Sample records for previously deposited debris

  1. Fractal dimension of debris-avalanche deposits in the Hawaiian submarine landslide deposits (United States)

    Yokose, H.; Yamato, S.


    17 landslide deposits on the flanks of the southern Hawaiian Ridge have been classified into two major types: SLUMPS, which moved slowly as a coherent mass, and DEBRIS AVALANCHES, which moved quickly.The debris-avalanche deposits are predominant on submarine flanks of volcanic ocean islands elsewhere in the world. Such huge landslides are considered to produce giant tsunamis and megaturbidites covering large areas of abyssal plains. Based on the small scale topographic elements, we reinvestigated the distribution areas and emplacement styles of the debris-avalanche deposits, which differ from those previously proposed from GLORIA images without benefit of detailed bathymetric data or direct seafloor observations. There are several types of small scale topographic elements in the debris-avalanche deposits previously proposed: source amphitheater, toppled blocks, marginal levee, slide-emplaced blocks, chute, mud wave, hummocky terrain. They are very similar to those appeared in subaerial volcanic debris-avalanche fields. However, no correlation between the collapse height and runout distance are observed in the submarine debris-avalanche deposits. The hummocky terrains can be classified into two types: FLAT-TYPE, which is distributed in the nearly flat abyssal plain, less than 0.5 degree, and SLOPE-TYPE, which located on the lower part of the submarine flanks, greater than 1 degree. The size of hummocks in a slope-type hummocky terrain have an unimodal distribution pattern with a broad peak in the number of hummocks versus height category diagram. On the contrary, the size of hummocks in flat-type hummocky terrains have a power law distribution pattern in the same diagram. The fractal dimensions calculated from these diagrams are 1.19 (Nuuanu landslide), 2.32 (Ka Lae landslide) and 2.96 (Alika 2 debris-avalanche), respectively. They are expected to reflect the processes and degree of fragmentation. Therefore, among the debris_]avalanche deposits proposed previously

  2. Pebble orientation on large, experimental debris-flow deposits (United States)

    Major, J.J.


    Replicable, pronounced orientation of discoid pebbles (??? 8 mm) embedded on surfaces of large (??? 10 m3) experimental debris-flow deposits reveals that strongly aligned, imbricate fabric can develop rapidly over short distances in mass flows. Pebble long axes aligned subparallel to deposit margins as well as subparallel to margins of surge waves arrested within the deposits. Pebble alignment exhibited modes both parallel to (a(p)), and normal to (a(t)), the primary flow direction; intermediate axes dipped preferentially inward from surge-wave margins (b(i) orientation). Repetitive development of margin-parallel, imbricate fabric distributed across deposit surfaces provides compelling evidence that deposits formed dominantly through progressive incremental accretion rather than through simple en masse emplacement. Pronounced fabric along deposit and arrested surge-wave margins reflects significant grain interaction along flow margins. This sedimentological evidence for significant marginal grain interaction complements theoretical analyses (Iverson, 1997) and other experimental data (Major, 1996: Iverson, 1997) that indicate that resistance along flow margins is an important factor affecting debris-flow deposition. The fabric on the experimental deposits demonstrates that debris flows can develop strongly imbricate particle orientation that mimics fabric developed during fluvial deposition. Particle shape and local stress fields appear to have more control over fabric development than does general depositional process. Other criteria in addition to particle orientation are needed to discriminate mass flow from fluvial gravel deposits and to unravel depositional history. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Differentiation of debris-flow and flash-flood deposits: implications for paleoflood investigations (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Jarrett, Robert D.; ,


    Debris flows and flash floods are common geomorphic processes in the Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range and foothills. Usually, debris flows and flash floods are associated with excess summer rainfall or snowmelt, in areas were unconsolidated surficial deposits are relatively thick and slopes are steep. In the Front Range and foothills, flash flooding is limited to areas below about 2300m whereas, debris flow activity is common throughout the foothill and alpine zones and is not necessarily elevation limited. Because flash floods and debris flows transport large quantities of bouldery sediment, the resulting deposits appear somewhat similar even though such deposits were produced by different processes. Discharge estimates based on debris-flow deposits interpreted as flash-flood deposits have large errors because techniques for discharge retrodiction were developed for water floods with negligible sediment concentrations. Criteria for differentiating between debris-flow and flash-flood deposits are most useful for deposits that are fresh and well-exposed. However, with the passage of time, both debris-flow and flash-flood deposits become modified by the combined effects of weathering, colluviation, changes in surface morphology, and in some instances removal of interstitial sediment. As a result, some of the physical characteristics of the deposits become more alike. Criteria especially applicable to older deposits are needed. We differentiate flash-flood from debris-flow and other deposits using clast fabric measurements and other morphologic and sedimentologic techniques (e.g., deposit morphology, clast lithology, particle size and shape, geomorphic setting).

  4. Deposition of steeply infalling debris around white dwarf stars (United States)

    Brown, John C.; Veras, Dimitri; Gänsicke, Boris T.


    High-metallicity pollution is common in white dwarf (WD) stars hosting remnant planetary systems. However, they rarely have detectable debris accretion discs, possibly because much of the influx is fast steeply infalling debris in star-grazing orbits, producing a more tenuous signature than a slowly accreting disc. Processes governing such deposition between the Roche radius and photosphere have so far received little attention and we model them here analytically by extending recent work on sun-grazing comets to WD systems. We find that the evolution of cm-to-km size (a0) infallers most strongly depends on two combinations of parameters, which effectively measure sublimation rate and binding strength. We then provide an algorithm to determine the fate of infallers for any WD, and apply the algorithm to four limiting combinations of hot versus cool (young/old) WDs with snowy (weak, volatile) versus rocky (strong, refractory) infallers. We find: (I) Total sublimation above the photosphere befalls all small infallers across the entire WD temperature (TWD) range, the threshold size rising with TWD and 100× larger for rock than snow. (II) All very large objects fragment tidally regardless of TWD: for rock, a0 ≽ 105 cm; for snow, a0 ≽ 103-3 × 104 cm across all WD cooling ages. (III) A considerable range of a0 avoids fragmentation and total sublimation, yielding impacts or grazes with cold WDs. This range rapidly narrows with increasing TWD, especially for snowy bodies. Finally, we briefly discuss how the various forms of deposited debris may finally reach the photosphere surface itself.

  5. Temporal variability of marine debris deposition at Tern Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. (United States)

    Agustin, Alyssa E; Merrifield, Mark A; Potemra, James T; Morishige, Carey


    A twenty-two year record of marine debris collected on Tern Island is used to characterize the temporal variability of debris deposition at a coral atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Debris deposition tends to be episodic, without a significant relationship to local forcing processes associated with winds, sea level, waves, and proximity to the Subtropical Convergence Zone. The General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment is used to estimate likely debris pathways for Tern Island. The majority of modeled arrivals come from the northeast following prevailing trade winds and surface currents, with trajectories indicating the importance of the convergence zone, or garbage patch, in the North Pacific High region. Although debris deposition does not generally exhibit a significant seasonal cycle, some debris types contain considerable 3 cycle/yr variability that is coherent with wind and surface pressure over a broad region north of Tern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. FTIR Analyses of Hypervelocity Impact Deposits: DebriSat Tests (United States)


    fiberglass, stainless steel mesh and Kevlar . Debris-LV used a 15 kg target fabricated by Aerospace to simulate a spent upper stage. DebriSat consisted of a...designed to catch the projectile. It consisted of seven bumper panels consisting of fiberglass, stainless steel mesh and Kevlar . Debris-LV used a 15...fabric (#1,2, 4, 5), stainless steel mesh (#3) and Kevlar (#6,7). • No “soft catch “ panels were installed in the chamber. • A witness plate

  7. Deposition of steeply infalling debris - pebbles, boulders, snowballs, asteroids, comets - around stars (United States)

    Brown, J. C.; Veras, D.; Gänsicke, B. T.


    When Comet Lovejoy plunged into the Sun, and survived, questions arose about the physics of infall of small bodies. [1,2] has already described this infall in detail. However, a more general analysis for any type of star has been missing. [3] generalized previous studies, with specific applications to white dwarfs. High-metallicity pollution is common in white dwarf stars hosting remnant planetary systems. However, they rarely have detectable debris accretion discs, possibly because much of the influx is fast steeply infalling debris in star-grazing orbits, producing a more tenuous signature than a slowly accreting disc. Processes governing such deposition between the Roche radius and photosphere have so far received little attention and we model them here analytically by extending recent work on sun-grazing comets to white dwarf systems. We find that the evolution of cm-to-km size infallers most strongly depends on two combinations of parameters, which effectively measure sublimation rate and binding strength. We then provide an algorithm to determine the fate of infallers for any white dwarf, and apply the algorithm to four limiting combinations of hot versus cool (young/old) white dwarfs with snowy (weak, volatile) versus rocky (strong, refractory) infallers. We find: (i) Total sublimation above the photosphere befalls all small infallers across the entire white dwarf temperature range, the threshold size rising with it and 100× larger for rock than snow. (ii) All very large objects fragment tidally regardless of temperature: for rock, a0 ≽ 105 cm; for snow, a0 ≽ 103 - 3 × 104 cm across all white dwarf cooling ages. (iii) A considerable range of infaller sizes avoids fragmentation and total sublimation, yielding impacts or grazes with cold white dwarfs. This range rapidly narrows with increasing temperature, especially for snowy bodies. Finally, we briefly discuss how the various forms of deposited debris may finally reach the photosphere surface itself.

  8. Rainfalls inducing debris avalanches-debris flows in the pyroclastic deposits of Campania, southern Italy (United States)

    Fiorillo, F.; Giulivo, I.; Guadagno, F.; Revellino, P.


    In May 1998, following an intense rainstorm, the Sarno-Quindici area was involved in flows which struck the downslope towns, causing a high number of casualties and the destruction of several houses and infrastructures. In December 1999, about one year later, prolonged rainfalls triggered similar landslides in the Valle Caudina area, causing deaths and serious damages in the town of Cervinara. These events are the most recent ones of those that have effected areas around the Campania Plain, where pyroclastic covers mantle the calcareous ridges. This setting can be considered as an “unicum” characterised by alloctonous superficial soil formations not genetically connected to the bedrock. The consequence of the successive volcanic eruptions is the formation of a multi-layered pyroclastic cover, where layers and soil horizons have different geotechnical and hydrogeological properties. This setting is fundamental to the development of landslide phenomena, as it controls the mechanical and hydrological behaviour of the slope. Generally, the instabilities initiate as a small debris slide which develop into large, shallow debris avalanches and debris flows involving the pyroclastic horizons and the colluvial soils on steep and vegetated slopes, often at the heads of gullies. During motion, the landslide materials, also due to the acquired height velocity, erode vegetation and soil from the slope, so that the moving volume tends to increase. Then at the bases of the slope, phenomena evolve in hyperconcentrated steamflow due to dilution by incorporating water. The analysis carried out on main historical storms of Campania area (Sarno-Quindici and Sorrentina Peninsula) shows that debris phenomena occurred mainly in the wet season, after high-value of the rainfall pre-storms. Due to high quality recording of December 1999 storm, which induced many debris flows in Cervinara area, a detailed hydrological-statistical analysis has been carried out. This storm occurred after

  9. Experimental investigation on debris flow propagation and deposition in a downstream river by multiple tributaries (United States)

    Stancanelli, L.; Lanzoni, S.; Foti, E.


    Debris flow risk assessment has been widely studied by many authors since it still represents one of the main cause of fatalities due to natural disasters. Thought in the last decades several improvements in the understanding of debris flow dynamics have been achieved, it must be said that the range of phenomena that can occur is so wide that a comprehensive vision is still missing. The present contribution aims at obtaining information regarding the interaction of multiple debris flows which propagate and deposit in the same river. Such a study has been inspired by a real case in which such an interaction enhanced the dramatic effects in terms of fatalities and damages. In particular, the aim of the research is to analyze experimentally the geometry of debris flow deposits conveyed in a main channel by two lateral tributaries, considering the influence of different parameters such as: slope, confluence angle and main channel discharge. The experimental set up includes a main channel (length 12 m, width 0,5m, height 0,70m) and two different lateral channels (length 3 m, width 0,3m, height 0,30m) located on the left side of the main channel, at an interaxis of about 1,2m. Six different acoustic level sensors and four pressure transducers have been installed along the experiment apparatus so that to monitor flow levels and pressures during both the propagation and deposition phases of the debris flow. At the end of each experiment a survey of the river bed has been carried out and the geometries of the observed deposition fans have been compared for the various experimental configurations investigated in the tests. A set of 20 experiments has been conducted by considering three different configurations of the confluence angle (90°-60°-45°), two different slopes of the tributary channels (15° e 17°), and three different trigger conditions (i.e., debris flows occurring simultaneously in the tributaries, or occurring first either in the upstream or in the

  10. A mineralogical and granulometric study of Cayambe volcano debris avalanche deposit (United States)

    Detienne, M.; Delmelle, P.; Guevara, A.; Samaniego, P.; Bustillos, J.; Sonnet, P.; Opfergelt, S.


    Volcano flank/sector collapse represents one of the most catastrophic volcanic hazards. Various volcanic and non-volcanic processes are known to decrease the stability of a volcanic cone, eventually precipitating its gravitational failure. Among them, hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks leading to clay mineral formation is recognized as having a large negative impact on rock strength properties. Furthermore, the presence of hydrothermal clays in the collapsing mass influences the behavior of the associated volcanic debris avalanche. In particular, clay-containing debris avalanches seem to travel farther and spread more widely than avalanches of similar volume but which do not incorporate hydrothermally-altered materials. However, the relationship between hydrothermal alteration, flank collapse and debris avalanche behavior is not well understood. The objective of this study is to better determine the volume and composition of hydrothermal clay minerals in the poorly characterized debris avalanche deposit (DAD) of Cayambe composite volcano, located in a densely populated area ~70 km northeast of Quito, Ecuador. Cayambe DAD originated from a sector collapse, which occurred less than 200 ka ago. The DAD is 10-20 m thick and has an estimated total volume of ~0.85 Km3. The H/L ratio (where H is the vertical drop and L is the travel distance of the avalanche) for Cayambe DAD is ~0.095, suggesting a high mobility. In the medial-distal zone, at 9-20 km from its source, the DAD consists of an unstratified and unsorted matrix supporting millimetric to metric clasts. It has a matrix facies (i.e. rich in particles DAD behaved as a cohesive debris flow. Analysis of 13 matrix samples reveals a large variability in particle size distribution. This may reflect poor mixing of the collapsed material during transport. The clay fraction content in the matrix ranges from 15 to 30 wt.%, and does not show a relationship with the sample position in the DAD. Mineralogical

  11. Textural analysis of particles from El Zaguán debris avalanche deposit, Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico: Evidence of flow behavior during emplacement (United States)

    Caballero, Lizeth; Capra, Lucia


    El Zaguán deposit originated at 28,000 yrs. B.P. from the flank collapse of Nevado de Toluca, a dacitic stratovolcano of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. Scanning Electron Microprobe analyses (SEM) were performed on some particles from this deposit to observe microtextures produced during transport and emplacement of the debris avalanche flow. Particles from 2ϕ (250 μm), 0ϕ (1 mm) and - 2ϕ (4 mm) granulometric classes were randomly selected at different outcrops, and their surface textures were described. The observed textures are divided in two groups, Basal and Upper textures, each one indicating different clast interactions. Basal textures are observed predominantly in the lower part of the deposit and consist of parallel ridges, parallel grooves, scratches and lips. Upper textures are mainly present in the upper part of the deposit and consisted of fractures, percussion marks, and broken or grinded crystals. These characteristics, coupled with field observations such as the presence of clastic dikes and deformed lacustrine mega-blocks, indicate that the basal part of the debris avalanche was moving in a partially liquefied state. By contrast, the particles in the upper part were able to move freely, interacting by collision. These microscopic textures are in agreement with previously described emplacement behaviors in debris avalanches of volcanic origin, suggesting a stratified flow dominated by different transport and depositional mechanisms depending upon flow depth and possible fluid content at their base.

  12. Sem Analysis of particles from the 28, 000 B.P El Zaguan debris avalanche deposit, Nevado de Toluca volcano, Central Mexico: evidences of flow behavior during emplacement (United States)

    Caballero, L.; Capra, L.


    The Zaguan deposit originated at 28, 000 yr. B.P from the flank collapse of the Nevado de Toluca volcano, a dacitic stratovolcano of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. A Scanning Electron Microprobe analysis (SEM) was made to some clasts of this deposit to observe microtextures produced during transport and emplacement of the debris avalanche flow. Particles from 2, 0 and -2 Φ granulometric classes were randomly selected and their surface textures were described. The textures observed were divided in two groups, collision and shear structures indicating different clast interaction. Shear textures were observed predominantly on the basal part of the deposit and consisted of parallel ridges, parallel grooves, scratches and lips. Collision textures were mainly present in the upper part of the deposit and consisted of fractures, percussion marks, and broken or grinded crystals. These characteristics, coupled with field observation, like the presence of clast dikes and deformed lacustrine megaclasts, indicate that the basal part of the debris avalanche was moving in a partially liquefied state, were particles were not able to move freely because of the confinement exerted by the upper part of the flow, so shear stresses dominated. On the contrary, the particles in the upper part were able to move freely so the principal mechanism of interaction between particles was collision. These microscopic textures are in agreement with previously described behavior of emplacement of debris avalanches of volcanic origin, that suggest a stratified flow dominated by different transport and depositional mechanism depending on flow depth and possible fluid content at their base.

  13. Effects of ground freezing and snow avalanche deposits on debris flows in alpine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bardou


    Full Text Available Debris flows consist of a mixture of water and sediments of various sizes. Apart from few exceptions, the water is usually contributed directly from precipitation. In a high mountain environment like the Alps, it appears necessary to consider infiltration of water into the ground during rainfall events, the runoff characteristics and the potential supply of sediment as a function of a multitude of climatic and hydrogeological factors. This paper outlines several new processes - either linked to ice formation in the ground before an event, or to the presence of snow avalanche deposits - that change the probability of observing an event. These processes were identified during field observations connected with extreme weather events that occurred recently in the Valais Alps (south-western Switzerland: they can be seen as factors either amplifying or reducing the potential of slope instability caused by the precipitation event. An intense freezing of the ground during the week preceding the exceptional rainfall event in mid-October 2000 amplified the probability of triggering debris flows between roughly 1800 and 2300m asl. Both growth of ice needles and superficial ground freezing destroyed soil aggregates (increasing the availability of sediments and/or, a deeper ground freezing resulted in decreased infiltration rate (increased runoff during the first hours of heavy rainfall. The presence of snow avalanche deposits in a gully could be simultaneously an amplifying factor (the snow deposits increase the base flow and create a sliding plane for the sediments, mainly at the time of summer storms or a reducing factor (reduction in the impact energy of the raindrops, mainly at the time of winter storms of the risk of triggering debris flows. If it is not currently possible to establish rainfall threshold values for debris flow triggering, the knowledge and the implementation of these processes in the analysis of the potential triggering (for example by

  14. Characterization of previously unidentified lunar pyroclastic deposits using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) data (United States)

    Gustafson, J. Olaf; Bell, James F.; Gaddis, Lisa R.R.; Hawke, B. Ray Ray; Giguere, Thomas A.


    We used a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) global monochrome Wide-angle Camera (WAC) mosaic to conduct a survey of the Moon to search for previously unidentified pyroclastic deposits. Promising locations were examined in detail using LROC multispectral WAC mosaics, high-resolution LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images, and Clementine multispectral (ultraviolet-visible or UVVIS) data. Out of 47 potential deposits chosen for closer examination, 12 were selected as probable newly identified pyroclastic deposits. Potential pyroclastic deposits were generally found in settings similar to previously identified deposits, including areas within or near mare deposits adjacent to highlands, within floor-fractured craters, and along fissures in mare deposits. However, a significant new finding is the discovery of localized pyroclastic deposits within floor-fractured craters Anderson E and F on the lunar farside, isolated from other known similar deposits. Our search confirms that most major regional and localized low-albedo pyroclastic deposits have been identified on the Moon down to ~100 m/pix resolution, and that additional newly identified deposits are likely to be either isolated small deposits or additional portions of discontinuous, patchy deposits.

  15. Cross-stratified Wood: Enigmatic Woody Debris Deposits in Warm-Polar Fluvial Sediments (Pliocene Beaufort Formation, Nunavut) (United States)

    Davies, N. S.; Gosse, J. C.; Rybczynski, N.


    Woody debris has been an important sediment component and a significant geomorphic agent in pristine fluvial systems since the Devonian. In recent years a large volume of research has focussed on various aspects of the importance of woody debris within the fluvial realm; from the evolutionary significance of fossil wood accumulations in the rock record to studies of the biogeomorphological and ecological importance of woody debris in modern rivers. In this presentation we describe cross-stratified woody debris deposits comprising organic detritus from a boreal-type treeline forest that included species of pine, birch, poplar, alder, spruce, eastern cedar, and larch, in both shrub and tree form. The cross-stratified wood is an enigmatic subset of fine woody debris which, to our knowledge, has never before been described from either the global stratigraphic record or modern fluvial environments. The deposits we describe are located within the Pliocene Beaufort Formation on Meighen Island, Nunavut, Canada, at a latitude of 80°N, and are compared with other cross-stratified woody debris deposits that have been noted elsewhere in the Pliocene of the Canadian Arctic. We make the robust observation that these deposits appear to be geographically and stratigraphically restricted to polar latitudes from a period of warm climatic conditions during the Pliocene (15-20 °C warmer mean annual temperature than the present day). In this regard it is possible to speculate that the transport of large amounts of woody debris as bedload is potentially a unique feature of forested high latitude rivers. Such bedload deposition requires a large amount of woody debris with a greater density than the fluid transporting it. The softwood composition of the debris suggests that this was most likely attained by saturation and subsequent entrainment of extensive accumulations of deadwood, promoted by unusually high rates of tree mortality and low rates of bacterial decomposition arising from

  16. Thermal release of D2 from new Be-D co-deposits on previously baked co-deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.


    Past experiments and modeling with the TMAP code in [1, 2] indicated that Be-D co-deposited layers are less (time-wise) efficiently desorbed of retained D in a fixed low-temperature bake, as the layer grows in thickness. In ITER, beryllium rich co-deposited layers will grow in thickness over the life of the machine. Although, compared with the analyses in [1, 2], ITER presents a slightly different bake efficiency problem because of instances of prior tritium recover/control baking. More relevant to ITER, is the thermal release from a new and saturated co-deposit layer in contact with a thickness of previously-baked, less-saturated, co-deposit. Experiments that examine the desorption of saturated co-deposited over-layers in contact with previously baked under-layers are reported and comparison is made to layers of the same combined thickness. Deposition temperatures of ∼323 K and ∼373 K are explored. It is found that an instance of prior bake leads to a subtle effect on the under-layer. The effect causes the thermal desorption of the new saturated over-layer to deviate from the prediction of the validated TMAP model in [2]. Instead of the D thermal release reflecting the combined thickness and levels of D saturation in the over and under layer, experiment differs in that, i) the desorption is a fractional superposition of desorption from the saturated over-layer, with ii) that of the combined over and under -layer thickness. The result is not easily modeled by TMAP without the incorporation of a thin BeO inter-layer which is confirmed experimentally on baked Be-D co-deposits using X-ray micro-analysis.

  17. Characteristics of debris avalanche deposits inferred from source volume estimate and hummock morphology around Mt. Erciyes, central Turkey (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Yoshida, Hidetsugu; Obanawa, Hiroyuki; Naruhashi, Ryutaro; Okumura, Koji; Zaiki, Masumi; Kontani, Ryoichi


    Debris avalanches caused by volcano sector collapse often form characteristic depositional landforms such as hummocks. Sedimentological and geomorphological analyses of debris avalanche deposits (DADs) are crucial to clarify the size, mechanisms, and emplacement of debris avalanches. We describe the morphology of hummocks on the northeastern flank of Mt. Erciyes in Kayseri, central Turkey, likely formed in the late Pleistocene. Using a remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) and the structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry, we obtained high-definition digital elevation model (DEM) and orthorectified images of the hummocks to investigate their geometric features. We estimated the source volume of the DAD by reconstructing the topography of the volcano edifice using a satellite-based DEM. We examined the topographic cross sections based on the slopes around the scar regarded as remnant topography. Spatial distribution of hummocks is anomalously concentrated at a certain distance from the source, unlike those that follow the distance-size relationship. The high-definition land surface data by RPAS and SfM revealed that many of the hummocks are aligned toward the flow direction of the debris avalanche, suggesting that the extensional regime of the debris avalanche was dominant. However, some displaced hummocks were also found, indicating that the compressional regime of the flow contributed to the formation of hummocks. These indicate that the flow and emplacement of the avalanche were constrained by the topography. The existing caldera wall forced the initial eastward flow to move northward, and the north-side caldera wall forced the flow into the narrow and steepened outlet valley where the sliding debris underwent a compressional regime, and out into the unconfined terrain where the debris was most likely emplaced on an extensional regime. Also, the estimated volume of 12-15 × 108 m3 gives a mean thickness of 60-75 m, which is much

  18. Characteristics of debris avalanche deposits inferred from source volume estimate and hummock morphology around Mt. Erciyes, central Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Hayakawa


    Full Text Available Debris avalanches caused by volcano sector collapse often form characteristic depositional landforms such as hummocks. Sedimentological and geomorphological analyses of debris avalanche deposits (DADs are crucial to clarify the size, mechanisms, and emplacement of debris avalanches. We describe the morphology of hummocks on the northeastern flank of Mt. Erciyes in Kayseri, central Turkey, likely formed in the late Pleistocene. Using a remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS and the structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo (SfM–MVS photogrammetry, we obtained high-definition digital elevation model (DEM and orthorectified images of the hummocks to investigate their geometric features. We estimated the source volume of the DAD by reconstructing the topography of the volcano edifice using a satellite-based DEM. We examined the topographic cross sections based on the slopes around the scar regarded as remnant topography. Spatial distribution of hummocks is anomalously concentrated at a certain distance from the source, unlike those that follow the distance–size relationship. The high-definition land surface data by RPAS and SfM revealed that many of the hummocks are aligned toward the flow direction of the debris avalanche, suggesting that the extensional regime of the debris avalanche was dominant. However, some displaced hummocks were also found, indicating that the compressional regime of the flow contributed to the formation of hummocks. These indicate that the flow and emplacement of the avalanche were constrained by the topography. The existing caldera wall forced the initial eastward flow to move northward, and the north-side caldera wall forced the flow into the narrow and steepened outlet valley where the sliding debris underwent a compressional regime, and out into the unconfined terrain where the debris was most likely emplaced on an extensional regime. Also, the estimated volume of 12–15 × 108 m3 gives a mean thickness of

  19. Particulate kinematic simulations of debris avalanches: interpretation of deposits and landslide seismic signals of Mount Saint Helens, 1980 May 18 (United States)

    Ward, Steven N.; Day, Simon


    We construct a new class of granular landslide models in which avalanches are simulated with large numbers of independent particles moving under the influence of topographically derived gravitational and centripetal acceleration. Concurrently, the particles suffer deceleration due to basal and dynamic friction. The novel aspect of the calculation is that complex particle-to-particle interactions, fluctuating basal contacts, and unresolved topographic roughness within and below the deforming flow are mimicked by random perturbations in along-track and cross-slope acceleration. We apply the method to the 1980 May 18 Mount Saint Helens debris avalanche by constraining the initial geometry and structure of the slide mass from geological data, and the initial failure sequence from eyewitness accounts. After tuning coefficients of mechanical friction and random accelerations, the landslide simulation generates a final deposit whose extent, thickness, morphological structure and lithological variation closely replicate those observed. Moreover, the model avalanche is consistent kinematically with mapped patterns of bedrock scouring, deposit superelevation, and net force history implied from seismic records. To be successful, the slide mass must be divided into upper, high-friction and lower, low-friction members. This division corresponds to fresh, water-unsaturated and hydrothermally altered, water-saturated rock units and points to a mechanical explanation of the kinematics of the debris avalanche. Success in reproducing many features of the Mount Saint Helens avalanche indicates that debris-deposit data may be used to determine the kinematic histories of less well-observed landslides.

  20. Drainage evolution in the debris avalanche deposits near Mount Saint Helens, Washington (United States)

    Beach, G. L.; Dzurisin, D.


    The 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was initiated by a massive rockslide-debris avalanche which completely transformed the upper 25 km of the North Fork Toutle River valley. The debris was generated by one of the largest gravitational mass movements ever recorded on Earth. Moving at an average velocity of 35 m/s, the debris avalanche buried approximately 60 sq km of terrain to an average depth of 45 m with unconsolidated, poorly sorted volcaniclastic material, all within a period of 10 minutes. Where exposed and unaltered by subsequent lahars and pyroclastic flows, the new terrain surface was characterized predominantly by hummocks, closed depressions, and the absence of an identifiable channel network. Following emplacement of the debris avalanche, a complex interrelationship of fluvial and mass wasting processes immediately began operating to return the impacted area to an equilibrium status through the removal of material (potential energy) and re-establishment of graded conditions. In an attempt to chronicle the morphologic evolution of this unique environmental setting, a systematic series of interpretative maps of several selected areas was produced. These maps, which document the rate and character of active geomorphic processes, are discussed.

  1. Coronation Hill U-Au mine, South Alligator Valley, Northern Territory: an epigenetic sandstone-type deposit hosted by debris-flow conglomerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.


    The host rock at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is a debris flow conglomerate, developed in a high-energy fluvial environment during deposition of the Coronation Sandstone of the El Sherana Group. Mineralisation took place by movement of low-temperature fluids from the U-enriched volcanics into the conduit sandstone and eventually into the reduced debris flow conglomerate and carbonaceous shale

  2. Debris reduction for copper and diamond-like carbon thin films produced by magnetically guided pulsed laser deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Tsui, Y Y; Vick, D; Fedosejevs, R


    The effectiveness of debris reduction using magnetically guided pulsed laser deposition (MGPLD) is reported here. KrF laser pulses (248 nm) of 100 mJ energy were focused to intensities of 6x10 sup 9 W/cm sup 2 onto the surface of a copper or a carbon source target and a magnetic field of 0.3 T as used to steer the plasma around a curved arc of 0.5 m length to the deposition substrate. Debris counts were compared for films produced by the MGPLD and conventional PLD (nonguided) techniques. A significant reduction in particulates of size greater than 0.1 mu m was achieved using MGPLD. For the copper films, particulate count was reduced from 150 000 particles/cm sup 2 /nm to 50 particulates/cm sup 2 /nm and for diamond-like carbon thin films particulate count was reduced from 25 000 particles/cm sup 2 /nm to 1200 particles/cm sup 2 /nm.

  3. Thermal history of volcanic debris flow deposits on the eastern flanks of Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand: Implications for future hazards (United States)

    Turner, Gillian M.; Alloway, Brent V.; Dixon, Benjamin J.; Atkins, Cliff B.


    We use palaeomagnetic methods to decipher the thermal histories of a succession of massive to weakly stratified debris flow deposits (Ngatoro and Te Popo formations) of late Holocene age located on the eastern lower flanks of Mt. Taranaki/Egmont Volcano, western North Island, New Zealand. Results from two sites, Vickers Quarry and Surrey Road Quarry, both c. 9.6 km from the present-day summit, enable us to distinguish between clast incorporation temperatures of about 400 °C and emplacement temperatures between 150 and 200 °C, consistent with observation of superficial charring and desiccation of outer podocarp-hardwood tree trunks at Vickers Quarry. Analysis of palaeomagnetic directions and lithofacies architecture suggest that these deposits were likely initiated as a closely-spaced succession of block-and-ash flows (BAFs) that rapidly cooled as they descended the volcano flanks. Radiocarbon chronology and the widespread occurrence of a palaeosol between the products of the preceding Inglewood eruptive phase, c. 3.4 cal. ka B.P., and the overlying Ngatoro Formation suggest that these two events are temporally unrelated. Certainly, there is no field evidence of contemporaneous explosive volcanic activity that might be related to the emplacement of Ngatoro Formation. However, we suggest that these low-temperature deposits might either relate to collapse of a small emergent lava dome or a cooling dome remnant, possibly emplaced in the aftermath of the Inglewood eruption. How collapse was initiated remains uncertain: the remnant dome may have been rendered unstable by volcano-tectonic or tectonic seismic events and/or by adverse meteorological events. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that edifice collapse events generating potentially hazardous debris flows can occur independent of specific eruptive activity.

  4. Granular fingering as a mechanism for ridge formation in debris avalanche deposits: Laboratory experiments and implications for Tutupaca volcano, Peru (United States)

    Valderrama, P.; Roche, O.; Samaniego, P.; van Wyk des Vries, B.; Araujo, G.


    The origin of subparallel, regularly-spaced longitudinal ridges often observed at the surface of volcanic and other rock avalanche deposits remains unclear. We addressed this issue through analogue laboratory experiments on flows of bi-disperse granular mixtures, because this type of flow is known to exhibit granular fingering that causes elongated structures resembling the ridges observed in nature. We considered four different mixtures of fine (300-400 μm) glass beads and coarse (600-710 μm to 900-1000 μm) angular crushed fruit stones, with particle size ratios of 1.9-2.7 and mass fractions of the coarse component of 5-50 wt%. The coarse particles segregated at the flow surface and accumulated at the front where flow instabilities with a well-defined wavelength grew. These formed granular fingers made of coarse-rich static margins delimiting fines-rich central channels. Coalescence of adjacent finger margins created regular spaced longitudinal ridges, which became topographic highs as finger channels drained at final emplacement stages. Three distinct deposit morphologies were observed: 1) Joined fingers with ridges were formed at low (≤ 1.9) size ratio and moderate (10-20 wt%) coarse fraction whereas 2) separate fingers or 3) poorly developed fingers, forming series of frontal lobes, were created at larger size ratios and/or higher coarse contents. Similar ridges and lobes are observed at the debris avalanche deposits of Tutupaca volcano, Peru, suggesting that the processes operating in the experiments can also occur in nature. This implies that volcanic (and non-volcanic) debris avalanches can behave as granular flows, which has important implications for interpretation of deposits and for modeling. Such behaviour may be acquired as the collapsing material disaggregates and forms a granular mixture composed by a right grain size distribution in which particle segregation can occur. Limited fragmentation and block sliding, or grain size distributions

  5. A canopy trimming experiment in Puerto Rico: The response of litter decomposition and nutrient release to canopy opening and debris deposition in a subtropical wet forest (United States)

    G. Gonzalez; D.J. Lodge; B.A. Richardson; M.J. Richardson


    In this study, we used a replicated factorial design to separate the individual and interacting effects of two main components of a severe hurricane – canopy opening and green debris deposition on leaf litter decay in the tabonuco forest in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. We quantify changes in percent mass remaining (PMR), the concentration and absolute amounts...

  6. Rheological characteristics of waste rock materials in abandoned mine deposit and debris flow hazards (United States)

    Jeong, Sueng-Won; Lee, Choonoh; Cho, Yong-Chan; Wu, Ying-Hsin


    In Korea, approximately 5,000 metal mines are spread, but 50% of them are still abandoned without any proper remediation and cleanup. Summer heavy rainfall can result in the physicochemical modification of waste rock materials in the mountainous. From the geotechnical monitoring and field investigation, there are visible traces of mass movements every year. Soil erosion is one of severe phenomena in the study area. In particular, study area is located in the upper part of the Busan Metropolitan City and near the city's water supply. With respect to the supply of drinking water and maintenance of ecological balance, proper disposal of waste rock materials is required. For this reason, we examine the rheological properties of waste rock materials as a function of solid content using a ball- and vane-penetrated rheometer. In the flow curves, which are the relationship between the shear stress and shear rate of waste rock materials, we found that the soil samples exhibited a shear thinning beahivor regardless of solid content. The Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Power-law, and Papanastasiou models are used to determine the rheological properties. Assuming that the soil samples behaved as the viscoplastic behavior, the yield stress and viscosity are determined for different water contents. As a result, there are clear relationships between the solid content and rheological values (i.e., Bingham yield stress and plastic viscosity). From these relationships, the maximum and minimum of Bingham yield stresses are ranged from 100 to 2000 Pa. The debris flow mobilization is analysed using a 1D BING and 2D Debris flow models. In addition, the effect of wall slip and test apparatus are discussed.

  7. Plant Succession on the Mount St. Helen's Debris-Avalanche Deposit and the Role of Non-native Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Elsie M. [Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research center; Dale, Virginia H. [ORNL


    The abstract is published online only. If you did not include a short abstract for the online version when you submitted the manuscript, the first paragraph or the first 10 lines of the chapter will be displayed here. If possible, please provide us with an informative abstract. The debris-avalanche deposit is one of the most disturbed areas created by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, with little survival of a few plant fragments and primary succession mostly being initiated by the seeds dispersed onto the newly emplaced material. Vegetation changes on the debris-avalanche deposit during the first 30 years post eruption are analyzed considering the role of non-native species and potential future vegetation patterns on the deposit. We found that the aerial distribution of largely non-native seeds on a subset of plots at Mount St. Helens in 1980 has had a pronounced and enduring effect on subsequent vegetation communities.

  8. Crystallographic Oxide Phase Identification of Char Deposits Obtained from Space Shuttle Columbia Window Debris (United States)

    Olivas, J. D.; Wright, M. C.; Christoffersen, R.; Cone, D. M.; McDanels, S. J.


    Analyzing the remains of Space Shuttle Columbia has proven technically beneficial years after the vehicle breakup. This investigation focused on charred deposits on fragments of Columbia overhead windowpanes. Results were unexpected relative to the engineering understanding of material performance in a reentry environment. The TEM analysis demonstrated that the oxides of aluminum and titanium mixed with silicon oxides to preserve a history of thermal conditions to which portions of the vehicle were exposed. The presence of Ti during the beginning of the deposition process, along with the thermodynamic phase precipitation upon cool down, indicate that temperatures well above the Ti melt point were experienced. The stratified observations implied that additional exothermic reaction, expectedly metal combustion of a Ti structure, had to be present for oxide formation. Results are significant for aerospace vehicles where thermal protection system (TPS) breaches cause substructures to be in direct path with the reentry plasma. 1

  9. A generic Froude scale model study of massive bedload deposition in a debris basin (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Recking, Alain


    Sediment trapping structures, such as gravel deposition basins, are regularly implemented in mountainous context for flood hazard mitigation. These structures should ultimately trap gravels when their excess may aggravate the downstream flood hazard, while, the remaining time, allowing a suitable background sediment continuity. Such optimized designs require a sufficient knowledge of the flow features and geomorphic processes implied in gravel trapping. A generic Froude scale model of a 10%-steep, bedload deposition basin, with a slit dam and without outlet structure, is presented in this work. Accurate photogrammetry and large scale particle image velocimetry (LS-PIV) were combined to study the geomorphic patterns and to reconstruct the flows. The emergence of self induced cycles of braided and channelized flows, with intense grain size sorting, is described. It sheds light on the similarity of bedload trapping with alluvial fan formation or fluvial delta development. The deposition slope, a key parameter in the structure design, is more precisely studied. The measurements are correctly estimated by a new simple equation, which is developed from prior works dedicated to steep slope stream hydraulics and bedload transport. The analysis demonstrates additionally that, despite the steepness of the studied conditions, most flows are subcritical due to roughness adjustment. We finally highlight that morphologically-active flows, i.e., with dimensionless shear stress higher than the threshold for motion, have Froude number ≈ 1; i.e., that a critical flow hypothesis seems reasonable, as a first approximation, to describe flows over massive bedload depositions. This new dataset, with complete geomorphic and flow measurements, in diverse conditions, may be used as reference to try and test numerical approaches of the phenomena.

  10. Late Miocene Debris-Avalanche Deposit At The Gutai Shield Volcano, NW Romania. Re- Evaluation Of Geological Mapping And Mineral Deposits (United States)

    Seghedi, I.; Fülöp, A.


    The recent identification of debris avalanche deposits (DADs) originating from the southern edge of the Ignis peak (1306m, highest of the Gutai Mts.) has important implications for understanding its genesis in the geological context of the broader area, rich in hydrothermal intrusive-related base metal and gold-silver deposits closely connected to the Dragos Voda - Bogdan Voda strike-slip fault system. Pyroxene andesite lavas are exposed below the Ignis peak followed by hornblende and pyroxene andesites the only ones found in the DAD. The flank failure event has left an E-W-oriented horseshoe shaped scar with an estimated volume of material removed of at least 0.35 km3 and an estimated area covered by DADs of 4,345 km2 as a minimum. The deposit is a mega breccia with a variable amount of coarse matrix with jigsaw-fractured blocks, large boulders, and several southward-elongated hummocks up to 1.8 km distance from the scar. Between 720-850 m altitude the DADs contain megablocks of 5-12 m thick and up to 100 m long of layered fine-grained poorly consolidated pyroclastic materials of interlayered ash and lapillistone of fallout origin, and clay beds rich in vegetation remnants(known as the 'Chiuzbaia flora' of similar age as the surrounding lava flows, i.e. ca. 10-7 Ma) and diatoms. These megablocks found in various positions, suggest a lithological discontinuity likely representing the detachment surface of the gravity-driven instability phenomenon and the deep excavation of the volcano flank by the sector collapse event. The clayey material of these blocks acted probably as an efficient barrier to water infiltration and helped destabilization of the overlying rock mass. Since no explosive products have been observed to follow the DAD, it is possible that the sliding was triggered by pressure release of hydrothermal system along an E-W fault parallel to the Dragos Voda-Bogdan Voda fault system, with related high-grade ore deposits. This suggests the possible presence

  11. A Controversial Source for a 1.2-1.5 km3 Debris Avalanche Deposit in Northern Ecuador: A Case Study of Cubilche Volcano (United States)

    Mulas, M.; Bowman, L.; Roverato, M.; Larrea Marquez, P.; Casado, I.


    Debris avalanche deposits (DAD) are common products of catastrophic volcanic edifice collapses. These failure events leave peculiar horseshoe-shaped scars on the summits of stratovolcanoes. Cubilche Volcano (3826 masl), located S of the city of Ibarra (Imbabura Province) and E of the dormant Imbabura volcano, displays a distinct horseshoe-shaped scar towards the N. This post-collapse edifice that we name "Old Cubilche Volcano" (OCV) hosts an additional edifice, "Young Cubilche Volcano" (YCV), which partially covers the southern flank of OCV. Knowledge of Cubilche is critical because of its close proximity to the provincial capital of Ibarra. In fact, Imbabura edifice was built over the northwestern slope of OCV and partially covered it. The studied DAD (unknown age) has been recently linked to Imbabura Volcano as a product of its northwestern sector collapse (LePennec et al., 2011). Alternatively, previous work proposed that the DAD, covering 80 km2 and reaching >13 km distance with an estimated volume of 1.6 km3, was the product of the older OCV (Ruiz, 2003). To constrain the source of the DAD, detailed fieldwork with granulometric, petrological, and geochemical analyses of the deposit was conducted. Preliminary data points to Cubilche as the most likely source for this DAD in accordance with Ruiz (2003). The shaded relief image of the present day OCV shows that the morphology of the volcano is well-preserved on its southern, eastern, and western flanks. This allows the reconstruction of the morphology of OCV prior to the collapse through interpolation of elevation and altitude data of the preserved flanks. A DEM of the present day topography (12m horizontal resolution) obtained from TanDEM-X data was used for extrapolating the morphology. This methodology shows that the post-collapse base of the amphitheater was reconstructed by removing the relief of the present day YCV. The reconstructed topography of OCV shows that it could have been a symmetric cone, reaching

  12. Geomorphology, lithofacies, and block characteristics to determine the origin, and mobility, of a debris avalanche deposit at Apacheta-Aguilucho Volcanic Complex (AAVC), northern Chile (United States)

    Godoy, Benigno; Rodríguez, Inés; Pizarro, Marcela; Rivera, Germain


    Understanding the evolution of a volcanic edifice is important in establishing its associated geological hazards. Apacheta and Aguilucho volcanoes, northern Chile, formed a volcanic complex with known fumaroles and geothermal potential. Among the products resulting from the evolution of the Apacheta-Aguilucho Volcanic Complex (AAVC), a new volcanoclastic deposit has been recognized towards the eastern flank of the volcanic complex. This deposit is constituted by fragments of andesitic-to-dacitic lava and hydrothermally altered lava blocks. These fragments, which reach up to 5 m in diameter, form geomorphological structures such as hummocks, levées and ridges. Using these geomorphological characteristics, the distribution of the main lithological facies (or lithofacies), and fragment features (jigsaw cracks and impact marks), we proposed that this deposit was generated by a debris avalanche. This debris avalanche was triggered by partial collapse of an ancestral volcanic edifice occurred between 100 and 700 ka. The collapse of the AAVC ancestral edifice was influenced by hydrothermal alteration and the extensional tectonic setting that characterize the Cerro Pabellon Dome area. The mobility of the avalanche, and the genesis of the main geomorphological features associated with the deposit, are related to fragmentation of material during avalanche genesis and movement.

  13. Preservation of Late Amazonian Mars ice and water-related deposits in a unique crater environment in Noachis Terra: Age relationships between lobate debris tongues and gullies (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth A.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.


    The Amazonian period of Mars has been described as static, cold, and dry. Recent analysis of high-resolution imagery of equatorial and mid-latitude regions has revealed an array of young landforms produced in association with ice and liquid water; because near-surface ice in these regions is currently unstable, these ice-and-water-related landforms suggest one or more episodes of martian climate change during the Amazonian. Here we report on the origin and evolution of valley systems within a degraded crater in Noachis Terra, Asimov Crater. The valleys have produced a unique environment in which to study the geomorphic signals of Amazonian climate change. New high-resolution images reveal Hesperian-aged layered basalt with distinctive columnar jointing capping interior crater fill and providing debris, via mass wasting, for the surrounding annular valleys. The occurrence of steep slopes (>20°), relatively narrow (sheltered) valleys, and a source of debris have provided favorable conditions for the preservation of shallow-ice deposits. Detailed mapping reveals morphological evidence for viscous ice flow, in the form of several lobate debris tongues (LDT). Superimposed on LDT are a series of fresh-appearing gullies, with typical alcove, channel, and fan morphologies. The shift from ice-rich viscous-flow formation to gully erosion is best explained as a shift in martian climate, from one compatible with excess snowfall and flow of ice-rich deposits, to one consistent with minor snow and gully formation. Available dating suggests that the climate transition occurred >8 Ma, prior to the formation of other small-scale ice-rich flow features identified elsewhere on Mars that have been interpreted to have formed during the most recent phases of high obliquity. Taken together, these older deposits suggest that multiple climatic shifts have occurred over the last tens of millions of years of martian history.

  14. Single-grain quartz OSL dating of debris flow deposits from Men Tou Gou, south west Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qiuyue; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, A. S.


    Debris flows in the mountainous regions south west of Beijing, China occur frequently and often result in considerable mass movements with disastrous consequences for human life, infrastructure and agriculture. Obtaining chronological information on such events is important for the prediction of ...

  15. Cascading Effects of Canopy Opening and Debris Deposition from a Large-Scale Hurricane Experiment in a Tropical Rain Forest (United States)

    Aaron B. Shiels; Grizelle Gonzalez; D. Jean Lodge; Michael R Willig; Jess K. Zimmerman


    Intense hurricanes disturb many tropical forests, but the key mechanisms driving post-hurricane forest changes are not fully understood. In Puerto Rico, we used a replicated factorial experiment to determine the mechanisms of forest change associated with canopy openness and organic matter (debris) addition. Cascading effects from canopy openness accounted for...

  16. Canopy arthropod responses to experimental canopy opening and debris deposition in a tropical rainforest subject to hurricanes (United States)

    Timothy D. Schowalter; Michael R. Willig; Steven J. Presley


    We analyzed responses of canopy arthropods on seven representative early and late successional overstory and understory tree species to a canopy trimming experiment designed to separate effects of canopy opening and debris pulse (resulting from hurricane disturbance) in a tropical rainforest ecosystem at the Luquillo Experimental Forest Long-Term Ecological Research (...

  17. Radioecological transfer of 137Cs from ground deposition to man from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout in different Swedish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeaef, C.L.


    A comparison of the estimated committed effective dose per unit activity deposition on ground was made between different critical groups in Sweden. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of 137 Cs for the global fallout was 2-3 times higher than from Chernobyl debris for Swedish urban populations. For reindeer herders this difference is even more marked, with a factor of three to four higher time-integrated transfer factor of nuclear weapons fallout. Considering the transfer of Chernobyl 137 Cs debris the time-integrated transfer factor appears to be more than 25 times higher for reindeer herders in Sweden than for the urban reference groups. An even more pronounced relative difference between the time integrated aggregate transfer was observed between reindeer herders and urban reference populations for the pre-Chernobyl fallout (a factor of 30). The projected committed effective dose from internal contamination of Chernobyl 137 Cs per unit activity deposition is observed to be 2030 μSv/kBq m -2 . The highest values in Sweden are obtained for reindeer herders with an estimated radioecological transfer of 0.5 mSv/kBq m -2 . (au)

  18. Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Monitoring of radionuclide contents in rainwater is a useful way to keep a check on any change in the external radiation dose caused by the deposited material. Thus analuses of 3 H, 89 Sr and 90 Sr as well as 137 Cs and other gamma radionuclide contents in deposition were continued both nationwide and in the vicinities of the nuclear power stations at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. The deposition of 90 Sr and 137 Cs was lower than in previous years, being only a small fraction of the highest deposition values measured in 1983. The tritium concentrations were also lower than in 1982. The total annual deposition of tritium at different sampling stations varied from 1.7 kBq/m 2 to 2.9 kBq/m 2

  19. Exotic clasts, debris flow deposits and their significance for reconstruction of the Istebna Formation (Late Cretaceous - Paleocene, Silesian Basin, Outer Carpathians) (United States)

    Strzeboński, Piotr; Kowal-Kasprzyk, Justyna; Olszewska, Barbara


    The different types of calcareous exotic clasts (fragments of pre-existing rocks), embedded in the Paleocene siliciclastic deposits of the Istebna Formation from the Beskid Mały Mountains (Silesian Unit, Western Outer Carpathians), were studied and differentiated through microfacies-biostratigraphical analysis. Calcareous exotics of the Oxfordian- Kimmeridgian age prevail, representing a type of sedimentation comparable to that one documented for the northern Tethyan margin. The Tithonian exotic clasts (Štramberk-type limestones), which are much less common, were formed on a carbonate platform and related slope. The sedimentary paleotransport directions indicate the Silesian Ridge as a main source area for all exotics, which were emplaced in the depositional setting of the flysch deposits. The exotics constitute a relatively rare local component of some debrites. Proceedings of the sedimentological facies analysis indicate that these mass transport deposits were accumulated en-masse by debris flows in a deep-water depositional system in the form of a slope apron. Exotics prove that clasts of the crystalline basement and, less common, fragments of the sedimentary cover, originated from long-lasting tectonic activity and intense uplift of the source area. Mass transport processes and mass accumulation of significant amounts of the coarse-grained detrital material in the south facial zone of the Silesian Basin during the Early Paleogene was due to reactivation of the Silesian Ridge and its increased denudation. Relative regression and erosion of the emerged older flysch deposits were also forced by this uplift. These processes were connected with the renewed diastrophic activity in the Alpine Tethys.

  20. Trends in marine debris along the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai'i 1998-2007. (United States)

    Ribic, Christine A; Sheavly, Seba B; Rugg, David J; Erdmann, Eric S


    We assessed amounts, composition, and trends of marine debris for the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai'i using National Marine Debris Monitoring Program data. Hawai'i had the highest debris loads; the North Pacific Coast region had the lowest debris loads. The Southern California Bight region had the highest land-based debris loads. Debris loads decreased over time for all source categories in all regions except for land-based and general-source loads in the North Pacific Coast region, which were unchanged. General-source debris comprised 30-40% of the items in all regions. Larger local populations were associated with higher land-based debris loads across regions; the effect declined at higher population levels. Upwelling affected deposition of ocean-based and general-source debris loads but not land-based loads along the Pacific Coast. LNSO decreased debris loads for both land-based and ocean-based debris but not general-source debris in Hawai'i, a more complex climate-ocean effect than had previously been found. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Trends in Marine Debris along the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai’i 1998-2007 (United States)

    Ribic, Christine; Seba B. Sheavly,; Rugg, David J.; Erdmann, Eric S.


    We assessed amounts, composition, and trends of marine debris for the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai’i using National Marine Debris Monitoring Program data. Hawai’i had the highest debris loads; the North Pacific Coast region had the lowest debris loads. The Southern California Bight region had the highest land-based debris loads. Debris loads decreased over time for all source categories in all regions except for land-based and general-source loads in the North Pacific Coast region, which were unchanged. General-source debris comprised 30–40% of the items in all regions. Larger local populations were associated with higher land-based debris loads across regions; the effect declined at higher population levels. Upwelling affected deposition of ocean-based and general-source debris loads but not land-based loads along the Pacific Coast. LNSO decreased debris loads for both land-based and ocean-based debris but not general-source debris in Hawai’i, a more complex climate-ocean effect than had previously been found.

  2. Woody debris (United States)

    Donna B. Scheungrab; Carl C. Trettin; Russ Lea; Martin F. Jurgensen


    Woody debris can be defined as any dead, woody plant material, including logs, branches, standing dead trees, and root wads. Woody debris is an important part of forest and stream ecosystems because it has a role in carbon budgets and nutrient cycling, is a source of energy for aquatic ecosystems, provides habitat for terrestrial and aquatic organisms, and contributes...

  3. Pleistocene cohesive debris flows at Nevado de Toluca Volcano, central Mexico (United States)

    Capra, L.; Macías, J. L.


    During the Pleistocene, intense hydrothermal alteration promoted a flank failure of the southern portion of Nevado de Toluca volcano. This event produced a debris avalanche that transformed into a cohesive debris flow (Pilcaya deposit) owing to water saturation and weakness of the altered pre-avalanche rocks. The Pilcaya debris flow traveled along a narrow tectonic depression up to a distance of 40 km and then spread over a flat plain reaching up to 55 km from the volcano summit. This transition zone corresponds with a sudden break in slope from 5 to 0.5° that caused a rapid reduction in velocity and thickening of the flow that consequently reduced its competence to transport large particles. The resulting deposit thickens from 15 to 40 m, and contains boulders up to 15 m in diameter that form hummocky morphology close to the transitional zone. Sometime after the emplacement of the Pilcaya debris flow, heavy rains and superficial drainage contributed to remobilize the upper portions of the deposit causing two secondary lahars. These debris flows called El Mogote, traveled up to 75 km from the volcano. The edifice collapse generated lahars with a total volume of 2.8 km3 that devastated an approximate area of 250 km2. The area versus volume plot for both deposits shows that the magnitude of the event is comparable to other cohesive debris flows such as the Teteltzingo lahar (Pico de Orizaba, Mexico) and the Osceola mudflow (Mount Rainier, Wa). The Pilcaya debris flow represents additional evidence of debris flow transformed from a flank failure, a potentially devastating phenomenon that could threaten distant areas from the volcano previously considered without risk.

  4. On the evaluation of debris flows dynamics by means of mathematical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arattano


    Full Text Available The prediction of debris flow dynamic characteristics in a debris flow prone torrent is generally made through the investigation of past events. This investigation can be carried out through a survey of the marks left by past debris flows along the channel and through a detailed analysis of the type and shape of the deposits found on the debris fan. The rheological behaviour of future debris flows can then be inferred from the results of these surveys and their dynamic characteristics can be estimated applying well known formulas proposed in literature. These latter will make use of the assumptions on the rheological behaviour previously made. This type of estimation has been performed for a debris flow occurred in an instrumented basin, on the North-Eastern Italian Alps, in 1996 and the results have been compared to those obtained by means of a mathematical simulation. For the calibration of the mathematical model the limnographs recorded by three different ultrasonic gauges installed along a torrent reach on the fan were used. The comparison evidenced the importance of time data recordings for a correct prediction of the debris flows dynamics. Without the availability of data recordings, the application of formulas based only on assumptions derived from field analysis could be misleading.

  5. Could intra-alveolar hemosiderin deposition in adults be used as a marker for previous asphyxial episodes in cases of autoerotic death? (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Masoumi, Homeyra; Haas, Elizabeth; Sage, Martin; Krous, Henry F


    Intra-alveolar hemorrhage and hemosiderin have been cited as possible markers of recent and remote asphyxial events. Little study has been undertaken of the potential significance of intra-alveolar hemosiderin in adults as a potential marker of previous sublethal asphyxial episodes. Ten cases of lethal sexual asphyxia (an entity known to be associated with repetitive sublethal asphyxial episodes) and 20 randomly selected, age- and sex-matched controls had sections of lung stained for hemosiderin. Subsequently, intra-alveolar, iron-containing macrophages were counted. All cases were men (ages 15-50 years; mean 31.8). No significant increase in hemosiderin was found in victims of sexual asphyxia, indicating that asphyxial episodes in sublethal sexual asphyxial activities may not be sufficiently intense or prolonged to cause intra-alveolar hemorrhage or that intra-alveolar hemorrhage in adults is a relatively nonspecific finding. These results do not support intra-alveolar hemosiderin deposition as a marker for previous sublethal asphyxial events in autoerotic asphyxia. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Using thermal remanent magnetisation (TRM) to distinguish block and ash flow and debris flow deposits, and to estimate their emplacement temperature: 1991-1995 lava dome eruption at Mt. Unzen Volcano, Japan (United States)

    Uehara, D.; Cas, R. A. F.; Folkes, C.; Takarada, S.; Oda, H.; Porreca, M.


    The 1991-1995 Mt. Unzen eruption (Kyushu, Japan) produced 13 lava domes, approximately 9400 block and ash pyroclastic flows (BAF) resulting from lava dome collapse events and syn- and post-dome collapse debris flow (DF) events. In the field, it can be very difficult to distinguish from field facies characteristics which deposits are primary hot BAF, cold BAF or rock avalanche, or secondary DF deposits. In this study we use a combination of field observations and thermal remanent magnetisation (TRM) analysis of juvenile, lava dome derived clasts from seven deposits of the 1991-1995 Mt. Unzen eruption in order to distinguish between primary BAF deposits and secondary DF deposits and to determine their emplacement temperature. Four major TRM patterns were identified: (1) Type I: clasts with a single magnetic component oriented parallel to the Earth's magnetic field at time and site of emplacement. This indicates that these deposits were deposited at very high temperature, between the Curie temperature of magnetite (~ 540 °C) and the glass transition temperature of the lava dome (~ 745 °C). These clasts are found in high temperature BAF deposits. (2) Type II: clasts with two magnetic components of magnetisation. The lower temperature magnetic components are parallel to the Earth's magnetic field at time of the Unzen eruption. Temperature estimations for these deposits can range from 80 to 540 °C. We found this paleomagnetic behaviour in moderate temperature BAF or warm DF deposits. (3) Type III: clasts with three magnetic components, with a lower temperature component oriented parallel to the Earth's magnetic field at Unzen. The individual clast temperatures estimated for this kind of deposit are usually less than 300 °C. We interpret this paleomagnetic behaviour as the effect of different thermal events during their emplacement history. There are several interpretations for this paleomagnetic behaviour including remobilisation of moderate temperature BAF, warm DF

  7. Orbiting Debris: a Space Environmental Problem. Background Paper (United States)


    Artificial debris, deposited in a multitude of orbits about the Earth as the result of the exploration and use of the space environment, poses a growing hazard to future space operations. Unless nations sharply reduce the amount of orbital debris they produce, future space activites could suffer loss of capability, loss of income, and even loss of life as a result of collisions between spacecraft and debris. This background paper discusses the sources of debris and how they can be greatly reduced.

  8. Forecasting inundation from debris flows that grow during travel, with application to the Oregon Coast Range, USA (United States)

    Reid, Mark E.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Brien, Dianne


    Many debris flows increase in volume as they travel downstream, enhancing their mobility and hazard. Volumetric growth can result from diverse physical processes, such as channel sediment entrainment, stream bank collapse, adjacent landsliding, hillslope erosion and rilling, and coalescence of multiple debris flows; incorporating these varied phenomena into physics-based debris-flow models is challenging. As an alternative, we embedded effects of debris-flow growth into an empirical/statistical approach to forecast potential inundation areas within digital landscapes in a GIS framework. Our approach used an empirical debris-growth function to account for the effects of growth phenomena. We applied this methodology to a debris-flow-prone area in the Oregon Coast Range, USA, where detailed mapping revealed areas of erosion and deposition along paths of debris flows that occurred during a large storm in 1996. Erosion was predominant in stream channels with slopes > 5°. Using pre- and post-event aerial photography, we derived upslope contributing area and channel-length growth factors. Our method reproduced the observed inundation patterns produced by individual debris flows; it also generated reproducible, objective potential inundation maps for entire drainage networks. These maps better matched observations than those using previous methods that focus on proximal or distal regions of a drainage network.

  9. Forecasting inundation from debris flows that grow volumetrically during travel, with application to the Oregon Coast Range, USA (United States)

    Reid, Mark E.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Brien, Dianne L.


    Many debris flows increase in volume as they travel downstream, enhancing their mobility and hazard. Volumetric growth can result from diverse physical processes, such as channel sediment entrainment, stream bank collapse, adjacent landsliding, hillslope erosion and rilling, and coalescence of multiple debris flows; incorporating these varied phenomena into physics-based debris-flow models is challenging. As an alternative, we embedded effects of debris-flow growth into an empirical/statistical approach to forecast potential inundation areas within digital landscapes in a GIS framework. Our approach used an empirical debris-growth function to account for the effects of growth phenomena. We applied this methodology to a debris-flow-prone area in the Oregon Coast Range, USA, where detailed mapping revealed areas of erosion and deposition along paths of debris flows that occurred during a large storm in 1996. Erosion was predominant in stream channels with slopes > 5°. Using pre- and post-event aerial photography, we derived upslope contributing area and channel-length growth factors. Our method reproduced the observed inundation patterns produced by individual debris flows; it also generated reproducible, objective potential inundation maps for entire drainage networks. These maps better matched observations than those using previous methods that focus on proximal or distal regions of a drainage network.

  10. Modelling debris flows down general channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Pudasaini


    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of the single-phase cohesionless dry granular avalanche model over curved and twisted channels proposed by Pudasaini and Hutter (2003. It is a generalisation of the Savage and Hutter (1989, 1991 equations based on simple channel topography to a two-phase fluid-solid mixture of debris material. Important terms emerging from the correct treatment of the kinematic and dynamic boundary condition, and the variable basal topography are systematically taken into account. For vanishing fluid contribution and torsion-free channel topography our new model equations exactly degenerate to the previous Savage-Hutter model equations while such a degeneration was not possible by the Iverson and Denlinger (2001 model, which, in fact, also aimed to extend the Savage and Hutter model. The model equations of this paper have been rigorously derived; they include the effects of the curvature and torsion of the topography, generally for arbitrarily curved and twisted channels of variable channel width. The equations are put into a standard conservative form of partial differential equations. From these one can easily infer the importance and influence of the pore-fluid-pressure distribution in debris flow dynamics. The solid-phase is modelled by applying a Coulomb dry friction law whereas the fluid phase is assumed to be an incompressible Newtonian fluid. Input parameters of the equations are the internal and bed friction angles of the solid particles, the viscosity and volume fraction of the fluid, the total mixture density and the pore pressure distribution of the fluid at the bed. Given the bed topography and initial geometry and the initial velocity profile of the debris mixture, the model equations are able to describe the dynamics of the depth profile and bed parallel depth-averaged velocity distribution from the initial position to the final deposit. A shock capturing, total variation diminishing numerical scheme is implemented to

  11. Mixed debris treatment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.C.; Porter, C.L.; Wallace, M.T.


    August 18, 1992 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final revised treatment standards for hazardous debris, including mixed debris. (1) Whereas previous standards had been concentration based, the revised standards are performance based. Debris must be treated prior to land disposal, using specific technologies from one or more of the following families of debris treatment technologies: Extraction, destruction, or immobilization. Seventeen specific technologies with generic application are discussed in the final rule. The existing capabilities and types of debris at the INEL were scrubbed against the debris rule to determine an overall treatment strategy. Seven types of debris were identified: combustible, porous, non-porous, inherently hazardous, HEPA filters, asbestos contaminated, and reactive metals contaminated debris. With the exception of debris contaminated with reactive metals treatment can be achieved utilizing existing facilities coupled with minor modifications

  12. The physics of debris flows (United States)

    Iverson, R.M.


    permeability of the debris. Realistic models of debris flows therefore require equations that simulate inertial motion of surges in which high-resistance fronts dominated by solid forces impede the motion of low-resistance tails more strongly influenced by fluid forces. Furthermore, because debris flows characteristically originate as nearly rigid sediment masses, transform at least partly to liquefied flows, and then transform again to nearly rigid deposits, acceptable models must simulate an evolution of material behavior without invoking preternatural changes in material properties. A simple model that satisfies most of these criteria uses depth-averaged equations of motion patterned after those of the Savage-Hutter theory for gravity-driven flow of dry granular masses but generalized to include the effects of viscous pore fluid with varying pressure. These equations can describe a spectrum of debris flow behaviors intermediate between those of wet rock avalanches and sediment-laden water floods. With appropriate pore pressure distributions the equations yield numerical solutions that successfully predict unsteady, nonuniform motion of experimental debris flows.

  13. A canopy trimming experiment in Puerto Rico: the response of litter invertebrate communities to canopy loss and debris deposition in a tropical forest subject to hurricanes (United States)

    Barbara A. Richardson; Michael J. Richardson; Grizelle Gonzalez; Aaron B. Shiels; Diane S. Srivastava


    Hurricanes cause canopy removal and deposition of pulses of litter to the forest floor. A Canopy Trimming Experiment (CTE) was designed to decouple these two factors, and to investigate the separate abiotic and biotic consequences of hurricane-type damage and monitor recovery processes. As part of this experiment, effects on forest floor invertebrate communities were...

  14. Evaluating intensity parameters for debris flow vulnerability (United States)

    Keiler, Margreth


    In mountain regions natural hazard processes such as debris flows or hyper-concentrated flows repeatedly lead to high damages. After an event, detailed documentation of the meteorological, hydrological and geomorphological indicators are standardized, and additional data on debris covering run out areas, indicators for processes velocity and transported volumes are gathered. Information on deposition height of debris is an important parameter to estimate the intensity of the process impacting the buildings and infrastructure and hence to establish vulnerability curves. However, the deposition height of mobilized material in settlements and on infrastructure is mostly not directly evaluated because recovery work starts immediately or even during the event leading to a removal of accumulated material. Different approaches exist to reconstruct deposition heights after torrent events, such as mind mapping, comparison of LIDAR-based DEM before and after the event as well as the reconstruction by using photo documentation and the estimation of deposition heights according to standardised elements at buildings and infrastructure. In our study, these different approaches to estimate deposition height and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material are applied and compared against each other by using the case study of the debris flow event in Brienz (Switzerland) which occurred during the serve flood events of August 2005 in the Alps. Within the analysis, different factors including overall costs and time consumption (manpower, equipment), accuracy and preciseness are compared and evaluated to establish optimal maps of the extent and deposition depth after torrent events and to integrate this information in the vulnerability analysis.

  15. Orbital debris: a technical assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ..., and other debris created as a byproduct of space operations. Orbital Debris examines the methods we can use to characterize orbital debris, estimates the magnitude of the debris population, and assesses the hazard that this population poses to spacecraft...

  16. Calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition with intraosseous penetration involving the posterior aspect of the cervical spine: a previously unreported cause of neck pain. (United States)

    Urrutia, Julio; Contreras, Oscar


    Calcific tendinitis is a frequent disorder caused by hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; however, bone erosions from calcific tendinitis are unusual. The spinal manifestation of this disease is calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle; this disease has never been described in the posterior aspect of the spine. We report a case of calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition involving the posterior cervical spine eroding the bone cortex. A 57-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of left-sided neck pain. Radiographs showed C4-C5 interspinous calcification with lytic compromise of the posterior arch of C4. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a lytic lesion of the posterior arch of C4, with a soft tissue mass extending to the C4-C5 interspinous space; calcifications were observed as very low signal intensity areas on T1 and T2 sequences, surrounded by gadolinium-enhanced soft tissues. A computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the bone erosions and the soft tissue calcifications. A CT-guided needle biopsy was performed; it showed vascularized connective tissue with inflammatory histiocytic infiltration and multinucleated giant cells; Alizarin Red stain confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite crystals. The patient was treated with anti-inflammatories for 2 weeks. She has been asymptomatic in a 6-month follow-up; a CT scan at the last follow-up revealed reparative remodeling of bone erosions. This is the first report of calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition with intraosseous penetration involving the posterior aspect of the cervical spine. Considering that this unusual lesion can be misinterpreted as a tumor or infection, high suspicion is required to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures.

  17. Debris Thermal Hydraulics Modeling of QUENCH Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, Arcadi E.; Kobelev, Gennadii V.; Strizhov, Valerii F.; Vasiliev, Alexander D.


    Porous debris formation and behavior in QUENCH experiments (QUENCH-02, QUENCH-03) plays a considerable role and its adequate modeling is important for thermal analysis. This work is aimed to the development of a numerical module which is able to model thermal hydraulics and heat transfer phenomena occurring during the high-temperature stage of severe accident with the formation of debris region and molten pool. The original approach for debris evolution is developed from classical principles using a set of parameters including debris porosity; average particle diameter; temperatures and mass fractions of solid, liquid and gas phases; specific interface areas between different phases; effective thermal conductivity of each phase, including radiative heat conductivity; mass and energy fluxes through the interfaces. The debris model is based on the system of continuity, momentum and energy conservation equations, which consider the dynamics of volume-averaged velocities and temperatures of fluid, solid and gaseous phases of porous debris. The different mechanisms of debris formation are considered, including degradation of fuel rods according to temperature criteria, taking into consideration some correlations between rod layers thicknesses; degradation of rod layer structure due to thermal expansion of melted materials inside intact rod cladding; debris formation due to sharp temperature drop of previously melted material due to reflood; and transition to debris of material from elements lying above. The porous debris model was implemented to best estimate numerical code RATEG/SVECHA/HEFEST developed for modeling thermal hydraulics and severe accident phenomena in a reactor. The model is used for calculation of QUENCH experiments. The results obtained by the model are compared to experimental data concerning different aspects of thermal behavior: thermal hydraulics of porous debris, radiative heat transfer in a porous medium, the generalized melting and refreezing

  18. Space Shuttle Systems Engineering Processes for Liftoff Debris Risk Mitigation (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher


    This slide presentation reviews the systems engineering process designed to reduce the risk from debris during Space Shuttle Launching. This process begins the day of launch from the tanking to the vehicle tower clearance. Other debris risks (i.e., Ascent, and micrometeoroid orbital debit) are mentioned) but are not the subject of this presentation. The Liftoff debris systems engineering process and an example of how it works are reviewed (i.e.,STS-119 revealed a bolt liberation trend on the Fixed Service Structure (FSS) 275 level elevator room). The process includes preparation of a Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) that includes (1) Lift-off debris from previous mission dispositioned, (2) Flight acceptance rationale has been provided for Lift-off debris sources/causes (3) Lift-off debris mission support documentation, processes and tools are in place for the up-coming mission. The process includes a liftoff debris data collection that occurs after each launch. This includes a post launch walkdown, that records each liftoff debris, and the entry of the debris into a database, it also includes a review of the imagery from the launch, and a review of the instrumentation data. There is also a review of the debris transport analysis process, that includes temporal and spatial framework and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. which incorporates a debris transport analyses (DTA), debris materials and impact tests, and impact analyses.

  19. Sources of debris flow material in burned areas (United States)

    Santi, P.M.; deWolfe, V.G.; Higgins, J.D.; Cannon, S.H.; Gartner, J.E.


    The vulnerability of recently burned areas to debris flows has been well established. Likewise, it has been shown that many, if not most, post-fire debris flows are initiated by runoff and erosion and grow in size through erosion and scour by the moving debris flow, as opposed to landslide-initiated flows with little growth. To better understand the development and character of these flows, a study has been completed encompassing 46 debris flows in California, Utah, and Colorado, in nine different recently burned areas. For each debris flow, progressive debris production was measured at intervals along the length of the channel, and from these measurements graphs were developed showing cumulative volume of debris as a function of channel length. All 46 debris flows showed significant bulking by scour and erosion, with average yield rates for each channel ranging from 0.3 to 9.9??m3 of debris produced for every meter of channel length, with an overall average value of 2.5??m3/m. Significant increases in yield rate partway down the channel were identified in 87% of the channels, with an average of a three-fold increase in yield rate. Yield rates for short reaches of channels (up to several hundred meters) ranged as high as 22.3??m3/m. Debris was contributed from side channels into the main channels for 54% of the flows, with an average of 23% of the total debris coming from those side channels. Rill erosion was identified for 30% of the flows, with rills contributing between 0.1 and 10.5% of the total debris, with an average of 3%. Debris was deposited as levees in 87% of the flows, with most of the deposition occurring in the lower part of the basin. A median value of 10% of the total debris flow was deposited as levees for these cases, with a range from near zero to nearly 100%. These results show that channel erosion and scour are the dominant sources of debris in burned areas, with yield rates increasing significantly partway down the channel. Side channels are

  20. Initiation processes for run-off generated debris flows in the Wenchuan earthquake area of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, W.; Dong, X. J.; Xu, Q.; Wang, G. H.; van Asch, T. W J; Hicher, P. Y.


    The frequency of huge debris flows greatly increased in the epicenter area of the Wenchuan earthquake. Field investigation revealed that runoff during rainstorm played a major role in generating debris flows on the loose deposits, left by coseismic debris avalanches. However, the mechanisms of these

  1. Volcano Instability Induced by Resurgence at the Ischia Island Caldera (Italy), and the Tsunamigenic Potential of the Related Debris Avalanche Deposits: a Complex Source of Hazard at Land-sea Interface (United States)

    Tinti, S.; Zaniboni, F.; Pagnoni, G.; Marotta, E.; Della Seta, M.; de Vita, S.; Orsi, G.; Sansivero, F.; Fredi, P.


    Slope instability is a common feature in the evolution of active volcanic areas. The occurrence of mass movements is doubly linked to volcanism and volcano-tectonism, which act as either preparing factor (through increased topographic gradients or emplacement of unconsolidated deposits on slopes) or triggering factor (through earthquakes and/or eruptions). Debris avalanches and lahars in active volcanic areas are an additional factor of hazard, due to their high destructive power. Moreover, volcanoes located in coastal areas or on islands, may experience lateral collapses with the potential to generate large tsunamis. Ischia is an active volcanic island in the Gulf of Naples. Volcanism begun prior to 150 ka and continued, with periods of quiescence, until the last eruption in 1302 A.D. It has been dominated by a caldera-forming eruption (55 ka), which was followed by resurgence of the caldera floor. Volcanism and gravitational mass movements have been coeval to resurgence, which generated a maximum net uplift of about 900 m over the past 33 ka. Resurgence occurred through intermittent uplifting and tectonic quietness phases. During uplift, volcanism and generation of mass movements were very active. The resurgent area is composed of differentially displaced blocks and has a poligonal shape, resulting from reactivation of regional faults and activation of faults directly related to volcano-tectonism. The western sector is bordered by inward-dipping, high-angle reverse faults, cut by late outward-dipping normal faults due to gravitational readjustment of the slopes. The north-eastern and the south-western sides are bordered by vertical faults with right transtensive and left transpressive movements, respectively. The area located to the east of the most uplifted block is displaced by outward- dipping normal faults. Some giant landslides and their relationships with volcano-tectonism have been recognized at Ischia. Their deposits are intercalated with primary

  2. Facies volcánicas del depósito de avalancha de detritos del volcán Tata Sabaya, Andes Centrales Volcanic facies of the debris avalanche deposit of Tata Sabaya Volcano, Central Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigno Godoy


    evolution of a volcano. These flows are formed by edifice instability, which could be due to several factors such as the presence of hydrother-mally altered areas, climatic changes, earthquakes, shallow magma intrusions (cryptodomes and/or dykes and/or fault activity beneath or close to the volcano. The final product of this avalanche flow, known as debris avalanche deposit (DAD shows typical hummocky and closed drainage morphologies. More than 14 volcanic centers of the Central Andes have volcanic DAD's, being Tata Sabaya (Bolivia one of them. The collapse that has originated the deposit could have been generated by a combination of magmatic and seismic activity in the volcano. The deposit associated to the partial collapse of Tata Sabaya volcano is distributed on its lower southern flank and partially fills the north-western part of the Salar de Coipasa basin. The deposit covers a minimum area of 230 km² and has an estimated minimum volume of 6±1 km³. The deposit is formed by 6 different types of hummocks, according to their compositions: lavic, pyroclastic, sedimentary, mixed, pyroclastic breccia and basaltic-andesitic hummocks. Based on the predominant hummock type and the spatial distribution, the deposit has been divided into 6 different facies (Toreva Block Facies, Volcanic Hummocks Facies, Central Facies, Sedimentary Hummocks Facies, Mixed Facies and Pyroclastic Breccia Hummocks Facies. Taking into account the facies distribution and their characteristics, we infer the pre-collapse structure of the volcano.

  3. Stratigraphy, age, and correlation of voluminous debris-avalanche events from an ancestral Egmont Volcano : implications for coastal plain construction and regional hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloway, B.V.; McComb, P.; Neall, V.; Vucetich, C.; Gibb, J.; Sherburn, S.; Stirling, M.W.


    Two previously unrecognised debris-avalanche deposits have been identified on the eastern flanks of Egmont Volcano beneath a thick mantle of tephric and andic soil material that has mostly subdued their topographic expression. The Ngaere Formation is a c. 23 14 C ka large volume (>5.85 km 3 ) debris-avalanche deposit that is widely distributed over 320-500 km 2 of the north-east, south-east, and south portions of the Egmont ring plain. The second deposit, Okawa Formation, is a c. 105 ka large volume (>3.62 km 3 ) debris-avalanche deposit that has been mapped over a minimum area of 255 km 2 in northern and north-eastern Taranaki. Both debris-avalanche formations contain axial facies with hummocks composed mainly of block-supported brecciated andesitic debris. A less conspicuous marginal facies, texturally resembling a mudflow, is more extensive. A third debris-avalanche deposit (Motunui Formation) is extensively preserved along the north Taranaki coast where it is truncated by a c. 127 ka wave cut surface (NT2) and closely overlies a c. 210 ka wave cut surface (NT3). The source of this debris-avalanche deposit is unknown. Side-scan sonar and shallow seismic profiling have been useful in accurately delineating the distribution of combined Okawa and Motunui debris-avalanche deposits in the offshore environment but cannot distinguish between the two deposits or enable onshore spatial and volumetric estimates for each unit to be revised. However, the widespread occurrence of debris-avalanche rock material offshore does emphasise the importance of this lag material altering the orientation of the coast influencing both wave climate and rates of coastal erosion. Similarly, the extensive onshore occurrence of debris-avalanche rock material appears to be a significant factor in widening of the north Taranaki coastal plain and preservation of the NT2 and NT3 uplifted marine terrace surfaces. Initiation of collapse by magmatically-induced seismicity is apparently common at

  4. Marine debris ingestion by coastal dolphins: what drives differences between sympatric species? (United States)

    Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Ramos, Renata Maria Arruda


    This study compared marine debris ingestion of the coastal dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia guianensis in a sympatric area in Atlantic Ocean. Among the 89 stomach contents samples of P. blainvillei, 14 (15.7%) contained marine debris. For S. guianensis, 77 stomach contents samples were analyzed and only one of which (1.30%) contained marine debris. The debris recovered was plastic material: nylon yarns and flexible plastics. Differences in feeding habits between the coastal dolphins were found to drive their differences regarding marine debris ingestion. The feeding activity of P. blainvillei is mainly near the sea bottom, which increases its chances of ingesting debris deposited on the seabed. In contrast, S. guianensis has a near-surface feeding habit. In the study area, the seabed is the main zone of accumulation of debris, and species with some degree of association with the sea bottom may be local bioindicators of marine debris pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. LEGACY - EOP Marine Debris (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contains towed diver surveys of and weights of marine debris removed from the near shore environments of the NWHI.

  6. Benthic plastic debris in marine and fresh water environments. (United States)

    Corcoran, Patricia L


    This review provides a discussion of the published literature concerning benthic plastic debris in ocean, sea, lake, estuary and river bottoms throughout the world. Although numerous investigations of shoreline, surface and near-surface plastic debris provide important information on plastic types, distribution, accumulation, and degradation, studies of submerged plastic debris have been sporadic in the past and have become more prominent only recently. The distribution of benthic debris is controlled mainly by combinations of urban proximity and its association with fishing-related activities, geomorphology, hydrological conditions, and river input. High density plastics, biofouled products, polymers with mineral fillers or adsorbed minerals, and plastic-metal composites all have the potential to sink. Once deposited on the bottoms of water basins and channels, plastics are shielded from UV light, thus slowing the degradation process significantly. Investigations of the interactions between benthic plastic debris and bottom-dwelling organisms will help shed light on the potential dangers of submerged plastic litter.

  7. Coalescing Debris-Fill Complexes in Headwater Valleys of the Oregon Coast Range (United States)

    Lancaster, S. T.; Grant, G. E.


    Headwater streams are important links in the sediment transport chain connecting production from steep uplands to supply in downstream, fish-bearing channels. In headwater basins that are forested and where debris flows are common, debris-flow deposition forms valley-spanning dams of wood, boulders, or both, and significant volumes of sediment are stored behind these dams. In three headwater streams (basin areas of approximately 2 sq. km) in the Oregon Coast Range, the following data were collected: (a) longitudinal channel profiles; (b) locations and heights of debris dams; (c) sediment storage volumes; and (d) exposed bank stratigraphy. In all three basins, these data indicate a zone of concentrated mainstem debris-flow deposition where stream gradients first decrease to approximately 10%. Deposits in this zone do not form fans per se but, rather, comprise coalescing debris-fill complexes. These complexes have large unit storage volumes (defined as valley-floor sediment storage volume per upstream contributing area), and because coalescing debris-fill complexes are formed in headwater valleys with relatively low bankfull discharge, these complexes represent a buffer between episodic sediment input from the hillslopes and continual sediment output to fish-bearing streams. An empirical model of susceptibility to debris-flow inundation is based on hypothesized landslide susceptibility, an observed relationship between debris-flow runout length and elevation change between source and deposit, and tributary junction angles and corroborates the occurrence of coalescing debris-fill complexes where greater debris-flow susceptibility arises and is attributable to multiple sources, e.g., tributaries and main stem. Field data and simulation modeling indicate that debris-flow deposition in these complexes is sensitive to wood volume and depositional history: Entraining wood from valley floors and spreading over prior deposits decrease debris-flow velocities and favor

  8. Space Debris & its Mitigation (United States)

    Kaushal, Sourabh; Arora, Nishant


    Space debris has become a growing concern in recent years, since collisions at orbital velocities can be highly damaging to functioning satellites and can also produce even more space debris in the process. Some spacecraft, like the International Space Station, are now armored to deal with this hazard but armor and mitigation measures can be prohibitively costly when trying to protect satellites or human spaceflight vehicles like the shuttle. This paper describes the current orbital debris environment, outline its main sources, and identify mitigation measures to reduce orbital debris growth by controlling these sources. We studied the literature on the topic Space Debris. We have proposed some methods to solve this problem of space debris. We have also highlighted the shortcomings of already proposed methods by space experts and we have proposed some modification in those methods. Some of them can be very effective in the process of mitigation of space debris, but some of them need some modification. Recently proposed methods by space experts are maneuver, shielding of space elevator with the foil, vaporizing or redirecting of space debris back to earth with the help of laser, use of aerogel as a protective layer, construction of large junkyards around international space station, use of electrodynamics tether & the latest method proposed is the use of nano satellites in the clearing of the space debris. Limitations of the already proposed methods are as follows: - Maneuvering can't be the final solution to our problem as it is the act of self-defence. - Shielding can't be done on the parts like solar panels and optical devices. - Vaporizing or redirecting of space debris can affect the human life on earth if it is not done in proper manner. - Aerogel has a threshold limit up to which it can bear (resist) the impact of collision. - Large junkyards can be effective only for large sized debris. In this paper we propose: A. The Use of Nano Tubes by creating a mesh

  9. Debris disc constraints on planetesimal formation (United States)

    Krivov, Alexander V.; Ide, Aljoscha; Löhne, Torsten; Johansen, Anders; Blum, Jürgen


    Two basic routes for planetesimal formation have been proposed over the last decades. One is a classical `slow-growth' scenario. Another one is particle concentration models, in which small pebbles are concentrated locally and then collapse gravitationally to form planetesimals. Both types of models make certain predictions for the size spectrum and internal structure of newly born planetesimals. We use these predictions as input to simulate collisional evolution of debris discs left after the gas dispersal. The debris disc emission as a function of a system's age computed in these simulations is compared with several Spitzer and Herschel debris disc surveys around A-type stars. We confirm that the observed brightness evolution for the majority of discs can be reproduced by classical models. Further, we find that it is equally consistent with the size distribution of planetesimals predicted by particle concentration models - provided the objects are loosely bound `pebble piles' as these models also predict. Regardless of the assumed planetesimal formation mechanism, explaining the brightest debris discs in the samples uncovers a `disc mass problem'. To reproduce such discs by collisional simulations, a total mass of planetesimals of up to ˜1000 Earth masses is required, which exceeds the total mass of solids available in the protoplanetary progenitors of debris discs. This may indicate that stirring was delayed in some of the bright discs, that giant impacts occurred recently in some of them, that some systems may be younger than previously thought or that non-collisional processes contribute significantly to the dust production.

  10. Dynamics of Unusual Debris Flows on Martian Sand Dunes (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hideaki; Dohm, James M.; Baker, Victor R.; Beyer, Ross A.; Bourke, Mary


    Gullies that dissect sand dunes in Russell impact crater often display debris flow-like deposits in their distal reaches. The possible range of both the rheological properties and the flow rates are estimated using a numerical simulation code of a Bingham plastic flow to help explain the formation of these features. Our simulated results are best explained by a rapid debris flow. For example, a debris flow with the viscosity of 10(exp 2) Pa s and the yield strength of 10(exp 2) Pa can form the observed deposits with a flow rate of 0.5 cu m/s sustained over several minutes and total discharged water volume on the order of hundreds of cubic meters, which may be produced by melting a surface layer of interstitial ice within the dune deposits to several centimeters depth.

  11. A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A.


    The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the

  12. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  13. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  14. Unravelling the evolution and avulsion mechanisms of debris-flow fans (United States)

    de Haas, Tjalling; Densmore, Alex; Stoffel, Markus; Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan; Suwa, Hiroshi; Imaizumi, Fumitoshi; Wasklewicz, Thad


    Debris flows are water-laden masses of soil and fragmented rock that rush down mountainsides and spill out onto valley floors and alluvial fans, where they can devastate people and property. Expansion of human population into mountainous regions and the effects of global warming have increased the hazardous effects of debris flows over the last decades. Debris-flow channel avulsions (channel shifts) are critical to debris-flow fan evolution and hazard mitigation, because avulsions distribute debris flows and associated hazards through space and time. However, both the long-term evolution of debris-flow fans and their avulsion process are poorly understood. We aim to unravel the spatio-temporal patterns of debris-flow fan evolution and their avulsion mechanisms and tendency. Here we present a combined analysis of laboratory experiments; field data (repeat topographic analyses and dendrogeomorphological and lichenometrical reconstructions from debris-flow fans in Japan, USA, Switserland and France) and numerical modelling, identifying the main drivers of avulsion on debris-flow fans and their associated spatio-temporal evolution. We show that there are two main processes driving avulsions on debris-flow fans operating at two distinct timescales. (1) Channel plugs locally block channels forcing subsequent flows to avulse and follow alternative flow paths. The frequent but stochastic nature of channel-plug formation leads to a partly unpredictable avulsion and spatial depositional patterns on timescales of a few events. (2) Nevertheless, over timescales of tens of events the average locus of debris-flow deposition is observed to gradually shift towards the topographically lower parts of a fan, highlighting the importance of topographic compensation in the avulsion process on debris-flow fans. We further show that the magnitude-frequency distribution of the debris flows feeding a fan strongly affects the spatio-temporal patterns of deposition. Our results have strong

  15. Spatial patterns of plastic debris along Estuarine shorelines. (United States)

    Browne, Mark A; Galloway, Tamara S; Thompson, Richard C


    The human population generates vast quantities of waste material. Macro (>1 mm) and microscopic (plastic debris represent a substantial contamination problem. Here, we test hypotheses about the influence of wind and depositional regime on spatial patterns of micro- and macro-plastic debris within the Tamar Estuary, UK. Debris was identified to the type of polymer using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and categorized according to density. In terms of abundance, microplastic accounted for 65% of debris recorded and mainly comprised polyvinylchloride, polyester, and polyamide. Generally, there were greater quantities of plastic at downwind sites. For macroplastic, there were clear patterns of distribution for less dense items, while for microplastic debris, clear patterns were for denser material. Small particles of sediment and plastic are both likely to settle slowly from the water-column and are likely to be transported by the flow of water and be deposited in areas where the movements of water are slower. There was, however, no relationship between the abundance of microplastic and the proportion of clay in sediments from the strandline. These results illustrate how FT-IR spectroscopy can be used to identify the different types of plastic and in this case was used to indicate spatial patterns, demonstrating habitats that are downwind acting as potential sinks for the accumulation of debris.

  16. On North Pacific circulation and associated marine debris concentration. (United States)

    Howell, Evan A; Bograd, Steven J; Morishige, Carey; Seki, Michael P; Polovina, Jeffrey J


    Marine debris in the oceanic realm is an ecological concern, and many forms of marine debris negatively affect marine life. Previous observations and modeling results suggest that marine debris occurs in greater concentrations within specific regions in the North Pacific Ocean, such as the Subtropical Convergence Zone and eastern and western "Garbage Patches". Here we review the major circulation patterns and oceanographic convergence zones in the North Pacific, and discuss logical mechanisms for regional marine debris concentration, transport, and retention. We also present examples of meso- and large-scale spatial variability in the North Pacific, and discuss their relationship to marine debris concentration. These include mesoscale features such as eddy fields in the Subtropical Frontal Zone and the Kuroshio Extension Recirculation Gyre, and interannual to decadal climate events such as El Niño and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation/North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on beaches. (United States)

    Ge, Zhenpeng; Shi, Huahong; Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Li, Daoji


    An increasing amount of anthropogenic marine debris is pervading the earth's environmental systems, resulting in an enormous threat to living organisms. Additionally, the large amount of marine debris around the world has been investigated mostly through tedious manual methods. Therefore, we propose the use of a new technique, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), for the semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on a beach because of its substantially more efficient role in comparison with other more laborious methods. Our results revealed that LIDAR should be used for the classification of marine debris into plastic, paper, cloth and metal. Additionally, we reconstructed a 3-dimensional model of different types of debris on a beach with a high validity of debris revivification using LIDAR-based individual separation. These findings demonstrate that the availability of this new technique enables detailed observations to be made of debris on a large beach that was previously not possible. It is strongly suggested that LIDAR could be implemented as an appropriate monitoring tool for marine debris by global researchers and governments.

  18. Spatial autocorrelation of microbial communities atop a debris-covered glacier is evidence of a supraglacial chronosequence. (United States)

    Darcy, John L; King, Andrew J; Gendron, Eli M S; Schmidt, Steven K


    Although microbial communities from many glacial environments have been analyzed, microbes living in the debris atop debris-covered glaciers represent an understudied frontier in the cryosphere. The few previous molecular studies of microbes in supraglacial debris have either had limited phylogenetic resolution, limited spatial resolution (e.g. only one sample site on the glacier) or both. Here, we present the microbiome of a debris-covered glacier across all three domains of life, using a spatially-explicit sampling scheme to characterize the Middle Fork Toklat Glacier's microbiome from its terminus to sites high on the glacier. Our results show that microbial communities differ across the supraglacial transect, but surprisingly these communities are strongly spatially autocorrelated, suggesting the presence of a supraglacial chronosequence. This pattern is dominated by phototrophic microbes (both bacteria and eukaryotes) which are less abundant near the terminus and more abundant higher on the glacier. We use these data to refute the hypothesis that the inhabitants of the glacier are randomly deposited atmospheric microbes, and to provide evidence that succession from a predominantly photosynthetic to a more heterotrophic community is occurring on the glacier. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  19. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Marchi


    Full Text Available Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows, their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche

  20. Development of a debris flow model in a geotechnical centrifuge (United States)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei


    Debris flows occur in three main stages. At first the initial soil mass, which rests in a rigid configuration, reaches a critic state releasing a finite mass over a failure surface. In the second stage the released mass starts being transported downhill in a dynamic motion. Segregation, erosion, entrainment, and variable channel geometry are among the more common characteristics of this stage. Finally, at the third stage the transported mass plus the mass gained or loosed during the transportation stage reach a flat and/or a wide area and its deposition starts, going back to a rigid configuration. The lack of understanding and predictability of debris flow from the traditional theoretical approaches has lead that in the last two decades the mechanics of debris flows started to be analysed around the world. Nevertheless, the validation of recent numerical advances with experimental data is required. Centrifuge modelling is an experimental tool that allows the test of natural processes under defined boundary conditions in a small scale configuration, with a good level of accuracy in comparison with a full scale test. This paper presents the development of a debris flow model in a geotechnical centrifuge focused on the second stage of the debris flow process explained before. A small scale model of an inclined flume will be developed, with laboratory instrumentation able to measure the pore pressure, normal stress, and velocity path, developed in a scaled debris flow in motion. The model aims to reproduce in a controlled environment the main parameters of debris flow motion. This work is carried under the EC 7th Framework Programme as part of the MUMOLADE project. The dataset and data-analysis obtained from the tests will provide a qualitative description of debris flow motion-mechanics and be of valuable information for MUMOLADE co-researchers and for the debris flow research community in general.

  1. A regional reconstruction of debris-flow activity in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria (United States)

    Procter, Emily; Bollschweiler, Michelle; Stoffel, Markus; Neumann, Mathias


    Dendrogeomorphic dating of historical debris-flow events is a highly valuable tool for improving historical records in the field of natural hazard management. Previous dendrogeomorphic investigations generally have focused on case studies of single torrents; however, regional investigations may offer a more accurate reconstruction of regional patterns of activity and therefore may have an advantage over individual cases. The aim of the study is to provide a regional reconstruction of debris-flow events for a site in the Northern Calcareous Alps of western Austria (Gamperdonatal, Vorarlberg) and to document spatial and temporal morphological changes in individual and neighboring torrents. Analysis of 442 trees (268 Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata, 164 Picea abies, and 10 Abies alba) allowed identification of 579 growth disturbances corresponding to 63 debris-flow events since A.D. 1839. The majority of growth disturbances were in the form of growth suppression or release (76%) owing to the nature of both the deposited material and the process characteristics. Regional patterns of event frequency indicated a paucity of activity in the early to mid-twentieth century and increased activity since A.D. 1948, whereby large events were followed by subsequent years of continued activity of smaller magnitude. Patterns of frequency could be attributed primarily to spatiotemporal changes in channel morphology, but may also be reflective of changes in transport conditions within the valley. This study provides the first regional investigation in the Austrian Alps and contributes to the documentation of tree responses to geomorphic disturbances in calcareous material.

  2. Space debris- ECSL Study (United States)

    Lafferranderie, G.


    Despite several attempts and despite the worldwide recognition of the need of attacking it, the space debris legal issues has not been put in the agenda as a separate issue on the agenda of the COPUOS Legal Subcommittee. However for the first time, mention will appear in 2002 but only under item 5 of the Legal Subcommittee: report of activities of international organisations, here the European Centre for Space Law (ECSL). ECSL report will describe the method followed, a questionnaire widely distributed to interested persons and on a personal basis. The questionnaire tries to identify the basic concerns. From the responses received and from also analysis of positions expressed in various colloquia, articles, etc. some directions could be drawn up: do we need a "legal definition" of space debris? For which purposes? Are we in a situation fro presenting now such a legal definition able to cope with the technical evolution of the space object? Which type of legal or technical description "instrument" will be the most appropriate? Etc. One particular question is emerging: the basis of the liability for damages caused in outer space. The author wish is simply to draw the attention on concrete, immediate concerns while identifying also simple ways able to offer a framework to deal with the legal impacts coming from space debris issue. I have envisioned two other subjects that I have abandoned: .

  3. Predicting sediment delivery from debris flows after wildfire (United States)

    Nyman, Petter; Smith, Hugh G.; Sherwin, Christopher B.; Langhans, Christoph; Lane, Patrick N. J.; Sheridan, Gary J.


    Debris flows are an important erosion process in wildfire-prone landscapes. Predicting their frequency and magnitude can therefore be critical for quantifying risk to infrastructure, people and water resources. However, the factors contributing to the frequency and magnitude of events remain poorly understood, particularly in regions outside western USA. Against this background, the objectives of this study were to i) quantify sediment yields from post-fire debris flows in southeast Australian highlands and ii) model the effects of landscape attributes on debris flow susceptibility. Sediment yields from post-fire debris flows (113-294 t ha- 1) are 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than annual background erosion rates from undisturbed forests. Debris flow volumes ranged from 539 to 33,040 m3 with hillslope contributions of 18-62%. The distribution of erosion and deposition above the fan were related to a stream power index, which could be used to model changes in yield along the drainage network. Debris flow susceptibility was quantified with a logistic regression and an inventory of 315 debris flow fans deposited in the first year after two large wildfires (total burned area = 2919 km2). The differenced normalised burn ratio (dNBR or burn severity), local slope, radiative index of dryness (AI) and rainfall intensity (from rainfall radar) were significant predictors in a susceptibility model, which produced excellent results in terms identifying channels that were eroded by debris flows (Area Under Curve, AUC = 0.91). Burn severity was the strongest predictor in the model (AUC = 0.87 when dNBR is used as single predictor) suggesting that fire regimes are an important control on sediment delivery from these forests. The analysis showed a positive effect of AI on debris flow probability in landscapes where differences in moisture regimes due to climate are associated with large variation in soil hydraulic properties. Overall, the results from this study based in the

  4. Plastic debris in the open ocean


    Cózar, A. (Andrés); Echevarria, F. (Fidel); González-Gordillo, J.I. (Juan Ignacio); Irigoien, X. (Xabier); Úbeda, B. (Bárbara); Hernández-León, S. (Santiago); Palma, A.T. (Álvaro T.); Navarro, S. (Sandra); García-de-Lomas, J. (Juan); Ruiz, A. (Andrea); Fernández-de-Puelles, M.L. (María Luz); Duarte, C.M. (Carlos M.)


    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. Howeve...

  5. Chemical weathering within high mountain depositional structures (United States)

    Emberson, R.; Hovius, N.; Hsieh, M.; Galy, A.


    Material eroded from active mountain belts can spend extended periods in depositional structures within the mountain catchments before reaching its final destination. This can be in the form of colluvial fills, debris fans, or alluvial valley fills and terraces. The existence of these landforms is testament to the catastrophic nature of the events that lead to their formation. Sourced by landslides or debris flows, the material that forms them is in many cases either unweathered or incompletely weathered (e.g. Hsieh and Chyi 2010). Due to their porosity and permeability, these deposits likely serve as locations for extensive chemical weathering within bedrock landscapes. Recent studies considering the weathering flux from active mountain belts (e.g. Calmels et al. 2011) have distinguished between shallow and deep groundwater in terms of the contribution to the solute budget from a catchment; in this study we have attempted to more tightly constrain the sources of these groundwater components in the context of the previously mentioned depositional structures. We have collected water samples from a large number of sites within the Chen-you-lan catchment (370 km2) in central west Taiwan to elucidate the location of chemical weathering as well as how the sourcing of weathering products varies depending on the meteorological conditions. Central Taiwan has good attributes for this work considering both the extremely active tectonics and tropical climate, (including extensive cyclonic activity) which stimulate both extensive physical erosion (Dadson et al. 2003) and chemical weathering (Calmels et al. 2011). The Chen-you-lan catchment in particular contains some of the largest alluvial deposits inside the Taiwan mountain belt (Hsieh and Chyi 2010). Our preliminary results suggest that weathering within intramontane deposits may be a significant source of solutes, with the hyporheic systems within mountain rivers of particular import. This input of solutes occurs over

  6. Development of fuel debris cutting technique by laser gouging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Kota; Shiihara, Katsunori; Chida, Itaru; Kono, Wataru; Suzuki, Jun


    Development of damaged fuel debris cutting technique in Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant is one of the important issues for the defueling operations such as removing from the reactor, handling and storage, and so on. Previous knowledge in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear plant accident is reported that fuel debris was made of uranium oxides, stainless steel, zircaloy and so on. Therefore, it is difficult to cut fuel debris by machine processing. Laser cutting is convenient to cut complex materials. However, it is difficult to know the thickness of fuel debris in advance, so it is hard to apply the conventional laser cutting method. In this study, we have been developed the cutting technique for fuel debris by using laser gouging method. Test pieces that simulate fuel debris ware fabricated by embedding ceramic pellet on stainless steel. Laser gouging test was performed by cutting surface of the test pieces with high power fiber laser, whose maximum irradiation power was 10 kW. According to the test result, laser gouging process has the ability to grind the simulated fuel debris under atmospheric condition. In addition, same kind of cutting effect could be performed underwater. (author)

  7. Holocene climate and fjord glaciations in Northeast Greenland: implications for IRD deposition in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels


    The present distribution in Greenland of iceberg-producing outlet glaciers in the south and floating glaciers with bottom melting in the north is most likely controlled by the large contrast in climate. The Holocene glacial geological record in East Greenland shows that the boundary between the two...... types of outlet glaciers has moved up and down the coast in response to climate change. The difference in outlet glacier extent and dominant ablation mechanism is determinate for where ice rafted debris (IRD) contained in the bottom layers of the glaciers will be released by bottom melting. The icebergs...... by icebergs in the form of basal debris is unlikely to be the dominant transport mechanism of IRD to deposition sites in the North Atlantic during the Holocene. The ice rafted debris is more likely to be carried at the surface of sea- (or glacier) ice. This supports the result of previous studies by other...

  8. Persistent marine debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, E.M.


    In this paper the distribution of persistent marine debris, adrift on world oceans and stranded on beaches globally, is reviewed and related to the known inputs and transport by the major surface currents. Since naturally occurring processes eventually degrade petroleum in the environment, international measures to reduce the inputs have been largely successful in alleviating oil pollution on a global, if not on a local, scale. Many plastics, however, are so resistant to natural degradation that merely controlling inputs will be insufficient, and more drastic and costly measures will be needed to cope with the emerging global problem posed by these materials

  9. Creating a GIS-based model of marine debris "hot spots" to improve efficiency of a lobster trap debris removal program. (United States)

    Martens, Justin; Huntington, Brittany E


    Debris removal programs are combatting the accumulation of derelict fishing gear and other debris in marine habitats. We analyzed 5 years of lobster trap debris removal data in Biscayne National Park, Florida to assess removal efficiency and develop spatially-explicit mapping tools to guide future removals. We generated and validated debris "hot spots" maps that combined remotely-sensed data (i.e. benthic habitat type and bathymetry) with 862 locations of previous debris collection. Our hot spot models spatially depict regions of likely debris accumulation, reducing the search area by 95% (from 332 km(2) to 18 km(2)) and encompassing 100% of the validation sites. Our analyses indicate removal contractors using sub-surface towed divers enhanced debris recovery. Additionally, the quantity of debris removed did not decrease with increased efforts, suggesting that debris supply in situ exceeds removal efforts. We conclude with the importance of coupling analysis of ongoing debris removal programs with GIS technology to improve removal efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mount Baker lahars and debris flows, ancient, modern, and future (United States)

    Tucker, David S; Scott, Kevin M.; Grossman, Eric E.; Linneman, Scott


    The Middle Fork Nooksack River drains the southwestern slopes of the active Mount Baker stratovolcano in northwest Washington State. The river enters Bellingham Bay at a growing delta 98 km to the west. Various types of debris flows have descended the river, generated by volcano collapse or eruption (lahars), glacial outburst floods, and moraine landslides. Initial deposition of sediment during debris flows occurs on the order of minutes to a few hours. Long-lasting, down-valley transport of sediment, all the way to the delta, occurs over a period of decades, and affects fish habitat, flood risk, gravel mining, and drinking water.

  11. Space debris; challenges and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beurden, E.; Prins, C.


    Space debris has been a hot topic for the last few decades, ever since the space industry started growing exponentially. Everyone agrees that space debris is a growing problem and the saturation point has almost been reached. With a big risk of a chain reaction, called the Kessler syndrome, billions

  12. Remote Sensing of Plastic Debris (United States)

    Garaba, S. P.; Dierssen, H. M.


    Plastic debris is becoming a nuisance in the environment and as a result there has been a dire need to synoptically detect and quantify them in the ocean and on land. We investigate the possible utility of spectral information determined from hand held, airborne and satellite remote sensing tools in the detection and identification polymer source of plastic debris. Sampled debris will be compared to our derived spectral library of typical raw polymer sources found at sea and in household waste. Additional work will be to determine ways to estimate the abundance of plastic debris in target areas. Implications of successful remote detection, tracking and quantification of plastic debris will be towards validating field observations over large areas and at repeated time intervals both on land and at sea.

  13. Problems of Small Debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zelentsov


    Full Text Available During the exploration of outer space (as of 1/1 2011 6853 was launched spacecraft (SC are successful 6264, representing 95% of the total number of starts. The most intensively exploited space Russia (USSR (3701 starts, 94% successful, USA (2774 starts, 90% successful, China (234 starts, 96% successful and India (89 starts, 90% successful. A small part of running the spacecraft returned to Earth (manned spacecraft and transport, and the rest remained in orbit. Some of them are descended from orbit and burned up in the atmosphere, the rest remained in the OCP and turned into space debris (SD.The composition of the Cabinet is diverse: finish the job spacecraft; boosters and the last stage of launch vehicles left in orbit after SC injection; technological waste arising during the opening drop-down structures and fragments of the destroyed spacecraft. The resulting explosion orbital SD forms ellipsoidal region which orbits blasted object. Then, as a result of precession, is the distribution of objects in orbit explosion exploding spacecraft.The whole Cabinet is divided into two factions: the observed (larger than 100 mm and not observed (less than 100 mm. Observed debris katalogalizirovan and 0.2% of the total number of SD, there was no SD is the bulk - 99.8%.SC meeting working with a fragment observed SD predictable and due to changes in altitude spacecraft avoids a possible meeting. Contact spacecraft with large fragment lead to disaster (which took place at a meeting of the Russian communications satellite "Cosmos-2251" and the American machine "Iridium". Meeting with small SD is not predictable, especially if it was formed by an explosion or collision fragments together. Orbit that KM is not predictable, and the speed can be up to 10 km / s. Meeting with small particle SD no less dangerous for the spacecraft. The impact speed of spacecraft with space debris particles can reach up to 10 ... 15 km / s at such speeds the breakdown probability thin

  14. JSC Orbital Debris Website Description (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    Purpose: The website provides information about the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office at JSC, which is the lead NASA center for orbital debris research. It is recognized world-wide for its leadership in addressing orbital debris issues. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has taken the international lead in conducting measurements of the environment and in developing the technical consensus for adopting mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. Work at the center continues with developing an improved understanding of the orbital debris environment and measures that can be taken to control its growth. Major Contents: Orbital Debris research is divided into the following five broad efforts. Each area of research contains specific information as follows: 1) Modeling - NASA scientists continue to develop and upgrade orbital debris models to describe and characterize the current and future debris environment. Evolutionary and engineering models are described in detail. Downloadable items include a document in PDF format and executable software. 2) Measurements - Measurements of near-Earth orbital debris are accomplished by conducting ground-based and space-based observations of the orbital debris environment. The data from these sources provide validation of the environment models and identify the presence of new sources. Radar, optical and surface examinations are described. External links to related topics are provided. 3) Protection - Orbital debris protection involves conducting hypervelocity impact measurements to assess the risk presented by orbital debris to operating spacecraft and developing new materials and new designs to provide better protection from the environment with less weight penalty. The data from this work provides the link between the environment defined by the models and the risk presented by that environment to operating spacecraft and provides recommendations on design and operations procedures to reduce the risk as

  15. The earth orbiting space debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi A.


    Full Text Available The space debris population is similar to the asteroid belt, since it is subject to a process of high-velocity mutual collisions that affects the long-term evolution of its size distribution. Presently, more than 10 000 artificial debris particles with diameters larger than 10 cm (and more than 300 000 with diameters larger than 1 cm are orbiting the Earth, and are monitored and studied by a large network of sensors around the Earth. Many objects of different kind compose the space debris population, produced by different source mechanisms ranging from high energy fragmentation of large spacecraft to slow diffusion of liquid metal. The impact against a space debris is a serious risk that every spacecraft must face now and it can be evaluated with ad-hoc algorithms. The long term evolution of the whole debris population is studied with computer models allowing the simulation of all the known source and sink mechanisms. One of these codes is described in this paper and the evolution of the debris environment over the next 100 years, under different traffic scenarios, is shown, pointing out the possible measures to mitigate the growth of the orbital debris population. .

  16. Active Space Debris Removal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele GUERRA


    Full Text Available Since the start of the space era, more than 5000 launches have been carried out, each carrying satellites for many disparate uses, such as Earth observation or communication. Thus, the space environment has become congested and the problem of space debris is now generating some concerns in the space community due to our long-lived belief that “space is big”. In the last few years, solutions to this problem have been proposed, one of those is Active Space Debris Removal: this method will reduce the increasing debris growth and permit future sustainable space activities. The main idea of the method proposed below is a drag augmentation system: use a system capable of putting an expanded foam on a debris which will increase the area-to-mass ratio to increase the natural atmospheric drag and solar pressure. The drag augmentation system proposed here requires a docking system; the debris will be pushed to its release height and then, after un-docking, an uncontrolled re-entry takes place ending with a burn up of the object and the foam in the atmosphere within a given time frame. The method requires an efficient way to change the orbit between two debris. The present paper analyses such a system in combination with an Electric Propulsion system, and emphasizes the choice of using two satellites to remove five effective rockets bodies debris within a year.

  17. TMI-2 core debris analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.A.; Carlson, E.R.


    One of the ongoing examination tasks for the damaged TMI-2 reactor is analysis of samples of debris obtained from the debris bed presently at the top of the core. This paper summarizes the results reported in the TMI-2 Core Debris Grab Sample Examination and Analysis Report, which will be available early in 1986. The sampling and analysis procedures are presented, and information is provided on the key results as they relate to the present core condition, peak temperatures during the transient, temperature history, chemical interactions, and core relocation. The results are then summarized

  18. Plastic debris in the open ocean. (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Echevarría, Fidel; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Irigoien, Xabier; Ubeda, Bárbara; Hernández-León, Santiago; Palma, Alvaro T; Navarro, Sandra; García-de-Lomas, Juan; Ruiz, Andrea; Fernández-de-Puelles, María L; Duarte, Carlos M


    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean.

  19. Plastic debris in the open ocean (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Echevarría, Fidel; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Irigoien, Xabier; Úbeda, Bárbara; Hernández-León, Santiago; Palma, Álvaro T.; Navarro, Sandra; García-de-Lomas, Juan; Ruiz, Andrea; Fernández-de-Puelles, María L.; Duarte, Carlos M.


    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean. PMID:24982135

  20. Plastic debris in the open ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Cozar, Andres


    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean.

  1. An integrated model to assess critical rain fall thresholds for the critical run-out distances of debris flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asch, Th.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304839558; Tang, C.; Alkema, D.; Zhu, J.; Zhou, W.


    A dramatic increase in debris flows occurred in the years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in SW China due to the deposition of loose co-seismic landslide material. This paper proposes a preliminary integrated model, which describes the relationship between rain input and debris flow run-out in

  2. Application of simulation technique on debris flow hazard zone delineation: a case study in the Daniao tribe, Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Tsai


    Full Text Available Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan in August 2009 and induced considerable disasters, including large-scale landslides and debris flows. One of these debris flows was experienced by the Daniao tribe in Taitung, Eastern Taiwan. The volume was in excess of 500 000 m3, which was substantially larger than the original design mitigation capacity. This study considered large-scale debris flow simulations in various volumes at the same area by using the DEBRIS-2D numerical program. The program uses the generalized Julien and Lan (1991 rheological model to simulate debris flows. In this paper, the sensitivity factor considered on the debris flow spreading is the amount of the debris flow initial volume. These simulated results in various amounts of debris flow initial volume demonstrated that maximal depths of debris flows were almost deposited in the same area, and also revealed that a 20% variation in estimating the amount of total volume at this particular site results in a 2.75% variation on the final front position. Because of the limited watershed terrain, the hazard zones of debris flows were not expanded. Therefore, the amount of the debris flow initial volume was not sensitive.

  3. Pathways and Distribution of Marine Debris Around a Remote Caribbean Island, Little Cayman (United States)

    Camp, L.; Marsh, L.; O'Keefe, A.; Duran, J.; Wilcox, S. M.; James, R.; Cowan, E.


    Marine Debris is a major environmental concern that affects all levels of marine life. On remote beaches in the Caribbean, where human populations are minimal, marine debris is largely deposited by ocean currents. The ocean is estimated to be littered with over 6 million metric tons of trash per year with 90% coming from land sources, but little is known about the exact sources and pathways for the debris. In 2006, on Little Cayman Island, coastal debris was collected at two coastal areas where removal of debris had not occurred in at least 9 years and along 2000 meters squared. One site was located on the north side, while the other site was located on the south side of the island. Both sites were located in reef-protected coastal zones. These two sites were revisited in 2007, 2010, and 2011 to determine the volume, weight, and type of debris arriving annually and to assess the importance of different coastal processes in deposition. In 2011, eight turtle nesting beaches were added to the study and a total of 11,186 liters of debris was collected from 1600 meters of coastline. The island lies in a northeast southwest orientation. The south-side of the island is influenced largely by prevailing trade winds, currents and tropical storms, traveling across the Caribbean from the east. Currents, eddies, and Norwesters would presumably deposit debris on the north side of the island. Approximately five times the amount of debris is deposited on the south side of the island than on the north side of the island. From the total debris collected, 72.45% was plastic, 8.23% shoes, 6.37% ropes & nets , 5.13% glass, 4.37% styrofoam, and 3.44% contained other debris. The marine debris originated in 8 different countries, and it is estimated that there is collectively 223,721 liters (11,635 kg) covering the shores of the entire island. Remarkably, debris found on Little Cayman in 2011 was traced to the 2010 Haitian earthquake relief effort.

  4. Visible Light Spectroscopy of GEO Debris (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Lederer, Susan M.; Cowardin, Heather; Barker, Edwin S.; Abercromby, Kira J.


    Our goal is to understand the physical characteristics of debris at geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Our approach is to compare the observed reflectance as a function of wavelength with laboratory measurements of typical spacecraft surfaces to understand what the materials are likely to be. Because debris could be irregular in shape and tumbling at an unknown rate, rapid simultaneous measurements over a range of wavelengths are required. Acquiring spectra of optically faint objects with short exposure times to minimize these effects requires a large telescope. We describe optical spectroscopy obtained during 12-14 March 2012 with the IMACS imaging spectrograph on the 6.5-m 'Walter Baade' Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. When used in f/2 imaging mode for acquisition, this instrument has a field of view of 30 arc-minutes in diameter. After acquisition and centering of a GEO object, a 2.5 arc-second wide slit and a grism are moved into the beam for spectroscopy. We used a 200 l/mm grism blazed at 660 nm for wavelength coverage in the 500-900 nm region. Typical exposure times for spectra were 15-30 seconds. Spectra were obtained for five objects in the GEO regime listed as debris in the US Space Command public catalog, and one high area to mass ratio GEO object. In addition spectra were obtained of three cataloged IDCSP (Initial Defense Communications Satellite Program) satellites with known initial properties just below the GEO regime. All spectra were calibrated using white dwarf flux standards and solar analog stars. We will describe our experiences using Magellan, a telescope never used previously for orbital debris spectroscopy, and our initial results.

  5. 14 CFR 417.211 - Debris analysis. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debris analysis. 417.211 Section 417.211... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.211 Debris analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a debris analysis. For an orbital or suborbital launch, a debris analysis...

  6. Debris flow grain size scales with sea surface temperature over glacial-interglacial timescales (United States)

    D'Arcy, Mitch; Roda Boluda, Duna C.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Araújo, João Paulo C.


    Debris flows are common erosional processes responsible for a large volume of sediment transfer across a range of landscapes from arid settings to the tropics. They are also significant natural hazards in populated areas. However, we lack a clear set of debris flow transport laws, meaning that: (i) debris flows remain largely neglected by landscape evolution models; (ii) we do not understand the sensitivity of debris flow systems to past or future climate changes; and (iii) it remains unclear how to interpret debris flow stratigraphy and sedimentology, for example whether their deposits record information about past tectonics or palaeoclimate. Here, we take a grain size approach to characterising debris flow deposits from 35 well-dated alluvial fan surfaces in Owens Valley, California. We show that the average grain sizes of these granitic debris flow sediments precisely scales with sea surface temperature throughout the entire last glacial-interglacial cycle, increasing by ~ 7 % per 1 ° C of climate warming. We compare these data with similar debris flow systems in the Mediterranean (southern Italy) and the tropics (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), and find equivalent signals over a total temperature range of ~ 14 ° C. In each area, debris flows are largely governed by rainfall intensity during triggering storms, which is known to increase exponentially with temperature. Therefore, we suggest that these debris flow systems are transporting predictably coarser-grained sediment in warmer, stormier conditions. This implies that debris flow sedimentology is governed by discharge thresholds and may be a sensitive proxy for past changes in rainfall intensity. Our findings show that debris flows are sensitive to climate changes over short timescales (≤ 104 years) and therefore highlight the importance of integrating hillslope processes into landscape evolution models, as well as providing new observational constraints to guide this. Finally, we comment on what grain size

  7. First evidence of tyre debris characterization at the nanoscale by focused ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, M.; Pucillo, F.P.; Ballerini, M.; Camatini, M.; Gualtieri, M.; Martino, S.


    In this paper, we present a novel technique for the nanoscale characterization of the outer and inner structure of tyre debris. Tyre debris is produced by the normal wear of tyres. In previous studies, the microcharacterization and identification were performed by analytical electron microscopy. This study is a development of the characterization of surface and microstructure of tyre debris. For the first time, tyre debris was analysed by focused ion beam (FIB), a technique with 2- to 5-nm resolution that does not require any sample preparation. We studied tyre debris produced in the laboratory. We made electron and ionic imaging of the surface of the material, and after a ionic cut, we studied the internal microstructure of the same sample. The tyre debris was analysed by FIB without any sample preparations unlike the case of scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Useful information was derived to improve detection and monitoring techniques of pollution by tyre degradation processes

  8. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.


    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kim


    Full Text Available The frequency of debris flow events caused by severe rainstorms has increased in Korea. LiDAR provides high-resolution topographical data that can represent the land surface more effectively than other methods. This study describes the analysis of geomorphologic changes using digital surface models derived from airborne LiDAR and aerial image data acquired before and after a debris flow event in the southern part of Seoul, South Korea in July 2011. During this event, 30 houses were buried, 116 houses were damaged, and 22 human casualties were reported. Longitudinal and cross-sectional profiles of the debris flow path reconstructed from digital surface models were used to analyze debris flow behaviors such as landslide initiation, transport, erosion, and deposition. LiDAR technology integrated with GIS is a very useful tool for understanding debris flow behavior.

  10. Analysis of Debris Flow Behavior Using Airborne LIDAR and Image Data (United States)

    Kim, G.; Yune, C. Y.; Paik, J.; Lee, S. W.


    The frequency of debris flow events caused by severe rainstorms has increased in Korea. LiDAR provides high-resolution topographical data that can represent the land surface more effectively than other methods. This study describes the analysis of geomorphologic changes using digital surface models derived from airborne LiDAR and aerial image data acquired before and after a debris flow event in the southern part of Seoul, South Korea in July 2011. During this event, 30 houses were buried, 116 houses were damaged, and 22 human casualties were reported. Longitudinal and cross-sectional profiles of the debris flow path reconstructed from digital surface models were used to analyze debris flow behaviors such as landslide initiation, transport, erosion, and deposition. LiDAR technology integrated with GIS is a very useful tool for understanding debris flow behavior.

  11. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.


    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  12. Debris flows: Experiments and modelling (United States)

    Turnbull, Barbara; Bowman, Elisabeth T.; McElwaine, Jim N.


    Debris flows and debris avalanches are complex, gravity-driven currents of rock, water and sediments that can be highly mobile. This combination of component materials leads to a rich morphology and unusual dynamics, exhibiting features of both granular materials and viscous gravity currents. Although extreme events such as those at Kolka Karmadon in North Ossetia (2002) [1] and Huascarán (1970) [2] strongly motivate us to understand how such high levels of mobility can occur, smaller events are ubiquitous and capable of endangering infrastructure and life, requiring mitigation. Recent progress in modelling debris flows has seen the development of multiphase models that can start to provide clues of the origins of the unique phenomenology of debris flows. However, the spatial and temporal variations that debris flows exhibit make this task challenging and laboratory experiments, where boundary and initial conditions can be controlled and reproduced, are crucial both to validate models and to inspire new modelling approaches. This paper discusses recent laboratory experiments on debris flows and the state of the art in numerical models.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  14. Response of a Brook Trout Population and Instream Habitat to a Catastrophic Flood and Debris Flow (United States)

    Criag N. Roghair; C. Andrew Dolloff; Martin K. Underwood


    In June 1995, a massive flood and debris flow impacted fish and habitat along the lower 1.9 km of the Staunton River, a headwater stream located in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. In the area affected by debris flow, the stream bed was scoured and new substrate materials were deposited, trees were removed from a 30-m-wide band in the riparian area, and all fish...

  15. Research of thermoluminescence dating for ancient debris flow materials in Qingshui river basin of Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junxin; Wei Mingjian; Zhou Rui; Zhang Bin; Liu Tiantian


    The thermoluminescence age of the samples for ancient debris flow terraces material of Lingshan and Hongshuikou, which are in Qingshui River Basin of Beijing, was studied using the thermo luminescence technology. The age increases with the increasing depth of two ancient debris flow profile, and the deeper debris flow deposits material the more of the environmental radiation dose is. The trend with depth of U, Th and K contents and annual dose is consistency. And the change with depth of Th content is more discrete than that of U, K contents. (authors)

  16. Debris flow run off simulation and verification ‒ case study of Chen-You-Lan Watershed, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-L. Lin


    Full Text Available In 1996 typhoon Herb struck the central Taiwan area, causing severe debris flow in many subwatersheds of the Chen-You-Lan river watershed. More severe cases of debris flow occurred following Chi-Chi earthquake, 1999. In order to identify the potentially affected area and its severity, the ability to simulate the flow route of debris is desirable. In this research numerical simulation of debris flow deposition process had been carried out using FLO-2D adopting Chui-Sue river watershed as the study area. Sensitivity study of parameters used in the numerical model was conducted and adjustments were made empirically. The micro-geomorphic database of Chui-Sue river watershed was generated and analyzed to understand the terrain variations caused by the debris flow. Based on the micro-geomorphic analysis, the debris deposition in the Chui-Sue river watershed in the downstream area, and the position and volume of debris deposition were determined. The simulated results appeared to agree fairly well with the results of micro-geomorphic study of the area when not affected by other inflow rivers, and the trends of debris distribution in the study area appeared to be fairly consistent.

  17. Grain-Size Analysis of Debris Flow Alluvial Fans in Panxi Area along Jinsha River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang


    Full Text Available The basic geometric parameters of 236 debris flow catchments were determined by interpreting SPOT5 remote sensing images with a resolution of 2.5 m in a 209 km section along the Jinsha River in the Panxi area, China. A total of 27 large-scale debris flow catchments were selected for detailed in situ investigation. Samples were taken from two profiles in the deposition zone for each debris flow catchment. The φ value gradation method of the grain size was used to obtain 54 histograms with abscissa in a logarithmic scale. Five types of debris flows were summarized from the outline of the histogram. Four grain size parameters were calculated: mean grain size, standard deviation, coefficient of skewness, and coefficient of kurtosis. These four values were used to evaluate the features of the histogram. The grain index that reflects the transport (kinetic energy information of debris flows was defined to describe the characteristics of the debris-flow materials. Furthermore, a normalized grain index based on the catchment area was proposed to allow evaluation of the debris flow mobility. The characteristics of the debris-flow materials were well-described by the histogram of grain-size distribution and the normalized grain index.

  18. Solid Waste Transportation through Ocean Currents: Marine Debris Sightings and their Waste Quantification at Port Dickson Beaches, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jing Yi


    Full Text Available Four beaches at Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia, namely Saujana Beach, Nelayan Beach, Bagan Pinang Beach and Cermin beach have been sampled for marine debris from 7th June 2014 until 26th July 2014, on every Saturday. These beaches face the Strait of Malacca with a coastline stretching 18 km each. Our observations revealed a total debris items of 13193 in those beaches. The top three items of highest frequency were cigarette butts, foamed fragments and food wrappers. Plastic debris scaled high upto 41% of the total debris. Compared to the ocean conservancy�s 2013 report of marine debris in Malaysian beaches, which was 27,005 items with in 6.44 km, the current count is slightly low. However, Malaysia was ranked 14th place among the top 20 countries in International Marine Debris Watch program. Nelayan Beach is the dirtiest beach in Port Dickson. Around 50% of the total plastic items collected are found on those beaches. The marine debris items indicated that they arrived there by land-based and ocean-based activities. High energy conditions such as wind and waves in the beaches correlated well with less debris deposition on the beaches. With debris equivalent of 4193 items/km, Malaysia harvests less solid wastes compared to Croatia, USA, Singapore and Turkey. However, a nation wide survey is needed to assess the seriousness of marine debris problem in Malaysia.

  19. Using quantitative topographic analysis to understand the role of water on transport and deposition processes on crater walls (United States)

    Palucis, Marisa Christina

    The amount of water runoff need to evolve landscapes is rarely assessed. Empirical studies correlate erosion rate to runoff or mean annual precipitation, but rarely is the full history of a landscape known such that it is possible to assess how much water was required to produce it. While this may not seem to be of primary importance on Earth where water is commonly plentiful, on Mars the amount of water to drive landscape evolution is a key question. Here we tackle this question through a series of five chapters, one devoted to field work at Meteor Crater, another to laboratory experiments about controlling processes, and then two chapters on analysis of landforms and implications of water runoff on Mars (associated with the Mars Science Laboratory mission to Gale Crater), and then we complete this effort with a consideration of how we can reliably assign relative timing between events resulting in small depositional features. What follows below is a summary of what is found in each chapter. Meteor Crater, a 4.5 km2 impact crater that formed ˜50,000 years ago in northern Arizona, has prominent gully features on its steep walls that appear similar to some gullies found on Mars. At the crater bottom, there are over 30 meters of lake sediments from a lake that disappeared ˜10,000 to 11,000 years ago, indicating the transition from the Pleistocene to the current, drier climate. A combination of fieldwork, cosmogenic dating, and topographic analysis of LiDAR data show that debris flows, not seepage erosion and fluvial processes as previously suggested in the literature, drove gully incision during their formation period of ˜40,000 years before the onset of the Holocene. Runoff from bare bedrock source areas high on the crater wall cut into lower debris mantled slopes, where the runoff bulked up and transformed into debris flows that carried boulders down to ˜5 to 8 degree slopes, leaving distinct boulder lined levees and lobate tongues of terminal debris deposits

  20. Emergency Assessment of Postfire Debris-Flow Hazards for the 2009 Station Fire, San Gabriel Mountains, Southern California (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.; Staley, Dennis M.; Worstell, Bruce B.


    Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings were estimated in response to both short recurrence-interval (1- and 2-year) storms for all but the smallest basins along the San Gabriel mountain front between Big Tujunga Canyon and Arroyo Seco. The combination of high probabilities and large magnitudes determined for these basins indicates significant debris-flow hazards for neighborhoods along the mountain front. When the capacity of sediment-retention basins is exceeded, debris flows may be deposited in neighborhoods and streets and impact infrastructure between the mountain front and Foothill Boulevard. In addition, debris flows may be deposited in neighborhoods immediately below unprotected basins. Hazards to neighborhoods and structures at risk from these events will require appropriate debris-flow mitigation and warning efforts.

  1. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  2. The Devdorak ice-rock avalanche and consequent debris flow from the slope of Mt. Kazbek (Caucasus, Georgia) in 2014 (United States)

    Chernomorets, Sergey; Savernyuk, Elena; Petrakov, Dmitry; Dokukin, Mikhail; Gotsiridze, George; Gavardashvili, Givi; Drobyshev, Valery; Tutubalina, Olga; Zaporozhchenko, Eduard; Kamenev, Nikolay; Kamenev, Vladimir; Kääb, Andreas; Kargel, Jeffrey; Huggel, Christian


    the middle and lower course of the valley below 3000 m a.s.l. was about 2 million cubic metres, while the ice content in the deposits reached 25-30%. It is planned to assess the volume of the trigger mass in the initiation zone later. The flow went along the valley with characteristic superelevations and run-ups, as it moved from one valley side to the other. We identified six superelevaions in fresh deposits, with differences of up to 45 m in flow height on the left and right valley banks. Instrumental measurements of superelevations and subsequent calculations yield the flow velocities of over 200 km/hour. These results lead to a reassessment of similar events which occurred in this valley in 18-19th centuries. Previously the trigger of these events was supposed to be the ice accumulation during surges of Devdorak glacier with subsequent temporary damming of the Amilishka River valley. The analysis of the 2014 event demonstrates that a similar trigger was possible in the past: an ice-rock avalanche onto Devdorak glacier tongue from significantly higher locations. Following the field data analysis, we issued a warning through mass media on 12 August 2014, forecasting a high risk of a new glacial disaster in this site and a new blockage of the Terek River valley and of Military Georgian Road. This forecast came true on 20 August 2014: a glacial debris flow reached the Terek River valley, and partially buried the Dariali hydropower station (under construction), the customs and border control buildings. Three people have been killed. We studied the deposits of this debris flow and morphology of the gully. The deposits entrained by the flow were previously deposited by the ice-rock avalanche of 17 May 2014. The debris flow started after shower rains. The debris flow-gully has a box-like crossection. At the confluence of Amilishka and Chach rivers it reached 30-32 m in width, and eroded the deposits of 17 May 2014 by 7 m. The channel slope at this location was about 7

  3. Floating tumor debris. A cause of intermittent biliary obstruction. (United States)

    Roslyn, J J; Kuchenbecker, S; Longmire, W P; Tompkins, R K


    Tumor debris, free-floating in the major biliary ductal system, is a cause of intermittent biliary obstruction that has previously not been recognized. Six patients had hepatic neoplasms with episodic jaundice and/or cholangitis due to floating tumor debris. Diagnosis included metastatic adenocarcinoma of the colon (n = 3), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 1), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 1), and cavernous hemangioma (n = 1). All patients underwent biliary exploration, with hepatic resection and transhepatic intubation in two and T-tube placement in four. One patient died in the early postoperative period, and the major complication rate in the five survivors was 0%. Four of the five survivors had no further episodes suggestive of major bile duct obstruction. Our experience emphasizes the importance of distinguishing extrahepatic obstruction secondary to tumor debris from the more common causes of jaundice in patients with tumors and suggests that safe and effective palliation can be achieved in these patients.

  4. Participatory Sensing Marine Debris: Current Trends and Future Opportunities (United States)

    Jambeck, J.; Johnsen, K.


    The monitoring of litter and debris is challenging at the global scale because of spatial and temporal variability, disconnected local organizations and the use of paper and pen for documentation. The Marine Debris Tracker mobile app and citizen science program allows for the collection of global standardized data at a scale, speed and efficiency that was not previously possible. The app itself also serves as an outreach and education tool, creating an engaged participatory sensing instrument. This instrument is characterized by several aspects including range and frequency, accuracy and precision, accessibility, measurement dimensions, participant performance, and statistical analysis. Also, important to Marine Debris Tracker is open data and transparency. A web portal provides data that users have logged allowing immediate feedback to users and additional education opportunities. The engagement of users through a top tracker competition and social media keeps participants interested in the Marine Debris Tracker community. Over half a million items have been tracked globally, and maps provide both global and local distribution of data. The Marine Debris Tracker community and dataset continues to grow daily. We will present current usage and engagement, participatory sensing data distributions, choropleth maps of areas of active tracking, and discuss future technologies and platforms to expand data collection and conduct statistical analysis.

  5. Estimating ice albedo from fine debris cover quantified by a semi-automatic method: the case study of Forni Glacier, Italian Alps (United States)

    Azzoni, Roberto Sergio; Senese, Antonella; Zerboni, Andrea; Maugeri, Maurizio; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina Adele


    In spite of the quite abundant literature focusing on fine debris deposition over glacier accumulation areas, less attention has been paid to the glacier melting surface. Accordingly, we proposed a novel method based on semi-automatic image analysis to estimate ice albedo from fine debris coverage (d). Our procedure was tested on the surface of a wide Alpine valley glacier (the Forni Glacier, Italy), in summer 2011, 2012 and 2013, acquiring parallel data sets of in situ measurements of ice albedo and high-resolution surface images. Analysis of 51 images yielded d values ranging from 0.01 to 0.63 and albedo was found to vary from 0.06 to 0.32. The estimated d values are in a linear relation with the natural logarithm of measured ice albedo (R = -0.84). The robustness of our approach in evaluating d was analyzed through five sensitivity tests, and we found that it is largely replicable. On the Forni Glacier, we also quantified a mean debris coverage rate (Cr) equal to 6 g m-2 per day during the ablation season of 2013, thus supporting previous studies that describe ongoing darkening phenomena at Alpine debris-free glaciers surface. In addition to debris coverage, we also considered the impact of water (both from melt and rainfall) as a factor that tunes albedo: meltwater occurs during the central hours of the day, decreasing the albedo due to its lower reflectivity; instead, rainfall causes a subsequent mean daily albedo increase slightly higher than 20 %, although it is short-lasting (from 1 to 4 days).

  6. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))


    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  7. Soil slips and debris flows on terraced slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Crosta


    Full Text Available Terraces cover large areas along the flanks of many alpine and prealpine valleys. Soil slips and soil slips-debris flows are recurrent phenomena along terraced slopes. These landslides cause damages to people, settlements and cultivations. This study investigates the processes related to the triggering of soil slip-debris flows in these settings, analysing those occurred in Valtellina (Central Alps, Italy on November 2000 after heavy prolonged rainfalls. 260 landslides have been recognised, mostly along the northern valley flank. About 200 soil slips and slumps occurred in terraced areas and a third of them evolved into debris flows. Field work allowed to recognise the settings at soil slip-debris flow source areas. Landslides affected up to 2.5 m of glacial, fluvioglacial and anthropically reworked deposits overlying metamorphic basement. Laboratory and in situ tests allowed to characterise the geotechnical and hydraulic properties of the terrains involved in the initial failure. Several stratigraphic and hydrogeologic factors have been individuated as significant in determining instabilities on terraced slopes. They are the vertical changes of physical soil properties, the presence of buried hollows where groundwater convergence occurs, the rising up of perched groundwater tables, the overflow and lateral infiltration from superficial drainage network, the runoff concentration by means of pathways and the insufficient drainage of retaining walls.

  8. AFSC/ABL: Marine Debris Surveys in Alaska, 1972-2015 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists at the Auke Bay Laboratory have conducted marine debris surveys on select beaches in Alaska periodically since 1972. Some of the beaches previously...

  9. Space Debris Elimination (SpaDE) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The amount of debris in low Earth orbit (LEO) has increased rapidly over the last twenty years. This prevalence of debris increases the likelihood of cascading...

  10. The ecological impacts of marine debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Browne, Mark Anthony; Underwood, A.J.; Franeker, Van Jan A.; Thompson, Richard C.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.


    Anthropogenic debris contaminates marine habitats globally, leading to several perceived ecological impacts. Here, we critically and systematically review the literature regarding impacts of debris from several scientific fields to understand the weight of evidence regarding the ecological

  11. Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act legally establishes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Marine Debris Program. The...

  12. DebriSat Project Update and Planning (United States)

    Sorge, M.; Krisko, P. H.


    DebriSat Reporting Topics: DebriSat Fragment Analysis Calendar; Near-term Fragment Extraction Strategy; Fragment Characterization and Database; HVI (High-Velocity Impact) Considerations; Requirements Document.

  13. CDOT rapid debris removal research project. (United States)


    Highway debris represents a traffic safety problem that requires a prompt response from state or local transportation : agencies. The most common practice for debris removal currently is for agency personnel to leave their vehicles and : remove the d...

  14. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak


    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  15. Characterization of debris flows by rainstorm condition at a torrent on the Mount Yakedake volcano, Japan (United States)

    Okano, Kazuyuki; Suwa, Hiroshi; Kanno, Tadahiro


    We analyzed rainstorm control on debris-flow magnitude and flow characteristics using the 14 sets of rainstorm and debris-flow data obtained from 1980 to 2005 at the Kamikamihorizawa Creek of Mount Yakedake. With the principal component analysis on five parameters of debris flows: frontal velocity, peak velocity, peak flow depth, peak discharge and total discharge, and with video-record of boulder-dams in motion, and the preceding rainfall intensities, we conclude that the 14 debris flows could be categorized into three groups. The flows in the first group have large hydraulic magnitude and massive and turbulent boulder-dams filled with slurry matrix. The flows in the second group have small hydraulic magnitude and boulder-dams scarcely filled with slurry matrix, and the dam is observed to alternate between stopping and starting. The flows in the third group have small hydraulic magnitude and boulder dams filled with slurry matrix. Analysis of hillslope hydrology and debris-flow data asserted that the antecedent rainfall conditions control not only the hydraulic magnitude of debris flows but also the boulder-dam features. Large rainstorms of high intensity and durations as short as 10 minutes induces fast and large storm runoff to the headwaters and the source reaches of debris flow, while rainstorms with durations as long as 24 h raises water content in the bottom deposits along the debris-flow growth reaches and generates substantial runoff from the tributaries. Classification of the three groups is done based on water availability to debris flows on the source and growth reaches at the occurrence of debris flow.

  16. Calibration of numerical models for small debris flows in Yosemite Valley, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bertolo


    Full Text Available This study compares documented debris flow runout distances with numerical simulations in the Yosemite Valley of California, USA, where about 15% of historical events of slope instability can be classified as debris flows and debris slides (Wieczorek and Snyder, 2004. To model debris flows in the Yosemite Valley, we selected six streams with evidence of historical debris flows; three of the debris flow deposits have single channels, and the other three split their pattern in the fan area into two or more channels. From field observations all of the debris flows involved coarse material, with only very small clay content. We applied the one dimensional DAN (Dynamic ANalysis model (Hungr, 1995 and the two-dimensional FLO-2D model (O'Brien et al., 1993 to predict and compare the runout distance and the velocity of the debris flows observed in the study area. As a first step, we calibrated the parameters for the two softwares through the back analysis of three debris- flows channels using a trial-and-error procedure starting with values suggested in the literature. In the second step we applied the selected values to the other channels, in order to evaluate their predictive capabilities. After parameter calibration using three debris flows we obtained results similar to field observations We also obtained a good agreement between the two models for velocities. Both models are strongly influenced by topography: we used the 30 m cell size DTM available for the study area, that is probably not accurate enough for a highly detailed analysis, but it can be sufficient for a first screening.

  17. Orbital Debris and Future Environment Remediation (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi


    This slide presentation is an overview of the historical and current orbital debris environment. Included is information about: Projected growth of the future debris population, The need for active debris removal (ADR), A grand challenge for the 21st century and The forward path

  18. Detailed debris flow hazard assessment in Andorra: A multidisciplinary approach (United States)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Copons, Ramon; Altimir, Joan


    In many mountainous areas, the rapid development of urbanisation and the limited space in the valley floors have created a need to construct buildings in zones potentially exposed to debris flow hazard. In these zones, a detailed and coherent hazard assessment is necessary to provide an adequate urban planning. This article presents a multidisciplinary procedure to evaluate the debris flow hazard at a local scale. Our four-step approach was successfully applied to five torrent catchments in the Principality of Andorra, located in the Pyrenees. The first step consisted of a comprehensive geomorphologic and geologic analysis providing an inventory map of the past debris flows, a magnitude-frequency relationship, and a geomorphologic-geologic map. These data were necessary to determine the potential initiation zones and volumes of future debris flows for each catchment. A susceptibility map and different scenarios were the principal outcome of the first step, as well as essential input data for the second step, the runout analysis. A one-dimensional numerical code was applied to analyse the scenarios previously defined. First, the critical channel sections in the fan area were evaluated, then the maximum runout of the debris flows on the fan was studied, and finally simplified intensity maps for each defined scenario were established. The third step of our hazard assessment was the hazard zonation and the compilation of all the results from the two previous steps in a final hazard map. The base of this hazard map was the hazard matrix, which combined the intensity of the debris flow with its probability of occurrence and determined a certain hazard degree. The fourth step referred to the hazard mitigation and included some recommendations for hazard reduction. In Andorra, this four-step approach is actually being applied to assess the debris flow hazard. The final hazard maps, at 1 : 2000 scale, provide an obligatory tool for local land use planning. Experience

  19. Particle-Scale Studies of the Influence of the Properties of the Matrix of a Debris Flow on its Erosional Behavior (United States)

    Hill, K. M.; Mullenbach, J.; Ghasemi, A.; Feng, Q.; Fritton, P.


    Debris flows - massive flows of fluid and particles - create significant hazard for communities established in or near mountainous regions. Recent field and laboratory observations have indicated that the nature of the matrix of rocky debris flows - the muddy or watery interstitial fluid among the gravel and boulders - can have a significant influence on the flow behaviors of a debris flow, from local sorting behaviors to entrainment and depositional behaviors. In this presentation, we report on our experimental investigations of the influence of the rheology and relative density of the matrix of a debris flow on its behaviors using laboratory experiments of particle-fluid flows and their erosive behaviors. To do so, we perform laboratory experiments of erosive debris flows where we systematically vary the interstitial fluid in our debris flow and the erodible bed over which it flows. We track the particles throughout the experiment along with pore fluid pressure which enables us to determine the instantaneous flow dynamics and correlations in the flow and erosion behavior. We find that entrainment rate varies substantially with interstitial fluid viscosity, essentially increasing with decreasing interstitial fluid viscosity, yet this relationship is not strictly monotonic and varies in time. We use these variations as a basis to investigate four specific mechanisms previously suggested responsible for entrainment by debris flows: (1) bed shear stress, (2) granular temperature (essentially, correlated velocity fluctuations), (3) pore fluid pressures, and (4) excess pore fluid pressure (measured pore pressure that exceeds that associated with the weight of the interstitial fluid). We find that both average and instantaneous bed shear stresses and granular temperatures are poorly correlated with associated entrainment rates. Rather, the excess pore pressure is well correlated with entrainment rates, particularly under conditions when the entrainment rate is the

  20. As main meal for sperm whales: plastics debris. (United States)

    de Stephanis, Renaud; Giménez, Joan; Carpinelli, Eva; Gutierrez-Exposito, Carlos; Cañadas, Ana


    Marine debris has been found in marine animals since the early 20th century, but little is known about the impacts of the ingestion of debris in large marine mammals. In this study we describe a case of mortality of a sperm whale related to the ingestion of large amounts of marine debris in the Mediterranean Sea (4th published case worldwide to our knowledge), and discuss it within the context of the spatial distribution of the species and the presence of anthropogenic activities in the area that could be the source of the plastic debris found inside the sperm whale. The spatial distribution modelled for the species in the region shows that these animals can be seen in two distinct areas: near the waters of Almería, Granada and Murcia and in waters near the Strait of Gibraltar. The results shows how these animals feed in waters near an area completely flooded by the greenhouse industry, making them vulnerable to its waste products if adequate treatment of this industry's debris is not in place. Most types of these plastic materials have been found in the individual examined and cause of death was presumed to be gastric rupture following impaction with debris, which added to a previous problem of starvation. The problem of plastics arising from greenhouse agriculture should have a relevant section in the conservation plans and should be a recommendation from ACCOBAMS due to these plastics' and sperm whales' high mobility in the Mediterranean Sea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Young Debris Disks With Newly Discovered Emission Features (United States)

    Ballering, N.


    We analyzed the Spitzer/IRS spectra of young A and F stars that host debris disks with previously unidentified silicate emission features. Such features probe small, warm dust grains in the inner regions of these young systems where terrestrial planet formation may be proceeding (Lisse et al. 2009). For most systems, these regions are too near their host star to be directly seen with high-contrast imaging and too warm to be imaged with submillimeter interferometers. Mid-infrared excess spectra - originating from the thermal emission of the debris disk dust - remain the best data to constrain the properties of the debris in these regions. For each target, we fit physically-motivated model spectra to the data. Typical spectra of unresolved debris disks are featureless and suffer severe degeneracies between the dust location and the grain properties; however, spectra with solid-state emission features provide significantly more information, allowing for a more accurate determination of the dust size, composition, and location (e.g. Chen et al. 2006; Olofsson et al. 2012). Our results shed light on the dynamic properties occurring in the terrestrial regions of these systems. For instance, the sizes of the smallest grains and the nature of the grain size distribution reveal whether the dust originates from steady-state collisional cascades or from stochastic collisions. The properties of the dust grains - such as their crystalline or amorphous structure - can inform us of grain processing mechanisms in the disk. The location of this debris illuminates where terrestrial planet forming activity is occurring. We used results from the Beta Pictoris - which has a well-resolved debris disk with emission features (Li et al. 2012) - to place our results in context. References: Chen et al. 2006, ApJS, 166, 351 Li et al. 2012, ApJ, 759, 81 Lisse et al. 2009, ApJ, 701, 2019 Olofsson et al. 2012, A&A, 542, A90

  2. Colisional Cloud Debris and Propelled Evasive Maneuvers (United States)

    Ferreira, L. S.; Jesus, A. D. C.; Carvalho, T. C. F.; Sousa, R. R.


    Space debris clouds exist at various altitudes in the environment outside the Earth. Fragmentation of debris and/or collision between the debris of a cloud increases the amount of debris, producing smaller debris. This event also increases significantly the chances of collision with operational vehicles in orbit. In this work we study clouds of debris that are close to a spacecraft in relation to its distance from the center of the Earth. The results show several layers of colliding debris depending on their size over time of evasive maneuvers of the vehicle. In addition, we have tested such maneuvers for propulsion systems with a linear and exponential mass variation model. The results show that the linear propulsion system is more efficient.

  3. Numerical Modeling of Debris Flow Force Caused by Climate Change and Its application to Check Dam (United States)

    KIM, S. D.; Jun, K.; JUN, B. H.; Lee, H. J.; TAK, W. J.


    Due to global warming, climate change cause a super hurricane and heavy rainfall frequently. Heavy rainfall cause by debris flow in mountainous terrains, and disasters by debris flow force have continuously increased. The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of debris flow force acting on the check dam. The numerical approach to the debris flow force was performed by the Finite Difference Method (FDM) based on the erosion-deposition combination model including the equation of continuity, mass conservation, and momentum conservation. In order to investigate behavior of the debris flow force according to the variance of supplying water discharge and channel slope angle, a rectangular straight channel and one closed type check dam was set up for conducting numerical simulations. As the supply water discharges increase, the curve of the impact force by debris flow becomes unstable and fluctuation with high impact force occurred as time passes. And the peak impact force showed a steeper slope and appeared more quickly, the high impact force undergoes a fluctuation with high speed, and acting on the check dam. At the mountainous upstream, strong rainfall energy provoke a repeat erosion and deposition which results in debris flow force causing much damage along the check dam at the mountainous place. The analyses of the present study help provide information to predict future debris flow force and how to design for the check dam. This research was supported by a grant [MPSS-NH-2014-74] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government

  4. Reduction Effect Analysis of Erosion Control Facilities Using Debris Flow Numerical Model (United States)

    Jun, Kyewon; Kim, Younghwan; Oh, Chaeyeon; Lee, Hojin; Kim, SoungDoug


    With the increase in frequency of typhoons and heavy rains following the climate change, the scale of damage from the calamities in the mountainous areas has been growing larger and larger, which is different from the past. For the case of Korea where 64% of land is consisted of the mountainous areas, establishment of the check dams has been drastically increased after 2000 in order to reduce the damages from the debris flow. However, due to the lack of data on scale, location and kind of check dams established for reducing the damages in debris flow, the measures to prevent damages based on experience and subjective basis have to be relied on. This study, the high-precision DEM data was structured by using the terrestrial LiDAR in the Jecheon area where the debris flow damage occurred in July 2009. And, from the numerical models of the debris flow, Kanako-2D that is available to reflect the erosion and deposition action was applied to install the erosion control facilities (water channel, check dam) and analyzed the effect of reducing the debris flow shown in the downstream. After installing the erosion control facilities, most of debris flow moves along the water channel to reduce the area to expand the debris flow, and after installing the check dam, the flow depth and flux of the debris flow were reduced along with the erosion. However, even after constructing the erosion control facilities, damages were still inflicted on private residences or agricultural sites located on the upper regions where the deposition was made. Acknowledgments This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education(NRF-2016R1D1A3B03933362)

  5. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations (United States)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.


    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  6. Debris flows from small catchments of the Ma Ha Tuak Range, metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona (United States)

    Dorn, Ronald I.


    Debris flows debauch from tiny but steep mountain catchments throughout metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Urban growth in the past half-decade has led to home construction directly underneath hundreds of debris-flow channels, but debris flows are not recognized as a potential hazard at present. One of the first steps in a hazard assessment is to determine occurrence rates. The north flank of the Ma Ha Tuak Range, just 10 km from downtown Phoenix, was selected to determine the feasibility of using the varnish microlaminations (VML) method to date every debris-flow levee from 127 catchment areas. Only 152 of the 780 debris-flow levees yielded VML ages in a first round of sampling; this high failure rate is due to erosion of VML by microcolonial fungi. The temporal pattern of preserved debris-flow levees indicates anomalously high production of debris flows at about 8.1 ka and about 2.8 ka, corresponding to Northern Hemisphere climatic anomalies. Because many prior debris flows are obliterated by newer events, the minimum overall occurrence rates of 1.3 debris flows per century for the last 60 ka, 2.2 flows/century for the latest Pleistocene, and 5 flows/century for the last 8.1 ka has little meaning in assessment of a contemporary hazard. This is because newer debris flows have obliterated an unknown number of past deposits. More meaningful to a hazards analysis is the estimate that 56 flows have occurred in the last 100 years on the north side of the range, an estimate that is consistent with direct observations of three small debris flows resulting events from a January 18-22, 2010 storm producing 70 mm of precipitation in the Ma Ha Tuak Range, and a 500 m long debris flow in a northern metropolitan Phoenix location that received over 150 mm of precipitation in this same storm. These findings support the need for a more extensive hazard assessment of debris flows in metropolitan Phoenix.

  7. Debris flows resulting from glacial-lake outburst floods in tibet, China (United States)

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Cheng, Z.; Scott, K.


    During the last 70 years of general climatic amelioration, 18 glacial-lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and related debris flows have occurred from 15 moraine-dammed lakes in Tibet, China. Catastrophic loss of life and property has occurred because of the following factors: the large volumes of water discharged, the steep gradients of the U-shaped channels, and the amount and texture of the downstream channel bed and bank material. The peak discharge of each GLOF exceeded 1000 m3/s. These flood discharges transformed to non-cohesive debris flows if the channels contained sufficient loose sediment for entrainment (bulking) and if their gradients were >1%. We focus on this key element, transformation, and suggest that it be included in evaluating future GLOF-related risk, the probability of transformation to debris flow and hyperconcentrated flow. The general, sequential evolution of the flows can be described as from proximal GLOFs, to sedimentladen streamflow, to hyperconcentrated flow, to non-cohesive debris flow (viscous or cohesive debris flow only if sufficient fine sediment is present), and then, distally, back to hyperconcentrated flow and sediment-laden streamflow as sediment is progressively deposited. Most of the Tibet examples transformed only to non-cohesive debris flows. The important lesson for future hazard assessment and mitigation planning is that, as a GLOF entrains (bulks) enough sediment to become a debris flow, the flow volume must increase by at least three times (the "bulking factor"). In fact, the transforming flow waves overrun and mix with downstream streamflow, in addition to adding the entrained sediment (and thus enabling addition of yet more sediment and a bulking factor in excess of three times). To effectively reduce the risk of GLOF debris flows, reducing the level of a potentially dangerous lake with a siphon or excavated spillway or installing gabions in combination with a downstream debris dam are the primary approaches.

  8. Marine debris in bottom trawl catches and their effects on the selectivity grids in the north eastern Mediterranean. (United States)

    Eryaşar, Ahmet Raif; Özbilgin, Hüseyin; Gücü, Ali Cemal; Sakınan, Serdar


    In this study composition of marine debris and their blocking potential on the selectivity grid systems deployed on demersal trawls were investigated in the north eastern Mediterranean. For this, a total of 132 hauls were examined in two fishing season between 20 September 2010 and 19 February 2012. Results showed that plastic items were the most abundant debris (73% in terms of weight) and they were followed by metals (10%). Because of plastics and packing debris, it is highly probable that grids may have been blocked in 85% of trawl hauls. The bathymetric and geographical variability in the quantity of debris were evaluated, and concluded that particularly in some areas where direction of currents and bottom topography favor deposition, such devices may easily be rendered ineffective by the plastics and packing debris in particular. To solve this problem, several solution proposals are submitted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on recriticality of fuel debris during hypothetical severe accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Shin, S.T.


    A study has been performed to measure the potential of recriticality during hypothetical severe accident in Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). For the lumped debris configuration in the Reactor Coolant System (RCS), as found in the previous study, recriticality potential may be very low. However, if fuel debris is dispersed and mixed with heavy water in RCS, recriticality potential has been predicted to be substantial depending on thermal-hydraulic conditions surrounding fuel debris mixture. The recriticality potential in RCS is substantially reduced for the three element core design with 50% enrichment. Also, as observed in the previous study, strong dependencies of k eff on key thermal hydraulic parameters are shown. Light water contamination is shown to provide a positive reactivity, and void formation due to boiling of mixed water provides enough negative reactivity and to bring the system down to subcritical. For criticality potential in the subpile room, the lumped debris configuration does not pose a concern. Dispersed configuration in light water pool of the subpile room is also unlikely to result in criticality. However, if the debris is dispersed in the pool that is mixed with heavy water, the results indicate that a substantial potential exists for the debris to reach the criticality. However, if prompt recriticality disperses the debris completely in the subpile room pool, subsequent recriticality may be prevented since neutron leakage effects become large enough

  10. Flume tests to study the initiation of huge debris flows after the Wenchuan earthquake in S-WChina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiang; van Asch, Theo.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304839558; Zhua, X; Xu, Q.Q.


    In the Wenchuan area in the southwest of China, a huge amount of loose co-seismic landslide material was deposited on slopes during the Wenchuan earthquake of May 2008. These loose deposits formed the source material for rainfall-induced debris flows or shallow landslides in the years after the

  11. Behavior of explosion debris clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    In the normal course of events the behavior of debris clouds created by explosions will be of little concern to the atomic energy industry. However, two situations, one of them actual and one postulated, exist where the rise and spread of explosion clouds can affect site operations. The actual occurrence would be the detonation of nuclear weapons and the resultant release and transport of radioactive debris across the various atomic energy installations. Although the activity of the diffusing cloud is not of biological concern, it may still be sufficiently above background to play havoc with the normal readings of sensitive monitoring instruments. If it were not known that these anomalous readings resulted from explosion debris, considerable time and expense might be required for on-site testing and tracing. Fortunately it is usually possible, with the use of meteorological data and forecasts, to predict when individual sites are affected by nuclear weapon debris effects. The formation rise, and diffusion of weapon clouds will be discussed. The explosion of an atomic reactor is the postulated situation. It is common practice in reactor hazard analysis to assume a combination of circumstances which might result in a nuclear incident with a release of material to the atmosphere. It is not within the scope of this report to examine the manifold plausibilities that might lead to an explosion or the possible methods of release of gaseous and/or particulates from such an occurrence. However, if the information of a cloud is assumed and some idea of its energy content is obtainable, estimates of the cloud behavior in the atmosphere can be made

  12. Space Debris and Observational Astronomy (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick


    Since the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, astronomers have faced an increasing number of artificial objects contaminating their images of the night sky. Currently almost 17000 objects larger than 10 cm are tracked and have current orbits in the public catalog. Active missions are only a small fraction of these objects. Most are inactive satellites, rocket bodies, and fragments of larger objects: all space debris. Several mega-constellations are planned which will increase this number by 20% or more in low Earth orbit (LEO). In terms of observational astronomy, this population of Earth orbiting objects has three implications: 1) the number of streaks and glints from spacecraft will only increase. There are some practical steps that can be taken to minimize the number of such streaks and glints in astronomical imaging data. 2) The risk to damage to orbiting astronomical telescopes will only increase, particularly those in LEO. 3) If you are working on a plan for an orbiting telescope project, then there are specific steps that must be taken to minimize space debris generation during the mission lifetime, and actions to safely dispose of the spacecraft at end of mission to prevent it from becoming space debris and a risk to other missions. These steps may involve sacrifices to mission performance and lifetime, but are essential in today's orbital environment.

  13. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Debris Assessment (United States)

    Kendall, Kristin; Kanner, Howard; Yu, Weiping


    The Space Shuttle Columbia Accident revealed a fundamental problem of the Space Shuttle Program regarding debris. Prior to the tragedy, the Space Shuttle requirement stated that no debris should be liberated that would jeopardize the flight crew and/or mission success. When the accident investigation determined that a large piece of foam debris was the primary cause of the loss of the shuttle and crew, it became apparent that the risk and scope of - damage that could be caused by certain types of debris, especially - ice and foam, were not fully understood. There was no clear understanding of the materials that could become debris, the path the debris might take during flight, the structures the debris might impact or the damage the impact might cause. In addition to supporting the primary NASA and USA goal of returning the Space Shuttle to flight by understanding the SRB debris environment and capability to withstand that environment, the SRB debris assessment project was divided into four primary tasks that were required to be completed to support the RTF goal. These tasks were (1) debris environment definition, (2) impact testing, (3) model correlation and (4) hardware evaluation. Additionally, the project aligned with USA's corporate goals of safety, customer satisfaction, professional development and fiscal accountability.

  14. Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in San Francisco Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M Bouse


    Full Text Available The hydraulic gold-mining process used during the California Gold Rush and in many developing countries today contributes enormous amounts of sediment to rivers and streams. Commonly, accompanying this sediment are contaminants such as elemental mercury and cyanide used in the gold extraction process. We show that some of the mercury-contaminated sediment created by hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, between 1852 and 1884, ended up over 250 kilometers (km away in San Francisco Bay; an example of the far-reaching extent of contamination from such activities. A combination of radionuclide dating, bathymetric reconstruction, and geochemical tracers were used to distinguish the hydraulic mining sediment from sediment deposited in the bay before hydraulic mining started (pre-Gold Rush sediment and sediment deposited after hydraulic mining stopped (modern sediment. Three San Francisco Bay cores were studied as well as source material from the abandoned hydraulic gold mines and river sediment between the mines and bay. Isotopic and geochemical compositions of the core sediments show a geochemical shift in sediment deposited during the time of hydraulic mining. The geochemical shift is characterized by a decrease in εNd, total organic carbon (TOC, Sr and Ca concentrations, Ca/Sr, and Ni/Zr; and, an increase in 87Sr/86Sr, Al/Ca, Hg concentrations, and quartz/plagioclase. This shift is in the direction of the geochemical signature of sediments from rivers and gold mines in hydraulic mining areas. Mixing calculations using Nd isotopes and concentrations estimate that the hydraulic mining debris comprises up to 56% of the sediment in core sediments deposited during the time of hydraulic mining. The surface sediment of cores taken in 1990 were found to contain up to 43% hydraulic mining debris, reflecting a continuing remobilization and redistribution of the debris within the bay and transport from the watershed. Mercury concentrations in pre

  15. Sampling and Analysis Plan for K Basins Debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Sampling and Analysis Plan presents the rationale and strategy for sampling and analysis activities to support removal of debris from the K-East and K-West Basins located in the 100K Area at the Hanford Site. This project is focused on characterization to support waste designation for disposal of waste at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material has previously been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds or Central Waste Complex. The structures that house the basins are classified as radioactive material areas. Therefore, all materials removed from the buildings are presumed to be radioactively contaminated. Because most of the materials that will be addressed under this plan will be removed from the basins, and because of the cost associated with screening materials for release, it is anticipated that all debris will be managed as low-level waste. Materials will be surveyed, however, to estimate radionuclide content for disposal and to determine that the debris is not contaminated with levels of transuranic radionuclides that would designate the debris as transuranic waste.

  16. Sampling and Analysis Plan for K Basins Debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This Sampling and Analysis Plan presents the rationale and strategy for sampling and analysis activities to support removal of debris from the K-East and K-West Basins located in the 100K Area at the Hanford Site. This project is focused on characterization to support waste designation for disposal of waste at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material has previously been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds or Central Waste Complex. The structures that house the basins are classified as radioactive material areas. Therefore, all materials removed from the buildings are presumed to be radioactively contaminated. Because most of the materials that will be addressed under this plan will be removed from the basins, and because of the cost associated with screening materials for release, it is anticipated that all debris will be managed as low-level waste. Materials will be surveyed, however, to estimate radionuclide content for disposal and to determine that the debris is not contaminated with levels of transuranic radionuclides that would designate the debris as transuranic waste

  17. Granular Dilatancy and its Effect on Debris-flow Dynamics (United States)

    Iverson, R. M.; George, D. L.


    properties of debris, if they are known. To date we have employed only geotechnical-property values measured in conjunction with USGS debris-flow flume experiments. Thus, our model predictions have involved no calibration. Our model predictions match many aspects of the behavior of the 2010 debris flow at Mount Meager (reported by Guthrie et al., DOI: 10.5194/nhess-12-1-2012). The flow originated as a landslide, descended about 8 km along Capricorn Creek, and then split when it encountered the canyon of Meager Creek at a right angle. Part of the flow subsequently traveled upstream along Meager Creek, while most of the flow descended Meager Creek and formed a large depositional fan where Meager Creek joins the Lillooet River. The model replicates this multidimensional flow behavior and illustrates the complex dynamics of flow runup at the confluence of Capricorn and Meager creeks.

  18. Characteristics of meso-sized plastic marine debris on 20 beaches in Korea. (United States)

    Lee, Jongsu; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Hong, Sang Hee; Shim, Won Joon; Eo, Soeun


    We surveyed the abundance and accumulation patterns of mesoplastic marine debris (5-25mm) on 20 beaches in Korea. The mean abundance of it was 13.2items/m 2 , and the mean weight was 1.5g/m 2 . Hard plastic and Styrofoam were the dominant types. The proportions of hard plastic and Styrofoam were highly variable among the beaches, each accounting for 0-100% of the total debris on a given beach with 32% and 48.5% (by number) on average, respectively. Relatively lower abundances of mesoplastic marine debris compared with our previous studies were likely due by differences of the sampling areas within the beach. The samples of this research were selected from backshore, middle line, and water edge whereas they were selected from high strandline and backshore in our previous studies. It should be considered when discussing the level of mesoplastic marine debris. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating tsunami hazards from debris flows (United States)

    Watts, P.; Walder, J.S.; ,


    Debris flows that enter water bodies may have significant kinetic energy, some of which is transferred to water motion or waves that can impact shorelines and structures. The associated hazards depend on the location of the affected area relative to the point at which the debris flow enters the water. Three distinct regions (splash zone, near field, and far field) may be identified. Experiments demonstrate that characteristics of the near field water wave, which is the only coherent wave to emerge from the splash zone, depend primarily on debris flow volume, debris flow submerged time of motion, and water depth at the point where debris flow motion stops. Near field wave characteristics commonly may be used as & proxy source for computational tsunami propagation. This result is used to assess hazards associated with potential debris flows entering a reservoir in the northwestern USA. ?? 2003 Millpress,.

  20. The impact of debris on marine life. (United States)

    Gall, S C; Thompson, R C


    Marine debris is listed among the major perceived threats to biodiversity, and is cause for particular concern due to its abundance, durability and persistence in the marine environment. An extensive literature search reviewed the current state of knowledge on the effects of marine debris on marine organisms. 340 original publications reported encounters between organisms and marine debris and 693 species. Plastic debris accounted for 92% of encounters between debris and individuals. Numerous direct and indirect consequences were recorded, with the potential for sublethal effects of ingestion an area of considerable uncertainty and concern. Comparison to the IUCN Red List highlighted that at least 17% of species affected by entanglement and ingestion were listed as threatened or near threatened. Hence where marine debris combines with other anthropogenic stressors it may affect populations, trophic interactions and assemblages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biodiversity: invasions by marine life on plastic debris. (United States)

    Barnes, David K A


    Colonization by alien species poses one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Here I investigate the colonization by marine organisms of drift debris deposited on the shores of 30 remote islands from the Arctic to the Antarctic (across all oceans) and find that human litter more than doubles the rafting opportunities for biota, particularly at high latitudes. Although the poles may be protected from invasion by freezing sea surface temperatures, these may be under threat as the fastest-warming areas anywhere are at these latitudes.

  2. Debris flow impact on mitigation barriers: a new method for particle-fluid-structure interactions (United States)

    Marchelli, Maddalena; Pirulli, Marina; Pudasaini, Shiva P.


    Channelized debris-flows are a type of mass movements that involve water-charged, predominantly coarse-grained inorganic and organic material flowing rapidly down steep confined pre-existing channels (Van Dine, 1985). Due to their rapid movements and destructive power, structural mitigation measures have become an integral part of counter measures against these phenomena, to mitigate and prevent damages resulting from debris-flow impact on urbanized areas. In particular, debris barriers and storage basins, with some form of debris-straining structures incorporated into the barrier constructed across the path of a debris-flow, have a dual role to play: (1) to stimulate deposition by presenting a physical obstruction against flow, and (2) to guarantee that during normal conditions stream water and bedload can pass through the structure; while, during and after an extreme event, the water that is in the flow and some of the fine-grained sediment can escape. A new method to investigate the dynamic interactions between the flowing mass and the debris barrier is presented, with particular emphasis on the effect of the barrier in controlling the water and sediment content of the escaping mass. This aspect is achieved by implementing a new mechanical model into an enhanced two-phase dynamical mass flow model (Pudasaini, 2012), in which solid particles mixture and viscous fluid are taken into account. The complex mechanical model is defined as a function of the energy lost during impact, the physical and geometrical properties of the debris barrier, separate but strongly interacting dynamics of boulder and fluid flows during the impact, particle concentration distribution, and the slope characteristics. The particle-filtering-process results in a large variation in the rheological properties of the fluid-dominated escaping mass, including the substantial reduction in the bulk density, and the inertial forces of the debris-flows. Consequently, the destructive power and run

  3. Marine debris occurrence and treatment: A review


    Iñiguez, María Esperanza; Conesa, Juan A.; Fullana, Andres


    Marine debris produces a wide variety of negative environmental, economic, safety, health and cultural impacts. Most marine litter has a very low decomposition rate (as plastics, which are the most abundant type of marine debris), leading to a gradual, but significant accumulation in the coastal and marine environment. Along that time, marine debris is a significant source of chemical contaminants to the marine environment. Once extracted from the water, incineration is the method most widely...

  4. Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains : mobility, hazard assessment and mitigation strategies (United States)

    Scott, Kevin M.; Macias, Jose Luis; Naranjo, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Sergio; McGeehin, John P.


    Communities in lowlands near volcanoes are vulnerable to significant volcanic flow hazards in addition to those associated directly with eruptions. The largest such risk is from debris flows beginning as volcanic landslides, with the potential to travel over 100 kilometers. Stratovolcanic edifices commonly are hydrothermal aquifers composed of unstable, altered rock forming steep slopes at high altitudes, and the terrain surrounding them is commonly mantled by readily mobilized, weathered airfall and ashflow deposits. We propose that volcano hazard assessments integrate the potential for unanticipated debris flows with, at active volcanoes, the greater but more predictable potential of magmatically triggered flows. This proposal reinforces the already powerful arguments for minimizing populations in potential flow pathways below both active and selected inactive volcanoes. It also addresses the potential for volcano flank collapse to occur with instability early in a magmatic episode, as well as the 'false-alarm problem'-the difficulty in evacuating the potential paths of these large mobile flows. Debris flows that transform from volcanic landslides, characterized by cohesive (muddy) deposits, create risk comparable to that of their syneruptive counterparts of snow and ice-melt origin, which yield noncohesive (granular) deposits, because: (1) Volcano collapses and the failures of airfall- and ashflow-mantled slopes commonly yield highly mobile debris flows as well as debris avalanches with limited runout potential. Runout potential of debris flows may increase several fold as their volumes enlarge beyond volcanoes through bulking (entrainment) of sediment. Through this mechanism, the runouts of even relatively small collapses at Cascade Range volcanoes, in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 cubic kilometers, can extend to populated lowlands. (2) Collapse is caused by a variety of triggers: tectonic and volcanic earthquakes, gravitational failure, hydrovolcanism, and

  5. DebriSat Pre Preshot Laboratory Analyses (United States)


    panels consisting of fiberglass (E-glass, #1,2,4,5), stainless steel mesh (#3) and Kevlar (#6,7). In contrast to the DebriSat and Debris-LV impact...shield supplied by NASA which consisted of seven bumper panels consisting of fiberglass (E-glass, #1,2,4,5), stainless steel mesh (#3) and Kevlar (#6,7...bumper panels of fiberglass, stainless steel mesh and Kevlar . – No “soft catch “ panels were installed (unlike Debris-LV and DebriSat). – Test conducted

  6. Small satellites and space debris issues (United States)

    Yakovlev, M.; Kulik, S.; Agapov, V.


    The objective of this report is the analysis of the tendencies in designing of small satellites (SS) and the effect of small satellites on space debris population. It is shown that SS to include nano- and pico-satellites should be considered as a particularly dangerous source of space debris when elaborating international standards and legal documents concerning the space debris problem, in particular "International Space Debris Mitigation Standard". These issues are in accordance with the IADC goals in its main activity areas and should be carefully considered within the IADC framework.

  7. Size distribution of stranded small plastic debris on the coast of Guangdong, South China. (United States)

    Fok, Lincoln; Cheung, Pui Kwan; Tang, Guangda; Li, Wai Chin


    Beach environments are known to be conducive to fragmentation of plastic debris, and highly fragmented plastic particles can interact with smaller organisms. Even through stranded plastic debris may not interact directly with marine organisms, backwash processes may transport this debris back to coastal waters, where it may affect a wide range of marine life at different trophic levels. This study analysed the size distribution of stranded plastic debris (plastic debris by abundance and 71% by weight, indicating that the plastic debris on these coastal beaches was highly fragmented and the majority of the plastic masses belonged to the microplastic size range. The observed size distributions of PS foams and fragments are believed to result from continued fragmentation. Previous studies found that the residence time of beached debris was less than one year on average, and no sign of plastic accumulation with depth in beach sediment was observed. Therefore, coastal beaches may represent a reservoir of highly fragmented and degraded microplastics that may be mobilised and returned to the sea during storm events. Further research on the dynamics and longevity of microplastics on beaches will help reveal the mass balance of microplastics on the shoreline and determine whether shorelines are sinks or sources of microplastics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of the annual flow and stock of marine debris in South Korea for management purposes. (United States)

    Jang, Yong Chang; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Mok, Jin Yong; Kim, Kyoung Shin; Lee, Yun Jeong; Choi, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hongmook; Lee, Sukhui


    The annual flow and stock of marine debris in the Sea of Korea was estimated by summarizing previous survey results and integrating them with other relevant information to underpin the national marine debris management plan. The annual inflow of marine debris was estimated to be 91,195 tons [32,825 tons (36% of the total) from sources on land and 58,370 tons (64%) from ocean sources]. As of the end of 2012, the total stock of marine debris on all South Korean coasts (12,029 tons), the seabed (137,761 tons), and in the water column (2451 tons) was estimated to be 152,241 tons. In 2012, 42,595 tons of marine debris was collected from coasts, seabeds, and the water column. This is a very rare case study that estimated the amount of marine debris at a national level, the results of which provide essential information for the development of efficient marine debris management policies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On predicting debris flows in arid mountain belts (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Langer, Maria; Blöthe, Jan Henrik; Korup, Oliver


    The use of topographic metrics for estimating the susceptibility to, and reconstructing the characteristics of, debris flows has a long research tradition, although largely devoted to humid mountainous terrain. The exceptional 2010 monsoonal rainstorms in the high-altitude mountain desert of Ladakh and Zanskar, NW India, were a painful reminder of how susceptible arid regions are to rainfall-triggered flash floods, landslides, and debris flows. The rainstorms of August 4-6 triggered numerous debris flows, killing 182 people, devastating 607 houses, and more than 10 bridges around Ladakh's capital of Leh. The lessons from this disaster motivated us to revisit methods of predicting (a) flow parameters such as peak discharge and maximum velocity from field and remote sensing data, and (b) the susceptibility to debris flows from catchment morphometry. We focus on quantifying uncertainties tied to these approaches. Comparison of high-resolution satellite images pre- and post-dating the 2010 rainstorm reveals the extent of damage and catastrophic channel widening. Computations based on these geomorphic markers indicate maximum flow velocities of 1.6-6.7 m s- 1 with runout of up to ~ 10 km on several alluvial fans that sustain most of the region's settlements. We estimate median peak discharges of 310-610 m3 s- 1, which are largely consistent with previous estimates. Monte Carlo-based error propagation for a single given flow-reconstruction method returns a variance in discharge similar to one derived from juxtaposing several different flow reconstruction methods. We further compare discriminant analysis, classification tree modelling, and Bayesian logistic regression to predict debris-flow susceptibility from morphometric variables of 171 catchments in the Ladakh Range. These methods distinguish between fluvial and debris flow-prone catchments at similar success rates, but Bayesian logistic regression allows quantifying uncertainties and relationships between potential

  10. Experimental study on the rheological behaviour of debris flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Scotto di Santolo


    Full Text Available A model able to describe all the processes involved in a debris flow can be very complex owing to the sudden changing of the material that turns from solid into liquid state. The two phases of the phenomenon are analysed separately referring to soil mechanics procedures with regard to the trigger phase, and to an equivalent fluid for the post-failure phase. The present paper is devoted to show the experimental results carried out to evaluate the behaviour assumed by a pyroclastic-derived soil during the flow. A traditional fluid tool has been utilized: a standard rotational rheometer equipped with two different geometries. The soils tested belong to deposits that cover the slopes of the Campania region, Italy, often affected by debris flows. The influence of solid concentration Cv and grain size distribution was tested: the soils were destructurated, sieved and mixed with water starting from the in situ porosity. All material mixtures showed a non-Newtonian fluid behaviour with a yield stress τy that increases with a solid volumetric concentration and decreases for an increase of sand fraction. The experimental data were fitted with standard model for fluids. A simple relation between Cv and τy was obtained. The yield stress seems to be a key parameter for describing and predicting the post-failure behaviour of debris flows. These results suggest that in the field a small change in solid fraction, due to rainfall, will cause a slight decrease of the static yield stress, readily inducing a rapid flow which will stop only when the dynamic yield stress is reached, namely on a much smoother slope. This can explain the in situ observed post-failure behaviour of debris flows, which are able to flow over very long distances even on smooth slopes.

  11. Exploiting Maximum Entropy method and ASTER data for assessing debris flow and debris slide susceptibility for the Giampilieri catchment (north-eastern Sicily, Italy).

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, Luigi


    This study aims at evaluating the performance of the Maximum Entropy method in assessing landslide susceptibility, exploiting topographic and multispectral remote sensing predictors. We selected the catchment of the Giampilieri stream, which is located in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), as test site. On 1/10/2009, a storm rainfall triggered in this area hundreds of debris flow/avalanche phenomena causing extensive economical damage and loss of life. Within this area a presence-only-based statistical method was applied to obtain susceptibility models capable of distinguish future activation sites of debris flow and debris slide, which where the main source failure mechanisms for flow or avalanche type propagation. The set of predictors used in this experiment comprised primary and secondary topographic attributes, derived by processing a high resolution digital elevation model, CORINE land cover data and a set of vegetation and mineral indices obtained by processing multispectral ASTER images. All the selected data sources are dated before the disaster. A spatially random partition technique was adopted for validation, generating fifty replicates for each of the two considered movement typologies in order to assess accuracy, precision and reliability of the models. The debris slide and debris flow susceptibility models produced high performances with the first type being the best fitted. The evaluation of the probability estimates around the mean value for each mapped pixel shows an inverted relation, with the most robust models corresponding to the debris flows. With respect to the role of each predictor within the modelling phase, debris flows appeared to be primarily controlled by topographic attributes whilst the debris slides were better explained by remotely sensed derived indices, particularly by the occurrence of previous wildfires across the slope. The overall excellent performances of the two models suggest promising perspectives for

  12. Influence of topography on debris flow development in Ichino-sawa subwatershed of Ohya-kuzure landslide, Japan (United States)

    Tsunetaka, H.; Hotta, N.; Imaizumi, F.; Hayakawa, Y. S.


    Large sediment movements, such as deep-seated landslides, produce unstable sediment over the long term. Most of the unstable sediment in a mountain torrent is discharged via the development of debris flows through entrainment. Consequently, after a large sediment movement, debris flows have long-term effects on the watershed regime. However, the development of debris flows in mountain torrents is poorly understood, since the topography is more complicated than downstream. We compared temporal changes in topography to examine how topography affects the development of flows. The study site was the Ichino-sawa subwatershed in the Ohya-kuzure landslide, Japan. Unstable sediment has been produced continuously since the landslide occurred in 1707. Several topographic surveys using a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and aerial shoots by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) were performed between November 2011 (TLS) or November 2014 (UAV) and August 2015. High-resolution digital elevation models were created from the TLS and UAV results to detect temporal topographic changes. Debris flow occurrences and rainfall were also monitored using interval cameras and rain gauges. Downstream, the deposit depth decreased after the debris flows. Upstream, more complex changes were detected due to surges in the debris flows, which not only induced entrainment, but were also deposited in the valley floor. Furthermore, sediment was supplied from the stream bank during the debris flows. Consequently, several debris flows of different magnitudes were observed, although the rainfall conditions did not differ significantly. The results imply that the magnitude of the debris flows was affected by successive sediment movement resulting from the changing of the topographic conditions.

  13. The Fabulous Four Debris Disks (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Stapelfeldt, Karl


    This program is a comprehensive study of the four bright debris disks that were spatially resolved by IRAS: Beta Pictoris, Epsilon Eridani, Fomalhaut, and Vega. All SIRTF instruments and observing modes will be used. The program has three major objectives: (1) Study of the disk spatial structure from MIPS and IRAC imaging; (2) Study of the dust grain composition using the IRS and MIPS SED mode; and (3) companion searches using IRAC. The data from this program should lead to a detailed understanding of these four systems, and will provide a foundation for understanding all of the debris disks to be studied with SIRTF. Images and spectra will be compared with models for disk structure and dust properties. Dynamical features indicative of substellar companions' effects on the disks will be searched for. This program will require supporting observations of PSF stars, some of which have been included explicitly. In the majority of cases, the spectral observations require a preferred orientation to align the slits along the disk position angles. Detector saturation issues are still being worked for this program, and will lead to AOR modifications in subsequent submissions. The results from this program will be analyzed collaboratively by the IRAC, IRS, and MIPS teams and by general GTOs Jura and Werner.

  14. Formation Flying Guidance for Space Debris Observation, Manipulation and Capture (United States)

    Peters, Thomas V.

    This article provides a brief overview of the space debris population, debris attitude dynamics, technologies for debris removal, followed by a more in-depth discussion of robotic arm based capture of debris. Guidance aspects of active debris removal missions are discussed. Mission phases for active debris removal missions are rendezvous, inspection, attitude synchronization and capture and de-tumbling. The need for attitude synchronization is driven by recent observations of Envisat which exhibits a fairly high rotation rate.

  15. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chamberlin, Rebecca M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worley, Christopher Gordon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garduno, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Elmer J. W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Borrego, Andres Patricio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Castro, Alonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Colletti, Lisa Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fulwyler, James Brent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holland, Charlotte S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, Russell C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Klundt, Dylan James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martin, Frances Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montoya, Dennis Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porterfield, Donivan R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schake, Ann Rene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schappert, Michael Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Soderberg, Constance B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Spencer, Khalil J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stanley, Floyd E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thomas, Mariam R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Townsend, Lisa Ellen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Xu, Ning [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  16. Debris mitigation methods for bridge piers. (United States)


    Debris accumulation on bridge piers is an on-going national problem that can obstruct the waterway openings at bridges and result in significant erosion of stream banks and scour at abutments and piers. In some cases, the accumulation of debris can a...

  17. A new technique for detecting colored macro plastic debris on beaches using webcam images and CIELUV. (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kako, Shin'ichiro


    We have developed a technique for detecting the pixels of colored macro plastic debris (plastic pixels) using photographs taken by a webcam installed on Sodenohama beach, Tobishima Island, Japan. The technique involves generating color references using a uniform color space (CIELUV) to detect plastic pixels and removing misdetected pixels by applying a composite image method. This technique demonstrated superior performance in terms of detecting plastic pixels of various colors compared to the previous method which used the lightness values in the CIELUV color space. We also obtained a 10-month time series of the quantity of plastic debris by combining a projective transformation with this technique. By sequential monitoring of plastic debris quantity using webcams, it is possible to clean up beaches systematically, to clarify the transportation processes of plastic debris in oceans and coastal seas and to estimate accumulation rates on beaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plastic debris collars: An underreported stressor in tropical reef fishes. (United States)

    Nunes, Joséde Anchieta C C; Sampaio, Cláudio L S; Barros, Francisco; Leduc, Antoine O H C


    Plastic debris collar wrappings (PDCW) are involved in the frequent entanglement of several groups of marine animals. In fishes, however aside from 'ghost fishing', PDCW events are rarely documented, and no record of this occurrence exists in tropical reef fishes. Here, we present records for four species afflicted by plastic debris collars. Observations occurred during snorkeling, and included the silver mojarra Eucinostomus argenteus, Atlantic thread herring Ophistonema oglinum, tomtate grunt Haemulon aurolineatum and gray parrotfish Sparisoma axillare. While PDCW may not create an instantaneous source of mortality, our observations suggest that debilitating stress, created by reduced swimming performances, feeding and/or antipredator behavior are likely consequences for afflicted individuals. Given the importance of these performances on survival, reduction in fitness is expected. This note aims to report cases of PDCW and underscore that such interactions between fishes and plastic pollution may be more prevalent than previously expected in coastal reef habitats. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Development of the Space Debris Sensor (SDS) (United States)

    Hamilton, J.; Liou, J.-C.; Anz-Meador, P. D.; Corsaro, B.; Giovane, F.; Matney, M.; Christiansen, E.


    The Space Debris Sensor (SDS) is a NASA experiment scheduled to fly aboard the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2018. The SDS is the first flight demonstration of the Debris Resistive/Acoustic Grid Orbital NASA-Navy Sensor (DRAGONS) developed and matured at NASA Johnson Space Center's Orbital Debris Program Office. The DRAGONS concept combines several technologies to characterize the size, speed, direction, and density of small impacting objects. With a minimum two-year operational lifetime, SDS is anticipated to collect statistically significant information on orbital debris ranging from 50 microns to 500 microns in size. This paper describes the features of SDS and how data from the ISS mission may be used to update debris environment models. Results of hypervelocity impact testing during the development of SDS and the potential for improvement on future sensors at higher altitudes will be reviewed.

  20. Development of the Space Debris Sensor (United States)

    Hamilton, J.; Liou, J.-C.; Anz-Meador, P. D.; Corsaro, B.; Giovane, F.; Matney, M.; Christiansen, E.


    The Space Debris Sensor (SDS) is a NASA experiment scheduled to fly aboard the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2017. The SDS is the first flight demonstration of the Debris Resistive/Acoustic Grid Orbital NASA-Navy Sensor (DRAGONS) developed and matured by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The DRAGONS concept combines several technologies to characterize the size, speed, direction, and density of small impacting objects. With a minimum two-year operational lifetime, SDS is anticipated to collect statistically significant information on orbital debris ranging from 50 micron to 500 micron in size. This paper describes the SDS features and how data from the ISS mission may be used to update debris environment models. Results of hypervelocity impact testing during the development of SDS and the potential for improvement on future sensors at higher altitudes will be reviewed.

  1. Extremely low glacial headwall retreat rates quantified using debris-covered glaciers in the Transantarctic Mountains (United States)

    Mackay, S. L.; Marchant, D. R.


    The McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) region of Antarctica is considered to be one of the most geomorphically stable regions on Earth. The extreme landscape stability is attributed primarily to persistent cold-polar desert conditions, and has enabled the multi-million-year preservation of near-surface terrestrial archives that are critical to our understanding of Antarctic ice sheet dynamics and climate change over at least the last 14 Ma. Correct interpretation of these archives requires well-constrained estimates of the rate of landscape alteration and erosion. Previous studies using tephrochronology of in situ ash deposits and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides from bedrock and regolith on ridge crests, valley bottoms, and other low-angled, sub-horizontal surfaces have yielded inferred erosion rates of 5×10-5 to 9×10-4mm a-1 . However, estimates for erosion of cliff faces in topographically complex terrain that dominates the upland region of the MDV are largely unknown. Here we measure, for the first time in the MDV, the average rate of erosion and headwall-retreat for near-vertical glaciated cirques. To accomplish this, we analyze the sediment flux through the Mullins and Friedman glaciers; these are cold-based, topographically constrained, and slow-moving debris-covered alpine glaciers that collect and transport debris sourced entirely from rockfall at the headwall cirque. Using data from 15 km of ground penetrating radar profiles, 12 shallow ice cores, and 180 shallow surface excavations, we compile an estimated total sediment load for each glacier. We then combine this sediment load with measurements of the debris source area and a glacial chronology based on cosmogenic nuclide dating and measured ice flow velocities. Results indicate average headwall erosion rates of 1×10-3-5×10-3 mm a-1 and slope-adjusted headwall retreat rates of 9×10-4-4×10-3 mm a-1 over the past 225 ka. These values are the lowest yet reported and are several orders of magnitude lower than

  2. Identification of debris-flow hazards in warm deserts through analyzing past occurrences: Case study in South Mountain, Sonoran Desert, USA (United States)

    Dorn, Ronald I.


    After recognition that debris flows co-occur with human activities, the next step in a hazards analysis involves estimating debris-flow probability. Prior research published in this journal in 2010 used varnish microlamination (VML) dating to determine a minimum occurrence of 5 flows per century over the last 8100 years in a small mountain range of South Mountain adjacent to neighborhoods of Phoenix, Arizona. This analysis led to the conclusion that debris flows originating in small mountain ranges in arid regions like the Sonoran Desert could pose a hazard. Two major precipitation events in the summer of 2014 generated 35 debris flows in the same study area of South Mountain-providing support for the importance of probability analysis as a key step in a hazards analysis in warm desert settings. Two distinct mechanisms generated the 2014 debris flows: intense precipitation on steep slopes in the first storm; and a firehose effect whereby runoff from the second storm was funneled rapidly by cleaned-out debris-flow chutes to remobilize Pleistocene debris-flow deposits. When compared to a global database on debris flows, the 2014 storms were among the most intense to generate desert debris flows - indicating that storms of lesser intensity are capable of generating debris flows in warm desert settings. The 87Sr/86Sr analyses of fines and clasts in South Mountain debris flows of different ages reveal that desert dust supplies the fines. Thus, wetter climatic periods of intense rock decay are not needed to resupply desert slopes with fines; instead, a combination of dust deposition supplying fines and dirt cracking generating coarse clasts can re-arm chutes in a warm desert setting with abundant dust.

  3. Numerical Simulation of the Topographical Change in Korea Mountain Area by Intense Rainfall and Consequential Debris Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong-Hee Jun


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to simulate the topographical changes associated with rainfall and the consequential debris flow using terrestrial LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging. Three rainfall events between July 9 and July 14, 2009, triggered a number of debris flows at Jecheon County in Korea. Rain fell at a rate of 64 mm/h, producing 400 mm of total accumulation during this period. Tank simulation model for SWI (Soil Water Index estimated the water stored beneath the ground and debris flow occurrence in study area. For the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging survey, the terrestrial laser scanning system RIEGL LMS-Z390i consists of an accurate and fast 3D scanner, associated RTK GPS system. The DEM derived from LiDAR enabled the debris flow to be mapped and analyzed in great detail. The estimated affected area and erosion/deposition volumes by debris flow were compared with two-dimensional numerical simulation. The simulation results were sufficiently in good agreement with the debris flow track, and a success rate of over 90% was achieved with a simulation time of 300 s. A comparison of the simulated and surveyed results based on deposition volume yields a success rate of over 97% with 350 s of simulation time.

  4. Updated logistic regression equations for the calculation of post-fire debris-flow likelihood in the western United States (United States)

    Staley, Dennis M.; Negri, Jacquelyn A.; Kean, Jason W.; Laber, Jayme L.; Tillery, Anne C.; Youberg, Ann M.


    Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can generate dangerous flash floods and debris flows. To reduce public exposure to hazard, the U.S. Geological Survey produces post-fire debris-flow hazard assessments for select fires in the western United States. We use publicly available geospatial data describing basin morphology, burn severity, soil properties, and rainfall characteristics to estimate the statistical likelihood that debris flows will occur in response to a storm of a given rainfall intensity. Using an empirical database and refined geospatial analysis methods, we defined new equations for the prediction of debris-flow likelihood using logistic regression methods. We showed that the new logistic regression model outperformed previous models used to predict debris-flow likelihood.

  5. The Debris of Urban Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Sgarbi


    Full Text Available “Il Guasto” is an urban context, a place in the heart of the historic city of Bologna which is a mound of debris (resulting from the demolition of an important building, the Bentivoglio Family palace during a popular revolt in the 1506 on top of which a “public garden” was created 40 years ago. The garden is well known in Bologna as “Giardino del Guasto”. Underneath, in between the debris, an underground space (bunker was created to protect the citizen during the bombing of the second world war.The aim of the Design Studio of Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism, Carleton University (Ottawa, Canada, DSA Directed Studies Abroad (January 15th - April 13th, 2012, is to exercise creativity and design skills in an historical context bearing some negative connotations. A spell was cast on the site and the negative effects of this spell are still perceivable today after more than five hundred years. This makes us ponder upon the notions of permanence and durability (of architecture and ideas in the urban fabric and in the meanders of human memory. The site, centered on a garden, has been undergoing many changes in use, purpose and meaning and today still requires to be reimagined in the social context of the city and its famous university. [In the menu on the right, ARTICLE TOOLS, in "Supplementary Files" link you can download the .pdf presentations of Carleton University students, related to the workshop on Giardino del Guasto area, developed in Bologna in 2012].

  6. Patterns of marine debris distribution on the beaches of Rottnest Island, Western Australia. (United States)

    Smith, Stephen D A; Gillies, Chris L; Shortland-Jones, Helen


    Rottnest Island, Western Australia, receives >500,000 visitors y(-1), who are mainly attracted by the Island's natural values. Marine debris is a threat to both these natural values and to Island wildlife, and is consequently an important issue for managers. Engaging with volunteers, we quantified marine debris at 16 beach sites around the Island. The highest loads occurred on the SW coast and primarily comprised items originating from fishing activities. Sites on the NE coast, where >95% of the Island's accommodation is located, supported the highest abundance of items deposited in situ (e.g. bottles and cigarette butts). We conclude that marine debris management may require a range of strategies to address the different primary sources. Raising awareness through education and intervention may be highly effective at popular beaches on the NE coast, but broader liaison with commercial and recreational fishers will be necessary to address the issue at the Island scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Plastic Beaches: occurrence and accumulation of marine debris on barrier islands in the Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Wessel, C.; Albins, K.; Cebrian, J.


    Marine debris is any persistent solid material that is manufactured or processed and directly or indirectly, intentionally or unintentionally, disposed of or abandoned into the marine environment (33USC§1951). Marine debris is an economic, environmental, human health and aesthetic problem posing a complex challenge. Coastal communities are among the most seriously affected because of increased expenses for beach cleaning, public health and waste disposal, as well as a loss of income from decreased tourism. To better document this problem we are monitoring the occurrence and accumulation rate of marine debris on 6 barrier islands in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM). Surveys are conducted at low tide and consist of 100m-long transects along the shoreline extending from the water edge to the upland shoreline limit. All debris larger than 5 mm is collected and recorded. Debris is then sorted by material, and dry mass is recorded. With this information we are investigating four specific questions: (1) what are the major types and possible sources (land or ocean based) of shoreline debris; (2) does the rate of debris deposition onto the shoreline show seasonal oscillations; (3) how does debris deposition change from east to west in the nGoM; and (4) what are the possible causes of the temporal and spatial trends found (e.g. rainfall and runoff, human population, boat traffic)? During the first year of sampling we are beginning to see trends emerge. More trash consistently washes up on the ocean side versus the sound side of the barrier islands, which suggests either large amounts of trash in the nGoM is ocean-based debris, or it is driven by beach goers, or both. In addition, we have found a significant increase in the amount of trash on the shoreline during tourist/boating season (May to September), although trash items tend to be smaller in size during that season. At the presentation we will discuss these and other trends that emerge with a more complete data set.

  8. A global map of supraglacial debris cover and recent debris area changes (United States)

    Herreid, S.; Pellicciotti, F.


    The extent of supraglacial rock debris is both a first order indicator of the rock flux within a glacier system and an important term in glacier mass balance models where debris cover modulates the energy fluxes that reach the buried glacier ice surface. To date, no global debris cover inventory is available and most global models of glacier change do not include the effect of debris cover on mass balance. We have used Landsat data and glacier outlines from the Randolph Glacier Inventory v6.0 and PROMICE (Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet) to generate a modern-date global inventory of debris cover at a spatial resolution of 30 m. For select locations around the Earth with high concentrations of glacier ice and suitable historical imagery, we have derived changes in debris-covered area. We present the heterogeneous pattern of debris cover on Earth which is the integrated signal from hundreds of years of rock debris accumulation and transportation through each glacier system. We further resolve this debris history by presenting recent changes in debris-covered area over the satellite era. Preliminary results from Southeast Alaska, USA, Baffin Island, Canada, Southeast Greenland, and the Eastern Himalaya, China all show an increase in debris-covered area over the past tens of years with heterogeneous rates of increase. This study provides a greater geomorphological understanding of glaciers, their surrounding environment and the flux of supraglacial debris at timescales of both hundreds and tens of years. These data also serve as an input dataset and/or an indicator pointing to locations where debris cover needs to be considered in glacier melt models.

  9. Nuclear-powered space debris sweeper (United States)

    Metzger, John D.; Leclaire, Rene J., Jr.; Howe, Steven D.; Burgin, Karen C.


    Future spacecraft design will be affected by collisions with man-made debris orbiting the earth. Most of this orbital space debris comes from spent rocket stages. It is projected that the source of future debris will be the result of fragmentation of large objects through hypervelocity collisions. Orbiting spacecraft will have to be protected from hypervelocity debris in orbit. The options are to armor the spacecraft, resulting in increased mass, or actively removing the debris from orbit. An active space debris sweeper is described which will utilize momentum transfer to the debris through laser-induced ablation to alter its orbital parameters to reduce orbital lifetime with eventual entry into the earth's atmosphere where it will burn. The paper describes the concept, estimates the amount of velocity change (Delta V) that can be imparted to an object through laser-induced ablation, and investigates the use of a neutral particle beam for the momentum transfer. The space sweeper concept could also be extended to provide a collision avoidance system for the space station and satellites, or could be used for collision protection during interplanetary travel.

  10. Space Debris Removal: A Game Theoretic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Klima


    Full Text Available We analyse active space debris removal efforts from a strategic, game-theoretical perspective. Space debris is non-manoeuvrable, human-made objects orbiting Earth, which pose a significant threat to operational spacecraft. Active debris removal missions have been considered and investigated by different space agencies with the goal to protect valuable assets present in strategic orbital environments. An active debris removal mission is costly, but has a positive effect for all satellites in the same orbital band. This leads to a dilemma: each agency is faced with the choice between the individually costly action of debris removal, which has a positive impact on all players; or wait and hope that others jump in and do the ‘dirty’ work. The risk of the latter action is that, if everyone waits, the joint outcome will be catastrophic, leading to what in game theory is referred to as the ‘tragedy of the commons’. We introduce and thoroughly analyse this dilemma using empirical game theory and a space debris simulator. We consider two- and three-player settings, investigate the strategic properties and equilibria of the game and find that the cost/benefit ratio of debris removal strongly affects the game dynamics.

  11. Propagation of a channelized debris-flow: experimental investigation and parameters identification for numerical modelling (United States)

    Termini, Donatella


    Recent catastrophic events due to intense rainfalls have mobilized large amount of sediments causing extensive damages in vast areas. These events have highlighted how debris-flows runout estimations are of crucial importance to delineate the potentially hazardous areas and to make reliable assessment of the level of risk of the territory. Especially in recent years, several researches have been conducted in order to define predicitive models. But, existing runout estimation methods need input parameters that can be difficult to estimate. Recent experimental researches have also allowed the assessment of the physics of the debris flows. But, the major part of the experimental studies analyze the basic kinematic conditions which determine the phenomenon evolution. Experimental program has been recently conducted at the Hydraulic laboratory of the Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospatial and of Materials (DICAM) - University of Palermo (Italy). The experiments, carried out in a laboratory flume appositely constructed, were planned in order to evaluate the influence of different geometrical parameters (such as the slope and the geometrical characteristics of the confluences to the main channel) on the propagation phenomenon of the debris flow and its deposition. Thus, the aim of the present work is to give a contribution to defining input parameters in runout estimation by numerical modeling. The propagation phenomenon is analyzed for different concentrations of solid materials. Particular attention is devoted to the identification of the stopping distance of the debris flow and of the involved parameters (volume, angle of depositions, type of material) in the empirical predictive equations available in literature (Rickenmanm, 1999; Bethurst et al. 1997). Bethurst J.C., Burton A., Ward T.J. 1997. Debris flow run-out and landslide sediment delivery model tests. Journal of hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 123(5), 419-429 Rickenmann D. 1999. Empirical relationships

  12. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Surlyk


    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  13. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea: Plate 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn


    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  14. Evidence for debris flow gully formation initiated by shallow subsurface water on Mars (United States)

    Lanza, N.L.; Meyer, G.A.; Okubo, C.H.; Newsom, Horton E.; Wiens, R.C.


    The morphologies of some martian gullies appear similar to terrestrial features associated with debris flow initiation, erosion, and deposition. On Earth, debris flows are often triggered by shallow subsurface throughflow of liquid water in slope-mantling colluvium. This flow causes increased levels of pore pressure and thus decreased shear strength, which can lead to slide failure of slope materials and subsequent debris flow. The threshold for pore pressure-induced failure creates a distinct relationship between the contributing area supplying the subsurface flow and the slope gradient. To provide initial tests of a similar debris flow initiation hypothesis for martian gullies, measurements of the contributing areas and slope gradients were made at the channel heads of martian gullies seen in three HiRISE stereo pairs. These gullies exhibit morphologies suggestive of debris flows such as leveed channels and lobate debris fans, and have well-defined channel heads and limited evidence for multiple flows. Our results show an area-slope relationship for these martian gullies that is consistent with that observed for terrestrial gullies formed by debris flow, supporting the hypothesis that these gullies formed as the result of saturation of near-surface regolith by a liquid. This model favors a source of liquid that is broadly distributed within the source area and shallow; we suggest that such liquid could be generated by melting of broadly distributed icy materials such as snow or permafrost. This interpretation is strengthened by observations of polygonal and mantled terrain in the study areas, which are both suggestive of near-surface ice. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Apparatus for controlling nuclear core debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.D.


    Disclosed is an apparatus for containing, cooling, and dispersing reactor debris assumed to flow from the core area in the unlikely event of an accident causing core meltdown. The apparatus includes a plurality of horizontally disposed vertically spaced plates, having depressions to contain debris in controlled amounts, and a plurality of holes therein which provide natural circulation cooling and a path for debris to continue flowing downward to the plate beneath. The uppermost plates may also include generally vertical sections which form annular-like flow areas which assist the natural circulation cooling

  16. Algorithms for the Computation of Debris Risks (United States)

    Matney, Mark


    Determining the risks from space debris involve a number of statistical calculations. These calculations inevitably involve assumptions about geometry - including the physical geometry of orbits and the geometry of non-spherical satellites. A number of tools have been developed in NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office to handle these calculations; many of which have never been published before. These include algorithms that are used in NASA's Orbital Debris Engineering Model ORDEM 3.0, as well as other tools useful for computing orbital collision rates and ground casualty risks. This paper will present an introduction to these algorithms and the assumptions upon which they are based.

  17. Algorithms for the Computation of Debris Risk (United States)

    Matney, Mark J.


    Determining the risks from space debris involve a number of statistical calculations. These calculations inevitably involve assumptions about geometry - including the physical geometry of orbits and the geometry of satellites. A number of tools have been developed in NASA’s Orbital Debris Program Office to handle these calculations; many of which have never been published before. These include algorithms that are used in NASA’s Orbital Debris Engineering Model ORDEM 3.0, as well as other tools useful for computing orbital collision rates and ground casualty risks. This paper presents an introduction to these algorithms and the assumptions upon which they are based.

  18. Estimating construction and demolition debris generation using a materials flow analysis approach. (United States)

    Cochran, K M; Townsend, T G


    The magnitude and composition of a region's construction and demolition (C&D) debris should be understood when developing rules, policies and strategies for managing this segment of the solid waste stream. In the US, several national estimates have been conducted using a weight-per-construction-area approximation; national estimates using alternative procedures such as those used for other segments of the solid waste stream have not been reported for C&D debris. This paper presents an evaluation of a materials flow analysis (MFA) approach for estimating C&D debris generation and composition for a large region (the US). The consumption of construction materials in the US and typical waste factors used for construction materials purchasing were used to estimate the mass of solid waste generated as a result of construction activities. Debris from demolition activities was predicted from various historical construction materials consumption data and estimates of average service lives of the materials. The MFA approach estimated that approximately 610-78 × 10(6)Mg of C&D debris was generated in 2002. This predicted mass exceeds previous estimates using other C&D debris predictive methodologies and reflects the large waste stream that exists. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of Laser Activated Irrigation on Apically Extruded Debris with Different Preparation Systems. (United States)

    Kuştarcı, Alper; Er, Kürşat


    The aim of this study was to evaluate apical extrusion of debris in canals prepared with three nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file systems [Twisted File Adaptive (TFA), SybronEndo, Orange, CA], Reciproc [(RP), VDW, Munich, Germany], and Revo-S [(RS), MicroMega, Besançon, France] and two irrigation [conventional needle (CNI) and laser-activated (LAI)] techniques. Although previous studies have evaluated the amount of apically extruded debris by various instrumentation and irrigation methods, none of them have investigated the effect of LAI during the root canal preparation on debris extrusion. Ninety extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars with straight canals were randomly assigned to six groups (n=15) according to the file and irrigation protocols used: (1) TFA and LAI group, (2) RP and LAI group, (3) RS and LAI group, (4) TFA and CNI group, (5) RP and CNI group, and (6) RS and CNI group. Debris extruded from the apical foramen during root canal preparation was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the preinstrumentation and postinstrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests with Bonferroni correction to compare groups. LAI groups extruded more debris than CNI groups (p0.017). Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the agitation method, such as LAI, had a significant effect on the amount of extrusion.

  20. Dynamics and early post-tsunami evolution of floating marine debris near Fukushima Daiichi (United States)

    Matthews, John Philip; Ostrovsky, Lev; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Komori, Satoru; Tamura, Hitoshi


    The devastating tsunami triggered by the Tōhoku-Oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 caused a crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station where it overtopped the seawall defences. On retreating, the tsunami carried loose debris and wreckage seaward and marshalled buoyant material into extensive plumes. Widespread concern over the fate of these and numerous other Tōhoku tsunami depositions prompted attempts to simulate debris dispersion throughout the wider Pacific. However, the effects of locally perturbed wind and wave fields, active Langmuir circulation and current-induced attrition determine a complex and poorly understood morphology for large floating agglomerations. Here we show that the early post-tsunami evolution of marine-debris plumes near Fukushima Daiichi was also shaped by near-surface wind modifications that took place above relatively calm (lower surface roughness) waters covered by surface films derived from oil and other contaminants. High-spatial-resolution satellite tracking reveals faster-than-expected floating-debris motions and invigorated plume evolution within these regions, while numerical modelling of turbulent air flow over the low-drag, film-covered surface predicts typically metre-per-second wind strengthening at centimetric heights, sufficient to explain the observed debris-speed increases. Wind restructuring probably stimulates the dispersion of flotsam from both biological and anthropogenic sources throughout a global ocean of highly variable surface roughness.

  1. Debris flow run-out simulation and analysis using a dynamic model (United States)

    Melo, Raquel; van Asch, Theo; Zêzere, José L.


    Only two months after a huge forest fire occurred in the upper part of a valley located in central Portugal, several debris flows were triggered by intense rainfall. The event caused infrastructural and economic damage, although no lives were lost. The present research aims to simulate the run-out of two debris flows that occurred during the event as well as to calculate via back-analysis the rheological parameters and the excess rain involved. Thus, a dynamic model was used, which integrates surface runoff, concentrated erosion along the channels, propagation and deposition of flow material. Afterwards, the model was validated using 32 debris flows triggered during the same event that were not considered for calibration. The rheological and entrainment parameters obtained for the most accurate simulation were then used to perform three scenarios of debris flow run-out on the basin scale. The results were confronted with the existing buildings exposed in the study area and the worst-case scenario showed a potential inundation that may affect 345 buildings. In addition, six streams where debris flow occurred in the past and caused material damage and loss of lives were identified.

  2. Faint warm debris disks around nearby bright stars explored by AKARI and IRSF (United States)

    Ishihara, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Nami; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Onaka, Takashi


    Context. Debris disks are important observational clues for understanding planetary-system formation process. In particular, faint warm debris disks may be related to late planet formation near 1 au. A systematic search of faint warm debris disks is necessary to reveal terrestrial planet formation. Aims: Faint warm debris disks show excess emission that peaks at mid-IR wavelengths. Thus we explore debris disks using the AKARI mid-IR all-sky point source catalog (PSC), a product of the second generation unbiased IR all-sky survey. Methods: We investigate IR excess emission for 678 isolated main-sequence stars for which there are 18 μm detections in the AKARI mid-IR all-sky catalog by comparing their fluxes with the predicted fluxes of the photospheres based on optical to near-IR fluxes and model spectra. The near-IR fluxes are first taken from the 2MASS PSC. However, 286 stars with Ks Africa, and improved the flux accuracy from 14% to 1.8% on average. Results: We identified 53 debris-disk candidates including eight new detections from our sample of 678 main-sequence stars. The detection rate of debris disks for this work is 8%, which is comparable with those in previous works by Spitzer and Herschel. Conclusions: The importance of this study is the detection of faint warm debris disks around nearby field stars. At least nine objects have a large amount of dust for their ages, which cannot be explained by the conventional steady-state collisional cascade model. The full version of Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  3. Debris Detector Verification by Hvi-Tests (United States)

    Bauer, Waldemar; Drolshagen, Gerhard; Vörsmann, Peter; Romberg, Oliver; Putzar, Robin

    Information regarding Space Debris (SD) or Micrometeoroids (MM) impacting on spacecraft (S/C) or payloads (P/L) can be obtained by using environmental models e.g. MASTER (ESA) or ORDEM (NASA). The validation of such models is performed by comparison of simulated results with measured or orbital observed data. The latter is utilised for large particles and can be obtained from ground based or space based radars or telescopes. Data regarding very small but abundant particles can also be gained by analysis of retrieved hardware (e.g. Hubble Space Telescope, Space Shuttle Windows), which are brought from orbit back to Earth. Furthermore, in-situ impact detectors are an essential source for information on small size meteoroids and space debris. These kind of detectors are placed in orbit and collect impact data regarding SD and MM, sending data near real time via telemetry. Compared to the impact data which is gained by analysis of retrieved surfaces, the detected data comprise additional information regarding exact impact time and, depending on the type of detector, on the orbit and particles composition. Nevertheless, existing detectors have limitations. Since the detection area is small, statistically meaningful number of impacts are obtained for very small particles only. Measurements of particles in the size range of hundreds of microns to mm which are potentially damaging to S/C require larger sensor areas. To make use of the advantages of in-situ impact detectors and to increase the amount of impact data an innovative impact detector concept is currently under development at DLR in Bremen. Different to all previous impact detectors the Solar Generator based Impact Detector (SOLID) is not an add-on component on the S/C. SOLID makes use of existing subsystems of the S/C and adopts them for impact detection purposes. Since the number of impacts on a target in space depends linearly on the exposed area, the S/C solar panels offer a unique opportunity to use them for

  4. Active debris removal of multiple priority targets (United States)

    Braun, Vitali; Lüpken, A.; Flegel, S.; Gelhaus, J.; Möckel, M.; Kebschull, C.; Wiedemann, C.; Vörsmann, P.


    Today's space debris environment shows major concentrations of objects within distinct orbital regions for nearly all size regimes. The most critical region is found at orbital altitudes near 800 km with high declinations. Within this region many satellites are operated in so called sun-synchronous orbits (SSO). Among those, there are Earth observation, communication and weather satellites. Due to the orbital geometry in SSO, head-on encounters with relative velocities of about 15 km/s are most probable and would thus result in highly energetic collisions, which are often referred to as catastrophic collisions, leading to the complete fragmentation of the participating objects. So called feedback collisions can then be triggered by the newly generated fragments, thus leading to a further population increase in the affected orbital region. This effect is known as the Kessler syndrome.Current studies show that catastrophic collisions are not a major problem today, but will become the main process for debris generation within the SSO region in the near future, even without any further launches. In order to avoid this effect, objects with a major impact on collisional cascading have to be actively removed from the critical region after their end of life. Not having the capability to perform an end-of-life maneuver in order to transfer to a graveyard orbit or to de-orbit, many satellites and rocket bodies would have to be de-orbited within a dedicated mission. In such a mission, a service satellite would perform a de-orbit maneuver, after having docked to a specific target.In this paper, chemical and electric propulsion systems were analysed with the main focus on removing multiple targets within one single mission. The targets were chosen from a previously defined priority list in order to enhance the mission efficiency. Total mission time, ΔV and system mass were identified as key parameters to allow for an evaluation of the different concepts. It was shown that it

  5. Development of debris-resistant bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Dong Seong; Lee, Jae Kyung; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Yim, Jung Sik; Song, Kee Nam; Oh, Dong Seok; Im, Hyun Tae


    Debris-related fuel failures has been identified to be one of the major causes of fuel failures recently occured in nuclear power plants. In order to reduce the possibility of debris-related fuel failures, it is necessary to prevent the debris from reaching to fuel rods. In this regard, it is important to develop Debris-Resistant Bottom End Piece. (Author)

  6. A deployable mechanism concept for the collection of small-to-medium-size space debris (United States)

    St-Onge, David; Sharf, Inna; Sagnières, Luc; Gosselin, Clément


    Current efforts in active debris removal strategies and mission planning focus on removing the largest, most massive debris. It can be argued, however, that small untrackable debris, specifically those smaller than 5 cm in size, also pose a serious threat. In this work, we propose and analyze a mission to sweep the most crowded Low Earth Orbit with a large cupola device to remove small-to-medium-size debris. The cupola consists of a deployable mechanism expanding more than 25 times its storage size to extend a membrane covering its surface. The membrane is sufficiently stiff to capture most small debris and to slow down the medium-size objects, thus accelerating their fall. An overview of the design of a belt-driven rigid-link mechanism proposed to support the collecting cupola surface is presented, based on our previous work. Because of its large size, the cupola will be subject to significant aerodynamic drag; thus, orbit maintenance analysis is carried out using the DTM-2013 atmospheric density model and it predicts feasible requirements. While in operation, the device will also be subject to numerous hyper-velocity impacts which may significantly perturb its orientation from the desired attitude for debris collection. Thus, another important feature of the proposed debris removal device is a distributed array of flywheels mounted on the cupola for reorienting and stabilizing its attitude during the mission. Analysis using a stochastic modeling framework for hyper-velocity impacts demonstrates that three-axes attitude stabilization is achievable with the flywheels array. MASTER-2009 software is employed to provide relevant data for all debris related estimates, including the debris fluxes for the baseline mission design and for assessment of its expected performance. Space debris removal is a high priority for ensuring sustainability of space and continual launch and operation of man-made space assets. This manuscript presents the first analysis of a small

  7. Debris ingestion by juvenile marine turtles: an underestimated problem. (United States)

    Santos, Robson Guimarães; Andrades, Ryan; Boldrini, Marcillo Altoé; Martins, Agnaldo Silva


    Marine turtles are an iconic group of endangered animals threatened by debris ingestion. However, key aspects related to debris ingestion are still poorly known, including its effects on mortality and the original use of the ingested debris. Therefore, we analysed the impact of debris ingestion in 265 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) over a large geographical area and different habitats along the Brazilian coast. We determined the death rate due to debris ingestion and quantified the amount of debris that is sufficient to cause the death of juvenile green turtles. Additionally, we investigated the original use of the ingested debris. We found that a surprisingly small amount of debris was sufficient to block the digestive tract and cause death. We suggested that debris ingestion has a high death potential that may be masked by other causes of death. An expressive part of the ingested debris come from disposable and short-lived products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Assessment of the Current LEO Debris Environment and the Need for Active Debris Removal (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi


    The anti-satellite test on the Fengun-1 C weather satellite in early 2007 and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 dramatically altered the landscape of the human-made orbital debris environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO). The two events generated approximately 5500 fragments large enough to be tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. Those fragments account for more than 60% increase to the debris population in LEO. However, even before the ASAT test, model analyses already indicated that the debris population (for those larger than 10 cm) in LEO had reached a point where the population would continue to increase, due to collisions among existing objects, even without any future launches. The conclusion implies that as satellites continue to be launched and unexpected breakup events continue to occur, commonly-adopted mitigation measures will not be able to stop the collision-driven population growth. To remediate the debris environment in LEO, active debris removal must be considered. This presentation will provide an updated assessment of the debris environment after the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 collision, an analysis of several future environment projections based on different scenarios, and a projection of collision activities in LEO in the near future. The need to use active debris removal to stabilize future debris environment will be demonstrated and the effectiveness of various active debris removal strategies will be quantified.

  9. New solutions for the space debris problem

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N


    Addressing a pressing issue in space policy, Pelton explores the new forms of technology that are being developed to actively remove the defunct space objects from orbit and analyzes their implications in the existing regime of international space law and public international law. This authoritative review covers the due diligence guidelines that nations are using to minimize the generation of new debris, mandates to de-orbit satellites at end of life, and innovative endeavours to remove non-functional satellites, upper stage rockets and other large debris from orbit under new institutional, financial and regulatory guidelines.  Commercial space services currently exceed 100 billion USD business per annum, but the alarming proliferation in the population of orbital debris in low, medium and geosynchronous satellite orbits poses a serious threat to all kinds of space assets and applications. There is a graver concern that the existing space debris will begin to collide in a cascading manner, generating furth...

  10. Canadian Activities in Space Debris Mitigation Technologies (United States)

    Nikanpour, Darius; Jiang, Xin Xiang; Goroshin, Samuel; Haddad, Emile; Kruzelecky, Roman; Hoa, Suong; Merle, Philippe; Kleiman, Jacob; Gendron, Stephane; Higgins, Andrew; Jamroz, Wes

    The space environment, and in particular the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), is becoming increasingly populated with space debris which include fragments of dysfunctional spacecraft parts and materials traveling at speeds up to 15 km per second. These pose an escalating potential threat to LEO spacecraft, the international space station, and manned missions. This paper presents the Canadian activities to address the concerns over space debris in terms of debris mitigation measures and technologies; these include novel spacecraft demise technologies to safely decommission the spacecraft at the end of the mission, integrated self-healing material technologies for spacecraft structures to facilitate self-repair and help maintain the spacecraft structural and thermal performance, hypervelocity ground test capability to predict the impact of space debris on spacecraft performance, and ways of raising awareness within the space community through participation in targeted Science and Technology conferences and international forums.

  11. Edifice growth and collapse of the Pliocene Mt. Kenya: Evidence of large scale debris avalanches on a high altitude glaciated volcano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, J.M.; Veldkamp, A.; Claessens, L.; van Gorp, W.; Wijbrans, J.R.


    The cyclic growth and destruction of the Late Cenozoic Stratovolcano Mt. Kenya have been reconstructed for its southeastern segment. At least three major debris avalanche deposits have been reconstructed and dated. The oldest deposits indicate an edifice collapse around 4.9Ma (

  12. 33 CFR 151.3000 - Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and... (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act. 151.3000 Section 151.3000... Definition of Marine Debris for the Purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act...

  13. Acquisition of TMI-2 core debris samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.E.; Fee, D.S.; Bower, J.M.


    Recently the first samples of material were obtained from the damaged TMI-2 reactor core. This paper reviews the design and operation of the specialized equipment used to acquire these samples. In addition to two unique core debris rubble bed samplers, a 14-m-long sampler deployment boom, radiation shielding, and sample casks were designed and fabricated for the task. Analysis of the six TMI-2 core debris specimens obtained are presently underway at several laboratories, and the analysis plans are presented

  14. Debris in the deep: Using a 22-year video annotation database to survey marine litter in Monterey Canyon, central California, USA (United States)

    Schlining, Kyra; von Thun, Susan; Kuhnz, Linda; Schlining, Brian; Lundsten, Lonny; Jacobsen Stout, Nancy; Chaney, Lori; Connor, Judith


    Anthropogenic marine debris is an increasing concern because of its potential negative impacts on marine ecosystems. This is a global problem that will have lasting effects for many reasons, including: (1) the input of debris into marine environments is likely to continue (commensurate with population increase and globalization), (2) accumulation, and possibly retention, of debris will occur in specific areas due to hydrography and geomorphology, and (3) the most common types of debris observed to date will likely persist for centuries. Due to the technical challenges and prohibitive costs of conducting research in the deep sea, little is known about the abundance, types, sources, and impacts of human refuse on this vast habitat, and the extreme depths to which this debris is penetrating has only recently been exposed. We reviewed 1149 video records of marine debris from 22 years of remotely operated vehicle deployments in Monterey Bay, covering depths from 25 m to 3971 m. We characterize debris by type, examine patterns of distribution, and discuss potential sources and dispersal mechanisms. Debris was most abundant within Monterey Canyon where aggregation and downslope transport of debris from the continental shelf are enhanced by natural canyon dynamics. The majority of debris was plastic (33%) and metal (23%). The highest relative frequencies of plastic and metal observations occurred below 2000 m, indicating that previous studies may greatly underestimate the extent of anthropogenic marine debris on the seafloor due to limitations in observing deeper regions. Our findings provide evidence that submarine canyons function to collect debris and act as conduits for debris transport from coastal to deep-sea habitats.

  15. [Aortic debris in cerebrovascular ischemic disease]. (United States)

    Curatolo, L M; Melcón, C M; Lourido, M A; Torres-Lynch, M F; Parisi, V L; Fernández, G G; Rubachin, S; Hernández, G; Rotta-Escalante, R

    The aortic atherosclerotic debris is considered a high risk embolic source, being an independent predictor for cerebrovascular ischemia. The incidence is higher in the elderly and in patients with coronary artery disease. Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) is an important diagnostic tool that allows its detection. To describe characteristics of patients with ischemic stroke and echocardiographic diagnosis of aortic debris. We analyzed the group of patients with debris diagnosis in 209 TEE performed between 01/01/99 and 31/05/02, in 835 consecutive ischemic events. The information was collected from the Stroke Database of the Neurology Department of Policlinica Bancaria. TEE was accomplished in 25% of all assisted events. The mean age was 66.56 years (SD 11.22). In 30 studies (14%) aortic debris was detected. In this group of patients, 26 men and 4 women, was also found: plaques grade IV 60%, left atrial dilatation 40% and spontaneous echo contrast 20%. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension, dislipemia and smoking, with no significative difference compared to the group without debris. 40% had a prior cerebrovascular event. They presented with clinical subtype LACI 53%, PACI 27%, POCI 17%. 63% of patients had lacunar infarct (53% anterior and 10% posterior). The contribution of TTE for detection of embolic sources is relevant. A high percentage of the population with echocardiographic diagnosis of aortic debris, had a lacunar infarct, defined radiologically and by clinical features.

  16. Postdetonation nuclear debris for attribution. (United States)

    Fahey, A J; Zeissler, C J; Newbury, D E; Davis, J; Lindstrom, R M


    On the morning of July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was exploded in New Mexico on the White Sands Proving Ground. The device was a plutonium implosion device similar to the device that destroyed Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9 of that same year. Recently, with the enactment of US public law 111-140, the "Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act," scientists in the government and academia have been able, in earnest, to consider what type of forensic-style information may be obtained after a nuclear detonation. To conduct a robust attribution process for an exploded device placed by a nonstate actor, forensic analysis must yield information about not only the nuclear material in the device but about other materials that went into its construction. We have performed an investigation of glassed ground debris from the first nuclear test showing correlations among multiple analytical techniques. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence, obtainable only through microanalysis, that secondary materials used in the device can be identified and positively associated with the nuclear material.

  17. Plastic debris in Mediterranean seabirds. (United States)

    Codina-García, Marina; Militão, Teresa; Moreno, Javier; González-Solís, Jacob


    Plastic debris is often ingested by marine predators and can cause health disorders and even death. We present the first assessment of plastic ingestion in Mediterranean seabirds. We quantified and measured plastics accumulated in the stomach of 171 birds from 9 species accidentally caught by longliners in the western Mediterranean from 2003 to 2010. Cory's shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea) showed the highest occurrence (94%) and large numbers of small plastic particles per affected bird (on average N = 15.3 ± 24.4 plastics and mass = 23.4 ± 49.6 mg), followed by Yelkouan shearwaters (Puffinus yelkouan, 70%, N = 7.0 ± 7.9, 42.1 ± 100.0 mg), Balearic shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus, 70%, N = 3.6 ± 2.9, 5.5 ± 9.7 mg) and the rest of species (below 33%, N = 2.7, 113.6 ± 128.4 mg). Plastic characteristics did not differ between sexes and were not related to the physical condition of the birds. Our results point out the three endemic and threatened shearwater species as being particularly exposed to plastic accumulation.

  18. Depositional patterns of the Mississippi Fan surface: Evidence from GLORIA II and high-resolution seismic profiles (United States)

    Twichell, David C.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Parson, Lindsay M.; McGregor, Bonnie A.


    GLORIA long-range side-scan sonar imagery and 3.5-kHz seismic-reflection profiles depict a series of nine elongate deposits with generally high-backscatter surfaces covering most of the latest fanlobe sequence of the Mississippi Fan in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The youngest deposit is a “slump” that covers a 250 by 100 km area of the middle and upper fan. The remaining mapped deposits, termed depositional lobes, are long (as much as 200 km) and relatively thin (less than 35 m thick) bodies. Small channels and lineations on the surface of many of these depositional lobes radiate from a single, larger main channel that is the conduit through which sediment has been supplied to these surficial deposits on the fan. The 3.5-kHz profiles show that adjacent depositional lobes overlap one another rather than interfingering, indicating that only one lobe was an active site of deposition at a time. Shifting of the depositional sites appears to be caused by both aggradation and avulsion. The chronology developed from the overlapping relations indicates the oldest of the mapped depositional lobes are on the lowermost fan, and the youngest are further up the fan. Depositional lobes on the lower fan consist of a series of smaller, elongate features with high-backscatter surfaces (540 km in length) located at the ends of previously unrecognized small channels (< 5 m deep). These small channels extend as much as 120 km from the main channel. Small channelized turbidity currents and/or debris flows, sand flows, or mud flows appear to be the dominant transport process constructing these depositional lobes. Channelized flow is an important mechanism for transporting sediment away from the main channel on this fan and the resulting facies created by these small flows are laterally discontinuous.

  19. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles. (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy


    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Objective definition of rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for the initiation of post-fire debris flows in southern California (United States)

    Staley, Dennis; Kean, Jason W.; Cannon, Susan H.; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Laber, Jayme L.


    Rainfall intensity–duration (ID) thresholds are commonly used to predict the temporal occurrence of debris flows and shallow landslides. Typically, thresholds are subjectively defined as the upper limit of peak rainstorm intensities that do not produce debris flows and landslides, or as the lower limit of peak rainstorm intensities that initiate debris flows and landslides. In addition, peak rainstorm intensities are often used to define thresholds, as data regarding the precise timing of debris flows and associated rainfall intensities are usually not available, and rainfall characteristics are often estimated from distant gauging locations. Here, we attempt to improve the performance of existing threshold-based predictions of post-fire debris-flow occurrence by utilizing data on the precise timing of debris flows relative to rainfall intensity, and develop an objective method to define the threshold intensities. We objectively defined the thresholds by maximizing the number of correct predictions of debris flow occurrence while minimizing the rate of both Type I (false positive) and Type II (false negative) errors. We identified that (1) there were statistically significant differences between peak storm and triggering intensities, (2) the objectively defined threshold model presents a better balance between predictive success, false alarms and failed alarms than previous subjectively defined thresholds, (3) thresholds based on measurements of rainfall intensity over shorter duration (≤60 min) are better predictors of post-fire debris-flow initiation than longer duration thresholds, and (4) the objectively defined thresholds were exceeded prior to the recorded time of debris flow at frequencies similar to or better than subjective thresholds. Our findings highlight the need to better constrain the timing and processes of initiation of landslides and debris flows for future threshold studies. In addition, the methods used to define rainfall thresholds in this

  1. A globally complete map of supraglacial debris cover and a new toolkit for debris cover research (United States)

    Herreid, Sam; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    A growing canon of literature is focused on resolving the processes and implications of debris cover on glaciers. However, this work is often confined to a handful of glaciers that were likely selected based on criteria optimizing their suitability to test a specific hypothesis or logistical ease. The role of debris cover in a glacier system is likely to not go overlooked in forthcoming research, yet the magnitude of this role at a global scale has not yet been fully described. Here, we present a map of debris cover for all glacierized regions on Earth including the Greenland Ice Sheet using 30 m Landsat data. This dataset will begin to open a wider context to the high quality, localized findings from the debris-covered glacier research community and help inform large-scale modeling efforts. A global map of debris cover also facilitates analysis attempting to isolate first order geomorphological and climate controls of supraglacial debris production. Furthering the objective of expanding the inclusion of debris cover in forthcoming research, we also present an under development suite of open-source, Python based tools. Requiring minimal and often freely available input data, we have automated the mapping of: i) debris cover, ii) ice cliffs, iii) debris cover evolution over the Landsat era and iv) glacier flow instabilities from altered debris structures. At the present time, debris extent is the only globally complete quantity but with the expanding repository of high quality global datasets and further tool development minimizing manual tasks and computational cost, we foresee all of these tools being applied globally in the near future.

  2. Re-impacting Debris Facilitated Cooling of the Lunar Magma Ocean (United States)

    Perera, Viranga; Jackson, Alan; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Asphaug, Erik


    It is widely believed that the Moon formed from the debris of a giant impact between the proto-Earth and a roughly Mars-sized body. Concomitant to this formation scenario, and also inferred from geochemical analyses of Apollo samples, is the past existence of a Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO). After about 80% of the LMO solidified, it is believed that the mineral plagioclase would have become stable and crystallized out of the LMO. Rocks that formed principally of plagioclase would have been buoyant in the residual liquid and thus helped form a floatation crust that acted as a thermally conductive blanket over the LMO. Previous modelling work found that the LMO would have solidified in about 10 Myr. However, studies have shown that, during the giant impact event, a large quantity of debris (totaling over a Lunar mass) would have been released that was not immediately incorporated into the Earth and the Moon. This material would have subsequently re-impacted the Earth and the Moon. Particularly for the Moon, this debris would have punctured holes into the nascent lunar crust, attenuated its thermal blanketing effect, and thus facilitated the cooling of the LMO. We improve upon previous studies of the solidification of the LMO by incorporating this re-impacting debris, and find that the re-impacting debris may have reduced the LMO solidification time.

  3. Debris flow rheology: Experimental analysis of fine-grained slurries (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.


    The rheology of slurries consisting of ≤2-mm sediment from a natural debris flow deposit was measured using a wide-gap concentric-cylinder viscometer. The influence of sediment concentration and size and distribution of grains on the bulk rheological behavior of the slurries was evaluated at concentrations ranging from 0.44 to 0.66. The slurries exhibit diverse rheological behavior. At shear rates above 5 s−1 the behavior approaches that of a Bingham material; below 5 s−1, sand exerts more influence and slurry behavior deviates from the Bingham idealization. Sand grain interactions dominate the mechanical behavior when sand concentration exceeds 0.2; transient fluctuations in measured torque, time-dependent decay of torque, and hysteresis effects are observed. Grain rubbing, interlocking, and collision cause changes in packing density, particle distribution, grain orientation, and formation and destruction of grain clusters, which may explain the observed behavior. Yield strength and plastic viscosity exhibit order-of-magnitude variation when sediment concentration changes as little as 2–4%. Owing to these complexities, it is unlikely that debris flows can be characterized by a single rheological model.

  4. Assessing the effects of check dams on sediment dynamics in a debris-flow catchment through SfM technique (United States)

    Cucchiaro, Sara; Beinat, Alberto; Calsamiglia, Aleix; Cavalli, Marco; Cazorzi, Federico; Crema, Stefano; Marchi, Lorenzo


    The Moscardo Torrent (eastern Italian Alps) is a small rugged catchment (drainage area 4.1 km2, range in elevation between 890 and 2043 m) frequently affected by debris flows that deliver large amounts of sediment to the receiving stream, and cause concerns for infrastructures located on the alluvial fan and near the confluence. Over the last decades, hydraulic control works were implemented in the main channel to limit bed erosion and to stabilize channel banks. Although the objectives of training works have been only partly achieved, check dams and hillslope stabilization works have affected the sediment transfer from hillslopes to the channels and along the main channel. The effects of hydraulic control works were investigated by means of multi-temporal Structure from Motion (SfM) surveys based on images taken from the ground and UAV. The ground and air based surveys were carried out over a channel reach in which two check dams have recently been built. SfM surveys were taken before and after three debris-flow events (occurred between June and July 2016), allowing the generation of four high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Geomorphic changes caused by the debris-flow events have been assessed in order to produce the DEM of Differences (DoDs with a 0.2 m spatial resolution) that allowed estimating erosion and deposition volumes in the study area. Furthermore a debris-flow monitoring system has been in operation in the Moscardo Torrent; the analysis of the videos and of the hydrographs recorded by ultrasonic sensors permitted to assess the debris-flow volumes. These estimates were used to characterize the magnitude of events in support of the topographic analysis. By examining the changing pattern of erosion and deposition over time it was possible to understand the check dams' effects on sediment dynamics. The results show that the new check dams effectively stored sediment transported by the three debris flows. However, once the check dams have been

  5. Radiophosphate visualization of the foreign body reaction to wear debris from total knee prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthall, L.


    Three patients with total knee arthroplasties, in which the tibial and patellar articulating surfaces consisted of a polyethylene-carbon fiber composite, demonstrated technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) deposition in the intraarticular space, whereas, the gallium-67 citrate images were normal. This was shown to be due to a synovial giant cell foreign body reaction to particulate carbon fiber debris in one patient who required surgical revision of the prosthesis.

  6. Multi-scale roughness spectra of Mount St. Helens debris flows (United States)

    Austin, Richard T.; England, Anthony W.


    A roughness spectrum allows surface structure to be interpreted as a sum of sinusoidal components with differing wavelengths. Knowledge of the roughness spectrum gives insight into the mechanisms responsible for electromagnetic scattering at a given wavelength. Measured spectra from 10-year-old primary debris flow surfaces at Mount St. Helens conform to a power-law spectral model, suggesting that these surfaces are scaling over the measured range of spatial frequencies. Measured spectra from water-deposited surfaces deviate from this model.

  7. A comparative 2D modeling of debris-flow propagation and outcomes for end-users (United States)

    Bettella, F.; Bertoldi, G.; Pozza, E.; McArdell, B. W.; D'Agostino, V.


    In Alpine regions gravity-driven natural hazards, in particular debris flows, endanger settlements and human life. Mitigation strategies based on hazard maps are necessary tools for land planning. These maps can be made more precise by using numerical models to forecasting the inundated areas after a careful setting of those 'key parameters' (K-P) which directly affect the flow motion and its interaction with the ground surface. Several physically based 2D models are available for practitioners and governmental agencies, but the selection criteria of model type and of the related K-P remain flexible and partly subjective. This remark has driven us to investigate how different models simulate different types of debris flows (from granular to muddy debris flows, going through intermediate types), in particular when the flow is influenced by the presence of deposition basins. Two commercial 2D physical models (RAMMS and FLO-2D) have been tested for five well-documented debris flows events from five Italian catchments were different geology and flow dynamics are observed: 1) a viscous debris flow occurred in 2009 in a catchment with a metamorphic geology (Gadria torrent, Bolzano Province); 2) the 2009 granular debris flow in an granitic geological setting (Rio Dosson, Trento Province); 3-4) two events occurred in the 'rio Val del Lago' and 'rio Molinara' (Trento Province) in 2010 where porphyritic lithology prevails (intermediate granular debris flow); 5) the Rotolon torrent (Vicenza Province) 2009 debris flow containing sedimentary rocks enclosed in an abundant clay-rich matrix (intermediate viscous case). Event volumes range from 5.000 to 50.000 cubic meters. The Gadria, Rotolon and Val del Lago events are also influenced by artificial retention basins. Case study simulations allowed delineation of some practical end-user suggestions and good practices in order to guide the model choice and the K-P setting, particularly related to different flow dynamics. The

  8. Tree-Ring Reconstruction of Debris-Flow Events Leading to Overbank Sedimentation on the Illgraben Cone (Valais Alps, Switzerland)


    Stoffel, Markus; Bollschweiler, Michelle; Leutwiler, Astrid; Aeby, Patrick


    Dendrogeomorphological analyses of trees affected by debris flows have regularly been used to date past events. However, while previous studies in the Swiss Alps have focused primarily on granitic and gneissic debris-flow material and on Larix decidua Mill. and Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees, they have – at the same time – widely disregarded torrents dominated by finely fractured calcareous and dolomitic lithologies and forests populated with Pinus sylvestris L. In this paper, we report on res...

  9. Debris filtering effectiveness and pressure drop tests of debris resistance-bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa; Chung, Heung June; Won, Soon Yeun; Cho, Young Ro; Kim, Bok Deuk


    In this final report, described are the test conditions and test procedures for the debris filtering effectiveness and pressure drop tests for developing the Debris Resistance-Bottom End Piece (DR-BEP). And the test results are tabulated for later evaluation. (Author)

  10. Loopy, Floppy and Fragmented: Debris Characteristics Matter (United States)

    Parrish, J.; Burgess, H. K.


    Marine debris is a world-wide problem threatening the health and safety of marine organisms, ecosystems, and humans. Recent and ongoing research shows that risk of harm is not associated with identity, but rather with a set of specific character states, where the character state space intersection is defined by the organism of interest. For example, intersections of material, color, rigidity and size predict the likelihood of an object being ingested: plastic, clear-white, floppy objects risks to sea turtles whereas yellow-red, rigid objects risks to albatrosses. A character state space approach allows prioritization of prevention and removal of marine debris informed by risk assessments for species of interest by comparing species ranges with spatio-temporal hotspots of all debris with characteristics known to be associated with increased risk of harm, regardless of identity. With this in mind, the Coastal Observation and Seabird Survey Team (COASST) developed and tested a 20 character data collection approach to quantifying the diversity and abundance of marine debris found on beaches. Development resulted in meta-analysis of the literature and expert opinion eliciting harmful character state space. Testing included data collection on inter-rater reliability and accuracy, where the latter included 75 participants quantifying marine debris characteristics on monthly surveys of 30 beaches along the Washington and Oregon coastlines over the past year. Pilot work indicates that characters must be simply and operationally defined, states must be listed, and examples must be provided for color states. Complex characters (e.g., windage, shape) are not replicable across multiple data collectors. Although data collection takes longer than other marine debris surveys for a given amount of debris and area surveyed, volunteer rapidity and accuracy improved within 3-5 surveys. Initial feedback indicated that volunteers were willing to continue collecting data as long as they

  11. The Tancitaro Debris Avalanche: Characterization, propagation and modeling (United States)

    Morelli, Stefano; Monroy, Victor Hugo Garduño; Gigli, Giovanni; Falorni, Giacomo; Rocha, Eleazar Arreygue; Casagli, Nicola


    The Tancitaro volcano (3860 m) is an andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano located in the western portion of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt within the state of Michoacán (Mexico). The tectonic activity of this area has likely contributed to a large sector collapse of the volcano. The first findings of a multidisciplinary investigation into this debris avalanche are presented here. Geomorphological analyses, based on the interpretation of orthophotos, satellite imagery and on GIS elaborations, had the objective of determining the main morphometric features of the landslide. The collapse structure is an east-facing horseshoe-shaped crater (4 km wide and 5.3 km long), while the deposit forms a large fan that is 66 km long, covers an area of approximately 1155 km 2 and has an estimated volume of 18 km 3. Event volume was established by reconstructing the paleo-edifice in a GIS and taking into account volumetric expansion. Cross sections measured in the field were also used for this purpose. Field investigations also highlighted the presence of two texturally distinct units, which are referred to as the "block facies" and the "matrix facies", respectively. The first is responsible for the typical hummock morphologies found in the proximal area. A transitional zone contains a "mixed block and matrix facies" while in the distal portion blocks and megablocks, some of which have a jigsaw puzzle texture, gradually decrease in size until they disappear entirely. A number of matrix samples were collected to conduct direct shear tests, granulometric analyses and classification of the materials. The data and analyses described above were used to discuss the mechanism controlling the long runout of the avalanche. Based on the comparison between the Tancitaro debris avalanche and similar events we propose that mechanical fluidization was the mechanism responsible for the remarkable mobility of the landslide. The predisposing factors leading to the collapse were also considered. Field

  12. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches. (United States)

    Slavin, Chris; Grage, Anna; Campbell, Marnie L


    The drivers (social) and pressures (physical) of marine debris have typically been examined separately. We redress this by using social and beach surveys at nine Tasmanian beaches, across three coastlines and within three categories of urbanisation, to examine whether people acknowledge that their actions contribute to the issue of marine debris, and whether these social drivers are reflected in the amount of marine debris detected on beaches. A large proportion (75%) of survey participants do not litter at beaches; with age, gender, income and residency influencing littering behaviour. Thus, participants recognise that littering at beaches is a problem. This social trend was reflected in the small amounts of debris that were detected. Furthermore, the amount of debris was not statistically influenced by the degree of beach urbanisation, the coastline sampled, or the proximity to beach access points. By linking social and physical aspects of this issue, management outcomes can be improved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Debris Flow Hazard Map Simulation using FLO-2D For Selected Areas in the Philippines (United States)

    Khallil Ferrer, Peter; Llanes, Francesca; dela Resma, Marvee; Realino, Victoriano, II; Obrique, Julius; Ortiz, Iris Jill; Aquino, Dakila; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo


    On December 4, 2012, Super Typhoon Bopha wreaked havoc in the southern region of Mindanao, leaving 1,067 people dead and causing USD 800 million worth of damage. Classified as a Category 5 typhoon by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), Bopha brought intense rainfall and strong winds that triggered landslides and debris flows, particularly in Barangay (village) Andap, New Bataan municipality, in the southern Philippine province of Compostela Valley. The debris flow destroyed school buildings and covered courts and an evacuation center. Compostela Valley also suffered the most casualties of any province: 612 out of a total of 1,067. In light of the disaster in Compostela, measures were immediately devised to improve available geohazard maps to raise public awareness about landslides and debris flows. A debris flow is a very rapid to extremely rapid flow of saturated non-plastic debris in a steep channel. They are generated when heavy rainfall saturates sediments, causing them to flow down river channels within an alluvial fan situated at the base of the slope of a mountain drainage network. Many rural communities in the Philippines, such as Barangay Andap, are situated at the apex of alluvial fans and in the path of potential debris flows. In this study, we conducted simulations of debris flows to assess the risks in inhabited areas throughout the Philippines and validated the results in the field, focusing on the provinces of Pangasinan and Aurora as primary examples. Watersheds that drain in an alluvial fan using a 10-m resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was first delineated, and then a 1 in 100-year rain return rainfall scenario for the watershed was used to simulate debris flows using FLO-2D, a flood-routing software. The resulting simulations were used to generate debris flow hazard maps which are consistent with danger zones in alluvial fans delineated previously from satellite imagery and available DEMs. The

  14. Debris transport evaluation during the blow-down phase of a LOCA using computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Pil; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Man Woong; Park, Ju Yeop


    Highlights: → We conducted CFD simulation on the spreading of the coolant in the containment after a break of the hot leg. It is used to estimate the dispersion of the debris within the containment. → It was assumed that the small and fine debris is transported by the discharge flow so that a fraction of the small and fine debris transport can be estimated based on the amount of water. → The break flow was assumed to be a homogeneous two-phase mixture without phase separation. Isenthalpic expansion of the break flow was used to specify the inlet boundary condition of the break flow. → The fraction of the small and fine debris transported to the upper part is 73%; this value is close to the value calculated using 1D lumped-parameter codes by the USNRC and the KINS, respectively, while 48% more than the value shown in the NEI 04-07. - Abstract: The performance of the emergency recirculation water sump under the influence of debris accumulation following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has long been of safety concern. Debris generation and transport during a LOCA are significantly influenced by the characteristics of the ejected coolant flow. One-dimensional analyses previously have been attempted to evaluate the debris transport during the blow-down phase but the transport evaluation still has large uncertainties. In this work, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was utilized to evaluate small and fine debris transport during the blow-down phase of a pressurized water reactor, OPR1000. The coolant ejected from the ruptured hot-leg was assumed to expand in an isenthalpic process. The transport of small and fine debris was assumed to be dominated by water-borne transport, and the transport fractions for the upper and lower parts of the containment were quantified based on the CFD analysis. It was estimated that 73% of small and fine debris is transported to the upper part of the containment. This value is close to the values estimated by nuclear

  15. Impacts of debris cover on glaciers: research priorities and relation to glacier-climate interactions on clean-ice glaciers. (United States)

    Nicholson, L. I.


    Debris covered glaciers are a common feature in many high mountain environments. The presence of surficial debris fundamentally alters a number of glacier processes, and consequently the manner in which glaciers respond to climate. Incomplete understanding of these altered processes hampers (a) the use of records of glacier change as a means of unraveling former climate conditions, (b) the production of glacier runoff projections and (c) development of high quality hazard assessments of the future development of debris covered glaciers and associated ice dammed lakes. This presentation summarizes four key ways in which debris cover alters the behaviour of glaciers in ways that are relevant to solving both scientific and more practical problems: (1) surface energy balance and sensitivity to climate (2) ablation gradient of debris covered glaciers and their long profile evolution under changing climate conditions (3) differential ablation and the development of supraglacial ponds (4) sedimentary record of moraine deposition and impacts of this on climatic reconstruction and long term moraine stability The presentation concludes by outlining priority list of research required specifically on debris covered glaciers and how this could be integrated within research programs assessing the response of clean ice glaciers to ongoing climate change.

  16. Debris mitigation techniques for petawatt-class lasers in high debris environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schwarz


    Full Text Available This paper addresses debris mitigation techniques for two different kinds of debris sources that are found in the high-energy density community. The first debris source stems from the laser-target interaction and this debris can be mitigated by avoiding a direct line of sight to the debris source (e.g. by using a sacrificial fold mirror or by inserting a thin debris shield. Several thin film debris shields have been investigated and nitrocellulose was found to be the best suited. The second debris source originates from an external high-energy density driver or experiment. In our specific case, this is the Z accelerator, a Z-pinch machine that generates 2 MJ of x rays at 300 TW. The center section of the Z accelerator is an extremely violent environment which requires the development of novel debris mitigation approaches for backlighting with petawatt lasers. Two such approaches are presented in this paper. First, a self-closing focusing cone. In our facility, the focused beam on target is fully enclosed inside a solid focusing cone. In the first debris mitigation scenario, the last part of the cone has a “flapper” that should seal the cone when the pressure wave from the Z-pinch explosion hits it. In the second scenario, an enclosed target assembly is used, with the last part of the focusing cone connected to a “target can” which houses the laser target. The laser produced x rays for backlighting escape through a 3 mm diameter hole that is protected by an x-ray filter stack. Both techniques are discussed in detail and have been successfully tested on the Z accelerator.

  17. An improved method to compute supra glacial debris thickness using thermal satellite images together with an Energy Balance Model in the Nepal Himalayas (United States)

    Egli, Pascal; Ayala, Alvaro; Buri, Pascal; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    A significant proportion of Himalayan glaciers is debris covered. Knowing the thickness of the debris cover is essential to obtain accurate estimates of melt rates. Due to the remoteness of these glaciers, collecting field measurements of debris thickness for a large number of glaciers is not realistic. For this reason, previous studies have proposed an approach based on computing the energy balance at the debris surface using surface temperature from satellite imagery together with meteorological data and solving the energy balance for debris thickness. These studies differ only in the way they account for the nonlinearity of debris temperature profiles and the heat stored in the debris layer. In our study we aim to 1) assess the performance of three existing models, and 2) develop a new methodology for calculating the conductive heat flux within the debris, which accounts for the history of debris temperature profiles by solving the advection-diffusion equation of heat numerically. Additionally, we found that in the previous studies several input variables are considered as uniform and we improved this by using distributed representations. As a study case we use Lirung glacier in Langtang valley, Nepal, and we work with Landsat satellite thermal images. Results are validated using measurements of debris thickness on the glacier from October 2012 and 2015. In some cases the existing models yield realistic results. But there is very little consistency between results for different satellite images. In general, computed debris thickness is frequently too thin compared to reality. Two of the existing models were able to accurately reproduce the extent of thin debris cover on the upper part of Lirung glacier. The mean debris thickness on Lirung obtained with the existing models lies between 0.1 m and 0.3 m depending on the model used, whereby the upper value of 0.3 m corresponds best to the field measurements. Preliminary results from our new model show a larger

  18. Early to Late Pleistocene history of debris-flow fan evolution in western Death Valley (California) using cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al (United States)

    Dühnforth, Miriam; Densmore, Alexander L.; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Allen, Philip; Kubik, Peter W.


    Debris-flow fans with depositional records over several 105 years may be useful archives for the understanding of fan construction by debris flows and post-depositional surface modification over long timescales. Reading these archives, however, requires that we establish the temporal and spatial pattern of debris-flow activity over time. We used a combination of geomorphic mapping of fan surface characteristics, digital topographic analysis, and cosmogenic radionuclide dating using 10Be and 26Al to study the evolution of the Warm Springs fan on the west side of southern Death Valley, California. The 10Be concentrations yield dates that vary from 989 ± 43 to 595 ± 17 ka on the proximal fan and between 369 ± 13 and 125 ± 5 ka on distal fan surfaces. The interpretation of these results as true depositional ages though is complicated by high inheritance with a minimum of 65 ka measured at the catchment outlet and of at least 125 ka at the distal fan. Results from the 26Al measurements suggest that most sample locations on the fan surfaces underwent simple exposure and were not affected by complex histories of burial and re-exposure. This implies that Warm Springs fan is a relatively stable landform that underwent several 105 years of fan aggradation before fan head incision caused abandonment of the proximal and central fan surfaces and deposition continued on a younger unit at the distal fan. We show that the primary depositional debris-flow morphology is eliminated over a time scale of less than 105 years, which prevents the delineation of individual debris flows as well as the precise reconstruction of lateral shifts in deposition as we find it on younger debris-flow fans. Secondary post-depositional processes control subsequent evolution of surface morphology with the dissection of planar surfaces while smoothing of convex-up interfluves between incised channels continues through time.

  19. Numerical modeling of debris avalanches at Nevado de Toluca (Mexico): implications for hazard evaluation and mapping (United States)

    Grieco, F.; Capra, L.; Groppelli, G.; Norini, G.


    The present study concerns the numerical modeling of debris avalanches on the Nevado de Toluca Volcano (Mexico) using TITAN2D simulation software, and its application to create hazard maps. Nevado de Toluca is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano of Late Pliocene-Holocene age, located in central México near to the cities of Toluca and México City; its past activity has endangered an area with more than 25 million inhabitants today. The present work is based upon the data collected during extensive field work finalized to the realization of the geological map of Nevado de Toluca at 1:25,000 scale. The activity of the volcano has developed from 2.6 Ma until 10.5 ka with both effusive and explosive events; the Nevado de Toluca has presented long phases of inactivity characterized by erosion and emplacement of debris flow and debris avalanche deposits on its flanks. The largest epiclastic events in the history of the volcano are wide debris flows and debris avalanches, occurred between 1 Ma and 50 ka, during a prolonged hiatus in eruptive activity. Other minor events happened mainly during the most recent volcanic activity (less than 50 ka), characterized by magmatic and tectonic-induced instability of the summit dome complex. According to the most recent tectonic analysis, the active transtensive kinematics of the E-W Tenango Fault System had a strong influence on the preferential directions of the last three documented lateral collapses, which generated the Arroyo Grande and Zaguàn debris avalanche deposits towards E and Nopal debris avalanche deposit towards W. The analysis of the data collected during the field work permitted to create a detailed GIS database of the spatial and temporal distribution of debris avalanche deposits on the volcano. Flow models, that have been performed with the software TITAN2D, developed by GMFG at Buffalo, were entirely based upon the information stored in the geological database. The modeling software is built upon equations

  20. Assessment of Debris Flow Potential Hazardous Zones Using Numerical Models in the Mountain Foothills of Santiago, Chile (United States)

    Celis, C.; Sepulveda, S. A.; Castruccio, A.; Lara, M.


    Debris and mudflows are some of the main geological hazards in the mountain foothills of Central Chile. The risk of flows triggered in the basins of ravines that drain the Andean frontal range into the capital city, Santiago, increases with time due to accelerated urban expansion. Susceptibility assessments were made by several authors to detect the main active ravines in the area. Macul and San Ramon ravines have a high to medium debris flow susceptibility, whereas Lo Cañas, Apoquindo and Las Vizcachas ravines have a medium to low debris flow susceptibility. This study emphasizes in delimiting the potential hazardous zones using the numerical simulation program RAMMS-Debris Flows with the Voellmy model approach, and the debris-flow model LAHARZ. This is carried out by back-calculating the frictional parameters in the depositional zone with a known event as the debris and mudflows in Macul and San Ramon ravines, on May 3rd, 1993, for the RAMMS approach. In the same scenario, we calibrate the coefficients to match conditions of the mountain foothills of Santiago for the LAHARZ model. We use the information obtained for every main ravine in the study area, mainly for the similarity in slopes and material transported. Simulations were made for the worst-case scenario, caused by the combination of intense rainfall storms, a high 0°C isotherm level and material availability in the basins where the flows are triggered. The results show that the runout distances are well simulated, therefore a debris-flow hazard map could be developed with these models. Correlation issues concerning the run-up, deposit thickness and transversal areas are reported. Hence, the models do not represent entirely the complexity of the phenomenon, but they are a reliable approximation for preliminary hazard maps.

  1. Cetaceans and Marine Debris: The Great Unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Peter Simmonds


    Full Text Available Plastics and other marine debris have been found in the gastrointestinal tracts of cetaceans, including instances where large quantities of material have been found that are likely to cause impairment to digestive processes and other examples, where other morbidity and even death have resulted. In some instances, debris may have been ingested as a result of the stranding process and, in others, it may have been ingested when feeding. Those species that are suction or “ram” feeders may be most at risk. There is also evidence of entanglement of cetaceans in marine debris. However, it is usually difficult to distinguish entanglement in active fishing gear from that in lost or discarded gear. The overall significance of the threat from ingested plastics and other debris remains unclear for any population or species of cetaceans, although there are concerns for some taxa, including at the population level, and marine debris in the oceans continues to grow. Further research including the compilation of unpublished material and the investigation of important habitat areas is strongly recommended.

  2. ESA Technologies for Space Debris Remediation (United States)

    Wormnes, K.; Le Letty, R.; Summerer, L.; Schonenborg, R.; Dubois-Matra, O.; Luraschi, E.; Cropp, A.; Krag, H.; Delaval, J.


    Space debris is an existing and growing problem for space operations. Studies show that for a continued use of LEO, 5 - 10 large and strategically chosen debris need to be removed every year. The European Space Agency (ESA) is actively pursuing technologies and systems for space debris removal under its Clean Space initiative. This overview paper describes the activities that are currently ongoing at ESA and that have already been completed. Additionally it outlines the plan for the near future. The technologies under study fall in two main categories corresponding to whether a pushing or a pulling manoeuvre is required for the de-orbitation. ESA is studying the option of using a tethered capture system for controlled de-orbitation through pulling where the capture is performed using throw-nets or alternatively a harpoon. The Agency is also studying rigid capture systems with a particular emphasis on tentacles (potentially combined with a robotic arm). Here the de-orbitation is achieved through a push-manoeuvre. Additionally, a number of activities will be discussed that are ongoing to develop supporting technologies for these scenarios, or to develop systems for de-orbiting debris that can be allowed to re-enter in an uncontrolled manner. The short term goal and main driver for the current technology developments is to achieve sufficient TRL on required technologies to support a potential de-orbitation mission to remove a large and strategically chosen piece of debris.

  3. Quaternary deposits and landscape evolution of the central Blue Ridge of Virginia (United States)

    Eaton, L. Scott; Morgan, Benjamin A.; Kochel, R. Craig; Howard, Alan D.


    A catastrophic storm that struck the central Virginia Blue Ridge Mountains in June 1995 delivered over 775 mm (30.5 in) of rain in 16 h. The deluge triggered more than 1000 slope failures; and stream channels and debris fans were deeply incised, exposing the stratigraphy of earlier mass movement and fluvial deposits. The synthesis of data obtained from detailed pollen studies and 39 radiometrically dated surficial deposits in the Rapidan basin gives new insights into Quaternary climatic change and landscape evolution of the central Blue Ridge Mountains.The oldest depositional landforms in the study area are fluvial terraces. Their deposits have weathering characteristics similar to both early Pleistocene and late Tertiary terrace surfaces located near the Fall Zone of Virginia. Terraces of similar ages are also present in nearby basins and suggest regional incision of streams in the area since early Pleistocene–late Tertiary time. The oldest debris-flow deposits in the study area are much older than Wisconsinan glaciation as indicated by 2.5YR colors, thick argillic horizons, and fully disintegrated granitic cobbles. Radiocarbon dating indicates that debris flow activity since 25,000 YBP has recurred, on average, at least every 2500 years. The presence of stratified slope deposits, emplaced from 27,410 through 15,800 YBP, indicates hillslope stripping and reduced vegetation cover on upland slopes during the Wisconsinan glacial maximum.Regolith generated from mechanical weathering during the Pleistocene collected in low-order stream channels and was episodically delivered to the valley floor by debris flows. Debris fans prograded onto flood plains during the late Pleistocene but have been incised by Holocene stream entrenchment. The fan incision allows Holocene debris flows to largely bypass many of the higher elevation debris fan surfaces and deposit onto the topographically lower surfaces. These episodic, high-magnitude storm events are responsible for

  4. Sedimentary control of volcanic debris-avalanche structures and transformation into lahars (United States)

    Bernard, Karine; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Roche, Olivier; Samaniego Eguiguren, Pablo


    Volcanic debris avalanche structures and related transformations into lahars have been extensively analysed in order to establish a sedimentary classification of the deposits. Textural and structural variations of eight debris-avalanche deposits (DADs) have been correlated with Shape Preferred Orientation of 30,000 clasts together with grain-size distributions and statistical parameters from 156 sieved matrix samples. Granular segregation patterns have been observed with structural fault controls: proximal granular-segregation structures of the Tutupaca DAD ridges in Peru, basal sheared bands along overthrust lateral levee (Mt. Dore, France), mixing and cataclasis of fault-controlled deposits in half-graben during lateral spreading of distal thrust lobe (Pichu-Pichu, Peru), neo-cataclasis at the frontal thrust lobe (Meager, Canada and Mt. Dore, France). A logarithmic regression characterises the % matrix vs. matrix/gravels showing proximal and primary cataclasis, hybrid DADs with polymodal matrix and mixed facies up to transformations into lahar (Misti, Mt Dore). The sequential fragmentation helps to distinguish DAD that belong to Andean and Cascade Volcanic arcs (Tutupaca and Misti, Peru; Meager, Canada) to the hybrid DADs, before distal transformation into lahars (Pichu-Pichu); and hydrovolcanic fragmentation characterises the transformed lahar deposits (Misti). The fractal values of 150 sieved samples range between 2.3 and 2.7, implying extensional fractures with granular disaggregation. Skewness vs. kurtosis values help to distinguish the proximal mass wasting deposits and the transformed deposits by dilution. The sorting vs. median values enable us to differentiate the hybrid DADs with the transformed deposits by dilution. The sedimentological statistical parameters with Shape Preferred Orientation analysis that have been correlated with textural and structural observations show textural fabrics resulting from kinematic processes: cataclasis, hybrid matrix

  5. Using Structure-from-Motion to Quantify Sediment Accumulation and Bedrock Erosion in a Debris-Flow Dominated Channel (United States)

    Reitman, N. G.; Rengers, F.; Kean, J. W.


    One of the highest frequencies of observed debris flows in the US is located at the Chalk Cliffs in central Colorado. This high rate of debris-flow activity ( 3 per year) is supported by a similarly high rate of sediment supply from rock fall and ravel due to frost weathering of the highly-erodible, hydrothermally-altered quartz monzonite cliffs during the winter months. A first step toward understanding debris-flow initiation, and channel and hillslope evolution, is to quantify the magnitude and spatial distribution of sediment that accumulates by the end of the winter period. Here we test the ability of structure-from-motion photogrammetric surveys to produce high-resolution point clouds in order to quantify sediment deposition, and possibly bedrock erosion. We use point clouds obtained from surveys conducted in late September 2015 and early June 2016 to measure sediment deposition in a 42-m-long channel over one winter. All surveys are co-registered with control points (screws drilled into bedrock) measured in a local coordinate system with a total station. Point clouds derived from these surveys have average point densities >200,000 pts/m2, and accuracies within 2 cm. Initial analysis shows accumulation of 10-50 cm ( 10 m3) of unconsolidated loose sediment over eight months, providing ample material for debris-flow initiation during the following summer season. Sediment accumulated in a spatially-variable pattern dependent on existing channel-bottom bedrock topography. Future surveys are planned in order to measure bedrock erosion by debris flows and variation in sediment deposition rate through time. Our analysis indicates that photogrammetric surveys provide a high level of detail at low cost, and thus are a useful geomorphic monitoring tool that will ultimately lead to better understanding of the processes that contribute to debris-flow activity and landscape evolution.

  6. Space debris and related legal issues (United States)

    Lafferranderie, G.


    "We are now witnessing an extraordinary event, the first of the 21st century, the MIR space station's plunge to Earth, producing of course impressive fireworks, but also a massive amount of debris." The first launchings created the first space debris. Space debris is the immediate, logical consequence of the exploration and use of outer space (around the Earth) involving manmade objects. This situation will persist, making launching, exploration and use increasingly difficult and risky - unless we turn to the type of rocket dreamt up by Hergé for Tintin's trips to the Moon. Worldwide concern has been expressed in particular in the Vienna Space Millennium Declaration adopted at the Unispace Conference in Vienna in July 1999, with the contributions of the Space Law Workshop organised by the International Institute of Space Law (session eight).

  7. Flow characteristics of counter-current flow in debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi


    In the course of a severe accident, a damaged core would form a debris bed consisting of once-molten and fragmented fuel elements. It is necessary to evaluate the dryout heat flux for the judgment of the coolability of the debris bed during the severe accident. The dryout phenomena in the debris bed is dominated by the counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) in the debris bed. In this study, air-water counter-current flow behavior in the debris bed is experimentally investigated with glass particles simulating the debris beds. In this experiment, falling water flow rate and axial pressure distributions were experimentally measured. As the results, it is clarified that falling water flow rate becomes larger with the debris bed height and the pressure gradient in the upper region of the debris bed is different from that in the lower region of the debris bed. These results indicate that the dominant region for CCFL in the debris bed is identified near the top of the debris bed. Analytical results with annular flow model indicates that interfacial shear stress in the upper region of the debris bed is larger than that in the lower region of the debris bed. (author)

  8. Stratiform chromite deposit model (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.


    Stratiform chromite deposits are of great economic importance, yet their origin and evolution remain highly debated. Layered igneous intrusions such as the Bushveld, Great Dyke, Kemi, and Stillwater Complexes, provide opportunities for studying magmatic differentiation processes and assimilation within the crust, as well as related ore-deposit formation. Chromite-rich seams within layered intrusions host the majority of the world's chromium reserves and may contain significant platinum-group-element (PGE) mineralization. This model of stratiform chromite deposits is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. The model focuses on features that may be common to all stratiform chromite deposits as a way to gain insight into the processes that gave rise to their emplacement and to the significant economic resources contained in them.

  9. Historical Account to the State of the Art in Debris Flow Modeling (United States)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.


    In this contribution, I present a historical account of debris flow modelling leading to the state of the art in simulations and applications. A generalized two-phase model is presented that unifies existing avalanche and debris flow theories. The new model (Pudasaini, 2012) covers both the single-phase and two-phase scenarios and includes many essential and observable physical phenomena. In this model, the solid-phase stress is closed by Mohr-Coulomb plasticity, while the fluid stress is modeled as a non-Newtonian viscous stress that is enhanced by the solid-volume-fraction gradient. A generalized interfacial momentum transfer includes viscous drag, buoyancy and virtual mass forces, and a new generalized drag force is introduced to cover both solid-like and fluid-like drags. Strong couplings between solid and fluid momentum transfer are observed. The two-phase model is further extended to describe the dynamics of rock-ice avalanches with new mechanical models. This model explains dynamic strength weakening and includes internal fluidization, basal lubrication, and exchanges of mass and momentum. The advantages of the two-phase model over classical (effectively single-phase) models are discussed. Advection and diffusion of the fluid through the solid are associated with non-linear fluxes. Several exact solutions are constructed, including the non-linear advection-diffusion of fluid, kinematic waves of debris flow front and deposition, phase-wave speeds, and velocity distribution through the flow depth and through the channel length. The new model is employed to study two-phase subaerial and submarine debris flows, the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes/oceans, and rock-ice avalanches. Simulation results show that buoyancy enhances flow mobility. The virtual mass force alters flow dynamics by increasing the kinetic energy of the fluid. Newtonian viscous stress substantially reduces flow deformation, whereas non-Newtonian viscous stress may change the

  10. Apparatus for controlling molten core debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.P.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Heylmun, N.F.


    Disclosed is an apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten core debris assumed to melt through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a core meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a core debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed. 9 claims, 22 figures

  11. Electrometallurgical treatment of TMI-2 fuel debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karell, E.J.; Gourishankar, K.V.; Johnson, G.K.


    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed an electrometallurgical treatment process suitable for conditioning DOE oxide spent fuel for long-term storage or disposal. The process consists of an initial oxide reduction step that converts the actinide oxides to a metallic form, followed by an electrochemical separation of uranium from the other fuel constituents. The final product of the process is a uniform set of stable waste forms suitable for long-term storage or disposal. The suitability of the process for treating core debris from the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) reactor is being evaluated. This paper reviews the results of preliminary experimental work performed using simulated TMI-2 fuel debris

  12. Patterns In Debris Disks: No Planets Required? (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc


    Debris disks like those around Fomalhaut and Beta Pictoris show striking dust patterns often attributed to hidden exoplanets. These patterns have been crucial for constraining the masses and orbits of these planets. But adding a bit of gas to our models of debris disks--too little gas to detect--seems to alter this interpretation. Small amounts of gas lead to new dynamical instabilities that may mimic the narrow eccentric rings and other structures planets would create in a gas-free disk. Can we still use dust patterns to find hidden exoplanets?

  13. Morphometric Analysis and Delineation of Debris Flow Susceptible Alluvial Fans in the Philippines after the 2015 Koppu and Melor Typhoon Events (United States)

    Llanes, F.; Rodolfo, K. S.; Lagmay, A. M. A.


    On 17 October 2015, Typhoon Koppu brought heavy rains that generated debris flows in the municipalities of Bongabon, Laur, and Gabaldon in Nueva Ecija province. Roughly two months later on 15 December, Typhoon Melor made landfall in the province of Oriental Mindoro, bringing heavy rains that also generated debris flows in multiple watersheds in the municipality of Baco. Despite not being in the direct path of the typhoon, debris flows were triggered in Bongabon, Gabaldon, and Laur, whereas old debris-flow deposits were remobilized in Dingalan, a coastal town in Aurora province adjacent to Gabaldon. During the onslaught of Typhoons Koppu and Melor, landslides of rock, soil, and debris converged in the mountain stream networks where they were remobilized into debris flows that destroyed numerous houses and structures situated on alluvial fans. Satellite images before and after the two typhoons were compared to calculate the deposit extents on the fans and to determine the number and extent of landslides on each watershed. The affected alluvial fans were investigated in the field to determine whether they are debris flow or flood-prone, using a set of established geomorphic and sedimentary characteristics that differentiate deposits of the two processes. Melton ratio, watershed length, and other significant morphometric indices were calculated and analyzed for the affected watersheds using geographic information system (GIS) and high-resolution digital terrain models. A GIS model that can delineate debris flow susceptible alluvial fans in the Philippines was derived and developed from the analysis. Limitations of the model are discussed, as well as recommendations to improve and refine it.

  14. The clinical implications of ear canal debris in hearing aid users. (United States)

    Orji, Foster Tochukwu; O Onyero, Emmanuel; Agbo, Christian Ejiofor


    Objective : The ear irritations suffered by hearing aid (HA) users are yet to be related to the clinical state of canal. We undertook this study to examine the nature of debris and the microbial flora of ears of hearing aid users, as well as evaluate the determinant factors of ear irritation in this population. Methods : An observational clinical study was carried out involving 32 unilateral hearing aid users recruited from ENT clinic of a tertiary referral center. Each subject underwent otoscopic assessment of canal debris and microbial analysis of swab cultures taken from the hearing aid-wearing ear and contralateral normal ear without hearing aid. Results : Canal debris [wax (28%), fungal deposits (19%), bacteria exudates (13%)]. as well as microorganisms were identified in significant number of ears with hearing aids than ears without hearing aid (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006 respectively). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the commonest identified bacteria. Others were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus species. Intolerable irritations of hearing aid wearing ears were significantly associated with bacterial and fungal otitis externa, and ear discharge (P = 0.005, 0.02, 0.03 respectively). Conclusions : This study demonstrates that using hearing aid alters the ear canal flora; increases risk of both fungal and bacterial otitis externa, as well as encourage wax debris formation, with resultant ear irritations. To ensure compliance their ears should periodically be attended to, by de-waxing or given topical antimicrobial agents where indicated.

  15. A distinct element approach to model the interaction between debris avalanches and embankments (United States)

    Salciarini, Diana; Tamagnini, Claudio; Conversini, Pietro; Rapinesi, Silvia


    Protective measures against hazards associated with debris flows and debris avalanches, include a variety of barriers such as rock/boulder fences, deflection berms, gabions and earthfill barriers, which are placed along the potential flow path where the debris is transported and deposited or close to infrastructures potentially at risk. Recent progress in the field of numerical methods for the lagrangian analysis of discrete particulate systems provides an opportunity to develop a rational design strategy for earthfill barriers as well as other protection methods against debris avalanches. In this work, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) has been used to model the interaction between such natural phenomena and embankments. In the DEM approach, the motion of a granular mass subject to gravity is simulated by numerically solving Newton's equation of motion for each particle considered as an individual body. A parametric study based on a case-history from a marginally stable rock slope near Assisi, in central Italy, has been conducted. The embankment has been simulated in two different ways. In the first case, the embankment acts as a rigid body. In this case, a series of DEM simulations has been conducted to investigate the effect of the influence of the geometry of the sliding mass, slope and barrier, and strength properties of the granular mass on the main design parameters for the barrier. Results show that the barriers considered are all effective in retaining the debris mass; less than 6% of the initial rock mass passes the barrier. The predicted efficiency of the barriers is primarily affected by: i) barrier height; ii) run-out distance; iii) macroscopic friction angle of the debris; and, iv) size of the storage area left between the barrier and the slope base. For the limited range of values considered, the slope angle has only a minor impact on the computed results. In the second case the embankment has been treated as a deformable body, which can slide at the

  16. Transport, retention, and ecological significance of woody debris within a large ephemeral river (United States)

    Jacobson, P.J.; Jacobson, K.M.; Angermeier, P.L.; Cherry, D.S.


    The spatiotemporal patterns and ecological significance of the retention of coarse particulate organic matter and large woody debris have been intensively studied in perennial rivers and streams but are virtually unknown in ephemeral systems. We examined the influence of 2 features characteristic of ephemeral systems, downstream hydrologic decay and in-channel tree growth, on the distribution, transport, and retention of woody debris following a flood having a ~2.6-y recurrence interval in the ephemeral Kuiseb River in southwestern Africa. A total of 2105 pieces of wood were painted at 8 sites along the river channel to measure retention patterns. The flood had a peak discharge of 159 m3/s at the upper end of the study area, decaying to <1 m3/s by 200 km downstream. Downstream export of wood from marking sites totaled 59.5% (n = 1253). Transport distances ranged from 1 to 124 km, and 34.8% (n = 436) of the exported wood was recovered. Marked wood retained within marking sites was significantly longer than exported wood (p < 0.001, t-test). Once in transport, there was little correlation between wood length and distance traveled (r = 0.11, correlation analysis, n = 369). Length influenced the site of retention; material retained on debris piles was significantly longer than that stranded on channel sediments (p < 0.001, t-test). In-channel growth of Faidherbia trees significantly influenced wood retention; 83.7% of marked wood not moved by the flood was associated with debris piles on Faidherbia trees. Similarly, 65% of the exported wood retained within downstream debris piles was associated with Faidherbia trees. In contrast to many perennial systems, we observed a general increase in wood retention downstream, peaking in the river's lower reaches in response to hydrologic decay. Debris piles induced sediment deposition and the formation of in-channel islands. Following flood recession, debris piles and their associated sediments provided moist, organic

  17. Linking effects of anthropogenic debris to ecological impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, M.A.; Underwood, A.J.; Chapman, M.G.; Williams, R.; Thompson, R.C.; Franeker, van J.A.


    Accelerated contamination of habitats with debris has caused increased effort to determine ecological impacts. Strikingly, most work on organisms focuses on sublethal responses to plastic debris. This is controversial because (i) researchers have ignored medical insights about the mechanisms that

  18. Enabling Large-body Active Debris Removal, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research suggests that: (1) orbital debris has reached the point that, even with no future launches, collisions among large-body debris will lead to unstable growth...

  19. Enabling Large-body Active Debris Removal, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research suggests that: (1) orbital debris has reached an unstable point whereby, even with no future launches, the amount of debris will continue to grow through...

  20. Develop metrics of tire debris on Texas highways : technical report. (United States)


    This research effort estimated the amount, characteristics, costs, and safety implications of tire debris on Texas highways. The metrics developed by this research are based on several sources of data, including a statewide survey of debris removal p...

  1. The Large-Scale Debris Avalanche From The Tancitaro Volcano (Mexico): Characterization And Modeling (United States)

    Morelli, S.; Gigli, G.; Falorni, G.; Garduno Monroy, V. H.; Arreygue, E.


    The Tancitaro is an andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano located in the Michoacán Guanajuato volcanic field within the west-central portion of the trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The volcanism in this area is characterized by two composite volcanoes, the highest of which is the Tancitaro volcanic edifice (3840 m), some low angle lava cones and more than 1,000 monogenetic cinder cones. The distribution of the cinder cones is controlled by NE-SW active faults, although there are also additional faults with NNW-SSE trends along which some cones are aligned. The Tancitaro stratovolcano is located at the intersection of the tectonical structures that originate these alignments. All this geological activity has contributed to the gravitational instability of the volcano, leading to a huge sector collapse which produced the investigated debris avalanche. The collapse structure is an east-facing horseshoe-shaped crater (4 km wide and 5.3 km long), related with a large fan that was deposited within the Tepalcatepec depression. The deposit starts only 7 km downslope from the failure scar, it is 66 km long and covers an area of approximately 1155 km2. The landslide magnitude is about 20 km3 and it was firstly determined by the reconstruction of the paleo-edifice using a GIS software and then validated by the observation of significant outcrops. The fan was primarily formed by the deposit of this huge debris avalanche and subsequently by debris flow and fluvial deposits. Field investigations on the fan area highlighted the presence of two texturally distinct parts, which are referred to the 'block facies' and the 'matrix facies'. The first sedimentary structure is responsible for the typical hummock morphologies in the proximal area, as seen in many other debris avalanche deposits. Instead in the distal zones, the deposit is made up by the 'mixed block and matrix facies'. Blocks and megablocks, some of which are characterized by a jigsaw puzzle texture, gradually decrease in size

  2. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment


    Ryan, Peter G.; Moore, Charles J.; van Franeker, Jan A.; Moloney, Coleen L.


    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infreque...

  3. The Orbital Debris Problem and the Challenges for Environment Remediation (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.


    Orbital debris scientists from major international space agencies, including JAXA and NASA, have worked together to predict the trend of the future environment. A summary presentation was given to the United Nations in February 2013. The orbital debris population in LEO will continue to increase. Catastrophic collisions will continue to occur every 5 to 9 years center dot To limit the growth of the future debris population and to better protect future spacecraft, active debris removal, should be considered.

  4. Bi-objective optimization of a multiple-target active debris removal mission (United States)

    Bérend, Nicolas; Olive, Xavier


    The increasing number of space debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) raises the question of future Active Debris Removal (ADR) operations. Typical ADR scenarios rely on an Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) using one of the two following disposal strategies: the first one consists in attaching a deorbiting kit, such as a solid rocket booster, to the debris after rendezvous; with the second one, the OTV captures the debris and moves it to a low-perigee disposal orbit. For multiple-target ADR scenarios, the design of such a mission is very complex, as it involves two optimization levels: one for the space debris sequence, and a second one for the "elementary" orbit transfer strategy from a released debris to the next one in the sequence. This problem can be seen as a Time-Dependant Traveling Salesman Problem (TDTSP) with two objective functions to minimize: the total mission duration and the total propellant consumption. In order to efficiently solve this problem, ONERA has designed, under CNES contract, TOPAS (Tool for Optimal Planning of ADR Sequence), a tool that implements a Branch & Bound method developed in previous work together with a dedicated algorithm for optimizing the "elementary" orbit transfer. A single run of this tool yields an estimation of the Pareto front of the problem, which exhibits the trade-off between mission duration and propellant consumption. We first detail our solution to cope with the combinatorial explosion of complex ADR scenarios with 10 debris. The key point of this approach is to define the orbit transfer strategy through a small set of parameters, allowing an acceptable compromise between the quality of the optimum solution and the calculation cost. Then we present optimization results obtained for various 10 debris removal scenarios involving a 15-ton OTV, using either the deorbiting kit or the disposal orbit strategy. We show that the advantage of one strategy upon the other depends on the propellant margin, the maximum duration allowed

  5. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  6. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, P.G.; Moore, C.J. C.J.; Franeker, van J.A.; Moloney, C.L.


    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and

  7. 1 Mapping Debris Flow Susceptibility using Analytical Network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Several methods are available for identifying and mapping landslide and debris flow. 1 susceptibility (Aleotti ... map susceptibility and assumes that the spatial distribution of landslides or debris. 10 flow is determined by a ..... The vulnerability of materials to mobilize into a debris flow is sensitive to the. 27 gradation of slope ...

  8. Physical consequences of large organic debris in Pacific Northwest streams. (United States)

    Frederick J. Swanson; George W. Lienkaemper


    Large organic debris in streams controls the distribution of aquatic habitats, the routing of sediment through stream systems, and the stability of streambed and banks. Management activities directly alter debris loading by addition or removal of material and indirectly by increasing the probability of debris torrents and removing standing streamside trees. We propose...

  9. On the Solar System-Debris Disk Connecction


    Moro-Martin, Amaya


    This paper emphasizes the connection between solar and extra-solar debris disks: how models and observations of the Solar System are helping us understand the debris disk phenomenon, and vice versa, how debris disks are helping us place our Solar System into context.

  10. Uncertainties in Predicting Debris Flow Hazards Following Wildfire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyde, K.D.; Riley, Karin; Stoof, C.R.


    Wildfire increases the probability of debris flows posing hazardous conditions where values-at-risk exist downstream of burned areas. Conditions and processes leading to postfire debris flows usually follow a general sequence defined here as the postfire debris flow hazard cascade: biophysical

  11. The morphometric and stratigraphic framework for estimates of debris flow incidence in the North Cascades foothills, Washington State, USA (United States)

    Kovanen, Dori J.; Slaymaker, Olav


    Active debris flow fans in the North Cascade Foothills of Washington State constitute a natural hazard of importance to land managers, private property owners and personal security. In the absence of measurements of the sediment fluxes involved in debris flow events, a morphological-evolutionary systems approach, emphasizing stratigraphy, dating, fan morphology and debris flow basin morphometry, was used. Using the stratigraphic framework and 47 radiocarbon dates, frequency of occurrence and relative magnitudes of debris flow events have been estimated for three spatial scales of debris flow systems: the within-fan site scale (84 observations); the fan meso-scale (six observations) and the lumped fan, regional or macro-scale (one fan average and adjacent lake sediments). In order to characterize the morphometric framework, plots of basin area v. fan area, basin area v. fan gradient and the Melton ruggedness number v. fan gradient for the 12 debris flow basins were compared with those documented for semi-arid and paraglacial fans. Basin area to fan area ratios were generally consistent with the estimated level of debris flow activity during the Holocene as reported below. Terrain analysis of three of the most active debris flow basins revealed the variety of modes of slope failure and sediment production in the region. Micro-scale debris flow event systems indicated a range of recurrence intervals for large debris flows from 106-3645 years. The spatial variation of these rates across the fans was generally consistent with previously mapped hazard zones. At the fan meso-scale, the range of recurrence intervals for large debris flows was 273-1566 years and at the regional scale, the estimated recurrence interval of large debris flows was 874 years (with undetermined error bands) during the past 7290 years. Dated lake sediments from the adjacent Lake Whatcom gave recurrence intervals for large sediment producing events ranging from 481-557 years over the past 3900

  12. Space Surveillance, Asteroids and Comets, and Space Debris. Volume 3: Space Debris Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naka, R


    .... NASA personnel predicted in 1978 that collisional cascading would be an important source of new orbital debris, possibly before the year 2000, and, as a result, would make low Earth orbits at Space...

  13. Plastic Debris Is a Human Health Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vethaak, A.D.; Leslie, H.A.


    The global threat of highly persistent plastic waste accumulating and fragmenting in the world’s oceans, inland waters and terrestrial environments is becoming increasingly evident.1−3 Humans are being exposed to both plastic particles and chemical additives being released from the plastic debris of

  14. Estimating Solar Radiation Pressure for GEO Debris (United States)

    Chao, Cia-Chun George; Campbell, Spencer


    Earlier investigations and surveys show that over 700 trackable debris objects are drifting or librating in the GEO (geosynchronous Earth orbit) ring. The close monitoring of the motion of these debris objects is becoming increasingly important due to the potential collision risks to operational GEO satellites. A critical element in improving the ephemeris prediction accuracy of these objects is the determination of solar radiation pressure effects on the orbit. A computational procedure employing specially designed PC programs was developed for estimating the solar radiation pressure effect on GEO debris. Results of three sample cases show significant accuracy improvement in long-term ephemeris prediction. The post-fit residuals (σr=3.0, σi = 10, σc = 1.0 km) are in good agreement with that processed by an independent tool (TRACE). The noise in the post-fit residuals is believed to be due to the position uncertainty in the two line elements (TLE) data. This efficient method, once implemented, has the potential of achieving real-time monitoring of the GEO debris objects with position accuracy considerably better than 10 km in-track, 3 km radial and 1 km cross-track.

  15. Europium-155 in Debris from Nuclear Weapons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Lippert, Jørgen Emil


    The lithium-drifted germanium detector enables determination of europium-155 on a routine basis in environmental samples contaminated with debris from nuclear weapons. From measurements of europium-155, cesium-144, and strontium-90 in air filters collected between 1961 and 1966, the yield...

  16. Managing the effects of accelerated glacial melting on volcanic collapse and debris flows: Planchon-Peteroa Volcano, Southern Andes (United States)

    Tormey, Daniel


    Glaciated mountains are among the most sensitive environments to climatic changes, and recent work has shown that large-scale glacial melting, including at the end of the Pleistocene, caused a significant increase in the incidence of large volcanic sector collapse and debris flows on then-active volcanoes. With current accelerated rates of glacial melting, glaciated active volcanoes are at an increasing risk of sector collapse, debris flow and landslide. These catastrophic events are Earth's most damaging erosion phenomenon, causing extensive property damage and loss of life. This paper illustrates these effects in well-studied settings, focusing on the end-Pleistocene to Holocene glaciovolcanic growth and destruction of the cone of the active volcano Planchon-Peteroa in the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone at latitude 35° 15' S, along the border between Chile and Argentina. The development of the volcano over the last 14,000 years illustrates how glacial melting and magmatic activity can trigger landslides and sector collapses. Planchon had a large sector collapse that produced a highly mobile and erosive debris avalanche 11,000 years BP, and other slope instabilities during the end-Pleistocene/early Holocene deglaciation. The summit amphitheater left after the sector collapse was subject to alternating periods of glaciation and melting-induced lake formation. Breaching of the moraine dams then formed lahars and landslides originating at the western edge of the summit amphitheater, and the deposits are preserved along the western flank of the volcano. Deep incision of moraine deposits further down the western slope of the volcano indicates that the lahars and landslides were water-rich and had high erosive power. As illustrated by Planchon-Peteroa, the interplay among glacial growth and melting, magmatic activity, and slope stability is complex, but must be accounted for in volcanic hazard assessment. Planchon-Peteroa currently has the southernmost temperate zone

  17. ROGER a potential orbital space debris removal system (United States)

    Starke, Juergen; Bischof, Bernd; Foth, W.-O.; -J., J.; Günther

    The previous activities in the field of On Orbit Servicing studied in the 1990's included in partic-ular the capability of vehicles in GEO to capture and support satellites (mainly communication satellites) to enable repair and continuation of operations, and finally the controlled transfer the target into a permanent graveyard orbit. The specific capture tools for these applications were mostly based on robotic systems to capture and fix the target under specific dynamic constraints (e.g. slowly tumbling target) without damage, and to allow the stabilization, re-orientation and potential repair of the target and subsequent release or transport to the final disposal orbit. Due to the drastically increasing number of debris particularly in the Low Earth Orbits (SSO) the active debris removal is now necessary to counteract to the predicted debris production cascade (Kessler Syndrome), which means the pollution of the total sphere in low earth orbit and not only the SSO area. In most of the debris congresses it was recommended to start removal with the still integrated systems as soon as possible. In the case of large debris objects, the soft capture system can be replaced by a simpler and robust system able to operate from a safe distance to the target and flexible enough to capture and hold different types of targets such as deactivated and/or defective satellites, upper stages and big fragments. These nominally non -cooperative targets might be partially destroyed by the capture process, but the production of additional debris shall be avoided. A major argument for the commercial applications is a multi-target mission potential, which is possible at GEO because the transfer propellant requirement to the disposal orbit and the return to the orbit of the next potential target is relative low (orbits with similar inclination and altitude). The proposed ROGER system is designed as a spacecraft with rendezvous capabilities including inspection in the vicinity of the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvold, Erika R. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County 1000 Hilltop Circle Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Kuchner, Marc J., E-mail:, E-mail: [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667 Greenbelt, MD 21230 (United States)


    We apply our 3D debris disk model, SMACK, to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (α = 2/7). We find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index α of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t {sub coll} of the disk by α = 0.32(t/t {sub coll}){sup –0.04}, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion resonances near the chaotic zone. We investigate the effects of the initial eccentricity distribution of the disk particles and find a negligible effect on the gap size at Jovian planet masses, since collisions tend to erase memory of the initial particle eccentricity distributions. Finally, we find that the presence of Trojan analogs is a potentially powerful diagnostic of planets in the mass range ∼1-10 M {sub Jup}. We apply our model to place new upper limits on planets around Fomalhaut, HR 4796 A, HD 202628, HD 181327, and β Pictoris.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Sara D.; Patterson, Adam J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Leggett, S. K.; Dufour, P.; Bloom, J. S.; Starr, D. L.


    We present near- and mid-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from PAIRITEL, IRTF, and Spitzer of a metallicity-unbiased sample of 117 cool, hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (WDs) from the Palomar-Green survey and find five with excess radiation in the infrared, translating to a 4.3 +2.7 –1.2 % frequency of debris disks. This is slightly higher than, but consistent with the results of previous surveys. Using an initial-final mass relation, we apply this result to the progenitor stars of our sample and conclude that 1-7 M ☉ stars have at least a 4.3% chance of hosting planets; an indirect probe of the intermediate-mass regime eluding conventional exoplanetary detection methods. Alternatively, we interpret this result as a limit on accretion timescales as a fraction of WD cooling ages; WDs accrete debris from several generations of disks for ∼10 Myr. The average total mass accreted by these stars ranges from that of 200 km asteroids to Ceres-sized objects, indicating that WDs accrete moons and dwarf planets as well as solar system asteroid analogs.

  20. Scavenging nucleic acid debris to combat autoimmunity and infectious disease (United States)

    Holl, Eda K.; Shumansky, Kara L.; Borst, Luke B.; Burnette, Angela D.; Sample, Christopher J.; Ramsburg, Elizabeth A.; Sullenger, Bruce A.


    Nucleic acid-containing debris released from dead and dying cells can be recognized as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or pattern-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by the innate immune system. Inappropriate activation of the innate immune response can engender pathological inflammation and autoimmune disease. To combat such diseases, major efforts have been made to therapeutically target the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize such DAMPs and PAMPs, or the downstream effector molecules they engender, to limit inflammation. Unfortunately, such strategies can limit the ability of the immune system to combat infection. Previously, we demonstrated that nucleic acid-binding polymers can act as molecular scavengers and limit the ability of artificial nucleic acid ligands to activate PRRs. Herein, we demonstrate that nucleic acid scavengers (NASs) can limit pathological inflammation and nucleic acid-associated autoimmunity in lupus-prone mice. Moreover, we observe that such NASs do not limit an animal’s ability to combat viral infection, but rather their administration improves survival when animals are challenged with lethal doses of influenza. These results indicate that molecules that scavenge extracellular nucleic acid debris represent potentially safer agents to control pathological inflammation associated with a wide range of autoimmune and infectious diseases.

  1. A global inventory of small floating plastic debris (United States)

    van Sebille, Erik; Wilcox, Chris; Lebreton, Laurent; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hardesty, Britta Denise; van Franeker, Jan A.; Eriksen, Marcus; Siegel, David; Galgani, Francois; Lavender Law, Kara


    Microplastic debris floating at the ocean surface can harm marine life. Understanding the severity of this harm requires knowledge of plastic abundance and distributions. Dozens of expeditions measuring microplastics have been carried out since the 1970s, but they have primarily focused on the North Atlantic and North Pacific accumulation zones, with much sparser coverage elsewhere. Here, we use the largest dataset of microplastic measurements assembled to date to assess the confidence we can have in global estimates of microplastic abundance and mass. We use a rigorous statistical framework to standardize a global dataset of plastic marine debris measured using surface-trawling plankton nets and coupled this with three different ocean circulation models to spatially interpolate the observations. Our estimates show that the accumulated number of microplastic particles in 2014 ranges from 15 to 51 trillion particles, weighing between 93 and 236 thousand metric tons, which is only approximately 1% of global plastic waste estimated to enter the ocean in the year 2010. These estimates are larger than previous global estimates, but vary widely because the scarcity of data in most of the world ocean, differences in model formulations, and fundamental knowledge gaps in the sources, transformations and fates of microplastics in the ocean.

  2. Transfer of 137Cs from Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout to different Swedish population groups. (United States)

    Rääf, C L; Hubbard, L; Falk, R; Agren, G; Vesanen, R


    Data from measurements on the body burden of (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (40)K in various Swedish populations between 1959 and 2001 has been compiled into a national database. The compilation is a co-operation between the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmö and Göteborg, the National Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI). In a previous study the effective ecological half time and the associated effective dose to various Swedish populations due to internal contamination of (134)Cs and (137)Cs have been assessed using the database. In this study values of human body burden have been combined with data on the local and regional ground deposition of fallout from nuclear weapons tests (only (137)Cs) and Chernobyl debris (both (134)Cs and (137)Cs), which have enabled estimates of the radioecological transfer in the studied populations. The assessment of the database shows that the transfer of radiocesium from Chernobyl fallout to humans varies considerably between various populations in Sweden. In terms of committed effective dose over a 70 y period from internal contamination per unit activity deposition, the general (predominantly urban) Swedish population obtains 20-30 microSv/kBq m(-2). Four categories of populations exhibit higher radioecological transfer than the general population; i.) reindeer herders ( approximately 700 microSv/kBq m(-2)), ii.) hunters in the counties dominated by forest vegetation ( approximately 100 microSv/kBq m(-2)), iii.) rural non-farming populations living in sub-arctic areas (40-150 microSv/kBq m(-2)), and iv.) farmers ( approximately 50 microSv/kBq m(-2)). Two important factors determine the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man; i.) dietary habits (intakes of foodstuff originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems), and ii.) inclination to follow the recommended food restriction by the authorities. The transfer to the general population is considerably lower

  3. 15 CFR 909.1 - Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and... (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act. 909.1 Section 909.1 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS MARINE DEBRIS § 909.1 Definition of...

  4. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia. (United States)

    Roman, Lauren; Schuyler, Qamar A; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Townsend, Kathy A


    Anthropogenic debris in the world's oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia's coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia's avifauna.

  5. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Roman

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic debris in the world's oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia's coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia's avifauna.

  6. Sediment delivery in debris-flow torrents: two case studies in the Italian Alps (United States)

    Bertoldi, Gabriele; Vincenzo, D'Agostino


    Flood-risk mitigation strategy is moving from fixed, structural and costly mitigation measures to more effective proactive solutions. This change is driven both by Flood Directive 2007/60/EC and limitations of financial resources and it requires a deep knowledge of the involved processes. In mountain catchments debris flow and debris floods are the most important sources of hazard and their impact on the fan areas is heavily conditioned by the sediment dynamics along the 'transport' reaches of the torrents. Last advances show how many cases of erosion and deposition within the transport reach greatly affect the total volume that is delivered to the fan as well the overall dynamics of the debris flow/flood event. Due to logistic and practical constraints this intermediate phase of the process has been scarcely investigated and the complex behavior of the sediment budgeting in torrent-streams is emerging. The objective of this work consists of collecting information on the evolution of the debris-flow sediment budget along Alpine torrents in order to provide novel data about erosive, depositional and recharging processes under different geological conditions. Two high frequency debris-flow catchments have been selected: the Rio Rudan basin in the geological setting of the Dolomites (near Cortina d'Ampezzo, Veneto Region, Italy) and the metamorphic dominated catchment of the Rio Gadria (near Lasa, Trentino Alto Adige, Italy), which has been recently instrumented (EU project Monitor II). Periodical field monitoring has been carried out since summer 2011. 25 cross sections have been observed in the Rio Rudan catchment along a 480 m torrent reach (slope of 36%) where additional sediment entrainment after debris-flow initiation takes place. 20 cross sections have been selected in the upper Rio Gadria basin and more precisely in two reaches close to debris-flow triggerring areas. Other 31 cross sections have been also monitored of the Rio Gadria main channel covering a

  7. Reading the Signatures of Extrasolar Planets in Debris Disks (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.


    An extrasolar planet sculpts the famous debris dish around Fomalhaut; probably ma ny other debris disks contain planets that we could locate if only we could better recognize their signatures in the dust that surrounds them. But the interaction between planets and debris disks involves both orbital resonances and collisions among grains and rocks in the disks --- difficult processes to model simultanemus]y. I will describe new 3-D models of debris disk dynamics that incorporate both collisions and resonant trapping of dust for the first time, allowing us to decode debris disk images and read the signatures of the planets they contain.

  8. Catastrophic debris-flows: geological hazard and human influence (United States)

    Del Ventisette, Chiara; Garfagnoli, Francesca; Ciampalini, Andrea; Battistini, Alessandro; Gigli, Giovanni; Moretti, Sandro; Casagli, Nicola


    Rainfall-induced landslides are widespread phenomena often affecting urbanized areas and causing intense damages and casualties. The management of the post-event phase requires a fast evaluation of the involved areas and triggering factors. The latter are fundamental to evaluate the stability of the area affected by landslides, in order to facilitate quick and safe activities of the Civil Protection Authorities during the emergency. On October 1st 2009, a prolonged and intense rainstorm triggered hundreds of landslides (predominantly debris flows) in an area of about 50 km2 in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (Italy). Debris flows swept the highest parts of many villages and passed over the SS114 state highway and the Messina-Catania railway, causing more than 30 fatalities. This work deals with the geological and hydro-geomorphological studies performed as a part of the post-disaster activities operated in collaboration with Civil Protection Authority, with the aim of examining landslides effects and mechanisms. The data were elaborated into a GIS platform, to evaluate the influence of urbanization on the drainage pattern and were correlated with the lithological and structural framework of the area. The case study of Giampilieri focuses the attention on the necessity of sustainable land use and reasonable urban management in areas characterized by a high hydrogeological hazard and on the tremendous destructive power of these phenomena, which are capable of causing a large number of victims in such small villages. Field surveys and stereo-photo geomorphological analysis revealed a significant human influence on determining landslide triggering causes, as well as the final amount of damage. In particular, destruction and injuries in the built-up area of Giampilieri were made even more severe by the main water flow lines made narrower due to building activity and enlargement of the urban area. The area maintains a high degree of hazard: deposits of poorly

  9. Post-Failure behaviour of pyroclastic debris flow (United States)

    Scotto di Santolo, Anna; Pellegrino, Anna Maria; Evangelista, Aldo; Coussot, Philippe


    The Campania Region is covered by pyroclastic soils accumulated in the last tens of thousands of years as a result of volcanic activity of Campi Flegrei (Phlegrean Fields) and Somma-Vesuvio. These materials cover the slope of the hilly area of Naples and mountain sides of Appennino. Even if they present significant physical and mechanical differences from site to site, they are posing the same geotechnical problems: they are usually unsaturated and collapse due to the increase of water content after prolonged rains creating simple or complex type of landslides (translational or rotational sliding or falls that lead to debris flows). While the mechanical properties of natural soils are the object of a number of research works, the evolution of the material after failure is much less often studied. Typically the post failure behaviour of this material may be "solid-like" or "fluid-like", according to causes that are not well-known. The object of this presentation is the study of the rheological behaviour of the "fluid like" material mixtures with fluid mechanics tools. Three natural pyroclastic deposits were sampled and the soils were remixed with distilled water at different solid volume fractions. The behaviour of these mixtures was investigated like a fluid with a vane rotor rheometer and an inclined plane. The main results are that the rheological behaviour is strongly related to the solid volume concentration, but the transition between solid-like to fluid-like behaviour occurs in a small range of solid concentration slightly different for each material tested. In the fluid-like behaviour the material mixtures behave like a yield stress fluid and a classical Herschel-Bulkley model well represents the experimental data. Nevertheless a hysteresis effect, associated with instability of the material behaviour, is observed for the largest solid concentrations. In that case the material starts to flow abruptly beyond a critical stress and rapidly reaches a relatively

  10. Debris flow analysis with a one dimensional dynamic run-out model that incorporates entrained material (United States)

    Luna, Byron Quan; Remaître, Alexandre; van Asch, Theo; Malet, Jean-Philippe; van Westen, Cees


    Estimating the magnitude and the intensity of rapid landslides like debris flows is fundamental to evaluate quantitatively the hazard in a specific location. Intensity varies through the travelled course of the flow and can be described by physical features such as deposited volume, velocities, height of the flow, impact forces and pressures. Dynamic run-out models are able to characterize the distribution of the material, its intensity and define the zone where the elements will experience an impact. These models can provide valuable inputs for vulnerability and risk calculations. However, most dynamic run-out models assume a constant volume during the motion of the flow, ignoring the important role of material entrained along its path. Consequently, they neglect that the increase of volume enhances the mobility of the flow and can significantly influence the size of the potential impact area. An appropriate erosion mechanism needs to be established in the analyses of debris flows that will improve the results of dynamic modeling and consequently the quantitative evaluation of risk. The objective is to present and test a simple 1D debris flow model with a material entrainment concept based on limit equilibrium considerations and the generation of excess pore water pressure through undrained loading of the in situ bed material. The debris flow propagation model is based on a one dimensional finite difference solution of a depth-averaged form of the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid motions. The flow is treated as a laminar one phase material, which behavior is controlled by a visco-plastic Coulomb-Bingham rheology. The model parameters are evaluated and the model performance is tested on a debris flow event that occurred in 2003 in the Faucon torrent (Southern French Alps).

  11. Comparative evaluation of the amount of debris extruded apically using conventional syringe, passive ultrasonic irrigation and EndoIrrigator Plus system: Anin vitrostudy. (United States)

    Shetty, Vidhi Prabhakar; Naik, Balaram Damodar; Pachlag, Amit Kashinath; Yeli, Mahantesh Mrityunjay


    The aim of this study is to compare the effects of conventional syringe, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and EndoIrrigator Plus on the amount of apically extruded debris. Thirty extracted human mandibular premolars were selected and randomly assigned to three groups ( n = 10). The root canals were irrigated with conventional syringe, PUI, and EndoIrrigator Plus. Sodium hypochlorite was used as an irrigant, and debris was collected in a previously described experimental model (Myers and Montgomery 1991). It was then stored in an incubator at 37°C for 10 days to evaporate the irrigant before weighing the dry debris. The mean weight of debris was assessed, one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of values, and post hoc Tukey's test was used between groups ( P = 0.05). The EndoIrrigator Plus group extruded significantly less debris than PUI and conventional syringe groups ( P extruded significantly less debris than conventional syringe irrigation group ( P extruded significantly less debris than the PUI system and the conventional syringe irrigation system, 3. PUI system extruded significantly less debris than the conventional syringe irrigation system.

  12. Geomorphology of debris aprons in the eastern Hellas region of Mars (United States)

    Stewart, Keith H.; Crown, David A.


    Recent geologic mapping and geomorphic analyses have documented the geologic history of the eastern Hellas region of Mars in terms of the styles, timing, and evolution of volcanic activity associated with eruptive centers at Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae. As a result of the geologic relationships between regional volcanic units and the Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles outflow channel systems, constraints have been established for the timing and nature of erosional and depositional processes occurring in the region. The present study examines late-stage (Amazonian) degradation processes recorded in a series of debris aprons and debris flows located predominantly around massifs in the eroded southern highlands along the Reull and Harmakhis Valles outflow systems.

  13. Relative tectonics and debris flow hazards in the Beijing mountain area from DEM-derived geomorphic indices and drainage analysis (United States)

    Cheng, Weiming; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Min; Zhao, Shangmin


    The geomorphic setting of the tectonically active area around Beijing is a result of complex interactions involving Yanshan neotectonic movements and processes of erosion and deposition. The Beijing Mountain study area contains the junction of two mountain ranges (the Yanshan Mountains and the Taihang Mountains). Tectonic activity has significantly influenced the drainage system and the geomorphic situation in the area, leading to a high probability of the development of debris flows, which is one of the major abrupt geological disasters in the region. Based on 30-m-resolution ASTER GDEM data, a total of 752 drainage basins were extracted using ArcGIS software. A total of 705 debris flow valleys were visually interpreted from ALOS satellite images and published documents. Seven geomorphic indices were calculated for each basin including the relief amplitude, the hypsometric integral, the stream length gradient, the basin shape indices, the fractal dimension, the asymmetry factor, and the ratio of the valley floor width to the height. These geomorphic indices were divided into five classes and the ratio of the number of the debris flow valleys to the number of the drainage basins for each geomorphic index was computed and analyzed for every class. Average class values of the seven indices were used to derive an index of relative active tectonics (IRAT). The ratio of the number of the debris flow valleys to the number of the drainage basins was computed for every class of IRAT. The degree of probable risk level was then defined from the IRAT classes. Finally, the debris flow hazard was evaluated for each drainage basin based on the combined effect of probable risk level and occurrence frequency of the debris flows. The result showed a good correspondence between IRAT classes and the ratio of the number of the debris flow valleys to the number of the drainage basins. Approximately 65% of the drainage basins with occurred debris flow valleys are at a high risk level

  14. Marine Debris Composition on Remote Alaskan National Park Shores (United States)

    Pister, B.; Kunisch, E.; Polasek, L.; Bering, J.; Kim, S.; Neitlich, P.; Nicolato, K.


    Marine debris is a pervasive problem along coastlines around the world. The National Park Service manages approximately 3500 miles of shoreline in Alaska's national park units combined. Most of these shores are remote, difficult and expensive to access. In 2011 the Tohoku earthquake hit Japan and generated a devastating tsunami that washed an estimated 150 million tons of debris out to sea. Much of the debris washed ashore in Alaska. The tsunami brought new attention to the long standing problem of marine debris. In 2015 the National Park Service mounted a two pronged effort to remove as much debris as possible from the shores of five park units in Alaska, and initiate education programs about the issue. Almost 11,000 kg of debris were removed from the shores of: Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, Kenai Fjords National Park, Katmai National Park, Bering Land Bridge National Preserve and Cape Krusenstern National Monument. Approximately 58% of the debris was plastic. Although much of the debris resembled items expected as a result of the tsunami, a great percentage of the debris was clearly from other sources, such as fishing and shipping. Preliminary analysis suggests that debris composition varied significantly between parks, possibly from locally-derived sources. This can influence how the National Park Service creates educational outreach programs that focus on marine debris prevention exercises.

  15. Space Transportation System Liftoff Debris Mitigation Process Overview (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher


    Liftoff debris is a top risk to the Space Shuttle Vehicle. To manage the Liftoff debris risk, the Space Shuttle Program created a team with in the Propulsion Systems Engineering & Integration Office. The Shutt le Liftoff Debris Team harnesses the Systems Engineering process to i dentify, assess, mitigate, and communicate the Liftoff debris risk. T he Liftoff Debris Team leverages off the technical knowledge and expe rtise of engineering groups across multiple NASA centers to integrate total system solutions. These solutions connect the hardware and ana lyses to identify and characterize debris sources and zones contribut ing to the Liftoff debris risk. The solutions incorporate analyses sp anning: the definition and modeling of natural and induced environmen ts; material characterizations; statistical trending analyses, imager y based trajectory analyses; debris transport analyses, and risk asse ssments. The verification and validation of these analyses are bound by conservative assumptions and anchored by testing and flight data. The Liftoff debris risk mitigation is managed through vigilant collab orative work between the Liftoff Debris Team and Launch Pad Operation s personnel and through the management of requirements, interfaces, r isk documentation, configurations, and technical data. Furthermore, o n day of launch, decision analysis is used to apply the wealth of ana lyses to case specific identified risks. This presentation describes how the Liftoff Debris Team applies Systems Engineering in their proce sses to mitigate risk and improve the safety of the Space Shuttle Veh icle.

  16. Protecting AREVA ATRIUM™ BWR fuel from debris fretting failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Steven E.; Garner, Norman L.; Lippert, Hans-Joachim; Graebert, Rüdiger; Mollard, Pierre; Hahn, Gregory C.


    Historically, debris fretting has been the leading cause of fuel rod failure in BWR fuel assemblies, costing the industry millions of dollars in lost generation and negatively impacting the working area of plant site personnel. In this paper the focus will be on recent BWR fuel product innovation designed to eliminate debris related failures. Experience feedback from more than three decades of operation history with non-line-of-sight FUELGUARD™ lower tie plate debris filters will be presented. The development and relative effectiveness of successive generations of filtration technology will be discussed. It will be shown that modern, state of the art debris filters are an effective defense against debris fretting failure. Protective measures extend beyond inlet nozzle debris filters. The comprehensive debris resistance features built into AREVA’s newest fuel design, the ATRIUM™ 11, reduce the overall risk of debris entrapment as well as providing a degree of protection from debris that may fall down on the fuel assembly from above, e.g., during refueling operations. The positive recent experience in a debris sensitive plant will be discussed showing that the combination of advanced fuel technology and a robust foreign material exclusion program at the reactor site can eliminate the debris fretting failure mechanism. (author)

  17. Evaluating the impacts of marine debris on cetaceans. (United States)

    Baulch, Sarah; Perry, Clare


    Global in its distribution and pervading all levels of the water column, marine debris poses a serious threat to marine habitats and wildlife. For cetaceans, ingestion or entanglement in debris can cause chronic and acute injuries and increase pollutant loads, resulting in morbidity and mortality. However, knowledge of the severity of effects lags behind that for other species groups. This literature review examines the impacts of marine debris on cetaceans reported to date. It finds that ingestion of debris has been documented in 48 (56% of) cetacean species, with rates of ingestion as high as 31% in some populations. Debris-induced mortality rates of 0-22% of stranded animals were documented, suggesting that debris could be a significant conservation threat to some populations. We identify key data that need to be collected and published to improve understanding of the threat that marine debris poses to cetaceans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention of debris flow disasters on Chengdu-Kunming Railway. (United States)

    Wang, W; Xu, W L; Liu, S J


    Chengdu-Kunming Railway is an important transport line on southwestern China. However, this railway's safety is often threatened by debris flows. How to effectively forecast and alarm the debris flow disasters and reduce the losses is the aim to study the prevention system in this paper. The factors to cause or influence debris flow are divided into four parts--the basin environmental factors, the basin meteoric factors, the prevention work's elements and the flood-relief work's elements, and the prevention system is made up of three models--a judgment model to assess the debris flow gully's seriousness, a forecast model to predict the debris flow's occurrence and an alarm model to evaluate the debris flow's disaster. Afterwards, a concise structure chart is worked out and verified by the field data from Chengdu-Kunming Railway. This prevention system will provide beneficial reference for the debris flow's monitoring network to be executed on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

  19. Modeling In-Channel Debris Flow Initiation Pre- and Post-Fire within the San Gabriel Mountains, California (United States)

    Zdeb, B.; Holo, S.; Palucis, M. C.; Lamb, M. P.


    Debris flows are an important geomorphic agent in transporting sediment and eroding rock in mountainous terrain, and they pose significant hazards to people and infrastructure. Debris flows initiated by runoff appear to be a dominant transport process in steep bedrock landscapes, especially where channels fill by dry ravel following wildfire, but our ability to predict where these flows will initiate within the channel network is mainly based on empirical relationships. Here we explore how precipitation rate, precipitation duration, and previously documented decreases in the median grain size following post-fire ravel accumulation affect in-channel debris flow initiation. We utilized ANUGA, a python-based hydrodynamic model, to simulate runoff depths for different storm events for several steep catchments that have recently burned within the San Gabriel Mountains, California. We model peak and average flow depths along the channel network for one-, five-, ten- and 100- year storms from which we calculate the Shield's stress. We compare the modeled Shield's stress to the critical Shield's stress for debris flow initiation by runoff along the entire channel network for both pre- and post-fire conditions. Results allow identification along the channel network where debris flows are most likely to initiate for different storm events, provides a framework for hazard-mitigation efforts, -and demonstrates how sediment transport by debris flows might be included in landscape evolution models.

  20. Debris Flow as a Mechanism for Forming Martian Gullies (United States)

    Conway, S. J.; Balme, M. R.; Murray, J. B.; Towner, M. C.


    The current low temperatures and pressures at the martian surface are not conducive to the stability of liquid water; hence the discovery of recently active, fluvial-like gullies [1, 2] presents an apparent paradox: how can these fluvial landforms have occurred if water is not stable at the surface? To approach this problem we have compared the morphometric properties of gullies in various settings on Earth to those of gullies on Mars. We have measured debris flows in Westfjords, Iceland [3] and gullies in La Gomera, Canary Islands [4]. The Iceland elevation data were generated from differential GPS and a LiDAR survey, and the La Gomera data from differential GPS. In addition we used elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) extracted along previously mapped debris flows in the Taurids Mountains, Turkey [5] and the Colorado Front Range, USA [6]. We have compared these data to preliminary analyses of stereo HiRISE images of martian gullies in four locations using a method to extract point elevation data developed by Kreslavsky [7]. In all cases the elevation along the centre channel of the debris flow or gully was used for comparison to Mars. For Iceland and La Gomera we also extracted cross-profiles for comparison with martian gullies. Simply comparing the longitudinal profiles of gullies on Mars and different situations on the Earth highlights the variability between debris flow sites on Earth. The martian gully profiles are most similar to debris flows in the Taurids Mountains and in the Colorado Front Range. The overall slope is shallower on Mars compared to the Iceland debris flows and the ephemeral water flow gullies in La Gomera. The runout or total length of gullies is also more variable and greater for Mars than for Iceland and La Gomera. Caution should be taken in interpreting the cross profiles for Mars as the error on the elevation is at least 1m and there is low sampling density in comparison to the other datasets. The v-shaped La

  1. Searching for Faint Traces of CO(2-1) and HCN(4-3) Gas In Debris Disks (United States)

    Stafford Lambros, Zachary; Hughes, A. Meredith


    The surprising presence of molecular gas in the debris disks around main sequence stars provides an opportunity to study the dissipation of primordial gas and, potentially, the composition of gas in other solar systems. Molecular gas is not expected to survive beyond the pre-main sequence phase, and it is not yet clear whether the gas is a remnant of the primordial protoplanetary material or whether the gas, like the dust, is second-generation material produced by collisional or photodesorption from planetesimals, exocomets, or the icy mantles of dust grains. Here we present two related efforts to characterize the prevalence and properties of gas in debris disks. First, we place the lowest limits to date on the CO emission from an M star debris disk, using 0.3" resolution observations of CO(2-1) emission from the AU Mic system with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We place a 3-sigma upper limit on the integrated flux of 0.39 Jy km/s, corresponding to a maximum CO mass of 5e10-6 (Earth Masses) if the gas is in LTE. We also present the results of an ALMA search for HCN(4-3) emission from the prototypical gas-rich debris disk around 49 Ceti at a spatial resolution of 0.3". Despite hosting one of the brightest CO-rich debris disks yet discovered, our observations of 49 Ceti also yield a low upper limit of 0.057 Jy km/s in the HCN line, leaving CO as the only molecule clearly detected in emission from a debris disk. We employ several methods of detecting faint line emission from debris disks, including a model based on Keplerian kinematics as well as a spectral shifting method previously used to detect faint CO emission from the Fomalhaut debris disk, and compare our results.

  2. Description and analysis of major debris flows occurred during 2008 in the Eastern Pyrenees (United States)

    Chevalier, G.; Postilla, M.; Hürlimann, M.


    In the Eastern Pyrenees, debris flows are not as frequent as in other mountainous areas such as the Alps. Nevertheless, several important events have occurred in 2008 provoking damages to essential infrastructures and causing large economic loss. A rainstorm at the beginning of June 2008 generated various surficial slides and debris flows in the area of Berga, located in the Pre-Pyrenees. A major flow obstructed the tunnel entrance of a national road during several days. Another rainstorm on August 1 caused several debris flows and debris floods in the Southern sector of Andorra, situated in the Axial Pyrenees. The most important event occurred in the Riu Runer torrent and destroyed the main building at the Andorran border. Finally, a large debris flow was triggered by a thunderstorm on September 11 near Rialp, Axial Pyrenees. Some installations of Port-Ainé's ski-resort were damaged and its access road was destroyed at several points. Preliminary results of these three events are presented focussing on the initiation, flow behaviour and deposition processes. Moreover, the influence of human activity on the initiation was analysed. Field surveys and interpretation of aerial photographs are carried out in order to obtain geomorphologic information as well as data on the hydraulic characteristics. Additionally, rainfall as triggering is studied using records from nearby observation stations and data from weather radars. Finally, the dynamic behaviour is simulated at one site applying numerical modelling. Volume estimates of the two events occurred in the Axial Pyrenees range from 5000 up to 10000 m3. These are rather large magnitudes compared to historic debris flows in the same area. The initiation process of both events can be defined as in-channel formation. Field observations indicated important erosion rates of up to 10 m3/m characteristic of the high flow velocities estimated along the flow trajectory. In contrast, the Berga event was caused by a surficial

  3. Final payload test results for the RemoveDebris active debris removal mission (United States)

    Forshaw, Jason L.; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Salmon, Thierry; Retat, Ingo; Roe, Mark; Burgess, Christopher; Chabot, Thomas; Pisseloup, Aurélien; Phipps, Andy; Bernal, Cesar; Chaumette, François; Pollini, Alexandre; Steyn, Willem H.


    Since the beginning of the space era, a significant amount of debris has progressively been generated in space. Active Debris Removal (ADR) missions have been suggested as a way of limiting and controlling future growth in orbital space debris by actively deploying vehicles to remove debris. The European Commission FP7-sponsored RemoveDebris mission, which started in 2013, draws on the expertise of some of Europe's most prominent space institutions in order to demonstrate key ADR technologies in a cost effective ambitious manner: net capture, harpoon capture, vision-based navigation, dragsail de-orbiting. This paper provides an overview of some of the final payload test results before launch. A comprehensive test campaign is underway on both payloads and platform. The tests aim to demonstrate both functional success of the experiments and that the experiments can survive the space environment. Space environmental tests (EVT) include vibration, thermal, vacuum or thermal-vacuum (TVAC) and in some cases EMC and shock. The test flow differs for each payload and depends on the heritage of the constituent payload parts. The paper will also provide an update to the launch, expected in 2017 from the International Space Station (ISS), and test philosophy that has been influenced from the launch and prerequisite NASA safety review for the mission. The RemoveDebris mission aims to be one of the world's first in-orbit demonstrations of key technologies for active debris removal and is a vital prerequisite to achieving the ultimate goal of a cleaner Earth orbital environment.

  4. Sedimentary architecture of a sub-lacustrine debris fan: Eocene Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, east China (United States)

    Liu, Jianping; Xian, Benzhong; Wang, Junhui; Ji, Youliang; Lu, Zhiyong; Liu, Saijun


    The sedimentary architectures of submarine/sublacustrine fans are controlled by sedimentary processes, geomorphology and sediment composition in sediment gravity flows. To advance understanding of sedimentary architecture of debris fans formed predominantly by debris flows in deep-water environments, a sub-lacustrine fan (Y11 fan) within a lacustrine succession has been identified and studied through the integration of core data, well logging data and 3D seismic data in the Eocene Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, east China. Six types of resedimented lithofacies can be recognized, which are further grouped into five broad lithofacies associations. Quantification of gravity flow processes on the Y11 fan is suggested by quantitative lithofacies analysis, which demonstrates that the fan is dominated by debris flows, while turbidity currents and sandy slumps are less important. The distribution, geometry and sedimentary architecture are documented using well data and 3D seismic data. A well-developed depositional lobe with a high aspect ratio is identified based on a sandstone isopach map. Canyons and/or channels are absent, which is probably due to the unsteady sediment supply from delta-front collapse. Distributary tongue-shaped debris flow deposits can be observed at different stages of fan growth, suggesting a lobe constructed by debrite tongue complexes. Within each stage of the tongue complexes, architectural elements are interpreted by wireline log motifs showing amalgamated debrite tongues, which constitute the primary fan elements. Based on lateral lithofacies distribution and vertical sequence analysis, it is proposed that lakefloor erosion, entrainment and dilution in the flow direction lead to an organized distribution of sandy debrites, muddy debrites and turbidites on individual debrite tongues. Plastic rheology of debris flows combined with fault-related topography are considered the major factors that control sediment distribution and fan

  5. The Influence of an EPS Concrete Buffer Layer Thickness on Debris Dams Impacted by Massive Stones in the Debris Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Yu


    Full Text Available The failure of debris dams impacted by the massive stones in a debris flow represents a difficult design problem. Reasonable materials selection and structural design can effectively improve the resistance impact performance of debris dams. Based on the cushioning properties of expanded polystyrene (EPS concrete, EPS concrete as a buffer layer poured on the surface of a rigid debris dam was proposed. A three-dimensional numerical calculation model of an EPS concrete buffer layer/rigid debris dam was established. The single-factor theory revealed change rules for the thickness of the buffer layer concerning the maximal impact force of the rigid debris dam surface through numerical simulation. Moreover, the impact force-time/history curves under different calculation conditions for the rigid debris dam surface were compared. Simulation results showed that the EPS concrete buffer layer can not only effectively extend the impact time of massive stones affecting the debris dam but also reduce the impact force of the rigid debris dam caused by massive stones in the debris flow. The research results provide theoretical guidance for transferring the energy of the massive stone impact, creating a structural design and optimizing debris dams.

  6. Case Study: Effects of a Partial-Debris Dam on Riverbank Erosion in the Parlung Tsangpo River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence Edward Choi


    Full Text Available This paper examines two successive debris flows that deposited a total of 1.4 million m3 of sediment into the Parlung Tsangpo River in China in 2010. As a result of these deposits, a partial-debris dam was formed in the river. This dam rerouted the discharge in the river along one of the riverbanks, which supported a highway. The rerouted discharge eroded the riverbank and the highway eventually collapsed. To enhance our understanding of the threat posed by partial-debris dams, a field investigation was carried out to measure the discharge in the river and to collect soil samples of the collapsed riverbank. Findings from the field investigation were then used to back-analyze fluvial erosion along the riverbank using a combined erosion framework proposed in this study. This combined framework adopts a dam-breach erosion model which can capture the progressive nature of fluvial erosion by considering the particle size distribution of the soil being eroded. The results from the back-analysis were then evaluated against unique high-resolution images obtained from satellites. This case study not only highlights the consequences of the formation of partial-debris dams on nearby infrastructure, but it also proposes the use of a combined erosion framework to provide a first-order assessment of riverbank stability. Unique high-resolution satellite images are used to assess the proposed erosion framework and key challenges in assessing erosion are discussed.

  7. Debris impact on emergency coolant recirculation - summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Bhagwat; Hsia, Anthony; Armand, Yves; Mattei, Jean-Marie; Hyvaerinen, Juhani; Maqua, Michael; Puetter, Bernhard; Sandervaag, Oddbjoern; Vandewalle, Andre; Tombuyses, Beatrice; Pyy, Pekka; Royen, Jacques


    On 28 July 1992, a steam line safety relief valve inadvertently opened in the Barsebaeck-2 nuclear power plant in Sweden. The steam jet stripped fibrous insulation from adjacent piping system. Part of that insulation debris was transported to the wet-well pool and clogged the intake strainers for the drywell spray system after about one hour. Although the incident in itself was not very serious, it revealed a weakness in the defense-in-depth concept which under other circumstances could have led to the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) failing to provide recirculation water to the core. The Barsebaeck incident spurred immediate action on the part of regulators and utilities alike in several OECD countries. Research and development efforts of varying degrees of intensity were launched in many countries and in several cases resulted in findings that earlier strainer clogging data were incorrect because essential parameters and physical phenomena had not been recognized previously. Such efforts resulted in substantial back-fittings being carried out for BWRs and some PWRs in several OECD countries. An international workshop organised in Stockholm in 1994 under the auspices of CSNI revealed a rather confusing picture of the available knowledge base, examples of conflicting information and a wide range of interpretation of guidance for assessing BWR strainers and PWR sump screen performance contained in US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.82. An International Working Group was set up by the CSNI to establish an internationally agreed-upon knowledge base for assessing the reliability of ECC water recirculation systems. An initiative was taken by the CSNI in 1998 to revisit the subject. The general objective was to make an update of the knowledge base for strainer clogging, to review the latest phenomena for PWRs and to provide a survey of actions taken in member countries. New information contained in NUREG/CR-6771 indicated that the core damage frequency could increase by one


    Chen, Cheng-lung


    The earliest model developed by R. A. Bagnold was based on the concept of the 'dispersive' pressure generated by grain collisions. Some efforts have recently been made by theoreticians in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics to modify or improve Bagnold's concept or model. A viable rheological model should consist both of a rate-independent part and a rate-dependent part. A generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model that has both parts as well as two major rheological properties (i. e. , the normal stress effect and soil yield criterion) is shown to be sufficiently accurate, yet practical for general use in debris-flow modeling. In fact, Bagnold's model is found to be only a particular case of the GVF model. analytical solutions for (steady) uniform debris flows in wide channels are obtained from the GVF model based on Bagnold's simplified assumption of constant grain concentration.

  9. Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge


    This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.


    Chen, Cheng-lung


    Theoretical velocity profile and theoretical pressure and concentration distributions for (steady) uniform debris flow in wide channels are derived from a generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model without imposing R. A. Bagnold's assumption of constant grain concentration. Good agreement between the theoretical velocity profile and the experimental data of Japanese scientists strongly supports the validity of both the GVF model and the proposed method of solution from the model. It is shown that both E. C. Bingham and Bagnold versions (or submodels) of the GVF model can be used to simulate debris flow at the dynamic state. Although Bagnold's dilatant submodel appears to fit the Japanese data better than the Bingham submodel for flow of noncohesive grains, the choice between them is by no means clear-cut.

  11. Analyzing turbidity, suspended-sediment concentration, and particle-size distribution resulting from a debris flow on Mount Jefferson, Oregon, November 2006 (United States)

    Uhrich, Mark A.


    A debris flow and sediment torrent occurred on the flanks of Mt Jefferson in Oregon on November 6, 2006, inundating 150 acres of forest. The massive debris flow was triggered by a rock and snow avalanche from the Milk Creek glaciers and snowfields during the early onset of an intense storm originating near the Hawaiian Islands. The debris flow consisted of a heavy conglomerate of large boulders, cobbles, and coarse-grained sediment that was deposited at depths of up to 15 ft and within 3 mi of the glaciers, and a viscous slurry that deposited finer-grained sediments at depths of 0.5 to 3 ft. The muddy slurry coated standing trees within the lower reaches of Milk Creek as it moved downslope.

  12. Orbital Debris: Past, Present, and Future (United States)

    Stansbery, Gene; Johnson, Nicholas


    In the early days of spaceflight, the gBig Sky h theory was the near universally accepted paradigm for dealing with collisions of orbiting objects. This theory was also used during the early years of the aviation industry. Just as it did in aviation, the gBig Sky h theory breaks down as more and more objects accumulate in the environment. Fortunately, by the late 1970 fs some visionaries in NASA and the US Department of Defense (DoD) realized that trends in the orbital environment would inevitably lead to increased risks to operational spacecraft from collisions with other orbiting objects. The NASA Orbital Debris Program was established at and has been conducted at Johnson Space Center since 1979. At the start of 1979, fewer than 5000 objects were being tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network and very few attempts had been made to sample the environment for smaller sizes. Today, the number of tracked objects has quadrupled. Ground ]based and in situ measurements have statistically sampled the LEO environment over most sizes and mitigation guidelines and requirements are common among most space faring nations. NASA has been a leader, not only in defining the debris environment, but in promoting awareness of the issues in the US and internationally, and in providing leadership in developing policies to address the issue. This paper will discuss in broad terms the evolution of the NASA debris program from its beginnings to its present broad range of debris related research. The paper will discuss in some detail current research topics and will attempt to predict future research trends.

  13. Europium-155 in Debris from Nuclear Weapons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Lippert, Jørgen Emil


    The lithium-drifted germanium detector enables determination of europium-155 on a routine basis in environmental samples contaminated with debris from nuclear weapons. From measurements of europium-155, cesium-144, and strontium-90 in air filters collected between 1961 and 1966, the yield...... of europium-155 from weapons was estimated at 1400 atoms per 10$^{6}$ fissions, which is close to the yield of europium-155 from fast fission of uranium-238....

  14. Forewarning of Debris flows using Intelligent Geophones (United States)

    PK, I.; Ramesh, M. V.


    Landslides are one of the major catastrophic disasters that cause significant damage to human life and civil structures. Heavy rainfall on landslide prone areas can lead to most dangerous debris flow, where the materials such as mud, sand, soil, rock, water and air will move with greater velocity down the mountain. This sudden slope instability can lead to loss of human life and infrastructure. According to our knowledge, till now no one could identify the minutest factors that lead to initiation of the landslide. In this work, we aim to study the landslide phenomena deeply, using the landslide laboratory set up in our university. This unique mechanical simulator for landslide initiation is equipped with the capability to generate rainfall, seepage, etc., in the laboratory setup. Using this setup, we aim to study several landslide initiation scenarios generated by varying different parameters. The complete setup will be equipped with heterogeneous sensors such as rain gauge, moisture sensor, pore pressure sensor, strain gauges, tiltmeter, inclinometer, extensometer, and geophones. Our work will focus on the signals received from the intelligent geophone system for identifying the underground vibrations during a debris flow. Using the large amount of signals derived from the laboratory set up, we have performed detailed signal processing and data analysis to determine the fore warning signals captured by these heterogeneous sensors. Detailed study of these heterogeneous signals has provided the insights to forewarning the community based on the signals generated during the laboratory tests. In this work we will describe the details of the design, development, methodology, results, inferences and the suggestion for the next step to detect and forewarn the students. The response of intelligent geophone sensors at the time of failure, failure style and subsequent debris flow for heterogeneous soil layers were studied, thus helping in the development of fore warning

  15. Debris flow-induced topographic changes: effects of recurrent debris flow initiation. (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yuan; Wang, Qun


    Chushui Creek in Shengmu Village, Nantou County, Taiwan, was analyzed for recurrent debris flow using numerical modeling and geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis. The two-dimensional water flood and mudflow simulation program FLO-2D were used to simulate debris flow induced by rainfall during typhoon Herb in 1996 and Mindulle in 2004. Changes in topographic characteristics after the debris flows were simulated for the initiation of hydrological characteristics, magnitude, and affected area. Changes in topographic characteristics included those in elevation, slope, aspect, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), and hypsometric curve integral (HI), all of which were analyzed using GIS spatial analysis. The results show that the SPI and peak discharge in the basin increased after a recurrence of debris flow. The TWI was higher in 2003 than in 2004 and indicated higher potential of landslide initiation when the slope of the basin was steeper. The HI revealed that the basin was in its mature stage and was shifting toward the old stage. Numerical simulation demonstrated that the parameters' mean depth, maximum depth, affected area, mean flow rate, maximum flow rate, and peak flow discharge were increased after recurrent debris flow, and peak discharge occurred quickly.

  16. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Brown, C.H.; Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M.; Kan, T.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.


    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste

  17. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, C.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M. [Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Kan, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste.

  18. "State of the Art" of technical protection measures in Austria and the effectiveness documented during bedload and debris flow events (United States)

    Moser, Markus; Mehlhorn, Susanne; Rudolf-Miklau, Florian; Suda, Jürgen


    Since the beginning of systematic torrent control in Austria 130 years ago, barriers are constructed for protection purposes. Until the end of the 1960s, solid barriers were built at the exits of depositional areas to prevent dangerous debris flows from reaching high consequence areas. The development of solid barriers with large slots or slits to regulate sediment transport began with the use of reinforced concrete during the 1970s (Rudolf-Miklau, Suda 2011). In order to dissipate the energy of debris flows debris flow breakers have been designed since the 1980s. By slowing and depositing the surge front of the debris flow, downstream reaches of the stream channel and settlement areas should be exposed to considerably lower dynamic impact. In the past, the technological development of these constructions was only steered by the experiences of the engineering practice while an institutionalized process of standardization comparable to other engineering branches was not existent. In future all structures have to be designed and dimensioned according to the EUROCODE standards. This was the reason to establish an interdisciplinary working group (ON-K 256) at the Austrian Standards Institute (ASI), which has managed to developed comprehensive new technical standards for torrent control engineering, including load models, design, dimensioning and life cycle assessment of torrent control works (technical standard ONR 24800 - series). Extreme torrential events comprise four definable displacement processes floods; fluvial solid transport; hyper-concentrated solid transport (debris floods) and debris flow (stony debris flow or mud-earth flow). As a rule, the design of the torrential barriers has to follow its function (Kettl, 1984). Modern protection concepts in torrent control are scenario-oriented and try to optimize different functions in a chain of protections structures (function chain). More or less the first step for the designing the optimal construction type is

  19. Inventory and transport of plastic debris in the Laurentian Great Lakes. (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew J; Hittinger, Eric


    Plastic pollution in the world's oceans has received much attention, but there has been increasing concern about the high concentrations of plastic debris in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Using census data and methodologies used to study ocean debris we derive a first estimate of 9887 metric tonnes per year of plastic debris entering the Great Lakes. These estimates are translated into population-dependent particle inputs which are advected using currents from a hydrodynamic model to map the spatial distribution of plastic debris in the Great Lakes. Model results compare favorably with previously published sampling data. The samples are used to calibrate the model to derive surface microplastic mass estimates of 0.0211 metric tonnes in Lake Superior, 1.44 metric tonnes in Huron, and 4.41 metric tonnes in Erie. These results have many applications, including informing cleanup efforts, helping target pollution prevention, and understanding the inter-state or international flows of plastic pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone. (United States)

    Brandão, Martha L; Braga, Karina M; Luque, José L


    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are non-breeding winter visitors to the Brazilian coast. In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. One bird had its stomach perforated by a plastic straw, which may have caused its death. There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds). The high incidence of marine debris in this species in Brazil may result at least in part from the predominance of juveniles reaching these waters, as juvenile penguins may have a broader diet than adults. It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population. The present study addresses the increasing impact of plastic debris on marine life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalas, Paul G.; Wang, Jason J.; Duchene, Gaspard; Dong, Ruobing; Graham, James R.; Rosa, Robert J. De [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley CA 94720-3411 (United States); Rajan, Abhijith; Patience, Jennifer [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Chilcote, Jeffrey [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Chen, Christine [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fitzgerald, Michael P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Macintosh, Bruce [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Murray-Clay, Ruth [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Matthews, Brenda; Marois, Christian; Draper, Zachary H.; Lawler, Samantha [National Research Council of Canada Herzberg, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Rameau, Julien; Doyon, René [Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanetes, Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); and others


    We present the first scattered light detections of the HD 106906 debris disk using the Gemini/Gemini Planet Imager in the infrared and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys in the optical. HD 106906 is a 13 Myr old F5V star in the Sco–Cen association, with a previously detected planet-mass candidate HD 106906b projected 650 AU from the host star. Our observations reveal a near edge-on debris disk that has a central cleared region with radius ∼50 AU, and an outer extent >500 AU. The HST data show that the outer regions are highly asymmetric, resembling the “needle” morphology seen for the HD 15115 debris disk. The planet candidate is oriented ∼21° away from the position angle of the primary’s debris disk, strongly suggesting non-coplanarity with the system. We hypothesize that HD 106906b could be dynamically involved in the perturbation of the primary’s disk, and investigate whether or not there is evidence for a circumplanetary dust disk or cloud that is either primordial or captured from the primary. We show that both the existing optical properties and near-infrared colors of HD 106906b are weakly consistent with this possibility, motivating future work to test for the observational signatures of dust surrounding the planet.

  2. Coupled prediction of flash flood response and debris flow occurrence in an alpine basin (United States)

    Amponsah, William


    Coupled prediction of flash flood response and debris flow occurrence in an alpine basin Author(s): William Amponsah1, E.I. Nikolopoulos2, Lorenzo Marchi1, Roberto Dinale4, Francesco Marra3,Davide Zoccatelli2 , Marco Borga2 Affiliation(s): 1CNR - IRPI, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127, Padova, ITALY, 2Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry, University of Padova,VialeDell'Università 16, 35020, Legnaro PD, ITALY 3Department of Geography, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, ISRAEL 4Ufficio Idrografico, Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy This contribution examines the main hydrologic and morphologic metrics responsible for widespread triggering of debris-flows associated with flash flood occurrences in headwater alpine catchments.To achieve this objective, we investigate the precipitation forcing, hydrologic responses and landslides and debris-flow occurrences that prevailed during the August 4-5, 2012 extreme flash flood on the 140 km2 Vizze basin in the Eastern Alps of Italy. An intensive post-event survey was carried out a few days after the flood. This included the surveys of cross-sectional geometry and flood marks for the estimation of the peak discharges at multiple river sections and of the initiation and deposition areas of several debris flows. Rainfall estimates are based on careful analysis of weather radar observations and raingauge data. These data and observations permitted the implementation and calibration of a spatially distributed hydrological model, which was used to derive simulated flood hydrographs in 58 tributaries of the Vizze basin. Of these, 33 generated debris-flows, with area ranging from 0.02 km2 to 10 km2, with an average of 1.5 km2. With 130 mm peak event rainfall and a duration of 4 hours (with a max intensity of 90 mm h-1 for 10 min), model-simulated unit peak discharges range from 4 m3 s-1 km-2for elementary catchments up to 10 km2 to 2 m3 s-1 km-2 for catchments in the range of 50 - 100 km2. These are very high

  3. New advances for modelling the debris avalanches (United States)

    Cuomo, Sabatino; Cascini, Leonardo; Pastor, Manuel; Castorino, Giuseppe Claudio


    Flow-like landslides are a major global hazard and they occur worldwide causing a large number of casualties, significant structural damages to property and infrastructures as well as economic losses. When involving open slopes, these landslides often occur in triangular source areas where initial slides turn into avalanches through further failures and/or eventual soil entrainment. This paper deals with the numerical modelling of the propagation stage of debris avalanches which provides information such as the propagation pattern of the mobilized material, its velocity, thickness and run-out distance. In the paper, a "depth integrated" model is used which allows: i) adequately taking into account the irregular topography of real slopes which greatly affect the propagation stage and ii) using a less time consuming model than fully 3D approaches. The used model is named "GeoFlow_SPH" and it was formerly applied to theoretical, experimental and real case histories (Pastor et al., 2009; Cascini et al., 2012). In this work the behavior of debris avalanches is analyzed with special emphasis on the apical angle, one of the main features of this type of landslide, in relation to soil rheology, hillslope geometry and features of triggering area. Furthermore, the role of erosion has been investigated with reference to the uppermost parts of open slopes with a different steepness. These analyses are firstly carried out for simplified benchmark slopes, using both water-like materials (with no shear strength) and debris type materials. Then, three important case studies of Campania region (Cervinara, Nocera Inferiore e Sarno) are analyzed where debris avalanches involved pyroclastic soils originated from the eruptive products of Vesusius volcano. The results achieved for both benchmark slopes and real case histories outline the key role played by the erosion on the whole propagation stage of debris avalanches. The results are particularly satisfactory since they indicate the

  4. Directed vapor deposition (United States)

    Groves, James Frederick

    This dissertation describes the invention, design, construction, experimental evaluation and modeling of a new physical vapor deposition technique (U.S. Patent #5,534,314) for high rate, efficient deposition of refractory elements, alloys, and compounds onto flat or curved surfaces. The new Directed Vapor Deposition (DVD) technique examined in this dissertation was distinct from previous physical vapor deposition techniques because it used low vacuum electron beam (e-beam) evaporation in combination with a carrier gas stream to transport and vapor spray deposit metals, ceramics, and semiconducting materials. Because of the system's unique approach to vapor phase materials processing, detailed analyses of critical concepts (e.g. the e-beam accelerating voltage and power required for evaporation, the vacuum pumping capacity necessary to generate specific gas flow velocities exiting a nozzle) were used to reduce to practice a functioning materials synthesis tool. After construction, the ability to create low contamination films of pure metals, semi-conducting materials, and compounds via this new method was demonstrated, and oxide deposition using an oxygen-doped gas stream in combination with a pure metal evaporant source was shown to be feasible. DVD vapor transport characteristics were experimentally investigated with deposition chamber pressure, carrier gas type, and e-beam power being identified as major processing parameters which affected vapor atom trajectories. The low vacuum carrier gas streams employed in DVD showed a dramatic ability to focus the vapor stream during transport to the substrate and thereby enhance material deposition rates and efficiencies significantly under certain process conditions. Conditions for maximum deposition efficiency onto flat substrates and continuous fibers were experimentally identified by varying chamber pressure, carrier gas velocity (Mach number), and e-beam power. Deposition efficiencies peaked at about 0.5 Torr when

  5. Classification of debris flow phenomena in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads-Peter Jakob; E. Mortensen, Lis; Jensen, Niels H.


    Landslides and debris flow phenomena in particular constitute a threat to human activities in the Faroe Islands. As a contribution to ongoing landslide risk management research, this paper proposes a classification scheme for debris flow phenomena in the Faroe Islands. The scheme, produced through......: hillslope debris flow): a very rapid to extremely rapid non-channelised downslope movement of remoulded colluvium and eventually fragmented rock, initiated as a debris slide in colluvial soil (type 1) or from rock fall (type 2). Áar-skriðulop (English translation: channelised debris flow): a very rapid...... to extremely rapid channelised downslope movement of remoulded colluvium and/or talus/fluvial material and eventually fragmented rock, initiated as a debris slide in colluvial soil (type 1), from rock fall (type 2) or from mobilisation of talus/fluvial material (type 3). The scheme, which is compatible...

  6. LEGEND, a LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris Model (United States)

    Liou, Jer Chyi; Hall, Doyle T.


    LEGEND (LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris model) is a three-dimensional orbital debris evolutionary model that is capable of simulating the historical and future debris populations in the near-Earth environment. The historical component in LEGEND adopts a deterministic approach to mimic the known historical populations. Launched rocket bodies, spacecraft, and mission-related debris (rings, bolts, etc.) are added to the simulated environment. Known historical breakup events are reproduced, and fragments down to 1 mm in size are created. The LEGEND future projection component adopts a Monte Carlo approach and uses an innovative pair-wise collision probability evaluation algorithm to simulate the future breakups and the growth of the debris populations. This algorithm is based on a new "random sampling in time" approach that preserves characteristics of the traditional approach and captures the rapidly changing nature of the orbital debris environment. LEGEND is a Fortran 90-based numerical simulation program. It operates in a UNIX/Linux environment.

  7. Slit-check dams for the control of debris flow (United States)

    Armanini, Aronne; Larcher, Michele


    Debris flows are paroxysmal events that mobilize, alongside water, huge quantities of sediment in a very short time, then with both solid and liquid huge discharges, possibly exceeding the capacity of the current torrent restoration works. In this respect, the climate change forcing cannot be ignored. In the majority of urbanized areas, that are generally the most vulnerable, there is often not enough space to create channelling works able to let the volumes pass through without overflowing. The simplest, less expensive and most sustainable solution consists in reducing the peak solid discharge by creating storage areas upstream of the settlements, typically upstream of the alluvial fans, allowing for reduced works of canalization, that are compatible with the constraints imposed by the urbanization. The general idea consists in storing a part of the flowing solids during the peak of the hydrograph and releasing it in a successive phase or during minor floods. For this purpose, and in order to optimize the solid peak discharge reduction, it is necessary that properly designed open-check dams, capable of inducing a significative sedimentation of the solid discharge only when this exceeds a design-threshold value, control the deposition basins. A correct design of the check dam is crucial in order to induce the sedimentation in the right amount and at the right moment: a too early sedimentation might fill the volume before the peak, like in the case of close-check dams, while a too weak sedimentation might not use the whole available volume. In both cases, the channelling works might not be sufficient to let all the flow pass through, compromising the safety of the settlement. To avoid this inconvenience, we propose the use of slit-check dams, whose efficiency has already been proved for bed load. Check dams are often designed only on the base of the designer's experience. Besides, even today it is often believed that the filtering effect of open check dams is

  8. HVI-Test Setup for Debris Detector Verification (United States)

    Bauer, Waldemar; Romberg, Oliver; Wiedemann, Carsten; Putzar, Robin; Drolshagen, Gerhard; Vorsmann, Peter


    Risk assessment concerning impacting space debris or micrometeoroids with spacecraft or payloads can be performed by using environmental models such as MASTER (ESA) or ORDEM (NASA). The validation of such models is performed by comparison of simulated results with measured data. Such data can be obtained from ground-based or space-based radars or telescopes, or by analysis of space hardware (e.g. Hubble Space Telescope, Space Shuttle Windows), which are retrieved from orbit. An additional data source is in-situ impact detectors, which are purposed for the collection of space debris and micrometeoroids impact data. In comparison to the impact data gained by analysis of the retrieved surfaces, the detected data contains additional information regarding impact time and orbit. In the past, many such in-situ detectors have been developed, with different measurement methods for the identification and classification of impacting objects. However, existing detectors have a drawback in terms of data acquisition. Generally the detection area is small, limiting the collected data as the number of recorded impacts has a linear dependence to the exposed area. An innovative impact detector concept is currently under development at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) in Bremen, in order to increase the surface area while preserving the advantages offered by dedicated in-situ impact detectors. The Solar Generator based Impact Detector (SOLID) is not an add-on component on the spacecraft, making it different to all previous impact detectors. SOLID utilises existing subsystems of the spacecraft and adapts them for impact detection purposes. Solar generators require large panel surfaces in order to provide the spacecraft with sufficient energy. Therefore, the spacecraft solar panels provide a perfect opportunity for application as impact detectors. Employment of the SOLID method in several spacecraft in various orbits would serve to significantly increase the spatial coverage

  9. Protecting Spacecraft Fragments from Exposure to Small Debris


    V. V. Zelentsov


    Since the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite a large amount of space debris has been accumulated in near-earth space. This debris comprises the exhausted spacecrafts, final stages of rocket-carriers and boosters, technological space junk, consisting of the structure elements, which are separated when deploying the solar arrays, antennas etc., as well as when undocking a booster and a spacecraft. All the debris is divided into observable one of over 100 mm in size and unobservable ...

  10. Anthropogenic effect on avalanche and debris flow activity


    S. A. Sokratov; Yu. G. Seliverstov; A. L. Shnyparkov; K. P. Koltermann


    The paper presents examples of the change in snow avalanches and debris flows activity due to the anthropogenic pressure on vegetation and relief. The changes in dynamical characteristics of selected snow avalanches and debris flows due to the anthropogenic activity are quantified. The conclusion is made that the anthropogenic effects on the snow avalanches and debris flows activity are more pronounced than the possible effects of the climate change. The necessity is expressed on the unavoida...

  11. Modeling the fate and transport of plastic debris in freshwaters


    Kooi, Merel; Besseling, Ellen; Kroeze, Carolien; Wenzel, van, Annemarie P.; Koelmans, Albert A.


    Contamination with plastic debris has been recognized as one of today’s major environmental quality problems. Because most of the sources are land based, concerns are increasingly focused on the freshwater and terrestrial environment. Fate and transport models for plastic debris can complement information from measurements and will play an important role in the prospective risk assessment of plastic debris. We review the present knowledge with respect to fate and transport modeling of plastic...

  12. Semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on beaches


    Ge, Zhenpeng; Shi, Huahong; Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Li, Daoji


    An increasing amount of anthropogenic marine debris is pervading the earth?s environmental systems, resulting in an enormous threat to living organisms. Additionally, the large amount of marine debris around the world has been investigated mostly through tedious manual methods. Therefore, we propose the use of a new technique, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), for the semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on a beach because of its substantially more efficient role in comparison with ...

  13. An Optical Navigation System for Capturing Space Debris (United States)


    d. Simple light weight robot arm for debris capture e. Debris removal by electro-dynamic tether package included in thebottom of the simple robot ...Capturing of Target by Robot Arm Deployment of Electro-Dynamic- Tether 7 th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Aerospace Technology, 25 – 27...measures. A micro robotic satellite with a simple robot arm for active space debris removal has been studied. Capture is an indispensable task for the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Adams


    Full Text Available Debris flows cause an average € 30 million damages and 1-2 fatalities every year in Austria. Detailed documentation of their extent and magnitude is essential for understanding, preventing and mitigating these natural hazard events. The recent development of unmanned aerial systems (UAS has provided a new possibility for on-demand high-resolution monitoring and mapping. Here, we present a study, where the spatial extent and volume of a large debris flow event were mapped with different UAS, fitted with commercial off-the-shelf sensors. Orthophotos and digital terrain models (DTM were calculated using structure-from-motion photogrammetry software. Terrain height differences caused by the debris flow in the catchment and valley floor were derived by subtracting the pre-event airborne laser scanning (ALS DTM from a post-event UAS-DTM. The analysis of the volumetric sediment budget showed, that approximately 265,000 m³ material was mobilised in the catchment, of which 45,000 m³ settled there; of the material, which reached the valley floor, 120,000 m³ was deposited, while another 10,000 m³ was eroded from there. The UAS-results were validated against ALS data and imagery from a traditional manned-aircraft photogrammetry campaign. In conclusion, the UAS-data can reach an accuracy and precision comparable to manned aircraft data, but with the added benefits of higher flexibility, easier repeatability, less operational constraints and higher spatial resolution.

  15. Cleaning space debris with a space-based laser system


    Shen Shuangyan; Jin Xing; Chang Hao


    High-energy pulsed laser radiation may be the most feasible means to mitigate the threat of collision of a space station or other valuable space assets with orbital debris in the size range of 1–10 cm. Under laser irradiation, part of the debris material is ablated and provides an impulse to the debris particle. Proper direction of the impulse vector either deflects the object trajectory or forces the debris on a trajectory through the upper atmosphere, where it burns up. Most research concen...

  16. Cleaning space debris with a space-based laser system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Shuangyan


    Full Text Available High-energy pulsed laser radiation may be the most feasible means to mitigate the threat of collision of a space station or other valuable space assets with orbital debris in the size range of 1–10 cm. Under laser irradiation, part of the debris material is ablated and provides an impulse to the debris particle. Proper direction of the impulse vector either deflects the object trajectory or forces the debris on a trajectory through the upper atmosphere, where it burns up. Most research concentrates on ground-based laser systems but pays little attention to space-based laser systems. There are drawbacks of a ground-based laser system in cleaning space debris. Therefore the placement of a laser system in space is proposed and investigated. Under assumed conditions, the elimination process of space debris is analyzed. Several factors such as laser repetition frequency, relative movement between the laser and debris, and inclination of debris particles which may exercise influence to the elimination effects are discussed. A project of a space-based laser system is proposed according to the numerical results of a computer study. The proposed laser system can eliminate debris of 1–10 cm and succeed in protecting a space station.

  17. Marine debris removal: one year of effort by the Georgia Sea Turtle-Center-Marine Debris Initiative. (United States)

    Martin, Jeannie Miller


    Once in the marine environment, debris poses a significant threat to marine life that can be prevented through the help of citizen science. Marine debris is any manufactured item that enters the ocean regardless of source, commonly plastics, metal, wood, glass, foam, cloth, or rubber. Citizen science is an effective way to engage volunteers in conservation initiatives and provide education and skill development. The Georgia Sea Turtle Center Marine Debris Initiative (GSTC-MDI) is a grant funded program developed to engage citizens in the removal of marine debris from the beaches of Jekyll Island, GA, USA and the surrounding areas. During the first year of effort, more than 200 volunteers donated over 460 h of service to the removal of marine debris. Of the debris removed, approximately 89% were plastics, with a significant portion being cigarette materials. Given the successful first year, the GSTC-MDI was funded again for a second year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Data Gap Analysis and Damage Case Studies: Risk Analyses from Construction and Demolition Debris Landfills and Recycling Facilities (United States)

    The report presents an evaluation of construction and demolition (C&D) debris management in the US to update and expand upon the previous set of data to include information on more recent cases of damage and potential impacts and expand the breadth of damages beyond groundwater a...

  19. Tsunami deposits related to Fogo flank failure (Cape Verde Islands) (United States)

    Paris, Raphael; Chevalier, Joel; Lavigne, Franck


    Oceanic shield volcanoes are prone to massive flank failures involving dozens to hundreds of km³. Fogo active volcano (Cape Verde Islands) is nested in a large horseshoe shaped caldera opened to the east. This volcano-tectonic structure could be the result of past failures of the edifice (Day et al., 1999). Debris avalanche deposits were identified offshore (Masson et al., 2008). The volume of the last collapse (> 62 ka) ranges between 130 and 160 km³, making the hypothesis for a past giant tsunami highly probable. Santiago island is located 50 km east of Fogo island. The west coast of Santiago may have been severely affected by the tsunami. A field survey was carried out in March 2009. Surprisingly, tsunami deposits were found only in Tarrafal, where a large bay may have amplified the wave and provided sediments. Elsewhere, no evidences of tsunami were found. The tsunami deposits appear as marine conglomerate in discontinuity above a reddish to yellowish paleo-soil. Nice cross-sections were found along the coast, in the northern part of the Tarrafal Bay. The thickness apparently increases landward (up to 4 m). The deposits consist in stacked units of pebbles or boulders, with numerous marine bioclasts (shells, corals, coralline algae). The basal contact with the paleo-soil displays scour-and-fill features. These tsunami deposits are similar to those previously described by Pérez-Torrado et al. (2006) in the Canary Islands. References Day, S.J., Heleno da Silva, S.I.N., Fonseca, J.F.B.D., 1999. A past giant lateral collapse and present-day flank instability of Fogo, Cape Verde Islands. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 99, 191-218. Masson, D.G., Le Bas, T.P., Grevemeyer, I., Weinrebe, W., 2008. Flank collapse and large-scale landsliding in the Cape Verde Islands, off West Africa. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 9 (7). Pérez Torrado, F.J., Paris, R., Cabrera, M.C., Schneider, J.L., Wassmer, P., Carracedo, J.C., Rodriguez Santana, A., Santana, F

  20. Hole-y Debris Disks, Batman! Where are the planets? (United States)

    Bailey, V.; Meshkat, T.; Hinz, P.; Kenworthy, M.; Su, K. Y. L.


    Giant planets at wide separations are rare and direct imaging surveys are resource-intensive, so a cheaper marker for the presence of giant planets is desirable. One intriguing possibility is to use the effect of planets on their host stars' debris disks. Theoretical studies indicate giant planets can gravitationally carve sharp boundaries and gaps in their disks; this has been seen for HR 8799, β Pic, and tentatively for HD 95086 (Su et al. 2009, Lagrange et al. 2010, Moor et al. 2013). If more broadly demonstrated, this link could help guide target selection for next generation direct imaging surveys. Using Spitzer MIPS/IRS spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we identify several dozen systems with two-component and/or large inner cavity disks (aka Hole-y Debris Disks). With LBT/LBTI, VLT/NaCo, GeminiS/NICI, MMT/Clio and Magellan/Clio, we survey a subset these SEDselected targets (~20). In contrast to previous disk-selected planet surveys (e.g.: Janson et al. 2013, Wahhaj et al. 2013) we image primarily in the thermal IR (L'-band), where planet-to-star contrast is more favorable and background contaminants less numerous. Thus far, two of our survey targets host planet-mass companions, both of which were discovered in L'-band after they were unrecognized or undetectable in H-band. For each system in our sample set, we will investigate whether the known companions and/or companions below our detection threshold could be responsible for the disk architecture. Ultimately, we will increase our effective sample size by incorporating detection limits from surveys that have independently targeted some of our systems of interest. In this way we will refine the conditions under which disk SED-based target selection is likely to be useful and valid.

  1. Recent space debris related topics in Japan (United States)

    Kibe, S.; Kawamoto, S.; Gilardi, G.

    This paper introduces recent space debris related activities in Japan. As for the ground based observation, the progress of the 1 m optical telescope construction at the Bisei Space Guard Center is to be reported as well as technology development such as the automated debris detection and attitude estimation techniques from optical image data. Next, activities on the hypervelocity acceleration technology are to be mentioned. Tokyo Institute of Technology team succeeded to launch a projectile of 0.6 g at 8.2 km/s using their Two-/Three- Stage Light Gas Gun, which is believed to be the world record for TSLGGs. In addition, National Aerospace Laboratory has been continuing their efforts to develop the Inhibited Conical Shaped Charge Launcher and is currently investigating the effects of high internal energy and irregular shape of the projectile. Based on the projectile density measurement method newly proposed by them, comparison with the other CSC system than NAL's one is to be shown. Finally, introduced is the progress of research activities on the active removal system for post mission spacecraft. Based on the technological foundation acquired in the ETS-VII experiment, NAL and NASDA are pursuing the possibility of active removal of system level large objects from the densely populated orbit, which contains a lot of technological challenges such as angular motion estimation using only image data, angular momentum dissipation, electro-dynamic tether as a highly efficient thruster and remote and autonomous robot operation. Also shortly introduced is domestic dis cussion on implementation of debris related activities in Japan's new space development organization to be founded in January 2004.

  2. The Population of Optically Faint GEO Debris (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Barker, Ed; Buckalew, Brent; Burkhardt, Andrew; Cowardin, Heather; Frith, James; Gomez, Juan; Kaleida, Catherine; Lederer, Susan M.; Lee, Chris H.


    The 6.5-m Magellan telescope 'Walter Baade' at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile has been used for spot surveys of the GEO orbital regime to study the population of optically faint GEO debris. The goal is to estimate the size of the population of GEO debris at sizes much smaller than can be studied with 1-meter class telescopes. Despite the small size of the field of view of the Magellan instrument (diameter 0.5-degree), a significant population of objects fainter than R = 19th magnitude have been found with angular rates consistent with circular orbits at GEO. We compare the size of this population with the numbers of GEO objects found at brighter magnitudes by smaller telescopes. The observed detections have a wide range in characteristics starting with those appearing as short uniform streaks. But there are a substantial number of detections with variations in brightness, flashers, during the 5-second exposure. The duration of each of these flashes can be extremely brief: sometimes less than half a second. This is characteristic of a rapidly tumbling object with a quite variable projected size times albedo. If the albedo is of the order of 0.2, then the largest projected size of these objects is around 10-cm. The data in this paper was collected over the last several years using Magellan's IMACS camera in f/2 mode. The analysis shows the brightness bins for the observed GEO population as well as the periodicity of the flashers. All objects presented are correlated with the catalog: the focus of the paper will be on the uncorrelated, optically faint, objects. The goal of this project is to better characterize the faint debris population in GEO that access to a 6.5-m optical telescope in a superb site can provide.

  3. Circumstellar Gas in Young Planetary Debris Disks (United States)

    Roberge, A.

    Circumstellar (CS) disks orbiting young stars fall into two categories: primordial disks, composed of unprocessed interstellar dust and gas, and debris disks, produced by the destruction of solid planetary bodies. In the first class, the most abundant gas is H_2; in the second, it appears that the H_2 gas has disappeared, possibly through incorporation into gas giant planets. The lifetime of H_2 gas in a CS disk is therefore of great importance, as it dictates the timescale for the formation of giant planets. FUSE observations of H_2 in CS disk systems have shown that FUV absorption spectroscopy may sensitively probe for small amounts of gas along the line of sight to the star. Most importantly, the FUSE non-detection of H_2 gas in the Beta Pictoris disk suggests that the primordial gas lifetime is less than about 12 Myr, and that gas giant planets must form very quickly. However, this suggestion is based on one system, and needs to be tested in additional systems with a range of ages, especially since there are indications that age is not the only factor in the evolution of a CS disk. We propose for FUSE observations of 3 additional debris disk systems, Fomalhaut, HD3003, and HD2884. Fomalhaut is an intermediate age debris disk, one of the Fabulous Four CS disks first discovered in 1984. The other two disks are younger, with ages similar to that of Beta Pic. All three stars are brighter in the FUV than Beta Pic, permitting us to sensitively probe for traces of H_2 gas. We will also measure the amount of secondary atomic gas produced from planetary bodies in these disks, in an effort to understand the entire evolution of CS gas in young planetary systems.

  4. Debris cover and surface melt at a temperate maritime alpine glacier: Franz Josef Glacier, Southern Alps, New Zealand (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Hagg, Wilfried; Winkler, Stefan


    During the last few years, after three decades of generally positive mass balance, Franz Josef Glacier (Southern Alps, New Zealand) has entered into a phase of strong frontal retreat. This development is combined with significant downwasting of the lower glacier tongue and a concurrent increasing emergence of debris on the surface in the ablation zone. Previously, melt rates at Franz Josef Glacier have only been measured on bare ice, so a short-term study in February 2012 saw a network of 11 ablation stakes drilled into locations of varying supraglacial debris thickness on the lower glacier. Direct ablation measurements were accompanied by observations of air temperatures and mapping of debris thickness and its distribution on the lower glacier tongue in order to calculate the potential effect of reduced overall ablation. Mean ablation rates over 9 days varied over the range 1.2-10.1 cm d-1 and were closely related to debris thickness. Air temperatures provided a strong indicator of daily melt rates and by applying a degree-day approach, a range of degree-day factors between 1.1 and 8.1 mm d-1 °C-1 with a mean of 4.4 mm d-1 °C-1 was obtained. These values are comparable with rates reported in other studies. Mapping of the entire ablation zone revealed an area of 0.7 km2 (or 14.3 %) covered by debris of 1-50 cm thickness. Based on measured debris thicknesses and calculated degree-day factors, ablation on those debris-covered areas of the glacier is reduced by a total of 41%. For the entire ablation zone this equates to a 6% overall reduction in melt. This study highlights the usefulness of short-term surveys to gather representative ablation data.

  5. Anthropogenic debris in seafood: Plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption


    Rochman, CM; Tahir, A; Williams, SL; Baxa, DV; Lam, R; Miller, JT; Teh, FC; Werorilangi, S; Teh, SJ


    UNHAS and UCD Research Collaboration The ubiquity of anthropogenic debris in hundreds of species of wildlife and the toxicity of chemicals associated with it has begun to raise concerns regarding the presence of anthropogenic debris in seafood. We assessed the presence of anthropogenic debris in fishes and shellfish on sale for human consumption. We sampled from markets in Makassar, Indonesia, and from California, USA. All fish and shellfish were identified to species where possible. Anthr...

  6. The Barreiras Group in the Northeastern coast of the State of Bahia, Brazil: depositional mechanisms and processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Barreiras Group is a Miocene to Lower Pleistocene continental terrigenous sedimentary deposit exhibiting a large occurrence along the Brazilian coast. In the Conde region, located in the northeastern part of the State of Bahia, the sedimentological characteristics of these sediments are indicative of a deposition as gravelly and sandy bed load in braided fluvial systems, related to alluvial fans, under an arid to semi-arid climate. The basal portion of the group is dominated by a gravelly-sandy lithofacies deposited by debris flows and pseudoplastic debris flows, with lesser occurrences of subaqueous deposits, characterizing a proximal fluvial system deposition. The upper portion is made up of gravelly-sandy sediments that include subaqueous, debris flows and pseudoplastic debris flows deposits. They suggest deposition in a more distal zone as indicated by the larger occurrence of subaqueous deposits and the presence, though rare, of downstream-accretion macroforms. Besides the climate control, deposition of the Barreiras Group was strongly influenced by the intraplate tectonism, which has been affecting the South America Platform since the Middle Miocene, when neotectonism began in Brazil.

  7. Incidence of Debris Discs Around FGK Stars in the Solar Neighbourhood (United States)

    Montesinos, B.; Eiroa, C.; Krivov, A. V.; Marshall, J. P.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Liseau, R.; Mora, A.; Maldonado, J.; Wolf, S.; Ertel, S.; hide


    Context. Debris discs are a consequence of the planet formation process and constitute the fingerprints of planetesimal systems. Their counterparts in the solar system are the asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts. Aims. The aim of this paper is to provide robust numbers for the incidence of debris discs around FGK stars in the solar neighborhood. Methods. The full sample of 177 FGK stars with d approx. less than 20 pc proposed for the DUst around NEarby Stars (DUNES) survey is presented. Herschel/PACS observations at 100 and 160 micrometers were obtained, and were complemented in some cases with data at 70 micrometers and at 250, 350, and 500 micrometer SPIRE photometry. The 123 objects observed by the DUNES collaboration were presented in a previous paper. The remaining 54 stars, shared with the Disc Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in IR and Sub-mm (DEBRIS) consortium and observed by them, and the combined full sample are studied in this paper. The incidence of debris discs per spectral type is analyzed and put into context together with other parameters of the sample, like metallicity, rotation and activity, and age. Results. The subsample of 105 stars with d approx. less than 15 pc containing 23 F, 33 G, and 49 K stars is complete for F stars, almost complete for G stars, and contains a substantial number of K stars from which we draw solid conclusions on objects of this spectral type. The incidence rates of debris discs per spectral type are 0.26(+0.21/-0.14) (6 objects with excesses out of 23 F stars), 0.21(+0.17/-0.11) (7 out of 33 G stars), and 0.20(+0.14/-0.09) (10 out of 49 K stars); the fraction for all three spectral types together is 0.22(+0.08/-0.07) (23 out of 105 stars).The uncertainties correspond to a 95 confidence level. The medians of the upper limits of L(sub dust)/L(sub *) for each spectral type are 7.8 x 10(exp -7) (F), 1.4 x 10(exp -6) (G), and 2.2 x 10(exp -6) (K); the lowest values are around 4.0 x 10(exp -7). The incidence of debris

  8. A Parametric Study on Using Active Debris Removal to Stabilize the Future LEO Debris Environment (United States)

    Liou, J.C.


    Recent analyses of the instability of the orbital debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have reignited the interest in using active debris removal (ADR) to remediate the environment. There are; however, monumental technical, resources, operational, legal, and political challenges in making economically viable ADR a reality. Before a consensus on the need for ADR can be reached, a careful analysis of the effectiveness of ADR must be conducted. The goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ADR to preserve the future environment and to guide its implementation to maximize the benefit-cost ratio. This paper describes a comprehensive sensitivity study on using ADR to stabilize the future LEO debris environment. The NASA long-term, orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of many key parameters. These parameters include (1) the starting epoch of ADR implementation, (2) various target selection criteria, (3) the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers, (4) the consequence of targeting specific inclination or altitude regimes, (5) the consequence of targeting specific classes of vehicles, and (6) the timescale of removal. Additional analyses on the importance of postmission disposal and how future launches might affect the requirements to stabilize the environment are also included.

  9. Modelling untrackable orbital debris associated with a tracked space debris cloud. (United States)

    Culp, R. D.; Madler, R. A.

    A computer model, including both the trackable and untrackable size regimes, has been developed to simulate several types of satellite fragmentations. These particle swarms are then propagated using a perturbation model to predict the collision hazard associated with the entire swarm. The results of this study will aid in estimating the long term hazard posed by debris particles to operating satellites and space operations.

  10. Engagement of Metal Debris into Gear Mesh (United States)

    handschuh, Robert F.; Krantz, Timothy L.


    A series of bench-top experiments was conducted to determine the effects of metallic debris being dragged through meshing gear teeth. A test rig that is typically used to conduct contact fatigue experiments was used for these tests. Several sizes of drill material, shim stock and pieces of gear teeth were introduced and then driven through the meshing region. The level of torque required to drive the "chip" through the gear mesh was measured. From the data gathered, chip size sufficient to jam the mechanism can be determined.

  11. Review of Destructive Assay Methods for Nuclear Materials Characterization from the Three Mile Island (TMI) Fuel Debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carla J. Miller


    This report provides a summary of the literature review that was performed and based on previous work performed at the Idaho National Laboratory studying the Three Mile Island 2 (TMI-2) nuclear reactor accident, specifically the melted fuel debris. The purpose of the literature review was to document prior published work that supports the feasibility of the analytical techniques that were developed to provide quantitative results of the make-up of the fuel and reactor component debris located inside and outside the containment. The quantitative analysis provides a technique to perform nuclear fuel accountancy measurements

  12. A low-cost method to measure the timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows relative to rainfall (United States)

    Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Leeper, Robert J.; Schmidt, Kevin Michael; Gartner, Joseph E.


    Data on the specific timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows are very limited. We describe a method to measure the response times of small burned watersheds to rainfall using a low-cost pressure transducer, which can be installed quickly after a fire. Although the pressure transducer is not designed for sustained sampling at the fast rates ({less than or equal to}2 sec) used at more advanced debris-flow monitoring sites, comparisons with high-data rate stage data show that measured spikes in pressure sampled at 1-min intervals are sufficient to detect the passage of most debris flows and floods. Post-event site visits are used to measure the peak stage and identify flow type based on deposit characteristics. The basin response timescale (tb) to generate flow at each site was determined from an analysis of the cross correlation between time series of flow pressure and 5-min rainfall intensity. This timescale was found to be less than 30 minutes for 40 post-fire floods and 11 post-fire debris flows recorded in 15 southern California watersheds ({less than or equal to} 1.4 km2). Including data from 24 other debris flows recorded at 5 more instrumentally advanced monitoring stations, we find there is not a substantial difference in the median tb for floods and debris flows (11 and 9 minutes, respectively); however, there are slight, statistically significant differences in the trends of flood and debris-flow tb with basin area, which are presumably related to differences in flow speed between floods and debris flows.

  13. Unraveling the patterns of late Holocene debris-flow activity on a cone in the Swiss Alps: Chronology, environment and implications for the future (United States)

    Stoffel, Markus; Conus, Delphine; Grichting, Michael A.; Lièvre, Igor; Maître, Gilles


    Debris-flow activity on the forested cone of the Ritigraben torrent (Valais, Swiss Alps) was assessed from growth disturbances in century-old trees, providing an unusually complete record of past events and deposition of material. The study of 2246 tree-ring sequences sampled from 1102 Larix decidua Mill., Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus cembra ssp. sibirica trees allowed reconstruction of 123 events since AD 1566. Geomorphic mapping permitted identification of 769 features related to past debris-flow activity on the intermediate cone. The features inventoried in the study area covering 32 ha included 291 lobes, 465 levées and 13 well-developed debris-flow channels. Based on tree-ring records of disturbed trees growing in or next to the deposits, almost 86% of the lobes identified on the present-day surface could be dated. A majority of the dated material was deposited over the last century. Signs of pre-20th century events are often recognizable in the tree-ring record of survivor trees, but the material that caused the growth anomaly in trees has been completely overridden or eroded by more recent debris-flow activity. Tree-ring records suggest that cool summers with frequent snowfalls at higher elevations regularly prevented the release of debris flows between the 1570s and 1860s; the warming trend combined with greater precipitation totals in summer and autumn between 1864 and 1895 provided conditions that were increasingly favorable for releasing events from the source zone. Enhanced debris-flow activity continued well into the 20th century and reconstructions show a clustering of events in the period 1916-1935 when warm-wet conditions prevailed during summer in the Swiss Alps. In contrast, very low activity is observed for the last 10-yr period (1996-2005) with only one debris-flow event recorded on August 27, 2002. Since sediment availability is not a limiting factor, this temporal absence of debris-flow activity is due to an absence of triggering events

  14. Infiltration deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.


    Infiltration deposits-is concentration of minerals matters formed by concretion on the some depth of readily soluble of descending waters of hyper genes zone. In the process of rocks chemical decomposition a great deal of readily soluble components in the form of sulfates, carbonates, bicarbonates, hydro-oxides and complex compounds, including ore element compounds become free

  15. Floating debris in the Mediterranean Sea. (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Aliani, Stefano


    Results from the first large-scale survey of floating natural (NMD) and anthropogenic (AMD) debris (>2 cm) in the central and western part of the Mediterranean Sea are reported. Floating debris was found throughout the entire study area with densities ranging from 0 to 194.6 items/km(2) and mean abundances of 24.9 AMD items/km(2) and 6.9 NMD items/km(2) across all surveyed locations. On the whole, 78% of all sighted objects were of anthropogenic origin, 95.6% of which were petrochemical derivatives (i.e. plastic and styrofoam). Maximum AMD densities (>52 items/km(2)) were found in the Adriatic Sea and in the Algerian basin, while the lowest densities (<6.3 items/km(2)) were observed in the Central Tyrrhenian and in the Sicilian Sea. All the other areas had mean densities ranging from 10.9 to 30.7 items/km(2). According to our calculations, more than 62 million macro-litter items are currently floating on the surface of the whole Mediterranean basin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)


    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene


    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.

  18. A Primer on Unifying Debris Disk Morphologies (United States)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene


    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.

  19. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tainter, Frank, H.; McMinn, James, W.


    Tainter, F.H., and J.W. McMinn. 1999. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris. In: Proc. Tenth Bien. South. Silv. Res. Conf. Shreveport, LA, February 16-18, 1999. Pp. 232-237 Abstract - Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important structural component of southern forest ecosystems. CWD loading may be affected by different decomposition rates on sites of varying quality. Bolts of red oak and loblolly pine were placed on plots at each of three (hydric, mesic. and xerlc) sites at the Savannah River Site and sampled over a I6-week period. Major changes were in moisture content and nonstructural carbohydrate content (total carbohydrates, reducing sugars, and starch) of sapwood. Early changes in nonstructural carbohydrate levels following placement of the bolts were likely due to reallocation of these materials by sapwood parenchyma cells. These carbohydrates later formed pools increasingly metabolized by bacteria and invading fungi. Most prevalent fungi in sapwood were Ceratocysfis spp. in pine and Hypoxy/on spp. in oak. Although pine sapwood became blue stained and oak sapwood exhibited yellow soft decay with black zone lines, estimators of decay (specific gravity, sodium hydroxide solubility, and holocellulose content) were unchanged during the 16-week study period. A small effect of site was detected for starch content of sapwood of both species. Fungal biomass in sapwood of both species, as measured by ergosterol content, was detectable at week zero, increased somewhat by week three and increased significantly by week 16.

  20. On the measure of large woody debris in an alpine catchment (United States)

    D'Agostino, V.; Bertoldi, G.; Rigon, E.


    The management of large woody debris (LWD) in Alpine torrents is a complex and ambiguous task. On one side the presence of LWD contributes to in-channel and floodplain morphological processes and plays an important role in landscape ecology and biodiversity. On the other side LWD increases considerably flood hazards when some river cross-sections result critical for the human interface (e.g. culverts, bridges, artificial channels). Only few studies provide quantitative data of LWD volumes in Alpine torrents. Research is needed both at basin scale processes (LWD recruiting from hillslopes) and at channel scale processes (feeding from river bank, storage/transport/deposition of LWD along the river bed). Our study proposes an integrate field survey methodology to assess the overall LWD amount which can be entrained by a flood. This knowledge is mandatory for the scientific research, for the implementation of LWD transport models, and for a complete hazard management in mountain basins. The study site is the high-relief basin of the Cordevole torrent (Belluno Province, Central Alps, Italy) whose outlet is located at the Saviner village (basin area of 109 square kilometers). In the November 1966 an extreme flood event occurred and some torrent reaches were heavily congested by LWD enhancing the overall damages due to long-duration overflows. Currently, the LWD recruitment seems to be strictly correlated with bank erosion and hillslope instability and the conditions of forest stand suggest LWD hazard is still high. Previous studies on sub-catchments of the Cordevole torrent have also shown an inverse relation between the drainage area and the LWD storage in the river-bed. Present contribution analyzes and quantifies the presence of LWD in the main valley channel of the Cordevole basin. A new sampling methodology was applied to integrate surveys of riparian vegetation and LWD storage. Data inventory confirms the previous relationship between LWD volumes and drainage area

  1. Space Debris Alert System for Aviation (United States)

    Sgobba, Tommaso


    Despite increasing efforts to accurately predict space debris re-entry, the exact time and location of re-entry is still very uncertain. Partially, this is due to a skipping effect uncontrolled spacecraft may experience as they enter the atmosphere at a shallow angle. Such effect difficult to model depends on atmospheric variations of density. When the bouncing off ends and atmospheric re-entry starts, the trajectory and the overall location of surviving fragments can be precisely predicted but the time to impact with ground, or to reach the airspace, becomes very short.Different is the case of a functional space system performing controlled re-entry. Suitable forecasts methods are available to clear air and maritime traffic from hazard areas (so-called traffic segregation).In US, following the Space Shuttle Columbia accident in 2003, a re-entry hazard areas location forecast system was putted in place for the specific case of major malfunction of a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) at re-entry. The Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft Calculator (SHAAC) is a system based on ground equipment and software analyses and prediction tools, which require trained personnel and close coordination between the organization responsible for RLV operation (NASA for Shuttle) and the Federal Aviation Administration. The system very much relies on the operator's capability to determine that a major malfunction has occurred.This paper presents a US pending patent by the European Space Agency, which consists of a "smart fragment" using a GPS localizer together with pre- computed debris footprint area and direct broadcasting of such hazard areas.The risk for aviation from falling debris is very remote but catastrophic. Suspending flight over vast swath of airspace for every re-entering spacecraft or rocket upper stage, which is a weekly occurrence, would be extremely costly and disruptive.The Re-entry Direct Broadcasting Alert System (R- DBAS) is an original merging and evolution of the Re

  2. Modeling the fate and transport of plastic debris in freshwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Merel; Besseling, Ellen; Kroeze, Carolien; Wenzel, van Annemarie P.; Koelmans, Albert A.


    Contamination with plastic debris has been recognized as one of today’s major environmental quality problems. Because most of the sources are land based, concerns are increasingly focused on the freshwater and terrestrial environment. Fate and transport models for plastic debris can complement

  3. Dust and Debris Tolerant Dual Poppet Valve Connector (United States)

    Townsend, III, Ivan I. (Inventor); Mueller, Robert P. (Inventor); Bastin, Gary L. (Inventor); Carlson, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Murtland, Kevin A. (Inventor)


    A debris exclusion and removal apparatus for connectors which have a dual-poppet value configuration containing a pressurized substance. Coupling of the female and male connectors causes the poppet valve to eject a cleaning substance which will eliminate debris from the male connector prior to mating with the female connector.

  4. Marine Debris Clean-Ups as Meaningful Science Learning (United States)

    Stepath, Carl M.; Bacon, Joseph Scott


    This seven to eight week hands-on Marine Debris Clean-up Project used a service project to provide an introduction of marine science ecology, watershed interrelationships, the scientific method, and environmental stewardship to 8th grade middle school students. It utilized inquiry based learning to introduce marine debris sources and impacts to…

  5. Frequency and initiation of debris flows in Grand Canyon, Arizona (United States)

    Griffiths, Peter G.; Webb, Robert H.; Melis, Theodore S.


    Debris flows from 740 tributaries transport sediment into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, creating rapids that control its longitudinal profile. Debris flows mostly occur when runoff triggers failures in colluvium by a process termed "the fire hose effect." Debris flows originate from a limited number of geologic strata, almost exclusively shales or other clay-rich, fine-grained formations. Observations from 1984 through 2003 provide a 20 year record of all debris flows that reached the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, and repeat photography provides a 100 year record of debris flows from 147 tributaries. Observed frequencies are 5.1 events/year from 1984 to 2003, and historic frequencies are 5.0 events/year from 1890 to 1983. Logistic regression is used to model historic frequencies based on drainage basin parameters observed to control debris flow initiation and transport. From 5 to 7 of the 16 parameters evaluated are statistically significant, including drainage area, basin relief, and the height of and gradient below debris flow source areas, variables which reflect transport distance and potential energy. The aspect of the river channel, which at least partially reflects storm movement within the canyon, is also significant. Model results are used to calculate the probability of debris flow occurrence at the river over a century for all 740 tributaries. Owing to the variability of underlying geomorphic controls, the distribution of this probability is not uniform among tributaries of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon.

  6. 33 CFR 209.160 - The California Debris Commission. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The California Debris Commission..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.160 The California Debris Commission. Section 1 of the... Commission, consisting of three officers of the Corps of Engineers, to regulate under the supervision of the...

  7. Marine debris in harbour porpoises and seals from German waters. (United States)

    Unger, B; Herr, H; Benke, H; Böhmert, M; Burkhardt-Holm, P; Dähne, M; Hillmann, M; Wolff-Schmidt, K; Wohlsein, P; Siebert, U


    Records of marine debris in and attached to stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were studied comprising information on 6587 carcasses collected along the German coast between 1990 and 2014, the decomposition state allowed for necropsy in 1622 cases. Marine debris items were recorded in 31 carcasses including 14 entanglements (5 harbour porpoises, 6 harbour seals, 3 grey seals) and 17 cases of ingestion (4 harbour porpoises, 10 harbour seals, 3 grey seals). Objects comprised general debris (35.1%) and fishing related debris (64.9%). Injuries associated with marine debris included lesions, suppurative ulcerative dermatitis, perforation of the digestive tract, abscessation, suppurative peritonitis and septicaemia. This study is the first investigation of marine debris findings in all three marine mammal species from German waters. It demonstrates the health impacts marine debris can have, including severe suffering and death. The results provide needed information on debris burdens in the North and Baltic Seas for implementing management directives, such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tracking Debris Shed by a Space-Shuttle Launch Vehicle (United States)

    Stuart, Phillip C.; Rogers, Stuart E.


    The DEBRIS software predicts the trajectories of debris particles shed by a space-shuttle launch vehicle during ascent, to aid in assessing potential harm to the space-shuttle orbiter and crew. The user specifies the location of release and other initial conditions for a debris particle. DEBRIS tracks the particle within an overset grid system by means of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the local flow field and a ballistic simulation that takes account of the mass of the particle and its aerodynamic properties in the flow field. The computed particle trajectory is stored in a file to be post-processed by other software for viewing and analyzing the trajectory. DEBRIS supplants a prior debris tracking code that took .15 minutes to calculate a single particle trajectory: DEBRIS can calculate 1,000 trajectories in .20 seconds on a desktop computer. Other improvements over the prior code include adaptive time-stepping to ensure accuracy, forcing at least one step per grid cell to ensure resolution of all CFD-resolved flow features, ability to simulate rebound of debris from surfaces, extensive error checking, a builtin suite of test cases, and dynamic allocation of memory.

  9. 14 CFR 417.225 - Debris risk analysis. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debris risk analysis. 417.225 Section 417... OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.225 Debris risk analysis. A flight safety analysis must demonstrate that the risk to the public potentially exposed to inert and...

  10. 40 CFR 268.45 - Treatment standards for hazardous debris. (United States)


    ... debris that has been treated using one of the specified extraction or destruction technologies in Table 1... using simple physical or mechanical means; and (ii) Residue from the treatment of hazardous debris is... restrictions 2 A. Extraction Technologies: 1. Physical Extraction a. Abrasive Blasting: Removal of contaminated...

  11. Apical extrusion of debris using reciprocating files and rotary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the other groups, with the exception of the Typhoon group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: According to our study, all systems caused apical debris extrusion. However, the Reciproc group was associated with less debris extrusion when compared to the other groups. Key words: Apical extrusion, endodontics, single file systems ...

  12. Mapping debris flow susceptibility using analytical network process ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha


    Nov 23, 2017 ... Major loss of plantation land was reported in the 2014 Octo- ber event in Vadakaunchi village. Information on this debris flow was collected from the local res- idents and a site inspection was subsequently carried out to assess the damage. Though large debris flow events that affect the major roads are rare ...

  13. Database Driven 6-DOF Trajectory Simulation for Debris Transport Analysis (United States)

    West, Jeff


    Debris mitigation and risk assessment have been carried out by NASA and its contractors supporting Space Shuttle Return-To-Flight (RTF). As a part of this assessment, analysis of transport potential for debris that may be liberated from the vehicle or from pad facilities prior to tower clear (Lift-Off Debris) is being performed by MSFC. This class of debris includes plume driven and wind driven sources for which lift as well as drag are critical for the determination of the debris trajectory. As a result, NASA MSFC has a need for a debris transport or trajectory simulation that supports the computation of lift effect in addition to drag without the computational expense of fully coupled CFD with 6-DOF. A database driven 6-DOF simulation that uses aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for the debris shape that are interpolated from a database has been developed to meet this need. The design, implementation, and verification of the database driven six degree of freedom (6-DOF) simulation addition to the Lift-Off Debris Transport Analysis (LODTA) software are discussed in this paper.

  14. Rapid Assessment of Tree Debris Following Urban Forest Ice Storms (United States)

    Richard J. Hauer; Angela J. Hauer; Dudley R. Hartel; Jill R. Johnson


    This paper presents a rapid assessment method to estimate urban tree debris following an ice storm. Data were collected from 60 communities to quantify tree debris volumes, mostly from public rights-of-way, following ice storms based on community infrastructure, weather parameters, and urban forest structure. Ice thickness, area of a community, and street distance are...

  15. ABB. CASE's GUARDIANTM Debris Resistant Fuel Assembly Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D. J.; Wohlsen, W. D.


    ABB CE's experience, that 72% of all recent fuel-rod failures are caused by debris fretting, is typical. In response to this problem, ABB Combustion Engineering began supplying in the late 1980s fuel assemblies with a variety of debris resistant features, including both long-end caps and small flow holes. Now ABB CAE has developed an advanced debris resistant design concept, GUARDIAN TM , which has the advantage of capturing and retaining more debris than other designs, while displacing less plenum or active fuel volume than the long end-cap design. GUARDIAN TM design features have now been implemented into four different assembly designs. ABB CASE's GUARDIAN TM fuel assembly is an advanced debris-resistant design which has both superior filtering performance and uniquely, excellent debris retention, Retention effectively removes the debris from circulation in the coolant so that it is not able to threaten the fuel again. GUARDIAN TM features have been incorporated into four ABB. CAE fuel assembly designs. These assemblies are all fully compatible with the NSLS, and full-batch operation with GUARDIAN TM began in 1992. The number of plants of both CAE and non-CAE design which accept GUARDIAN TM for debris protection is expected to grow significantly during the next few years

  16. Effects of Fireplace Use on Forest Vegetation and Amount of Woody Debris in Suburban Forests in Northwestern Switzerland (United States)

    Hegetschweiler, K. Tessa; van Loon, Nicole; Ryser, Annette; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Baur, Bruno


    Urban forests are popular recreation areas in Europe. Several of these temperate broad-leaved forests also have a high conservation value due to sustainable management over many centuries. Recreational activities, particularly the use of fireplaces, can cause extensive damage to soil, ground vegetation, shrubs, and trees. Firewood collection depletes woody debris, leading to a loss of habitat for specialized organisms. We examined the effects of fireplace use on forest vegetation and the amount of woody debris by comparing disturbed and control plots in suburban forests in northwestern Switzerland. At frequently used fireplaces, we found reduced species densities in the ground vegetation and shrub layer and changes in plant species composition due to human trampling within an area of 150-200 m2. Picnicking and grilling also reduced the height and changed the age structure of shrubs and young trees. The amount of woody debris was lower in disturbed plots than in control plots. Pieces of wood with a diameter of 0.6-7.6 cm were preferentially collected by fireplace users. The reduction in woody debris volume extended up to a distance of 16 m from the fire ring, covering an area of 800 m2 at each picnic site. In order to preserve the ecological integrity of urban forests and to maintain their attractiveness as important recreation areas, we suggest depositing logging residues to be used as firewood and to restrict visitor movements near picnic sites.

  17. Integrating X-MP radar data to estimate rainfall induced debris flow in the Merapi volcanic area (United States)

    Syarifuddin, Magfira; Oishi, Satoru; Legono, Djoko; Hapsari, Ratih Indri; Iguchi, Masato


    After the 2010 eruption, more than 50 volcanic debris flow (lahar) events occurred during the rainy season of 2010-2011 at Mount Merapi, Indonesia. The lahars occurred following rainfall of severe intensity in the upstream area, where remaining volcanic material was deposited. Estimation of rainfall-induced lahars at Mt. Merapi is difficult and uncertain because the upstream area is dangerous and inaccessible. On 17 February 2016, a lahar occurred in the upstream region of the Gendol River on the southeastern flank of Mt. Merapi after a maximum rainfall intensity of 69 mm/h was monitored on the peak of Mt. Merapi by X-band multi-parameter (X-MP) radar. In this study, rainfall intensity estimates from X-MP radar were applied to generate boundary discharge of a numerical model of debris flow at the catchment scale. The numerical simulation was able to estimate volcanic debris flow occurrence and magnitude. The reliability of radar-rainfall data and the effects of the sabo dam on reducing the impacts of lahar disaster were also examined. The numerical lahar simulation showed relevant results that were comparable to the real condition. The closed type sabo dam caused more than 50% lahar sediment decrement and a flow delay time of 40 min. However, the sediment accumulation has caused increasing flow velocity and higher erosion rate in the 2D area. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of remote monitoring of rainfall combined with numerical debris flow modeling for applied practical use in disaster management.

  18. Combining litter observations with a regional ocean model to identify sources and sinks of floating debris in a semi-enclosed basin: The Adriatic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel F.; Suaria, Giuseppe; Aliani, Stefano


    or to predict its fate, crucial information for management and mitigation policies. Particle tracking techniques have seen extensive use in these roles, however, most previous studies have used simplistic initial conditions based on bulk average inputs of debris to the system. Here, observations of floating...... anthropogenic macro debris in the Adriatic Sea are used to define initial conditions (number of particles, location, and time) in a Lagrangian particle tracking model. Particles are advected backward and forward in time for 60 days (120 days total) using surface velocities from an operational regional ocean...... model. Sources and sinks for debris observed in the central and southern Adriatic in May 2013 and March 2015 included the Italian coastline from Pescara to Brindisi, the Croatian island of Mljet, and the coastline from Dubrovnik through Montenegro to Albania. Debris observed in the northern Adriatic...

  19. Bacteria at glacier surfaces: microbial community structures in debris covered glaciers and cryoconites in the Italian Alps (United States)

    Azzoni, Roberto; Franzetti, Andrea; Ambrosini, Roberto; D'Agata, Carlo; Senese, Antonella; Minora, Umberto; Tagliaferri, Ilario; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina


    Supraglacial debris has an important role in the glacier energy budget and has strong influence on the glacial ecosystem. Sediment derives generally from rock inputs from nesting rockwalls and are abundant and continuous at the surface of debris-covered glaciers (i.e. DCGs; glaciers where the ablation area is mainly covered by rock debris) and sparse and fine on debris-free glaciers (DFGs). Recently, evidence for significant tongue darkening on retreating debris-free glaciers has been drawing increasing attention. Fine particles, the cryoconite, are locally abundant and may form cryoconite holes that are water-filled depressions on the surface of DFGs that form when a thin layer of cryoconite is heated by the sun and melts the underlying ice. There is increasing evidence that cryoconite holes also host highly diverse microbial communities and can significantly contribute to global carbon cycle. However, there is almost no study on microbial communities of the debris cover of DCGs and there is a lack of data from the temporal evolution of the microbial communities in the cryoconites. To fill these gaps in our knowledge we characterized the supraglacial debris of two Italian DCGs and we investigated the temporal evolution of microbial communities on cryoconite holes in DFG. We used the Illumina technology to analyse the V5 and V6 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified from samples collected distances from the terminus of two DCGs (Miage and Belvedere Glaciers - Western Italian Alps). Heterotrophic taxa dominated bacterial communities, whose structure changed during downwards debris transport. Organic carbon of these recently exposed substrates therefore is probably provided more by allochthonous deposition of organic matter than by primary production by autotrophic organisms. We used ARISA fingerprinting and quantitative PCR to describe the structure and the evolution of the microbial communities and to estimate the number of the total

  20. Swarm slide - debris flow disaster induced by extreme rainfall in Hiroshima, August 2014 and lessons learnt in urban designing (United States)

    Fukuoka, H.; Wang, C.


    Hiroshima city was hit by swarm debris flows along a narrow, and linear-shaped rain band of 2 km x 10 km which appeared in the early morning of August 20, 2014. Most of the flows were induced by shallow slide in the upstream. This disaster claimed 74 death, although this city experienced very similar disaster in 1999, claiming more than 30 residents lives. In the most severely affected debris flow torrent, more than 50 residents were killed. Most of the casualties arose in the wooden, vulnerable houses constructed in front of the exit of torrents. Points and lessons learnt from the disaster are as follows:1. Authors collected two types of sands from the source scar of the initial debris slides which induced debris flows. Tested by the ring shear apparatus under pore-pressure control condition, clear "Sliding surface liquefaction" was confirmed for both samples even under small normal stress, representing the small thickness of the slides. These results shows even instant excess pore pressure could initiate the slides and trigger slide-induced debris flow byundrained loading onto the torrent deposits.2. Apparently long-term land-use change since 1945 affected and raised the vulnerability of the community. Residential area had expanded into hill-slope (mountainous / semi-mountainous area) especially along the torrents. Those communities were developed on the past debris flow fan.3. As the devastated area is very close to downtown of Hiroshima city, it gave large societal impact to the Japanese citizens. After 1999 Hiroshima debris flow disaster, the Landslide disaster reduction law which intends to promote designation of landslide potential risk zones, was adopted in 2000. Immediately after 2014 disaster, national diet approved revision of the bill to promote rapid completion of the designation over the national territory. MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Tranportation and Tourism) decided to install X-band rain radars at more sites to cover whole city zones

  1. Examination of returned solar-max surfaces for impacting orbital debris and meteoroids (United States)

    Kessler, D. J.; Zook, H. A.; Potter, A. E.; Mckay, D. S.; Clanton, U. S.; Warren, J. L.; Watts, L. A.; Schultz, R. A.; Schramm, L. S.; Wentworth, S. J.


    Previous theoretical studies predicted that in certain regions of earth orbit, the man-made earth orbiting debris environment will soon exceed the interplanetary meteoroid environment for sizes smaller than 1 cm. The surfaces returned from the repaired Solar Max Mission (SMM) by STS 41-C on April 12, 1984, offered an excellent opportunity to examine both the debris and meteoroid environments. To date, approximately 0.7 sq. met. of the thermal insulation and 0.05 sq. met of the aluminum louvers have been mapped by optical microscope for crater diameters larger than 40 microns. Craters larger in diameter than about 100 microns found on the initial 75 micron thick Kapton first sheet on the MEB (Main Electronics Box) blanket are actually holes and constitute perforations through that blanket. The following populations have been found to date in impact sites on these blankets: (1) meteoritic material; (2) thermal paint particles; (3) aluminum droplets; and (4) waste particles.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    In the unlikely event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), break jet impingement would dislodge thermal insulation FR-om nearby piping, as well as other materials within the containment, such as paint chips, concrete dust, and fire barrier materials. Steam/water flows induced by the break and by the containment sprays would transport debris to the containment floor. Subsequently, debris would likely transport to and accumulate on the suction sump screens of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps, thereby potentially degrading ECCS performance and possibly even failing the ECCS. In 1998, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a generic study (Generic Safety Issue-191) to evaluate the potential for the accumulation of LOCA related debris on the PWR sump screen and the consequent loss of ECCS pump net positive suction head (NPSH). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), supporting the resolution of GSI-191, was tasked with developing a method for estimating debris transport in PWR containments to estimate the quantity of debris that would accumulate on the sump screen for use in plant specific evaluations. The analytical method proposed by LANL, to predict debris transport within the water that would accumulate on the containment floor, is to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combined with experimental debris transport data to predict debris transport and accumulation on the screen. CFD simulations of actual plant containment designs would provide flow data for a postulated accident in that plant, e.g., three-dimensional patterns of flow velocities and flow turbulence. Small-scale experiments would determine parameters defining the debris transport characteristics for each type of debris. The containment floor transport methodology will merge debris transport characteristics with CFD results to provide a reasonable and conservative estimate of debris transport within the containment floor pool and

  3. USA Space Debris Environment, Operations, and Research Updates (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.


    Space Missions in 2017 Earth Satellite Population Collision Avoidance Maneuvers Post mission Disposal of U.S.A. Spacecraft Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and the Space Debris Sensor (SDS) A total of 86 space launches placed more than 400 spacecraft into Earth orbits during 2017, following the trend of increase over the past decade NASA has established conjunction assessment processes for its human spaceflight and uncrewed spacecraft to avoid accidental collisions with objects tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network - NASA also assists other U.S. government spacecraft owners with conjunction assessments and subsequent maneuvers The ISS has conducted 25 debris collision avoidance maneuvers since 1999 - None in 2016-2017, but an ISS visiting vehicle had one collision avoidance maneuver in 2017 During 2017 NASA executed or assisted in the execution of 21 collision avoidance maneuvers by uncrewed spacecraft - Four maneuvers were conducted to avoid debris from Fengyun-1C - Two maneuvers were conducted to avoid debris from the collision of Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 - One maneuver was conducted to avoid the ISS NASA has established conjunction assessment processes for its human spaceflight and uncrewed spacecraft to avoid accidental collisions with objects tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network - NASA also assists other U.S. government spacecraft owners with conjunction assessments and subsequent maneuvers The ISS has conducted 25 debris collision avoidance maneuvers since 1999 - None in 2016-2017, but an ISS visiting vehicle had one collision avoidance maneuver in 2017 During 2017 NASA executed or assisted in the execution of 21 collision avoidance maneuvers by uncrewed spacecraft - Four maneuvers were conducted to avoid debris from Fengyun-1C - Two maneuvers were conducted to avoid debris from the collision of Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 The 2014-15 NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) study on the micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD

  4. The impact of debris on the Florida manatee (United States)

    Beck, C.A.; Barros, N.B.


    The endangered Florida manatee ingests debris while feeding. From 1978 through 1986, 439 salvaged manatees were examined. Debris was in the gastrointestinal tract of 63 (14.4%) and four died as a direct result of debris ingestion. Monofilament fishing line was the most common debris found (N=49). Plastic bags, string, twine, rope, fish hooks, wire, paper, cellophane, synthetic sponges, rubber bands, and stockings also were recovered. Entanglement in lines and nets killed 11 manatees from 1974 through 1985. Numerous free-ranging manatees have missing or scarred flippers from entanglements, or debris still encircling one or both flippers. We recommend local cleanups, education of the public, and fishing restrictions in high use areas to significantly reduce harm to manatees.

  5. Risk assessment of debris flow hazards in natural slope (United States)

    Choi, Junghae; Chae, Byung-gon; Liu, Kofei; Wu, Yinghsin


    The study area is located at north-east part of South Korea. Referring to the map of landslide sus-ceptibility (KIGAM, 2009) from Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM for short), there are large areas of potential landslide in high probability on slope land of mountain near the study area. Besides, recently some severe landslide-induced debris flow hazards occurred in this area. So this site is convinced to be prone to debris flow haz-ards. In order to mitigate the influence of hazards, the assessment of potential debris flow hazards is very important and essential. In this assessment, we use Debris-2D, debris flow numerical program, to assess the potential debris flow hazards. The worst scenario is considered for simulation. The input mass sources are determined using landslide susceptibility map. The water input is referred to the daily accumulative rainfall in the past debris flow event in study area. The only one input material property, i.e. yield stress, is obtained using calibration test. The simulation results show that the study area has po-tential to be impacted by debris flow. Therefore, based on simulation results, to mitigate debris flow hazards, we can propose countermeasures, including building check dams, constructing a protection wall in study area, and installing instruments for active monitoring of debris flow hazards. Acknowledgements:This research was supported by the Public Welfare & Safety Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2012M3A2A1050983)

  6. Effects of 1997 debris floods in two Klamath Mountain streams: A large woody debris mass-balance approach (United States)

    Zackary J. Mondry; Susan J. Hilton


    Large landslides and debris flows in January 1997 produced contrasting downstream debris flood effects in two adjacent Northern California Klamath Mountain streams. Valley morphology and riparian forests were examined on post-flood 1:3000 air photos along two approximately 8 km survey reaches.

  7. Influential factors on debris flow events and hillslope-channel connectivity in Alpine regions: case studies from two Alpine regions in Styria, Austria (United States)

    Traper, Sandra; Pöppl, Ronald; Rascher, Eric; Sass, Oliver


    In recent times different types of natural disasters like debris flow events have attracted increasing attention worldwide, since they can cause great damage and loss of infrastructure or even lives is not unusual when it comes to such an event. The engagement with debris flows is especially important in mountainous areas like Austria, since Alpine regions have proved to be particularly prone to the often harmful consequences of such events because of increasing settlement of previously uninhabited regions. Due to those frequently damaging effects of debris flows, research on this kind of natural disaster often focuses on mitigation and recovery measures after an event and on how to restore the initial situation. However, a view on the situation of an area, where severe debris flows recently occurred and are well documented, before the actual event can aid in discovering important preparatory factors that contribute to initiating debris flows and hillslope-channel connectivity in the first place. Valuable insights into the functioning and preconditions of debris flows and their potential connectivity to the main channel can be gained. The study focuses on two geologically different areas in the Austrian Alps, which are both prone to debris flows and have experienced rather severe events recently. Based on data from debris flow events in two regions in Styria (Austria), the Kleinsölk and the Johnsbach valleys, the aim of the study is to identify factors which influence the development of debris flows and the potential of such debris flows to reach the main channel potentially clogging up the river (hillslope-channel connectivity). The degree of hillslope-channel coupling was verified in extensive TLS and ALS surveys, resulting in DEMs of different resolution and spatial extension. Those factors are obtained, analyzed and evaluated with DEM-based GIS- and statistical analyses. These include factors that are attributed to catchment topography, such as slope angle

  8. Differentiating littering, urban runoff and marine transport as sources of marine debris in coastal and estuarine environments (United States)

    Willis, Kathryn; Denise Hardesty, Britta; Kriwoken, Lorne; Wilcox, Chris


    Marine debris is a burgeoning global issue with economic, ecological and aesthetic impacts. While there are many studies now addressing this topic, the influence of urbanisation factors such as local population density, stormwater drains and roads on the distribution of coastal litter remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we carried out standardized surveys at 224 transect surveys at 67 sites in two estuaries and along the open coast in Tasmania, Australia. We explored the relative support for three hypotheses regarding the sources of the debris; direct deposition by beachgoers, transport from surrounding areas via storm water drains and coastal runoff, and onshore transport from the marine system. We found strong support for all three mechanisms, however, onshore transport from the marine reservoir was the most important mechanism. Overall, the three models together explained 45.8 percent of the variation in our observations. Our results also suggest that most debris released into the marine environment is deposited locally, which may be the answer to where all the missing plastic is in the ocean. Furthermore, local interventions are likely to be most effective in reducing land-based inputs into the ocean.

  9. Differentiating littering, urban runoff and marine transport as sources of marine debris in coastal and estuarine environments. (United States)

    Willis, Kathryn; Denise Hardesty, Britta; Kriwoken, Lorne; Wilcox, Chris


    Marine debris is a burgeoning global issue with economic, ecological and aesthetic impacts. While there are many studies now addressing this topic, the influence of urbanisation factors such as local population density, stormwater drains and roads on the distribution of coastal litter remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we carried out standardized surveys at 224 transect surveys at 67 sites in two estuaries and along the open coast in Tasmania, Australia. We explored the relative support for three hypotheses regarding the sources of the debris; direct deposition by beachgoers, transport from surrounding areas via storm water drains and coastal runoff, and onshore transport from the marine system. We found strong support for all three mechanisms, however, onshore transport from the marine reservoir was the most important mechanism. Overall, the three models together explained 45.8 percent of the variation in our observations. Our results also suggest that most debris released into the marine environment is deposited locally, which may be the answer to where all the missing plastic is in the ocean. Furthermore, local interventions are likely to be most effective in reducing land-based inputs into the ocean.

  10. Geometrical Characterization of Sediment Deposits at the Confluence of Mountain Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Stancanelli


    Full Text Available Debris flow injections from tributaries into a main mountain stream generate deposits of sediments which, in turn, result in obstruction and eventual damming of the river section. This contribution presents the results of a series of flume experiments on the dynamics of these deposits, with reference to three different types of blockage: no blockage, partial blockage, and full blockage. Results show that the shape of the deposit is mainly controlled by the ratio between the debris flow discharge and the main river discharge. The experimental dataset is used to develop a deposit resilience stability index based on the shape of the deposit contour retrieved from photos taken from above. The proposed index is based on the invariant elliptic Fourier coefficients and the dimensionless transverse obstruction parameter. The elliptic Fourier coefficients give information on the symmetry of the deposit contour. High symmetry indicates more stable and resilient deposits. The proposed index is calibrated on the basis of the flume experiments and tested with field data. The results are quite promising and suggest that the index can be appropriate for a fast hazard assessment of multiple debris flow deposits at a regional scale.

  11. Material Density Distribution of Small Debris in Earth Orbit (United States)

    Krisko, P. H.; Xu, Y.-l.; Opiela, J. N.; Hill, N. M.; Matney, M. J.


    Over 200 spacecraft and rocket body breakups in Earth orbit have populated that regime with debris fragments in the sub-micron through meter size range. Though the largest debris fragments can cause significant collisional damage to active (operational) spacecraft, these are few and trackable by radar. Fragments on the order of a millimeter to a centimeter in size are as yet untrackable. But this smaller debris can result in damage to critical spacecraft systems and, under the worst conditions, fragmenting collision events. Ongoing research at the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office on the sources of these small fragments has focused on the material components of spacecraft and rocket bodies and on breakup event morphology. This has led to fragment material density estimates, and also the beginnings of shape categorizations. To date the NASA Standard Breakup Model has not considered specific material density distinctions of small debris. The basis of small debris in that model is the fourth hypervelocity impact event of the Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT) series. This test targeted a flight-ready, U.S. Transit navigation satellite with a solid aluminum sphere impactor. Results in this event yield characteristic length (size) and area-to-mass distributions of fragments smaller than 10 cm in the NASA model. Recent re-analysis of the SOCIT4 small fragment dataset highlighted the material-specific characteristics of metals and non-metals. Concurrent analysis of Space Shuttle in-situ impact data showed a high percentage of aluminum debris in shuttle orbit regions. Both analyses led to the definition of three main on-orbit debris material density categories -low density ( 6 g/cc). This report considers the above studies in an explicit extension of the NASA Standard Breakup Model where separate material densities for debris are generated and these debris fragments are propagated in Earth orbit. The near Earth environment is thus parameterized

  12. Safe disposal and recycling of water disaster debris in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, A.


    Depending upon the nature, the disaster may produce large masses of debris. Waste masses from single disaster integrate to larger magnitude annually. This will ultimately causes the extra work load on personnel and reflects the poor existing debris management facilities. Besides, it will take longer time to rehabilitate the debris exaggerated regions. The study focuses on 2 main cases of disaster i.e. earthquake of 2005 and flood of 2010 in Pakistan. Complete analysis involve two stages: the first stage involve development of disaster and disaster debris effects guidance whereas the second stage involves the development of set of criteria to make efficient environment and positive impacts of successful debris managing scheme. Such principles were employed to evaluate efficiency of debris managing scheme for detailed analysis. The discussion of the detailed analysis depicts methodology which assists the disaster managers, planners and researcher to simply multitude of work. Moreover, the disaster and disaster debris influence direction, the effect evaluation criterion and managing criteria have been established having the effect they can be virtually put into service for prospect debris managing scheme, planning and retort. With respect to character and strictness, calamity may make high magnitude of waste. By keeping in view the precedent calamities in the United States (US), concluded that in few situations produced waste masses approximately five to fifteen times more than yearly waste production rate from a single occasion. Same results were revealed by subsequent tsunami of Indian Ocean. Such kind of large masses may effects the existing solid debris management system and human resources. Major disaster yields large masses of debris in few hours or sometimes even in minutes. The volume of disaster debris depends upon the magnitude of trees ball up, indemnity to houses, business, services etc. The disaster remaining may be equally large in metropolitan and non

  13. Analysis of the Mobilization of Debris Flows (United States)


    c O 9 • •s • •rl O o • 43 « l| •H P0 >. cn IM IW n >M cd C IM o • Tt •H •o » •O -H O B u • 60 .H c •H 0 • Cd r-H SS el 5 co oe en a o...California (Matthes, 1930, p. 108-109). One source area, between the Three Brothers and El Capltan, Is described as being in a recess: "... only 1 1...nearly general deformation as the masses move into channels, and finally to the plastico -vlscous type of flow recognized in channelized debris flows

  14. Debris disks in open stellar clusters (United States)

    Gorlova, Nadiya Igorivna

    Indirect searches for planets (such as radial velocity studies) show that their formation may be quite common. The planets are however too small and faint to be seen against the glare of their host stars; therefore, their direct detection is limited to the nearest systems. Alternatively one can study planets by studying their "by-product"---dust. We see raw material available for planets around young stars, and debris dust around old stars betraying planet-induced activity. Dust has a larger surface area per unit mass compared with a large body; it can be spread over a larger solid angle, intercepting more starlight and emitting much more light via reprocessing. By studying dusty disks we can infer the presence of planets at larger distances. Here we present results of a survey conducted with the Spitzer Space Telescope of debris disks in three open clusters. With ages of 30--100 Myrs, these clusters are old enough that the primordial dust should have accreted into planetesimals, fallen onto the star, or been blown away due to a number of physical processes. The dust we observe must come from collisions or sublimation of larger bodies. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dust evolution in the terrestrial planet zone, analogous to the Zodiacal cloud in our Solar system. We are most sensitive to this zone because the peak of a 125 K black body radiation falls into the primary pass-band of our survey---24mm. We investigate the fraction and amount of the infra-red excesses around intermediate- to solar-mass stars in open stellar clusters with well defined ages. The results are analyzed in the context of disk studies at other wavelengths and ages, providing an understanding of the time-scale for disk dissipation and ultimately planet building and frequency.

  15. Geotechnical soil characterization of intact Quaternary deposits forming the March 22, 2014 SR-530 (Oso) landslide, Snohomish County, Washington (United States)

    Riemer, Michael F.; Collins, Brian D.; Badger, Thomas C.; Toth, Csilla; Yu, Yat Chun


    During the late morning of March 22, 2014, a devastating landslide occurred near the town of Oso, Washington. The landslide with an estimated volume of 10.9 million cubic yards (8.3 x 106 m3) of both intact glacially deposited and previously disturbed landslide sediments, reached speeds averaging 40 miles per hour (64 kilometers per hour) and crossed the entire 2/3-mile (~1100 m) width of the adjacent North Fork Stillaguamish River floodplain in approximately 60 seconds, resulting in the complete destruction of an entire neighborhood (Iverson and others, 2015). More than 40 homes were destroyed as the debris overran the neighborhood, resulting in the deaths of 43 people.

  16. Steady State Heat Deposits Modeling in the Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnets for the Upgrade of the LHC Inner Triplet

    CERN Document Server

    Bocian, D; Barzi, E; Bossert, R; Caspi, S; Chlachidze, G; Dietderich, D; Feher, S; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Hafalia, R; Kashikhin, V V; Lamm, M; Sabbi, G L; Turrioni, D; Wanderer, P; Zlobin, A V


    In hadron colliders such as the LHC, the energy deposited in the superconductors by the particles lost from the beams or coming from the collision debris may provoke quenches detrimental to the accelerator operation. In previous papers, a Network Model has been used to study the thermodynamic behavior of magnet coils and to calculate the quench levels in the LHC magnets for expected beam loss profiles. This model was subsequently used for thermal analysis and design optimization of Nb3Sn quadrupole magnets, which LARP (US LHC Accelerator Research Program) is developing for possible use in the LHC luminosity upgrade. For these new magnets, the heat transport efficiency from the coil to the helium bath needs to be determined and optimized. In this paper the study of helium cooling channels and the heat evacuation scheme are presented and discussed.

  17. Diversity and Activity of Communities Inhabiting Plastic Debris in the North Pacific Gyre (United States)

    Bryant, Jessica A.; Clemente, Tara M.; Viviani, Donn A.; Fong, Allison A.; Thomas, Kimberley A.; Kemp, Paul; Karl, David M.; White, Angelicque E.


    ABSTRACT Marine plastic debris has become a significant concern in ocean ecosystems worldwide. Little is known, however, about its influence on microbial community structure and function. In 2008, we surveyed microbial communities and metabolic activities in seawater and on plastic on an oceanographic expedition through the “great Pacific garbage patch.” The concentration of plastic particles in surface seawater within different size classes (2 to 5 mm and >5 mm) ranged from 0.35 to 3.7 particles m−3 across sampling stations. These densities and the particle size distribution were consistent with previous values reported in the North Pacific Ocean. Net community oxygen production (NCP = gross primary production − community respiration) on plastic debris was positive and so net autotrophic, whereas NCP in bulk seawater was close to zero. Scanning electron microscopy and metagenomic sequencing of plastic-attached communities revealed the dominance of a few metazoan taxa and a diverse assemblage of photoautotrophic and heterotrophic protists and bacteria. Bryozoa, Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominated all plastic particles, regardless of particle size. Bacteria inhabiting plastic were taxonomically distinct from the surrounding picoplankton and appeared well adapted to a surface-associated lifestyle. Genes with significantly higher abundances among plastic-attached bacteria included che genes, secretion system genes, and nifH genes, suggesting enrichment for chemotaxis, frequent cell-to-cell interactions, and nitrogen fixation. In aggregate, our findings suggest that plastic debris forms a habitat for complex microbial assemblages that have lifestyles, metabolic pathways, and biogeochemical activities that are distinct from those of free-living planktonic microbial communities. IMPORTANCE Marine plastic debris is a growing concern that has captured the general public’s attention. While the negative impacts of plastic debris on

  18. Diversity and Activity of Communities Inhabiting Plastic Debris in the North Pacific Gyre. (United States)

    Bryant, Jessica A; Clemente, Tara M; Viviani, Donn A; Fong, Allison A; Thomas, Kimberley A; Kemp, Paul; Karl, David M; White, Angelicque E; DeLong, Edward F


    Marine plastic debris has become a significant concern in ocean ecosystems worldwide. Little is known, however, about its influence on microbial community structure and function. In 2008, we surveyed microbial communities and metabolic activities in seawater and on plastic on an oceanographic expedition through the "great Pacific garbage patch." The concentration of plastic particles in surface seawater within different size classes (2 to 5 mm and >5 mm) ranged from 0.35 to 3.7 particles m -3 across sampling stations. These densities and the particle size distribution were consistent with previous values reported in the North Pacific Ocean. Net community oxygen production (NCP = gross primary production - community respiration) on plastic debris was positive and so net autotrophic, whereas NCP in bulk seawater was close to zero. Scanning electron microscopy and metagenomic sequencing of plastic-attached communities revealed the dominance of a few metazoan taxa and a diverse assemblage of photoautotrophic and heterotrophic protists and bacteria. Bryozoa , Cyanobacteria , Alphaproteobacteria , and Bacteroidetes dominated all plastic particles, regardless of particle size. Bacteria inhabiting plastic were taxonomically distinct from the surrounding picoplankton and appeared well adapted to a surface-associated lifestyle. Genes with significantly higher abundances among plastic-attached bacteria included che genes, secretion system genes, and nifH genes, suggesting enrichment for chemotaxis, frequent cell-to-cell interactions, and nitrogen fixation. In aggregate, our findings suggest that plastic debris forms a habitat for complex microbial assemblages that have lifestyles, metabolic pathways, and biogeochemical activities that are distinct from those of free-living planktonic microbial communities. IMPORTANCE Marine plastic debris is a growing concern that has captured the general public's attention. While the negative impacts of plastic debris on oceanic macrobiota

  19. Morphometric differences in debris flow and mixed flow fans in eastern Death Valley, CA (United States)

    Wasklewicz, T. A.; Whitworth, J.


    lengths of the channel and interfluve couplets and the percent pixels per unit area have been identified between the two fan groups. In general, shorter distances were found in the mixed flow fans. This finding can be attributed to primary and secondary erosional processes leading to a higher degree of dissection in the MF fan surfaces than was identified in the DF fans. The clast-rich deposits of the DF fan are more resistant to secondary erosional processes and overtopping of the levees likely leads to filling of older incised debris flow channels.

  20. Volumetric analysis and hydrologic characterization of a modern debris flow near Yucca Mountain, Nevada (United States)

    Coe, J.A.; Glancy, P.A.; Whitney, J.W.


    On July 21 or 22, 1984, debris flows triggered by rainfall occurred on the southern hillslope of Jake Ridge, about 6 km east of the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Rain gages near Jake Ridge recorded 65 mm and 69 mm on July 21, and 20 mm and 17 mm on July 22. Rates of rainfall intensity ranged up to 73 mm/h on the twenty-first, and 15 mm/h on the twenty-second. Digital elevation models with 2.0 m grid-node spacing, measured from pre-storm and post-storm aerial stereo-photographs, were used to map hillslope erosion and the downslope distribution of debris. Volumetric calculations indicate that about 7040 m3 of debris was redistributed on the 49,132 m2 hillslope study area during the two-day storm period. About 4580 m3 (65%) of the eroded sediment was deposited within the study area and the remaining 35% was deposited outside the study area in a short tributary to Fortymile Wash and in the wash itself. The maximum and mean depths of erosion in the study area were about 1.8 m and 5 cm, respectively. The mean depths of erosion on the upper and middle hillslope were 27 cm and 4 cm, respectively. The mean depth of deposition on the lower hillslope was 16 cm. Analysis of the values of cumulative precipitation in the context of the precipitation-frequency atlas of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration indicates that precipitation from the main storm on July 21 was more than double that expected, on average, once during a 100-year period. The relations of precipitation intensity/duration, developed from data recorded at a nearby precipitation gage, indicate a storm interval of 500 years or greater. The amount of erosion caused by such a storm is primarily dependent on three variables: storm intensity, development of the drainage network on the hillslope, and the amount of available colluvium. Additionally, the erosive ability of successive storms of equal intensity will decrease because such storms would tend to progressively isolate and reduce the amount of

  1. Marine debris in five national parks in Alaska. (United States)

    Polasek, L; Bering, J; Kim, H; Neitlich, P; Pister, B; Terwilliger, M; Nicolato, K; Turner, C; Jones, T


    Marine debris is a management issue with ecological and recreational impacts for agencies, especially on remote beaches not accessible by road. This project was implemented to remove and document marine debris from five coastal National Park Service units in Alaska. Approximately 80km of coastline were cleaned with over 10,000kg of debris collected. Marine debris was found at all 28 beaches surveyed. Hard plastics were found on every beach and foam was found at every beach except one. Rope/netting was the next most commonly found category, present at 23 beaches. Overall, plastic contributed to 60% of the total weight of debris. Rope/netting (14.6%) was a greater proportion of the weight from all beaches than foam (13.3%). Non-ferrous metal contributed the smallest amount of debris by weight (1.7%). The work forms a reference condition dataset of debris surveyed in the Western Arctic and the Gulf of Alaska within one season. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Active Removal of Large Debris: Electrical Propulsion Capabilities (United States)

    Billot Soccodato, Carole; Lorand, Anthony; Perrin, Veronique; Couzin, Patrice; FontdecabaBaig, Jordi


    The risk for current operational spacecraft or future market induced by large space debris, dead satellites or rocket bodies, in Low Earth Orbit has been identified several years ago. Many potential solutions and architectures are traded with a main objective of reducing cost per debris. Based on cost consideration, specially driven by launch cost, solutions constructed on multi debris capture capacities seem to be much affordable The recent technologic evolutions in electric propulsion and solar power generation can be used to combine high potential vehicles for debris removal. The present paper reports the first results of a study funded by CNES that addresses full electric solutions for large debris removal. Some analysis are currently in progress as the study will end in August. It compares the efficiency of in-orbit Active Removal of typical debris using electric propulsion The electric engine performances used in this analysis are demonstrated through a 2012/2013 PPS 5000 on-ground tests campaign. The traded missions are based on a launch in LEO, the possible vehicle architectures with capture means or contact less, the selection of deorbiting or reorbiting strategy. For contact less strategy, the ion-beam shepherd effect towards the debris problematic will be addressed. Vehicle architecture and performance of the overall system will be stated, showing the adequacy and the limits of each solution.

  3. Recent Developments in Space Debris Mitigation Policy and Practices (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    In recent years, emphasis has shifted from national efforts to control the space debris population to international ones. Here, too, great progress has been made, most notably by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) and the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) of the United Nations. Today, a firm international consensus is rapidly building on the principal space debris mitigation measures. The IADC is an association of the space agencies of ten countries (China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Russia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and the European Space Agency, representing 17 countries of which four (France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom) are also full IADC members. At the 17th meeting of the IADC in October 1999, a new Action Item (AI 17.2) was adopted to develop a set of consensus space debris mitigation guidelines. The purpose of the activity was to identify the most valuable space debris mitigation measures and to reach an international agreement on common directives. The IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines ( were formally adopted in October 2002 during the Second World Space Congress in Houston, Texas. Two years later a companion document, entitled Support to the IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines, was completed to provide background and clarification for the guidelines.

  4. On the debris-level origins of adhesive wear. (United States)

    Aghababaei, Ramin; Warner, Derek H; Molinari, Jean-François


    Every contacting surface inevitably experiences wear. Predicting the exact amount of material loss due to wear relies on empirical data and cannot be obtained from any physical model. Here, we analyze and quantify wear at the most fundamental level, i.e., wear debris particles. Our simulations show that the asperity junction size dictates the debris volume, revealing the origins of the long-standing hypothesized correlation between the wear volume and the real contact area. No correlation, however, is found between the debris volume and the normal applied force at the debris level. Alternatively, we show that the junction size controls the tangential force and sliding distance such that their product, i.e., the tangential work, is always proportional to the debris volume, with a proportionality constant of 1 over the junction shear strength. This study provides an estimation of the debris volume without any empirical factor, resulting in a wear coefficient of unity at the debris level. Discrepant microscopic and macroscopic wear observations and models are then contextualized on the basis of this understanding. This finding offers a way to characterize the wear volume in atomistic simulations and atomic force microscope wear experiments. It also provides a fundamental basis for predicting the wear coefficient for sliding rough contacts, given the statistics of junction clusters sizes.

  5. ORDEM2010 and MASTER-2009 Modeled Small Debris Population Comparison (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Flegel, S.


    The latest versions of the two premier orbital debris engineering models, NASA s ORDEM2010 and ESA s MASTER-2009, have been publicly released. Both models have gone through significant advancements since inception, and now represent the state-of-the-art in orbital debris knowledge of their respective agencies. The purpose of these models is to provide satellite designers/operators and debris researchers with reliable estimates of the artificial debris environment in near-Earth orbit. The small debris environment within the size range of 1 mm to 1 cm is of particular interest to both human and robotic spacecraft programs. These objects are much more numerous than larger trackable debris but are still large enough to cause significant, if not catastrophic, damage to spacecraft upon impact. They are also small enough to elude routine detection by existing observation systems (radar and telescope). Without reliable detection the modeling of these populations has always coupled theoretical origins with supporting observational data in different degrees. This paper details the 1 mm to 1 cm orbital debris populations of both ORDEM2010 and MASTER-2009; their sources (both known and presumed), current supporting data and theory, and methods of population analysis. Fluxes on spacecraft for chosen orbits are also presented and discussed within the context of each model.

  6. Constraints on Exoplanet System Architectures from Debris Disks (United States)

    Jang-Condell, Hannah; Chen, Christine H.; Mittal, Tushar; Nesvold, Erika; Kuchner, Marc J.; Manoj, P.; Watson, Dan; Lisse, Carey M.


    Debris disks are dusty disks around main sequence stars. Terrestrial planets may be forming in young debris disks with ages structure of debris disks could be an indicator of where planets have formed. We present an analysis of several members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association (Sco Cen) that host both debris disks and planets, including HD 95086, HD 106906, and HD 133803. These objects are about 15-17 Myr old. The thermal emission from the debris disks constrains the locations of the dust. The dust is typically interior to the directly imaged planets in the systems. If additional planets reside in these systems, their locations are constrained by the positions of the dust belts. Many debris disk systems in Sco Cen appear to be two-belt systems. The gap between the belts in each system is a likely location for additional planets. The detection of planets in debris disk systems provide clues about the planet formation process, giving insights into where, when and how planets form.

  7. Styrofoam debris as a potential carrier of mercury within ecosystems. (United States)

    Graca, Bożena; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Wrzesień, Patrycja; Zgrundo, Aleksandra


    The present paper falls within the trend of research into interactions between various pollutants emitted anthropogenically into the environment and focuses on mercury and styrofoam debris. The study covers part of the Southern Baltic's drainage area. Apart from styrofoam and beach sand, the research involved mosses, which are bioindicators of atmospheric metal pollution. The research has shown that mercury present in the environment becomes associated with styrofoam debris. The median for mercury concentrations in virgin styrofoam samples (0.23 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.)) and in beach sand samples (0.69 ng g(-1) d.w.) was an order of magnitude lower than in the styrofoam debris (5.20 ng g(-1) d.w.). The highest mercury content observed in styrofoam debris (3,863 ng g(-1) d.w.) exceeded the standards for bottom sediment and soil. The binding of mercury to styrofoam debris takes place in water, and presumably also through contact with the ground. A significant role in this process was played by biotic factors, such as the presence of biofilm and abiotic ones, such as solar radiation and the transformations of mercury forms related to it. As a result, mercury content in styrofoam debris underwent seasonal changes, peaking in summertime. Furthermore, the regional changes of mercury content in the studied debris seem to reflect the pollution levels of the environment.

  8. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.


    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  9. Herschel detects oxygen in the β Pictoris debris disk (United States)

    Brandeker, A.; Cataldi, G.; Olofsson, G.; Vandenbussche, B.; Acke, B.; Barlow, M. J.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Cohen, M.; Dent, W. R. F.; Dominik, C.; Di Francesco, J.; Fridlund, M.; Gear, W. K.; Glauser, A. M.; Greaves, J. S.; Harvey, P. M.; Heras, A. M.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Holland, W. S.; Huygen, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Leeks, S. J.; Lim, T. L.; Liseau, R.; Matthews, B. C.; Pantin, E.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Royer, P.; Sibthorpe, B.; Waelkens, C.; Walker, H. J.


    The young star β Pictoris is well known for its dusty debris disk produced through collisional grinding of planetesimals, kilometre-sized bodies in orbit around the star. In addition to dust, small amounts of gas are also known to orbit the star; this gas is likely the result of vaporisation of violently colliding dust grains. The disk is seen edge on and from previous absorption spectroscopy we know that the gas is very rich in carbon relative to other elements. The oxygen content has been more difficult to assess, however, with early estimates finding very little oxygen in the gas at a C/O ratio that is 20 × higher than the cosmic value. A C/O ratio that high is difficult to explain and would have far-reaching consequences for planet formation. Here we report on observations by the far-infrared space telescope Herschel, using PACS, of emission lines from ionised carbon and neutral oxygen. The detected emission from C+ is consistent withthat previously reported observed by the HIFI instrument on Herschel, while the emission from O is hard to explain without assuming a higher density region in the disk, perhaps in the shape of a clump or a dense torus required to sufficiently excite the O atoms. A possible scenario is that the C/O gas is produced by the same process responsible for the CO clump recently observed by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array in the disk and that the redistribution of the gas takes longer than previously assumed. A more detailed estimate of the C/O ratio and the mass of O will have to await better constraints on the C/O gas spatial distribution. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  10. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment. (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G; Moore, Charles J; van Franeker, Jan A; Moloney, Coleen L


    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infrequent surveys of the standing stock of litter on beaches provide crude estimates of debris types and abundance, but are biased by differential removal of litter items by beachcombing, cleanups and beach dynamics. Monitoring the accumulation of stranded debris provides an index of debris trends in adjacent waters, but is costly to undertake. At-sea sampling requires large sample sizes for statistical power to detect changes in abundance, given the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Another approach is to monitor the impacts of plastics. Seabirds and other marine organisms that accumulate plastics in their stomachs offer a cost-effective way to monitor the abundance and composition of small plastic litter. Changes in entanglement rates are harder to interpret, as they are sensitive to changes in population sizes of affected species. Monitoring waste disposal on ships and plastic debris levels in rivers and storm-water runoff is useful because it identifies the main sources of plastic debris entering the sea and can direct mitigation efforts. Different monitoring approaches are required to answer different questions, but attempts should be made to standardize approaches internationally.

  11. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G.; Moore, Charles J.; van Franeker, Jan A.; Moloney, Coleen L.


    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infrequent surveys of the standing stock of litter on beaches provide crude estimates of debris types and abundance, but are biased by differential removal of litter items by beachcombing, cleanups and beach dynamics. Monitoring the accumulation of stranded debris provides an index of debris trends in adjacent waters, but is costly to undertake. At-sea sampling requires large sample sizes for statistical power to detect changes in abundance, given the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Another approach is to monitor the impacts of plastics. Seabirds and other marine organisms that accumulate plastics in their stomachs offer a cost-effective way to monitor the abundance and composition of small plastic litter. Changes in entanglement rates are harder to interpret, as they are sensitive to changes in population sizes of affected species. Monitoring waste disposal on ships and plastic debris levels in rivers and storm-water runoff is useful because it identifies the main sources of plastic debris entering the sea and can direct mitigation efforts. Different monitoring approaches are required to answer different questions, but attempts should be made to standardize approaches internationally. PMID:19528052

  12. An Approach to Predict Debris Flow Average Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Cao


    Full Text Available Debris flow is one of the major threats for the sustainability of environmental and social development. The velocity directly determines the impact on the vulnerability. This study focuses on an approach using radial basis function (RBF neural network and gravitational search algorithm (GSA for predicting debris flow velocity. A total of 50 debris flow events were investigated in the Jiangjia gully. These data were used for building the GSA-based RBF approach (GSA-RBF. Eighty percent (40 groups of the measured data were selected randomly as the training database. The other 20% (10 groups of data were used as testing data. Finally, the approach was applied to predict six debris flow gullies velocities in the Wudongde Dam site area, where environmental conditions were similar to the Jiangjia gully. The modified Dongchuan empirical equation and the pulled particle analysis of debris flow (PPA approach were used for comparison and validation. The results showed that: (i the GSA-RBF predicted debris flow velocity values are very close to the measured values, which performs better than those using RBF neural network alone; (ii the GSA-RBF results and the MDEE results are similar in the Jiangjia gully debris flow velocities prediction, and GSA-RBF performs better; (iii in the study area, the GSA-RBF results are validated reliable; and (iv we could consider more variables in predicting the debris flow velocity by using GSA-RBF on the basis of measured data in other areas, which is more applicable. Because the GSA-RBF approach was more accurate, both the numerical simulation and the empirical equation can be taken into consideration for constructing debris flow mitigation works. They could be complementary and verified for each other.

  13. Mapping distribution and thickness of supraglacial debris in the Central Karakoram National Park: main features and implications to model glacier meltwater (United States)

    Minora, Umberto; Mayer, Christoph; Bocchiola, Daniele; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Lambrecht, Astrid; Vuillermoz, Elisa; smiraglia, claudio; diolaiuti, guglielmina


    Supraglacial debris plays a not negligible role in controlling magnitude and rates of buried ice melt (Østrem, 1959; Mattson et al., 1993). Knowledge on rock debris is essential to model ice melt (and consequently meltwater discharge) upon wide glacierized areas, as melt rates are mainly driven by debris thickness variability. This is particularly important for the Pamir-Himalaya-Karakoram area (PHK), where debris-covered glaciers are frequent (Smiraglia et al., 2007; Scherler et al., 2011) and where melt water from glaciers supports agriculture and hydropower production. By means of remote sensing techniques and field data, supraglacial debris can be detected, and then quantified in area and thickness. Supervised classifications of satellite imagery can be used to map debris on glaciers. They use different algorithms to cluster an image based on its pixel values, and Region Of Interests (ROIs) previously selected by the human operator. This can be used to obtain a supraglacial debris mask by which surface extension can be calculated. Moreover, kinetic surface temperature data derived from satellites (such as ASTER and Landsat), can be used to quantify debris thicknesses (Mihalcea et al., 2008). Ground Control Points (GCPs) are essential to validate the obtained debris thicknesses. We took the Central Karakoram National Park (CKNP) as a representative sample for PHK area. The CKNP is 12,000 km2 wide, with more than 700 glaciers, mostly debris covered (Minora et al., 2013). Among those we find some of the widest glaciers of the World (e.g: Baltoro). To improve the knowledge on these glaciers and to better model their melt and water discharge we proceeded as follows. Firstly we ran a Supervised Maximum Likelihood (SML) classification on 2001 and 2010 Landsat images to detect debris presence and distribution. Secondly we analyzed kinetic surface temperature (from Landsat) to map debris depth. This latter attempt took also advantage from field data of debris thickness

  14. Post-failure characteristics of weathered soils in Korea: determination of rheological thresholds and debris flow mobility (United States)

    Jeong, Sueng-Won; Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Im, Sang-June


    Landslides in Korea are mainly triggered by localized summer heavy rainfall. The water infiltration, wetting and fluidization process are the key roles in slope instability. Mechanically, a loss in soil strength of the soil at weakend layer takes place as a result of water infiltration. The transition from slides to flows can be defined by the variation in strength parameters. In the flowing stage with large volume of sediments, debris flow impact may be governed by the rheology of the failed mass. We performed the rheological tests using the ball-measuring and vane-inserted rheometer and examined a possible threshold of landslides on mudstone, weathered granitic and gneissic soils in the mountainous region of Korea. The materials examined exhibited the shear-thinning behavior, which is the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rates. There are positive relationships between liquidity index and rheological values (i.e., yield stress and viscosities). However, the difference in rheological properties is of significance for given shear rates. The effect of wall-slip in different geometries is emphasized. This work is also concerned with post-failure characteristics of rainfall-induced landslides that occur in Chuncheon, Miryang and Seoul debris flow occurrence in 2011. They are mainly composed of gneissic, sedimentary and gneissic weathered soils. The rheological properties is helpful to predict the mobilization of fine-laden debris flows. In the relationship between shear stress and shear rate, one of simplest rheological models, i.e., the ideal Bingham fluid model, is selected to examine the flow pattern and depositional features of debris flows. A comparison will be made for the debris flow occurence on weahtered soils in Korea.

  15. A novel integrated method to describe dust and fine supraglacial debris and their effects on ice albedo: the case study of Forni Glacier, Italian Alps (United States)

    Azzoni, R. S.; Senese, A.; Zerboni, A.; Maugeri, M.; Smiraglia, C.; Diolaiuti, G. A.


    We investigated the characteristics of sparse and fine debris coverage at the glacier melting surface and its relation to ice albedo. In spite of the abundant literature dealing with dust and black carbon deposition on glacier accumulation areas (i.e.: on snow and firn), few studies that describe the distribution and properties of fine and discontinuous debris and black carbon at the melting surface of glaciers are available. Furthermore, guidelines are needed to standardize field samplings and lab analyses thus permitting comparisons among different glaciers. We developed a protocol to (i) sample fine and sparse supraglacial debris and dust, (ii) quantify their surface coverage and the covering rate, (iii) describe composition and sedimentological properties, (iv) measure ice albedo and (v) identify the relationship between ice albedo and fine debris coverage. The procedure was tested on the Forni Glacier surface (northern Italy), in summer 2011, 2012 and 2013, when the fine debris and dust presence had marked variability in space and time (along the glacier tongue and from the beginning to the end of summer) thus influencing ice albedo: in particular the natural logarithm of albedo was found to depend on the percentage of glacier surface covered by debris. Debris and dust analyses indicate generally a local origin (from nesting rockwalls) and the organic content was locally high. Nevertheless the finding of some cenospheres suggests an anthropic contribution to the superficial dust as well. Moreover, the effect of liquid precipitation on ice albedo was not negligible, but short lasting (from 1 to 4 day long), thus indicating that also other processes affect ice albedo and ice melt rates and then some attention has to be spent analysing frequency and duration of summer rainfalls for better describing albedo and melt variability.

  16. Anthropogenic effect on avalanche and debris flow activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sokratov


    Full Text Available The paper presents examples of the change in snow avalanches and debris flows activity due to the anthropogenic pressure on vegetation and relief. The changes in dynamical characteristics of selected snow avalanches and debris flows due to the anthropogenic activity are quantified. The conclusion is made that the anthropogenic effects on the snow avalanches and debris flows activity are more pronounced than the possible effects of the climate change. The necessity is expressed on the unavoidable changes of the natural environment as the result of a construction and of use of the constructed infrastructure to be account for in corresponding planning of the protection measures.

  17. Global tracking of space debris via CPHD and consensus (United States)

    Wei, Baishen; Nener, Brett; Liu, Weifeng; Ma, Liang


    Space debris tracking is of great importance for safe operation of spacecraft. This paper presents an algorithm that achieves global tracking of space debris with a multi-sensor network. The sensor network has unknown and possibly time-varying topology. A consensus algorithm is used to effectively counteract the effects of data incest. Gaussian Mixture-Cardinalized Probability Hypothesis Density (GM-CPHD) filtering is used to estimate the state of the space debris. As an example of the method, 45 clusters of sensors are used to achieve global tracking. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulation experiments.

  18. X-raying the AU Microscopii debris disk


    Schneider, P. C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.


    AU Mic is a young, nearby X-ray active M-dwarf with an edge-on debris disk. Debris disk are the successors of the gaseous disks usually surrounding pre-main sequence stars which form after the first few Myrs of their host stars' lifetime, when - presumably - also the planet formation takes place. Since X-ray transmission spectroscopy is sensitive to the chemical composition of the absorber, features in the stellar spectrum of AU Mic caused by its debris disk can in principle be detected. The ...

  19. Entanglement of New Zealand fur seals in man-made debris at Kaikoura, New Zealand. (United States)

    Boren, Laura J; Morrissey, Mike; Muller, Chris G; Gemmell, Neil J


    New Zealand fur seals in the Kaikoura region breed near a town with expanding tourist and fishing industries and commonly come ashore entangled in nets and plastic debris. However, the rate at which entanglement occurs was previously unknown. A decade of Department of Conservation seal callout data was analysed to determine the level of entanglement in the region and the most common debris type. Monitoring of adult female fur seals released from entanglement provided information on the potential for serious wounds to heal and survivorship of released individuals. Entanglement rates of pinnipeds in Kaikoura are some of the highest reported world-wide (average range: 0.6-2.8%) with green trawl net (42%), and plastic strapping tape (31%) together contributing the most to debris types. Nearly half of the reported entangled seals are successfully released (43%) and post-release monitoring shows that with appropriate intervention the chance of an individual surviving even with a significant entanglement wound is high. Our study demonstrates that while entanglement in the region is high, a successful intervention protocol may help reduce the potential for entanglement-related mortality in the region.

  20. Revealing Asymmetries in the HD181327 Debris Disk: A Recent Massive Collision or Interstellar Medium Warping (United States)

    Stark, Christopher C.; Schneider, Glenn; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Debes, John H.; Grady, Carol A.; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kuchner, Marc J.


    New multi-roll coronagraphic images of the HD181327 debris disk obtained using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope reveal the debris ring in its entirety at high signal-to-noise ratio and unprecedented spatial resolution. We present and apply a new multi-roll image processing routine to identify and further remove quasi-static point-spread function-subtraction residuals and quantify systematic uncertainties. We also use a new iterative image deprojection technique to constrain the true disk geometry and aggressively remove any surface brightness asymmetries that can be explained without invoking dust density enhancements/ deficits. The measured empirical scattering phase function for the disk is more forward scattering than previously thought and is not well-fit by a Henyey-Greenstein function. The empirical scattering phase function varies with stellocentric distance, consistent with the expected radiation pressured-induced size segregation exterior to the belt. Within the belt, the empirical scattering phase function contradicts unperturbed debris ring models, suggesting the presence of an unseen planet. The radial profile of the flux density is degenerate with a radially varying scattering phase function; therefore estimates of the ring's true width and edge slope may be highly uncertain.We detect large scale asymmetries in the disk, consistent with either the recent catastrophic disruption of a body with mass greater than 1% the mass of Pluto, or disk warping due to strong interactions with the interstellar medium.

  1. NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model ORDEM2008 (Beta Version) (United States)

    Stansbery, Eugene G.; Krisko, Paula H.


    This is an interim document intended to accompany the beta-release of the ORDEM2008 model. As such it provides the user with a guide for its use, a list of its capabilities, a brief summary of model development, and appendices included to educate the user as to typical runtimes for different orbit configurations. More detailed documentation will be delivered with the final product. ORDEM2008 supersedes NASA's previous model - ORDEM2000. The availability of new sensor and in situ data, the re-analysis of older data, and the development of new analytical techniques, has enabled the construction of this more comprehensive and sophisticated model. Integrated with the software is an upgraded graphical user interface (GUI), which uses project-oriented organization and provides the user with graphical representations of numerous output data products. These range from the conventional average debris size vs. flux magnitude for chosen analysis orbits, to the more complex color-contoured two-dimensional (2-D) directional flux diagrams in terms of local spacecraft pitch and yaw.

  2. The deep sea is a major sink for microplastic debris (United States)

    Woodall, Lucy C.; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Paterson, Gordon L.J.; Coppock, Rachel; Sleight, Victoria; Calafat, Antonio; Rogers, Alex D.; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.; Thompson, Richard C.


    Marine debris, mostly consisting of plastic, is a global problem, negatively impacting wildlife, tourism and shipping. However, despite the durability of plastic, and the exponential increase in its production, monitoring data show limited evidence of concomitant increasing concentrations in marine habitats. There appears to be a considerable proportion of the manufactured plastic that is unaccounted for in surveys tracking the fate of environmental plastics. Even the discovery of widespread accumulation of microscopic fragments (microplastics) in oceanic gyres and shallow water sediments is unable to explain the missing fraction. Here, we show that deep-sea sediments are a likely sink for microplastics. Microplastic, in the form of fibres, was up to four orders of magnitude more abundant (per unit volume) in deep-sea sediments from the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean than in contaminated sea-surface waters. Our results show evidence for a large and hitherto unknown repository of microplastics. The dominance of microfibres points to a previously underreported and unsampled plastic fraction. Given the vastness of the deep sea and the prevalence of microplastics at all sites we investigated, the deep-sea floor appears to provide an answer to the question—where is all the plastic? PMID:26064573

  3. Uncertainty propagation for statistical impact prediction of space debris (United States)

    Hoogendoorn, R.; Mooij, E.; Geul, J.


    Predictions of the impact time and location of space debris in a decaying trajectory are highly influenced by uncertainties. The traditional Monte Carlo (MC) method can be used to perform accurate statistical impact predictions, but requires a large computational effort. A method is investigated that directly propagates a Probability Density Function (PDF) in time, which has the potential to obtain more accurate results with less computational effort. The decaying trajectory of Delta-K rocket stages was used to test the methods using a six degrees-of-freedom state model. The PDF of the state of the body was propagated in time to obtain impact-time distributions. This Direct PDF Propagation (DPP) method results in a multi-dimensional scattered dataset of the PDF of the state, which is highly challenging to process. No accurate results could be obtained, because of the structure of the DPP data and the high dimensionality. Therefore, the DPP method is less suitable for practical uncontrolled entry problems and the traditional MC method remains superior. Additionally, the MC method was used with two improved uncertainty models to obtain impact-time distributions, which were validated using observations of true impacts. For one of the two uncertainty models, statistically more valid impact-time distributions were obtained than in previous research.

  4. Long-Term Evolution of the Aerosol Debris Cloud Produced by the 2009 Impact on Jupiter (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Orton, G. S.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Fletcher, L. N.; Garcia-Melendo, E.; Gomez-Forrellad, J. M.; de Pater, I.; Wong, M.; Hammel. H. B.; hide


    We present a study of the long-term evolution of the cloud of aerosols produced in the atmosphere of Jupiter by the impact of an object on 19 July 2009. The work is based on images obtained during 5 months from the impact to 31 December 2009 taken in visible continuum wavelengths and from 20 July 2009 to 28 May 2010 taken in near-infrared deep hydrogen-methane absorption bands at 2.1-2.3 micron. The impact cloud expanded zonally from approximately 5000 km (July 19) to 225,000 km (29 October, about 180 deg in longitude), remaining meridionally localized within a latitude band from 53.5 deg S to 61.5 deg S planetographic latitude. During the first two months after its formation the site showed heterogeneous structure with 500-1000 km sized embedded spots. Later the reflectivity of the debris field became more homogeneous due to clump mergers. The cloud was mainly dispersed in longitude by the dominant zonal winds and their meridional shear, during the initial stages, localized motions may have been induced by thermal perturbation caused by the impact's energy deposition. The tracking of individual spots within the impact cloud shows that the westward jet at 56.5 deg S latitude increases its eastward velocity with altitude above the tropopause by 5- 10 m/s. The corresponding vertical wind shear is low, about 1 m/s per scale height in agreement with previous thermal wind estimations. We found evidence for discrete localized meridional motions with speeds of 1-2 m/s. Two numerical models are used to simulate the observed cloud dispersion. One is a pure advection of the aerosols by the winds and their shears. The other uses the EPIC code, a nonlinear calculation of the evolution of the potential vorticity field generated by a heat pulse that simulates the impact. Both models reproduce the observed global structure of the cloud and the dominant zonal dispersion of the aerosols, but not the details of the cloud morphology. The reflectivity of the impact cloud decreased

  5. A Comparison of the SOCIT and DebriSat Experiments (United States)

    Ausay, Erick; Blake, Brandon; Boyle, Colleen; Cornejo, Alex; Horn, Alexa; Palma, Kirsten; Pistella, Frank; Sato, Taishi; Todd, Naromi; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; hide


    This paper explores the differences between, and shares the lessons learned from, two hypervelocity impact experiments critical to the update of orbital debris environment models. The procedures and processes of the fourth Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT) were analyzed and related to the ongoing DebriSat experiment. SOCIT was the first hypervelocity impact test designed specifically for satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It targeted a 1960's U.S. Navy satellite, from which data was obtained to update pre-existing NASA and DOD breakup models. DebriSat is a comprehensive update to these satellite breakup models- necessary since the material composition and design of satellites have evolved from the time of SOCIT. Specifically, DebriSat utilized carbon fiber, a composite not commonly used in satellites during the construction of the US Navy Transit satellite used in SOCIT. Although DebriSat is an ongoing activity, multiple points of difference are drawn between the two projects. Significantly, the hypervelocity tests were conducted with two distinct satellite models and test configurations, including projectile and chamber layout. While both hypervelocity tests utilized soft catch systems to minimize fragment damage to its post-impact shape, SOCIT only covered 65% of the projected area surrounding the satellite, whereas, DebriSat was completely surrounded cross-range and downrange by the foam panels to more completely collect fragments. Furthermore, utilizing lessons learned from SOCIT, DebriSat's post-impact processing varies in methodology (i.e., fragment collection, measurement, and characterization). For example, fragment sizes were manually determined during the SOCIT experiment, while DebriSat utilizes automated imaging systems for measuring fragments, maximizing repeatability while minimizing the potential for human error. In addition to exploring these variations in methodologies and processes, this paper also presents the

  6. Impact of the New Optimal Rules for Arbitration of Disputers Relating to Space Debris Controversies (United States)

    Force, Melissa K.


    The mechanisms and procedures for settlement of disputes arising from space debris collision damage, such as that suffered by the Russian Cosmos and US Iridium satellites in 2009, are highly political, nonbinding and unpredictable - all of which contributes to the uncertainty that increases the costs of financing and insuring those endeavors that take place in near-Earth space, especially in Low Earth Orbit. Dispute settlement mechanisms can be found in the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, which provides for consultations in cases involving potentially harmful interference with activities of States parties, and in the 1972 Liability Convention which permits but does not require States - not non-governmental entities - to pursue claims in a resolution process that is nonbinding (unless otherwise agreed.) There are soft- law mechanisms to control the growth of space debris, such as the voluntary 2008 United Nations Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines, and international law and the principles of equity and justice generally provide reparation to restore a person, State or organization to the condition which would have existed if damage had not occurred, but only if all agree to a specific tribunal or international court; even then, parties may be bound by the result only if agreed and enforcement of the award internationally remains uncertain. In all, the dispute resolution process for damage resulting from inevitable future damage from space debris collisions is highly unsatisfactory. However, the Administrative Council of the Permanent Court of Arbitration's recently adopted Optional Rules for the Arbitration of Disputes Relating to Outer Space Activities are, as of yet, untested, and this article will provide an overview of the process, explore the ways in which they fill in gaps in the previous patchwork of systems and analyze the benefits and shortcomings of the new Outer Space Optional Rules.

  7. Radial Surface Density Profiles of Gas and Dust in the Debris Disk around 49 Ceti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, A. Meredith; Lieman-Sifry, Jesse; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Daley, Cail M. [Department of Astronomy, Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Roberge, Aki [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kóspál, Ágnes; Moór, Attila; Ábrahám, Peter [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Kamp, Inga [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wilner, David J.; Andrews, Sean M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kastner, Joel H., E-mail: [Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)


    We present ∼0.″4 resolution images of CO(3–2) and associated continuum emission from the gas-bearing debris disk around the nearby A star 49 Ceti, observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We analyze the ALMA visibilities in tandem with the broadband spectral energy distribution to measure the radial surface density profiles of dust and gas emission from the system. The dust surface density decreases with radius between ∼100 and 310 au, with a marginally significant enhancement of surface density at a radius of ∼110 au. The SED requires an inner disk of small grains in addition to the outer disk of larger grains resolved by ALMA. The gas disk exhibits a surface density profile that increases with radius, contrary to most previous spatially resolved observations of circumstellar gas disks. While ∼80% of the CO flux is well described by an axisymmetric power-law disk in Keplerian rotation about the central star, residuals at ∼20% of the peak flux exhibit a departure from axisymmetry suggestive of spiral arms or a warp in the gas disk. The radial extent of the gas disk (∼220 au) is smaller than that of the dust disk (∼300 au), consistent with recent observations of other gas-bearing debris disks. While there are so far only three broad debris disks with well characterized radial dust profiles at millimeter wavelengths, 49 Ceti’s disk shows a markedly different structure from two radially resolved gas-poor debris disks, implying that the physical processes generating and sculpting the gas and dust are fundamentally different.

  8. Roads at risk: traffic detours from debris flows in southern Norway (United States)

    Meyer, N. K.; Schwanghart, W.; Korup, O.; Nadim, F.


    Globalisation and interregional exchange of people, goods, and services has boosted the importance of and reliance on all kinds of transport networks. The linear structure of road networks is especially sensitive to natural hazards. In southern Norway, steep topography and extreme weather events promote frequent traffic disruption caused by debris flows. Topographic susceptibility and trigger frequency maps serve as input into a hazard appraisal at the scale of first-order catchments to quantify the impact of debris flows on the road network in terms of a failure likelihood of each link connecting two network vertices, e.g. road junctions. We compute total additional traffic loads as a function of traffic volume and excess distance, i.e. the extra length of an alternative path connecting two previously disrupted network vertices using a shortest-path algorithm. Our risk metric of link failure is the total additional annual traffic load, expressed as vehicle kilometres, because of debris-flow-related road closures. We present two scenarios demonstrating the impact of debris flows on the road network and quantify the associated path-failure likelihood between major cities in southern Norway. The scenarios indicate that major routes crossing the central and north-western part of the study area are associated with high link-failure risk. Yet options for detours on major routes are manifold and incur only little additional costs provided that drivers are sufficiently well informed about road closures. Our risk estimates may be of importance to road network managers and transport companies relying on speedy delivery of services and goods.

  9. Direct tropospheric transport of debris from nuclear weapon detonations at the Semipalatinsk test site to Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendel, Cato C.; Oughton, Deborah H.; Lind, Ole Christian; Skipperud, Lindis; Salbu, Brit [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Fifield, L. Keith; Tims, Stephen G. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT0200 (Australia); Bartnicki, Jerzy [Norwegian Meteorological institute (, Oslo (Norway); Hoeibraaten, Steinar [Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI), Kjeller (Norway)


    During 7.11.1962 through 13.11.1962 a wave of highly elevated gross beta activities were registered at surveillance air filter stations situated in different regions of Norway. A selection of air filters collected daily during this time period, was screened for radioactive particles using digital autoradiography and analysed with respect to the concentrations and atom ratios of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Elevated concentrations of {sup 236}U (1.4-20.1 nBq m{sup -3}) and {sup 239+240}Pu (5.6-782 μBq m{sup -3}) were found to be in good correlation with the observed gross beta activities (R{sup 2}>0.9), indicating the presence of fresh fallout from nuclear weapon detonations. The digital autoradiography images demonstrated the presence of radioactive particles in the filters. Low {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu (0.0517-0.083), {sup 241}Pu/{sup 239}Pu (0.00025-0.00062) and {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu (0.0188-0.046) atom ratios, characteristic of close-in and tropospheric fallout, were observed in filters collected during this incidence. Atmospheric transport modelling (NOAA HYSPLIT-4) using real-time meteorological data confirmed that long range transport to Norway of radioactive debris, including particles, from detonations 7 - 12 days earlier at the Semipalatinsk test site, Kazakhstan during this period was plausible. The present work shows that direct tropospheric transport of fallout from atmospheric nuclear detonations periodically may have had much larger influence than previously anticipated on radionuclide air concentrations and deposition at locations far from the test site. (authors)

  10. Frozen debris lobes, permafrost slope instability, and a potential infrastructure hazard in the south-central Brooks Range of Alaska (United States)

    Daanen, R. P.; Darrow, M.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.


    Here we report on investigations carried out at unusual debris mass-movement features (frozen debris lobes) on permafrost slopes in the south central portion of the Brooks Range of northern Alaska. The features under investigation are located in mountainous terrain near the southern border of continuous permafrost. The frozen debris lobes consist mainly of boulders, cobles, platy gravel sand and silt frozen debris derived from weathering mountain tops. The general dimensions of these lobes are either lobate or tongue shaped with widths up to 500 m and lengths up to 1200 m. In accumulation zones where slopes converge, the debris slowly moves as solifluction lobes, mud flows and potentially sliding toward the valley. These features were previously referred to as stable rock glaciers in the past, as evidenced by a dense cover of vegetation, and exhibiting no known downslope movement. Our investigations however, have shown that these features are indeed moving downslope as a result of creep, slumping, viscous flow, blockfall and leaching of fines in the summer; and in cold seasons by creep and sliding of frozen sediment slabs. Movement indicators observed in the field include toppling trees, slumps and scarps, detachment slides, striation marks on frozen sediment slabs, recently buried trees and other vegetation, mudflows, and large cracks in the lobe surface. Ground-based measurements on one frozen debris-lobe over three years (2008-2010) revealed average movement rates of approximately 1 cm day-1, which is substantially larger than rates measured in historic aerial photography from the 1950s to 1980s. Current observations , through lidar, ifsar, insar and ground based measurements using boreholes, geophysics and repeat photography of these features show an increase in movement activity that could be the result of rising summer temperatures in the region. Warming of ice rich permafrost slopes and frozen debris lobes in the Brooks Range pose a direct threat to the

  11. Corporate social responsibility in marine plastic debris governance. (United States)

    Landon-Lane, Micah


    This paper explores the governance characteristics of marine plastic debris, some of the factors underpinning its severity, and examines the possibility of harnessing corporate social responsibility (CSR) to manage plastic use within the contextual attitudes of a contemporary global society. It argues that international and domestic law alone are insufficient to resolve the "wicked problem" of marine plastic debris, and investigates the potential of the private sector, through the philosophy of CSR, to assist in reducing the amount and impacts of marine plastic debris. To illustrate how CSR could minimise marine plastic pollution, an industry-targeted code of conduct was developed. Applying CSR would be most effective if implemented in conjunction with facilitating governance frameworks, such as supportive governmental regulation and non-governmental partnerships. This study maintains that management policies must be inclusive of all stakeholders if they are to match the scale and severity of the marine plastic debris issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spiders (Araneae of stony debris in North Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Růžička, Vlastimil


    Full Text Available The arachnofauna was studied at five stony debris sites in northern Bohemia. In Central Europe, the northern and montane species inhabiting cold places live not only on mountain tops and peat bogs but also on the lower edges of boulder debris, where air streaming through the system of inner compartments gives rise to an exceedingly cold microclimate. At such cold sites, spiders can live either on bare stones (Bathyphantes simillimus, Wubanoides uralensis, or in the rich layers of moss and lichen (Diplocentria bidentata. Kratochviliella bicapitata exhibits a diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on the tree bark. Latithorax faustus and Theonoe minutissima display diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on peat bogs. The occurence of the species Scotina celans in the Czech Republic was documented for the first time.

  13. Statistical interpretation of chemical evidence pertaining to fire debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopatka, M.


    Forensic examination of fire debris is a notoriously difficult analytical task due to the complexity and variability of samples encountered. The development of increasingly sophisticated analytical instrumentation facilitates greater sensitivity while drastically increasing the abundance of data

  14. Space Debris - Evaluation of risk perception and countermeasures (United States)

    Belviso, L.

    The problem of Space Debris not only belongs to purely technical domain Although the main effort is to establish legal background to handle with possible accident caused by space debris as well as finding countermeasures another relevant problem is the perception of risk by both general public and space operators The main objective of this paper concerns the analysis and comparison of real and perceived risk related to space debris in order to gives useful outputs for decision makers in both public and private sector of space operators A correct evaluation of the real risk deriving from space debris will be particularly useful in the next years to correctly evaluate launch and operational phases of commercial satellites as well as possible countermeasures to avoid or limitate damages In the public sector a correct evaluation of risk will represents an extremely useful tool to handle crisis management and promote correct information on space

  15. Supraglacial Ponds Regulate Runoff From Himalayan Debris-Covered Glaciers (United States)

    Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Porter, Philip R.; Rowan, Ann V.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Gibson, Morgan J.; Bridge, Jonathan W.; Watson, C. Scott; Hubbard, Alun; Glasser, Neil F.


    Meltwater and runoff from glaciers in High Mountain Asia is a vital freshwater resource for one-fifth of the Earth's population. Between 13% and 36% of the region's glacierized areas exhibit surface debris cover and associated supraglacial ponds whose hydrological buffering roles remain unconstrained. We present a high-resolution meltwater hydrograph from the extensively debris-covered Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, spanning a 7 month period in 2014. Supraglacial ponds and accompanying debris cover modulate proglacial discharge by acting as transient and evolving reservoirs. Diurnally, the supraglacial pond system may store >23% of observed mean daily discharge, with mean recession constants ranging from 31 to 108 h. Given projections of increased debris cover and supraglacial pond extent across High Mountain Asia, we conclude that runoff regimes may become progressively buffered by the presence of supraglacial reservoirs. Incorporation of these processes is critical to improve predictions of the region's freshwater resource availability and cascading environmental effects downstream.

  16. K-Basins debris removal equipment - test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkoff, C.C.


    An undetermined amount of debris remains in the K-Basins which must be removed. Due to the different types of debris that will be removed, a variety of tools will be required to complete this project. This test plan gives s broad scope of the requirements that will be used for testing equipment for K-Basin debris removal. The equipment tested will be used in a radioactive environment. The equipment tested will be used to retrieve, cut, clean, and package debris from both K West and K East Basins. Testing is typically divided into six primary categories: development testing, acceptance testing, qualification testing, pre-operational testing, operational testing, and production/process testing

  17. Recent advances in modeling landslides and debris flows

    CERN Document Server


    Landslides and debris flows belong to the most dangerous natural hazards in many parts of the world. Despite intensive research, these events continue to result in human suffering, property losses, and environmental degradation every year. Better understanding of the mechanisms and processes of landslides and debris flows will help make reliable predictions, develop mitigation strategies and reduce vulnerability of infrastructure. This book presents contributions to the workshop on Recent Developments in the Analysis, Monitoring and Forecast of Landslides and Debris Flow, in Vienna, Austria, September 9, 2013. The contributions cover a broad spectrum of topics from material behavior, physical modelling over numerical simulation to applications and case studies. The workshop is a joint event of three research projects funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Program: MUMOLADE (Multiscale modelling of landslides and debris flows,, REVENUES (Numerical Analysis of Slopes with V...

  18. Space debris and other threats from outer space

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N


    The mounting problem of space debris in low earth orbit and its threat to the operation of application satellites has been increasingly recognized as space activities increase. The efforts of the Inter Agency Space Debris Coordinating Committee (IADC) and UN COPUS have now led to international guidelines to mitigate the creation of new debris. This book discusses the technical studies being developed for active removal processes and otherwise mitigating problems of space debris, particularly in low earth orbit. This book also considers threats to space systems and the Earth that comes from natural causes such as asteroids, coronal mass ejections, and radiation. After more than half a century of space applications and explorations, the time has come to consider ways to provide sustainability for long-term space activities. 

  19. Scaling and design of landslide and debris-flow experiments (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.


    Scaling plays a crucial role in designing experiments aimed at understanding the behavior of landslides, debris flows, and other geomorphic phenomena involving grain-fluid mixtures. Scaling can be addressed by using dimensional analysis or – more rigorously – by normalizing differential equations that describe the evolving dynamics of the system. Both of these approaches show that, relative to full-scale natural events, miniaturized landslides and debris flows exhibit disproportionately large effects of viscous shear resistance and cohesion as well as disproportionately small effects of excess pore-fluid pressure that is generated by debris dilation or contraction. This behavioral divergence grows in proportion to H3, where H is the thickness of a moving mass. Therefore, to maximize geomorphological relevance, experiments with wet landslides and debris flows must be conducted at the largest feasible scales. Another important consideration is that, unlike stream flows, landslides and debris flows accelerate from statically balanced initial states. Thus, no characteristic macroscopic velocity exists to guide experiment scaling and design. On the other hand, macroscopic gravity-driven motion of landslides and debris flows evolves over a characteristic time scale (L/g)1/2, where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration and L is the characteristic length of the moving mass. Grain-scale stress generation within the mass occurs on a shorter time scale, H/(gL)1/2, which is inversely proportional to the depth-averaged material shear rate. A separation of these two time scales exists if the criterion H/L experiments can be used to study some details of landslide and debris-flow behavior but cannot be used to study macroscopic landslide or debris-flow dynamics.

  20. Development and Flight Demonstration of Space Debris Monitor (SDM) (United States)

    Kitazawa, Yukihito; Hanada, Toshiya; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Kobayashi, Masanori; Sakurai, Akira; Yasaka, Tetsuo; Funakoshi, Kunihiro; Hasegawa, Sunao; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; Kimoto, Yugo; Okudaira, Osamu; Kamiya, Koki; Nakamura, Maki


    The space debris monitor (SDM) is a large-area impact sensor for in situ measurements of micro-meteoroids and space debris of the sub-millimeter to millimeter size in the near-Earth space environment. These meteoroid and debris particles are very small to be detected by ground-based observations (radars and optical telescopes) but are sufficiently large to cause serious damage to spacecraft equipment in the low Earth orbit region. The nominal detection area of the SDM is 0.1 m^2 (0.35 m × 0.3 m), but its dimensions can be easily modified to accommodate different SDM constraints. The SDM is made from a flexible printed circuit, which is produced from a thin film of a nonconductive material (such as polyimide) on which thin conductive stripes are formed in parallel. The stripe width is approximately 50 μm, and the spatial separation is approximately 100 μm, as shown in Figure 1. When a micro-debris particle with an effective diameter near to or larger than the spatial separation of the stripes (here approximately 100 μm) collides with the sensor film at a velocity sufficient to penetrate it, one or more of the stripes are cut and become nonconductive. Debris impacts can thus be detected by monitoring the electrical conductivity (resistivity) of the stripes. This sensor system can measure the size of the incident micro-debris particles by detecting the number of severed stripes. The measurement concept is registered as a patent in many countries. The first SDM was launched with HTV-5 on August 19, 2015 and represented the world's first micro-debris measurement demonstration experiment to be conducted on the ISS using the concept of conductive (resistive) strip lines for real-time debris detection.

  1. Environmental Assessment for Airborne Laser Debris Management Vandenberg AFB, California (United States)


    only a subspecies of the green sea turtle, is confined to the eastern Pacific. The species is protected in the Galapagos Islands and is nominally... Galapagos Islands have been subjected to severe challenges by settlers and fishermen. Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta) The loggerhead sea...debris disposal actions, LFTS target missile debris is not anticipated to reach the shore or the Channel Islands . However, shore evaluations would be

  2. Investigation of debris bed formation, spreading and coolability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, P.; Konovalenko, A.; Grishchenko, D.; Yakush, S.; Basso, S.; Lubchenko, N.; Karbojian, A.


    The work is motivated by the severe accident management strategy adopted in Nordic type BWRs. It is assumed that core melt ejected from the vessel will fragment, quench and form a coolable debris bed in a deep water pool below the vessel. In this work we consider phenomena relevant to the debris bed formation and coolability. Several DEFOR-A (Debris Bed Formation - Agglomeration) tests have been carried out with new corium melt material and a melt releasing nozzle mockup. The influence of the melt material, melt superheat, jet free fall height on the (i) faction of agglomerated debris, (ii) particle size distribution, (iii) ablation/plugging of the nozzle mockup has been addressed. Results of the DECOSIM (Debris Coolability Simulator) code validation against available COOLOCE data are presented in the report. The dependence of DHF on system pressure from COOLOCE experiments can be reproduced quite accurately if either the effective particle diameter or debris bed porosity is increased. For a cylindrical debris bed, good agreement is achieved in DECOSIM simulations for the particle diameter 0.89 mm and porosity 0.4. The results obtained are consistent with MEWA simulation where larger particle diameters and porosities were found to be necessary to reproduce the experimental data on DHF. It is instructive to note that results of DHF prediction are in better agreement with POMECO-HT data obtained for the same particles. It is concluded that further clarification of the discrepancies between different experiments and model predictions. In total 13 exploratory tests were carried out in PDS (particulate debris spreading) facility to clarify potential influence of the COOLOCE (VTT) facility heaters and TCs on particle self-leveling process. Results of the preliminary analysis suggest that there is no significant influence of the pins on self-leveling, at least for the air superficial velocities ranging from 0.17 up to 0.52 m/s. Further confirmatory tests might be needed

  3. Investigation of debris bed formation, spreading and coolability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, P.; Konovalenko, A.; Grishchenko, D.; Yakush, S.; Basso, S.; Lubchenko, N.; Karbojian, A. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH. Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The work is motivated by the severe accident management strategy adopted in Nordic type BWRs. It is assumed that core melt ejected from the vessel will fragment, quench and form a coolable debris bed in a deep water pool below the vessel. In this work we consider phenomena relevant to the debris bed formation and coolability. Several DEFOR-A (Debris Bed Formation - Agglomeration) tests have been carried out with new corium melt material and a melt releasing nozzle mockup. The influence of the melt material, melt superheat, jet free fall height on the (i) faction of agglomerated debris, (ii) particle size distribution, (iii) ablation/plugging of the nozzle mockup has been addressed. Results of the DECOSIM (Debris Coolability Simulator) code validation against available COOLOCE data are presented in the report. The dependence of DHF on system pressure from COOLOCE experiments can be reproduced quite accurately if either the effective particle diameter or debris bed porosity is increased. For a cylindrical debris bed, good agreement is achieved in DECOSIM simulations for the particle diameter 0.89 mm and porosity 0.4. The results obtained are consistent with MEWA simulation where larger particle diameters and porosities were found to be necessary to reproduce the experimental data on DHF. It is instructive to note that results of DHF prediction are in better agreement with POMECO-HT data obtained for the same particles. It is concluded that further clarification of the discrepancies between different experiments and model predictions. In total 13 exploratory tests were carried out in PDS (particulate debris spreading) facility to clarify potential influence of the COOLOCE (VTT) facility heaters and TCs on particle self-leveling process. Results of the preliminary analysis suggest that there is no significant influence of the pins on self-leveling, at least for the air superficial velocities ranging from 0.17 up to 0.52 m/s. Further confirmatory tests might be needed

  4. Orbital Debris: Technical and Legal Issues and Solutions (United States)


    legal, political, and economic consequences of orbital debris are described. The current technical and legal controls on the creation of debris...well as quantification of the level of risk posed by it. Part III catalogs some of the many technical, legal, political, and economic consequences...magnetic field and concentrate in two doughnut -shaped (torus) areas around the equator; these regions are called the Van Allen radiation belts.20 The


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Cem Sarica


    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multiphase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines. The following deliverables are scheduled during the first three projects of the program: (1) Single-Phase Studies, with three different black oils, which will yield an enhanced computer code for predicting paraffin deposition in deepwater and surface pipelines. (2) Two

  6. Observations on Marine Debris at Coastal Areas of Takalar District and Makassar City South Sulawesi


    Tahir, Akbar; Werorilangi, Shinta; Zulkarnaen, Adi; Isman, Fajar Mulana; Faisal, Ahmad


    Marine debris is defined as material that is solid, persistent, manufactured or processed, and deliberately or not-deliberately left in the marine environment. Marine debris comes in many shapes and forms, ranging in size from microscopic microplastics to large vessels. Marine debris is a big and growing global problem, pose threats to marine life sustainability. Plastic is a major component of marine debris, and single use packaging accounts for an increasing part of the global marine debris...

  7. Mapping coastal marine debris using aerial imagery and spatial analysis. (United States)

    Moy, Kirsten; Neilson, Brian; Chung, Anne; Meadows, Amber; Castrence, Miguel; Ambagis, Stephen; Davidson, Kristine


    This study is the first to systematically quantify, categorize, and map marine macro-debris across the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI), including remote areas (e.g., Niihau, Kahoolawe, and northern Molokai). Aerial surveys were conducted over each island to collect high resolution photos, which were processed into orthorectified imagery and visually analyzed in GIS. The technique provided precise measurements of the quantity, location, type, and size of macro-debris (>0.05m 2 ), identifying 20,658 total debris items. Northeastern (windward) shorelines had the highest density of debris. Plastics, including nets, lines, buoys, floats, and foam, comprised 83% of the total count. In addition, the study located six vessels from the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami. These results created a baseline of the location, distribution, and composition of marine macro-debris across the MHI. Resource managers and communities may target high priority areas, particularly along remote coastlines where macro-debris counts were largely undocumented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Space debris removal system using a small satellite (United States)

    Nishida, Shin-Ichiro; Kawamoto, Satomi; Okawa, Yasushi; Terui, Fuyuto; Kitamura, Shoji


    Since the number of satellites in Earth orbit is steadily increasing, space debris will eventually pose a serious problem to near-Earth space activities if left unchecked, and so effective measures to mitigate it are becoming urgent. Equipping new satellites with an end-of-life de-orbit or orbital lifetime reduction capability could be an effective means of reducing the amount of debris by reducing the probability of the collisions between objects. On the other hand, the active removal of space debris and the retrieval of failed satellites by spacecraft are other possible measures. The Institute of Aerospace Technology, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), is studying a micro-satellite system for active space debris removal, and is examining the applicability of electro-dynamic tether (EDT) technology as its high efficiency orbital transfer system. A small EDT package provides a possible means for lowering the orbits of objects without the need for propellant. Capture is indispensable for the retrieval of large space debris objects, and we propose a flexible robot arm for this purpose. This paper discusses a space debris removal satellite system and describes the development status of prototypes of the EDT package and a new robot arm for capturing non-cooperative targets.

  9. Plastic debris retention and exportation by a mangrove forest patch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A.; Costa, Monica F.; Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline S.; Araújo, Maria Christina B.


    Highlights: • Estuaries and mangrove forests are rarely studied for marine plastic debris loads. • Types of plastic items and mangrove forest habitats determine the potential of debris retention. • Mangrove habitats are temporary sinks of plastic debris from river and marine origins. • Plastics rapidly accumulate in mangrove forest, but are exported slowly. • Fauna and fishers using mangrove forest habitats are at risk of interaction with plastic debris. -- Abstract: An experiment observed the behavior of selected tagged plastic items deliberately released in different habitats of a tropical mangrove forest in NE Brazil in late rainy (September) and late dry (March) seasons. Significant differences were not reported among seasons. However, marine debris retention varied among habitats, according to characteristics such as hydrodynamic (i.e., flow rates and volume transported) and relative vegetation (Rhizophora mangle) height and density. The highest grounds retained significantly more items when compared to the borders of the river and the tidal creek. Among the used tagged items, PET bottles were more observed and margarine tubs were less observed, being easily transported to adjacent habitats. Plastic bags were the items most retained near the releasing site. The balance between items retained and items lost was positive, demonstrating that mangrove forests tend to retain plastic marine debris for long periods (months-years)

  10. Analysis of River Blocking Induced by a Debris Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wang


    Full Text Available Both the Wenchuan earthquake on May 12, 2008, and the Lushan earthquake on April 12, 2013, produced many coseismic landslides along the Nanya River in Shimian City. Subsequent debris flows that initiated from these landslides and are triggered by intense rainfall become the secondary hazard in the years after the earthquake; in particular, some debris flows led to a serious river blocking event. For example, the Guangyuanbao debris flow which occurred on July 04, 2013, partly blocked the Nanya River, presenting a major threat to the national highway and residential areas. To analyze the pattern of landslide damming, we analyzed numerical simulations of the movement characteristics of the Guangyuanbao debris flow using rainfall intensities with varying recurrence periods of 5, 20, and 50 years. The accuracy of the spreading of the numerical simulation is about 90%. The simulation indicated a small volume of sediment entering the river for a rainfall under 5-year return period. A debris flow induced by rainfall under 20-year return period partly blocked the river, while rainfall under 50-year return period has potential to block the river completely. This proposed analysis of river blocking induced by a debris flow could be used for disaster prevention in earthquake-stricken area.

  11. Experimental study of self-leveling behavior in debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bin; Harada, Tetsushi; Hirahara, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji; Yamano, Hidemasa; Suzuki, Tohru; Tobita, Yoshiharu


    After a core disruptive accident in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, core debris may settle on locations such as within the core-support structure or in the lower inlet plenum of the reactor vessel as debris beds, as a consequence of rapid quenching and fragmentation of core materials in subcooled sodium. The particle beds that are initially of varying depth have been observed to undergo a process of self-leveling when sodium boiling occurs within the beds. The boiling is believed to provide the driven force with debris needed to overcome resisting forces. Self-leveling ability has much effect on heat-removal capability of debris beds. In the present study, characteristics of self-leveling behaviors were investigated experimentally with simulant materials. Although the decay heat from fuel debris drives the coolant boiling in reactor accident conditions, the present experiments employed depressurization boiling of water to simulate axially increasing void distribution in a debris bed, which consists of solid particles of alumina or lead with different density. The particle size (from 0.5 mm to 6 mm in diameter) and shape (spherical or non-spherical particles) were also taken as experimental parameters. A rough criteria for self-leveling occurrence is proposed and compared with the experimental results. Characteristics of the self-leveling behaviors observed are analyzed and extrapolate to reactor accident conditions. (author)

  12. A Comparison of the SOCIT and DebriSat Experiments (United States)

    Ausay, E.; Cornejo, A.; Horn, A.; Palma, K.; Sato, T.; Blake, B.; Pistella, F.; Boyle, C.; Todd, N.; Zimmerman, J.; hide


    This paper explores the differences between, and shares the lessons learned from, two hypervelocity impact experiments critical to the update of Department of Defense (DOD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite breakup models. The procedures as well as the processes of the fourth Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT4) were analyzed and related to the ongoing DebriSat experiment. SOCIT4 accounted for about 90% of the entire satellite mass, but only analyzed approximately 59% with a total of approximately 4,700 fragments. DebriSat aims to recover and analyze 90% of the initial mass and to do so, fragments with at least a longest dimension of 2 mm are collected and processed. DebriSat's use of modern materials, especially carbon fiber, significantly increases the fragment count and to date, there are over 126,000 fragments collected. Challenges, such as procedures and human inputs, encountered throughout the DebriSat experiment are also shared. While, SOCIT4 laid the foundation for the majority of DebriSat processes, the technological advancements since SOCIT4 allow for more accurate, rigorous, and in-depth, procedures that will aid the update of satellite breakup models.

  13. Economic analysis requirements in support of orbital debris regulatory policy (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.


    As the number of Earth orbiting objects increases so does the potential for generating orbital debris with the consequent increase in the likelihood of impacting and damaging operating satellites. Various debris remediation approaches are being considered that encompass both in-orbit and return-to-Earth schema and have varying degrees of operations, cost, international competitiveness, and safety implications. Because of the diversity of issues, concerns and long-term impacts, there is a clear need for the setting of government policies that will lead to an orderly abatement of the potential orbital debris hazards. These policies may require the establishment of a supportive regulatory regime. The Department of Transportation is likely to have regulatory responsibilities relating to orbital debris stemming from its charge to protect the public health and safety, safety of property, and national security interests and foreign policy interests of the United States. This paper describes DOT's potential regulatory role relating to orbital debris remediation, the myriad of issues concerning the need for establishing government policies relating to orbital debris remediation and their regulatory implications, the proposed technological solutions and their economic and safety implications. Particular emphasis is placed upon addressing cost-effectiveness and economic analyses as they relate to economic impact analysis in support of regulatory impact analysis.

  14. Using experiential marine debris education to make an impact: Collecting debris, informing policy makers, and influencing students. (United States)

    Owens, Katharine A


    The Shore to Statehouse project supported the creation of an open-source, replicable, undergraduate experiential course on marine debris. Funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the course allowed undergraduate students in Connecticut, USA, to collect marine debris locally, then create a policy report for state legislators. Here we share the results of the project including data on four accumulation surveys on the Long Island Sound, as well as the impact on student motivation, attitudes, and behavior levels. Results include finding over 1600 individual pieces of debris totaling 19.4kg (42.8lb). In addition, the students experienced statistically significant improvements in knowledge and behavior scores. This open-source course can be replicated, empowering students to remove debris, provide important information to local policy makers, and improve knowledge and behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy


    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. Análisis Global de la Ingesta de Residuos Antropogénicos por Tortugas Marinas La ingesta de residuos marinos puede tener efectos letales y subletales sobre las tortugas marinas y otros animales. Aunque hay investigadores que han reportado la ingesta de residuos antropogénicos por tortugas marinas y la incidencia de la ingesta de residuos ha incrementado con el tiempo, no ha habido una síntesis global del fenómeno desde 1985. Por esto analizamos 37 estudios publicados, desde

  16. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section


    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir


    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  17. Exploring the velocity distribution of debris flows: An iteration algorithm based approach for complex cross-sections (United States)

    Han, Zheng; Chen, Guangqi; Li, Yange; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hong


    The estimation of debris-flow velocity in a cross-section is of primary importance due to its correlation to impact force, run up and superelevation. However, previous methods sometimes neglect the observed asymmetric velocity distribution, and consequently underestimate the debris-flow velocity. This paper presents a new approach for exploring the debris-flow velocity distribution in a cross-section. The presented approach uses an iteration algorithm based on the Riemann integral method to search an approximate solution to the unknown flow surface. The established laws for vertical velocity profile are compared and subsequently integrated to analyze the velocity distribution in the cross-section. The major benefit of the presented approach is that natural channels typically with irregular beds and superelevations can be taken into account, and the resulting approximation by the approach well replicates the direct integral solution. The approach is programmed in MATLAB environment, and the code is open to the public. A well-documented debris-flow event in Sichuan Province, China, is used to demonstrate the presented approach. Results show that the solutions of the flow surface and the mean velocity well reproduce the investigated results. Discussion regarding the model sensitivity and the source of errors concludes the paper.

  18. Plastic debris in the coastal environment: The invincible threat? Abundance of buried plastic debris on Malaysian beaches. (United States)

    Fauziah, S H; Liyana, I A; Agamuthu, P


    Studies on marine debris have gained worldwide attention since many types of debris have found their way into the food chain of higher organisms. Thus, it is crucial that more focus is given to this area in order to curb contaminations in sea food. This study was conducted to quantify plastic debris buried in sand at selected beaches in Malaysia. Marine debris was identified according to size range and distribution, and this information was related to preventive actions to improve marine waste issues. For the purpose of this study, comparison of plastic waste abundance between a recreational beach and fish-landing beaches was also carried out, since the different beach types represent different activities that produce debris. Six beaches along the Malaysian coastline were selected for this study. The plastic types in this study were related to the functions of the beach. While recreational beaches have abundant quantities of plastic film, foamed plastic including polystyrene, and plastic fragment, fish-landing beaches accumulated line and foamed plastic. A total of 2542 pieces (265.30 g m(-2)) of small plastic debris were collected from all six beaches, with the highest number from Kuala Terengganu, at 879 items m(-2) on Seberang Takir Beach, followed by Batu Burok Beach with 780 items m(-2). Findings from studies of Malaysian beaches have provided a clearer understanding of the distribution of plastic debris. This demonstrates that commitments and actions, such as practices of the 'reduce, reuse, recycle' (3R) approach, supporting public awareness programmes and beach clean-up activities, are essential in order to reduce and prevent plastic debris pollution. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Strategy for mitigation of marine debris: analysis of sources and composition of marine debris in northern Taiwan. (United States)

    Kuo, Fan-Jun; Huang, Hsiang-Wen


    Six sites (two sites for each of rocky shores, sandy beaches, and fishing ports) in northern Taiwan were selected to investigate the amount and density of marine debris in each of the four seasons and after spring and neap tides from 2012 to 2013. The results indicate that marine debris was higher on rocky shores than sandy beaches and fishing ports. There is no significant difference between season and tide. The dominant debris was plastic-type, followed by polystyrene. The majority of debris originated from recreational activities, followed from ocean/waterway activities. The results suggest that the following actions are needed: (1) continue and reinforce the plastic-limit policy; (2) increase the cleaning frequency at rocky shores; (3) promote marine environmental education, with a goal of debris-free coasts; (4) recycle fishing gear and to turn that gear into energy; and (5) coordinate between agencies to establish a mechanism to monitor debris. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance testing of the new AMPAC fire debris bag against three other commercial fire debris bags. (United States)

    Grutters, Michiel M P; Dogger, Judith; Hendrikse, Jeanet N


    Fire debris evidence is collected and stored in a wide range of containers, including various polymer bags. Four different polymer bags have been investigated, including the NYLON, DUO, ALU, and AMPAC bags. The latter is the successor of the Kapak Fire DebrisPAK™. Microscopy and infrared spectroscopy were used to elucidate the composition of the bags. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate performance parameters such as background volatiles, leak rate, cross-contamination, recovery, and sorption. The NYLON bag was susceptible for leakage and cross-contamination and showed decreased recoveries. The DUO and ALU bags showed some background volatiles, sorption, and poor recoveries. The AMPAC bag performed excellent: low background, no leakage or cross-contamination, good recoveries, and only traces of sorption. Heat sealing proved to be the best method of closure. Preliminary studies on AMPAC bags showed that polyethylene clamps are easy to use on-site and preserve ignitable liquids adequately for a limited period of time. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. UHMWPE wear debris and tissue reactions are reduced for contemporary designs of lumbar total disc replacements. (United States)

    Veruva, Sai Y; Lanman, Todd H; Isaza, Jorge E; MacDonald, Daniel W; Kurtz, Steven M; Steinbeck, Marla J


    Lumbar total disc replacement (L-TDR) is a procedure used to relieve back pain and maintain mobility. Contemporary metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) L-TDRs were developed to address wear performance concerns about historical designs, but wear debris generation and periprosthetic tissue reactions for these newer implants have not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) whether periprosthetic ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear debris and biological responses were present in tissues from revised contemporary MoP L-TDRs that contain conventional cores fabricated from γ-inert-sterilized UHMWPE; (2) how fixed- versus mobile-bearing design affected UHMWPE wear particle number, shape, and size; and (3) how these wear particle characteristics compare with historical MoP L-TDRs that contain cores fabricated from γ-air-sterilized UHMWPE. We evaluated periprosthetic tissues from 11 patients who received eight fixed-bearing ProDisc-L and four mobile-bearing CHARITÉ contemporary L-TDRs with a mean implantation time of 4.1 and 2.7 years, respectively. Histologic analysis of tissues was performed to assess biological responses and polarized light microscopy was used to quantify number and size/shape characteristics of UHMWPE wear particles from the fixed- and mobile-bearing devices. Comparisons were made to previously reported particle data for historical L-TDRs. Five of seven (71%) fixed-bearing and one of four mobile-bearing L-TDR patient tissues contained at least 4 particles/mm(2) wear with associated macrophage infiltration. Tissues with wear debris were highly vascularized, whereas those without debris were more necrotic. Given the samples available, the tissue around mobile-bearing L-TDR was observed to contain 87% more, 11% rounder, and 11% less-elongated wear debris compared with tissues around fixed-bearing devices; however, there were no significant differences. Compared with historical L-TDRs, UHMWPE particle number and

  2. Debris flow from 2012 failure of moraine-dammed lake, Three Fingered Jack volcano, Mount Jefferson Wilderness, Oregon (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Wills, Barton B.


    In the late spring or early summer of 2012, a flood emanated from a small moraine-dammed lake on the northeast flank of Three Fingered Jack in the Mount Jefferson Wilderness. Channel erosion or slope collapse breached the natural dam of the lake, leading to a sudden lowering of lake level by 2.8 m and discharge of 12,700 cubic meters (m3) of water. The resulting debris flow formed a bouldery deposit extending about 0.35 km downslope.

  3. Correlation of alluvial deposits at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grothaus, B.; Howard, N.


    Because characteristics of rock layers and problems in drilling must be studied before radioactive waste can be safely contained, an evaluation was made of methods for correlating alluvial deposits at Yucca Flat of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Although correlation of Tertiary volcanic tuff beds at the NTS has been successfully achieved, correlation of stratigraphic zones in the overlying alluvium has posed technical difficulties. We have evaluated several methods for correlating alluvial deposits from drillholes, including electric resistivity logs (E logs), visual examination of sidewall samples and comparison of their carbonate (CO 2 ) content, downhole stereo photography for identifying debris flow deposits, caliche age-dating, and specific yield and permeability measurements of deposits. For predicting the thickness of zones having similar physical properties in the alluvium, E log measurements were found to be the most useful of these methods

  4. Occurrence of giant planets around stars with dusty debris disks (United States)

    Meshkat, Tiffany; Mawet, Dimitri; Bryan, Marta; Hinkley, Sasha; Bowler, Brendan; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Batygin, Konstantin; Padgett, Deborah; Morales, Farisa; serabyn, Eugene; Christiaens, Valentin; Brandt, Timothy; Wahhaj, Zahed


    Debris disks may be the signposts of recent planet formation. The dust, which is generated in collisional cascades of asteroids and comets, is enhanced by the gravitational stirring of gas giant planets. Thus bright debris disk systems are natural targets for imaging searches for planets, as it indicates that the host star likely possesses some kind of planetary system. In this work, we describe a joint high contrast imaging survey for planetary mass companions at Keck and VLT of the last significant sample of debris disks identified by the Spitzer Space Telescope. No new substellar companions were discovered in our survey of Spitzer-selected targets. We combine these observations with from three published surveys, to put constraints on the frequency of planets around debris disk stars in the largest sample to date. We also obtained published data on stars that do not show infrared excesses for a control sample. We assume a double power law distribution of the form f(m,a) = Cm^alpha a^beta for this population of companions. We find that the frequency of giant planets with masses 5-20 MJup and separations 10-1000 au around stars with debris disks is 6.3% (68% confidence interval 3.7-9.8%), compared to 0.7% (68% confidence interval 0.2-1.8%) for the control sample of stars without disks. For the first time, we show that the occurrence of young giant planets around stars with debris disks is higher than those without debris disks at the 88% confidence level, tentatively suggesting that these distributions are distinct.

  5. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests. (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P


    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  6. Trigger Analysis and Modelling of Very Large Debris Flows in Santa Teresa, Cusco, Southern Peru (United States)

    Buis, Daniel; Huggel, Christian; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Rohrer, Mario; Christen, Marc; Portocarrero, César


    The Peruvian Andes have repeatedly been affected by large mass movements such as landslides, avalanches and debris flows. In 1998, two very large debris flows in the region of Machu Picchu (Sacsara and Ahobamba), southern Peru, destroyed the town of Santa Teresa, an important hydropower scheme and further infrastructure. The debris flows on the order of 5 to 25 million m3 volume rank among the largest recently observed events of this type worldwide. Despite their extreme dimensions, these events have not been studied in detail. An important limitation for more insight studies is the remote location of the mass flows and the very sparse information and data available for the study region. Neither triggering processes nor mass flow process characteristics have been understood to date. This study tries to fill some of these gaps in understanding that are critical to improved assessment of hazards and eventual risk reduction measures. For the trigger analysis we used data and information from field work, a limited number of ground based meteorological data, and complementary satellite derived data. Results indicate that in the case of the Sacsara event, heavy rainfall likely was a main trigger. For Ahobamba, antecedent rainfall as well as snow and ice melt leading to saturation of glacial sediments must have played an important role. Simulations with a dynamic debris flow model (RAMMS) allowed us to constrain a number of flow parameters such as flow height and velocity, runout distance and flow and deposition volumes. Strong surging flow behavior was detected, resulting in very large runout distance (exceeding 20 km); which rather depends on the largest single surge volume, not the total event volume. Based on the identification of potential mass flow sources we modeled a number of scenarios. The assessment of related hazards, including a preliminary hazard map, showed that several communities in catchments draining towards Santa Teresa are endangered by mass movements

  7. Exhumation By Landslide-Initiated Debris Flows in the 2013 Colorado Front Range Storm (United States)

    Anderson, R. S.; Anderson, S. W.; Anderson, S. P.; Schellhase, D. A.


    What is the role of rare events in the exhumation of steep landscapes? We use the "millennial" storm that hit the Front Range, Colorado, USA, in September 2013 to explore this question in a semi-arid landscape. More than 250 mm of rain fell over a ~100 km swath of the Front Range in a 5 day period; totals in some areas exceeded average annual precipitation. The storm triggered over 1300 landslides and debris flows in four major Front Range watersheds (Coe et al., 2014). We created a DEM of difference in the 102 km2 area of overlap using aerial LiDAR surveys, acquired in August 2010 by the Boulder Creek CZO and in November 2013 by FEMA. The study region covers the Boulder Creek watershed from the middle of the Rocky Mountain Surface to the western edge of the Plains, and encompasses Boulder Canyon, Fourmile Canyon, and the 26-km2 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire. Precambrian crystalline rocks underlie most of the area, although the eastern margin includes sedimentary rocks in hogbacks along the mountain front. We computed site characteristics and volumes for 120 failures. Within the crystalline terrain, most failures occurred at or near the bedrock interface at 0.5-1 m depth, often near the ridgelines downslope of bedrock outcrops. Failures occurred on slopes of 25-40°, and show no slope aspect bias. Failures evolved into debris flows that scoured chutes from the initiation site down to the master stream, traveling at up to 10 m/s. We saw little evidence of deposition; most debris was entrained in the flooding master streams and exited the mountain front. Evacuated sediment volumes represent several hundred years of exhumation within the source basins, based on published long-term erosion rates calculated from 10Be concentrations. We infer that, even in this semi-arid environment, debris flows initiated by rare shallow landslides are a dominant process for evacuating sediment from steep channels and delivering it to the plains.

  8. Geophysical features influence the accumulation of beach debris on Caribbean islands. (United States)

    Schmuck, Alexandra M; Lavers, Jennifer L; Stuckenbrock, Silke; Sharp, Paul B; Bond, Alexander L


    Anthropogenic beach debris was recorded during beach surveys of 24 Caribbean islands during April 2014-April 2016. Beach debris was classified according to material type (e.g., polystyrene) and item use (e.g., fishing). Geophysical features (substrate type, beach direction, and human accessibility) of sample sites were recorded in order to investigate their relationship with debris density. Results suggest the density of macro debris (items >5mm) is highest on uninhabited, sandy beaches facing a leeward direction. Higher debris quantities on inaccessible beaches may be due to less frequent beach clean ups. Frequently accessed beaches exhibited lower macro, but higher micro debris (items 1-5mm) densities, possibly due to removal of macro debris during frequent beach clean ups. This suggests that while geophysical features have some influence on anthropogenic debris densities, high debris densities are occurring on all islands within the Caribbean region regardless of substrate, beach direction, or human accessibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Space-based detection of space debris by photometric and polarimetric characteristics (United States)

    Pang, Shuxia; Wang, Hu; Lu, Xiaoyun; Shen, Yang; Pan, Yue


    The number of space debris has been increasing dramatically in the last few years, and is expected to increase as much in the future. As the orbital debris population grows, the risk of collision between debris and other orbital objects also grows. Therefore, space debris detection is a particularly important task for space environment security, and then supports for space debris modeling, protection and mitigation. This paper aims to review space debris detection systematically and completely. Firstly, the research status of space debris detection at home and abroad is presented. Then, three kinds of optical observation methods of space debris are summarized. Finally, we propose a space-based detection scheme for space debris by photometric and polarimetric characteristics.

  10. The FlatModel: a 2D numerical code to evaluate debris flow dynamics. Eastern Pyrenees basins application. (United States)

    Bateman, A.; Medina, V.; Hürlimann, M.


    Debris flows are present in every country where a combination of high mountains and flash floods exists. In the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula, at the Pyrenees, sporadic debris events occur. We selected two different events. The first one was triggered at La Guingueta by the big exceptional flood event that produced many debris flows in 1982 which were spread all over the Catalonian Pyrenees. The second, more local event occurred in 2000 at the mountain Montserrat at the Pre-litoral mountain chain. We present here some results of the FLATModel, entirely developed at the Research Group in Sediment Transport of the Hydraulic, Marine and Environmental Engineering Department (GITS-UPC). The 2D FLATModel is a Finite Volume method that uses the Godunov scheme. Some numerical arranges have been made to analyze the entrainment process during the events, the Stop & Go phenomena and the final deposit of the material. The material rheology implemented is the Voellmy approach, because it acts very well evaluating the frictional and turbulent behavior. The FLATModel uses a GIS environment that facilitates the data analysis as the comparison between field and numerical data. The two events present two different characteristics, one is practically a one dimensional problem of 1400 m in length and the other has a more two dimensional behavior that forms a big fan.

  11. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy. I. physical basis (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.


    To simulate debris-flow behaviour from initiation to deposition, we derive a depth-averaged, two-phase model that combines concepts of critical-state soil mechanics, grain-flow mechanics and fluid mechanics. The model's balance equations describe coupled evolution of the solid volume fraction, m, basal pore-fluid pressure, flow thickness and two components of flow velocity. Basal friction is evaluated using a generalized Coulomb rule, and fluid motion is evaluated in a frame of reference that translates with the velocity of the granular phase, vs. Source terms in each of the depth-averaged balance equations account for the influence of the granular dilation rate, defined as the depth integral of ∇⋅vs. Calculation of the dilation rate involves the effects of an elastic compressibility and an inelastic dilatancy angle proportional to m−meq, where meq is the value of m in equilibrium with the ambient stress state and flow rate. Normalization of the model equations shows that predicted debris-flow behaviour depends principally on the initial value of m−meq and on the ratio of two fundamental timescales. One of these timescales governs downslope debris-flow motion, and the other governs pore-pressure relaxation that modifies Coulomb friction and regulates evolution of m. A companion paper presents a suite of model predictions and tests.

  12. Processes engaged in the persistence in atmosphere of previously deposited artificial radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piga, Damien


    Since 1959, atmospheric sampling sta