias indicate that longitudinal sections of eyestalks can be used to age krill in wild samples and to develop age-based stock assessment models for krill. Archival samples preserved in formalin (5% and stored in ambient conditions were also readable. Ageing preserved krill will provide the opportunity to examine changes in growth among krill populations within the Southern Ocean and to retrospectively examine changes in krill production over the last century to better understand the historical and future impacts of climate change on this critical Southern Ocean species.

  3. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  4. Age, growth and size interact with stress to determine life span and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Deborah Ann

    2012-01-01

    Individuals in a large experimental field population, of the short-lived perennial species Plantago lanceolata, were followed to determine the sources of variation that influence mortality and life span. The design included multiple age groups with initially similar genetic structure, which made it possible to separate age effects from period effects and to identify the genetic component to variation in life span. During a period of stress, individuals of all ages showed parallel increases in mortality but different cohorts experienced this period of high mortality at different ages. This then influenced the distribution of life spans across cohorts. Age and size-age interactions influenced mortality during the period of stress. Smaller individuals died but only if they were old. Additionally, growth and age interacted with stress such that older individuals had negative growth and high mortality whereas younger individuals had positive growth and relatively lower mortality during stress. The results of this study show that it is not simply the environment that can have a major impact on demography in natural populations, rather, age, size and growth can interact with the environment to influence mortality and life span when the environment is stressful. PMID:22664575

  5. Determination of Age-Dependent Reference Ranges for Coagulation Tests Performed Using Destiny Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Fatma Demet; Serdar, Muhittin; Merve Ari, Elif; Onur Oztan, Mustafa; Hikmet Kozcu, Sureyya; Tarhan, Huseyin; Cakmak, Ozgur; Zeytinli, Merve; Yasar Ellidag, Hamit

    2016-06-01

    In order to apply the right treatment for hemostatic disorders in pediatric patients, laboratory data should be interpreted with age-appropriate reference ranges. The purpose of this study was to determining age-dependent reference range values for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen tests, and D-dimer tests. A total of 320 volunteers were included in the study with the following ages: 1 month - 1 year (n = 52), 2 - 5 years (n = 50), 6 - 10 years (n = 48), 11 - 17 years (n = 38), and 18 - 65 years (n = 132). Each volunteer completed a survey to exclude hemostatic system disorder. Using a nonparametric method, the lower and upper limits, including 95% distribution and 90% confidence intervals, were calculated. No statistically significant differences were found between PT and aPTT values in the groups consisting of children. Thus, the reference ranges were separated into child and adult age groups. PT and aPTT values were significantly higher in the children than in the adults. Fibrinogen values in the 6 - 10 age group and the adult age group were significantly higher than in the other groups. D-dimer levels were significantly lower in those aged 2 - 17; thus, a separate reference range was established. These results support other findings related to developmental hemostasis, confirming that adult and pediatric age groups should be evaluated using different reference ranges.

  6. Interaction between age and aerobic fitness in determining heart rate dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNarry, M A; Lewis, M J

    2012-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) and phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) estimates of heart rate dynamics are diminished in older people compared with younger people. However, it is not fully elucidated whether these differences are related to age per se or to the concomitant influence of aerobic fitness. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen uptake, gas exchange threshold, oxygen uptake kinetics, exercise economy) was assessed in 70 healthy adults (41 male) aged 18–57 years. Participants also underwent a 24 h, ambulatory ECG for the derivation of HRV and PRSA variables. HRV was most sensitive to age and aerobic fitness when measured during the morning period (6 am–12 pm). HRV and PRSA were both diminished with age and were higher in aerobically superior participants. The decline in HRV with age was predominantly attributable to age itself (33%), with aerobic fitness representing an additional modulating factor. The present study also provides tentative evidence that assessment of the influence of aerobic fitness should not rely on .VO 2peak alone. These findings demonstrate that age per se is an important factor in determining HRV. However, given the clinical importance of diminished HRV and the immutable nature of aging, the potential significance of physical activity/training to enhance cardiac regulatory function should not be underestimated. (paper)

  7. Automatic determination of Greulich and Pyle bone age in healthy Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.R. van Rijn (Rick); M. Leguin (Maarten); H.H. Thodberg

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Bone age (BA) assessment is a routine procedure in paediatric radiology, for which the Greulich and Pyle (GP) atlas is mostly used. There is rater variability, but the advent of automatic BA determination eliminates this. Objective: To validate the BoneXpert method for

  8. Automatic determination of Greulich and Pyle bone age in healthy Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, R.R.; Lequin, M.H.; Thodberg, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Bone age (BA) assessment is a routine procedure in paediatric radiology, for which the Greulich and Pyle (GP) atlas is mostly used. There is rater variability, but the advent of automatic BA determination eliminates this. Objective: To validate the BoneXpert method for automatic

  9. Determinants of acute diarrhoea in children aged 0 – 5 years in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish the prevalence and determinants of acute diarrhoea in children aged 0 – 5 years in Uganda. Design: Cross-sectional study using the 2000/2001 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) dataset. Subjects: Information was derived from the women's questionnaire done on sampled mothers ...

  10. Age versus size determination of radial variation in wood specific gravity : lessons from eccentrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2011-01-01

    Radial increases in wood specific gravity have been shown to characterize early successional trees from tropical forests. Here, we develop and apply a novel method to test whether radial increases are determined by tree age or tree size. The method compares the slopes of specific gravity changes across a short radius and a long radius of trees with eccentric trunks. If...

  11. Effects of Visual Impairment, Gender, and Age on Self-Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Barbara L.; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2004-01-01

    This survey of 54 students with visual impairments (aged 8-23 years) who participated in a one week summer sports camp examined the opportunities they were given for self-determination at home, at school, with friends, for health care, and in physical education classes. The participants at all levels of visual impairment scored low in…

  12. Autofluorescence of fossil pollen and spores with special reference to age determination and coalification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzel, van Pieter

    1967-01-01

    In the present study the primary fluorescence phenomena of fossil pollen and spores are described. This new method in palynology is based on a large number of fluorescence microscopical observations and spectrophotometrical determinations of palynomorphs from deposits of various type and age. It

  13. Child sexual abuse, harmful alcohol use and age as determinants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child sexual abuse, harmful alcohol use and age as determinants of sexual risk behaviours among freshmen in a Nigerian University. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health ... Eight hundred and forty one (841), freshmen who attended a routine orientation program were asked to respond to a questionnaire. Results ...

  14. Determination of the nutritional status of a population of school-age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nutrition assessment in the community is essential for accurate planning and implementation of intervention programmes to reduce the morbidity and mortality that are associated with malnutrition. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the nutritional status of a population of school-age children in ...

  15. Age determination in dogs using ocular light reflection, dental abrasion and tartar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesierich, K; Failing, K; Neiger, R

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of an animal's age is important for disease probability, prognoses, or epidemiological questions, but unfortunately, it is often unknown for dogs in animal shelters. A simple estimating procedure is preferable being quick and easy to perform, even for non-veterinarians. In 295 dogs the dimension of light reflection (diameter in millimetres), visible on the posterior lens capsule using a penlight, the grade of dental abrasion and dental tartar were documented photographically and the exact weight and age in days were obtained. These photographs were evaluated blinded. The dogs were divided randomly into two groups. The first group was used to establish a model for age determination using linear and logistic regression models considering the documented parameters, which was then validated with the data of the second group. The size of ocular light reflection and age correlated significantly (r = 0.781; p reflection [mm] + 8.406 × dental abrasion [grade] + 8.871 × tartar [grade] with a standard error of estimation of 2.26 years. Age determination, even based on three parameters results in a large standard deviation making age estimation in dogs very crude.

  16. Age at adiposity rebound: determinants and association with nutritional status and the metabolic syndrome at adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péneau, S; González-Carrascosa, R; Gusto, G; Goxe, D; Lantieri, O; Fezeu, L; Hercberg, S; Rolland-Cachera, M F

    2016-07-01

    Early-life growth characteristics and in particular age at adiposity rebound (AR), have been shown to impact nutritional status later in life but studies investigating the association with long-term health remain scarce. Our aims were to identify determinants of age at AR and its relationship with nutritional status and cardiometabolic risk factors at adulthood. A total of 1465 subjects aged 20-60 years participated in this retrospective cohort study. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure were measured at adulthood. Childhood weight, height, gestational age, birth weight and early nutrition were collected retrospectively from health booklets and age at AR was assessed. Participants self-reported parental silhouettes. Associations were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression. An earlier AR was associated with higher body mass index and waist circumference at adulthood in both men and women (Pmetabolic syndrome. Larger parental silhouette was associated with an earlier AR. This long-term study showed that age at AR was associated with nutritional status and metabolic syndrome at adulthood. These results highlight the importance of monitoring childhood growth so as to help identify children at risk of developing an adverse cardiometabolic profile in adulthood. AR determinants for use in overweight surveillance were identified.

  17. Uranium Age Determination by Measuring the 230Th / 234U Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAMONT, STEPHEN P.

    2004-01-01

    A radiochemical isotope dilution mass spectrometry method has been developed to determine the age of uranium materials. The amount of 230Th activity, the first progeny of 234U, that had grown into a small uranium metal sample was used to determine the elapsed time since the material was last radiochemically purified. To preserve the sample, only a small amount of oxidized uranium was removed from the surface of the sample and dissolved. Aliquots of the dissolved sample were spiked with 233U tracer and radiochemically purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The 234U isotopic concentration was then determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Additional aliquots of the sample were spiked with 229Th tracer, and the thorium was purified using two sequential anion-exchange chromatography separations. The isotopic concentrations of 230Th and 232Th were determined by TIMS. The lack of any 232Th confirmed the assumption that all thorium was removed from the uranium sample at the time of purification. The 230Th and 234U mass concentrations were converted to activities and the 230Th/234U ratio for the sample was calculated. The experimental 230Th/234U ratio showed the uranium in this sample was radiochemically purified in about 1945. Isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry has sufficient sensitivity to determine the age of 100 samples of uranium. This method could certainly be employed as a nuclear forensic method to determine the age of small quantities of uranium metal or salts. Accurate determination of the ultra-trace 230Th radiochemically separated from the uranium is possible due to the use of 229Th as an isotope dilution tracer. The precision in the experimental age of the uranium could be improved by making additional replicate measurements of the 230Th/234U isotopic ratio or using a larger initial sample

  18. An Overview of Age, Sex and Race Determination from Teeth and Skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Forensic dentistry represents the overlap between the dental and legal professions. Throughout this century, odontological examinations have been a critical determinant in the search for identity of individual remains. Dental maturity has played an important role in estimating the chronological age of individuals. Age estimation is a sub-discipline of the forensic sciences and should be an important part of every identification process, especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Forensic dentist helps in identification of deceased victims by age, sex and race determination from teeth and skull. Since the scope of forensic odontology is very broad and challenging, dental surgeons trained in forensic odontology can make unique contributions in the administration of justice, which is the key note of democracy.

  19. Determining the age of cats by pulp cavity/tooth width ratio using dental radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoungsun; Ahn, Jaesang; Kang, Sunmee; Lee, Euiri; Kim, Soohyun; Park, Sangwan; Park, Sungwon; Noh, Hyunwoo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the ratio of pulp cavity/tooth width (P/T ratio) in healthy cats. The dental radiographs of 32 cats (16 males and 16 females) were generated with a digital dental X-ray unit with the animals under general anesthesia. Standardized measurement of the canine teeth was performed by drawing a line on the radiograph perpendicular to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) of the tooth. There was an inversely proportional correlation between chronological age and the P/T ratio. Moreover, a strong Pearson squared correlation (γ2 = 0.92) was identified by the curved regression model. No significant differences in the P/T ratio based on gender or breed were found. These results suggest that determination of age by P/T ratio could be clinically useful for estimating the chronological age of cats. PMID:25234207

  20. ESR dating method and the age determination of Peking-Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Sizhao; Liang Renyou; Huang Peihua

    1991-01-01

    ESR dating method and the age determination of the first skull of Zhoukoudian Beijing-Man have been introduced in this paper. Some animal fossil teeth, which are contemporaneous with the Beijing-Man, were used for determination of accumulative dose. The internal and environmental doses of the tooth samples were determined by neutron activation analysis and embeded thermoluminescence dosimeter at the site, respectively. The age of 578 ka of the first skull of Beijing-Man is calculated by the linear uranium accumulation model. According to the ESR dating results, author has given a chronological scale of the cave deposits Loc. 1, Beijing-man site and discussed the mean-life of trapped electron for dating

  1. Analysis and determination of age of oil spills in soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedl, P.; Schindlbauer, H.

    1995-01-01

    The extensive searching for hydrocarbon-based spills in soil and groundwater during the last few years rises the question of whom caused these contaminations. The answer to this very specific question is not easy and often requires the exact determination of age of the contamination. Therefore, the sampling of all imaginable data around the spilled material is necessary. Beginning at the precise check-up of the geological surrounding, including the definition of the condition and construction of the soil as well as the determination of the flow-direction of the groundwater, the chemical analysis should describe the containing substances and/or the products in the best possible way. Summing all these data and taking into consideration of the well-known microbiological pathways of decomposition for one- and/or a group of substances, it should be possible to determine the age of a contamination. (orig.) [de

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium with arsenazo previous liquid-liquid extraction and colour development in organic medium; Determinacion espectrofotometrica de uranio con arsenazo, previa extraccion y desarrollo del color en medio organico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares Delgado, F.; Vera Palomino, J.; Petrement Eguiluz, J. C.

    1964-07-01

    The determination of uranium with arsenazo is hindered by a great number of cation which form stable complexes with the reactive and may given rise to serious interferences. By studying the optimum conditions of uranium the extraction be means of tributylphosphate solutions dissolved in methylisobuthylketone, under conditions for previous masking of the interfering cations, an organic extract was obtained containing all the uranium together with small amounts of iron. The possible interference derived from the latter element is avoided by reduction with hydroxylammoniumchlorid followed by complex formation of the Fe(II)-ortophenantroline compound in alcoholic medium. (Author) 17 refs.

  3. Adolescent and young adult female determinants of visceral adipose tissue at ages 26-28 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping; Woo, Jessica G; Morrison, John A; Khoury, Philip R; Daniels, Stephen R

    2015-04-01

    To assess adolescent and young adult determinants of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) at ages 26-28 years. Prospective study (ages 9-28 years) of cardiometabolic measures, menarche age, menses irregularities, metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose-type 2 diabetes mellitus, and VAT in 400 girls (248 black, 152 white). Adolescent (age 14-19) independent variables for greater VAT at ages 26-28 included larger mean waist circumference (partial R(2) = 30.8%), earlier age at menarche (0.9%), and white race (1.8%). Young adult (ages 20-28 years) independent variables for greater VAT included larger mean waist circumference (partial R(2) = 61.7%), greater triglyceride levels (3.3%), lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.0%), and greater insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance; 0.4%). Independent variables for greater VAT when both adolescent and young adult variables were used included waist (tertile rank change from adolescence to young adulthood, partial R(2) = 58.3%), greater young adult triglyceride levels (4.4%), white race (1.8%), greater young adult homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (age 20-28, 2.4%), and earlier menarche age (0.7%). Menses irregularities were not independently associated with young adult VAT. Adolescent girls with early menarche and larger waist circumference should be targets for primary prevention of accretion of VAT. In young adulthood, VAT is associated with dysregulated cardiometabolic profiles, which is greater for those with waist circumference increases from adolescence to adulthood. Waist circumference during young adulthood, and to a lesser degree during adolescence, is an inexpensive surrogate for VAT at ages 26-28 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-M; Ramos, E M; Lee, J-H; Gillis, T; Mysore, J S; Hayden, M R; Warby, S C; Morrison, P; Nance, M; Ross, C A; Margolis, R L; Squitieri, F; Orobello, S; Di Donato, S; Gomez-Tortosa, E; Ayuso, C; Suchowersky, O; Trent, R J A; McCusker, E; Novelletto, A; Frontali, M; Jones, R; Ashizawa, T; Frank, S; Saint-Hilaire, M H; Hersch, S M; Rosas, H D; Lucente, D; Harrison, M B; Zanko, A; Abramson, R K; Marder, K; Sequeiros, J; Paulsen, J S; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Myers, R H; MacDonald, M E; Gusella, J F

    2012-03-06

    Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound implications for disease mechanism and modification, we tested whether the normal allele, interaction between the expanded and normal alleles, or presence of a second expanded allele affects age at onset of HD motor signs. We modeled natural log-transformed age at onset as a function of CAG repeat lengths of expanded and normal alleles and their interaction by linear regression. An apparently significant effect of interaction on age at motor onset among 4,068 subjects was dependent on a single outlier data point. A rigorous statistical analysis with a well-behaved dataset that conformed to the fundamental assumptions of linear regression (e.g., constant variance and normally distributed error) revealed significance only for the expanded CAG repeat, with no effect of the normal CAG repeat. Ten subjects with 2 expanded alleles showed an age at motor onset consistent with the length of the larger expanded allele. Normal allele CAG length, interaction between expanded and normal alleles, and presence of a second expanded allele do not influence age at onset of motor manifestations, indicating that the rate of HD pathogenesis leading to motor diagnosis is determined by a completely dominant action of the longest expanded allele and as yet unidentified genetic or environmental factors.

  5. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-06-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions.

  6. Job satisfaction, work environment and successful ageing: Determinants of delaying retirement among acute care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo-Sugleris, Michele; Robbins, Wendie; Lane, Christianne Joy; Phillips, Linda R

    2018-04-01

    To determine the relationships between job satisfaction, work environment and successful ageing and how these factors relate to Registered Nurses' intent to retire. Although little studied, retention of older nurses by delaying early retirement, before age 65, is an important topic for research. Qualitative and quantitative studies have indicated that job satisfaction work environment and successful ageing are key motivators in acute care Registered Nurses retention and/or delaying retirement. This study was designed to provide information to administrators and policy makers about retaining older, experienced RNs longer and more productively. This was a correlational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. An online survey of acute care Registered Nurses (N = 2,789) aged 40 years or older working in Florida was conducted from September - October 2013. Participants completed items related to job satisfaction, work environment, successful ageing and individual characteristics. Hypotheses derived from the modified Ellenbecker's Job Retention Model were tested using regression analysis. Job satisfaction scores were high. Highest satisfaction was with scheduling issues and co-workers; lowest with advancement opportunities. Successful ageing scores were also high with 81% reporting excellent or good health. Work environment explained 55% of the variance in job satisfaction. Years to retirement were significantly associated with successful ageing (p job satisfaction and delay of retirement in older nurses and further studies in these areas are warranted to expand on this knowledge. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Birth weight and obstetric complications determine age at onset in first episode of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Abadal, E; Ochoa, S; Barajas, A; Baños, I; Dolz, M; Sanchez, B; Del Cacho, N; Carlson, J; Huerta-Ramos, E; Usall, J

    2015-06-01

    Earlier age at onset of psychosis (AOP) has been associated with poor social adjustment and clinical outcome. Genetic and environmental factors such as obstetric complications, parental history of psychosis, advanced paternal age at time of birth, low birth weight and gestational age, and use of drugs have been described as bringing AOP forward. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between AOP and these factors in a sample of first episode of psychosis (FEP) patients. Clinical and sociodemographic data, age at FEP, age of parents at birth, parental history of psychosis, drug-use habits of the mother during pregnancy and of the patient before psychotic onset, and Lewis and Murray obstetric complication scale were obtained from 90 patients with FEP. Statistical analysis was performed by means of Pearson correlations, Chi-square tests, Student T-test analyses and a linear regression model using SPSS version 22. Pre-eclampsia, need for incubator at birth, use of forceps, parental history of psychosis, and low birth weight were associated with an earlier AOP. Use of forceps and birth weight are the variables which best predict AOP in FEP. Stimulant drugs, which were mostly used together with cannabis and cocaine, were the only substances associated with an earlier AOP. Our findings are consistent with previous study results and underline the role of the prenatal period in the development of psychosis and the importance of careful monitoring of pregnancy and delivery, especially in cases with familial history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of first BCG vaccination against tuberculosis in school-age children without previous tuberculin test (BCG-REVAC trial): a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susan M; Barreto, Mauricio L; Pilger, Daniel; Cruz, Alvaro A; Sant'Anna, Clemax; Hijjar, Miguel A; Ichihara, Maria Y; Santos, Andreia C; Genser, Bernd; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2012-04-01

    age was 25% (3-43%). In Salvador, where vaccine effectiveness was 34% (8-53%), vaccination of 381 children would prevent one case of tuberculosis and was cheaper than treatment. The frequency of adverse events was very low with only one axillary lymphadenitis and one ulcer greater than 1 cm in 11,980 BCG vaccinations. Vaccination of school-age children without previous tuberculin testing can reduce the incidence of tuberculosis and could reduce the costs of tuberculosis control. Restriction of BCG vaccination to the first year of life is not in the best interests of the public nor of programmes for tuberculosis control. UK Department for International Development, National Health Foundation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ACCELERATED AGING TEST IN DETERMINING THE VIGOUR OF SUNFLOWER SEEDS WITH AND WITHOUT PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Ducatti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The standard germination test alone is insufficient to attest the quality of seeds, making necessary correlation’s with vigour tests, to determine more accurately the physiological potential of a seeds lot. The accelerated aging test is an option for determine the vigour and consists in submits seeds to high temperatures and humidity, for different periods of time, has not yet standardized. The objective of this work was to analyze the efficiency of the accelerated aging test in the assessment of the effect of a lot of sunflower seed, by three periods of aging (48, 56 and 72 hours in 42 °C temperature, in seeds with and without pericarp (manually removed and relate the results with electrical conductivity test and germination first count. The experimental design was a completely randomized design and the comparison of averages made using Tukey's test at 5% probability. The results showed that standard germination, electrical conductivity and germination first count, the seeds without pericarp showed better performance. In relation to the accelerated aging, only in the period of 72 hours of aging there was no significant difference between the treatments. In this way, the appropriate period to identify differences in force between the treatments was 72 hours, which showed a positive correlation with the germination first count and electrical conductivity.

  10. Age and dose as determinants of times of appearance of radium-induced osteosarcomas in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Lucas, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    Determinants of time-until-tumor for bone sarcomas in US radium cases have been reevaluated. For the 57 measured female bone sarcoma cases exposed to 226 Ra and/or 228 Ra, ages at appearance of tumor are more strongly correlated with radium intake doses than are latency periods. Ages at appearance of tumor increase as initial radium intakes decrease. As many lower dose cases were iatrogenic cases exposed in mid-adult life, rather than about age 22 as for the dial worker cases, these results may be artifactual, resulting from an increased susceptability to sarcoma induction at older ages. Alternatively the time of appearance of a sarcoma may be in part directly determined by age. Both explanations find support in the literature. These results suggest that 226 228 Ra-induced bone sarcomas do have an expression period. The downturn in sarcoma incidence at very high doses may result from truncation of the expression period on its early side by the minimum induction period

  11. Reflectance-based determination of age and species of blowfly puparia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Sasha C; Magni, Paola; Dadour, Ian; Nansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Forensic entomology is primarily concerned with the estimation of time since death and involves determination of the age of immature insects colonising decomposing remains. Accurate age determination of puparia is usually accomplished by dissection, which means destructive sampling of evidence. As part of improving abilities to correctly identify species and developmental age, it is highly desirable to have available non-destructive methods. In this study, we acquired external hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data (77 spectral bands, 389-892 nm) from the dorsal and ventral sides of individual puparia of two species of blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora dubia Macquart 1855 and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart 1842. Puparia were dissected to determine the presence/absence of eight internal morphological development characteristics (legs, wings, labella, abdominal segments, antennae, thoracic bristles, orbital/facial bristles and eye colour and arista). Based on linear discriminant analysis and independent validation of HSI data, reflectance features from puparia could be used to successfully (1) distinguish the two species (classification accuracy = 92.5 %), (2) differentiate dorsal and ventral sides of puparia (classification accuracy C. dubia = 81.5 %; Ch. rufifacies = 89.2 %) and (3) predict the presence of these morphological characteristics and therefore the developmental stage of puparia (average classification accuracy using dorsal imaging: C. dubia = 90.3 %; Ch. rufifacies = 94.0 %). The analytical approach presented here provides proof of concept for a direct puparial age relationship (i.e. days since the onset of pupation) between external puparial reflectance features and internal morphological development. Furthermore, this approach establishes the potential for further refinement by using a non-invasive technique to determine the age and developmental stage of blowflies of forensic importance.

  12. Environments for ageing, assistive technology and self-determination: ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    The development of information and communication technologies for design of environments for ageing is of great importance considering demographic trends in the future. There is a realistic hope for the preservation of self-determination and independence in the long term. However, some risks like a gradual loss of privacy should not be underestimated. The article discusses some ethical problems within this context. At the same time, the article demonstrates that the development and implementation of these technologies might be discussed for instance under some ethical assumptions of personal self-responsibility as well as social responsibility for the widest independence in advanced age.

  13. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Risks Age Explore this page: Age Do anesthesia risks increase ... can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ...

  14. Sport and ageing: a systematic review of the determinants and trends of participation in sport for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Claire R; Eime, Rochelle M; Westerbeek, Hans; O'Sullivan, Grant; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z

    2017-12-22

    The global population is ageing. As ageing is often associated with a decline in health, there is a need to further develop preventative health measures. Physical activity can positively influence older adults' (aged 50 years and older) health. Previous research on the relationship between physical activity and health for older adults has mainly focused on physical activity in general, and not specific types of exercise. Due to the social nature of sport, it may assist in improving physical, mental and social health for older adults. Sport, as a form of physical activity, has not been widely explored as a physical activity opportunity for older adults. This review concurrently explored two research questions: the determinants and the trends of sport participation for community dwelling older adults. Two parallel systematic searches of nine electronic databases were conducted in December 2015 for the two research questions. English language quantitative and qualitative studies that provided specific results for community dwelling older adults' sport participation were included and a quality ratings assessment was undertaken. There were 10,171 studies initially identified for the first research question and 1992 studies for the second research question. This culminated in 18 and 8 studies respectively that met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently mentioned determinants of participation were health and using sport to negotiate the ageing process. The most frequently mentioned trends of sport participation were the effect of historical sport participation on current participation, and sport participation across the lifespan. The main themes for both research questions had contrasting results, for example, participation in sport could improve health, but poor health was also a limitation of sport participation. This review demonstrates that older adults are a heterogeneous age group, and therefore require different strategies than other age groups to

  15. Barriers to Teaching Social Determinants of Health: Nursing Study-Abroad Programs in a Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Hans-Peter

    2016-11-01

    The social determinants of health are the conditions in which humans are born, grow up, live, work, and age (World Health Organization [WHO], 2012). In nursing programs, this content is typically taught in community health courses. Another strategy for teaching students how to understand the social determinants of health is study-abroad courses. Budding nurses can learn how to assess conditions that influence the health of a community. Conducting this assessment in a culture that differs from the student's own can help highlight what factors impact one's own health. For the past eight years, the author has been teaching the social and cultural determinants of health to nursing students by taking them on 3-week cultural immersion/community health studyabroad programs. Destinations have included Ghana, Austria, the Netherlands, and Thailand. This article presents observations on how the teaching of social determinants of health has changed during the period 2008-2016.

  16. Identification of Human Intestinal Microbiota of 92 Men by Data Mining for 5 Characteristics, i.e., Age, BMI, Smoking Habit, Cessation Period of Previous Smokers and Drinking Habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshio; Jin, Jong-Sik; Kibe, Ryoko; Touyama, Mutsumi; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Benno, Yoshiko; Fujiwara, Kenji; Shimakawa, Masaki; Maruo, Toshiya; Toda, Toshiya; Matsuda, Isao; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Seo, Genichirou; Sato, Naoki; Chounan, Osamu; Benno, Yoshimi

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota compositions of 92 men living in Japan were identified following consumption of identical meals for 3 days. Fecal samples were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism with 4 primer-restriction enzyme systems, and the 120 obtained operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were analyzed by Data mining software focusing on the following 5 characteristics, namely, age, body mass index, present smoking habit, cessation period of previous smokers and drinking habit, according to the answers of the subjects. After performing Data mining analyses with each characteristic, the details of the constructed Decision trees precisely identified the subjects or discriminated them into various suitable groups. Through the pathways to reach the groups, practical roles of the related OTUs and their quantities were clearly recognized. Compared with the other identification methods for OTUs such as bicluster analyses, correlation coefficients and principal component analyses, the clear difference of this Data mining technique was that it set aside most OTUs and emphasized only some closely related ones. For example for a selected characteristic, such as smoking habit, only 7 OTUs out of 120 were able to identify all smokers, and the remaining 113 OTUs were thought of as data noise for smoking. Data mining analyses were affirmed as an effective method of subject discrimination for various physiological constitutions. The species of bacteria that were closely related to heavy smokers, i.e., HaeIII-291, were also discussed.

  17. Why is age determination of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) so difficult?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2010-01-01

    to a consistent pattern the following year, and overlap was not influenced by sex or fish size. The results suggest that otolith opacity in Baltic cod is not associated with seasonal patterns in daily increment structure and that traditional age determination based on otolith opacity yields highly uncertain......The aim of this study was to evaluate the consistency of three methods for assigning annuli in adult Baltic cod otoliths. The methods examined were (i) daily increment patterns, (ii) opacity profiles, and (iii) traditional age reading. Frequency distributions of the distance from the nucleus...... to the different zones showed that the first annulus of traditional age reading missed the first zone of both increment and opacity methods, but overlapped with the second zone identified by these methods. This pattern did not continue over subsequent zones. Frequency distributions of increment patterns were...

  18. Efficacy and tolerability of a single-pill combination of telmisartan 80 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg according to age, gender, race, hypertension severity, and previous antihypertensive use: planned analyses of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu D

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dingliang Zhu,1 Harold Bays,2 Pingjin Gao,1 Michaela Mattheus,3 Birgit Voelker,3 Luis M Ruilope4 1Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center Inc, Louisville, KY, USA; 3Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Ingelheim, Germany; 4Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain Background: The purpose of this work was to describe the efficacy and safety of a telmisartan 80 mg + hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (T80/H25 single-pill combination therapy in patients with moderate-severe hypertension (mean seated trough cuff systolic blood pressure [BP] ≥ 160 mmHg and diastolic BP ≥ 100 mmHg in specific patient subpopulations. Methods: This was a planned analysis of a double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group trial that demonstrated the superiority of a single-pill combination of T80/H25 versus T80 monotherapy in terms of systolic BP change from baseline to week 7. Subpopulations included older (aged ≥ 65 years versus younger, gender, race, hypertension severity, and prior antihypertensive therapy. Endpoints were change from baseline in mean seated trough cuff systolic and diastolic BP, proportion of patients achieving their BP goal (systolic/diastolic BP 30 mmHg and >40 mmHg. Results: Across all subgroups, the T80/H25 single-pill combination provided consistently greater systolic and diastolic BP reductions than T80 and more patients had systolic BP reductions of >30 mmHg. In the T80 and T80/H25 groups, BP control was achieved in 34.1% and 48.8% of men, 35.5% and 62.7% of women, 34.5% and 56.6% of Asians, 22.6% and 38.6% of blacks, 36.7% and 57.8% of whites, 36.9% and 57.5% of patients < 65 years, 29.3% and 49.3% ≥65 years, 44.2% and 66.2% of those with grade 2 hypertension, 20.4% and 39.4% of those with grade 3 hypertension, 38.9% and 53.2% of previously untreated patients, 38.1% and 62.5% of patients previously treated with one antihypertensive, and 29.7% and 48.9% of patients

  19. Determination of the functional status of vestibular apparatus at children aged 5-6 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko E.K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The physiological methods of determination of the functional state of vestibular analyzer are considered. The indexes of systole and diastole pressure, frequencies of heart-throbs, are chosen. Methods were used before and after standard vestibular irritation. Research was conducted on the base of child's preschool establishment. In it took part 120 children in age 5 - 6 years. Insufficient development of vestibular analyzer is set for children. Selected exercise for the improvement of spatial orientation and statodynamic stability.

  20. Cervical screening with primary HPV testing or cytology in a population of women in which those aged 33 years or younger had previously been offered HPV vaccination: Results of the Compass pilot randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfell, Karen; Caruana, Michael; Gebski, Val; Darlington-Brown, Jessica; Heley, Stella; Brotherton, Julia; Gertig, Dorota; Jennett, Chloe J; Farnsworth, Annabelle; Tan, Jeffrey; Wrede, C David; Castle, Philip E; Saville, Marion

    2017-09-01

    Using primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for cervical screening increases detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplastic lesions and invasive cancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ [CIN2+]) compared to cytology, but no evaluation has been conducted in a population previously offered HPV vaccination. We aimed to assess colposcopy referral and CIN2+ detection rates for HPV-screened versus cytology-screened women in Australia's HPV-vaccinated population (by 2014, resident women ≤33 years had been age-eligible for HPV vaccination, with 3-dose uptake across age cohorts being about 50%-77%). Compass is an open-label randomised trial of 5-yearly HPV screening versus 2.5-yearly liquid-based cytology (LBC) screening. In the first phase, consenting women aged 25-64 years presenting for routine screening at 47 primary practices in Victoria, Australia, provided a cervical sample and were randomised at a central laboratory at a 1:2:2 allocation to (i) image-read LBC screening with HPV triage of low-grade cytology ('LBC screening'), (ii) HPV screening with those HPV16/18 positive referred to colposcopy and with LBC triage for other oncogenic (OHR) types ('HPV+LBC triage'), or (iii) HPV screening with those HPV16/18 positive referred to colposcopy and with dual-stained cytology triage for OHR types ('HPV+DS triage'). A total of 5,006 eligible women were recruited from 29 October 2013 to 7 November 2014 (recruitment rate 58%); of these, 22% were in the group age-eligible for vaccination. Data on 4,995 participants were analysed after 11 withdrawals; 998 were assigned to, and 995 analysed (99.7%) in, the LBC-screened group; 1,996 assigned to and 1,992 analysed (99.8%) in the HPV+LBC triage group; and 2,012 assigned to and 2,008 analysed (99.8%) in the HPV+DS triage group. No serious trial-related adverse events were reported. The main outcomes were colposcopy referral and detected CIN2+ rates at baseline screening, assessed on an intention

  1. Cervical screening with primary HPV testing or cytology in a population of women in which those aged 33 years or younger had previously been offered HPV vaccination: Results of the Compass pilot randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfell, Karen; Gebski, Val; Heley, Stella; Brotherton, Julia; Gertig, Dorota; Jennett, Chloe J.; Farnsworth, Annabelle; Castle, Philip E.; Saville, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Background Using primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for cervical screening increases detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplastic lesions and invasive cancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ [CIN2+]) compared to cytology, but no evaluation has been conducted in a population previously offered HPV vaccination. We aimed to assess colposcopy referral and CIN2+ detection rates for HPV-screened versus cytology-screened women in Australia’s HPV-vaccinated population (by 2014, resident women ≤33 years had been age-eligible for HPV vaccination, with 3-dose uptake across age cohorts being about 50%–77%). Methods and findings Compass is an open-label randomised trial of 5-yearly HPV screening versus 2.5-yearly liquid-based cytology (LBC) screening. In the first phase, consenting women aged 25–64 years presenting for routine screening at 47 primary practices in Victoria, Australia, provided a cervical sample and were randomised at a central laboratory at a 1:2:2 allocation to (i) image-read LBC screening with HPV triage of low-grade cytology (‘LBC screening’), (ii) HPV screening with those HPV16/18 positive referred to colposcopy and with LBC triage for other oncogenic (OHR) types (‘HPV+LBC triage’), or (iii) HPV screening with those HPV16/18 positive referred to colposcopy and with dual-stained cytology triage for OHR types (‘HPV+DS triage’). A total of 5,006 eligible women were recruited from 29 October 2013 to 7 November 2014 (recruitment rate 58%); of these, 22% were in the group age-eligible for vaccination. Data on 4,995 participants were analysed after 11 withdrawals; 998 were assigned to, and 995 analysed (99.7%) in, the LBC-screened group; 1,996 assigned to and 1,992 analysed (99.8%) in the HPV+LBC triage group; and 2,012 assigned to and 2,008 analysed (99.8%) in the HPV+DS triage group. No serious trial-related adverse events were reported. The main outcomes were colposcopy referral and detected CIN2+ rates at

  2. Cervical screening with primary HPV testing or cytology in a population of women in which those aged 33 years or younger had previously been offered HPV vaccination: Results of the Compass pilot randomised trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Canfell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using primary human papillomavirus (HPV testing for cervical screening increases detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplastic lesions and invasive cancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ [CIN2+] compared to cytology, but no evaluation has been conducted in a population previously offered HPV vaccination. We aimed to assess colposcopy referral and CIN2+ detection rates for HPV-screened versus cytology-screened women in Australia's HPV-vaccinated population (by 2014, resident women ≤33 years had been age-eligible for HPV vaccination, with 3-dose uptake across age cohorts being about 50%-77%.Compass is an open-label randomised trial of 5-yearly HPV screening versus 2.5-yearly liquid-based cytology (LBC screening. In the first phase, consenting women aged 25-64 years presenting for routine screening at 47 primary practices in Victoria, Australia, provided a cervical sample and were randomised at a central laboratory at a 1:2:2 allocation to (i image-read LBC screening with HPV triage of low-grade cytology ('LBC screening', (ii HPV screening with those HPV16/18 positive referred to colposcopy and with LBC triage for other oncogenic (OHR types ('HPV+LBC triage', or (iii HPV screening with those HPV16/18 positive referred to colposcopy and with dual-stained cytology triage for OHR types ('HPV+DS triage'. A total of 5,006 eligible women were recruited from 29 October 2013 to 7 November 2014 (recruitment rate 58%; of these, 22% were in the group age-eligible for vaccination. Data on 4,995 participants were analysed after 11 withdrawals; 998 were assigned to, and 995 analysed (99.7% in, the LBC-screened group; 1,996 assigned to and 1,992 analysed (99.8% in the HPV+LBC triage group; and 2,012 assigned to and 2,008 analysed (99.8% in the HPV+DS triage group. No serious trial-related adverse events were reported. The main outcomes were colposcopy referral and detected CIN2+ rates at baseline screening, assessed on an intention

  3. The determinants of health among the population aged 50 and over: evidence from Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sime Smolic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the association between demographic, socio-economic and physical health variables and self-assessed health (SAH of people aged 50 years and over in Croatia. Cross-sectional data was collected in 2012 in the survey “The Economics of Ageing in Croatiaˮ that was based on the SHARE (Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe study. Altogether 761 individuals aged 50 and over were included in the working sample that has been used in statistical analysis. Data were analysed in an ordered logistic regression model. The results show that females were more likely to report a higher category of SAH than males. Higher educational level was a statistically significant predictor of higher SAH, when controlled for other variables. This study, unlike other studies in Croatia, introduces a set of physical health variables as the determinants of health. Our results suggest that people aged 50 and over with fewer limitations, health related symptoms and diagnosed chronic conditions were more likely to report higher levels of SAH. These findings could be beneficial to policymakers in their efforts to improve health among elderly in Croatia.

  4. [Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE): determination of cutoff scores according to age and educational level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solias, A; Skapinakis, P; Degleris, N; Pantoleon, M; Katirtzoglou, E; Politis, A

    2014-01-01

    For the last 38 years, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been widely used as a dementia screening measure in everyday clinical practice as well as in both cohort and cross-sectional studies. Its validity and reliability for the Greek population has explicitly been documented. However, the effect of age and education on the subject's performance makes it necessary to reckon them in the estimation of the "cutoff score". The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of dementia in Greek population and determine the "cutoff score" by age and education-corrected norms. Cross sectional study of 630 patients older than 55 years, who live independently in Ilion and Helioupolis Municipalities was conducted, 27.3% of the subjects tested in the study were diagnosed with memory disorder according to their MMSE scores and the validation for the Greek population. The effect of age and education to the subjects' performance was statistically significant (p=.000). The use of standard "cutoff score" was not proved to be useful for the personalized interpretation of the results, as documented by the fact that older individuals with lower education had a poorer performance relatively to younger, highly educated subjects. Comparatively to the group age of 55-60 years, the odds ratio after the age of 75 years varies from 2.58 to 4.91. Regarding the variable factor of education, the odds ratio for the first degree education graduates decreases from 1.43 to 3.19 for the third degree education graduates in comparison with the group of illiterates. In conclusion, the use of the "cutoff score" algorithm and the simultaneous estimation of age and education effect on MMSE score may prove useful for the proper evaluation of MMSE performance. According to the age and education of examine candidates in the community and the primary care, we propose the use of the 25th percentile as a more useful cutoff score in order to decrease the false positive results.

  5. CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-M.; Ramos, E.M.; Lee, J.-H.; Gillis, T.; Mysore, J.S.; Hayden, M.R.; Warby, S.C.; Morrison, P.; Nance, M.; Ross, C.A.; Margolis, R.L.; Squitieri, F.; Orobello, S.; Di Donato, S.; Gomez-Tortosa, E.; Ayuso, C.; Suchowersky, O.; Trent, R.J.A.; McCusker, E.; Novelletto, A.; Frontali, M.; Jones, R.; Ashizawa, T.; Frank, S.; Saint-Hilaire, M.H.; Hersch, S.M.; Rosas, H.D.; Lucente, D.; Harrison, M.B.; Zanko, A.; Abramson, R.K.; Marder, K.; Sequeiros, J.; Paulsen, J.S.; Landwehrmeyer, G.B.; Myers, R.H.; MacDonald, M.E.; Durr, Alexandra; Rosenblatt, Adam; Frati, Luigi; Perlman, Susan; Conneally, Patrick M.; Klimek, Mary Lou; Diggin, Melissa; Hadzi, Tiffany; Duckett, Ayana; Ahmed, Anwar; Allen, Paul; Ames, David; Anderson, Christine; Anderson, Karla; Anderson, Karen; Andrews, Thomasin; Ashburner, John; Axelson, Eric; Aylward, Elizabeth; Barker, Roger A.; Barth, Katrin; Barton, Stacey; Baynes, Kathleen; Bea, Alexandra; Beall, Erik; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Biglan, Kevin; Bjork, Kristine; Blanchard, Steve; Bockholt, Jeremy; Bommu, Sudharshan Reddy; Brossman, Bradley; Burrows, Maggie; Calhoun, Vince; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chesire, Amy; Chiu, Edmond; Chua, Phyllis; Connell, R.J.; Connor, Carmela; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Craufurd, David; Cross, Stephen; Cysique, Lucette; Santos, Rachelle Dar; Davis, Jennifer; Decolongon, Joji; DiPietro, Anna; Doucette, Nicholas; Downing, Nancy; Dudler, Ann; Dunn, Steve; Ecker, Daniel; Epping, Eric A.; Erickson, Diane; Erwin, Cheryl; Evans, Ken; Factor, Stewart A.; Farias, Sarah; Fatas, Marta; Fiedorowicz, Jess; Fullam, Ruth; Furtado, Sarah; Garde, Monica Bascunana; Gehl, Carissa; Geschwind, Michael D.; Goh, Anita; Gooblar, Jon; Goodman, Anna; Griffith, Jane; Groves, Mark; Guttman, Mark; Hamilton, Joanne; Harrington, Deborah; Harris, Greg; Heaton, Robert K.; Helmer, Karl; Henneberry, Machelle; Hershey, Tamara; Herwig, Kelly; Howard, Elizabeth; Hunter, Christine; Jankovic, Joseph; Johnson, Hans; Johnson, Arik; Jones, Kathy; Juhl, Andrew; Kim, Eun Young; Kimble, Mycah; King, Pamela; Klimek, Mary Lou; Klöppel, Stefan; Koenig, Katherine; Komiti, Angela; Kumar, Rajeev; Langbehn, Douglas; Leavitt, Blair; Leserman, Anne; Lim, Kelvin; Lipe, Hillary; Lowe, Mark; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Mallonee, William M.; Mans, Nicole; Marietta, Jacquie; Marshall, Frederick; Martin, Wayne; Mason, Sarah; Matheson, Kirsty; Matson, Wayne; Mazzoni, Pietro; McDowell, William; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Miller, Michael; Mills, James; Miracle, Dawn; Montross, Kelsey; Moore, David; Mori, Sasumu; Moser, David J.; Moskowitz, Carol; Newman, Emily; Nopoulos, Peg; Novak, Marianne; O'Rourke, Justin; Oakes, David; Ondo, William; Orth, Michael; Panegyres, Peter; Pease, Karen; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Peterson, Asa; Phillips, Michael; Pierson, Ron; Potkin, Steve; Preston, Joy; Quaid, Kimberly; Radtke, Dawn; Rae, Daniela; Rao, Stephen; Raymond, Lynn; Reading, Sarah; Ready, Rebecca; Reece, Christine; Reilmann, Ralf; Reynolds, Norm; Richardson, Kylie; Rickards, Hugh; Ro, Eunyoe; Robinson, Robert; Rodnitzky, Robert; Rogers, Ben; Rosenblatt, Adam; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Price, Kathy; Price, Kathy; Ryan, Pat; Salmon, David; Samii, Ali; Schumacher, Jamy; Schumacher, Jessica; Sendon, Jose Luis Lópenz; Shear, Paula; Sheinberg, Alanna; Shpritz, Barnett; Siedlecki, Karen; Simpson, Sheila A.; Singer, Adam; Smith, Jim; Smith, Megan; Smith, Glenn; Snyder, Pete; Song, Allen; Sran, Satwinder; Stephan, Klaas; Stober, Janice; Sü?muth, Sigurd; Suter, Greg; Tabrizi, Sarah; Tempkin, Terry; Testa, Claudia; Thompson, Sean; Thomsen, Teri; Thumma, Kelli; Toga, Arthur; Trautmann, Sonja; Tremont, Geoff; Turner, Jessica; Uc, Ergun; Vaccarino, Anthony; van Duijn, Eric; Van Walsem, Marleen; Vik, Stacie; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Vuletich, Elizabeth; Warner, Tom; Wasserman, Paula; Wassink, Thomas; Waterman, Elijah; Weaver, Kurt; Weir, David; Welsh, Claire; Werling-Witkoske, Chris; Wesson, Melissa; Westervelt, Holly; Weydt, Patrick; Wheelock, Vicki; Williams, Kent; Williams, Janet; Wodarski, Mary; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Wood, Jessica; Wood-Siverio, Cathy; Wu, Shuhua; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; de Yebenes, Justo Garcia; Zhao, Yong Qiang; Zimbelman, Janice; Zschiegner, Roland; Aaserud, Olaf; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Andrews, Thomasin; Andrich, Jurgin; Antczak, Jakub; Arran, Natalie; Artiga, Maria J. Saiz; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Banaszkiewicz, Krysztof; di Poggio, Monica Bandettini; Bandmann, Oliver; Barbera, Miguel A.; Barker, Roger A.; Barrero, Francisco; Barth, Katrin; Bas, Jordi; Beister, Antoine; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Bertini, Elisabetta; Biunno, Ida; Bjørgo, Kathrine; Bjørnevoll, Inga; Bohlen, Stefan; Bonelli, Raphael M.; Bos, Reineke; Bourne, Colin; Bradbury, Alyson; Brockie, Peter; Brown, Felicity; Bruno, Stefania; Bryl, Anna; Buck, Andrea; Burg, Sabrina; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Burns, Peter; Burrows, Liz; Busquets, Nuria; Busse, Monica; Calopa, Matilde; Carruesco, Gemma T.; Casado, Ana Gonzalez; Catena, Judit López; Chu, Carol; Ciesielska, Anna; Clapton, Jackie; Clayton, Carole; Clenaghan, Catherine; Coelho, Miguel; Connemann, Julia; Craufurd, David; Crooks, Jenny; Cubillo, Patricia Trigo; Cubo, Esther; Curtis, Adrienne; De Michele, Giuseppe; De Nicola, A.; de Souza, Jenny; de Weert, A. Marit; de Yébenes, Justo Garcia; Dekker, M.; Descals, A. Martínez; Di Maio, Luigi; Di Pietro, Anna; Dipple, Heather; Dose, Matthias; Dumas, Eve M.; Dunnett, Stephen; Ecker, Daniel; Elifani, F.; Ellison-Rose, Lynda; Elorza, Marina D.; Eschenbach, Carolin; Evans, Carole; Fairtlough, Helen; Fannemel, Madelein; Fasano, Alfonso; Fenollar, Maria; Ferrandes, Giovanna; Ferreira, Jaoquim J.; Fillingham, Kay; Finisterra, Ana Maria; Fisher, K.; Fletcher, Amy; Foster, Jillian; Foustanos, Isabella; Frech, Fernando A.; Fullam, Robert; Fullham, Ruth; Gago, Miguel; García, RocioGarcía-Ramos; García, Socorro S.; Garrett, Carolina; Gellera, Cinzia; Gill, Paul; Ginestroni, Andrea; Golding, Charlotte; Goodman, Anna; Gørvell, Per; Grant, Janet; Griguoli, A.; Gross, Diana; Guedes, Leonor; BascuñanaGuerra, Monica; Guerra, Maria Rosalia; Guerrero, Rosa; Guia, Dolores B.; Guidubaldi, Arianna; Hallam, Caroline; Hamer, Stephanie; Hammer, Kathrin; Handley, Olivia J.; Harding, Alison; Hasholt, Lis; Hedge, Reikha; Heiberg, Arvid; Heinicke, Walburgis; Held, Christine; Hernanz, Laura Casas; Herranhof, Briggitte; Herrera, Carmen Durán; Hidding, Ute; Hiivola, Heli; Hill, Susan; Hjermind, Lena. E.; Hobson, Emma; Hoffmann, Rainer; Holl, Anna Hödl; Howard, Liz; Hunt, Sarah; Huson, Susan; Ialongo, Tamara; Idiago, Jesus Miguel R.; Illmann, Torsten; Jachinska, Katarzyna; Jacopini, Gioia; Jakobsen, Oda; Jamieson, Stuart; Jamrozik, Zygmunt; Janik, Piotr; Johns, Nicola; Jones, Lesley; Jones, Una; Jurgens, Caroline K.; Kaelin, Alain; Kalbarczyk, Anna; Kershaw, Ann; Khalil, Hanan; Kieni, Janina; Klimberg, Aneta; Koivisto, Susana P.; Koppers, Kerstin; Kosinski, Christoph Michael; Krawczyk, Malgorzata; Kremer, Berry; Krysa, Wioletta; Kwiecinski, Hubert; Lahiri, Nayana; Lambeck, Johann; Lange, Herwig; Laver, Fiona; Leenders, K.L.; Levey, Jamie; Leythaeuser, Gabriele; Lezius, Franziska; Llesoy, Joan Roig; Löhle, Matthias; López, Cristobal Diez-Aja; Lorenza, Fortuna; Loria, Giovanna; Magnet, Markus; Mandich, Paola; Marchese, Roberta; Marcinkowski, Jerzy; Mariotti, Caterina; Mariscal, Natividad; Markova, Ivana; Marquard, Ralf; Martikainen, Kirsti; Martínez, Isabel Haro; Martínez-Descals, Asuncion; Martino, T.; Mason, Sarah; McKenzie, Sue; Mechi, Claudia; Mendes, Tiago; Mestre, Tiago; Middleton, Julia; Milkereit, Eva; Miller, Joanne; Miller, Julie; Minster, Sara; Möller, Jens Carsten; Monza, Daniela; Morales, Blas; Moreau, Laura V.; Moreno, Jose L. López-Sendón; Münchau, Alexander; Murch, Ann; Nielsen, Jørgen E.; Niess, Anke; Nørremølle, Anne; Novak, Marianne; O'Donovan, Kristy; Orth, Michael; Otti, Daniela; Owen, Michael; Padieu, Helene; Paganini, Marco; Painold, Annamaria; Päivärinta, Markku; Partington-Jones, Lucy; Paterski, Laurent; Paterson, Nicole; Patino, Dawn; Patton, Michael; Peinemann, Alexander; Peppa, Nadia; Perea, Maria Fuensanta Noguera; Peterson, Maria; Piacentini, Silvia; Piano, Carla; Càrdenas, Regina Pons i; Prehn, Christian; Price, Kathleen; Probst, Daniela; Quarrell, Oliver; Quiroga, Purificacion Pin; Raab, Tina; Rakowicz, Maryla; Raman, Ashok; Raymond, Lucy; Reilmann, Ralf; Reinante, Gema; Reisinger, Karin; Retterstol, Lars; Ribaï, Pascale; Riballo, Antonio V.; Ribas, Guillermo G.; Richter, Sven; Rickards, Hugh; Rinaldi, Carlo; Rissling, Ida; Ritchie, Stuart; Rivera, Susana Vázquez; Robert, Misericordia Floriach; Roca, Elvira; Romano, Silvia; Romoli, Anna Maria; Roos, Raymond A.C.; Røren, Niini; Rose, Sarah; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Rossi, Fabiana; Rothery, Jean; Rudzinska, Monika; Ruíz, Pedro J. García; Ruíz, Belan Garzon; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Ryglewicz, Danuta; Saft, Carston; Salvatore, Elena; Sánchez, Vicenta; Sando, Sigrid Botne; Šašinková, Pavla; Sass, Christian; Scheibl, Monika; Schiefer, Johannes; Schlangen, Christiane; Schmidt, Simone; Schöggl, Helmut; Schrenk, Caroline; Schüpbach, Michael; Schuierer, Michele; Sebastián, Ana Rojo; Selimbegovic-Turkovic, Amina; Sempolowicz, Justyna; Silva, Mark; Sitek, Emilia; Slawek, Jaroslaw; Snowden, Julie; Soleti, Francesco; Soliveri, Paola; Sollom, Andrea; Soltan, Witold; Sorbi, Sandro; Sorensen, Sven Asger; Spadaro, Maria; Städtler, Michael; Stamm, Christiane; Steiner, Tanja; Stokholm, Jette; Stokke, Bodil; Stopford, Cheryl; Storch, Alexander; Straßburger, Katrin; Stubbe, Lars; Sulek, Anna; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Tabrizi, Sarah; Taylor, Rachel; Terol, Santiago Duran-Sindreu; Thomas, Gareth; Thompson, Jennifer; Thomson, Aileen; Tidswell, Katherine; Torres, Maria M. Antequera; Toscano, Jean; Townhill, Jenny; Trautmann, Sonja; Tucci, Tecla; Tuuha, Katri; Uhrova, Tereza; Valadas, Anabela; van Hout, Monique S.E.; van Oostrom, J.C.H.; van Vugt, Jeroen P.P.; vanm, Walsem Marleen R.; Vandenberghe, Wim; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Vergara, Mar Ruiz; Verstappen, C.C.P.; Verstraelen, Nichola; Viladrich, Celia Mareca; Villanueva, Clara; Wahlström, Jan; Warner, Thomas; Wehus, Raghild; Weindl, Adolf; Werner, Cornelius J.; Westmoreland, Leann; Weydt, Patrick; Wiedemann, Alexandra; Wild, Edward; Wild, Sue; Witjes-Ané, Marie-Noelle; Witkowski, Grzegorz; Wójcik, Magdalena; Wolz, Martin; Wolz, Annett; Wright, Jan; Yardumian, Pam; Yates, Shona; Yudina, Elizaveta; Zaremba, Jacek; Zaugg, Sabine W.; Zdzienicka, Elzbieta; Zielonka, Daniel; Zielonka, Euginiusz; Zinzi, Paola; Zittel, Simone; Zucker, Birgrit; Adams, John; Agarwal, Pinky; Antonijevic, Irina; Beck, Christopher; Chiu, Edmond; Churchyard, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Dorsey, Ray; Drazinic, Carolyn; Dubinsky, Richard; Duff, Kevin; Factor, Stewart; Foroud, Tatiana; Furtado, Sarah; Giuliano, Joe; Greenamyre, Timothy; Higgins, Don; Jankovic, Joseph; Jennings, Dana; Kang, Un Jung; Kostyk, Sandra; Kumar, Rajeev; Leavitt, Blair; LeDoux, Mark; Mallonee, William; Marshall, Frederick; Mohlo, Eric; Morgan, John; Oakes, David; Panegyres, Peter; Panisset, Michel; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Quaid, Kimberly; Raymond, Lynn; Revilla, Fredy; Robertson, Suzanne; Robottom, Bradley; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Scott, Burton; Shannon, Kathleen; Shoulson, Ira; Singer, Carlos; Tabbal, Samer; Testa, Claudia; van, Kammen Dan; Vetter, Louise; Walker, Francis; Warner, John; Weiner, illiam; Wheelock, Vicki; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; Barton, Stacey; Broyles, Janice; Clouse, Ronda; Coleman, Allison; Davis, Robert; Decolongon, Joji; DeLaRosa, Jeanene; Deuel, Lisa; Dietrich, Susan; Dubinsky, Hilary; Eaton, Ken; Erickson, Diane; Fitzpatrick, Mary Jane; Frucht, Steven; Gartner, Maureen; Goldstein, Jody; Griffith, Jane; Hickey, Charlyne; Hunt, Victoria; Jaglin, Jeana; Klimek, Mary Lou; Lindsay, Pat; Louis, Elan; Loy, Clemet; Lucarelli, Nancy; Malarick, Keith; Martin, Amanda; McInnis, Robert; Moskowitz, Carol; Muratori, Lisa; Nucifora, Frederick; O'Neill, Christine; Palao, Alicia; Peavy, Guerry; Quesada, Monica; Schmidt, Amy; Segro, Vicki; Sperin, Elaine; Suter, Greg; Tanev, Kalo; Tempkin, Teresa; Thiede, Curtis; Wasserman, Paula; Welsh, Claire; Wesson, Melissa; Zauber, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound implications for disease mechanism and modification, we tested whether the normal allele, interaction between the expanded and normal alleles, or presence of a second expanded allele affects age at onset of HD motor signs. Methods: We modeled natural log-transformed age at onset as a function of CAG repeat lengths of expanded and normal alleles and their interaction by linear regression. Results: An apparently significant effect of interaction on age at motor onset among 4,068 subjects was dependent on a single outlier data point. A rigorous statistical analysis with a well-behaved dataset that conformed to the fundamental assumptions of linear regression (e.g., constant variance and normally distributed error) revealed significance only for the expanded CAG repeat, with no effect of the normal CAG repeat. Ten subjects with 2 expanded alleles showed an age at motor onset consistent with the length of the larger expanded allele. Conclusions: Normal allele CAG length, interaction between expanded and normal alleles, and presence of a second expanded allele do not influence age at onset of motor manifestations, indicating that the rate of HD pathogenesis leading to motor diagnosis is determined by a completely dominant action of the longest expanded allele and as yet unidentified genetic or environmental factors. Neurology® 2012;78:690–695 PMID:22323755

  6. Determinants of under nutrition among school age children in a Nairobi peri-urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesire, E J; Orago, A S S; Oteba, L P; Echoka, E

    2008-10-01

    Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income urban community. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Kawangware peri-urban slum, Nairobi, Kenya. Three hundred and eighty four school children aged 6-12 years. A total of 4.5% were wasted, 14.9% underweight and 30.2% stunted. The children who were over nine years of age were more underweight (72.4%, p = 0.000) and stunted (77.2%, p = 0.000) than those below eight years. The girls were more wasted (29.1%, p = 0.013) than the boys (18.2%), whereas the boys were more stunted (65.7%, p = 0.003) than the girls (50.7%). The other variables found to have had significant association with the nutritional status of the children were: monthly household income (p = 0.008), food prices (p = 0.012), morbidity trends (p = 0.045), mode of treatment (p = 0.036) and school attendance (p = 0.044). The findings of this study show evidently that there is under nutrition among school age children, with stunting being the most prevalent. The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health therefore need to develop policies which can alleviate under nutrition among school age children. We also recommend that awareness be created among the school age children, parents and teachers, on the dietary requirements of both boys and girls.

  7. Tephrostratigraphy and potassium-argon age determinations of seven volcanic ash layers in the Muddy Creek formation of southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, L.A.

    1982-04-01

    Seven silicic tephra layers occur in alluvial deposits of the Muddy Creek and equivalent formations at three localities in southern Nevada. Chemical and petrographic characterization indicate the tephra were derived from seven different volcanic eruptions and do not represent any previously known tephra layers. K-Ar age determinations on minerals or glass from each layer yielded 6 to 12 m.y. ages. Discordant ages were obtained on multiple mineral phases due to incorporation of detrital contaminants. The tephra are sufficiently distinctive to constitute stratigraphic marker horizons in the Muddy Creek and equivalent formations. Derivation from the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, active 16 to 6 m.y., is highly likely for some of the tephra. The K-Ar results suggest substantial parts of the Muddy Creek Formation and equivalent basin-fill are 6 to 12 m.y., indicating basin-range faulting began prior to 12 m.y. Little tectonic deformation or physiographic change has occurrred in the past 6 m.y

  8. Automatic determination of Greulich and Pyle bone age in healthy Dutch children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijn, Rick R. van; Lequin, Maarten H.; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Bone age (BA) assessment is a routine procedure in paediatric radiology, for which the Greulich and Pyle (GP) atlas is mostly used. There is rater variability, but the advent of automatic BA determination eliminates this. To validate the BoneXpert method for automatic determination of skeletal maturity of healthy children against manual GP BA ratings. Two observers determined GP BA with knowledge of the chronological age (CA). A total of 226 boys with a BA of 3-17 years and 179 girls with a BA of 3-15 years were included in the study. BoneXpert's estimate of GP BA was calibrated to agree on average with the manual ratings based on several studies, including the present study. Seven subjects showed a deviation between manual and automatic BA in excess of 1.9 years. They were re-rated blindly by two raters. After correcting these seven ratings, the root mean square error between manual and automatic rating in the 405 subjects was 0.71 years (range 0.66-0.76 years, 95% CI). BoneXpert's GP BA is on average 0.28 and 0.20 years behind the CA for boys and girls, respectively. BoneXpert is a robust method for automatic determination of BA. (orig.)

  9. Age- and gender-specific differences in left ventricular cardiac function and volumes determined by gated SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondt, P. de; Wiele, C. van de; Winter, F. de; Dierckx, R.A.; Sutter, J. de; Backer, G. de

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine normative volumetric data and ejection fraction values derived from gated myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using the commercially available software algorithm QGS (quantitative gated SPET). From a prospective database of 876 consecutive patients who were referred for a 2-day stress-rest technetium-99m tetrofosmin (925 MBq) gated SPET study, 102 patients (43 men, 59 women) with a low (<10%) pre-test likelihood of coronary disease were included (mean age 57.6 years). For stress imaging, a bicycle protocol was used in 79 of the patients and a dipyridamole protocol in 23. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and end-diastolic and -systolic volumes (EDV and ESV) were calculated by QGS. EDV and ESV were corrected for body surface area, indicated by EDVi and ESVi. To allow comparison with previous reports using other imaging modalities, men and women were divided into three age groups (<45 years, ≥45 years but <65 years and ≥65 years). Men showed significantly higher EDVi and ESVi values throughout and lower LVEF values when compared with women in the subgroup ≥65 years (P<0.05, ANOVA). Significant negative and positive correlations were found between age and EDVi and ESVi values for both women and men and between LVEF and age in women (Pearson P≤0.01). LVEF values at bicycle stress were significantly higher than at rest (P=0.000, paired t test), which was the result of a significant decrease in ESV (P=0.003), a phenomenon which did not occur following dipyridamole stress (P=0.409). The data presented suggest that LVEF and EDVi and ESVi as assessed by QGS are strongly gender-specific. Although the physiological significance of these results is uncertain and needs further study, these findings demonstrate that the evaluation of cardiac function and volumes of patients by means of QGS should consider age- and gender-matched normative values. (orig.)

  10. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  11. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average ± standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 ± 1.0 cm and 54% ± 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 ± 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  12. Patients' age as a determinant of care received following acute stroke: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhardt Julie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based care should improve acute stroke outcomes with the same magnitude of effect for stroke patients of all ages. However, there is evidence to suggest that, in some instances, older stroke patients may receive poorer quality care than younger patients. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of the quality of care provided to patients with acute stroke related to their age. Quality of care was determined by compliance with recommended care processes. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, Ageline and the Cochrane Library databases to identify publications (1995-2009 that reported data on acute stroke care process indicators by patient age. Data extracted included patient demographics and process indicator compliance. Included publications were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, and a comparison was made of the risk of bias according to studies' findings. The evidence base for reported process indicators was determined, and meta-analysis was undertaken for studies with sufficient similarity. Results Nine from 163 potential studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the 56 process indicators reported, eleven indicators were evidence-based. Seven of these indicators (64% showed significantly poorer care for older patients compared to younger ones, while younger patients received comparatively inferior care for only antihypertensive therapy at discharge. Our findings are limited by the variable methodological quality of included studies. Conclusion Patients' age may be a factor in the care they receive after an acute stroke. However, the possible influence of patients' age on clinicians' decision-making must be considered in terms of the many complex issues that surround the provision of optimal care for older patients with acute stroke.

  13. Determinants of vitamin D status in fair-skinned women of childbearing age at northern latitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Hedlund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Poor vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with unfavorable outcomes for mother and child. Thus, adequate vitamin D status in women of childbearing age may be important. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD serum concentrations in women of childbearing age living in Sweden, at latitude 57-58° north. METHOD: Eighty four non-pregnant, non-lactating, healthy, fair-skinned women aged between 25-40 years were included. All subjects provided blood samples, four day food records and answered questionnaires about sun exposure and lifestyle. Total serum 25(OHD was analyzed using Roche Cobas® electrochemoluminiescent immunoassay. RESULTS: Mean 25(OHD was 65.8±19.9 nmol/l and 23% of the subjects had concentrations <50 nmol/l. Only 1% had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Determinants of 25(OHD concentrations were recent sunbed use, recent travel to southern latitude, season, estrogen contraceptive use and use of supplementary vitamin D (R(2 = 0.27. CONCLUSION: Every fifth woman had 25(OHD concentrations <50 nmol/l. About 30% of the variation in vitamin D status was explained by sun exposure, use of vitamin D supplements and use of estrogen contraceptives. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis seems to be a major contributor to vitamin D status, even at northern latitudes. Thus, recommendations on safe UV-B exposure could be beneficial for vitamin D status.

  14. Relationships between age and microarchitectural descriptors of iliac trabecular bone determined by microCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguette, C; Ramond-Roquin, A; Rougé-Maillart, C

    2017-06-01

    Estimation of age at death is a major issue in anthropology. The main anthropological histological methods propose studying the architecture of cortical bone. In bone histomorphometry, researches on metabolic bone diseases have provided normative tables for trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) according to age and gender of individuals on trans-iliac bone biopsies. We have used microCT, a non-destructive tool for measuring bone volume and trabecular descriptors to compare the French tables to a series of forensic anthropological population and if the two iliac bones could be used interchangeably. Coxal bone of a personal forensic collection whose age and gender were known (DNA identification) were used. Bone samples, centered on the same area than bone biopsy. MicroCT (pixel size: 36μm) was used to measure BV/TV and morphometric trabecular parameters of microarchitecture. An adjusted Z-score was calculated for BV/TV to compare with normative tables and a right/left comparison of trabecular parameters was provided. Twenty-seven iliac bones, which 20 forming 10 complete pelvises, aged between 24 and 73y.o. (average of 47.7 y.o.) were used. All adjusted Z-score were within normal values. There was a strong positive correlation between right and left sides for Tb.Th, Tb.N and Tb.Sp, but an insignificant correlation was obtained for BV/TV. Normative tables between age and BV/TV are valid and therefore usable in anthropology. They may represent an alternative to determine the age at death. Nevertheless, it requires a precise technique that could be a drawback in current practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Seasonality determines patterns of growth and age structure over a geographic gradient in an ectothermic vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjernquist, Mårten B; Söderman, Fredrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Herczeg, Gábor; Laurila, Anssi; Merilä, Juha

    2012-11-01

    Environmental variation connected with seasonality is likely to affect the evolution of life-history strategies in ectotherms, but there is no consensus as to how important life-history traits like body size are influenced by environmental variation along seasonal gradients. We compared adult body size, skeletal growth, mean age, age at first reproduction and longevity among 11 common frog (Rana temporaria) populations sampled along a 1,600-km-long latitudinal gradient across Scandinavia. Mean age, age at first reproduction and longevity increased linearly with decreasing growth season length. Lifetime activity (i.e. the estimated number of active days during life-time) was highest at mid-latitudes and females had on average more active days throughout their lives than males. Variation in body size was due to differences in lifetime activity among populations--individuals (especially females) were largest where they had the longest cumulative activity period--as well as to differences between populations in skeletal growth rate as determined by skeletochronological analyses. Especially, males grew faster at intermediate latitudes. While life-history trait variation was strongly associated with latitude, the direction and shape of these relationships were sex- and trait-specific. These context-dependent relationships may be the result of life-history trade-offs enforced by differences in future reproductive opportunities and time constraints among the populations. Thus, seasonality appears to be an important environmental factor shaping life-history trait variation in common frogs.

  16. Aging-related changes in swallowing, and in the coordination of swallowing and respiration determined by novel non-invasive measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Man; Chen, Ji-Yih; Chuang, Chiung-Cheng; Tseng, Wen-Chun; Wong, Alice M K; Pei, Yu-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the process of swallowing changes with aging, a phenomenon known as presbyphagia. These subtle and subclinical age-related changes make older adults more vulnerable to dysphagia during disease insults. However, there are limited studies of the swallowing process in older adults, because measurements are typically invasive or require exposure to X-rays. In the present study, we used integrated non-invasive measurements to determine aging-related changes of swallowing, and in the coordination of swallowing and respiration for a population of healthy participants. The non-invasive system provided measurements of larynx movement with piezoelectric sensors, submental muscle activity with surface electromyography and respiration-swallowing coordination by measurement of nasal airflow. We recruited 112 healthy participants from the community, 35 in a young-age group (age 20-30 years), 38 in a middle-age group (age 31-50 years) and 39 in an old-age group (age 51-70 years). The oropharyngeal swallowing parameters of the old-age group had delayed onset latency and longer swallowing apnea duration relative to the other groups, and these differences were greater for larger boluses. The middle- and old-age groups had less expiratory-expiratory respiratory phase pattern than the young-age group. The probability of piecemeal deglutition was highest in the old-age group and lowest in the young-age group. These results show that the phases of oropharyngeal swallowing and the coordination of swallowing with respiration gradually change with aging. We used integrated non-invasive measurements to document age-related changes in swallowing, and in the coordination of swallowing and respiration in healthy adults. © 2014 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Lifestyle and age as determinates of intake and dose from inhaled radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The whole-body dose from inhaled radionuclides is a complex function of factors describing exposure and physiology. Exposure-related factors may be estimated by considering likely emission rates combined with measured time-varying meteorological (transport) parameters and estimated exercise patterns. Physiological factors, strongly influencing radionuclide intake and consequent radiation dose, have been catalogued as functions of age and activity level. Both exercise patterns and physiological factors are related to age of the exposed individual. Combining these factors permits estimates to be made of the span of exposures that may be expected in a typical population. The ratio of highest to lowest radionuclide intake is predicted to be of the order of 40, suggesting that specification of an 'average' value may be misleading if this value approaches regulatory limits. Individuals exposed to maximal risk may be identified, and are likely to be active children. Activity pattern (lifestyle) is a primary determinant of risk. (author)

  18. Application of diagnostics to determine operational readiness of aged motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor current signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment

  19. Determination of radiocarbon reservoir age of Lake Van by mineral magnetic and geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaroglu, Ozlem; Namik Cagatay, M.; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Orbay, Naci

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van is the largest soda lake in the world, located on the east Anatolian Plateau in Turkey. Its varved sediments provide an excellent archive of high-resolution paleoclimate record for the Near East. Varve counting and radiocarbon methods are therefore important dating techniques for investigating the Lake Van sedimentary paleoclimate record. In here we present detailed magnetic and geochemical record of Lake Van. We have studied 4.56 m (core VP0801) and 4.70 m (core VP0807) long cores recovered from 80 m and 65 m water depths located in SE and SW of Lake Van, respectively. Here, we have benefited from magnetic properties with associated remanent magnetization of the sediments from Lake Van to correlate the cores which contain of tephra layers. The cores cover the last 8.4 ka and lithologically include three laminated sedimentary units. From top to the bottom, the units were dated 4.2 ka BP-present, 5.4-4.2 ka BP and older than 5.4 ka BP. We identified tephra layers previously dated by varve counting, and used the varve ages to obtain age models for the cores. We also obtained a total of eight Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) 14C dates from total organic carbon (TOC) in the two cores, close to the tephra layers. Comparison of the varve ages of the AMS 14C dated samples with their corresponding AMS 14C dates indicates large differences, suggesting significant reservoir ages that range from 2.8 to 2.5 ka for 3.0-2.4 varve ka BP and from 2.8 to 3.3 ka for 8.0-5.9 varve ka BP. The results suggest that the reservoir age of the organic matter increases with the varve age of the sediments. This increase is mainly related to the rate of supply of "dead" carbon from the old carbonate rocks in the watershed of Lake Van, which was relatively higher during 8.4-5.9 ka than during 3.0-2.4 ka BP because of the higher atmospheric precipitation and higher rate of biochemical weathering during the former period.

  20. Longitudinal comparison of skeletal age determined by the Greulich and Pyle method and chronologic age in normally growing children, and clinical interpretations for orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Sunjay; Prasad, Chandrakala; Tompson, Bryan; Lou, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Coinciding treatment with periods of accelerated skeletal growth and maturation might be advantageous in clinical practice. Better understanding of the concordance between skeletal and chronologic ages during the period that children frequently receive orthodontic treatment is needed. The literature on skeletal age determination from hand-wrist radiographs lacks reports based on longitudinal data, creating lacunae in the understanding of the magnitudes and variations of differences between skeletal and chronologic ages. The aims of this research were to comprehensively analyze the concordance between skeletal and chronologic ages determined by using the Greulich and Pyle method at different ages in the preadolescent and adolescent periods, and to determine any age- and sex-related differences in the concordance. By using the Greulich and Pyle method, skeletal age determinations were made from 572 hand-wrist radiographs of 68 white children with normal facial growth, selected from the records of the Burlington Growth Centre, spanning the growth period from 9 to 18 years. Skeletal age and chronologic age differences for each sex were analyzed by using paired t tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests at yearly intervals. Differences over the longitudinal duration were examined by using the mixed model approach. The limits of agreement were determined by using the Bland-Altman method. In each yearly chronologic age group, differences were clinically categorized based on the proximity of the skeletal and chronologic ages. Overall, a slightly greater proportion of the total skeletal age determinations made in girls (41.9%) were within 0.5 year of their chronologic age, compared with 38% in boys. The largest proportions of subjects having skeletal age-chronologic age differences within 0.5 year were in the 10-year age group in girls (64.5%) and the 13-year age group in boys (64.7%). Mean skeletal age-chronologic age differences were significantly larger in the 13- to 16-year

  1. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Sana; Addo, O Yaw; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Ashour, Fayrouz A Sakr; Ziegler, Thomas R; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2016-06-23

    Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC-aged 5.00-14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00-14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions.

  2. Age and Gender as Determinants of Street Children's Self-Esteem and Risk Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Adejumo Gbadebo Olubunmi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the self-esteem and risk attitudes of street children in Lagos metropolis. The study examined whether there were differences in self-esteem and risk taking attitudes based on gender and age. The sample consisted of 249 street children: 132 males and 117 females. Three instruments were used to gather data: a self-esteem rating scale, risk attitude scale and measure of street child status identification scale. The data were analyzed using a t-test and ...

  3. Age-related energy values of bakery meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Xue, P; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of bakery meal using the regression method and to evaluate whether the energy values are age-dependent in broiler chickens from zero to 21 d post hatching. Seven hundred and eighty male Ross 708 chicks were fed 3 experimental diets in which bakery meal was incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at zero, 100, or 200 g/kg by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 ages (1, 2, or 3 wk) and 3 dietary bakery meal levels were used. Birds were fed the same experimental diets in these 3 evaluated ages. Birds were grouped by weight into 10 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Apparent ileal digestibility and total tract retention of DM, N, and energy were calculated. Expression of mucin (MUC2), sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb), solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, Y(+) system, SLC7A2), glucose (GLUT2), and sodium-glucose linked transporter (SGLT1) genes were measured at each age in the jejunum by real-time PCR. Addition of bakery meal to the reference diet resulted in a linear decrease in retention of DM, N, and energy, and a quadratic reduction (P bakery meal did not affect jejunal gene expression. Expression of genes encoding MUC2, NaPi-IIb, and SLC7A2 linearly increased (P bakery meal linearly increased (P bakery meal was included and increased with age of broiler chickens. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Caregiver's Country of Birth Is a Significant Determinant of Accurate Perception of Preschool-Age Children's Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Camejo, Stephanie; Englebert, Nicole; Delamater, Alan M.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: One in four preschool-age children in the United States are currently overweight or obese. Previous studies have shown that caregivers of this age group often have difficulty accurately recognizing their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with accurate/inaccurate perception of child body…

  5. Stress as a major determinant of migraine in women aged 25-65 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Migraine is a primary headache causing substantial disability in patients. The prevalence of migraine in women is still high. Menarche, menstruation, pregnancy, menopause, and the use of hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement treatment may influence migraine occurrence. The aim of this study was to determine the major determinants of migraine in adult women aged 25-65 years. Methods A cross-sectional study of 2,747 women from the baseline study “Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases”. The dependent variable was migraine based on the diagnosis of health providers or symptoms. Independent variables were demographic (age, marital status, education and behavioral (smoking, diet, and stress characteristics, metabolic disorders (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hormonal factors (contraception and hormone therapy. Data were collected through interviews (characteristics, health and hormonal status, diet, measurement (anthropometrics, blood pressure, and health examination (blood specimens, neurology. Data were analyzed by chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Results Migraine in adult women was found in 710 cases (25.8% with symptoms of worsening with activity (15%, nausea and vomiting (13%, and photophobia/phonophobia (4.1%. The main determinant of migraine in adult women was stress with a 2.47-fold risk [95% CI = 2.07 to 2.95] as compared with no stress, after controlling for smoking, menstruation and hormonal drug consumption. Conclusion Stress is a major determinant of migraine in adult women, therefore health programs should be instituted through health promotion, prevention and education to control stress.

  6. Determinants of exercise capacity in school-aged esophageal atresia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint-Duyster, Leontien C C; van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H M; Spoel, Marjolein; Lam, Mhanfei; Wijnen, Rene M H; de Jongste, Johan C; Tibboel, Dick; van Rosmalen, Joost; IJsselstijn, Hanneke

    2017-09-01

    Data on long-term outcome of exercise capacity in school-aged children with esophageal atresia (EA) are scarce. We evaluated maximal exercise capacity and its relation to lung function. Moreover, we studied other possible determinants of exercise capacity and lung function. Exercise capacity of 63 children with EA born 1999-2007 was evaluated at the age of 8 years with the Bruce-protocol. Dynamic and static lung volumes, bronchodilator response and diffusion capacity were measured. Furthermore, perinatal characteristics, hospital admissions for lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs), RTIs treated with antibiotics in the past year, symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux, weight-for-height, and sports participation were evaluated as other potential determinants. Exercise capacity was significantly below normal: mean (SD) SDS -0.91 (0.97); P Exercise capacity was positively associated with total lung capacity and negatively with SDS weight-for-height. Spirometric parameters were negatively associated with congenital cardiac malformation, duration of ventilation, and persistent respiratory morbidity. Eight-year-old children with EA had reduced exercise capacity which was only associated with the reduction in TLC he and higher SDS weight-for-height. We speculate that diminished physical activity with recurrent respiratory tract infections may also play a role in reduced exercise capacity. This should be subject to further research to optimize appropriate intervention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Determination of 14C age of inorganic and organic carbon in ancient Siberian permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstott, T. C.; Liang, R.; Lau, M.; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Lloyd, K. G.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Hodgins, G.; Rivkina, E.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost represents a large reservoir of ancient carbon that could have an important impact on the global carbon budget during climate warming. Due to the low turnover rate of carbon by microorganisms at subzero temperatures, the persistence of ancient carbon in younger permafrost deposits could also pose challenges for radiocarbon dating of permafrost sediment. We utilized Accelerator Mass Spectrometry to determine the 14C age of inorganic carbon, labile and recalcitrant organic carbon in Siberian permafrost sediment sampled at various depths from 2.9 to 5.6m. The fraction of inorganic carbon (CO2) was collected after acidification using phosphoric acid. The labile (younger) and recalcitrant (old) organic carbon in the subsequent residues were collected after combustion at 400 ºC and 800 ºC, respectively. The percentages of inorganic carbon increased from the youngest (2.9m) to the oldest (5.6m), whereas the fractions for organic carbon varied significantly at different depths. The 14C age determined in the inorganic fraction in the top sample (2.9 m) was 21,760 yr BP and gradually increased to 33,900 yr BP in the relative deeper sediment (3.5 and 5.6 m). Surprisingly, the fraction of "younger" carbon liberated at 400 oC was older than the more recalcitrant and presumably older organic carbon liberated at 800 oC in all cases. Moreover, the 14C age of the younger and older organic carbon fractions did not increase with depth as observed in the carbonate fraction. In particular, the 14C age of the organic carbon in the top sample (38,590-41,700 yr BP) was much older than the deeper samples at depth of 3.5m (18,228-20,158 yr BP) and 5.6m (29,040-38,020 yr BP). It should be noticed that the metabolism of ancient carbon in frozen permafrost may vary at different depths due to the different proportion of necromass and metabolically active microbes. Therefore, additional knowledge about the carbon dynamics of permafrost and more investigation would be required to

  8. Maternal age, education level and migration: Socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanik Feride A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Method Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256. The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with χ2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the χ2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Results Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1% were daily smokers. Young mothers ( Conclusions Systematic attention should be paid to socioeconomic determinants in smoking for pregnant women, especially in countries like Turkey with high rates of infant and mother mortality and substantial health inequalities. Young mothers (

  9. Accumulated environmental risk determining age at schizophrenia onset: a deep phenotyping-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniak, Beata; Papiol, Sergi; Hammer, Christian; Ramin, Anna; Everts, Sarah; Hennig, Lena; Begemann, Martin; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-11-01

    Schizophrenia is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, as first evidenced by twin studies. Extensive efforts have been made to identify the genetic roots of schizophrenia, including large genome-wide association studies, but these yielded very small effect sizes for individual markers. In this study, we aimed to assess the relative contribution of genome-wide association study-derived genetic versus environmental risk factors to crucial determinants of schizophrenia severity: disease onset, disease severity, and socioeconomic measures. In this parallel analysis, we studied 750 male patients from the Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia (GRAS) dataset (Germany) with schizophrenia for whom both genome-wide coverage of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and deep clinical phenotyping data were available. Specifically, we investigated the potential effect of schizophrenia risk alleles as identified in the most recent large genome-wide association study versus the effects of environmental hazards (ie, perinatal brain insults, cannabis use, neurotrauma, psychotrauma, urbanicity, and migration), alone and upon accumulation, on age at disease onset, age at prodrome, symptom expression, and socioeconomic parameters. In this study, we could show that frequent environmental factors become a major risk for early schizophrenia onset when accumulated (prodrome begins up to 9 years earlier; p=2·9×10(-10)). In particular, cannabis use-an avoidable environmental risk factor-is highly significantly associated with earlier age at prodrome (p=3·8×10(-20)). By contrast, polygenic genome-wide association study risk scores did not have any detectable effects on schizophrenia phenotypes. These findings should be translated to preventive measures to reduce environmental risk factors, since age at onset of schizophrenia is a crucial determinant of an affected individual's fate and the total socioeconomic cost of the illness. German Research Foundation

  10. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  11. Determinants of Unintended Pregnancy among Women of Reproductive Age in Developing Countries: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumera Aziz Ali Aziz Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Thecurrent population of the world is seven billion, and developing countries account for its 97%. Approximately 210 million pregnancies annually occur worldwide and 75-80 million of them are reported to be unintended. Multiple factors can contribute to unintended pregnancy, which need to be assessed to design interventions reducing the incidence of unintended pregnancies.This study aimed to identify the determinants of unintended pregnancy among women of reproductive age in developing countries. Methods:This review of the literature was carried out by retrieving articles from various databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, and Science Direct and using mesh terms and phrases including ‘unintended pregnancy’, ‘contraception’, and ‘determinants of unintended pregnancy’. The reviewed studies included descriptive studies, population council reports, demographic and health survey reports, the United Nations Children's Fund statistics, and the World Health Organization reports. Results: The most common determinants of unintended pregnancy in the literature were reported under the headings of sociodemographic, socioeconomic, sociocultural, fertility related, contraceptive methods, and access related factors. Conclusion: Multiple factors can predict unintended pregnancy, and these findings have significant policy implications. Policymakers and healthcare providers can benefit from the evidence on determinants of unwanted pregnancy to design and implement policies and programs that can support couples to have their desired number of children, without facing unnecessary threats to their health. Furthermore, more studies are needed to be done in future to assess the available cost-effective interventions for reducing unintended pregnancy and ultimately, to improve women’s and children’s health.

  12. Determination of the sterile release rate for stopping growing age-structured populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, Hugh John

    2016-01-01

    A freely-growing age-structured population was modelled for growth and control by sterile male releases. Equilibrium populations yield critical sterile male release rates that would hold the population at equilibrium. It is shown here that these rates may be different from the release rates required to stop a growing population and bring it to an equilibrium. A computer simulation was constructed of this population and a parameter sensitivity analysis graphed the effects on the required sterile male release rate of fertility, mating delay in adult females, net juvenile survivorship, three adult survivorship curves, the time spent in the juvenile stages, and total life span. The adult survivorship curves had the greatest effect on the required sterile release rate for population elimination. The required release rate was also determined for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) using survivorship and fertility data from a laboratory strain. The concepts of over-flooding ratio and release ratio were discussed and quantified for the cases above. (author)

  13. Determination of K-Ar ages in milligram samples using an infrared laser for argon extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Jesús

    2009-11-01

    The K-Ar dating method has been used for decades to decipher the ages of terrestrial and extraterrestrial minerals and rocks. The natural radioactive decay of a metal to a rare gas is an advantage that allows the determination of very small amounts of argon by mass spectrometry. Although the Ar-Ar method has superseded K-Ar, the latter is still used and it has room for improvement. One of these is the reduction of the analyzed sample mass, a desideratum of any current analytical technique. I report here our experience in K-Ar geochronology of milligram-sized samples using laser heating and melting for gas extraction. This modification of the classical K-Ar technique has not been, to my knowledge, used in any other laboratory in the world and deserves a detailed description of its advantages and limitations. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Age and season determine European rabbit habitat use in Mediterranean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Marta; Rebollo, Salvador; Bravo, Lucía Gálvez

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge about the factors determining habitat use is especially interesting for herbivores living under seasonal climates as they have to deal with food shortage during the drought season. In this context, different-aged individuals are expected to respond differently to seasonal variations because nutritional requirements and predation risk can vary with age. We investigated adult and juvenile European rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) habitat use in a Mediterranean ecosystem of central Spain, during spring, summer and winter. Relationships between adult and juvenile rabbit pellet abundances and 11 environmental variables related to food availability and refuge density were analysed by means of multiple regression, and evaluated using information theory to identify the set of models best supported by the data. Density of warren entrances was the more constant predictor of habitat use for juvenile rabbits in all the seasons. Herbaceous vegetation volume had a negative influence and was the strongest predictor for adult rabbit habitat use in spring and winter. In summer, green vegetation cover became the strongest positive habitat use predictor. These results suggest that adults prefer to forage in low volume swards ensuring a wide sensory range for the detection of approaching predators. However, the arrival of summer and its associated food depletion forces them to shift toward more open productive areas where green vegetation persists, but at the expense of higher predation risk. Seasonal variation induces minor changes in juvenile habitat use due to their strong dependence on warrens. Thus, our results show that rabbit habitat use is influenced by animal age and seasonal variations in resources.

  15. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L.; Delnatus, Jacques R.; Odom, Audrey R.; Eaton, Jacob C.; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B.

    2015-01-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3–13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30–4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. PMID:26350448

  16. Determinants of oxidative stress related to gender: relevance of age and smoking habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassalle, Cristina; Novembrino, Cristina; Maffei, Silvia; Sciarrino, Rosalia; De Giuseppe, Rachele; Vigna, Luisella; de Liso, Federica; Mercuri, Antonella; Bamonti, Fabrizia

    2011-09-01

    Magnitude and major causes of oxidative stress may be different between sexes, although limitedly addressed in clinical studies with controversial results. The present study aimed to determine whether any gender-related difference exists concerning oxidative stress in a population of 332 subjects of both sexes, in a wide age range, with and without cigarette smoking habit. The Oxidative-INDEX was calculated after evaluation of serum hydroperoxides (ROMs) and total antioxidant capacity (OXY) by means of commercial kits (d-ROMs and Oxy-adsorbent Tests, Diacron, Italy) subtracting the OXY standardized variable from the ROMs standardized variable. The Oxidative-INDEX resulted higher in women with respect to men (phigh blood pressure, and smoking habit as factors independently associated with the Oxidative-INDEX in men, whereas cigarette smoking and age represented the independent risk factors for an elevated oxidative stress status in women. Gender-based differences in oxidative stress levels may provide a biochemical basis for the epidemiologic differences in the disease susceptibility between sexes, and suggest different strategies for risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment specifically targeted to men and women.

  17. Determination of permanent premolars eruption ages among public school children in Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, A.L.; Soomro, S.H.; Khuhawar, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine mean eruption age, range and sequence of permanent maxillary and mandibular premolars in public schools of Lahore, Pakistan so as to provide a reference for planning orthodontic treatment and in pediatric dentistry. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study consisting of multistage random sampling and included 4000 children, with ages in between 9-14 years of different public schools in Lahore. Participants were examined and tooth numbering was noted by two-digit system of FDI (Federation Dentaire Internationale). Emergence was divided into three stages depending on eruption level. SPSS version 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 4000 children, 1960 were boys and 2031 were girls. In both genders maxillary premolars erupted before mandibular counterparts. All premolars erupted earlier in females than the males. The sequence of emergence for both genders was P1, P2 in upper as well as in lower arch. Conclusion: Eruption of premolar in females was earlier than males but delayed in both genders while compared with Western standard. (author)

  18. Contraceptive prevalence and determinants among women of reproductive age group in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyemi AS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adewale S Adeyemi,1 Adenike I Olugbenga-Bello,2 Oluwatosin A Adeoye,3 Moshood O Salawu,3 Adesola A Aderinoye,3 Michael A Agbaje1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH, Osogbo, Osun State, 3Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Background: The fertility rate in Nigeria is 5.7 children per woman. The contraceptive prevalence rate has been found to be low at 15% in 2013, compared to other countries such as the US and Pakistan. Objective: The study aimed to assess the contraceptive prevalence among women of reproductive age in Ogbomoso town, and determinants of use, with a view to make appropriate recommendations that will enhance the uptake of family planning services. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with 560 respondents, using a multistage sampling technique. Data were retrieved using a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. Results: All the respondents were aware of contraception; however, only 49.7% (271 had ever used any method, while 25.4% (69 of the number who had ever used contraception were currently using a method. The methods being used were the traditional type (four [5.9%], natural type (two [3.0%], and modern type (63 [91.1%]. The predictors of contraception use included the age group of 40–49 years (odds ratio [OR] 14.1; confidence interval [CI] 3.06–73.24; P=0.0001; the married women were approximately four times more likely to use contraception than the single women (OR 4.5; CI 3.03–6.72; P<0.0001. The women with tertiary level of education were three times more likely to use contraception than those without formal education (OR 3.1; CI 1.13–9.95; P=0.0268, and the odds ratio of respondents with a positive attitude to using contraception more than those with negative attitude was 2

  19. Maternal age, education level and migration: socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Isil; Hassoy, Hur; Tanik, Feride A; Aslan, Gokce

    2010-06-09

    Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC) in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256). The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with chi2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the chi2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1%) were daily smokers. Young mothers (educated women and migrants were at increased risk for smoking during pregnancy. Low education and being a migrant were risk factors for daily consumption (p educated women and migrants are important groups to focus on.

  20. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants - Interim Study FY13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  1. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  2. Age determination of vessel wall hematoma in spontaneous cervical artery dissection: A multi-sequence 3T Cardiovascular Magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habs Maximilian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously proposed classifications for carotid plaque and cerebral parenchymal hemorrhages are used to estimate the age of hematoma according to its signal intensities on T1w and T2w MR images. Using these classifications, we systematically investigated the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR in determining the age of vessel wall hematoma (VWH in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD. Methods 35 consecutive patients (mean age 43.6 ± 9.8 years with sCAD received a cervical multi-sequence 3T CMR with fat-saturated black-blood T1w-, T2w- and TOF images. Age of sCAD was defined as time between onset of symptoms (stroke, TIA or Horner's syndrome and the CMR scan. VWH were categorized into hyperacute, acute, early subacute, late subacute and chronic based on their signal intensities on T1w- and T2w images. Results The mean age of sCAD was 2.0, 5.8, 15.7 and 58.7 days in patients with acute, early subacute, late subacute and chronic VWH as classified by CMR (p Conclusions Signal intensities of VWH in sCAD vary over time and multi-sequence CMR can help to determine the age of an arterial dissection. Furthermore, findings of this study suggest that the time course of carotid hematomas differs from that of cerebral hematomas.

  3. Radiometric age determination on some granitic rocks in the Hida Range, central Japan. Remarkable age difference across a fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    1999-01-01

    K-Ar and zircon fission-track dating was carried out on some granitic rocks in the Hida Range, central Japan. The samples analyzed were collected on both sides of one of the major faults in the Hida Range: the Kurobe-Takase fracture zone. Ages obtained west of the fault are ∼60 Ma, while those obtained to the east of the fault are less than ∼5 Ma. These results indicate a remarkable age difference across the fault. The Okukurobe granite, located west of the fault, cooled rapidly from ∼600degC to ∼240degC between 60-55 Ma, and the Kanazawa granodiorite, located east of the fault, cooled rapidly from ∼600degC to ∼240degC between 5-1 Ma. The Okukurobe granite has remained cooler than ∼240degC since ∼55 Ma. Thus, it was found that the granitic rocks across the fault have experienced a remarkable different cooling history. (author)

  4. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  5. Rb-Sr age determinations and Sr isotope systematics in rocks and minerals of the Regensburger Wald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, H.; Mueller-Sohnius, D.

    1976-01-01

    The results of the Rb/Sr isotope age determinations show: the 'granule gneiss' exhibit materially changed anatexites, the 'granule gneiss formation' of the Regensburger Wald is a varistic occurence. (HK) [de

  6. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and determinants among Brazilian children under two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Warkentin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study described the duration and identified the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study used data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher 2006 (National Demographic and Health Survey on Women and Children 2006. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by trained professionals and refer to a subsample of 1,704 children aged less than 24 months. The estimated durations of exclusive breastfeeding are presented according to socioeconomic, demographic and epidemiological variables. Kaplan Meier estimator curves were used to produce valid estimates of breastfeeding duration and the Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to identify risks. RESULTS: The median estimated duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 60 days. The final Cox model consisted of mother's age <20 years (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.11-1.48, use of pacifier (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.37-1.71, not residing in the country's southeast region (hazard ratio=1.22, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.40 and socioeconomic status (hazard ratio=1.28, 95% confidence interval=1.06-1.55. CONCLUSION: The Kaplan Meier estimator corrected the underestimated duration of breastfeeding in the country when calculated by the current status methodology. Despite the national efforts done in the last decades to promote breastfeeding, the results indicate that the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is still half of that recommended for this dietary practice to promote health. Ways to revert this situation would be ongoing educational activities involving the educational and health systems, associated with advertising campaigns on television and radio mainly targeting young mothers with low education level and low income, identified as those at high risk of weaning their children early.

  7. Immunization coverage and its determinants among children 12-23 months of age in Aden, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaleem, Huda O; Al-Sakkaf, Khaled A; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2010-11-01

    To assess the immunization status of children aged 12-23 months and its determinants in Aden, Yemen. This cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and July 2007 during which time mothers of 680 children from 37 randomly selected clusters in Aden, were interviewed. Information on socio-demographic profiles and children`s immunization status was obtained. Immunization coverage of all officially provided vaccines was assessed. Analysis of association between immunization coverage and the socio-demographic characteristics were tested using logistic regression analysis with the immunization status as the dependent variable. We found that 83.1% had complete, 10.4% had partial, and 6.5% were never immunized. The immunization card retention rate was 84.9%. The immunization coverage was 92.9% for Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin, 89.6% for Oral Polio Vaccine-3, 86.6% for Diphtheria, Pertusis and Tetanus-3 and Hepatitis-B vaccination, and 89.1% for measles. Multivariate analysis showed that children with an immunization card (odds ratio [OR]=14.71; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.50-25.44) were more likely to have complete immunization, while children with older aged mothers (OR=0.41; 95% CI: 0.22-0.77) were more likely to have complete immunization. Despite the high immunization coverage, 16.9% of children did not have complete immunization, and this rate was lower among children of older mothers, and those who retained their immunization cards. Raising awareness of immunization and increasing access to health services must be strengthened.

  8. Immunization coverage and its determinants among children 12-23 months of age in Aden, Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda O. Basaleem; Khaled A. Al-Sakkaf; Khadijah Shamsuddin

    2010-01-01

    To assess the immunization status of children aged 12-23 months and its determinants in Aden, Yemen. This cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and July 2007 during which time mothers of 680 children from 37 randomly selected clusters in Aden, were interviewed. Information on socio-demographic profiles and children's immunization status was obtained. Immunization coverage of all officially provided vaccines was assessed. Analysis of association between immunization coverage and the socio-demographic characteristics were tested using logistic regression analysis with the immunization status as the dependent variable. We found that 83.1% had complete, 10.4% had partial, and 6.5% were never immunized. The immunization card retention rate was 84.9%. The immunization coverage was 92.9% for Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin, 89.6% for Oral Polio Vaccine-3, 86.6% for Diphtheria, Pertusis and Tetanus-3 and Hepatitis-B vaccination, and 89.1% for measles. Multivariate analysis showed that children with an immunization card (odds ratio [OR]=14.71; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.50-25.44) were more likely to have complete immunization, while children with older aged mothers (OR=0.41; 95% CI: 0.22-0.77) were more likely to have complete immunization. Despite the high immunization coverage, 16.9% of children did not have complete immunization, and this rate was lower among children of older mothers, and those who retained their immunization cards. Raising awareness of immunization and increasing access to health services must be strengthened (Author).

  9. Using a Novel Absolute Ontogenetic Age Determination Technique to Calculate the Timing of Tooth Eruption in the Saber-Toothed Cat, Smilodon fatalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, M Aleksander; Feranec, Robert S; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Bjornsson, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the superb fossil record of the saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, ontogenetic age determination for this and other ancient species remains a challenge. The present study utilizes a new technique, a combination of data from stable oxygen isotope analyses and micro-computed tomography, to establish the eruption rate for the permanent upper canines in Smilodon fatalis. The results imply an eruption rate of 6.0 millimeters per month, which is similar to a previously published average enamel growth rate of the S. fatalis upper canines (5.8 millimeters per month). Utilizing the upper canine growth rate, the upper canine eruption rate, and a previously published tooth replacement sequence, this study calculates absolute ontogenetic age ranges of tooth development and eruption in S. fatalis. The timing of tooth eruption is compared between S. fatalis and several extant conical-toothed felids, such as the African lion (Panthera leo). Results suggest that the permanent dentition of S. fatalis, except for the upper canines, was fully erupted by 14 to 22 months, and that the upper canines finished erupting at about 34 to 41 months. Based on these developmental age calculations, S. fatalis individuals less than 4 to 7 months of age were not typically preserved at Rancho La Brea. On the whole, S. fatalis appears to have had delayed dental development compared to dental development in similar-sized extant felids. This technique for absolute ontogenetic age determination can be replicated in other ancient species, including non-saber-toothed taxa, as long as the timing of growth initiation and growth rate can be determined for a specific feature, such as a tooth, and that growth period overlaps with the development of the other features under investigation.

  10. Does a one year age gap modify the influence of age, maturation and anthropometric parameters as determinants of performance among youth elite soccer players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Lekue, José Antonio; Amado, Markos; Gil, Susana Maria

    2017-08-22

    Since age-groups in soccer often comprise children born within a two-year timeframe, characteristics that define the profile of a successful player may not be appropriate for the oldest or youngest players of the same age group. Therefore, this study aimed to determine to what extent performance was influenced by age, maturation and body size in elite soccer players with barely one year age gap. Anthropometry, 15-m sprint test, modified Barrow´s agility test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1, countermovement jump, and handgrip test were conducted in players aged twelve and under (n=82, 11.1 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD) and between twelve and thirteen (n=79, 12.8 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD). A total score of performance, chronological age and age at peak height velocity were calculated. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-tests, and multiple linear regressions were performed. The explained variance in composite score was greater in the older (54%) than in the younger (30%) players. Sum of skinfolds was the primary predictor of 15-m sprint and countermovement jump in the younger group whereas in the older group chronological age and body size appeared as predictors of performance (41%). Body size explained the variance in most tests in older players. In the younger group biological maturity status explained the variance in endurance (35%) and handgrip (59%) tests. In summary, chronological age and sum of skinfolds influenced most tests; however, predictors differed between age groups. These findings highlight the importance of assessing individual differences in young male soccer players regardless of their similarity in age.

  11. Determination of digestible isoleucine: lysine ratio in diets for laying hens aged 42-58 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena de Carvalho Mello

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and fifty-two Hy-Line W36 laying hens were allotted in a completely randomized design with 6 treatments, 7 replicates and 6 hens per experimental unit in order to determine the ideal ratio of isoleucine (Ile in relation to lysine (Lys to laying hens aged 42-58 weeks. Experimental diets contained digestible Ile at different levels, resulting in different Ile:Lys ratios (0.73:1; 0.78:1; 0.83:1; 0.88:1; 0.93:1 and 0.98:1. A basal diet was formulated to provide Isoleucine in levels below recommendations. This diet was supplemented with L-isoleucine to make up the 6 diets. Each diet was made isonitrogenous by varying the dietary contents of glutamic acid and isocaloric by adjusting the contents of cornstarch. All essential amino acids were provided proportionally to lysine. Egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, albumen, yolk and eggshell contents were recorded and compiled at every 28-day period. No differences were observed in the performance over a wide range of dietary isoleucine concentrations from 5.76 to 7.73 g/kg corresponding to 0.73:1 to 0.98:1 Ile:Lys ratios. The lowest Ile:Lys ratio (0.73:1 was sufficient to ensure satisfactory performance of birds, corresponding to the consumption of 534 mg of isoleucine and 731 mg of lysine/day.

  12. Age determinations and Earth-based multispectral observations of lunar light plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    The history of light plains still remains doubtful, but there are good arguments - mainly obtained by age determinations and supported by multispectral observations - for an endogenic (magmatic) instead of an (exclusively) impact related origin. Light plains are characterized by smooth areas with an albedo lower than the surrounding highlands (12 - 13 percent), but significantly higher than maria (5 - 6 percent). Before Apollo 16 a volcanic source has been supposed, but analysis of returned samples (highly brecciated and metamorphosed rocks) favored an impact ejecta related origin. Among the currently discussed models are formation by ejecta sedimentation from multi-ringed basins, formation by secondary and tertiary cratering action of ballistically ejected material during the formation of multi-ringed basins, in situ formation by impact melt of large events, and premare (crypto-) volcanism basalts covered by a thin ejecta cover; younger impacts penetrated the ejecta surface to create the dark haloed craters. To find arguments in favor or against these ideas the chronology of light plains is of major importance. Obviously a genetic relationship between the evolution of light plains and the basin forming impacts can be possible only if the events of emplacement features happened simultaneously.

  13. In vitro determination of the anti-aging potential of four southern African medicinal plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlovu, G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging is an inevitable process for all living organisms. During this process reactive oxygen species generation is increased which leads to the activation of hyaluronidase, collagenase and elastase, which can further contribute to skin aging. Four...

  14. Determinants of institutional delivery among childbearing age women in Western Ethiopia, 2013: unmatched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Genemo, Gebi Agero

    2014-01-01

    Place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn. Institutional delivery helps the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. Even though 34% of pregnant women received at least one antenatal care from a skilled provider in Ethiopia by 2013, institutional delivery was 10%. The main objective of the study was to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia. Retrospective unmatched case control study design was used to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia from September to October 2013. A total of 320 respondents from six districts of East Wollega zone, West Ethiopia were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires. Data were entered and cleaned by Epi-info then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) = 2.754(1.510-8.911)], family size [AOR (95% CI) = .454(.209-.984)], residence [AOR (95% CI) = 3.822 (1.766-8.272)] were important predictors of place of delivery. Four or more antenatal care [(ANC) (AOR (95% CI) = 2.914(1.105-7.682)], birth order [(AOR (95% CI) = .136(.054-.344), age at last delivery [(AOR (95% CI) = 9.995(2.101-47.556)], birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI) = 6.957(2.422-19.987)], duration of labour [AOR (95% CI) = 3.541(1.732-7.239)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Moreover service related factors such as distance from health institutions [AOR (95% CI) = .665(.173-.954)], respondents' awareness of skill of health care professionals [AOR (95% CI) = 2.454 (1.663-6.255)], mode of transportations [AOR (95% CI) = .258(.122-.549)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Policy makers, health service organizations, community leaders and other concerned bodies have

  15. Determinants of institutional delivery among childbearing age women in Western Ethiopia, 2013: unmatched case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Regassa Feyissa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn. Institutional delivery helps the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. Even though 34% of pregnant women received at least one antenatal care from a skilled provider in Ethiopia by 2013, institutional delivery was 10%. The main objective of the study was to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia. METHODS: Retrospective unmatched case control study design was used to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia from September to October 2013. A total of 320 respondents from six districts of East Wollega zone, West Ethiopia were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires. Data were entered and cleaned by Epi-info then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. RESULTS: Education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 2.754(1.510-8.911], family size [AOR (95% CI = .454(.209-.984], residence [AOR (95% CI = 3.822 (1.766-8.272] were important predictors of place of delivery. Four or more antenatal care [(ANC (AOR (95% CI = 2.914(1.105-7.682], birth order [(AOR (95% CI = .136(.054-.344, age at last delivery [(AOR (95% CI = 9.995(2.101-47.556], birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI = 6.957(2.422-19.987], duration of labour [AOR (95% CI = 3.541(1.732-7.239] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Moreover service related factors such as distance from health institutions [AOR (95% CI = .665(.173-.954], respondents' awareness of skill of health care professionals [AOR (95% CI = 2.454 (1.663-6.255], mode of transportations [AOR (95% CI = .258(.122-.549] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Policy makers, health service

  16. Gender, age and religion as determinants of eating habit of youth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of Age, Gender and Religion on eating habit of youth. It made use of simple random technique in selecting 400 youths within Ikenne local government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The age range of the respondents was between 15 years and 40 years with the mean age of 25.2 and standard ...

  17. T Cell Aging: A Review of the Transcriptional Changes Determined from Genome-Wide Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guobing; Lustig, Ana; Weng, Nan-ping

    2013-01-01

    Age carries a detrimental impact on T cell function. In the past decade, analyses of the genome-scale transcriptional changes of T cells during aging have yielded a large amount of data and provided a global view of gene expression changes in T cells from aged hosts as well as subsets of T cells accumulated with age. Here, we aim to review the changes of gene expression in thymocytes and peripheral mature T cells, as well as the subsets of T cells accumulated with age, and discuss the gene networks and signaling pathways that are altered with aging in T cells. We also discuss future direction for furthering the understanding of the molecular basis of gene expression alterations in aged T cells, which could potentially provide opportunities for gene-based clinical interventions. PMID:23730304

  18. An improved determination of the lithium depletion boundary age of Blanco 1 and a first look on the effects of magnetic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, Aaron J.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics, Fisk University, Nashville, TN 37208 (United States); Cargile, Phillip A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); James, David J., E-mail: a.juarez@vanderbilt.edu [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2014-11-10

    The lithium depletion boundary (LDB) is a robust method for accurately determining the ages of young clusters, but most pre-main-sequence models used to derive LDB ages do not include the effects of magnetic activity on stellar properties. In light of this, we present results from our spectroscopic study of the very-low-mass members of the southern open cluster Blanco 1 using the Gemini-North Telescope, program IDs: GN-2009B-Q-53 and GN-2010B-Q-96. We obtained Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph spectra at intermediate resolution for cluster candidate members with I ≈ 13-20 mag. From our sample of 43 spectra, we find 14 probable cluster members by considering proximity to the cluster sequence in an I/I – K {sub s} color-magnitude diagram, agreement with the cluster's systemic radial velocity, and magnetic activity as a youth indicator. We systematically analyze the Hα and Li features and update the LDB age of Blanco 1 to be 126{sub −14}{sup +13} Myr. Our new LDB age for Blanco 1 shows remarkable coevality with the benchmark Pleiades open cluster. Using available empirical activity corrections, we investigate the effects of magnetic activity on the LDB age of Blanco 1. Accounting for activity, we infer a corrected LDB age of 114{sub −10}{sup +9} Myr. This work demonstrates the importance of accounting for magnetic activity on LDB inferred stellar ages, suggesting the need to reinvestigate previous LDB age determinations.

  19. Determinants of musculoskeletal frailty and the risk of falls in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M; Hunter, G

    2006-01-01

    Neuromuscular parameters that describe locomotion are indispensable variables for the diagnosis and treatment of frailty, fall risk and osteoporosis. A scientifically-based standardized locomotor assessment should be an essential part of medical examinations in research and clinical practice. There has been no previous consensus regarding which test procedures should be included in a locomotor assessment. The goal of this article is to provide a rationale for the selection of appropriate locomotor tests in a comprehensive locomotor assessment for elderly patients. We propose that a locomotor assessment should comprise the parameters that have been proven predictive for both falls and impending disability. The parameters should be measured in the standard units of physics. Therefore, we propose the following tests for a standardized locomotor assessment: (1) Self-selected gait velocity as the single best measure of general locomotor status and a good predictor of age-related adverse events; (2) Chair rise test (timed 5 chair rises) which measures power on vertical movement and the hip surrounding muscles as the most important neuromuscular risk factor for falls and fall-related fractures; (3) Tandem standing and tandem walking to measure postural capacity (balance) to the side; (4) Timed up and go test as a global screening procedure; (5) Clinical gait analysis with special focus on regularity; and (6) At least on a research level, movement must be measured referring to the terms of physics by mechanography. Mechanography (Leonardo force plate system, Novotec Pforzheim, Germany) records the time course of ground reaction forces, velocity of the vertical movements of the center of mass and power during unrestricted physiological movements. In the mechanogram the eccentric and concentric phases of movements can be differentiated and the storage of energy in the elastic elements of the body can be examined. The kinetics of human movement is explained by mechanograms of

  20. Determinants of repeated abortion among women of reproductive age attending health facilities in Northern Ethiopia: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie Alemayehu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year, an estimated 19–20 million unsafe abortions take place, almost all in developing countries, leading to 68,000 deaths and millions more injured many permanently. Many women throughout the world, experience more than one abortion in their lifetimes. Repeat abortion is an indicator of the larger problem of unintended pregnancy. This study aimed to identify determinants of repeat abortion in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Methods Unmatched case–control study was conducted in hospitals in Tigray Region, northern Ethiopia, from November 2014 to June 2015. The sample included 105 cases and 204 controls, recruited from among women seeking abortion care at public hospitals. Clients having two or more abortions (“repeat abortion” were taken as cases and those who had a total of one abortion were taken as controls (“single abortion”. Cases were selected consecutive based on proportional to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression analyses were calculated with 95% CI. Results Mean age of cases was 24 years (±6.85 and 22 years (±6.25 for controls. 79.0% of cases had their sexual debut in less than 18 years of age compared to 57% of controls. 42.2% of controls and 23.8% of cases cited rape as the reason for having an abortion. Study participants who did not understand their fertility cycle and when they were most likely to conceive after menstruation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–3.7, having a previous abortion using medication (AOR = 3.3, CI: 1.83, 6.11, having multiple sexual partners in the preceding 12 months (AOR = 4.4, CI: 2.39,8.45, perceiving that the abortion procedure is not painful (AOR = 2.3, CI: 1.31,4.26, initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 18 years (AOR = 2.7, CI: 1.49, 5.23 and disclosure to a third

  1. Prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity in old age in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; Lehnert, Thomas; Ernst, Annette; Lange, Carolin; Wiese, Birgitt; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Luck, Tobias; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Heser, Kathrin; Wagner, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; König, Hans-Helmut

    2015-07-14

    Mean body weight gradually increases with age. Yet, little data exists on the prevalence of excess weight in populations aged 80 years or older. Moreover, little is known about predictors of overweight and obesity in old age. Thus, the purpose of this study was: To present data on the prevalence of excess weight in old age in Germany, to investigate predictors of excess weight in a cross-sectional approach and to examine factors affecting excess weight in a longitudinal approach. Subjects consisted of 1,882 individuals aged 79 years or older. The course of excess weight was observed over 3 years. Excess weight was defined as follows: Overweight (25 kg/m(2) ≤ BMI younger age, severe walking impairments and negatively associated with cognitive impairments. Excess weight was positively associated with younger age, elementary education, walking impairments and physical inactivity, while excess weight was negatively associated with cognitive impairment. Longitudinal regressions showed that age and severely impaired walking disabilities reduced BMI. The probability of transitions to excess weight decreased considerably with older age and occurrence of severe walking impairments (overweight). Marked differences between predictors in cross- and longitudinal setting exist, underlining the complex nature of excess weight in old age.

  2. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  3. CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, J-M; Ramos, E M; Lee, J-H

    2012-01-01

    Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound...... implications for disease mechanism and modification, we tested whether the normal allele, interaction between the expanded and normal alleles, or presence of a second expanded allele affects age at onset of HD motor signs....

  4. Is Greulich–Pyle age estimation applicable for determining maturation in male Africans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G. Morri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal age estimation as a means of assessing development and skeletal maturation in children and adolescents is of great importance for clinical and forensic purposes. The skeletal age of a test population is estimated by comparison with established standards, the most common standards being those in the Radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the hand and wristpublished by Greulich and Pyle in 1959. These standards are based on the assumption that skeletal maturity in male individuals is attained by the chronological age of 19 years. Although they have been widely tested, the applicability of these standards to contemporary populations has yet to be tested on a population of African biological origin living in South Africa. We therefore estimated the skeletal age of 131 male Africans aged between 13 and 21 years, using the Greulich–Pyle method which we applied to pre-existing hand–wrist radiographs. Estimated skeletal age was compared to the known chronological age for each radiograph. Skeletal age was on average approximately 6 months younger than chronological age. The Greulich–Pyle method underestimated skeletal age for approximately 74%of the sample and overestimated skeletal age for 26%of the sample. Skeletal maturity as characterised by complete epiphyseal fusion occurred approximately 2.1 years later than Greulich and Pyle’s estimate of 19 years. Thus skeletal maturation was still in progress in a large proportion of the 20- and 21-year-old individuals in our study. The Greulich–Pyle method showed high precision but low accuracy and was therefore not directly applicable to African male individuals. Formulation of skeletal age estimation standards specific to South African populations is therefore recommended.

  5. Factors determining access to oral health services among children aged less than 12 years in Peru [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Azañedo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding problems of access to oral health services requires knowledge of factors that determine access. This study aimed to evaluate factors that determine access to oral health services among children aged <12 years in Peru between 2014 and 2015. Methods: We performed a secondary data analysis of 71,614 Peruvian children aged <12 years and their caregivers. Data were obtained from the Survey on Demography and Family Health 2014-2015 (Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar - ENDES. Children’s access to oral health services within the previous 6 months was used as the dependent variable (i.e. Yes/No, and the Andersen and col model was used to select independent variables. Predisposing (e.g., language spoken by  tutor or guardian, wealth level, caregivers’ educational level, area of residence, natural region of residence, age, and sex and enabling factors (e.g. type of health insurance were considered. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and multivariate analysis was performed using generalized linear models (Poisson family. Results: Of all the children, 51% were males, 56% were aged <5 years, and 62.6% lived in urban areas. The most common type of health insurance was Integral Health Insurance (57.8%, and most respondents were in the first quintile of wealth (31.6%. Regarding caregivers, the most common educational level was high school (43.02% and the most frequently spoken language was Spanish (88.4%. Univariate analysis revealed that all variables, except sex and primary educational level, were statistically significant. After adjustment, sex, area of residence, and language were insignificant, whereas the remaining variables were statistically significant. Conclusions: Wealth index, caregivers’ education level, natural region of residence, age, and type of health insurance are factors that determine access to oral health services among children aged <12 years in Peru. These factors should be considered when

  6. Genetic determination of telomere size in humans: A twin study of three age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagboom, P.E.; Droog, S.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1994-01-01

    Reduction of telomere length has been postulated to be a causal factor in cellular aging. Human telomeres terminate in tandemly arranged repeat arrays consisting of the (TTAGGG) motif. The length of these arrays in cells from human mitotic tissues is inversely related to the age of the donor,

  7. Examining determinants of early and late age at onset in panic disorder: An admixture analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibi, L.; van Oppen, P.; Aderka, I.M.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Batelaan, N.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Anholt, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    Past research demonstrated that age at onset might account for different clinical and etiological characteristics in panic disorder (PD). However, prior research relied on arbitrary choices of age cut-offs. Using a data-driven validated method, this study aimed to examine differences between early

  8. Genetic Determinants of Cognitive Function and Age-Related Brain Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schuur (Maaike)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe brain is by far the most complicated structure of the human being, and its malfunction is characterized by various degrees and types of morbidity. Several brain functions deteriorate with increasing age during life. Cognitive decline and age-related brain pathology are common in

  9. Determining soil-transmitted helminth infection status and physical fitness of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Peiling; Fürst, Thomas; Müller, Ivan; Kriemler, Susi; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2012-08-22

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are common. Indeed, more than 1 billion people are affected, mainly in the developing world where poverty prevails and hygiene behavior, water supply, and sanitation are often deficient. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, are the most prevalent STHs. The estimated global burden due to hookworm disease, ascariasis, and trichuriasis is 22.1, 10.5, and 6.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), respectively. Furthermore, an estimated 30-100 million people are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis, the most neglected STH species of global significance which arguably also causes a considerable public health impact. Multiple-species infections (i.e., different STHs harbored in a single individual) are common, and infections have been linked to lowered productivity and thus economic outlook of developing countries. For the diagnosis of common STHs, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the Kato-Katz technique, which is a relatively straightforward method for determining the prevalence and intensity of such infections. It facilitates the detection of parasite eggs that infected subjects pass in their feces. With regard to the diagnosis of S. stercoralis, there is currently no simple and accurate tool available. The Baermann technique is the most widely employed method for its diagnosis. The principle behind the Baermann technique is that active S. stercoralis larvae migrate out of an illuminated fresh fecal sample as the larvae are phototactic. It requires less sophisticated laboratory materials and is less time consuming than culture and immunological methods. Morbidities associated with STH infections range from acute but common symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and pruritus, to chronic symptoms, such as anemia, under- and malnutrition, and cognitive impairment. Since the symptoms are generally unspecific and subtle

  10. [Determination of hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against influenza virus A/Port Chalmers/1/73 in samples from the Roman population (1962-1974). Relation of antibody titers to those obtained against previous influenza A strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnari, L; Delia, S; Russo, V; Sebastiani, A

    1975-01-01

    The h.i.a. titer has been determined against the strain of the A/Port Chalmers/1/73 influenza virus in 805 serum samples obtained in Rome from as many adults during six distinct periods between spring 1962 and summer-autumn 1974.

  11. Age and the economics of an emergency medical admission-what factors determine costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, J J; Cournane, S; Byrne, D; Conway, R; O'Riordan, D; Silke, B

    2017-02-01

    The ageing of the population may be anticipated to increase demand on hospital resources. We have investigated the relationship between hospital episode costs and age profile in a single centre. All Emergency Medical admissions (33 732 episodes) to an Irish hospital over a 6-year period, categorized into three age groups, were evaluated against total hospital episode costs. Univariate and adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated using zero truncated Poisson regression. The total hospital episode cost increased with age ( P < 0.001). The multi-variable Poisson regression model demonstrated that the most important drivers of overall costs were Acute Illness Severity-IRR 1.36 (95% CI: 1.30, 1.41), Sepsis Status -1.46 (95% CI: 1.42, 1.51) and Chronic Disabling Disease Score -1.25 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.27) and the Age Group as exemplified for those 85 years IRR 1.23 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.32). Total hospital episode costs are a product of clinical complexity with contributions from the Acute Illness Severity, Co-Morbidity, Chronic Disabling Disease Score and Sepsis Status. However age is also an important contributor and an increasing patient age profile will have a predictable impact on total hospital episode costs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Age as a determinant of nutritional status: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gariballa Salah

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undenutrition is known to be prevalent and largely unrecognised in older patients; however, aberrations in indicators of nutritional status may simply reflect effects of age and/or functional disability. Objective The aim of this study was to measure the effect, if any of age on nutritional status in older patients. Design 445 randomly selected hospitalised patients consented to nutritional status assessment derived from anthropometric, haematological, and biochemical data within 72 hours of admission. Nutritional status was compared between those age Results Body weight, body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, haemoglobin, serum albumin and plasma ascorbic acid were all significantly lower in people aged ≥ 75 years compared with those 3, red-cell folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were lower in those aged ≥ 75 years, differences were not statistically significant. After adjusting for disability and co-morbidity in a multivariate analysis, age alone had a significant and independent effect on important anthropometric and biochemical nutritional assessment variables. Conclusion Increasing age is independently associated with poor nutritional status. This may partly explain the poor clinical outcome in older patients.

  13. Determining infants' age for measles vaccination based on persistence of protective level of maternal measles antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpi, Tanjida; Sattar, Humayun; Miah, Md Ruhul Amin

    2009-12-01

    The present study was conducted over a period of one year to find the right time for measles vaccination when maternal antibody titer in infants was decayed rendering them susceptible to wild virus infection. Blood samples were collected from the cord of new born (147), 2-5 months (47) and 5 to 7.5 months (24) of age. The mean measles IgG antibody titer detected in cord blood at birth (0 months) was 348.8 mlU/mL which steeply decreased to 155.6 mlU/mL by the age of 2-3 months. After that the fall in antibody becomes relatively slower and decreased to 101.6 mIU/mL by the age of 3-5 months and 38.8 mlU/mL by the age of 5-6 months and to 19.2 mIU/mL between the age of 6 to 7.5 months. The fall in antibody level with the advance of age was statistically significant (p < 0.001 ). Majority of the subjects (97.6%) exhibited protective level of antibody at birth. But only a little above one-quarter (25.5%) of them persisted the protective level between the age of 2-5 months and none had protective level from 5 months onwards.

  14. Intra- and inter-observer variation in histological criteria used in age at death determination based on femoral cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N; Thomsen, J L; Frohlich, B

    1998-01-01

    The microscopic method of age at death determination was introduced by Kerley in 1965. The method, which relies on the quantification of selected elements in cortical bone tissue, has been widely used, and several other researchers have modified or added to the method. Yet, very few studies have...... elements. Until more rigorous definitions of such elements have been agreed upon, the use of microscopical methods must be discouraged as a sole or uncontrolled method of evaluating age at death....

  15. Factors affecting age of onset of menopause and determination of quality of life in menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Burcu; ?zerdo?an, Nebahat

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is a process in the climacteric period, characterized by a reduction in ovarian activity, a fall in the fertility rate, and a range of symptoms including irregular menstruation intervals. Most women enter menopause in their 40s, but this can vary from one individual to another. Although there are many factors affecting the age of menopause onset, there is no general agreement on them. Studies have shown many factors to affect the age of menopause, such as the mother?s age at menopau...

  16. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  17. Age at onset of epilepsy as a determinant of intellectual impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaden, Sabine; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2009-06-01

    Intellectual impairment in addition to memory problems in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has been postulated to be a result of a mental decline caused by chronic epilepsy. Longer duration, however, is often confounded with earlier age at onset of epilepsy (AOE). IQ and memory were evaluated in 188 patients (age>16) with TLE with an AOE before age 14 (N=91) or after age 15 (N=97). Earlier AOE did not differentially affect memory aspects more associated with temporomesial structures, but it negatively affected IQ and aspects of memory that are more related to temporolateral and extratemporal lobe structures. As earlier AOE was also associated with lower educational levels and because one may not assume that these are lost with chronicity of epilepsy, the results can be interpreted as reflecting developmental hindrance of extratemporal lobe functions in early-onset TLE rather than cognitive decline due to a longer duration of epilepsy.

  18. Forensic aspects of gene expression signatures for age determination in bruises as evaluated in an experimental porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, Kristiane; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    was investigated. The aim was to evaluate if expression signatures of selected genes were capable of determining bruises according to age and the force of impact. Eighteen experimental pigs were anesthetized, and on each animal four blunt traumas were inflicted on the back with a low, moderate or high force......Determining the age of bruises and the force used to inflict the trauma is of crucial importance in both human and veterinary forensic pathology. In the present study, the expression of more than 50 different genes in subcutaneous fat and muscle tissue from experimental bruises in pigs...

  19. Determinants of age-dependent change in a secondary sexual character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbontín, J; De Lope, F; Hermosell, I G; Mousseau, T A; Møller, A P

    2011-02-01

    Many secondary sexual characters vary in a systematic way with the age of individuals, with young and old individuals displaying at lower levels than individuals of intermediate age. Analyses quantifying the within-individual and among-individual components of phenotypic variation can help partition effects of phenotypic plasticity and selective mortality. We analysed phenotypic variation in the expression of a secondary sexual character, tail length, in male and female barn swallows Hirundo rustica from four European populations studied during 11-26 years, using linear mixed effect models to describe age-related expression. Tail length increased from yearlings to intermediate aged birds with a subsequent decrease at old age. In males, this age-related pattern was because of both within-subject and between-subject effects, with no difference among populations. Males having longer lifespan had shorter tails when young than those having shorter lifespan. Females showed similar patterns of age-related variation as males, with no difference among populations. The major difference between sexes was that the between-subject effects (i.e. disappearance effects or selection) were much more important for males compared to females for which lifetime variation in tail length was mainly because of a within-subject effect (i.e., a plastic response). These findings suggest that whereas males trade greater expression of the secondary sexual character at young age against longevity, that was not the case for females. This is consistent with tail length being more costly in males than in females, with the cost of long tails potentially being offset by elevated mating success, whereas that is not the case in females. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Is Greulich–Pyle age estimation applicable for determining maturation in male Africans?

    OpenAIRE

    Alan G. Morri; Kundisai A. Dembetembe

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal age estimation as a means of assessing development and skeletal maturation in children and adolescents is of great importance for clinical and forensic purposes. The skeletal age of a test population is estimated by comparison with established standards, the most common standards being those in the Radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the hand and wristpublished by Greulich and Pyle in 1959. These standards are based on the assumption that skeletal maturity in male individua...

  1. Factors affecting age of onset of menopause and determination of quality of life in menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Burcu; Özerdoğan, Nebahat

    2015-03-01

    Menopause is a process in the climacteric period, characterized by a reduction in ovarian activity, a fall in the fertility rate, and a range of symptoms including irregular menstruation intervals. Most women enter menopause in their 40s, but this can vary from one individual to another. Although there are many factors affecting the age of menopause onset, there is no general agreement on them. Studies have shown many factors to affect the age of menopause, such as the mother's age at menopause, the age at menarche, gestational age, use of oral contraceptives, irregular menstrual cycle, number of pregnancies, body mass index, use of tobacco and alcohol, physical activity, unilateral oophorectomy, serum lead levels, consumption of polyunsaturated fat, socioeconomic status and educational level. During this period, hormonal and biochemical changes give rise to various symptoms in the woman's body. In menopause period, physical, psychological, social and sexual changes have a negative effect on quality of life in women. Recently, different measures have been used to assess women's quality of life in this period of change. The purpose of this review was to examine the factors affecting the onset age of menopause and the measures of quality of life related to menopause.

  2. Validation of adult height prediction based on automated bone age determination in the Paris Longitudinal Study of healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, David D. [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Filderklinik, Filderstadt (Germany); Schittenhelm, Jan [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Thodberg, Hans Henrik [Visiana, Holte (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    An adult height prediction model based on automated determination of bone age was developed and validated in two studies from Zurich, Switzerland. Varied living conditions and genetic backgrounds might make the model less accurate. To validate the adult height prediction model on children from another geographical location. We included 51 boys and 58 girls from the Paris Longitudinal Study of children born 1953 to 1958. Radiographs were obtained once or twice a year in these children from birth to age 18. Bone age was determined using the BoneXpert method. Radiographs in children with bone age greater than 6 years were considered, in total 1,124 images. The root mean square deviation between the predicted and the observed adult height was 2.8 cm for boys in the bone age range 6-15 years and 3.1 cm for girls in the bone age range 6-13 years. The bias (the average signed difference) was zero, except for girls below bone age 12, where the predictions were 0.8 cm too low. The accuracy of the BoneXpert method in terms of root mean square error was as predicted by the model, i.e. in line with what was observed in the Zurich studies. (orig.)

  3. BANYAN. IV. Fundamental parameters of low-mass star candidates in nearby young stellar kinematic groups—isochronal age determination using magnetic evolutionary models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malo, Lison; Doyon, René; Albert, Loïc; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Gagné, Jonathan [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Riedel, Adric, E-mail: malo@cfht.hawaii.edu, E-mail: doyon@astro.umontreal.ca [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Based on high-resolution optical spectra obtained with ESPaDOnS at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we determine fundamental parameters (T {sub eff}, R, L {sub bol}, log g, and metallicity) for 59 candidate members of nearby young kinematic groups. The candidates were identified through the BANYAN Bayesian inference method of Malo et al., which takes into account the position, proper motion, magnitude, color, radial velocity, and parallax (when available) to establish a membership probability. The derived parameters are compared to Dartmouth magnetic evolutionary models and field stars with the goal of constraining the age of our candidates. We find that, in general, low-mass stars in our sample are more luminous and have inflated radii compared to older stars, a trend expected for pre-main-sequence stars. The Dartmouth magnetic evolutionary models show a good fit to observations of field K and M stars, assuming a magnetic field strength of a few kG, as typically observed for cool stars. Using the low-mass members of the β Pictoris moving group, we have re-examined the age inconsistency problem between lithium depletion age and isochronal age (Hertzspring-Russell diagram). We find that the inclusion of the magnetic field in evolutionary models increases the isochronal age estimates for the K5V-M5V stars. Using these models and field strengths, we derive an average isochronal age between 15 and 28 Myr and we confirm a clear lithium depletion boundary from which an age of 26 ± 3 Myr is derived, consistent with previous age estimates based on this method.

  4. In vitro determination of the anti-aging potential of four southern Africa medicinal plants: Poster

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlovu, G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available continent are exposed to the harsh sun and rarely use skin protective agents as they are expensive. It is for this reason that four southern African medicinal plants used indigenously as cosmetics agents and/or exhibited good antioxidant activity in previous...

  5. Clinical significance of previously cryptic copy number alterations and loss of heterozygosity in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome determined using combined array comparative genomic hybridization plus single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Jin Ok; Seo, Eul Ju; Lee, Seong Wook; Suh, Jin Kyung; Im, Ho Joon; Seo, Jong Jin

    2014-07-01

    The combined array comparative genomic hybridization plus single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray (CGH+SNP microarray) platform can simultaneously detect copy number alterations (CNA) and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Eighteen children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n=15) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (n=3) were studied using CGH+SNP microarray to evaluate the clinical significance of submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations. CGH+SNP microarray revealed CNAs at 14 regions in 9 patients, while metaphase cytogenetic (MC) analysis detected CNAs in 11 regions in 8 patients. Using CGH+SNP microarray, LOHs>10 Mb involving terminal regions or the whole chromosome were detected in 3 of 18 patients (17%). CGH+SNP microarray revealed cryptic LOHs with or without CNAs in 3 of 5 patients with normal karyotypes. CGH+SNP microarray detected additional cryptic CNAs (n=2) and LOHs (n=5) in 6 of 13 patients with abnormal MC. In total, 9 patients demonstrated additional aberrations, including CNAs (n=3) and/or LOHs (n=8). Three of 15 patients with AML and terminal LOH>10 Mb demonstrated a significantly inferior relapse-free survival rate (P=0.041). This study demonstrates that CGH+SNP microarray can simultaneously detect previously cryptic CNAs and LOH, which may demonstrate prognostic implications.

  6. Age determination and development of experimental methods for quaternary fault and formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, M. S.; Kim, J. M.

    2004-02-01

    Late cretaceous to early tertiary movement ages were constrained by Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating of fault rocks near the Uljin Nuclear Power Plants. These ages are well reproducible and consistent with geologic context. Tectonic evolution of the northeastern Yeongnam massif, the site of the Uljin Nuclear Power Plants, was investigated on the basis of Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Pb isotopic systematics and geochemistry of precambrian basement rocks including the Hosanri Formation, Buncheon granite gneiss, biotite granite gneiss, and Hongjesa granite. The optical ages from the Suryum fault outcrop represent the younger limit of sedimentation timing because they are simply based upon the present-day water content. The lower, Qt 2 terrace at about 18m elevation is correlated with Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 5a, although its apparent optical age was consistently reported from 71 to 48 ka. Correlation of shoreline elevations indicates the correspondence of the Qt 3a terrace to MIS 5e, which is supported by stratigraphically concordant optical ages for aeolian sand dunes at the north of the Suryum site. This time scale yields an uplift rate of 0.266 m/ka, requiring the revision of conventional view that the Korean peninsula is tectonically very stable

  7. The effects of proliferation and DNA damage on hematopoietic stem cell function determine aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Satish

    2016-07-01

    In most of the mammalian tissues, homeostasis as well as injury repair depend upon a small number of resident adult stem cells. The decline in tissue/organ function in aged organisms has been directly linked with poorly functioning stem cells. Altered function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is at the center of an aging hematopoietic system, a tissue with high cellular turnover. Poorly engrafting, myeloid-biased HSCs with higher levels of DNA damage accumulation are the hallmark features of an aged hematopoietic system. These cells show a higher proliferation rate than their younger counterparts. It was proposed that quiescence of these cells over long period of time leads to accumulation of DNA damage, eventually resulting in poor function/pathological conditions in hematopoietic system. However, various mouse models with premature aging phenotype also show highly proliferative HSCs. This review examines the evidence that links proliferation of HSCs with aging, which leads to functional changes in the hematopoietic system. Developmental Dynamics 245:739-750, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Age determination and development of experimental methods for quaternary fault and formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, M. S.; Kim, J. M. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2004-02-15

    Late cretaceous to early tertiary movement ages were constrained by Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating of fault rocks near the Uljin Nuclear Power Plants. These ages are well reproducible and consistent with geologic context. Tectonic evolution of the northeastern Yeongnam massif, the site of the Uljin Nuclear Power Plants, was investigated on the basis of Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Pb isotopic systematics and geochemistry of precambrian basement rocks including the Hosanri Formation, Buncheon granite gneiss, biotite granite gneiss, and Hongjesa granite. The optical ages from the Suryum fault outcrop represent the younger limit of sedimentation timing because they are simply based upon the present-day water content. The lower, Qt{sub 2} terrace at about 18m elevation is correlated with Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 5a, although its apparent optical age was consistently reported from 71 to 48 ka. Correlation of shoreline elevations indicates the correspondence of the Qt{sub 3a} terrace to MIS 5e, which is supported by stratigraphically concordant optical ages for aeolian sand dunes at the north of the Suryum site. This time scale yields an uplift rate of 0.266 m/ka, requiring the revision of conventional view that the Korean peninsula is tectonically very stable.

  9. Infant toilet training in Thailand: starting and completion age and factors determining them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjasuwantep, Banchaun; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara

    2011-12-01

    To study the age at which Thai infants start and achieve toilet training and its associated factors. The parents of fifty infants in a research entitled "Bowel movements of normal Thai infants" were interviewed about age at which toilet training started, the process of toilet training and age at which infant successfully completed toilet training. Forty-seven infants from the 50 infants registered had data of the date of beginning toilet training. Five of them (10.6%) started toilet training at 4 months and 38 (80.9%) by 12 months. Most of the infants (73.7%) were initially trained when they showed urging signs. Only 45 infants had complete data of successful toilet training. Twenty-two cases (48.9%) were trained successfully by 12 months and most of them (16/22) succeeded within one month. The infants, who were not the first child and were taken care of by a well-educated mother, were found to start toilet training late. The youngest age at which normal Thai infants start to be toilet trained was 4 months. About 50% of the infants aged 12 months had successful toilet training. Being raised by a well-educated mother and a having a later birth order in a family were factors associated with late toilet training.

  10. Determination of the sources of copper and lead used for British bronze age metalwork by lead isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohl, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation highlights the results of the work carried out by the author during her doctoral research regarding the use of lead isotope analysis to investigate the source of copper and lead for the metalwork during the British Bronze Age. Over 450 new lead isotope analyses of ore samples from England and Wales were compared with published data from Britain, Ireland, France and Germany. In addition, more than 400 pieces of metalwork, representing all phases of the British Bronze Age, were analysed. Many of these pieces of metalwork had previously been analysed for their chemical and impurity content, and supplementary chemical analyses were made to investigate a possible chemical/lead isotope relationship. The ores show overlapping isotopic distributions, while the artefacts show intriguing shifts in the lead isotope signature, with coherent pattern recognizable throughout the Bronze Age phases and regionally

  11. Determining the optimal age for recording the retinal vascular pattern image of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Olivares, M A; Caja, G; Carné, S; Salama, A A K; Adell, N; Puig, P

    2012-03-01

    Newborn Ripollesa lambs (n = 143) were used to assess the optimal age at which the vascular pattern of the retina can be used as a reference for identification and traceability. Retinal images from both eyes were recorded from birth to yearling (d 1, 8, 30, 82, 180, and 388 of age) in duplicate (2,534 images) using a digital camera specially designed for livestock (Optibrand, Fort Collins, CO). Intra- and inter-age image comparisons (9,316 pairs of images) were carried out, and matching score (MS) was used as the exclusion criterion of lamb identity (MS ovino mayor," 6 mo of age and ~35 kg of BW, n = 59); and yearling replacement lambs (YR; >12 mo of age and ~50 kg of BW, n = 25). Values of MS were treated with a model based on the 1-inflated bivariate beta distribution, and treated data were compared by using a likelihood ratio test. Intra-age image comparisons showed that average MS and percentage of images with MS ≥70 increased (P 0.05); no differences were detected for 30-d images (97.4 and 98.0%, respectively, for RR and YR lambs; P > 0.05). Total percentage of matching was achieved when images were obtained from older lambs (180 and 388 d). In conclusion, retinal imaging was a useful tool for verifying the identity and auditing the traceability of live lambs from suckling to yearling. Matching scores were satisfactory when the reference retinal images were obtained from 1-mo-old or older lambs.

  12. Neutron Age Determination in Fast Reactor Materials using the Group Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabanova Marina F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the methods of identifying fast neutron age in sodium (Na and uranium-238 (238U; describes the model of advanced and effective fast neutron nuclear reactors (FN, where Na is a coolant while 238U is involved in the fuel cycle in large quantities; justifies the choice of the group method for calculating the neutron age value in the substances mentioned above that can show the accuracy of the used constants for Na and estimate various versions of multilevel description of neutron moderation in 238U – the most powerful resonance absorber of the neutron reactor active zone.

  13. 3D finite compartment modeling of formation and healing of bruises may identify methods for age determination of bruises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, B.; van Gemert, M.J.C.; van Leeuwen, T.G.; Aalders, M.C.G.

    2010-01-01

    Simulating the spatial and temporal behavior of bruises may identify methods that allow accurate age determination of bruises to assess child abuse. We developed a numerical 3D model to simulate the spatial kinetics of hemoglobin and bilirubin during the formation and healing of bruises. Using this

  14. Non-Resident Fathers' Relationships with Their Secondary School Age Children: Determinants and Children's Mental Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2006-01-01

    Data from 520 British secondary school age children were used to explore determinants of and mental health outcomes (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) from their non-resident fathers' relationships (child-reported father's involvement and frequency of contact) with them. Frequency of contact was negatively related to time…

  15. Age determination and reproduction of female Fin Whales Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758), with special regard to baleen plates and ovaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utrecht-Cock, van C.N.

    1965-01-01

    1. From Antarctic female Fin Whales, Balaenoptera physalus, a collection, consisting of baleen plates and the parts of these plates embedded in the gum, ovaries, and a number of earplugs was examined, in order to determine the age of these animals and to get a better insight in some characteristics

  16. Lifecourse Activity Participation From Early, Mid, and Later Adulthood as Determinants of Cognitive Aging: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Alan J; Pattie, Alison; Deary, Ian J

    2017-01-01

    To examine potential sensitive periods for activity participation across adulthood to reduce cognitive decline and to determine whether associations persist after accounting for the lifetime stability of cognitive ability. The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 is a longitudinal study of cognitive aging. Participants were born in 1921 and most completed a mental ability test at the age of 11 years. Cognitive assessments were completed at mean ages 79 (N = 550), 83 (N = 321), 87 (N = 235), and 90 years (N = 129). Participants provided retrospective details of their activity participation for young (20-35 years), mid (40-55 years), and later adulthood (60-75 years), and contemporaneously at age 79. Associations between activity and the level of, and change in, cognitive ability in old age were examined with latent growth curve models. Accounting for demographics and childhood cognitive ability, engagement in leisure activities in midlife was positively associated with cognitive ability level (path coefficient = .32), whereas higher physical activity in later adulthood was associated with less cognitive decline (.27). The findings support a lifecourse approach in identifying determinants of cognitive aging; leisure and physical activity during different periods of adulthood may enhance cognitive abilities or reduce decline. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  17. A comparison of the copper sensitivity of two economically important saltwater mussel species and a review of previously reported copper toxicity data for mussels: important implications for determining future ambient copper saltwater criteria in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W Ray; Cotsifas, Jeffrey S; Smith, D Scott; Le Page, Steven; Gruenthal, Kristen M

    2009-12-01

    Saltwater bivalves of the genus Mytilus are among the most copper sensitive taxa listed in both the current and recently proposed U.S. EPA ambient saltwater copper criteria documents. The copper saltwater quality criteria are somewhat unique in that the criteria were set specifically to protect Mytilus. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the reported taxonomy of Mytilus species in the criteria database and it has recently been demonstrated the copper toxicity to M. galloprovincialis is dependent on the organic matter content of the test water. A review of the toxicity and biogeography literature was conducted to rationalize the existing criteria database. Elimination of some data is suggested due to the uncertainty of test organism genotype. Moreover, due to the lack of reported dissolved organic matter content of the test waters in tests included in the criteria database, it is impossible to determine if the difference in species mean acute values reported in the criteria documents for Mytilus was due to differences in water chemistry or differences in species sensitivity. Experiments were designed and conducted with M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis (genetically confirmed) to determine if copper toxicity is a function of organic matter content for these two species and if there is a significant difference in species copper sensitivity. Results showed that copper toxicity is a function of organic matter concentration for both species and copper sensitivity of each species was statistically similar. Results support the normalization of the saltwater copper criteria database with respect to dissolved organic matter when developing ambient saltwater copper criteria. The USEPA toxicity database would benefit from future testing of M. trossulus and M. californianus.

  18. Accelerated aging and controlled deterioration for the determination of the physiological potential of onion seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodo Angelica Brod

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available International research on vegetable seed vigor is not at the same level attained for grain crops species. This study was conducted to identify reliable procedures for the accelerated aging and controlled deterioration tests to rank onion (Allium cepa L. seed lots according to their physiological potential. Six seed lots of the cultivars Aurora and Petroline were evaluated in the laboratory for germination, first count, seedling vigor classification, traditional and saturated salt accelerated aging (41masculineC / 48 and 72 h, controlled deterioration (24% of water / 45masculineC / 24 h and seedling emergence tests. Seed moisture content after the saturated salt accelerated aging test was lower and uniform, which is considered an important advantage in comparison to the traditional procedure. The saturated salt accelerated aging (41masculineC / 48 and 72 h and controlled deterioration (moisture content adjusted to 24% / 45masculineC / 24 h tests were the best procedures to assess the physiological potential of onion seeds, and are indicated for use in quality control programs.

  19. Crustal subsidence rate off Hawaii determined from 234U/238U ages of drowned coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Szabo, B. J.; Moore, J.G.; Simmons, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    A series of submerged coral reefs off northwestern Hawaii was formed during (largely glacial) intervals when the rate of local sea-level rise was less than the maximum upward growth rate of the reefs. Mass-spectrometric 234U/238U ages for samples from six such reefs range from 17 to 475 ka and indicate that this part of the Hawaiian Ridge has been subsiding at a roughly uniform rate of 2.6 mm/yr for the past 475 ka. The 234U/238U ages are in general agreement with model ages of reef drowning (based on estimates of paleo-sea-level stands derived from oxygen-isotope ratios of deep-sea sediments), but there are disagreements in detail. The high attainable precision (??10 ka or better on samples younger than ~800 ka), large applicable age range, relative robustness against open-system behavior, and ease of analysis for this technique hold great promise for future applications of dating of 50-1000 ka coral. -Authors

  20. Determinants of tree quality and lumber value in natural uneven-aged southern pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Joseph Buongiorno

    2000-01-01

    An ordered-probit model was developed to predict tree grade from tree- and stand-level variables, some of which could be changed by management. Applied to uneven-aged mixed loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) - shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) stands, the model showed that the grade of pine trees was highly correlated with tree diameter...

  1. Chromatin Modifications as Determinants of Muscle Stem Cell Quiescence and Chronological Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to maintain quiescence is critical for the long-term maintenance of a functional stem cell pool. To date, the epigenetic and transcriptional characteristics of quiescent stem cells and how they change with age remain largely unknown. In this study, we explore the chromatin features of adult skeletal muscle stem cells, or satellite cells (SCs, which reside predominantly in a quiescent state in fully developed limb muscles of both young and aged mice. Using a ChIP-seq approach to obtain global epigenetic profiles of quiescent SCs (QSCs, we show that QSCs possess a permissive chromatin state in which few genes are epigenetically repressed by Polycomb group (PcG-mediated histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3, and a large number of genes encoding regulators that specify nonmyogenic lineages are demarcated by bivalent domains at their transcription start sites (TSSs. By comparing epigenetic profiles of QSCs from young and old mice, we also provide direct evidence that, with age, epigenetic changes accumulate and may lead to a functional decline in quiescent stem cells. These findings highlight the importance of chromatin mapping in understanding unique features of stem cell identity and stem cell aging.

  2. The determination of genetic markers of age-related cancer pathologies in populations from Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Bulatovna Djansugurova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging associates with a variety of pathological conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, autoimmune diseases, and metabolic disorders. The oncogenic alterations overlap frequently with the genes linked to aging. Here, we show that several aging related genes may serve as the genetic risk factors for cervical and esophagus cancers. In our study, we analyzed samples obtained from 115 patients with esophageal and 207 patients with cervical cancer. The control groups were selected to match the ethnicity and age of cancer patients. We examined the genes involved in the processes of xenobiotics detoxification (GSTM1 and GSTT1, DNA repair (XRCC1 and XRCC3, and cell cycle regulation and apoptosis (CCND1 and TP53. Our study revealed that deletions of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes or the distinct point mutations of XRCC1 gene are associated with cervical and esophageal cancers. These results will lead to development of screening for detection of individuals susceptible to esophageal and cervical cancers. Introduction of the screening programs will allow the early and effective preventive measures that will reduce cancer incidence and mortality in Kazakhstan.

  3. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Economic Growth: Age-Structure, Preindustrial Heritage and Sociolinguistic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Edward; Robison, Kristopher

    2010-01-01

    This study establishes a socio-demographic theory of international development derived from selected classical and contemporary sociological theories. Four hypotheses are tested: (1. population growth's effect on development depends on age-structure; (2. historic population density (used here as an indicator of preindustrial social complexity)…

  4. [Determination of Bloodstain Age by UV Visible Integrating Sphere Reflection Spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L Q; Gao, Y

    2016-10-01

    To establish a method for rapid identification of bloodstain age. Under laboratory conditions (20 ℃, 25 ℃ and 30 ℃), an integrating sphere ISR-240A was used as a reflection accessory on an UV-2450 UV-vis spectrophotometer, and a standard white board of BaSO₄ was used as reference, the reflection spectrums of bloodstain from human ears' venous blood were measured at regular intervals. The reflection radios R ₅₄₁ and R ₅₇₇ at a specific wavelength were collected and the value of R ₅₄₁/ R ₅₇₇ was calculated. The linear fitting and regression analysis were done by SPSS 17.0. The results of regression analysis showed that R ² of the ratios of bloodstain age to UV visible reflectivity in specific wavelengths were larger than 0.8 within 8 hours and under certain circumstances. The regression equation was established. The bloodstain age had significant correlation with the value of R ₅₄₁/ R ₅₇₇. The method of inspection is simple, rapid and nondestructive with a good reliability, and can be used to identify the bloodstain age within 8 hours elapsed-time standards under laboratory conditions. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  5. DNA mismatch repair gene MSH6 implicated in determining age at natural menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, John R B; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Chasman, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    The length of female reproductive lifespan is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and infertility. The biological processes that govern the timing of the beginning and end of reproductive life are not well understood. Genetic variants are kno...... to contribute to ∼50% of the variation in both age at menarche and menopause, but to date the known genes explain...

  6. Incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation determines performance speed during cognitive Stroop test: the effect of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kana; Liang, Nan; Idesako, Mitsuhiro; Ishii, Kei; Matsukawa, Kanji

    2018-02-19

    Cognitive function declines with age. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the deterioration of cognitive performance, however, remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that an incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation during a cognitive Stroop test decreases in progress of ageing, resulting in a slowdown of cognitive performance. To test this hypothesis, we identified, using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy, the characteristics of the oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) responses of the prefrontal cortex to both incongruent Stroop and congruent word-reading test. Spatial distributions of the significant changes in the three components (initial slope, peak amplitude, and area under the curve) of the Oxy-Hb response were compared between young and elderly subjects. The Stroop interference time (as a difference in total periods for executing Stroop and word-reading test, respectively) approximately doubled in elderly as compared to young subjects. The Oxy-Hb in the rostrolateral, but not caudal, prefrontal cortex increased during the Stroop test in both age groups. The initial slope of the Oxy-Hb response, rather than the peak and area under the curve, had a strong correlation with cognitive performance speed. Taken together, it is likely that the incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation may decrease in progress of ageing, resulting in a decline in cognitive performance.

  7. Physical activity as a determinant of change in mobility performance : the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Stel, Vianda S; Bosscher, Ruud J; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association of (change in) physical activity and decline in mobility performance in older men and women. DESIGN: A 3-year prospective study using data of the Longitudinal Aging Study. SETTING: Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand one hundred nine men and women

  8. gender, age and religion as determinants of eating habit of youth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    Food Services Department, Babcock University. Ilishan–Remo, Nigeria evangadeoye2002@gmail.com. Abstract. The study examined the influence of Age, Gender and Religion on eating habit of youth. It made use of simple random technique in selecting 400 youths within. Ikenne local government of Ogun State, Nigeria.

  9. Is Age a Determinant for Nausea and Vomiting in Disabled Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... care surgery in children.[5]. Also in adults 30% of surgical patients are affected by PONV every year.[6]. In this study, we aimed to investigate and compare the PONV incidence in patients with disabilities aged under 18 years with patients are equal or greater than. 18 years received different dental ...

  10. Age, Memory Load, and Individual Differences in Working Memory as Determinants of Class-Inclusion Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, F. Michael; Howe, Mark L.; Saunders, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    This study examined effects of individual differences in speak-span scores and variations in memory demands on class-inclusion performance of 10-, 13-, and 15-year-olds. Results from regression analyses and the mathematical model indicated that differences in age, speak span, and memory load affected performance. Effects of speak span and memory…

  11. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Raggi

    Full Text Available To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+.In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately.Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4. The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation, chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6% and a wide and rich social network (4.6%. Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics.Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of

  12. Determinants of physical activity in middle-aged woman in Isfahan using the health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Habibollah; Moradi, Razieh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Shahshahani, Maryam Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays with respect to the automation of the lifestyle, immobility statistics in middle-aged women has increased and they are at risk for complications of immobility. One of the models used to identify factors associated with physical activity is Health Belief Model utilized in different age and different cultural backgrounds and different results have been obtained from those studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting on physical activity in middle-aged women using Health Belief Model. This descriptive-correlation study was conducted on 224 middle-aged women referring to health centers in Isfahan. Health Belief Model structures including perceived susceptibility and severity, perceived barriers and benefits, and self-efficacy were measured by questionnaire and physical activity was assessed using the international physical activity questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient test and regression analysis. There wasn't significant correlation between perceived susceptibility ( P = 0.263, r = 0.075) and perceived severity with physical activity duration ( P = 0.127, r = 0.058) but there was positive and weak correlation between physical activity duration with perceived benefits ( P = 0.001 and r = 0.26) and perceived self-efficacy ( P = 0.001, r = 0.54) and had weak and inverse correlation with perceived barriers ( P = 0.001, r = -0.25). Regression analysis also showed that from among all the Health Belief Model structures just self-efficacy structure has influenced on behavior independently and other structures are affected by it. The obtained results implied on a correlation between benefits, barriers and perceived self-efficacy with and moderate physical activity. Therefore it is necessary to develop appropriate educational programs with emphasis on structures of Health Belief Model that has the maximum impact on physical activity in middle-aged women.

  13. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  14. A method to determine the likelihood of transition to puberty in a heterogeneous prepubertal age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frane, James; Bright, George M; Lee, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    A model based on pubertal status and age in normal healthy children that can be used to estimate the probability that a given child will enter or progress through puberty in a given period is presented. This model could also be used to estimate the proportion of children who would be expected to have changes in their pubertal status over a given period, for example, in an interventional trial of growth promoting agents.

  15. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaire...... consumption of lean fish, on the other hand, is clearly falling in Norway, whereas total consumption of processed fish is rising, suggesting clear areas for marketing action....

  16. The Determinants of Sexual Intercourse Before Age 16 Years Among Rural Jamaican Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi J. Ekundayo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual and family factors have been hypothesized to influence adolescent sexual behavior, but the extent to which this is true for adolescents in Jamaica as a whole and for those in rural areas in particular, has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to identify individual and family factors associated with initiation of sexual activity before the age of 16 among rural adolescents in Jamaica. We analyzed data for 469 sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the rural parish of Hanover. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict independent influences of these factors. The mean age at sexual debut was 11 years for boys and 15 years for girls. Early adolescent sexual activity was associated with liberal attitudes about negative sexual outcomes (OR = 1.96, 95%CI = 1.34-2.87 and first sexual partner not being a steady boyfriend or girlfriend (OR = 4.19, 95%CI = 1.62-10.84. Female gender (OR = 0.16, 95%CI = 0.07-0.36 and older age at time of survey were protective (OR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.32-0.52. Girls who were early starters were more likely to have been initiated by partners who were not steady boyfriends. They also reported liberal attitude towards negative sexual outcomes. Boys were mainly influenced by liberal attitude towards negative sexual outcomes. Being older was protective for both genders. Considering the high rates of HIV and adolescent pregnancy in this population, reproductive health programs that attempt to delay age at first sex should begin early in primary school before adolescents become sexually active.

  17. Age at menarche and eruption of permanent second molars: an investigation to determine a possible correlation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taaniya Akhter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Downward shifts in the mean menarcheal age and earlier emergence of permanent second molars have been observed worldwide during the past few decades. A positive correlation between the two would make menarche a biomarker for permanent second molar eruption or vice versa, making it a simple tool for monitoring oral status of adolescent girls. This study was conducted to find a correlation between attainment of menarche and eruption status of permanent second molars in girls aged 10-13 years. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 470 female students from six randomly selected schools who consented to participate in the interview and oral examination. Data were analyzed using the Chi square (X2 test with a p-value of < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Significant differences existed within the age groups with regard to attainment of menarche (p = 0.000 and eruption status of second molars (p = 0.000 for all four teeth. However, no correlation could be found between attainment of menarche and eruption status of the permanent second molars. Conclusion: Although this study failed to find a correlation between the two variables, a population based multicentric survey may give a concrete conclusion on this issue. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 210-214

  18. Prevalence and determinants of active trachoma among preschool-aged children in Dembia District, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferede, Ayanaw Tsega; Dadi, Abel Fekadu; Tariku, Amare; Adane, Akilew Awoke

    2017-10-09

    Trachoma is an infectious eye disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, which is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. In areas where trachoma is endemic, active trachoma is common among preschool-aged children, with varying magnitude. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of active trachoma and associated risk factors among preschool-aged children in Dembia District, northwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among preschool-aged children of northwest Ethiopia. Multistage systematic random sampling was used to select 695 subjects. Trained clinical optometrists subjected each child to an ocular examination and assessed the presence of active trachoma. Face to face interview using pretested and structured questionnaire were conducted to collect data on possible risk factors. Trachoma cases were graded following a World Health Organization simplified grading scheme. All statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS software version 20. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to identify factors associated with active trachoma. Of the 681 preschool-aged children studied, 18% (95% CI: 15.4% - 21.1%) had a prevalence of active trachoma. Children who had clean faces (absence of nasal and ocular discharges) had a lower chance of having active trachoma [aOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.37 - 0.82]. The odds of having active trachoma decreased with an increase in the distance to a water point [aOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.33 - 0.78]. Similarly, no or poor utilization of liquid waste disposal in the child's household was associated with an increased chance of having active trachoma [aOR = 3.83, 95% CI: 1.26 - 11.61]. The prevalence of active trachoma in these preschool-aged children was found to be high and needs special interventions that focus on educating families about proper face washing, liquid waste disposal, and improving safe water supply near the households.

  19. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  20. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  1. Determinations of rare earth element abundance and U-Pb age of zircons using multispot laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takaomi D; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Kon, Yoshiaki; Hirata, Takafumi

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a new calibration technique for multielement determination and U-Pb dating of zircon samples using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled with galvanometric optics. With the galvanometric optics, laser ablation of two or more sample materials could be achieved in very short time intervals (~10 ms). The resulting sample aerosols released from different ablation pits or different solid samples were mixed and homogenized within the sample cell and then transported into the ICP ion source. Multiple spot laser ablation enables spiking of analytes or internal standard elements directly into the solid samples, and therefore the standard addition calibration method can be applied for the determination of trace elements in solid samples. In this study, we have measured the rare earth element (REE) abundances of two zircon samples (Nancy 91500 and Prešovice) based on the standard addition technique, using a direct spiking of analytes through a multispot laser ablation of the glass standard material (NIST SRM612). The resulting REE abundance data show good agreement with previously reported values within analytical uncertainties achieved in this study (10% for most elements). Our experiments demonstrated that nonspectroscopic interferences on 14 REEs could be significantly reduced by the standard addition technique employed here. Another advantage of galvanometric devices is the accumulation of sample aerosol released from multiple spots. In this study we have measured the U-Pb age of a zircon sample (LMR) using an accumulation of sample aerosols released from 10 separate ablation pits of low diameters (~8 μm). The resulting (238)U-(206)Pb age data for the LMR zircons was 369 ± 64 Ma, which is in good agreement with previously reported age data (367.6 ± 1.5 Ma). (1) The data obtained here clearly demonstrate that the multiple spot laser ablation-ICPMS technique can become a powerful approach for elemental and isotopic

  2. DETERMINANTS OF RED-BLOOD-CELL DEFORMABILITY IN RELATION TO CELL AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOSCH, FH; WERRE, JM; ROERDINKHOLDERSTOELWINDER, B; HULS, T; WILLEKENS, FLA; WICHERS, G; HALIE, MR

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability was determined with an ektacytometer in fractions separated on the basis of differences in cell volume or density. Deformability was measured with ektacytometry (rpm-scan and osmo-scan). We studied three groups of RBC fractions:l. By counterflow centrifugation we

  3. A Detached Eclipsing Binary near the Turnoff of the Open Cluster NGC 6819 and Determining Age Using Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Lauren; Sandquist, E. L.; Mathieu, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the mass and radius of detached eclipsing binaries (DEB) can be used to accurately determine the ages of clusters if an eclipsing star is evolved enough and sits near the cluster turnoff on the color-magnitude diagram (CMD). Multiple DEBs in a cluster can constrain the age even more...... star is physically orbiting the eclipsing binary based on radial velocities and eclipse timing variations. The stars that make up the detached eclipsing binary are almost identical in temperature, with eclipses that are only clearly distinguishable using Kepler photometry. A new astrometric study...

  4. Taking into account of the aging and the damage in the size determination of composite materials structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, J.

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the aging of glass fibres-epoxy composites exposed to humid conditions and loading so as to predict its effects on the lifetimes of composite structures. Water diffusion was first experimentally investigated by gravimetric method to determine water sorption kinetics for different humid conditions. A Fickian model of diffusion could describe the results obtained. Specimens, saturated at different levels, were mechanically characterised. Decreases of mechanical properties as a function of water uptake were revealed by tensile tests. Damage by cracking and the coupling with humidity were then studied. Differences between reversible and irreversible changes in properties were revealed and analysed in detail. A predictive model taking into account effects due to water and/or mechanical loading is proposed, using finite element method. As a first step, in modelling the diffusion process, the non-uniform water distribution across the composite are determined for any conditions (temperature, humidity, aging time). The resulting mechanical properties of the material, as a function of the absorbed water concentration, are determined in each point. Then, diffusion/mechanic coupled calculation allows to determine material global properties from properties at each point. It is then possible to predict continuous evolution of rigidity during aging time, at all stages of water absorption and matrix cracking, for any condition (temperature, humidity, thickness, mechanical loading level). (author)

  5. THE ADDRESSEE AGE AS A FACTOR DETERMINING THE DISCURSIVE STRUCTURE OF A WORK OF FICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloglazova Elena Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the author attempts to establish the connection between the discursive structure of a work of fiction and the addressee age factor. At that the point of departure for the argument is (a the thesis on discursive heterogeneity being a feature of fiction in general, which is a direct consequence of literature of literature being aimed at reflecting the world in its entirety and complexity, and (b the assumption that the above-said is applicable to children's fiction, though discursive heterogeneity undergoes a certain transformation due to the specific nature and role of literature for children. The category of addressee in the cornerstone of children's fiction predetermining: on the surface level – the selection of organization of language means in the text; on the contents level – the selection of story and characters; on the ideology level – the configuration of the polydiscourse of the children's fiction, as well as the selection of discourses' representatives. The peculiarity of children's fiction is primarily due to the ideology underlying it - what the society demands from the right book for kids, which is viewed as a socializing tool. And in order to be efficient, the tool needs to be tailored for its object, its exact parameters, age being one of them. Thus the complexity of the discursive structure of literary works for children appears to be directly related to the age of their ideal reader, which is shown in the article by comparative analysis of works addressed to floor and ceiling audiences of the childhood span. The analysis reveals the fact that older readership leads not only to a greater complexity of a literary work's discursive structure, but also to a wider variety in the ways of introducing interdiscursemes into text.

  6. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N.; Moss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

  7. Age and growth determination by skeletochronology in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta from the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casale

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Skeletochronology was applied to humerus bones to assess the age and growth rates of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the Mediterranean Sea. Fifty-five dead turtles with curved carapace lengths (CCL ranging from 24 to 86.5 cm were collected from the central Mediterranean. Sections of humeri were histologically processed to analyze annual growth marks. Two approaches were used to estimate the somatic growth in the form of a von Bertalanffy growth function. The first approach was based on calculating the total number of growth marks, which corresponds to the age of turtles at death. The second approach estimates the carapace length at old growth marks in order to provide the growth rate of each turtle. The observed individual growth rates ranged from 1.4 to 6.2 cm yr–1, and showed both elevated inter- and intra-individual variability possibly related to the environmental variability experienced by turtles during their lifetime. Both approaches gave similar results and suggest that Mediterranean loggerhead turtles take 14.9 to 28.5 years to reach a CCL of 66.5 to 84.7 cm. This size corresponds to the average size of nesting females found in the most important Mediterranean nesting sites and can be considered the approximate size at maturity.

  8. Indonesian kalkulator of oocytes (IKO): A smart application to determine our biological age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiweko, Budi; Narasati, Shabrina; Agung, Prince Gusti; Zesario, Aulia; Wibawa, Yohanes Satrya; Maidarti, Mila; Harzif, Achmad Kemal; Pratama, Gita; Sumapraja, Kanadi; Muharam, Raden; Hestiantoro, Andon

    2018-02-01

    Background: The use of smartphones and its associated application provides new opportunities for physicians. In current situations, there are still few applications are designed in the field of infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART). A study conducted on 1616 subjects proved that AMH (Anti-Mullerian Hormone) could be used to predict a woman's biological age earlier than Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Antral Follicle Count (AFC). In this study, we describe the AMH nomogram that has been developed into a mobile application as "Indonesian Kalculator of Oocytes" (IKO). The software required to create IKO application was the Android 4.0.3 Ice Cream Sandwich and Java Application Development. The hardware specification that needed to develop the IKO apps were a 4.0-inch screen, 512 MB RAM (random-access memory), and CPU (central processing unit) with dual core 1.2 Ghz. The application is built using the Android SDK (Software Development Kit) and Java Application Development. In this application, we can predict the woman's biological age, some mature oocytes, and AMH level. This app is expected to help patients to plan effectively for pregnancy and help the doctor to choose the best intervention for patients who face infertility problems using Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). IKO application can be downloaded for free on Google PlayStore and Apple Store.

  9. Determination of hydrogen concentration in a-Si and a-Ge layers by elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanh, N.Q.; Serenyi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Compete text of publication follows. Hydrogenated amorphous Si and Ge films are of current interest in academic and industrial research due to their unique physical properties and important applications. The incorporation of hydrogen in the amorphous network is an accepted means for reducing the density of defect states in the midgap. The passivation of dangling-bonds leads to a significant improvement in the electronic and optical properties of these layers. However, hydrogen is also suspected to degrade the performance of amorphous Si and Ge material and devices. Several studies related to hydrogen motion have been proposed to explain the light and thermal degradation effect in these layers. Thus to improve the performance and reliability of these devices, it is crucially important to understand the role of hydrogen in amorphous layers. In our previous works the structural changes of hydrogenated a-Si/Ge multilayers as a function of annealing condition was investigated. It was shown that during annealing the samples underwent significant structural changes. Due to the fast out-diffusion of hydrogen from the layers prepared with high (6 ml/min) H 2 flow rate, bubbles and craters were created on the surface. However, in the multilayer samples prepared with hydrogen flow rate lower than 6 ml/min the macroscopic degradation by formation bubbles and craters was more moderated. The diffusion measurement shows that in these samples the structural degradation and intermixing of layers was slower than in the non-hydrogenated samples. As it was suggested the hydrogen can inactivate the dangling bonds of amorphous layers and, as a result of this, the intermixing slows down. It was also predicted that the hydrogen first released from the Ge layers because of the lower binding energy. In this work, we have studied the individual a-Si and a-Ge hydrogenated layers prepared by RF sputtering on Si (100) substrates. The absolute value of atomic content of the H was determined by

  10. Determinants of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and the Attenuated Hypertrophic Response at Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Degens, Hans

    2012-01-01

    In 2012 we will again see the impressive achievements of many athletes during the London Olympic Games. In particular for weightlifters success is dependent on the power- and force-generating capacity of their muscles, which in turn are strongly determined by muscle mass. Many athletes and bodybuilders therefore train intensively to develop as much muscle hypertrophy as possible. Unlimited hypertrophy, however, is impossible. Limitations may be imposed by the peak forces that the ...

  11. Hormonal determinants of the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabijewski M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Michał Rabijewski,1 Lucyna Papierska,2 Roman Kuczerowski,1 Paweł Piątkiewicz11Department of Internal Diseases, Diabetology and Endocrinology, Medical University of Warsaw, 2Department of Endocrinology, Medical Centre for Postgraduate Education, Warsaw, PolandAbstract: Andropausal and depressive symptoms are common in aging males and may be associated with hormone deficiency. We investigated the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms, as well as their hormonal determinants, in 196 middle-aged and elderly men (age range: 40–80 years with prediabetes (PD and in 184 healthy peers. PD was diagnosed according to the definition of the American Diabetes Association. The severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms was assessed using the Aging Males’ Symptoms Rating Scale and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Total testosterone (TT, calculated free testosterone (cFT, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 were measured. The prevalence of andropausal syndrome in men with PD was significantly higher than that in healthy men (35% vs 11%, respectively. In men with PD aged 40–59 years, the severity of sexual, psychological, and all andropausal symptoms was greater than in healthy peers, while in elderly men (60–80 years, only the severity of psychological symptoms was greater than in healthy peers. The severity of depressive symptoms in the middle-aged men with PD was greater than in healthy peers, while the severity of depressive symptoms in elderly men with PD and healthy peers was similar. The higher prevalence of andropausal symptoms was independently associated with cFT and IGF-1 in middle-aged men and with TT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. The more severe depression symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS in middle-aged men and with low cFT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. In conclusion, the prevalence of andropausal symptoms, especially psychological, was higher in prediabetic

  12. Integrated U-Pb zircon and palynological/palaeofloristic age determinations of a Bashkirian palaeofjord fill, Quebrada Grande (Western Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Buso, Victoria; di Pasquo, Mercedes; Milana, Juan Pablo; Kneller, Benjamin; Fallgatter, Claus; Junior, Farid Chemale; Gomes Paim, Paulo Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a new age framework for the main Bashkirian glacio-eustatic transgression in Argentina, including the first absolute age for the Jejenes Formation, San Juan Province, based on radiometric dating of a crystal-rich tuff, supported by palynological and palaeofloristic studies, and presented within a revised palaeogeographic setting. The Jejenes Formation represents the glacial to postglacial fill of the Quebrada Grande palaeofjord carved in the Eastern Precordillera. The succession has been subdivided into five stages, the youngest of which suggests a previously unrecognised glacial event for this locality. Six productive levels for palynology were found within proglacial strata, and in the base and top of the succeeding interglacial stage. Palynoassemblages are characterized by poorly preserved trilete spores and monosaccate pollen grains along with a large amount of terrestrial phytoclasts. Main species indicating the Raistrickia densa-Convolutispora muriornata SubZone (DMa SZ) are Vallatisporites ciliaris, Cristatisporites rollerii, C. stellatus, C. chacoparanensis, C. inconstans and monosaccates such as Circumplicatipollis plicatus. This DMa SZ is estimated as Serpukhovian/Bashkirian and characterizes the glacial-related Guandacol Formation and equivalents units of the western Paganzo Basin. A tuffaceous level in the proglacial unit, bearing platyspermic seeds, plant remains and palynomorphs, yielded first-cycle volcanic zircons that were analysed by SHRIMP. An absolute age of 321.3 ± 5.3 Ma confirms a Bashkirian age for the main postglacial transgression in the Paganzo Basin, and offers a novel calibration for the palynoassemblages of DMa SZ that occurs elsewhere in Western Argentina.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Hand-Wrist and Cervical Vertebrae Radiography for the Determination of Skeletal Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Mohammadhashem; Zamaheni, Sara; Bashizadeh Fakhar, Hourieh; Akbari, Forough; Chalipa, Javad; Rahmati, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background Prediction of skeletal growth is necessary for growth modification and surgical orthodontic treatments and is usually done by assessing skeletal maturity indicators in hand-wrist radiographs. The use of growth stages of cervical vertebrae in lateral cephalograms has been suggested to avoid overexposure. Objectives This study seeks to assess the degree of agreement between hand-wrist and cervical vertebrae maturation stages for skeletal age determination and prediction of the peak growth spurt (PGS). Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 67 boys and 66 girls between 8 and 18 years of age, divided into 11 age groups; 266 hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalograms were obtained and analyzed. Hand-wrist maturation stages were evaluated according to the Grave and Brown, Bjork system (stages 1 - 9). The cervical vertebral maturation stage (CVMS) was determined on lateral cephalograms based on a system described by Baccetti et al. (CVMS 1-5). To apply the Cohen’s kappa index, the stages of growth were reduced to 5 intervals (A - E) to relate the 5 CVMS to the 9 stages of Bjork hand-wrist analysis. Results In all age groups, the skeletal maturity stages of the hand and wrist bones and the cervical vertebrae of the girls were ahead of the boys. Cohen’s kappa test revealed a low level of agreement between the two methods [Kappa (95% CI) = 0.312 (0.290 - 0.377)]; concordance was slightly higher in males (K = 0.33 for males versus 0.27 for females). Evaluation of concordance coefficients between the stages determined by the two methods indicated the highest concordance in 8- and 9-year-olds and the lowest in 12- and 14-year-olds. The level of agreement between the two methods was only acceptable in 8- and 9-year-olds of both genders and 10-year-old boys. The level of agreement between the two methods in other age groups was not acceptable. Conclusion The level of agreement between the two methods was low; thus, they cannot be

  14. Social relations as determinants of oral health among persons over the age of 80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether social relations during a 7-year follow-up influence oral health among generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 years. METHOD: The present investigation is based on a subsample of 129 dentate community-dwelling individuals from The Kungsholmen...... Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS), which included data from interviews and oral examinations. Social relations were measured in terms of marital status, living alone, frequency of contacts, number of confidants, and satisfaction with social contacts and with the frequency of contacts. Oral health......% CI: 1.2-7.2). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that social relations are related to the oral health status of old-old individuals. From a psychosocial perspective, our findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the background of oral health status in older adults....

  15. Baseline determinants of global diet quality in older men and women from the NuAge cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatenstein, B; Gauvin, L; Keller, H; Richard, L; Gaudreau, P; Giroux, F; Gray-Donald, K; Jabbour, M; Morais, J A; Payette, H

    2013-01-01

    Judicious food choices are of prime importance during aging. This study was conducted to identify individual and collective attributes determining global diet quality (DQ). Participants were 1,793 adults (52% women) from the NuAge study on nutrition and successful aging. Subjects aged 67 to 84 years in relatively good health were recruited from the Québec Medicare Database. Sociodemographic, affective, and cognitive data, health conditions, perceived physical health and functional status, dietary habits and dietary attributes and community resources were obtained using questionnaires. Body weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Three non-consecutive 24-hour diet recalls were collected at recruitment. DQ, assessed using the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI, /100), was computed on the mean intakes from the diet recalls. Analyses were stratified by gender. Variables significantly related to DQ in bivariate analyses (peducation (β=0.23, p=.01), diet knowledge (β=0.96, pphysical health (β=0.06, p=.01) to be positive determinants of DQ, whereas alcohol consumption (β=-2.25, p=.05), wearing dentures (β=-2.31, p=.01) and eating regularly in restaurants (β=-1.65, p=.03) were negative determinants of DQ (adjusted R2 = 13.7%). Among women, higher education (β=0.29, p=.002), diet knowledge (β=0.54, p=.002), number of daily meals (β=3.61, p<.0001), and hunger (β=0.61, p<.0001) were positive determinants of global DQ; greater BMI (β=-0.16, p=.03) and chewing problems (β=-0.48, p=.03) were negative determinants of DQ (adjusted R2 = 7.8%). These results point to several key factors influencing global DQ in older adults and also show gender-based differences. More research must be done to better understand how these factors change with aging and exert their impact on diet, particularly since variance in DQ was largely unexplained. As diet knowledge was an independent predictor for both genders, targeted, sustainable interventions

  16. Determinants of locomotor disability in people aged 55 years and over: The Rotterdam study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odding, Else; Valkenburg, Hans A.; Stam, Hendrik J.; Hofman, Albert

    2001-01-01

    Locomotor disability, as defined by difficulties in activities of daily living related to lower limb function, can be the consequence of diseases and impairments of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, nervous, sensory and musculoskeletal system. We estimated the associations between specific diseases and impairments and locomotor disability, and the proportion of disability attributable to each condition, controlling for age and comorbidity. The Rotterdam Study is a prospective follow-up study among people aged 55 years and over in the general population. Locomotor disability in 1219 men and 1856 women was assessed with the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire. Diseases and impairments were radiological osteoarthritis, pain of the hips and knees, morning stiffness, fractures, hypertension, vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, stroke, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), depression, Parkinson's disease, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, overweight, and low vision. Adjusted odds ratios, etiologic and attributable fractions were calculated for locomotor disability. The occurrence of locomotor disability can partly be ascribed to joint pain, COPD, morning stiffness, diabetes and heart failure in both men and women. In addition in women osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low vision, fractures, stroke and Parkinson's disease are significant etiologic fractions. In men with morning stiffness, joint pain, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and COPD a significant proportion of their disability is attributable to this impairment. In women this was the case for Parkinson's disease, morning stiffness, low vision, heart failure, joint pain, diabetes, radiological osteoarthritis, stroke, COPD, osteoporosis, and fractures of the lower limbs, in that order. We conclude that locomotor complaints, heart failure, COPD and diabetes mellitus contribute considerably to locomotor disability in non-institutionalized elderly people

  17. Determination of fluorine in uranium oxyfluoride particles as an indicator of particle age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kips, R. [European Commission, General Directorate Joint Research Centre, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Dept. of Chemistry, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerpen (Belgium)], E-mail: kips1@llnl.gov; Pidduck, A.J. [QinetiQ, Malvern Technology Centre, St Andrews Road, Malvern, Worcestershire WR14 3PS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ajpidduck@taz.qinetiq.com; Houlton, M.R. [QinetiQ, Malvern Technology Centre, St Andrews Road, Malvern, Worcestershire WR14 3PS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mrhoulton@qinetiq.com; Leenaers, A. [Studie Centrum voor Kernenergie Centre d' Etude de l' energie Nucleaire (SCK CEN), Nuclear Materials Inst., Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: aleenaer@sckcen.be; Mace, J.D. [QinetiQ, Malvern Technology Centre, St Andrews Road, Malvern, Worcestershire WR14 3PS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jdmace@qinetiq.com; Marie, O. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dept. Analyse Surveillance Environnement, Centre DAM - Ile-de-France, Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91297 Arpajon (France)], E-mail: olivier.marie@cea.fr; Pointurier, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dept. Analyse Surveillance Environnement, Centre DAM - Ile-de-France, Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91297 Arpajon (France)], E-mail: fabien.pointurier@cea.fr; Stefaniak, E.A. [University of Antwerp, Dept. of Chemistry, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerpen (Belgium)], E-mail: elzbieta.stefaniak@ua.ac.be; Taylor, P.D.P. [European Commission, General Directorate Joint Research Centre, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium)], E-mail: philip.taylor@ec.europa.eu; Van den Berghe, S. [Studie Centrum voor Kernenergie Centre d' Etude de l' energie Nucleaire (SCK CEN), Nuclear Materials Inst., Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: svdbergh@sckcen.be; Van Espen, P. [University of Antwerp, Dept. of Chemistry, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerpen (Belgium)], E-mail: piet.vanespen@ua.ac.be (and others)

    2009-03-15

    As swipe samples from enrichment activities typically contain uranium particles with a detectable amount of fluorine, the question was raised whether the analysis of fluorine in particles could complement the information on the uranium isotope ratios. For this, uranium oxyfluoride particles were prepared from the controlled hydrolysis of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The relative amount of fluorine was characterized by scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX), as well as ion-microprobe secondary ion mass spectrometry (IM-SIMS). Of particular interest was the assessment of the reduction of the amount of fluorine over time, and after exposure to UV-light and high temperatures. Micro-Raman spectrometry (MRS) was applied to look for differences in molecular structure between these various sample types. Both SEM-EDX and IM-SIMS showed a general reduction of the fluorine-to-uranium ratio after 1-2 years of storage. The exposure to UV-light and high temperatures was found to have accelerated the loss of fluorine. A distinct peak at 865 cm{sup -1} Raman shift was detected for the majority of particles analyzed by MRS. For the particles that were heat-treated, the Raman spectra were similar to the spectrum of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Although often large variations were observed between particles from the same sample, the three particle measurement techniques (IM-SIMS, SEM-EDX and MRS) showed some consistent trends. They therefore appear promising in terms of the ability to place bounds on particle age, as well as shedding light on the complex processes involved in UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} particle ageing.

  18. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  19. Dependency of magnetocardiographically determined fetal cardiac time intervals on gestational age, gender and postnatal biometrics in healthy pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geue Daniel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetocardiography enables the precise determination of fetal cardiac time intervals (CTI as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. It has been shown that fetal CTI change in course of gestation. The aim of this work was to investigate the dependency of fetal CTI on gestational age, gender and postnatal biometric data in a substantial sample of subjects during normal pregnancy. Methods A total of 230 fetal magnetocardiograms were obtained in 47 healthy fetuses between the 15th and 42nd week of gestation. In each recording, after subtraction of the maternal cardiac artifact and the identification of fetal beats, fetal PQRST courses were signal averaged. On the basis of therein detected wave onsets and ends, the following CTI were determined: P wave, PR interval, PQ interval, QRS complex, ST segment, T wave, QT and QTc interval. Using regression analysis, the dependency of the CTI were examined with respect to gestational age, gender and postnatal biometric data. Results Atrioventricular conduction and ventricular depolarization times could be determined dependably whereas the T wave was often difficult to detect. Linear and nonlinear regression analysis established strong dependency on age for the P wave and QRS complex (r2 = 0.67, p r2 = 0.66, p r2 = 0.21, p r2 = 0.13, p st week onward (p Conclusion We conclude that 1 from approximately the 18th week to term, fetal CTI which quantify depolarization times can be reliably determined using magnetocardiography, 2 the P wave and QRS complex duration show a high dependency on age which to a large part reflects fetal growth and 3 fetal gender plays a role in QRS complex duration in the third trimester. Fetal development is thus in part reflected in the CTI and may be useful in the identification of intrauterine growth retardation.

  20. Sex Determination Methods of Chicks Before Hatching or Day-Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Goger, Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there have been great developments in the poultry sector as well as in all sectors. Despite all of the developments, one of the problems waiting for solution in poultry industry is not to be determined sex cheaply and widely in chicks at embryo stage. In the layer sector, one-day-old chicks in the hatcheries are generally sorted out by feather or vent sexing and male ones are killed This procedure involves billions of chicks worldwide per year, of which 420 million in Europe....

  1. Preliminary simulation model to determine ground-water flow and ages within the Palo Duro Basin hydrogeologic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, H.; Picking, L.

    1986-01-01

    Ground-water flow through the Palo Duro and Tucumcari Basins is simulated by developing a hydrogeolgic profile and applying a cross-sectional, finite-element, numerical model to the profile. The profile is 350 miles long and 2 miles deep and extends from east-central New Mexico to the Texas-Oklahoma border. It is comprised of hydrogeologic units that are identified from geophysical well logs, sample logs, and core descriptions. A hydrogeologic unit as used in this profile is a physically continuous rock sequence with hydrologic properties that are relatively consistent throughout and distinct from surrounding units. The resulting hydrogeologic profile, with the exception of the Ogallala Formation and the Dockum Group, is discretized into a 6000-element mesh and a 22,000-element mesh. Permeability values assigned to hydrogeologic units were, in part, calculated from drill stem tests conducted throughout the Palo Duro Basin. Ground-water age and travel paths are determined by applying Darcy's equation to selected flow lines. The 170 million-year age determined from ground-water at points within the Wolfcamp Series compares favorably with the geochemical data for this region. An age of 188 million years is determined for the Pennsylvanian granite wash

  2. Child weight growth trajectory and its determinants in a sample of Iranian children from birth until 2 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed-Mohsen Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth is one of the most important indices in child health. The best and most effective way to investigate child health is measuring the physical growth indices such as weight, height and head circumference. Among these measures, weight growth is the simplest and the most effective way to determine child growth status. Weight trend at a given age is the result of cumulative growth experience, whereas growth velocity represents what is happening at the time. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted among 606 children repeatedly measured from birth until 2 years of age. We used linear mixed model to analyze repeated measures and to determine factors affecting the growth trajectory. LOWESS smooth curve was used to draw velocity curves. Results: Gender, child rank, birth status and feeding mode had a significant effect on weight trajectory. Boys had higher weight during the study. Infants with exclusive breast feeding had higher weight than other infants. Boys had higher growth velocity up to age 6 month. Breast fed infants had higher growth velocity up to 6 month, but thereafter the velocity was higher in other infants. Conclusions: Many of the studies have investigated child growth, but most of them used cross-sectional design. In this study, we used longitudinal method to determine effective factors on weight trend in children from birth until 2-year-old. The effects of perinatal factors on further growth should be considered for prevention of growth disorders and their late complications.

  3. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Evans

    Full Text Available In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated, most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness. Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  4. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  5. Lifetime Number of Mates Interacts with Female Age to Determine Reproductive Success in Female Guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816

  6. Clinical application of automated Greulich-Pyle bone age determination in children with short stature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, David D.; Deusch, Dorothee; Schweizer, Roland; Binder, Gerhard; Ranke, Michael B. [University Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Endocrinology Section, Tuebingen (Germany); Thodberg, Hans Henrik [Visiana, Holte (Denmark)

    2009-06-15

    Bone age (BA) rating is time consuming and highly rater dependent. To adjust the fully automated BoneXpert method to agree with the manual Greulich and Pyle BA (GP BA) ratings of five raters and to validate the accuracy for short children. A total of 1,097 left hand radiographs from 188 children with short stature, including growth hormone deficiency (44%) and Turner syndrome (29%) were evaluated. BoneXpert rejected 14 of the 1,097 radiographs, and deviated by more than 1.9 years from the operator BA for 27 radiographs. These were rerated blindly by four operators. Of the 27 new ratings, 26 were within 1.9 years of the automatic BA values. The root mean square deviation between manual and automatic rating was 0.72 years (95% CI 0.69-0.75). BoneXpert's ability to process 99% of images automatically without errors, and to obtain good agreement with an operator suggests that the method is efficient and reliable for short children. (orig.)

  7. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Møller, Bente K; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Søren T; Holm, Lotte; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS), and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS) perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS. To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings. We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98) and men (80), aged 20-60 years with a BMI of 18.5-35.0 kg/m(2). Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (pdifferences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (pdiffered according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not influenced by BMI and diet/weight concern. These factors should be considered when planning studies and analysing data concerning appetite sensations.

  8. Age of Sulfate Methane Transition Zone Determined by Modelling Barium Sulfate Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S.; Wang, W. C.; Lien, K. L.; Liu, C. C.; Fan, L. F.

    2017-12-01

    Methane seep to the sediment/water interface could initiate anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) with subsequent build up of chemosynthetic community, carbonate, pyrite and a number of other authigenic mineral formation. Determination the duration, sequence and time of methane seeps are keys to understand how methane seep to the environment and degree of alteration to the vicinity area. However, limited method existed in defining time of methane seep since there are some known problems involving typical dating methods, i.e. old carbon on C14 of fossil test or authigenic carbonate, thorium from surrounding matrix on U/Th authigenic carbonate dating. In this study, we have employed barium determination method (Dickens, 2001) to model timing of methane seep at two locations in the South China Sea. Our objective is to compare timing of the barium accumulation near the sulfate methane transition zone (SMTZ) on these two different locations and to seek if a similar mechanism driving the methane seep at two locations far apart. Dissolved barium, total sediment barium and aluminum were measured as well as pore water sulfate, and sediment pyrite concentrations. Time for the barium sulfate accumulation is calculated by: T = C/F, C= ∫ I x p x (1-Ø) Our results show that SMTZ is stabilized at each site for a duration of about 4000-5000 years. AOM process have been active at both sites at about the same time. In conjunction, pyrite also accumulated at a depth near the SMTZ as a result of methane oxidation. This result show that AOM could stay at the SMTZ for a relatively long period of time, on a scale of thousands of years.

  9. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Problems determining relative and absolute ages using the small crater population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiyong; Strom, Robert G.

    2012-07-01

    The small crater populations (diameter smaller than 1 km) are widely used to date planetary surfaces. The reliability of small crater counts is tested by counting small craters at several young and old lunar surfaces, including Mare Nubium and craters Alphonsus, Tycho and Giordano Bruno. Based on high-resolution images from both the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera and Kaguya Terrain Camera, small craters in two different diameter ranges are counted for each counting area. Large discrepancies exist in both the cumulative (absolute model ages) and relative plots for the two different size ranges of the same counting areas. The results indicate that dating planetary surfaces using small crater populations is highly unreliable because the contamination of secondaries may invalidate the results of small crater counts. A comparison of the size-frequency distributions of the small crater populations and impact ejected boulders around fresh lunar craters shows the same upturn as typical martian secondaries, which supports the argument that secondaries dominate the small crater populations on the Moon and Mars. Also, the size-frequency distributions of small rayed lunar and martian craters of probable primary origin are similar to that of the Population 2 craters on the inner Solar System bodies post-dating Late Heavy Bombardment. Dating planetary surfaces using the small crater populations requires the separation of primaries from secondaries which is extremely difficult. The results also show that other factors, such as different target properties and the subjective identification of impact craters by different crater counters, may also affect crater counting results. We suggest that dating planetary surfaces using small crater populations should be with highly cautious.

  11. Vitamin intake: a possible determinant of plasma homocyst(e)ine among middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, T; Nieto, F J; Malinow, M R; Chambless, L E; Schreiner, P J; Szklo, M

    1997-05-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have identified elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thromboembolic disease. To examined the relationship between vitamin intakes and plasma homocyst(e)ine, we analyzed dietary intake data from a case-control study of 322 middle-aged individuals with atherosclerosis in the carotid artery and 318 control subjects without evidence of this disease. All of these individuals were selected from a probability sample of 15,800 men and women who participated in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Plasma homocyst(e)ine was inversely associated with intakes of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 (controls only for this vitamin)--the three key vitamins in homocyst(e)ine metabolism. Among nonusers of vitamin supplement products, on average each tertile increase in intake of these vitamins was associated with 0.4 to 0.7 mumol/L decrease in plasma homocyst(e)ine. An inverse association of plasma homocyst(e)ine was also found with thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, phosphorus, and iron. Methionine and protein intake did not show any significant association with plasma homocyst(e)ine. In almost all analyses, cases and controls showed similar associations between dietary variables and plasma homocyst(e)ine. Plasma homocyst(e)ine among users of vitamin supplement products was 1.5 mumol/L lower than that among nonusers. Further studies to examine possible causal relationships among vitamin intake, plasma homocyst(e)ine, and cardiovascular disease are needed.

  12. Determining 'age at death' for forensic purposes using human bone by a laboratory-based biomechanical analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioupos, P; Williams, A; Christodoulou, G; Giles, R

    2014-05-01

    Determination of age-at-death (AAD) is an important and frequent requirement in contemporary forensic science and in the reconstruction of past populations and societies from their remains. Its estimation is relatively straightforward and accurate (±3yr) for immature skeletons by using morphological features and reference tables within the context of forensic anthropology. However, after skeletal maturity (>35yr) estimates become inaccurate, particularly in the legal context. In line with the general migration of all the forensic sciences from reliance upon empirical criteria to those which are more evidence-based, AAD determination should rely more-and-more upon more quantitative methods. We explore here whether well-known changes in the biomechanical properties of bone and the properties of bone matrix, which have been seen to change with age even after skeletal maturity in a traceable manner, can be used to provide a reliable estimate of AAD. This method charts a combination of physical characteristics some of which are measured at a macroscopic level (wet & dry apparent density, porosity, organic/mineral/water fractions, collagen thermal degradation properties, ash content) and others at the microscopic level (Ca/P ratios, osteonal and matrix microhardness, image analysis of sections). This method produced successful age estimates on a cohort of 12 donors of age 53-85yr (7 male, 5 female), where the age of the individual could be approximated within less than ±1yr. This represents a vastly improved level of accuracy than currently extant age estimation techniques. It also presents: (1) a greater level of reliability and objectivity as the results are not dependent on the experience and expertise of the observer, as is so often the case in forensic skeletal age estimation methods; (2) it is purely laboratory-based analytical technique which can be carried out by someone with technical skills and not the specialised forensic anthropology experience; (3) it can

  13. Gestational age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  14. Different indicators of socioeconomic status and their relative importance as determinants of health in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin-Mattsson, Alexander; Fors, Stefan; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2017-09-26

    Socioeconomic status has been operationalised in a variety of ways, most commonly as education, social class, or income. In this study, we also use occupational complexity and a SES-index as alternative measures of socioeconomic status. Studies show that in analyses of health inequalities in the general population, the choice of indicators influence the magnitude of the observed inequalities. Less is known about the influence of indicator choice in studies of older adults. The aim of this study is twofold: i) to analyse the impact of the choice of socioeconomic status indicator on the observed health inequalities among older adults, ii) to explore whether different indicators of socioeconomic status are independently associated with health in old age. We combined data from two nationally representative Swedish surveys, providing more than 20 years of follow-up. Average marginal effects were estimated to compare the association between the five indicators of SES, and three late-life health outcomes: mobility limitations, limitations in activities of daily living (ADL), and psychological distress. All socioeconomic status indicators were associated with late-life health; there were only minor differences in the effect sizes. Income was most strongly associated to all indicators of late-life health, the associations remained statistically significant when adjusting for the other indicators. In the fully adjusted models, education contributed to the model fits with 0-3% (depending on the outcome), social class with 0-1%, occupational complexity with 1-8%, and income with 3-18%. Our results indicate overlapping properties between socioeconomic status indicators in relation to late-life health. However, income is associated to late-life health independently of all other variables. Moreover, income did not perform substantially worse than the composite SES-index in capturing health variation. Thus, if the primary objective of including an indicator of socioeconomic

  15. Determinants and health consequences of domestic violence among women in reproductive age at zagazig district, egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Howaida H; Abd El-Rahman, Seham I

    2008-01-01

    Violence against women is a global phenomenon that cuts across all social and economic classes, it has recently drawn attention in the medical field as a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence, to identify socio-demographic and behavioral risk factors and to investigate the relationship between the women's psychological health status and violence exposure. This is a comparative cross-sectional study using a multistage random sampling technique. The sample comprised 500 women aged 18-50y. Data was collected via a structured interview questionnaire including the socio-demographic characteristics of the women and their husbands, some of the husbands' habits, attitude and history of chronic illnesses. Also, the questionnaire assesses different forms of domestic violence, women's reaction to it and its consequences on psychological well-being of women. A depression anxiety scale was used to assess the women's psychological status. The study revealed that the overall prevalence of domestic violence among the studied group was (62.2%); the commonest form (74.0%) was psychological abuse, followed by social (26.8%) one, then the physical (22.4%) and lastly sexual abuse (19.6%). On studying the socio-demographic variables, a significantly higher percentage of younger ( pound 30 years) non-educated, low income and those having any property ownership were more exposed to violence. Also exposure to abuse was more prevalent among women whose husbands were young, non-educated, skilled workers, drug abuser, with positive history of family troubles and chronic illness. The majority of women reported that they react to violence by crying loudly or screaming, while a minority may seek medical care or call the police. Regarding the psychological effect of violence exposure, the most common effects were anxiety (69.2%) and depression (52.2%), with a highly statistically significant

  16. Genetic Determinants of C1 Inhibitor Deficiency Angioedema Age of Onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, Panagiota; Loules, Gedeon; Zamanakou, Maria; Kompoti, Maria; Csuka, Dorottya; Psarros, Fotis; Magerl, Markus; Moldovan, Dimitru; Maurer, Marcus; Speletas, Matthaios G; Farkas, Henriette; Germenis, Anastasios E

    2017-01-01

    In view of the large heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE), great efforts are being made towards detecting measurable biological determinants of disease severity that can help to improve the management of the disease. Considering the central role that plasma kallikrein plays in bradykinin production, we investigated the contribution of the functional polymorphism KLKB1-428G/A to the disease phenotype. We studied 249 C1-INH-HAE patients from 114 European families, and we explored possible associations of C1-INH-HAE clinical features with carriage of KLKB1-428G/A, combined or not with that of the functional F12-46C/T polymorphism. Carriers of the G allele of the KLKB1-428G/A polymorphism exhibited a significantly delayed disease onset (i.e., by 4.1 years [p < 0.001], depending on the zygocity status), while carriers of both the KLKB1-428G/A and the F12-46C/T polymorphism displayed an 8.8-year delay in disease onset (p < 0.001) and a 64% lower probability of needing long-term prophylactic treatment (p = 0.019). These findings support our initial hypothesis that functional alterations in genes of proteins involved in bradykinin metabolism and function affect the clinical phenotype and possibly contribute to the pathogenesis of C1-INH-HAE. Given that an earlier onset of symptoms is inversely correlated with the subsequent course of the disease and, eventually, the need for long-term prophylaxis, these polymorphisms may be helpful prognostic biomarkers of disease severity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Gas chromatographic determination of amino acid enantiomers in bottled and aged wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohammed; Pätzold, Ralf; Brückner, Hans

    2010-03-01

    Free L- and D-amino acids were determined by chiral GC-MS in 26 wines, comprising white wines, red wines, ice wines and sparkling wines. The aim of the work was to investigate whether quantities and pattern of D-amino acids, in particular D-proline, correlate with the storage time of bottled wines. The relative quantities with respect to the corresponding L-enantiomer ranged in white wines from 0.4 to 3.9% D-Ala, 0.9-8.3% D-Asx, and 0.5-8.9% D-Glx, in red wines from 2.9 to 10.6% D-Ala, 2.2-10.9% D-Asx, and 3.9-7.4% D-Glx, and in sparkling wines from 2.2 to 9.8% D-Ala, 2.1-4.4% D-Asx and 1.3-6.1% D-Glx. Low relative quantities of 0.3-0.7% D-Pro were detected in three white wines stored for more than 20 years and did not exceed 0.2% D-Pro in two red wines stored for 10 and 20 years, respectively. An ice wine stored for 24 years contained 0.9% D-Pro, 6.4% D-Glx, 3.0% D-Asp and 1.5% D-Ala. The data confirm the presence of D-amino acids in wines. They do not provide evidence for a correlation between the storage time of bottled wines and quantities of D-amino acids.

  18. Genetic determinants of age-related macular degeneration in diverse populations from the PAGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Nicole A; Spencer, Kylee L; Goodloe, Robert; Garrett, Tiana A; Heiss, Gerardo; Bůžková, Petra; Jorgensen, Neal; Jensen, Richard A; Matise, Tara C; Hindorff, Lucia A; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cornes, Belinda K; Tai, E-Shyong; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Haines, Jonathan L; Crawford, Dana C

    2014-09-09

    Substantial progress has been made in identifying susceptibility variants for AMD in European populations; however, few studies have been conducted to understand the role these variants play in AMD risk in diverse populations. The present study aims to examine AMD risk across diverse populations in known and suspected AMD complement factor and lipid-related loci. Targeted genotyping was performed across study sites for AMD and lipid trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs). Genetic association tests were performed at individual sites and then meta-analyzed using logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model stratified by self-described race/ethnicity. Participants included cases with early or late AMD and controls with no signs of AMD as determined by fundus photography. Populations included in this study were European Americans, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Singaporeans from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. Index variants of AMD, rs1061170 (CFH) and rs10490924 (ARMS2), were associated with AMD at P=3.05×10(-8) and P=6.36×10(-6), respectively, in European Americans. In general, none of the major AMD index variants generalized to our non-European populations with the exception of rs10490924 in Mexican Americans at an uncorrected P value<0.05. Four lipid-associated SNPS (LPL rs328, TRIB1 rs6987702, CETP rs1800775, and KCTD10/MVK rs2338104) were associated with AMD in African Americans and Mexican Americans (P<0.05), but these associations did not survive strict corrections for multiple testing. While most associations did not generalize in the non-European populations, variants within lipid-related genes were found to be associated with AMD. This study highlights the need for larger well-powered studies in non-European populations. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  19. Determinants of sleep quality in middle-aged women with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to compare the sleep quality at home of patients with fibromyalgia with that of healthy controls; and (ii) to examine the factors associated with sleep quality in patients with fibromyalgia. In addition to anthropometric measures, 75 women with fibromyalgia and 48 healthy controls completed standardized questionnaires that assessed sleep quality, functional impairment (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), depression, anxiety and physical activity level. Comparisons between groups, correlation coefficients and a series of hierarchical multiple regressions were performed. The global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were worse in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. This result was partly explained by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire score. For the patients with fibromyalgia, the results of the first model that tested the importance of demographic factors were not statistically significant. In the disease-related model, the duration of symptoms and symptom severity contributed to poor sleep quality. A measurement of physical activity participation and the sum of the skinfold thickness were added to the demographic factors. In the psychological model, the level of anxiety contributed to poor sleep quality. When all variables were entered simultaneously, the level of physical activity, duration of symptoms and symptom severity remained significant determinants of sleep quality. In conclusion, our results showed that the symptoms associated with fibromyalgia contributed to poor overall sleep quality in patients compared with healthy subjects. The findings also suggest that the duration of symptoms, symptom severity and especially a sedentary lifestyle contributed to decreased sleep quality in patients with fibromyalgia. © 2011 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Determinants of Anemia among Children Aged 6–59 Months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia

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    Gebremedhin Gebreegziabiher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and determinant factors among children aged 6–59 months living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, eastern zone. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2013 among 6 tabias of Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, northern Ethiopia. A total of 568 children were selected by systematic random sampling method. Anthropometric data and blood sample were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to anemia. Result. The mean hemoglobin level was 11.48 g/dl and about 37.3% of children were anemic. Children who were aged 6–23 months [AOR = 1.89: 95% CI (1.3, 2.8], underweight [AOR = 2.05: 95% CI (1.3, 3.3], having MUAC less than 12 cm [AOR = 3.35: 95% CI (2.1, 5.3], and from households with annual income below 10,000 Ethiopian birr [AOR = 4.86: 95% CI (3.2, 7.3] were more likely to become anemic. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia among the children is found to be high. It was associated with annual household income, age, and nutritional status of the child. So, improving family income and increasing awareness of the mother/caregiver were important intervention.

  1. The neural determinants of age-related changes in fluid intelligence: a pre-registered, longitudinal analysis in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Rogier A; Fuhrmann, Delia; Borgeest, Gesa Sophia; Simpson-Kent, Ivan L; Henson, Richard N A

    2018-01-01

    Background:  Fluid intelligence declines with advancing age, starting in early adulthood. Within-subject declines in fluid intelligence are highly correlated with contemporaneous declines in the ability to live and function independently. To support healthy aging, the mechanisms underlying these declines need to be better understood. Methods:  In this pre-registered analysis, we applied latent growth curve modelling to investigate the neural determinants of longitudinal changes in fluid intelligence across three time points in 185,317 individuals (N=9,719 two waves, N=870 three waves) from the UK Biobank (age range: 39-73 years). Results:  We found a weak but significant effect of cross-sectional age on the mean fluid intelligence score, such that older individuals scored slightly lower. However, the mean longitudinal slope was positive, rather than negative, suggesting improvement across testing occasions. Despite the considerable sample size, the slope variance was non-significant, suggesting no reliable individual differences in change over time. This null-result is likely due to the nature of the cognitive test used. In a subset of individuals, we found that white matter microstructure (N=8839, as indexed by fractional anisotropy) and grey-matter volume (N=9931) in pre-defined regions-of-interest accounted for complementary and unique variance in mean fluid intelligence scores. The strongest effects were such that higher grey matter volume in the frontal pole and greater white matter microstructure in the posterior thalamic radiations were associated with higher fluid intelligence scores. Conclusions:  In a large preregistered analysis, we demonstrate a weak but significant negative association between age and fluid intelligence. However, we did not observe plausible longitudinal patterns, instead observing a weak increase across testing occasions, and no significant individual differences in rates of change, likely due to the suboptimal task design

  2. Social Inequalities on Selected Determinants of Active Aging and Health Status Indicators in a Large Brazilian City (2003-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Luciana de Souza; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; César, Cibele Comini; Macinko, James

    2016-02-01

    To assess trends in social inequalities among 2,624 elderly living in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in three domains of the World Health Organization's Active Aging model (physical environment, social determinants, use of health services) and health status indicators. Data came from two representative household surveys conducted in 2003 and 2010. Social inequality was measured by the slope and the relative index of inequality. Educational level was used to define socioeconomic status. Significant improvements were observed in the prevalence rates of 7 out of 12 indicators. However, the social inequalities persisted through 10 out of 12 selected active aging and health status indicators, except for fear of falling on the sidewalks/crossing the streets and fear of being robbed. Social inequalities persistence might be assigned to the continuity of unequal distribution of resources among groups with different educational levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Determination of sialic acids in the nervous system of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.: Effects of aging and development

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    Soya Seçkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acids mainly occur as components on cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids. They play a major role in the chemical and biological diversity of glycoconjugates. Although sialic acids exhibit great structural variability in vertebrates, glycoconjugates with sialic acids have also been determined in small amounts in invertebrates. It has been suggested that sialic acids play important roles in the development and function of the nervous system. Despite Bombyx mori being a model organism for the investigation of many physiological processes, sialic acid changes in its nervous system have not been examined during development and aging. Therefore, in this study we aimed to determine sialic acid changes in the nervous system of Bombyx mori during development and aging processes. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS and lectin immunohistochemistry were carried out in order to find variations among different developmental stages. Developmental stages were selected as 3rd instar (the youngest and 5th larval instar (young, motionless prepupa (the oldest and 13-day-old pupa (adult development. At all stages, only Neu5Ac was present, however, it dramatically decreased during the developmental and aging stages. On the other hand, an increase was observed in the amount of Neu5Ac during the pupal stage. In immunohistochemistry experiments with Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA lectins, the obtained staining was consistent with the obtained LC-MS results. These findings indicate that sialic acids are abundant at the younger stages but that they decrease in the insect nervous system during development and aging, similarly as in mammals.

  4. The Social Determinants of Health in Association with Women's Health Status of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Montazeri, Ali; Hosseni, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Prioritizing women's health helps achievement of the 4(th) and 5(th) goals of Millennium Development Program. This study aimed to investigate association between social determinants of health and women's health of reproductive age. This population-based cross-sectional study, using multi-stage sampling procedure was conducted on 770, 15 to 49-year-old women residing in any one of the 22 municipality zones across Tehran, Iran. Eligible women were interviewed at home with SF-36 (Short Form Health Survey) and socio-demographic questionnaires. Social determinants of health contains; ethnicity, education, job, income, and crowding index. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Multiple Linear Regression using SPSS-16. The threshold of P.V was considered 0.05. Overall, 770 women with mean age 33.9±9.3 years were interviewed. Majority of them were married (72.27%), housewives (62.2%), of Persian ethnicity (64.3%), and educated to high school level (43.8%). Age with dimensions of health except role emotional, mental health, and social functioning had significant association with B from -0.65 to -0.16.educational level with dimensions of health except role emotional andsocial functioning had significant association with B from 3.61 to 6.43 (Peducation level on negative women' health experiences are alarming. Interaction between social determinants of health and health status must be considered in policymaking, and there is a need for policies that would enhance health of women in the low education and income brackets.

  5. Age of initiation, Determinants and Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking among Teenagers in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiola, Ao; Balogun, Os; Odukoya, Oo; Olatona, Fa; Odugbemi, To; Moronkola, Rk; Solanke, Aa; Akintunde, Oj; Fatoba, Oo

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking constitutes a major threat to the health and wellbeing of teenagers. While smoking has been on decline in the developed countries, the reverse is the case in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the age of initiation, determinants and prevalence of cigarette smoking among teenagers in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos state, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study among 475 teenagers selected by multistage sampling. A pre-tested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The study was carried out in November, 2014. Response rate was 84.6%. Mean age of the respondents was 16.4±1.65years. Range and mean age of initiation of cigarette smoking were 7 to 17 years and 12.0±3.32 years respectively. Teenagers who were above 15 years (OR:5.13, 95%CI: 0.87-30.26), males (OR:5.19, 95%CI: 1.57-17.18), married (OR:8.41, 95%CI: 1.04- 63.35), had ≤primary school education(OR:4.31, 95%CI: 1.07-17.33), influenced by friends(OR:308.84, 95%CI: 84.87-1123.81), and influenced by advertisements (OR:27.83, 95%CI: 3.92-197.64) were more likely to have initiated cigarette smoking. Furthermore, teenagers who were males (OR:12.77, 95%CI: 2.90-56.28), married (OR:19.24, 95%CI: 2.05-180.45), had ≤primary school education(OR:7.85, 95%CI: 2.37-26.01), influenced by friends(OR:28.56, 95%CI: 10.86-75.07), and influenced by advertisements (OR:5.95, 95%CI: 1.72-20.61) were more likely to be current cigarette smokers. In addition, 24.9% had initiated cigarette smoking while 14.7% were current smokers of cigarette. Mean age of initiation of cigarette smoking was 12.0±3.32 years. Determinants of cigarette smoking were age, gender, marital status, educational background, friends and advertisements. Life time prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher than prevalence of current cigarette smokers. Cigarette smoking reduction programs should take these factors into consideration.

  6. Determination of the association of urine prostate specific antigen levels with anthropometric variables in children aged 5-14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Efthimiou

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Calculation of PSA is possible in human fluids even if it presents in very low concentrations with the help of hypersensitive immunodiagnostic methods. The periurethral glands represent one of the potential sources of urine prostate specific antigen (uPSA in both sexes but the purpose of studying PSA levels in children is still unclear in the literature. In this pilot study we studied uPSA in a small cohort of normal, pre and post pubertal children, in relation to standard anthropometric variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 58 children 5-14 years old (42 boys/16 girls. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI and the respective stature-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age percentiles of the sample were determined. uPSA levels were measured using a third generation immunodiagnostic method (DPC Immulite® that has a lower limit of detection of 3 ng/L. When levels of PSA were above the upper limit of detection, uPSA levels were assessed using the ROCHE technique. RESULTS: uPSA levels tend to be higher in male than female children (p = 0.091, linear regression analysis. uPSA was measurable only in 3/16 girls (18.75%. Measurable uPSA was found in 18/42 boys (42.8%. The range of urine PSA in boys was 0-161000 ng/L (mean 10561.9 ± 31830.48 ng/L. Statistical analysis with linear regression showed correlation with height and age in boys. CONCLUSIONS: The use of hypersensitive assays allows calculation of uPSA in childhood. The values of this variable are measurable in both sexes and related with gender. In boys, uPSA was correlated with age and height but not with other variables tested. Further studies are required to clarify this field.

  7. A study of the main determinants of sexual dysfunction in women aged 15-45 years on chronic hemodialysis

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    Reza Hekmat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction (SD is a common problem in patients with the end-stage renal disease. In contrast to SD in males, relatively little work has been performed in the field of SD in females. In this study, we tried to identify the main determinants of SD in women aged 15-45year-old on chronic hemodialysis (HD. One hundred-forty female patients aged 15-45-year-old on chronic HD were studied in the winter of the year 2013. Healthy relatives of the patients were chosen as controls and matched for age, level of education, marital status, and income. Both cases and controls were interviewed by the same female interviewer. The Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX was used as a questionnaire. A significant correlation was found between the total ASEX score and age and duration on HD (r = 0.599, P = 0.003 and r = 0.434, P = 0.043, respectively. No correlation was found between serum hemoglobin, parathormone, creatinine, iron, calcium, phosphorus, and urea reduction ratio and the ASEX score. Moreover, the correlation between the ASEX score and socioeconomic parameters like level of education and monthly income was not significant (all P >0.1. There was a significant difference in the total ASEX score between cases and controls (16.31 ± 2.50 vs. 9.80 ± 4.21, P <0.001. Our study suggests that sexual function in chronic hemodialyzed female patients is mainly impacted by age and duration on HD.

  8. Ovulation rate and distribution in the thoroughbred mare, as determined by ultrasonic scanning: the effect of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies Morel, M C; O'Sullivan, J A

    2001-04-30

    Ovarian activity was monitored in 2181 oestrous cycles from 1136 thoroughbred brood mares to accurately determine overall ovulation rate, the relative distribution of ovulations between left and right ovary, whether mare age had an effect on these parameters and whether ovulation pattern in one cycle affected the pattern within the next. Ultrasonic scanning was used in preference to rectal palpation and slaughterhouse material due to its greater accuracy. Mare's ages ranged from 3 to 22 years. The results obtained indicated a similar incidence of ovulation occurring on the right (49.5% of all ovulations) or left ovary (50.5%). Multiple ovulations (MO) occurred in 22.4% of oestrous cycles. Significantly (Pdouble ovulations (DO) were bilateral (57.2%) than unilateral (42.8%); 20.7% were unilateral right and 22.1% were unilateral left. There were 828 mares grouped into six age groups: A (3-5 years), B (6-8 years), C (9-11 years), D (12-14 years), E (15-18 years), F (18-22 years). The distribution of ovulation between the left and right ovary was not affected by age group, but significant association (Povulations (SO) being on alternate ovaries. There was no significant repeatability of the classification of DO in one cycle compared to the next. We conclude that: (i) the mare is a symmetrical ovulator; (ii) 22.4% of cycles yield MO (ovulation rate 1.23); (iii) this MO incidence increased (P<0.01) with age; (iv) the exhibition of MO in one cycle was linked to an increased probability (P<0.01) of a MO occurring at the next one and (v) SO in one ovary was more likely (P<0.05) to be followed by a SO on the alternate ovary during the next cycle.

  9. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  10. Determining Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Starting Age of Screening Based on Lifestyle, Environmental, and Genetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jihyoun; Du, Mengmeng; Schoen, Robert E; Hoffmeister, Michael; Newcomb, Polly A; Berndt, Sonja I; Caan, Bette; Campbell, Peter T; Chan, Andrew T; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Giles, Graham G; Gong, Jian; Harrison, Tabitha A; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Jacobs, Eric J; Li, Li; Lin, Yi; Le Marchand, Loïc; Potter, John D; Qu, Flora; Bien, Stephanie A; Zubair, Niha; Macinnis, Robert J; Buchanan, Daniel D; Hopper, John L; Cao, Yin; Nishihara, Reiko; Rennert, Gad; Slattery, Martha L; Thomas, Duncan C; Woods, Michael O; Prentice, Ross L; Gruber, Stephen B; Zheng, Yingye; Brenner, Hermann; Hayes, Richard B; White, Emily; Peters, Ulrike; Hsu, Li

    2018-02-16

    Guidelines for initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are based on family history but do not consider lifestyle, environmental, or genetic risk factors. We developed models to determine risk of CRC, based on lifestyle and environmental factors and genetic variants, and to identify an optimal age to begin screening. We collected data from 9748 CRC cases and 10,590 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary study, from 1992 through 2005. Half of the participants were used to develop the risk determination model and the other half were used to evaluate the discriminatory accuracy (validation set). Models of CRC risk were created based on family history, 19 lifestyle and environmental factors (E-score), and 63 CRC-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies (G-score). We evaluated the discriminatory accuracy of the models by calculating area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values, adjusting for study, age, and endoscopy findings for the validation set. We used the models to project the 10-year absolute risk of CRC for a given risk profile and recommend ages to begin screening, in comparison to CRC risk for an average individual at 50 years of age, using external population incidence rates for non-Hispanic whites from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program registry. In our models, E-score and G-score each determined risk of CRC with greater accuracy than family history. A model that combined both scores and family history estimated CRC risk with an AUC value of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.62-0.64) for men and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.61-0.63) for women; AUC values based on only family history ranged from 0.53 to 0.54 and those based only E-score or G-score ranged from 0.59 to 0.60. Although screening is recommended to begin at age 50 years for individuals with no family history of CRC, starting ages calculated based on combined E

  11. Radiometric age determination of tonsteins and stratigraphic constraints for the Lower Permian coal succession in southern Parana Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; Hartmann, Leo Afraneo; Formoso, Milton Luis Laquintinie [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Santos, Joao Orestes Schneider [Centre for Global Targeting, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth 6009, WA (Australia); Ketzer, Joao Marcelo [Instituto de Meio Ambiente, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Avenida Ipiranga, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2008-03-03

    Ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) dating of zircons from tonsteins interbedded with coal seams from the Candiota and Faxinal coalfields (Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, Parana Basin, Brazil) is presented. The mean ages obtained (290.6 {+-} 1.5 Ma) are more precise than previously published intervals. Calibrations of chronostratigraphic data with radiometric ages show that the main coal succession from the southern Basin is constrained to the Middle Sakmarian. The {+-} 2 Ma time interval of deposition supports the hypothesis that the coal-generating process was quite rapid in terms of geological time. In a general context, Faxinal and Candiota coals are assigned, into the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis Subzone, besides some paleocological differences evidenced by palynological studies. This bio-interval does not correspond to a consistent palynostratigraphic tool and more accurate biostratigraphic zonation for the Carboniferous-Permian interval must be delineated. The new results have far-reaching significance for correlations of the Basin with sequences of the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 {+-} 6 Ma and 288 {+-} 7 Ma) and also with the Karoo Basin, with the lowermost Ecca Group (288 {+-} 3 Ma and 289.6 {+-} 3.8 Ma). This new evidence supports the presence of an active and widespread Lower Permian explosive volcanic event in western Gondwana, which is interpreted as the same volcanism which produced the Choiyoi Group in western Argentina. According to this correlation the ash-fall source is located about 1400 km to the southwest of their area of deposition. (author)

  12. Adaptation And Norm Determination Study Of The Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ On Turkish Adults (Ages 50 And Over

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    Kaynak Selekler

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Daily living activities are generally impaired in dementia and have to be assessed by standardized instruments. The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research recommends the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ as a particularly useful method for initial assessment of functional impairment. The FAQ is a brief, informant-based questionnaire that evaluates performance based on ten complex activities of daily living. The aim of the present study is to determine the normative values for a FAQ on Turkish adult sample between ages 50 and over. Material and Method: The present study consists of two phases: Translation/ adaptation and standardization. In the first phase, the questionnaire was translated into Turkish and the FAQ items were adapted to Turkish culture. In the second phase, the trained clinicians administered the new form to the subjects (usually a family member who have substantial personal knowledge of the adult’s prior and current behavior. Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS scores were used as inclusion criteria for healthy elderly adults. The research sample consists of 213 healthy subjects and their family members. The research sample consists of 213 subjects (109 female, 104 male. A 3x3x2 (age: 50-59 / 60-69 / 70 and over x education (5- 8 years / 9-11 years / 12 years and over x sex (female / male factorial design was used in the analysis. Results: The 3x3x2 factorial ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of age and education for the total FAQ score. Main effect of sex was not significant. No interaction effect (age x sex, age x education, sex x education and age x sex x education on FAQ scores was statistically significant. Discussion: This study provides normative data for a psychometric tool that reliably measures the activities of daily living in normal healthy subjects. It further demonstrates the necessity of considering age and education when assessing the activities of daily

  13. It is compatible the sport in scholar age with other social roles? A study through Self-Determination Theory

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    Amado Alonso, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of conflict or utility of the sport regarding other social roles and self-determination level in young athletes, focusing on differences among these variables with respect to sex. Hence, we used a sample size of 1897 players from different sport modalities, 1378 male and 519 female. Participants filled a questionnaire to assess self-determination level and other to measure conflict between social roles. Results showed that utility of sport was positive and significantly associated with self-determined motivation, whereas conflict between roles was related with amotivation. Moreover, male athletes showed higher scores in all types of motivation that refer Self-Determination Theory, being the group that perceived the greater incompatibility between sport and other social roles according to their growth age. As a conclusion, we emphasize the necessity to promote intrinsic motives of practice in both sex to increase commitment with the sport activity, and avoid sport dropout that might be happened because of the demands of other contexts that surround young athletes.

  14. Determinants

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    N. Ntui Asundep

    2013-12-01

    Nineteen percent of the women experienced an adverse pregnancy outcome. For 49% of the women, cost influenced their antenatal attendance. Cost was associated with increased likelihood of a woman experiencing an adverse outcome (adjusted OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.16–3.99; p = 0.016. Also, women with >5 births had an increased likelihood of an adverse outcome compared with women with single deliveries (adjusted OR = 3.77; 95% CI = 1.50–9.53; p = 0.005. The prevalence of adverse outcomes was lower than previously reported (44.6 versus 19%. Cost and distance were associated with adverse outcomes after adjusting for confounders. Cost and distance could be minimized through a wider application of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme.

  15. Cell cycle phase of nondividing cells in aging human cell cultures determined by DNA content and chromosomal constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanishevsky, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    Human diploid cell cultures, strain WI-38, have a finite proliferative capacity and have been proposed as a model of biological aging. To identify the cell cycle phase of the nondividing cells, cultures of various ages were exposed to 3 Hdt for 48 hours to label dividing cells, then the cycle phase was identified for individual cells by one of two methods, and finally, the proliferative status of the same cells was scored by autoradiographic evidence of 3 HdT uptake. The methods to identify the cycle phase were: determination of DNA strain content by Feulgen scanning cytophotometry, and determination of chromosome constitution by the technique of premature chromosome condensation (PCC). Preliminary experiments showed the effect of continuous exposure to various levels of 3 HdT on cell growth. High levels of 3 HdT inhibited cell cycle traverse: the cell number and labeling index curves reached a plateau; the cell volume increased; the cells accumulated with 4C DNA contents and it appeared that they blocked in G 2 phase. This pattern is consistent with a radiation effect. (U.S.)

  16. Autopsy-determined causes of death following organ transplantation in 25 patients aged 20 years or younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alan G

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to examine the autopsy-determined principal and proximate causes of death in 25 patients aged 20 years or younger who died during the 10-year period from 1990 to 1999 after receiving an organ transplant at the University of Minnesota/Fairview-University Medical Center. The autopsy records of this institution were examined for organ transplant recipients who were aged 20 years or younger at the time of their death. In each case, after review of the clinical and pathological data, the principle cause of death (PCOD), as well as the proximate cause of death (PXCOD) were noted. A total of 25 recipient patients were identified (five heart, five lung, five kidney and 10 liver transplants). Seven patients died 30 days or less post-operatively and 18 died thereafter. The following categories of PCOD were encountered: operative/technical complications 28%, most (6/7) being associated with liver transplantation. Infection (24%) and chronic rejection (12%) were other important PCOD. Respiratory complications accounted for 47% of the PCOD. The following categories of PXCOD were noted: technical problems 16%, pulmonary pathology 24%, miscellaneous 32%, acute rejection 4% and nil 20%. This study revealed that technical problems in liver transplants were an important PCOD; respiratory complications and chronic rejection were additional major causes of mortality in this young age group of transplant recipients. Pulmonary pathology and technical problems were the commonest specific groups contributing to the PXCOD.

  17. Structural and functional mapping of Rtg2p determinants involved in retrograde signaling and aging of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Maria Rios-Anjos

    Full Text Available In Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial dysfunction induces retrograde signaling, a pathway of communication from mitochondria to the nucleus that promotes a metabolic remodeling to ensure sufficient biosynthetic precursors for replication. Rtg2p is a positive modulator of this pathway that is also required for cellular longevity. This protein belongs to the ASKHA superfamily, and contains a putative N-terminal ATP-binding domain, but there is no detailed structural and functional map of the residues in this domain that accounts for their contribution to retrograde signaling and aging. Here we use Decomposition of Residue Correlation Networks and site-directed mutagenesis to identify Rtg2p structural determinants of retrograde signaling and longevity. We found that most of the residues involved in retrograde signaling surround the ATP-binding loops, and that Rtg2p N-terminus is divided in three regions whose mutants have different aging phenotypes. We also identified E137, D158 and S163 as possible residues involved in stabilization of ATP at the active site. The mutants shown here may be used to map other Rtg2p activities that crosstalk to other pathways of the cell related to genomic stability and aging.

  18. Hearing status in older persons: a significant determinant of depression and loneliness? Results from the longitudinal aging study amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Marieke; Deeg, Dorly J H; Kramer, Sophia E

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the authors' aims were to (a) determine the longitudinal relationships between baseline hearing status and 4-year follow-up depression and loneliness in an older population and (b) investigate possible differences across subgroups in these relationships. The authors used data from 2 waves of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (4-year follow-up, baseline ages 63-93 years). Sample sizes were 996 (self-report analyses) and 830 (speech-in-noise test analyses). The authors used multiple linear regression analyses to assess the associations between baseline hearing status and 4-year follow-up of depression, social loneliness, and emotional loneliness. Hearing was measured by self-report and by a speech-in-noise test. Age, gender, hearing aid use, baseline depression or loneliness, and relevant confounders and effect modifiers were incorporated. Both hearing measures showed significant associations with loneliness (p loneliness model) and men (self-report and speech-in-noise test, emotional-loneliness model). No significant effects appeared for depression. Significant adverse effects of poor hearing on loneliness were found for specific subgroups of older persons. In future research, investigators should further examine the subgroup effects observed. Eventually, this may contribute to the development of tailored prevention programs.

  19. Achieving motor development milestones at the age of three months may determine, but does not guarantee, proper further development.

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    Gajewska, Ewa; Sobieska, Magdalena; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Steinborn, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Proper motor performance at 3rd month is necessary for further motor development. The paper aims to demonstrate the reliability, sensitivity, and predictive value of an original motor performance assessment tool in comparison with the neurological assessment at 3, 6, and 9 months. Children (n = 123), born at term without pre- or perinatal complications, born at term with pre- or perinatal complications, or born preterm, were assessed at the age of 3, 6, and 9 months, by a neurologist and a physiotherapist. The physiotherapist evaluated 15 qualitative features typical for the age of 3 months in the prone and supine positions. The final neurological assessment determined the degree of developmental disorder. Neurological and global physiotherapeutic assessments showed a statistically significant correlation. Qualitative assessment results were very good in healthy children and decreased with worsening neurological diagnoses. Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy did not show proper qualitative features of 3 months when analyzed at 3, 6, and 9 months. Children with delayed motor development revealed minor qualitative performance impairments as early as 3 months but improved with age. Qualitative assessment at 3 months not only facilitates diagnosis of major developmental disorders but is also a good predictor of delayed motor development in children.

  20. Investigating the determinants of Chinese adult children's intention to use online health information for their aged parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yukun; Hoque, Rakibul; Wang, Shiyu

    2017-06-01

    The increasing number of older people and the dissemination of health information via the Internet have emerged and both are challenging to Chinese society. Available online health information highlights the importance of decision making processes, specially in relation to the elderly who almost have no online presence and depend on their adult children's help. The researchers mostly focus on parents' health information search for their children, however, they overlook the adult children's intention to use online health information for their aged parents. This study fills this gap by extending the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to identify the determinants of adult children's intention to use online health information for their aged parents. Relying on survey method, the data were collected from teachers and students at different participating Universities in Wuhan, China. The Partial Least Squares (PLS), a structural equation modeling technique, was employed to test the research model. This study found that attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and risk (p0.05) was not listed among the predictors. This study is a significant addition to the literature, in that it confirms the utility of the TPB with additional variables in predicting adults' children intention to use online health information for their aged parents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. First European interlaboratory comparison of tetracycline and age determination with red fox teeth following oral rabies vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Demerson, Jean-Michel; Andrieu, Sabrina; Cliquet, Florence

    2012-10-01

    The first European interlaboratory comparison of tetracycline and age determination with red fox (Vulpes vulpes) tooth samples was organized by the European Union Reference Laboratory for rabies. Performance and procedures implemented by member states were compared. These techniques are widely used to monitor bait uptake in European oral rabies vaccination campaigns. A panel of five red fox half-mandibles comprising one weak positive juvenile sample, two positive adult samples, one negative juvenile sample, and one negative adult sample were sent, along with a technical questionnaire, to 12 laboratories participating on a voluntary basis. The results of only three laboratories (25%) were 100% correct. False-negative results were more frequently seen in weak positive juvenile samples (58%) but were infrequent in positive adult samples (4%), probably due to differences in the ease of reading the two groups of teeth. Four laboratories (44%) had correct results for age determination on all samples. Ages were incorrectly identified in both adult and juvenile samples, with 11 and 17% of discordant results, respectively. Analysis of the technical questionnaires in parallel with test results suggested that all laboratories cutting mandible sections between the canine and first premolar obtained false results. All the laboratories using longitudinal rather than transverse sections and those not using a mounting medium also produced false results. Section thickness appeared to affect the results; no mistakes were found in laboratories using sections <150 μm thick. Factors having a potential impact on the success of laboratories were discussed, and recommendations proposed. Such interlaboratory trials underline the importance of using standardized procedures for biomarker detection in oral rabies vaccination campaigns. Several changes can be made to improve analysis quality and increase the comparability of bait uptake frequencies among member states.

  2. Predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Bradley A; Petry, Nicolai; Macdonald, Barbara; Aaron, Grant J

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anemia in women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15–49 y) remains a public health problem globally, and reducing anemia in women by 50% by 2025 is a goal of the World Health Assembly. Objective: We assessed the associations between anemia and multiple proximal risk factors (e.g., iron and vitamin A deficiencies, inflammation, malaria, and body mass index) and distal risk factors (e.g., education status, household sanitation and hygiene, and urban or rural residence) in nonpregnant WRA. Design: Cross-sectional, nationally representative data from 10 surveys (n = 27,018) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and pooled by the infection burden and risk in the country. We examined the severity of anemia and measured the bivariate associations between anemia and factors at the country level and by infection burden, which we classified with the use of the national prevalences of malaria, HIV, schistosomiasis, sanitation, and water-quality indicators. Pooled multivariate logistic regression models were constructed for each infection-burden category to identify independent determinants of anemia (hemoglobin concertation Anemia prevalence was ∼40% in countries with a high infection burden and 12% and 7% in countries with moderate and low infection burdens, respectively. Iron deficiency was consistently associated with anemia in multivariate models, but the proportion of anemic women who were iron deficient was considerably lower in the high-infection group (35%) than in the moderate- and low-infection groups (65% and 71%, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, inflammation, vitamin A insufficiency, socioeconomic status, and age were also significantly associated with anemia, but malaria and vitamin B-12 and folate deficiencies were not. Conclusions: The contribution of iron deficiency to anemia varies according to a country’s infection burden. Anemia

  3. Influence of Age, Maturity, and Body Size on the Spatiotemporal Determinants of Maximal Sprint Speed in Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Robert W; Oliver, Jon L; Hughes, Michael G; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Cronin, John B

    2017-04-01

    Meyers, RW, Oliver, JL, Hughes, MG, Lloyd, RS, and Cronin, JB. Influence of age, maturity, and body size on the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprint speed in boys. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1009-1016, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of age, maturity, and body size on the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprint speed in boys. Three-hundred and seventy-five boys (age: 13.0 ± 1.3 years) completed a 30-m sprint test, during which maximal speed, step length, step frequency, contact time, and flight time were recorded using an optical measurement system. Body mass, height, leg length, and a maturity offset represented somatic variables. Step frequency accounted for the highest proportion of variance in speed (∼58%) in the pre-peak height velocity (pre-PHV) group, whereas step length explained the majority of the variance in speed (∼54%) in the post-PHV group. In the pre-PHV group, mass was negatively related to speed, step length, step frequency, and contact time; however, measures of stature had a positive influence on speed and step length yet a negative influence on step frequency. Speed and step length were also negatively influence by mass in the post-PHV group, whereas leg length continued to positively influence step length. The results highlighted that pre-PHV boys may be deemed step frequency reliant, whereas those post-PHV boys may be marginally step length reliant. Furthermore, the negative influence of body mass, both pre-PHV and post-PHV, suggests that training to optimize sprint performance in youth should include methods such as plyometric and strength training, where a high neuromuscular focus and the development force production relative to body weight are key foci.

  4. StarHorse: A Bayesian tool for determining stellar masses, ages, distances, and extinctions for field stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, A. B. A.; Anders, F.; Santiago, B. X.; Chiappini, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Ponte, M.; Stassun, K. G.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Crestani, J.; Beers, T. C.; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Zamora, O.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of our Galaxy requires accurate distances, ages and chemistry for large populations of field stars. Here we present several updates to our spectro-photometric distance code, that can now also be used to estimate ages, masses, and extinctions for individual stars. Given a set of measured spectro-photometric parameters, we calculate the posterior probability distribution over a given grid of stellar evolutionary models, using flexible Galactic stellar-population priors. The code (called StarHorse) can acommodate different observational datasets, prior options, partially missing data, and the inclusion of parallax information into the estimated probabilities. We validate the code using a variety of simulated stars as well as real stars with parameters determined from asteroseismology, eclipsing binaries, and isochrone fits to star clusters. Our main goal in this validation process is to test the applicability of the code to field stars with known Gaia-like parallaxes. The typical internal precision (obtained from realistic simulations of an APOGEE+Gaia-like sample) are ≃ 8% in distance, ≃ 20% in age,≃ 6% in mass, and ≃ 0.04 mag in AV. The median external precision (derived from comparisons with earlier work for real stars) varies with the sample used, but lies in the range of ≃ [0, 2]% for distances, ≃ [12, 31]% for ages, ≃ [4, 12]% for masses, and ≃ 0.07 mag for AV. We provide StarHorse distances and extinctions for the APOGEE DR14, RAVE DR5, GES DR3 and GALAH DR1 catalogues.

  5. Method, system, and computer-readable medium for determining performance characteristics of an object undergoing one or more arbitrary aging conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-04-18

    A method, system, and computer-readable medium are described for characterizing performance loss of an object undergoing an arbitrary aging condition. Baseline aging data may be collected from the object for at least one known baseline aging condition over time, determining baseline multiple sigmoid model parameters from the baseline data, and performance loss of the object may be determined over time through multiple sigmoid model parameters associated with the object undergoing the arbitrary aging condition using a differential deviation-from-baseline approach from the baseline multiple sigmoid model parameters. The system may include an object, monitoring hardware configured to sample performance characteristics of the object, and a processor coupled to the monitoring hardware. The processor is configured to determine performance loss for the arbitrary aging condition from a comparison of the performance characteristics of the object deviating from baseline performance characteristics associated with a baseline aging condition.

  6. The HTT CAG-Expansion Mutation Determines Age at Death but Not Disease Duration in Huntington Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Jae Whan; Shin, Aram; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi Srinidhi; Abu Elneel, Kawther; Lucente, Diane; Hadzi, Tiffany; Holmans, Peter; Jones, Lesley; Orth, Michael; Kwak, Seung; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.; Lee, Jong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by an expanded HTT CAG repeat that leads in a length-dependent, completely dominant manner to onset of a characteristic movement disorder. HD also displays early mortality, so we tested whether the expanded CAG repeat exerts a dominant influence on age at death and on the duration of clinical disease. We found that, as with clinical onset, HD age at death is determined by expanded CAG-repeat length and has no contribution from the normal CAG allele. Surprisingly, disease duration is independent of the mutation’s length. It is also unaffected by a strong genetic modifier of HD motor onset. These findings suggest two parsimonious alternatives. (1) HD pathogenesis is driven by mutant huntingtin, but before or near motor onset, sufficient CAG-driven damage occurs to permit CAG-independent processes and then lead to eventual death. In this scenario, some pathological changes and their clinical correlates could still worsen in a CAG-driven manner after disease onset, but these CAG-related progressive changes do not themselves determine duration. Alternatively, (2) HD pathogenesis is driven by mutant huntingtin acting in a CAG-dependent manner with different time courses in multiple cell types, and the cellular targets that lead to motor onset and death are different and independent. In this scenario, processes driven by HTT CAG length lead directly to death but not via the striatal pathology associated with motor manifestations. Each scenario has important ramifications for the design and testing of potential therapeutics, especially those aimed at preventing or delaying characteristic motor manifestations. PMID:26849111

  7. Determinants of Health Insurance Coverage among People Aged 45 and over in China: Who Buys Public, Private and Multiple Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinzi; Hou, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Donglan

    2016-01-01

    Background China is reforming and restructuring its health insurance system to achieve the goal of universal coverage. This study aims to understand the determinants of public, private and multiple insurance coverage among people of retirement-age in China. Methods We used data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey 2011 and 2013, a nationally representative survey of Chinese people aged 45 and over. Multinomial logit regression was performed to identify the determinants of public, private and multiple health insurance coverage. We also conducted logit regression to examine the association between public insurance coverage and demand for private insurance. Results In 2013, 94.5% of this population had at least one type of public insurance, and 12.2% purchased private insurance. In general, we found that rural residents were less likely to be uninsured (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) = 0.40, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.34–0.47) and were less likely to buy private insurance (RRR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.16–0.31). But rural-to-urban migrants were more likely to be uninsured (RRR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.24–1.57). Public health insurance coverage may crowd out private insurance market (Odds Ratio = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.48–0.63), particularly among enrollees of Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance. There exists a huge socioeconomic disparity in both public and private insurance coverage. Conclusion The migrants, the poor and the vulnerable remained in the edge of the system. The growing private insurance market did not provide sufficient financial protection and did not cover the people with the greatest need. To achieve universal coverage and reduce socioeconomic disparity, China should integrate the urban and rural public insurance schemes across regions and remove the barriers for the middle-income and low-income to access private insurance. PMID:27564320

  8. Dental and Chronological Ages as Determinants of Peak Growth Period and Its Relationship with Dental Calcification Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsas, George; Lucchese, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between dental, chronological, and cervical vertebral maturation growth in the peak growth period, as well as to study the association between the dental calcification phases and the skeletal maturity stages during the same growth period. Subjects were selected from orthodontic pre-treatment cohorts consisting of 420 subjects where 255 were identified and enrolled into the study, comprising 145 girls and 110 boys. The lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs were examined from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Dental age was assessed according to the method of Demirjian, and skeletal maturation according to the Cervical Vertebral Maturation Method. Statistical elaboration included Spearman Brown formula, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient and regression analysis, paired samples t-test, and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient. Chronological and dental age showed a high correlation for both gender(r =0.741 for boys, r = 0.770 for girls, pStage IV for both males (r=0.554) and females (r=0.68). The lowest correlation was for the CVM Stage III in males (r=0.433, pStage II in females (r=0.393, p>0.001). The t-test revealed statistically significant differences between these variables (pstages was determined. The second molars showed the highest correlation with CVM stages (CVMS) (r= 0.65 for boys, r = 0.72 for girls). Dental age was more advanced than chronological for both boys and girls for all CVMS. During the peak period these differences were more pronounced. Moreover, all correlations between skeletal and dental stages were statistically significant. The second molars showed the highest correlation whereas the canines showed the lowest correlation for both gender.

  9. Determinants of premature mortality in a city population: An eight-year observational study concerning subjects aged 18–64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Maniecka-Bryła

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature deaths constitute 31.1% of all deaths in Łódź. Analysis of the causes of premature deaths may be helpful in the evaluation of health risk factors. Moreover, findings of this study may enhance prophylactic measures. Material and Methods: In 2001, 1857 randomly selected citizens, aged 18-64, were included in the Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention (CINDI Programme. In 2009, a follow-up study was conducted and information on the subjects of the study was collected concerning their health status and if they continued to live in Łódź. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for evaluation of hazard coefficients. We adjusted our calculations for age and sex. The analysis revealed statistically significant associations between the number of premature deaths of the citizens of Łódź and the following variables: a negative self-evaluation of health - HR = 3.096 (95% CI: 1.729-5.543, poor financial situation - HR = 2.811 (95% CI: 1.183‑6.672, occurring in the year preceding the study: coronary pain - HR = 2.754 (95% CI: 1.167-6.494, depression - HR = 2.001 (95% CI: 1.222-3.277 and insomnia - HR = 1.660 (95% CI: 1.029-2.678. Our research study also found a negative influence of smoking on the health status - HR = 2.782 (95% CI: 1.581-4.891. Moreover, we conducted survival analyses according to sex and age with Kaplan-Meier curves. Conclusions: The risk factors leading to premature deaths were found to be highly significant but possible to reduce by modifying lifestyle-related health behaviours. The confirmed determinants of premature mortality indicate a need to spread and intensify prophylactic activities in Poland, which is a post-communist country, in particular, in the field of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Day-night temperature differential, rather than mean temperature, determines age of sexual maturation in Straicosta albicosta (Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Joanna K; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2017-11-01

    While pheromone traps have been effectively used to monitor the recent range expansion of the western bean cutworm (WBC), very little is known about the pheromone mediated reproductive biology of this species. The age at which females initiated calling (the behaviour associated with the release of the sex pheromone), and the pattern of calling on the first three nights following sexual maturation were determined for virgin females held under four temperature regimes (25:20; 25:15; 20:15; 20:10 °C L:D and 16L:8D photoperiod), and two RH (60 and 80%). Regardless of the rearing conditions the pre-calling period (PCP) was always several days post emergence, supporting the hypothesis that WCB is a migrant species. However, surprisingly the length of the PCP was not directly related to mean temperature but rather to the temperature differential between the photophase and the scotophase. The duration of calling increased with female age, but unlike in other moths was not affected by the abiotic factors tested. The relative insensitivity to temperature and humidity, when compared with many other moth species, may be related to the WBC being a univoltine species with a mid-summer flight period. Consequently, there would not be strong selection pressure for plasticity in calling behavior when compared with the case of multivoltine species that experience a wide range of environmental conditions during different seasonal flight periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental trajectories of Body Mass Index from infancy to 18 years of age: prenatal determinants and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyab, Ali H; Karmaus, Wilfried; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh J; Zhang, Hongmei; Arshad, Syed Hasan

    2014-10-01

    Knowledge on the long-term development of adiposity throughout childhood/adolescence and its prenatal determinants and health sequelae is lacking. We sought to (1) identify trajectories of Body Mass Index (BMI) from 1 to 18 years of age, (2) examine associations of maternal gestational smoking and early pregnancy overweight with offspring BMI trajectories and (3) determine whether BMI trajectories predict health outcomes: asthma, lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio), and blood pressure, at 18 years. The Isle of Wight birth cohort, a population-based sample of 1456 infants born between January 1989 and February 1990, was prospectively assessed at ages 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18 years. Group-based trajectory modelling was applied to test for the presence of latent BMI trajectories. Associations were assessed using log-binomial and linear regression models. Four trajectories of BMI were identified: 'normal', 'early persistent obesity', 'delayed overweight', and 'early transient overweight'. Risk factors for being in the early persistent obesity trajectory included maternal smoking during pregnancy (RR 2.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 4.68) and early pregnancy overweight (3.16, 1.52 to 6.58). When comparing the early persistent obesity to the normal trajectory, a 2.15-fold (1.33 to 3.49) increased risk of asthma, 3.2% (0.4% to 6.0%) deficit in FEV1/FVC ratio, and elevated systolic 11.3 mm Hg (7.1 to 15.4) and diastolic 12.0 mm Hg (8.9 to 15.1) blood pressure were observed at age 18 years. Maternal prenatal exposures show prolonged effects on offspring's propensity towards overweight-obesity. Distinct morbid BMI trajectories are evident during the first 18 years of life that are associated with higher risk of asthma, reduced FEV1/FVC ratio, and elevated blood pressure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Effects of three interventions and determinants of full vaccination among children aged 12-59 months in Nyanza province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Y; Tanaka, J; Ogawa, K; Ogendo, K; Honda, S

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the effects of the three main interventions and identify the individual and community determinants of full vaccination coverage among children aged 12-59 months in Nyanza province, Kenya. Cross-sectional study. We utilized three datasets. One is the Nyanza Province County-based Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011. The other two datasets are the lists of community units and health facilities in Nyanza Province, Kenya. A three-level multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed. In the final model, the highest wealth quintile (AOR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.333-4.642; P = 0.004), the community with high coverage of media devices (AOR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.029-2.198; P = 0.035), the participation of mass immunization campaigns (AOR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.153-2.303; P = 0.006) were the significant determinants of complete child vaccination. In conclusion, further implementation of mass immunization campaigns is the recommended intervention to increase the uptake of required vaccinations among children. In addition, further attention to the poor and the low coverage of media devices is necessary, since they are the most vulnerable population in terms of accessibility of vaccination services. Implementation community based activity, such as community health workers, would have a positive impact on vaccination coverage, if their performance is continuously high. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group in North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdurahman; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Feleke, Amsalu; Megabiaw, Berihun

    2014-02-03

    Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa with high fertility and fast population growth rate. It is also one of the countries with high maternal and child mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa Family planning is a crucial strategy to halt the fast population growth, to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health (Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 15 to September 1, 2010 among married women aged 15-49 years in Debre Birhan District. Multistage sampling technique was used to select a total of 851 study participants. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used for gathering data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical package. Modern contraceptive prevalence rate among currently married women was 46.9%. Injectable contraceptives were the most frequently used methods (62.9%), followed by intrauterine device (16.8%), pills (14%), norplant (4.3%), male condom (1.2%) and female sterilization (0.8%). Multiple logistic regression model revealed that the need for more children (AOR 9.27, 95% CI 5.43-15.84), husband approve (AOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.67-4.80), couple's discussion about family planning issues (AOR 7.32, 95% CI 3.60-14.86). Similarly, monthly family income and number of living children were significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives. Modern contraceptive use was high in the district. Couple's discussion and husband approval of contraceptives use were significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives. Therefore, district health office and concerned stakeholders should focus on couples to encourage communication and male involvement for family planning.

  14. Immunization coverage and its determinants among children aged 12 - 23 months in a peri-urban area of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Lilian Chepkemoi; Karanja, Simon; Kombich, Janeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The institutionalization of strong immunization services over recent years has ensured that today more than 70% of the worlds’ targeted population is reached. In Kenya, approximately 77% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated with some districts reporting even lower levels of coverage. However, low immunization coverage remains a challenge in low income and high population settings such as Kaptembwo Location, Nakuru district. Methods A cross sectional community based survey was undertaken between January and March 2011. Cluster sampling method was employed. Data was collected using pretested interviewer guided structured questionnaires through house to house visits. Data was analyzed in SPSS using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression to identify independent predictors of full immunization. Results Complete immunization coverage was 76.6%. Coverage for specific antigens was; BCG (99.5%), OPV0 (97.6%), OPV 1(98.7%), OPV2 (96.6%), OPV3 (90.5%), Penta 1(98.9), Penta 2 (96.6%), Penta 3 (90.0%), Measles (77.4%). The drop-out rate between the first and third pentavalent vaccine coverage was 8.9%. Predictors of full immunization included number of children within the family, place of birth of the child, advice on date of next visit for growth monitoring and opinion on the health immunization services offered. Conclusion Complete immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 months is still below target. Efforts to improve vaccination coverage must take into account the immunization determinants found in this study. There is need to focus on strengthening of awareness strategies. PMID:23504493

  15. Ultrasonographic study of deep portion of diencephalo-telencephalic vesicle for the determination of gestational age of the canine foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaglia, M; Faustini, M; Luvoni, G C

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonographic measurement of the deep portion of diencephalo-telencephalic vesicle (DPTV) in the prediction of delivery date in different size bitches. The effects of litter size and foetal sex ratio on the accuracy were also investigated. For this purpose, the growth curve of DPTV was derived in large size dogs (26-40 kg) and the results of the accuracy of the prediction were compared with those obtained in small (dogs by the application of the equations derived from the growth curve previously described. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed once a week during the second half of pregnancy in seven large size bitches (26-40 kg body weight). A linear regression model was adopted to analyse the relationship between the DPTV mean values and the days remaining to parturition. The results of regression analysis indicated that DPTV measurement in large size dogs is significantly and linearly related to the gestational age. Ultrasonographic measurements of DPTV were also performed during pregnancy in different size bitches with unknown breeding dates. Although the results indicated a similar accuracy of the prediction of the date of parturition in the different sizes of bitches, a higher accuracy was obtained in normal and large litter size compared with small litters. Foetal sex ratio did not affect the accuracy. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the accuracy of the prediction of parturition day obtained by ultrasonographic evaluation of DPTV growth is reliable when specific formulae for different size dogs are applied. It should be noted that although foetal sex ratio does not affect the accuracy, the prediction could be less accurate when a small litter is present.

  16. Experimental determinations of soil copper toxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth in highly different copper spiked and aged soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Karen S; Borggaard, Ole K; Holm, Peter E; Vijver, Martina G; Hauschild, Michael Z; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-04-01

    Accurate knowledge about factors and conditions determining copper (Cu) toxicity in soil is needed for predicting plant growth in various Cu-contaminated soils. Therefore, effects of Cu on growth (biomass production) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were tested on seven selected, very different soils spiked with Cu and aged for 2 months at 35 °C. Cu toxicity was expressed as pEC50(Cu(2+)), i.e., the negative logarithm of the EC50(Cu(2+)) activity to plant growth. The determined pEC50(Cu(2+)) was significantly and positively correlated with both the analytically readily available soil pH and concentration of dissolved organic carbon [DOC] which together could explain 87% of the pEC50(Cu(2+)) variation according to the simple equation: pEC50(Cu(2+)) = 0.98 × pH + 345 × [DOC] - 0.27. Other soil characteristics, including the base cation concentrations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)), the cation exchange capacity at soil pH (ECEC), and at pH 7 (CEC7), soil organic carbon, clay content, and electric conductivity as well as the distribution coefficient (Kd) calculated as the ratio between total soil Cu and water-extractable Cu did not correlate significantly with pEC50(Cu(2+)). Consequently, Cu toxicity, expressed as the negative log of the Cu(2+) activity, to plant growth increases at increasing pH and DOC, which needs to be considered in future management of plant growth on Cu-contaminated soils. The developed regression equation allows identification of soil types in which the phytotoxicity potential of Cu is highest.

  17. Is Social Capital a Determinant of Oral Health among Older Adults? Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Chandola, Tarani; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of studies linking social capital to oral health among older adults, although the evidence base mainly relies on cross-sectional study designs. The possibility of reverse causality is seldom discussed, even though oral health problems could potentially lead to lower social participation. Furthermore, few studies clearly distinguish between the effects of different dimensions of social capital on oral health. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations between individual social capital and oral health among older adults. We analyzed longitudinal data from the 3rd and 5th waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Structural social capital was operationalized using measures of social participation, and volunteering. Number of close ties and perceived emotional support comprised the functional dimension of social capital. Oral health measures were having no natural teeth (edentate vs. dentate), self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Time-lag and autoregressive models were used to explore the longitudinal associations between social capital and oral health. We imputed all missing data, using multivariate imputation by chained equations. We found evidence of bi-directional longitudinal associations between self-rated oral health, volunteering and functional social capital. Functional social capital was a strong predictor of change in oral health-related quality of life – the adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor oral health-related quality of life was 1.75 (1.33–2.30) for older adults with low vs. high social support. However in the reverse direction, poor oral health-related quality of life was not associated with changes in social capital. This suggests that oral health may not be a determinant of social capital. In conclusion, social capital may be a determinant of subjective oral health among older adults rather than edentulousness, despite many cross-sectional studies on the

  18. Levels and ages of selenium and metals in sedimentary cores of Ise Bay as determined by 210-Pb dating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Chikuma, M.; Tanaka, H.

    1987-01-01

    Ise Bay is connected with estuaries of Nagoya harbor which is one of the most active industrial areas in Japan. Nagoya harbor estuaries are recipient of a large quantity of municipal and industrial discharge. The land boundaries of estuaries are sites of the manufacturing industries and they are utilized by oil tankers and cargo vessels. Accumulation of various kinds of metal such as selenium, mercury, zinc, copper, lead, and chromium have occurred in sediments for many years. The authors have carried out an extensive investigation on the selenium pollution of sea water and sediments of Nagoya harbor estuaries. The input of selenium to Ise Bay has occurred ever since the industrial activity was established in Nagoya city. Investigators have reported the sedimentary record of metals of Tokyo Bay, Osaka Bay and Seto Inland Sea. Some investigators reported the pollution caused by polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon in sediments of Ise Bay, but did not mention metals. The authors determined metals including selenium in sedimentary core samples. The ages of those samples were already estimated by 210-Pb dating technique

  19. Age dynamics of zinc and iron contents in human hair determined by INAA and ICP-ES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In last decades, the determination of chemical element levels in human hair has been a subject of continual interest in the forensic, clinical, occupational and environmental medicine. Hair has been increasingly used as a monitor for many elements and has been proposed for assessing environmental exposure, nutritional status, and for diagnosis of disease. It has many advantages for assessment over the more traditional kinds of medical objects such as blood and urine because of ease of collection, transport and storage. Also, trace element concentrations in hair samples represent an integrated response over time compared with blood and urine levels, which can rapidly fluctuate in response to variations of nutritional and environmental conditions. The fact that contents of many chemical elements in hair are relatively high also facilitates the analysis. It is known that the result of the hair analysis may not directly relate to the intake amount, nor does it always reflect the amount actually absorbed. Despite these limitations, the analysis of human hair can still provide a basis for estimating ambient exposure to certain elements. The first step in construction of such basis is investigations the national population normal levels of chemical element contents in hair related to sex, age and some other factors under quality control of results. The objectives of this analytical work were to evaluate the reference range of Zn and Fe in adult scalp hair and to evaluate the effect of age and sex on elemental contents. In this study, head hair samples from adult health persons living in or near Obninsk (the small city in rural region 105 km south-west Moscow), were analysed by two methods in three analytical laboratories: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA - one laboratory) and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ISP-AES - two laboratories). Scalp hair samples were obtained at necropsy from eighty-three cadavers (38 women

  20. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Rønning

    Full Text Available The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR, as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (P<0.1. Thus, the effect of BMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  1. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Bernt; Moe, Børge; Berntsen, Henrik H; Noreen, Elin; Bech, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR), as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age) and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (PBMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  2. Investigation into the metamorphic Nappes of the Central Scandinavian Caledonides on the basis of Rb-Sr and K-Ar age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymer, A.P.S.

    1979-01-01

    This study concerns age determinations on several rock units of metamorphic nappes in the central Scandinavian Caledonides. Rb-Sr analyses on whole-rocks and minerals (biotite, muscovite/phengite, feldspars, garnet) were made as well as K-Ar determinations on biotite, muscovite/phengite, amphibole and feldspar. (Auth.)

  3. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C

    2009-01-01

    habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. RESULTS: Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p......BACKGROUND: Reliable age determination of first-trimester human embryos and fetuses is an important parameter for clinical use and basic science. Age determination by ultrasound or morphometric parameters of embryos 4-6 weeks post conception (p.c.) have been questioned, and more accurate methods...... are required. Data on whether and how maternal smoking and alcohol consumption influence embryonic and fetal foot growth is also lacking. METHODS: Embryonic tissue from 102 first-trimester legal abortions (aged 35-69 days p.c.) were collected. All women answered a questionnaire concerning smoking and drinking...

  4. Maternal age as a factor in determining the reproductive and behavioral outcome of rats prenatally exposed to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhees, C V

    1988-01-01

    Nulliparous Long-Evans rats were bred at one of four different ages and assigned to one of three treatment groups within each age condition. Maternal ages were 9, 18, 32, and 36 weeks. Treatment groups were ethanol (E), administered by gavage as 8 g/kg in two divided doses on days 10-14 of gestation, pair-fed (PF) controls, administered as an isocaloric sucrose solution by gavage on days 10-14 of gestation, and ad lib fed controls (C). All offspring were surrogate fostered shortly after delivery to untreated recently parturient dams. Litter sizes were standardized to 8 on the day of birth. Offspring were assessed longitudinally for growth, mortality, and behavior (olfaction, locomotor activity, maze learning, avoidance acquisition and startle). Approximately 85% of the 36 week old dams did not produce viable litters. In the remaining maternal age conditions, ethanol delayed offspring olfactory orientation and increased locomotor activity, the latter dissipating after 50-60 days of age. These ethanol-related effects occurred independent of maternal age condition. Maternal age, independent of ethanol, was a factor which reduced litter size and offspring weight up to 50 days, but produced few effects on behavior. The combination of maternal age and prenatal ethanol interacted to increase pregnancy loss (oldest maternal age), reduce offspring weight up to day 99 (oldest and middle maternal age), alter olfactory orientation performance (oldest and middle maternal age), reverse the typical ethanol-induced increase in activity for males in the figure-8 test (oldest maternal age group), shift the pattern of open-field activity, and change errors in a complex water maze. Not all of these interactions turned out to be specific to the ethanol X old maternal age condition. Several of the interactions occurred in both the old and middle maternal age conditions. The only effect of old maternal age that interacted strongly with ethanol was in their combined effects on

  5. Association of nutritional risk and depressive symptoms with physical performance in the elderly: the Quebec longitudinal study of nutrition as a determinant of successful aging (NuAge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Funes, José Alberto; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Payette, Hélène

    2008-08-01

    Depressive symptoms and poor nutritional status have been associated with declines in physical capacity. However, it is not clear whether they exert independent effects and potential for interaction among these two variables has not been studied. The purpose of this report is to clarify the relationships between depressive symptoms and nutritional risk and physical capacity. Baseline data from community-living and well functioning men and women (n = 1,755) participating in the longitudinal study NuAge (Quebec, Canada), aged 67-84 years were used for this study. Physical performance (PP) was defined as the summary score of 4 tests of physical capacity [Standing Balance, Walking Speed, Chair Stands, and Timed "Up &Go"]. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and nutritional risk by the Elderly Nutrition Screening (ENS(c)) tool. Prevalence of mild depression (GDS score >or=11 and nutritional risk or mild depression (mean score: 10.45 +/- 3.45) as compared to those with both risk factors (8.66 +/- 3.59; p nutritional risk scores were independently associated with PP score after adjustment for age, sex, educational level, income, burden of disease, body mass index and physical activity. There was no interaction of nutritional risk and depressive symptoms in relation to PP. The overall adjusted multiple regression model explained 34% of the observed variance in physical performance score. Nutritional risk and depressive symptoms are both potentially modifiable independent correlates of PP but there is no synergistic effect of the two risk factors.

  6. Social Determinants of Active Aging: Differences in Mortality and the Loss of Healthy Life between Different Income Levels among Older Japanese in the AGES Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Hirai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between income, mortality, and loss of years of healthy life in a sample of older persons in Japan. We analyzed 22,829 persons aged 65 or older who were functionally independent at baseline as a part of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES. Two outcome measures were adopted, mortality and loss of healthy life. Independent variables were income level and age. The occurrence of mortality and need for care during these 1,461 days were tracked. Cox regressions were used to calculate the hazard ratio for mortality and loss of healthy life by income level. We found that people with lower incomes were more likely than those with higher incomes to report worse health. For the overall sample, using the governmental administrative data, the hazard ratios of mortality and loss of healthy life-years comparing the lowest to the highest income level were 3.50 for men and 2.48 for women for mortality and 3.71 for men and 2.27 for women for loss of healthy life. When only those who responded to questions about income on the mail survey were included in the analysis, the relationships became weaker and lost statistical significance.

  7. Test of age-related variation in the craniometry of the adult human foramen magnum region: implications for sex determination methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapert, René; Black, Sue; Last, Jason

    2013-12-01

    Sex differences in the foramen magnum region of the cranial base have been identified with varying rates of success. Recent publications demonstrate a continuing strong interest in metric analysis of the foramen magnum region for sex determination despite the generally low expression of cranial base sexual dimorphism. It is important to identify possible age effects on skull base morphometric variables as most reported discriminant analyses use pooled-age samples without assessing the influence of aging on sexual dimorphism. This study examined 135 adult cranial bases (69 males and 66 females) from the St. Bride's documented skeletal collection in London. Traditional craniometric measurements were recorded and the effect of age on sexual dimorphism of this anatomical region was tested using a variety of statistical analyses including MANOVA and discriminant function analysis. Age-dependent discriminant functions for 50 years of age were developed and compared. The cross-validated results showed that the 50 years function achieved 81.3% correct predictions. However, the high sex biases of these functions (14.4% and -17.5%) severely limit their practical application. A pooled-age discriminant function permitted 71.9% correct prediction with a sex bias of only -1.7%. The statistical analyses also showed no significant age effect on any of the variables, suggesting that a separation by age is not necessary for the development of sex determination methods.

  8. Determinants of failure to thrive (FTT) among infants aged 6-24 months: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, H; Jafarizadeh, H; Didarloo, A

    2015-01-01

    Failure to thrive (FTT) in children is one of the most important health issues around the world, especially in developing countries. Lack of success in identifying and controlling this health problem may lead to dangerous health consequences for children. The aim of this research was to explore the risk factors for this health problem in infants under two years of age in Urmia, Northwest of Iran. This case-control study was carried out on 445 infants of 6 to 24 months (180 as cases, and 265 as controls) in Urmia, Northwest of Iran, during 2013. The study samples were selected from six health centers, using the purposeful sampling method. To collect data, a questionnaire including items regarding sociodemographics of the children's families, and demographic and nutrition-related variables of infants was utilized. To analysis data and determine the real effect of the aforementioned factors on growth status of infants, a chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were applied. The regression analysis revealed that education level of infants' mothers [AOR = 1.421, 95% CI (1.172, 1.724)], duration of breastfeeding [AOR = 1.859, 95% CI (1.212, 2.852)], birth weight of infants [AOR = 2.777, 95% CI (1.276, 7.166)], family's monthly income [AOR = 1.492, 95% CI (1.117, 2.230)] were correlated with FTT as significant risk factors (P < 0.05). Birth order of infants [AOR = .741, 95% CI ( .573- .958)], however, appeared to be a protective factor for child growth (P < 0.05). The findings of the study may help health care providers in designing and implementing appropriate interventions for improving children's health. In addition, taking into account the importance of healthy growth of children, educating mothers/caretakers would seem beneficial in preventing dangerous diseases in children.

  9. Age determination of the world’s oldest movable metal types through measuring the “meog” using AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, W.; Lee, S.C.; Park, J.H.; Park, G.; Sung, K.H.; Lee, J.G.; Nam, K.H.

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication year of a set of movable metal types that were thought to be used for printing “Jeungdoga” was investigated. Since the types were made from bronze and did not contain carbon, an organic black ink called “meog” was collected from the type surfaces to quantify their ages. The meog samples were collected from 34 metal types, and 27 ages were obtained. The youngest age was 798 ± 44 yrBP, and the oldest reasonable age was 1166 ± 43 yrBP. The weighted average after eliminating ages with poor statistics was 950 ± 28 yrBP. This age is 300 years older than that of the Jikji (AD 1377), which is a Buddhist document recognized as the world’s oldest document printed using metal types, and also older than that of the Gutenberg bible (AD 1450).

  10. Age determination of the world’s oldest movable metal types through measuring the “meog” using AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, W., E-mail: whong@kigam.re.kr [Geochemical Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Accelerator and Beam Nano Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.C. [Cheongju Early Printing Museum, 866 Uncheon-dong, Hongdeok-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Park, J.H.; Park, G. [Geochemical Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, K.H. [Geochemical Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Accelerator and Beam Nano Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.G. [Geochemical Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, K.H. [Department of Library and Information Science, Kyungpook National University, 67 Kyungdaejungmun-no, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The fabrication year of a set of movable metal types that were thought to be used for printing “Jeungdoga” was investigated. Since the types were made from bronze and did not contain carbon, an organic black ink called “meog” was collected from the type surfaces to quantify their ages. The meog samples were collected from 34 metal types, and 27 ages were obtained. The youngest age was 798 ± 44 yrBP, and the oldest reasonable age was 1166 ± 43 yrBP. The weighted average after eliminating ages with poor statistics was 950 ± 28 yrBP. This age is 300 years older than that of the Jikji (AD 1377), which is a Buddhist document recognized as the world’s oldest document printed using metal types, and also older than that of the Gutenberg bible (AD 1450).

  11. Intrapersonal, social and physical environmental determinants of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in working-age women: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Stephanie A; Reed, Jennifer L; Nerenberg, Kara A; Kristjansson, Elizabeth A; Hiremath, Swapnil; Adamo, Kristi B; Tulloch, Heather E; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Fodor, J George; Wright, Erica; Reid, Robert D

    2014-11-04

    The majority of North American adult females do not meet current physical activity recommendations (150 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) per week accrued in ≥10 min bouts) ultimately placing themselves at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Working-age females face particular challenges in meeting physical activity recommendations as they have multiple demands, including occupational, family and social demands. To develop effective interventions to increase MVPA among working-age females, it is necessary to identify and understand the strongest modifiable determinants influencing these behaviours. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence to identify intrapersonal, social and environmental determinants of MVPA among working-age females. Six electronic databases will be searched to identify all prospective cohort studies that report on intrapersonal, social and/or environmental determinants of MVPA in working-age females. Grey literature sources including theses, published conference abstracts and websites from relevant organizations will also be included. Articles that report on intrapersonal (e.g. health status, self-efficacy, socio-economic status (SES), stress, depression), social environmental (e.g. crime, safety, area SES, social support, climate and capital, policies), and environmental (e.g. weather, workplace, home, neighbourhood, recreation environment, active transportation) determinants of MVPA in a working-age (mean age 18-65 years) female population will be included. Risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies using the Tool to Assess Risk of Bias in Cohort Studies and the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Harvest plots will be used to synthesize results across all determinants, and meta-analyses will be conducted where possible among studies with sufficient homogeneity. This review will provide a

  12. Individual and maternal determinants of self-reported dental health among Turkish school children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Kosku, N; Sandalli, N

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds.......To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds....

  13. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in water bird nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ?? 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ?? 1.6 days and 1.9 ?? 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ?? 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ?? 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  14. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  15. Characterizing source fingerprints and ageing processes in laboratory-generated secondary organic aerosols using proton-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) analysis and HPLC HULIS determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanca, Nicola; Lambe, Andrew T.; Massoli, Paola; Paglione, Marco; Croasdale, David R.; Parmar, Yatish; Tagliavini, Emilio; Gilardoni, Stefania; Decesari, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    The study of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in laboratory settings has greatly increased our knowledge of the diverse chemical processes and environmental conditions responsible for the formation of particulate matter starting from biogenic and anthropogenic volatile compounds. However, characteristics of the different experimental setups and the way they impact the composition and the timescale of formation of SOA are still subject to debate. In this study, SOA samples were generated using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) oxidation flow reactor using α-pinene, naphthalene and isoprene as precursors. The PAM reactor facilitated exploration of SOA composition over atmospherically relevant photochemical ageing timescales that are unattainable in environmental chambers. The SOA samples were analyzed using two state-of-the-art analytical techniques for SOA characterization - proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy and HPLC determination of humic-like substances (HULIS). Results were compared with previous Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements. The combined 1H-NMR, HPLC, and AMS datasets show that the composition of the studied SOA systems tend to converge to highly oxidized organic compounds upon prolonged OH exposures. Further, our 1H-NMR findings show that only α-pinene SOA acquires spectroscopic features comparable to those of ambient OA when exposed to at least 1 × 1012 molec OH cm-3 × s OH exposure, or multiple days of equivalent atmospheric OH oxidation. Over multiple days of equivalent OH exposure, the formation of HULIS is observed in both α-pinene SOA and in naphthalene SOA (maximum yields: 16 and 30 %, respectively, of total analyzed water-soluble organic carbon, WSOC), providing evidence of the formation of humic-like polycarboxylic acids in unseeded SOA.

  16. Socio-economic determinants of health behaviours across age groups: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, T E; Stronegger, W J; Hoffmann, K; Stein, K Viktoria; Niederkrotenthaler, T

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of different socio-economic variables on the lifestyle factors, like lack of physical activity, diet rich in meat, and smoking, across sex and age groups in the general Austrian population to formulate more targeted public health measures. The Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006-07 contains data of 15,474 people, representative for the general population. Statistical analyses included linear and logistic regression models. Lack of physical activity was more prevalent in women, while unhealthy nutrition and daily smoking were more prevalent in men. Overall, profession was the strongest predictor for health behaviour in men, while the educational level played the most significant role in women. Subjects in higher age groups had a more healthy nutrition and were less likely to smoke, but had a higher chance for lack of physical activity. Socio-economic factors predict lifestyle choices differently in different age groups. For example, in men, the highest percentage of daily smokers was found in the middle age, while the youngest age group was the one that smoked the most in women. Furthermore, the educational level had a reverse effect on women in the oldest age group, where those with tertiary education smoked three times more than those with less education. Our results emphasise the importance of taking a holistic approach towards health, including educational, cultural and age-specific policies to improve the overall health status and health equality of a population.

  17. Aging and the Social Cognitive Determinants of Physical Activity Behavior and Behavior Change: Evidence from the Guide to Health Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Smith Anderson-Bill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Part one of this study investigated the effect of aging on social-cognitive characteristics related to physical activity (PA among adults in the baseline phase of a health promotion intervention. Participants' questionnaire responses and activity logs indicated PA levels and self-efficacy declined with age, while social support and the use of self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., goal setting, planning, and keeping track increased. With age participants were also less likely to expect PA to interfere with their daily routines and social obligations. Part two of the study was among overweight/obese, inactive participants completing the intervention; it examined whether improvements in psychosocial variables might counteract declining PA associated with age. After treatment, participants were more active and decreased body weight regardless of age, and improved self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulatory behaviors. In a causal model, increases in self-efficacy at 7-months lead to increased PA levels and, albeit marginally, weight loss at 16 months; increased PA was associated with greater weight loss. Aging adults who were more confident exercised more and as a result lost more weight. This longitudinal study suggests interventions that offset the effect of aging on self-efficacy may be more successful in helping older participants become more active and avoid weight gain.

  18. Determinants of health care costs in the senior elderly: age, comorbidity, impairment, or proximity to death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Nisha C; Rudisill, Caroline; Gulliford, Martin C

    2017-08-30

    Ageing is assumed to be accompanied by greater health care expenditures but the association is also viewed as a 'red herring'. This study aimed to evaluate whether age is associated with health care costs in the senior elderly, using electronic health records for 98,220 participants aged 80 years and over registered with the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and linked Hospital Episode Statistics (2010-2014). Annual costs of health care utilization were estimated from a two-part model; multiple fractional polynomial models were employed to evaluate the non-linear association of age with predicted health care costs while also controlling for comorbidities, impairments, and death proximity. Annual health care costs increased from 80 years (£2972 in men, £2603 in women) to 97 (men; £4721) or 98 years (women; £3963), before declining. Costs were significantly elevated in the last year of life but this effect declined with age, from £10,027 in younger octogenarians to £7021 in centenarians. This decline was steeper in participants with comorbidities or impairments; £14,500 for 80-84-year-olds and £6752 for centenarians with 7+ impairments. At other times, comorbidity and impairments, not age, were main drivers of costs. We conclude that comorbidities, impairments, and proximity to death are key mediators of age-related increases in health care costs. While the costs of comorbidity among survivors are not generally associated with age, additional costs in the last year of life decline with age.

  19. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  20. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  1. Orchidopexy in late childhood often associated with previously normal testicular position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Evelyn; Zijp, Gerda; Froeling, Frank; de Wilde, Jeroen; van der Voort, Laszla; Hack, Wilfried

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine retrospectively, the prevalence of acquired undescended testis (UDT) in boys who underwent late orchidopexies, that is, performed after the age of 2 years. We included all patients who were 2 years or older when they underwent orchidopexy (ORP) for UDT at the Juliana Children's Hospital during 1996 to 2009. Previous testis position from birth until the date of ORP was obtained from youth health care records. We identified 660 boys who underwent ORP after the age of 2 years for undescended testis. For 421 of these 660 boys, the previous testicular position could be retrieved from the health records. In 143 of these 421 boys (34%), the operated testis had never been scrotal (congenital UDT), whereas in the other 278 boys (66%), a previous scrotal position had been documented twice or more (acquired UDT). Our results show that two-thirds of the boys that underwent ORP after the age of 2 had previously normal descended testes. This finding may offer an additional explanation for the discrepancy between the incidence of congenital UDT and the high rate of ORP in mid and late childhood. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Maternal weight determines the association between Hbalc in second half of pregnancy and risk of large for gestational age babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus; Møller, Margrethe

    Aim: To assess the association between maternal glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetic pregnancies and the risk of delivering large for gestational age babies (LGA) taking into account maternal body mass index (BMI), weight gain, age, White class, and smoking habits.  Method: We identified...... all pregnant diabetic women in a Danish county. HbA1c values after 20th gestational week were collected and offspring was categorized as large, normal or small for gestational age. Logistic regression models we fitted to assess the association between HbA1c and risk of delivering a LGA baby taking...

  3. Are the determinants of vertebral endplate changes and severe disc degeneration in the lumbar spine the same? A magnetic resonance imaging study in middle-aged male workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpelainen Raija

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modic changes are bone marrow lesions visible in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and they are assumed to be associated with symptomatic intervertebral disc disease, especially changes located at L5-S1. Only limited information exists about the determinants of Modic changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of vertebral endplate (Modic changes, and whether they are similar for Modic changes and severe disc degeneration focusing on L5-S1 level. Methods 228 middle-aged male workers (159 train engineers and 69 sedentary factory workers from northern Finland underwent sagittal T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Modic changes and disc degeneration were analyzed from the scans. The participants responded to a questionnaire including items of occupational history and lifestyle factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between selected determinants (age, lifetime exercise, weight-related factors, fat percentage, smoking, alcohol use, lifetime whole-body vibration and Modic type I and II changes, and severe disc degeneration (= grade V on Pfirrmann's classification. Results The prevalences of the Modic changes and severe disc degeneration were similar in the occupational groups. Age was significantly associated with all degenerative changes. In the age-adjusted analyses, only weight-related determinants (BMI, waist circumference were associated with type II changes. Exposure to whole-body vibration, besides age, was the only significant determinant for severe disc degeneration. In the multivariate model, BMI was associated with type II changes at L5-S1 (OR 2.75 per one SD = 3 unit increment in BMI, and vibration exposure with severe disc degeneration at L5-S1 (OR 1.08 per one SD = 11-year increment in vibration exposure. Conclusion Besides age, weight-related factors seem important in the pathogenesis of Modic changes, whereas whole-body vibration was the only significant determinant

  4. Are the determinants of vertebral endplate changes and severe disc degeneration in the lumbar spine the same? A magnetic resonance imaging study in middle-aged male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisma, Mari; Karppinen, Jaro; Haapea, Marianne; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Ojala, Risto; Heliövaara, Markku; Korpelainen, Raija; Kaikkonen, Kaisu; Taimela, Simo; Natri, Antero; Tervonen, Osmo

    2008-04-16

    Modic changes are bone marrow lesions visible in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and they are assumed to be associated with symptomatic intervertebral disc disease, especially changes located at L5-S1. Only limited information exists about the determinants of Modic changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of vertebral endplate (Modic) changes, and whether they are similar for Modic changes and severe disc degeneration focusing on L5-S1 level. 228 middle-aged male workers (159 train engineers and 69 sedentary factory workers) from northern Finland underwent sagittal T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Modic changes and disc degeneration were analyzed from the scans. The participants responded to a questionnaire including items of occupational history and lifestyle factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between selected determinants (age, lifetime exercise, weight-related factors, fat percentage, smoking, alcohol use, lifetime whole-body vibration) and Modic type I and II changes, and severe disc degeneration (= grade V on Pfirrmann's classification). The prevalences of the Modic changes and severe disc degeneration were similar in the occupational groups. Age was significantly associated with all degenerative changes. In the age-adjusted analyses, only weight-related determinants (BMI, waist circumference) were associated with type II changes. Exposure to whole-body vibration, besides age, was the only significant determinant for severe disc degeneration. In the multivariate model, BMI was associated with type II changes at L5-S1 (OR 2.75 per one SD = 3 unit increment in BMI), and vibration exposure with severe disc degeneration at L5-S1 (OR 1.08 per one SD = 11-year increment in vibration exposure). Besides age, weight-related factors seem important in the pathogenesis of Modic changes, whereas whole-body vibration was the only significant determinant of severe disc degeneration.

  5. Two age populations of zircons from the Timber Creek kimberlites, Northern Territory, as determined by laser-ablation ICP-MS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousova, E.A.; Jackson, S.E.; O'Reilly, S.Y.; Griffin, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    Two populations of kimberlitic zircon are present in the Timber Creek kimberlites, Northern Territory. Laser-ablation ICP-MS U-Pb dating yields an age of 1483 ± 15 (2σ) Ma for the main group and an age of 179 ± 2 Ma for the other group. This distinction of two age groups is strongly supported by Hf isotope data on the same zircons. Although the trace-element patterns of both populations are typical of mantle-derived zircons, the 'young' population has slightly higher concentrations of most trace elements, but has lower Hf, Nb, Ta and Pb contents. The distinct differences in trace-element contents and Hf isotopic composition of the two zircon populations indicate that they were derived from different magma sources. The dating results indicate that the emplacement age of the Timber Creek kimberlites cannot be older than the age of the 'young' zircon population (i.e. 179 ± 2 Ma). This clarifies the inconsistency between the previously reported SHRIMP age of the Timber Creek zircons (1462 ± 53 Ma) and the much younger age (1200Ma) of the sediments of the Victoria River Basin into which these kimberlites have intruded. The Timber Creek kimberlites are a newly recognised extension of the widespread Jurassic kimberlite activity known in Western Australia and South Australia. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

  6. A first framework for the development of age determination schemes for latent biometric fingerprint traces using a chromatic white light (CWL) sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Ronny; Krapyvskyy, Andriy; Leich, Marcus; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2011-11-01

    Since decades, the age determination of latent fingerprint traces left at crime scenes is a challenge to forensic investigators, since fingerprint traces can often only be used in a lawsuit if they can be assigned to the specific time interval of a crime taking place. In this paper, we suggest a six-step framework on how an age determination scheme might be developed for a given application scenario using optical and non-invasive image sensory. We explain and discuss each step of such framework, using three different aging features (the binary pixel feature based on prior work as well as the novel aging features corrosion blob size and corrosion blob amount), which are based on the loss of contrast of a fingerprint on a hard disk platter surface as well as on corrosion properties of fingerprint residue applied to a copper coin surface. We furthermore evaluate different aspects of the scheme in practical experiments, to show its feasibility and conclude, that the steps 1, 3, 5 and 6 of the framework are comparatively easy to be realized, whereas the steps 2 (developing new aging features) and 4 (determining all significant influences on a given aging feature) are challenging, yet possible.

  7. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  8. Association Between Previous Meniscal Surgery and the Incidence of Chondral Lesions at Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H.; Wright, Rick W.; David, Tal S.; McCormack, Robert G.; Sekiya, Jon K.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Huston, Laura J.; Haas, Amanda K.; Steger-May, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Knees undergoing revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction typically have more intra-articular injuries than do knees undergoing primary reconstruction. Hypothesis Previous partial meniscectomy (PM) is associated with a higher rate of chondral lesions at revision ACL reconstruction, whereas previous meniscal repair (MR) is not associated with a higher rate of chondral lesions at revision ACL reconstruction, compared with knees undergoing revision ACL with no previous meniscal surgery. Study design Cohort study (Prevalence); Level of evidence, 2. Methods Data from a multicenter cohort was reviewed to determine the history of prior meniscal surgery (PM/MR) and the presence of grade II/III/IV chondral lesions at revision ACL reconstruction. The association between previous meniscal surgery and the incidence of chondral lesions was examined. Patient age was included as a covariate to determine if surgery type contributes predictive information independent of patient age. Results The cohort included 725 ACL revision surgeries. Chondrosis was associated with patient age (P meniscal surgery (P meniscal surgery (P meniscal surgery and knees with previous MR (P = .7). Previous partial meniscectomy was associated with a higher rate of chondrosis in the same compartment compared with knees without previous meniscal surgery (P meniscal surgery independent of the effect of patient age. Previous partial meniscectomy is associated with a higher incidence of articular cartilage lesions, whereas previous meniscal repair is not. Although this association may reflect underlying differences in the knee at the time of prior surgery, it does suggest that meniscal repair is preferable when possible at the time of ACL reconstruction. PMID:22374942

  9. The epiphyseal union of the medial clavicle determined by CT - an axillary method in age identification during adolescence and 3rd decade of life?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitner, K.F.; Schweden, F.; Schild, H.H.; Riepert, T.; Nafe, B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To establish a reference population for the stages of epiphyseal union of the medical clavicle determined by CT. Material and methods: Retrospectively, the thoracic CTs of patients under 30 years of age were reevaluated. Basic conditions were the lack of a bone development disorder and a sufficient assessment of the medial clavicle in a bone window setting. The stages of epiphyseal union were categorized as follows: Stage 1 refers to nonunion without ossification of the epiphysis, Stage 2 to nonunion with a separate and ossified epiphysis, Stage 3 to partial, and Stage 4 to complete union. Results: Up to now, 279 individuals coul be included in the study. Stage 1 was observed till age 16, Stage 2 occurred from ages 13 through 22, Stage 3 was found from ages 16 through 26. Stage 4 was first noted at age 22, and in 100% of the sample at age 27. Conclusions: CT is well suitable to determine the stages of epiphyseal union of the medial clavicle. It may become a generally accepted method of age identification during adolescence and the 3rd decade of life. The presented data serve as a reference population at least for white Europeans. (orig.) [de

  10. Determining normal values of urinary phosphorus excretion in 3913 healthy children aged 2-18 to aid early diagnosis and treatment for urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranta-Janusz, Katarzyna; Łabieniec, Łukasz; Porowski, Tadeusz; Szymański, Krzysztof; Porowska, Halina; Wasilewska, Anna

    2017-07-01

    This study determined the specific reference values for urinary phosphorus excretion in healthy children and adolescents aged 2-18 years and evaluated whether they changed with age during growth and were gender dependent. We enrolled 3913 healthy children and adolescents aged 2-18 years to this study. The study population was divided into age groups, and the analysis was performed in one-year periods, separately for boys and girls. Urinary phosphorus excretion was analysed using four categories: P1 in mmol/24 hour units, P2 in mmol/kg/24 hours, P3 in mmol/1.73 m 2 /24 hours and P4 in mmol/mmol creatinine. Clear differences in urinary exertion for girls and boys were observed as well as systematic changes with age. The boys presented with significantly higher daily urinary phosphorus excretion independent of its manner of expression (p phosphorus (P1) rose with age (p importance of determining phosphorus reference values for children of different ages to provide early diagnosis and treatment for urolithiasis. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Sarcopenic/obesity and physical capacity in older men and women: data from the Nutrition as a Determinant of Successful Aging (NuAge)-the Quebec longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Danielle R; Dionne, Isabelle J; Brochu, Martin

    2009-11-01

    Sarcopenia and obesity have been independently associated with physical capacity impairments. However, few studies have investigated the impact of sarcopenic/obesity on physical capacity in older individuals using objective measures of physical capacity and body composition. This study included 904 older individuals aged between 68 and 82 years old. Body composition (fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)), physical capacity (timed up and go, chair stands, walking speed at normal and fastest pace, and one leg stand), sum of reported chronic conditions and physical activity level were measured. A global physical capacity score was then calculated giving a maximal score of 20. Finally, four groups were created within genders based on sarcopenia and obesity ((i) nonsarcopenic/nonobese; (ii) sarcopenic/nonobese; (iii) nonsarcopenic/obese; (iv) sarcopenic/obese). The four groups were significantly different for the sit-to-stand test and the one leg stand test (P < 0.05) and only for the one leg stand test in women (P < 0.05). In both genders results for the global physical capacity score revealed that both obese groups (sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic) were similar (P = 0.14 in men and P = 0.19 in women) and had a lower global physical capacity score compared to nonsarcopenic/nonobese individuals (P < 0.05). In addition, sarcopenic women displayed a higher score than both obese nonsarcopenic and obese sarcopenic groups (P < 0.01). Sarcopenic/obese men and women do not display lower physical capacity compared to nonsarcopenic/obese individuals in this cohort of well-functioning older men and women. Obesity per se appears to contribute more to lower physical capacity than sarcopenia.

  12. General fusion approaches for the age determination of latent fingerprint traces: results for 2D and 3D binary pixel feature fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Ronny; Gruhn, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Bräutigam, Anja

    2012-03-01

    Determining the age of latent fingerprint traces found at crime scenes is an unresolved research issue since decades. Solving this issue could provide criminal investigators with the specific time a fingerprint trace was left on a surface, and therefore would enable them to link potential suspects to the time a crime took place as well as to reconstruct the sequence of events or eliminate irrelevant fingerprints to ensure privacy constraints. Transferring imaging techniques from different application areas, such as 3D image acquisition, surface measurement and chemical analysis to the domain of lifting latent biometric fingerprint traces is an upcoming trend in forensics. Such non-destructive sensor devices might help to solve the challenge of determining the age of a latent fingerprint trace, since it provides the opportunity to create time series and process them using pattern recognition techniques and statistical methods on digitized 2D, 3D and chemical data, rather than classical, contact-based capturing techniques, which alter the fingerprint trace and therefore make continuous scans impossible. In prior work, we have suggested to use a feature called binary pixel, which is a novel approach in the working field of fingerprint age determination. The feature uses a Chromatic White Light (CWL) image sensor to continuously scan a fingerprint trace over time and retrieves a characteristic logarithmic aging tendency for 2D-intensity as well as 3D-topographic images from the sensor. In this paper, we propose to combine such two characteristic aging features with other 2D and 3D features from the domains of surface measurement, microscopy, photography and spectroscopy, to achieve an increase in accuracy and reliability of a potential future age determination scheme. Discussing the feasibility of such variety of sensor devices and possible aging features, we propose a general fusion approach, which might combine promising features to a joint age determination scheme

  13. Gender-related differences in the multi-pathway effect of social determinants on quality of life in older age?the COURAGE in Europe project

    OpenAIRE

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Galas, Aleksander; Zawisza, Katarzyna; Chatterji, Somnath; Haro, Josep Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, Jos? Luis; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Gender-related differences in life expectancy, prevalence of chronic conditions and level of disability in the process of ageing have been broadly described. Less is known about social determinants, which may have different impacts on quality of life in men and women. The investigation aims to reveal gender-related differences in social determinants on quality of life assessed by a multi-pathway model including health, social, demographic and living place characteristics. Methods The ...

  14. Age of origin of the polymetamorphosed Copperton Formation, Namaqua-Natal Province, determined by single grain zircon Pb-Pb dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.H.; Griffin, G.; Kroener, A.; Humphreys, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Copperton Formation of the Areachap Group in the Northern Cape Province is a strongly metamorphosed, predominantly metavolcanic unit which contains several massive sulphide deposits. Previous work on this unit has established a complex metamorphic history, the four main phases of which are fairly well dated by a combination of methods; however, the age of origin is still poorly constrained. Zircons extracted from the Smouspan Gneiss Member of the Copperton formation are euhedral and show a crystal habit which indicates an igneous and probably volcanic origin, with no discernable metamorphic component. Whole-grain thermal evaporation on four such zircon grains yielded a precise set of 207 Pb/ 206 Pb data which establishes a 1 285 ± 14 Ma age for the origin of the Smouspan Gneiss and Copperton Formation. Indications of a ∼1 600 Ma age from other parts of the Areachap Group should be treated with caution until more reliable data are obtained. 9 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs

  15. Age-adjusted glycated albumin accurately reflects blood glucose in patients with neonatal diabetes mellitus: comparison with calculated glycated albumin determined by past blood glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Furuya, Akiko; Oshima, Miho; Amamiya, Satoshi; Nakao, Atsushi; Wada, Keiko; Okuhara, Koji; Hayano, Satoshi; Imamoto, Aya; Matsuo, Kumihiro; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Azuma, Hiroshi; Koga, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Glycated albumin is a useful glycaemic control indicator for neonatal diabetes mellitus. However, glycated albumin concentrations in infants are lower than those in adults and increase in an age-dependent manner. Based on our investigation of non-diabetic subjects, we proposed the possibility that the reference range for adults may be used regardless of age, provided that age-adjusted glycated albumin is employed. In the present study, we evaluate the usefulness of age-adjusted glycated albumin in neonatal diabetes mellitus patients. Six neonatal diabetes mellitus patients (four patients with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus and two patients with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus) were included. Measured glycated albumin or age-adjusted glycated albumin was compared to calculated glycated albumin, which was determined using calculation formulae we had reported based on past blood glucose over the 50 days before measurement of glycated albumin. Measured glycated albumin was significantly lower than calculated glycated albumin (20.5 ± 4.9% versus 28.2 ± 6.1%; p diabetes mellitus in remission were lower than the reference range for adults, whereas age-adjusted glycated albumin concentrations were within the reference range for adults. We demonstrated that age-adjusted glycated albumin concentrations were consistent with calculated glycated albumin. Age-adjusted glycated albumin is therefore a useful glycaemic control indicator for neonatal diabetes mellitus patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  17. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  18. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  19. Isotopic age determineations on granitic and gneissic rocks from the Ubendian-Usagaran System in southern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priem, H.N.A.; Boelrijk, N.A.I.M.; Hebeda, E.H.; Verdurmen, E.A.Th.; Verschure, R.H.; Oen, I.S.; Westra, L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic age measurements on granites and gneisses are reported from the Ubendian-Usagaran System in southern Tanzania. For the Lukumburu-Wino Granites a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron (9 points) of 1771 +- 145 Ma with initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of 0.704 +- 0.003 was obtained (γ 87 Rb = 1.42 10 -11 a -1 ; errors 95% confidence level). Two samples from neighbouring granites and three gneisses from the contact zone of the Lukumburu-Wino Granites also fit to this isochron; inclusion into the isochron calculation yields an age of 1747 +- 85 Ma with the same initial Sr composition. Five parts of a banded Usagaran gneiss sample produce an isochron of 589 +- 70 Ma with initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of 0.7194 +- 0.0005. This internal isochron is interpreted as reflecting Sr isotopic equilibration through the sample during the main phase (or one of the main phases) of the Pan-African thermotectonic episode. Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages of 17 micas show a general resetting by the Pan-African thermotectonic episode. The Rb-Sr ages of the muscovites and the biotites average 528 Ma and 463 Ma, respectively, and are interpreted as reflecting subsequent stages in the cooling history after the termination of the event. Biotites have K-Ar ages persistently higher than the corresponding Rb-Sr ages, possibly reflecting a high partial 40 Ar pressure through the crust during the resetting of the biotite K-Ar systems. (Auth.)

  20. Age-dependent disease expression determines remodeling of the retinal mosaic in carriers of RPGR exon ORF15 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, William A; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2009-08-01

    To characterize the retinal histopathology in carriers of X-linked progressive retinal atrophy (XLPRA1 and XLPRA2), two canine models of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa caused, respectively, by a stop and a frameshift mutation in RPGRORF15. Retinas of XLPRA2 and XLPRA1 carriers of different ages were processed for morphologic evaluation, TUNEL assay, and immunohistochemistry. Cell-specific markers were used to examine retinal remodeling events. A mosaic pattern composed of patches of diseased and normal retina was first detected in XLPRA2 carriers at 4.9 weeks of age. A peak of photoreceptor cell death led to focal rod loss; however, in these patches an increased density of cones was found to persist over time. Patches of disease gradually disappeared so that by 39 weeks of age the overall retinal morphology, albeit thinner, had improved lamination. In older XLPRA2 carriers (>or=8.8 years), extended regions of severe degeneration occurred in the peripheral/mid-peripheral retina. In XLPRA1 carriers, opsin mislocalization and rare events of rod death were detected by TUNEL assay at 20 weeks of age; however, only patchy degeneration was seen by 1.4 years and was still apparent at 7.8 years. The time of onset and the progression of the disease differed between the two models. In the early-onset form (XLPRA2) the morphologic appearance of the retinal mosaic changed as a function of age, suggesting that structural plasticity persists in the early postnatal canine retina as mutant photoreceptors die. In the late-onset form (XLPRA1), patches of disease persisted until later ages.

  1. Analysis of 1202 orthopantograms to evaluate the potential of forensic age determination based on third molar developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willershausen, B; Löffler, N; Schulze, R

    2001-09-28

    A total of 1202 orthopantograms of young dental patients were analyzed to assess the correlation of third molar root development with chronological age. The investigated patients were treated at a university dental clinic on an outpatient basis, included a variety of demographic characteristics (600 males and 602 females, 28% of other than central European background), and were 15-24 years old when the radiographs were obtained. Radiographs in which more than one third molar were either missing due to agenesia or extraction, or not evaluable because of deep destruction or marked tilting, were not included in the analysis. Our findings show that the growth patterns of third molars, based on seven defined stages of root development, did correlate with chronological age; age estimation when applied to a specific individual would involve a margin of error of +/- 2-4 years. There were no significant differences between the left and right jaw segments, but the stage of root development was generally more advanced in the upper than in the lower third molars. Root development was also more advanced among boys than among girls of the same age. There were no apparent differences in growth patterns based on national/ethnic background. While only 2.5% of 18-year-olds revealed fully developed third molars in all four quadrants, this percentage leaped to 38.4% among the 21-year-olds. To summarize, while the developmental stage of third molars is not per se a highly useful indicator of chronological age in juveniles and young adults, it is nevertheless a valuable supplementary parameter given the scarcity of other available age indicators.

  2. Pilot study to determine the efficacy of ALA-PDT photo-rejuvenation for the treatment of facial ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Nicholas J; Lowe, Philippa

    2005-12-01

    The study was divided into two parts. The objective of the preliminary study was to evaluate the optimum dose and tolerance of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA) compared to a placebo cream with a 633-nm LED light in normal, healthy, volunteer forearm skin. The second study was to establish if ALA-PDT treatments improve the signs of ageing. Threshold photosensitization was observed using 5% 5-ALA under plastic occlusion for 30 minutes following a dose response study of forearm skin. Mild improvement was observed, using this concentration and time, for periorbital skin aging. Other anecdotal positive results of photo-rejuvenation are reported for facial and chest areas.

  3. Plasma advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and NF-κB activity are independent determinants of diastolic and pulse pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sourris, Karly C; Lyons, Jasmine G; Dougherty, Sonia L

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: High levels of circulating advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can initiate chronic low-grade activation of the immune system (CLAIS) with each of these factors independently associated with cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Therefore, our objective...... was to characterize the relationship between serum AGEs, CLAIS and other risk factors for CV disease in normotensive non-diabetic individuals. Methods: We measured body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, lipid and glucose profile in 44 non-diabetic volunteers (17 female, 27 males...

  4. USE OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ON A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL FOR CHLOROFORM IN RATS TO DETERMINE AGE-RELATED TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    USE OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ON A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL FOR CHLOROFORM IN RATS TO DETERMINE AGE-RELATED TOXICITY.CR Eklund, MV Evans, and JE Simmons. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD,PKB, Research Triangle Park, NC. Chloroform (CHCl3) is a disinfec...

  5. The determination of irradiation and so-called terrestrial ageing of rock meteorites based on the cosmogenic resulting radionuclides 53Mn and 26Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, P.

    1979-01-01

    The contents of cosmogenic occuring 53 Mn was determined by neutron activation in over 90 samples of 75 individual rock meteorites. The distinct depth effect of the 53 Mn production rate in rock meteorites could be measured by a depth profile at LL6 chondrite St. Severin (falling weight 271 kg). The experimental results confirm the present model concepts. By comparing with the spallogenic 22 Ne/ 21 Ne and 3 He/ 21 Ne ratios applicable as depth indicators, one could derive linear relationships suitable for correcting 53 Mn. They enable the determination of the average 53 Mn production rate from the saturation activities of long-term irradiated meteorites. Using this method it was possible to calculate the irradiation age of 40 rock meteorites. As 26 Al is formed with a similar effective cross-section to 53 Mn, the production rate ratio 53 Mn: 26 Al was also taken to derive the depth-independent irradiation ages. A method to determine the depth-independent terrestrial ageing of meteriorites has been developed based on the same isotope ratio, the effective field of application is between 0.10 to 2x10 6 a. Furthermore, an attempt was made to draw up the dependence of noble gas contents of 53 Mn resp. 53 Mn/ 26 Al irradiation age for the new determination of the 3 He, 21 Ne and 38 Ar production rates by means of a linear regression analysis. (orig./RB) [de

  6. Digit Sucking, Age, Sex, and Socioeconomic Status as Determinants of Oral Hygiene Status and Gingival Health of Children in Suburban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaje, Hakeem O; Kolawole, Kikelomo A; Folayan, Morenike O; Onyejaka, Nneka K; Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Oyedele, Titus A; Chukwumah, Nneka M; Oshomoji, Olusegun V

    2016-09-01

    This study determines prevalence of digit sucking and gingivitis, and association among age, sex, socioeconomic status, presence of digit-sucking habits, oral hygiene status (OHS), and gingivitis among a group of Nigerian children. Data of 992 children aged 1 to 12 years recruited through a household survey conducted in Osun State, Nigeria were analyzed. Information on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and history of digit-sucking habits were collected. Children were assessed for OHS and severity of gingivitis using the simplified oral hygiene index and the gingival index, respectively. Predictors of presence of gingivitis and poor oral hygiene were determined using multivariate logistic regression. One (0.2%) and 454 (93.0%) children aged 1 to 5 years had poor oral hygiene and mild gingivitis, respectively. Twenty-two (4.4%) and 361 (72.9%) children aged 6 to 12 years had poor oral hygiene and mild gingivitis, respectively. The odds of having poor oral hygiene (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20 to 0.35; P oral hygiene and gingivitis. Increasing age and low socioeconomic status were factors that significantly increased chances of having poor oral hygiene and gingivitis.

  7. Origin-related, environmental, sex, and age determinants of immunocompetence, susceptibility to ectoparasites, and disease symptoms in the barn owl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulin, Alexandre; Christe, Philippe; Dijkstra, Cor; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Jungi, Thomas W.

    Knowledge of the role of origin-related, environmental, sex, and age factors on host defence mechanisms is important to understand variation in parasite intensity. Because alternative components of parasite defence may be differently sensitive to various factors, they may not necessarily covary.

  8. Age and stress as determinants of the severity of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease in newly diagnosed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Xander G.; Smit, Natalie; Endert, Erik; Brosschot, Jos F.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The evidence that stress may provoke Graves' hyperthyroidism in genetically susceptible subjects is substantial. Whether exposure to stress is related to the severity of thyrotoxicosis has not been studied. Advancing age is associated with not only less severe Graves' hyperthyroidism but

  9. Aged human mesenchymal stem cells: the duration of bone morphogenetic protein-2 stimulation determines induction or inhibition of osteogenic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jostein Heggebö

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 is a potent osteoinductive cytokine and a growing number of in vitro studies analyze its effects on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC derived from aged or osteoporotic donors. In these studies the exact quantification of osteogenic differentiation capacity is of fundamental interest. Nevertheless, the experimental conditions for osteogenic differentiation of aged hMSC have not been evaluated systematically and vary to a considerable extend. Aim of the study was to assess the influence of cell density, osteogenic differentiation media (ODM change intervals and duration of BMP-2 stimulation on osteoinduction. Furthermore, time series were carried out for osteogenic differentiation and BMP-2 concentration in ODM/BMP-2 cell culture supernatants. The experiments were performed using hMSC isolated from femoral heads of aged patients undergoing hip joint replacement. ODM change intervals of 96 hours resulted in significantly higher calcium deposition compared to shorter intervals. A cell density of 80% prior to stimulation led to stronger osteoinduction compared to higher cell densities. In ODM, aged hMSC showed a significant induction of calcium deposition after 9 days. Added to ODM, BMP-2 showed a stable concentration in the cell culture supernatants for at least 96 hours. Addition of BMP-2 to ODM for the initial 4 days led to a significantly higher induction of osteogenic differentiation compared to ODM alone. On the other hand, addition of BMP-2 for 21 days almost abrogated the osteoinductive effect of ODM. We could demonstrate that the factors investigated have a substantial impact on the extent of osteogenic differentiation of aged hMSC. Consequently, it is of upmost importance to standardize the experimental conditions in order to enable comparability between different studies. We here define standard conditions for osteogenic differentiation in regard to the specific features of aged hMSC. The finding that

  10. Aged Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells: The Duration of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Stimulation Determines Induction or Inhibition of Osteogenic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebö, Jostein; Haasters, Florian; Polzer, Hans; Schwarz, Christina; Saller, Maximilian Michael; Mutschler, Wolf; Schieker, Matthias; Prall, Wolf Christian

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a potent osteoinductive cytokine and a growing number of in vitro studies analyze its effects on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) derived from aged or osteoporotic donors. In these studies the exact quantification of osteogenic differentiation capacity is of fundamental interest. Nevertheless, the experimental conditions for osteogenic differentiation of aged hMSC have not been evaluated systematically and vary to a considerable extend. Aim of the study was to assess the influence of cell density, osteogenic differentiation media (ODM) change intervals and duration of BMP-2 stimulation on osteoinduction. Furthermore, time series were carried out for osteogenic differentiation and BMP-2 concentration in ODM/BMP-2 cell culture supernatants. The experiments were performed using hMSC isolated from femoral heads of aged patients undergoing hip joint replacement. ODM change intervals of 96 hours resulted in significantly higher calcium deposition compared to shorter intervals. A cell density of 80% prior to stimulation led to stronger osteoinduction compared to higher cell densities. In ODM, aged hMSC showed a significant induction of calcium deposition after 9 days. Added to ODM, BMP-2 showed a stable concentration in the cell culture supernatants for at least 96 hours. Addition of BMP-2 to ODM for the initial 4 days led to a significantly higher induction of osteogenic differentiation compared to ODM alone. On the other hand, addition of BMP-2 for 21 days almost abrogated the osteoinductive effect of ODM. We could demonstrate that the factors investigated have a substantial impact on the extent of osteogenic differentiation of aged hMSC. Consequently, it is of upmost importance to standardize the experimental conditions in order to enable comparability between different studies. We here define standard conditions for osteogenic differentiation in regard to the specific features of aged hMSC. The finding that BMP-2 induces or

  11. Growth Hormone, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1, Insulin Resistance, and Leukocyte Telomere Length as Determinants of Arterial Aging in Subjects Free of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazhesko, Irina D; Tkacheva, Olga N; Akasheva, Dariga U; Dudinskaya, Ekaterina N; Plokhova, Ekaterina V; Pykhtina, Valentina S; Kruglikova, Anna S; Brailova, Natalia V; Sharashkina, Natalia V; Kashtanova, Daria A; Isaykina, Olesya Y; Pokrovskaya, Mariya S; Vygodin, Vladimir A; Ozerova, Irina N; Skvortsov, Dmitry A; Boytsov, Sergey A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Increased arterial stiffness (AS), intima-media thickness (IMT), and the presence of atherosclerotic plaques (PP) have been considered as important aspects of vascular aging. It is well documented that the cardiovascular system is an important target organ for growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 in humans, and GH /IGF-1 deficiency significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The telomere length of peripheral blood leukocytes (LTL) is a biomarker of cellular senescence and that has been proposed as an independent predictor of (CVD). The aim of this study is to determine the role of GH/IGF-1, LTL and their interaction cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in the vascular aging. Methods: The study group included 303 ambulatory participants free of known CVD (104 males and 199 females) with a mean age of 51.8 ± 13.3 years. All subjects had one or more CVRF [age, smoking, arterial hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, fasting hyperglycemia, insulin resistance-HOMA (homeostatic model assessment) >2.5, or high glycated hemoglobin]. The study sample was divided into the two groups according to age as "younger" ( m ≤ 45 years, f ≤ 55 years) and "older" ( m > 45 years, f > 55 years). IMT and PP were determined by ultrasonography, AS was determined by measuring the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV) using the SphygmoCor system (AtCor Medical). LTL was determined by PCR. Serum IGF-1 and GH concentrations we measured by immunochemiluminescence analysis. Results: Multiple linear regression analysis with adjustment for CVRF indicated that HOMA, GH, IGF-1, and LTL had an independent relationship with all the arterial wall parameters investigated in the younger group. In the model with c-f PWV as a dependent variable, p aging in younger healthy participants.

  12. Physical Activity Patterns of the Spanish Population Are Mostly Determined by Sex and Age: Findings in the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Castillo, Adrián; Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Aranceta-Batrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; González-Gross, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Representative data for the Spanish population regarding physical activity (PA) behaviors are scarce and seldom comparable due to methodological inconsistencies. Our objectives were to describe the PA behavior by means of the standardized self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and to know the proportion of the Spanish population meeting and not meeting international PA recommendations. PA was assessed using the IPAQ in a representative sample of 2285 individuals (males, 50.4%) aged 9-75 years and living in municipalities of at least 2,000 inhabitants. Data were analyzed according to: age groups 9-12, 13-17, 18-64, and 65-75 years; sex; geographical distribution; locality size and educational levels. Mean total PA was 868.8±660.9 min/wk, mean vigorous PA 146.4±254.1 min/wk, and mean moderate PA 398.1±408.0 min/wk, showing significant differences between sexes (padolescents and seniors (padolescents and seniors (psexes (padolescents performed less than 420 min/week of MVPA, being higher in the later (62.6%) than in the former (48.4%). Highest non-compliance was observed in adolescent females (86.5%). Sex and age are the main influencing factors on PA in the Spanish population. Males engage in more vigorous and light PA overall, whereas females perform more moderate PA. PA behavior differs between age groups and no clear lineal increase with age could be observed. Twenty-seven percent of adults and 55.4% of children and adolescents do not meet international PA recommendations. Identified target groups should be addressed to increase PA in the Spanish population.

  13. It is compatible the sport in scholar age with other social roles? A study through Self-Determination Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Amado Alonso, Diana; Leo Marcos, Francisco Miguel; Sánchez Oliva, David; González Ponce, Inmaculada; López Chamorro, José María

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of conflict or utility of the sport regarding other social roles and self-determination level in young athletes, focusing on differences among these variables with respect to sex. Hence, we used a sample size of 1897 players from different sport modalities, 1378 male and 519 female. Participants filled a questionnaire to assess self-determination level and other to measure conflict between social roles. Results show...

  14. 14C age determination for human bones during the Yayoi period - the calibration ambiguity around 2400 BP and the marine reservoir effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, S.; Miyamoto, K.; Nakamura, T.; Koike, H.

    2004-01-01

    14 C ages for Japanese prehistoric samples from the Latest Jomon period to the early Yayoi period have a calibration ambiguity for dates around 2400 BP. It is also necessary to correct for the marine reservoir effect on 14 C ages of human bone samples from people who consumed marine food as a protein source. The Ohtomo site in western Japan, is a cemetery site used from the end of the Latest Jomon period to the Kofun period, provide a useful archaeological chronology. Human bones found in dolmen burials, jar burials and cist burials. In this study, we determined the 14 C ages of human bone samples and calculated the marine reservoir effect, using diet analysis based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Diet analysis showed that these people obtained from 40% to 60% of their protein from marine sources. Their 14 C ages with calibration and marine reservoir correction were serially matched with the archaeological chronology

  15. 76 FR 75563 - 2002 Reopened-Previously Denied Determinations; Notice of Revised Denied Determinations on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ...; Pelican Importing & Exporting, Houston, TX: June 6, 2010. TA-W-80,297; Steiff North America, Lincoln, RI..., Athens, GA: March 17, 2010. TA-W-80,071; PCS Administration (USA), Inc., North Brook, IL: March 25, 2010...

  16. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  17. Age determination and validation on otoliths for two sympatric species, Mullus barbatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Mullus surmuletus (Linnaeus, 1758, in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Matić-Skoko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In last few years, there is a strong need to establish a reliable method for age determination and validation on otoliths for Mullidae species in the Mediterranean Sea. In total, 387 specimens of Mullus surmuletus (TL 6.8 to 32.9 cm and 620 specimens of M. barbatus (TL 8.1-22.0 were analyzed. The annual periodicity of annulus deposition was supported by the otolith marginal increment analysis. The annual growth was verified using edge-type analysis. The proportion of otoliths with opaque margins was the highest (>80% in the winter period (December-March. The monthly mean marginal increment showed a single minimum in May and June for M. barbatus and M. surmuletus, respectively. Age validation was done by daily ring counting. A distance measurements analysis revealed that first regular ring appears at distance of 0.78 mm (± 0.104 SD from otolith nucleus and fish age of about 0.83 years for M. surmulets. For M. barbatus first ring appear at 0.70 mm ((± 0.100 SD at age of 0.92 years. The age analysis revealed 4 and 6 age classes for M. barbatus and M. surmuletus, respectively. Predominance of younger age classes (1+ and 2+ was observed for both species. All measured otolith morphometric parameters were linear with fish age. The most precise age estimations were obtained from the otolith width, followed by the otolith length and mass. The growth parameters were estimated by the fit of the Von Bertalanffy growth function. Although, the growth of both species was rapid up to 2 years of age and then slowed, M.barbatus exhibited faster growth. Considering the identified biological differences and their implications, existing management should be complemented by a more holistic, ecosystem approach to regulations, considered separately for each species in order to assure effective conservation measures for this economically and ecologically important fish species.

  18. Determinants of Growth in Multiunit Housing Demand since the Great Recession: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv N. Mehrotra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the Great Recession (2007–2009, growth in multiunit housing starts has been exceptionally strong and sustained. In this study, we examine empirical evidence for three possible explanations, namely, the passage of Baby Boomers into senior years, the depressed economic conditions, and rising preference of recent birth cohorts for residing in urban cores. Applying Age-Period-Cohort analysis to census data on multiunit housing occupancy from 1970 to 2010, we find evidence to support the explanations that a sharp increase in demand from Millennials drawn to urban cores and retiring Baby Boomers are contributing to the growth in multiunit housing starts. The results provide weak evidence of a negative relationship between depressed economic conditions and demand for multiunit housing starts. Over the long term, demand for multiunit housing can be expected to moderate as a result of the projected aging of the population.

  19. Auger electron spectroscopy for the determination of sex and age related Ca/P ratio at different bone sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balatsoukas, Ioannis; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The Ca/P ratio of normal cortical and trabecular rat bone was measured by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Semiquantitative analysis was carried out using ratio techniques to draw conclusions on how age, sex and bone site affect the relative composition of calcium and phosphorus. Results show that Ca/P ratio is not sex dependent; quite the opposite, bone sites exhibit variations in elemental stoichiometry where femoral sections demonstrate higher Ca/P ratio than rear and front tibias. Age-related changes are more distinct for cortical bone in comparison with the trabecular bone. The latter's Ca/P ratio remains unaffected from all the parameters under study. This study confirms that AES is able to successfully quantify bone mineral main elements when certain critical points, related to the experimental conditions, are addressed effectively.

  20. Age at Primary Malignancy Determines Survival in Adolescent and Young Adults That Develop a Secondary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Briana J; Goldfarb, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    Second malignancy status is a risk factor for death in adolescent and young adults (AYAs) (ages 15-39) with thyroid cancer (TC). This study investigates whether age at primary malignancy (PM) is an independent predictor of overall survival (OS) for AYA patients diagnosed with secondary TC who have survived ≥5 years from their PM. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program (SEER) multiple-primary session (SEER-9 [1973-2010] and SEER-13 [1992-2010]) identified all secondary TCs in patients malignant neoplasm (SMN) diagnosed as an AYA were categorized by age at PM (pediatric cancer survivors were identified; 71 had a pediatric PM and 357 an AYA PM. Median OS after a pediatric PM was 35.76 years and 33.22 years after an AYA-PM (p = 0.023); only one death was due to TC. Race, site and stage of PM, marital status, and three or more independent PMs also influenced OS (all p cancers, and a higher stage of their first malignancy are more likely to die. For AYA patients with thyroid SMNs, having a prior AYA PM (compared to a pediatric PM), Black race, and having three or more independent tumors predicted a decreased OS, independent of PM type or PM/SMN stage.

  1. Age-specific vibrissae growth rates: a tool for determining the timing of ecologically important events in Steller sea lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, L.D.; Christ, A.M.; Hayden, A.B.; Stegall, V.K.; Farley, S.D.; Stricker, Craig A.; Mellish, J.E.; Maniscalco, John M.; Waite, J.N.; Burkanov, V.N.; Pitcher, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) grow their vibrissae continually, providing a multiyear record suitable for ecological and physiological studies based on stable isotopes. An accurate age-specific vibrissae growth rate is essential for registering a chronology along the length of the record, and for interpreting the timing of ecologically important events. We utilized four methods to estimate the growth rate of vibrissae in fetal, rookery pup, young-of-the-year (YOY), yearling, subadult, and adult SSL. The majority of vibrissae were collected from SSL live-captured in Alaska and Russia between 2000 and 2013 (n = 1,115), however, vibrissae were also collected from six adult SSL found dead on haul-outs and rookeries during field excursions to increase the sample size of this underrepresented age group. Growth rates of vibrissae were generally slower in adult (0.44 ± 0.15 cm/mo) and subadult (0.61 ± 0.10 cm/mo) SSL than in YOY (0.87 ± 0.28 cm/mo) and fetal (0.73 ± 0.05 cm/mo) animals, but there was high individual variability in these growth rates within each age group. Some variability in vibrissae growth rates was attributed to the somatic growth rate of YOY sea lions between capture events (P = 0.014, r2 = 0.206, n = 29).

  2. Social Capital as a Determinant of Self-Rated Health in Women of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Bakouei, Sareh; Eskandari, Narges; Ahmari Tehran, Hoda

    2015-07-19

    Recognition of the factors related to women's health is necessary. Evidence is available that the social structure including social capital plays an important role in the shaping people's health. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between self-rated health and social capital in women of reproductive age. This study is a population-based cross-sectional survey on 770 women of reproductive age, residing in any one of the 22 municipality areas across Tehran (capital of Iran) with the multi stage sampling technique. Self-rated health (Dependent variable), social capital (Independent variable) and covariates were studied. Analysis of data was done by one-way ANOVA test and multiple linear regressions. Depending on logistic regression analyses, the significant associations were found between self-rated health and age, educational level, crowding index, sufficiency of income for expenses and social cohesion. Data show that women with higher score in social cohesion as an outcome dimension of social capital have better self-rated health (PV = 0.001). Given the findings of this study, the dimensions of social capital manifestations (groups and networks, trust and solidarity, collective action and cooperation) can potentially lead to the dimensions of social capital outcomes (social cohesion and inclusion, and empowerment and political action). Following that, social cohesion as a dimension of social capital outcomes has positively relationship with self- rated health after controlling covariates. Therefore, it is required to focus on the social capital role on health promotion and health policies.

  3. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  4. Physical Activity Patterns of the Spanish Population Are Mostly Determined by Sex and Age: Findings in the ANIBES Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mielgo-Ayuso

    Full Text Available Representative data for the Spanish population regarding physical activity (PA behaviors are scarce and seldom comparable due to methodological inconsistencies.Our objectives were to describe the PA behavior by means of the standardized self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and to know the proportion of the Spanish population meeting and not meeting international PA recommendations.PA was assessed using the IPAQ in a representative sample of 2285 individuals (males, 50.4% aged 9-75 years and living in municipalities of at least 2,000 inhabitants. Data were analyzed according to: age groups 9-12, 13-17, 18-64, and 65-75 years; sex; geographical distribution; locality size and educational levels.Mean total PA was 868.8±660.9 min/wk, mean vigorous PA 146.4±254.1 min/wk, and mean moderate PA 398.1±408.0 min/wk, showing significant differences between sexes (p<0.05. Children performed higher moderate-vigorous PA than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05, and adults than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05. Compared to recommendations, 36.2% of adults performed <150 min/week of moderate PA, 65.4% <75 min/week of vigorous PA and 27.0% did not perform any PA at all, presenting significant differences between sexes (p<0.05. A total of 55.4% of children and adolescents performed less than 420 min/week of MVPA, being higher in the later (62.6% than in the former (48.4%. Highest non-compliance was observed in adolescent females (86.5%.Sex and age are the main influencing factors on PA in the Spanish population. Males engage in more vigorous and light PA overall, whereas females perform more moderate PA. PA behavior differs between age groups and no clear lineal increase with age could be observed. Twenty-seven percent of adults and 55.4% of children and adolescents do not meet international PA recommendations. Identified target groups should be addressed to increase PA in the Spanish population.

  5. Frequency of placenta previa in previously scarred and non scarred uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Tayyaba; Waheed, Fatima; Mahmood, Zahid; Saba, Kanwal; Mahmood, Hamis; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of placenta Previa in patients coming to a tertiary care unit with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 114 cases who underwent caesarean sections (37 cases out of 645 cases with non scarred uterus and 77 cases from 721 cases with scarred uterus) in the department of obstetrics and gynecology Lady Willingdon Hospital from January 2008- December 2011. Most patients (47.36%) were between 26-30 years age group, presented with gestational age between 36-40 weeks (70.17%), were mostly G2-4, while frequency of placenta Previa in non-scarred uterus was 32.45% (37 cases), and frequency in previously scarred uterus was 67.54% (77 cases). Major degree Previa was found in 88 cases (77.19%). There were 5.70% cases of placenta Previa from non-scarred uteruses and 10.67% cases of placenta Previa (10.67%) from already scarred uteruses. Stratification revealed a higher trend of the morbidity with the increase in number of previous caesarean sections. A significantly higher frequency of placenta Previa was found among patients coming to a tertiary care hospital with previously scarred uterus.

  6. Microprocessor-based evaluation device of a magnetic mass spectrometer for K-Ar geological age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, J.; Paal, A.

    1980-01-01

    The basic principles and equations of K-Ar determination are summarized. A magnetic mass spectrometer has been developed for the determination of Ar isotope ratios. The spectrometer is controlled by an INTEL 8080A microprocessor. The electronic moduls are self-contained and can be used in other systems, too. A programmable electrometer amplifier with varying transfer function is connected to a 12 bit analog-digital converter. Using the stored time-amplitude values the relative peaks of the spectrum can be extrapolated to the moment of gas inlet. (R.J.)

  7. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  8. Endogenously determined restriction of food intake overcomes excitation-contraction uncoupling in JP45KO mice with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbono, Osvaldo; Messi, Maria Laura; Wang, Zhong-Min; Treves, Susan; Mosca, Barbara; Bergamelli, Leda; Nishi, Miyuki; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong; Zorzato, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    The decline in muscular strength with age is disproportionate to the loss in total muscle mass that causes it. Knocking out JP45, an integral protein of the junctional face membrane of the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), results in decreased expression of the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel, Ca(v)1.1; excitation-contraction uncoupling (ECU); and loss of muscle force (Delbono et al., 2007). Here, we show that Ca(v)1.1 expression, charge movement, SR Ca(2+) release, in vitro contractile force, and sustained forced running remain stable in male JP45KO mice at 12 and 18 months. They also exhibit the level of ECU reported for 3-4-month mice (Delbono et al., 2007). No further decline at later ages was recorded. Preserved ECC was not related to increased expression of any protein that directly or indirectly interacts with JP45 at the triad junction. However, maintained muscle force and physical performance were associated with ablation of JP45 expression in the brain, spontaneous and significantly diminished food intake and less tendency toward obesity when exposed to a high-fat diet compared to WT. We propose that (1) endogenously generated restriction in food intake overcomes the deleterious effects of JP45 ablation on ECC and skeletal muscle force mainly through downregulation of neuropeptide-Y expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus; and (2) the JP45KO mouse constitutes an invaluable model to examine the mechanisms controlling food intake as well as skeletal muscle function with aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. What determines the preference for future living arrangements of middle-aged and older people in urban China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijuan Meng

    Full Text Available Living arrangements are important to the elderly. However, it is common for elderly parents in urban China to not have a living situation that they consider ideal. An understanding of their preferences assists us in responding to the needs of the elderly as well as in anticipating future long-term care demands. The aim of this study is to provide a clear understanding of preferences for future living arrangements and their associated factors among middle-aged and older people in urban China.Data were extracted from the CHARLS 2011-2012 national baseline survey of middle-aged and elderly people. In the 2011 wave of the CHARLS, a total of 17,708 individual participants (10,069 main respondents and 7,638 spouses were interviewed; 2509 of the main respondents lived in urban areas. In this group, 41 people who were younger than 45 years old and 162 who had missing data in the variable "living arrangement preference" were excluded. Additionally, 42 people were excluded because they chose "other" for the variable "living arrangement preference" (which was a choice with no specific answer. Finally, a total of 2264 participants were included in our study.The most popular preference for future living arrangements was living close to their children in the same community/neighborhoods, followed by living with adult children. The degree of community handicapped access, number of surviving children, age, marital status, access to community-based elderly care centers and number of years lived in the same community were significantly associated with the preferences for future living arrangements among the respondents.There is a trend towards preference for living near adult children in urban China. Additionally, age has a positive effect on preference for living close to their children. Considerations should be made in housing design and urban community development plans to fulfill older adults' expectations. In addition, increasing the accessibility of public

  10. A qualitative method to determine the loss of efficiency in the DELPHI Barrel RICH MWPCs due to ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Apeldoorn, G.; Bourdarios, C.; Davenport, M.; Dracos, M.; Juillot, P.; Kjaer, N.; Toet, D. Z.; Tsirou, A.

    1994-09-01

    We describe a simple method to survey effects of ageing in the multiwire proportional chambers of the DELPHI Barrel Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) counters. These chambers detect single photoelectrons created by Cherenkov light in a photosensitive gas mixture. They receive as well the much larger amount of ionisation electrons created by the charged particles. The method essentially consists of a comparison of the plateau curves measured after each year's running period in order to detect changes in their characteristics as a function of exposure.

  11. Determining the level of high-speed abilities of young soccer players aged from 10 to 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Lebedev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The problems of high-speed training of young players were considered. Carried out an analytical review of the scientific literature on the specific sources of development and control the speed of the players. The changes of speed training of young players 10-12 years during 2010-2012. The study involved 42 different football game role (forwards, midfielders, defenders children's football academy "Metalist". Join the results of testing carried out by a system of training SMARTSPEED. On the field, it was found 4 lines wireless gates that automatically tablet computer controlled times taken to run the distance. It was found that with the increase in training time performance speed was significantly different compared to the previous year by 15 m intervals running from the scene, 30 yards from the scene, and 30 m on the move. Recommended directions for planning the preparation of young players for the development of high-speed qualities.

  12. Constraining the age of the NGC 4565 H I disk WARP: Determining the origin of gas WARPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); De Jong, Roelof S.; Streich, David [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Bell, Eric F.; Monachesi, Antonela [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Holwerda, Benne W. [European Space Agency, ESTEC, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Bailin, Jeremy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We have mapped the distribution of young and old stars in the gaseous H I warp of NGC 4565. We find a clear correlation of young stars (<600 Myr) with the warp but no coincident old stars (>1 Gyr), which places an upper limit on the age of the structure. The formation rate of the young stars, which increased ∼300 Myr ago relative to the surrounding regions, is (6.3{sub −1.5}{sup +2.5})×10{sup −5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. This implies a ∼60 ± 20 Gyr depletion time of the H I warp, similar to the timescales calculated for the outer H I disks of nearby spiral galaxies. While some stars associated with the warp fall into the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) region of the color-magnitude diagram, where stars could be as old as 1 Gyr, further investigation suggests that they may be interlopers rather than real AGB stars. We discuss the implications of these age constraints for the formation of H I warps and the gas fueling of disk galaxies.

  13. [Determinant factors for healthy aging among senior citizens in a large city: the Epidoso Project in São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Population aging leads to an increase in the prevalence of chronic and disabling diseases, as well as a change in the public health paradigm. Diseases diagnosed in the elderly are generally not curable; if not properly treated and monitored over time, they tend to generate complications and sequelae that impair patients' independence and autonomy. Health is no longer measured by the presence or absence of disease, but by the degree of preservation of functional capacity. Factors for healthy aging with good functional capacity and those which increase the risk of death and disability need to be identified by longitudinal surveys that include the elderly population living in the community. This article presents data from the first follow-up survey of senior citizens in Brasil, called the Epidoso Project (from "epi" as in "epidemiologic" and "idoso" or "elderly" in Portuguese) implemented since 1991 in the city of São Paulo. The socio-demographic, clinical, and functional characteristics of a cohort of elderly are discussed, with a risk analysis for death and disability, and the implications for health planning are considered.

  14. Prevalence and titers of yellow fever virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Karina Takesaki; Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Simões, Marisol; Freire, Marcos da Silva; de Medeiros, Carlos Roberto; Braga, Patrícia Emilia; Neves, Maria Angélica Acalá; Lopes, Marta Heloisa; Kallas, Esper Georges; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends one single dose of the Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine based on studies of antibody persistency in healthy adults. We assessed the prevalence and titers of YF virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated persons aged ≥ 60 years, in comparison to younger adults. We also evaluated the correlation between antibody titers and the time since vaccination among participants who received one vaccine dose, and the seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. Methods: previously vaccinated healthy persons aged ≥ 18 years were included. YF virus neutralizing antibody titers were determined by means of the 50% Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. Results: 46 persons aged ≥ 60 years and 48 persons aged 18 to 59 years were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of YF virus neutralizing antibodies between the two groups (p = 0.263). However, titers were significantly lower in the elderly (p = 0.022). There was no correlation between YF virus neutralizing antibody titers and the time since vaccination. There was no significant difference in seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. Conclusions: the clinical relevance of the observed difference in YF virus neutralizing antibody titers between the two groups is not clear. PMID:28380113

  15. Prevalence and titers of yellow fever virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Karina Takesaki; Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Simões, Marisol; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Medeiros, Carlos Roberto de; Braga, Patrícia Emilia; Neves, Maria Angélica Acalá; Lopes, Marta Heloisa; Kallas, Esper Georges; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam

    2017-04-03

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends one single dose of the Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine based on studies of antibody persistency in healthy adults. We assessed the prevalence and titers of YF virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated persons aged  60 years, in comparison to younger adults. We also evaluated the correlation between antibody titers and the time since vaccination among participants who received one vaccine dose, and the seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. previously vaccinated healthy persons aged  18 years were included. YF virus neutralizing antibody titers were determined by means of the 50% Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. 46 persons aged  60 years and 48 persons aged 18 to 59 years were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of YF virus neutralizing antibodies between the two groups (p = 0.263). However, titers were significantly lower in the elderly (p = 0.022). There was no correlation between YF virus neutralizing antibody titers and the time since vaccination. There was no significant difference in seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. the clinical relevance of the observed difference in YF virus neutralizing antibody titers between the two groups is not clear.

  16. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  17. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  18. Intercomparison test for the determination of low-level tritium activities in natural waters for age dating purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohokar, Hemant; Diksha; Sinha, U.K.; Joseph, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    A world-wide inter-comparison was undertaken to assess the quality of 3 H data produced by laboratories worldwide, primarily aimed at those conducting groundwater age dating applications in hydrogeology. These low-level tritium test samples encompass 3 H concentrations currently observed in modern precipitation, surface and ground waters, whereupon each participating laboratory employed routine pre-treatment or electrolytic enrichment procedures and 3 H counting methods. The test water samples were comprised of one tritium-free water and seven water samples. Fifty-eight laboratories reported test data to the IAEA for all, or a sub-set, of the eight test samples. The method applied by our laboratory was electrolytic enrichment followed by counting in liquid scintillation counter

  19. Gender-related differences in the multi-pathway effect of social determinants on quality of life in older age-the COURAGE in Europe project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Galas, Aleksander; Zawisza, Katarzyna; Chatterji, Somnath; Haro, Josep Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-07-01

    Gender-related differences in life expectancy, prevalence of chronic conditions and level of disability in the process of ageing have been broadly described. Less is known about social determinants, which may have different impacts on quality of life in men and women. The investigation aims to reveal gender-related differences in social determinants on quality of life assessed by a multi-pathway model including health, social, demographic and living place characteristics. The study group consisted of 5099 participants aged 50+ representing general populations of three different European regions (Finland, Poland, Spain) who participated in COURAGE in EUROPE Project. Standardized tools were used to measure quality of life (WHOQOL-AGE) and social determinants (COURAGE Social Network Index, OSLO-3 Social Support Scale, UCLA Loneliness Scale, participation scale and trust). A multipath model considering exogenous predictors (demographic, economic), mediators (social) and endogenous outcome (QOL) was created to reveal the role of determinants. Gender-related differences were investigated across three age categories: 50-64; 65-79 and 80+. The model (RMSEA = 0.058; CFI = 0.939) showed the effects of all of the investigated determinants. Gender-related differences in the association between social constructs and QOL were observed for social networks in the group of 80+, for social support in the group of 50-64 and 65-79 years, and for social participation in the group of 65-79 years. Males benefited more (in QOL) from social networks and social support, and women from social participation. The research provides valuable knowledge about the role of social determinants in QOL considering complex relations between different social constructs. Additionally, the results showed gender-related differences in the associations between social networks, social support, social participation and QOL, suggesting that men might benefit more from the interventions in the first two

  20. Long term determinants of functional decline of mobility: an 11-year follow-up of 5464 adults of late middle aged and elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lêng, Chhian Hūi; Wang, Jung-Der

    2013-01-01

    This confirmatory study aims at investigating the long term determinants of mobility limitation among late middle aged and elderly in a physically less active population. Five thousand four hundred and sixty-four participants aged 50-97 in 1996 enrolled the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (TLSA) for four waves of interview during 11 years. Social and health-related determinants were collected in each interview. Mobility limitation was enquired level of difficulty in eight movement tasks, including lifting 11kg weight, squatting, running 20-30m, standing for 15min, walking 200-300m, climbing up two to three floors, raising arms up and grasping with fingers. According to the mixed models with repeated measurements, more frequent gardening and longer time for each exercise predicted subsequent better mobility function in Taiwanese elderly while controlling demographics and current comorbidities. The protective effect of gardening was robust in all models. Frequent alcohol consumption was harmful to future mobility function, but less as harmful when participants aged. Besides, the depression-related somatic complaints were predictive to future mobility limitation among those without limitation at baseline. It shall be worthy to explore the dosage as well as the mechanism of these protective factors, especially the most significant but the least explored factor, gardening. Additionally, efforts should be made to understand the relationship between depression-related somatic complaints and mobility decline and so as the relevant interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinants of antipyretic misuse in children up to 5 years of age: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenko, Natalya; Tessler, Hedva; Okbe, Ranya; Press, Joseph; Gorodischer, Rafael

    2006-05-01

    Fever in children is a common and usually benign symptom. It is known that antipyretic treatment is ineffective in the prevention of simple febrile seizures. Caregivers' administration of antipyretic medications to children has been reported, but data concerning the formulations used, actual doses administered, and effects of ethnicity and socioeconomic status on administration practices are incomplete. The aim of this study was to identify the factors affecting antipyretic administration (higher-than-recommended doses in particular) by caregivers to their febrile children in 2 differing cultural-ethnic backgrounds. This cross-sectional survey study, conducted from January to March 2002, was part of a larger, ongoing survey study of the differences in care givers' knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes concerning children's fever in the 2 major cultural-ethnic groups in the Negev District in Israel: Jews and Bedouin Moslems. It was conducted at the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED), Soroka Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel. A structured questionnaire was administered to Jewish and Bedouin Moslem parents or usual caregivers of young (age, 0-60 months) children attending the PED due to fever. Each child's weight was obtained from the PED medical record. After completion of the interview, the reported antipyretic dose per kilogram of body weight was calculated. Less-than-recommended dose was defined as 16.5 mg/kg for acetaminophen and >11 mg/kg for ibuprofen. The caregivers of a total of 201 children (mean [SD] age, 20 [17] months; mean [SD] weight, 10.4 [4.0] kg) were included in the study. The study included 101 Jewish and 100 Bedouin Moslem caregivers. The proportion of people surveyed who were parents was 98%; grandmothers, 2%. Differences existed between the 2 cultural-ethnic groups in the source of knowledge regarding antipyretic use in children (a significantly larger proportion of Jewish caregivers received their knowledge concerning antipyretic use from

  2. Clinical assessment to determine the risk of bowel cancer using Symptoms, Age, Mass and Iron deficiency anaemia (SAMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M R; O'Leary, D P; Flashman, K; Asiimwe, A; Ellis, B G; Senapati, A

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify characteristics with independent predictive value for bowel cancer for use in the clinical assessment of patients attending colorectal outpatient clinics. This was a 22-year (1986-2007) retrospective cohort analysis of data collected prospectively from patients who attended colorectal surgical outpatient clinics in Portsmouth. The data set was split randomly into two groups of patients to generate and validate a predictive model. Multivariable logistic regression was used to create and validate a system to predict o