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Sample records for previously consolidated memory

  1. Memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takashima, A.; Bakker, I.; Schmid, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    In order to make use of novel experiences and knowledge to guide our future behavior, we must keep large amounts of information accessible for retrieval. The memory system that stores this information needs to be flexible in order to rapidly incorporate incoming information, but also requires that

  2. Exercising control over memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Edwin M.; Takacs, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Exercise can improve human cognition. A mechanistic connection between exercise and cognition has been revealed in several recent studies. Exercise increases cortical excitability and this in turn leads to enhanced memory consolidation. Together these studies dovetail with our growing understanding of memory consolidation and how it is regulated through changes in motor cortical excitability.

  3. Dreaming and offline memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Erin J

    2014-03-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections.

  4. Memory consolidation in sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Nicola

    2017-10-01

    In recent years sleep-related memory consolidation has become a central topic in the sleep research field. Several studies have shown that in healthy individuals sleep promotes memory consolidation. Notwithstanding this, the consequences of sleep disorders on offline memory consolidation remain poorly investigated. Research studies indicate that patients with insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy often exhibit sleep-related impairment in the consolidation of declarative and procedural information. On the other hand, patients with parasomnias, such as sleep-walking, night terrors and rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder, do not present any memory impairment. These studies suggest that only sleep disorders characterized by increased post-learning arousal and disrupted sleep architecture seem to be associated with offline memory consolidation issues. Such impairments, arising already in childhood, may potentially affect the development and maintenance of an individual's cognitive abilities, reducing their quality of life and increasing the risk of accidents. However, promising findings suggest that successfully treating sleep symptoms can result in the restoration of memory functions and marked reduction of direct and indirect societal costs of sleep disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Memory consolidation in the cerebellar cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O Kellett

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Several forms of learning, including classical conditioning of the eyeblink, depend upon the cerebellum. In examining mechanisms of eyeblink conditioning in rabbits, reversible inactivations of the control circuitry have begun to dissociate aspects of cerebellar cortical and nuclear function in memory consolidation. It was previously shown that post-training cerebellar cortical, but not nuclear, inactivations with the GABAA agonist muscimol prevented consolidation but these findings left open the question as to how final memory storage was partitioned across cortical and nuclear levels. Memory consolidation might be essentially cortical and directly disturbed by actions of the muscimol, or it might be nuclear, and sensitive to the raised excitability of the nuclear neurons following the loss of cortical inhibition. To resolve this question, we simultaneously inactivated cerebellar cortical lobule HVI and the anterior interpositus nucleus of rabbits during the post-training period, so protecting the nuclei from disinhibitory effects of cortical inactivation. Consolidation was impaired by these simultaneous inactivations. Because direct application of muscimol to the nuclei alone has no impact upon consolidation, we can conclude that post-training, consolidation processes and memory storage for eyeblink conditioning have critical cerebellar cortical components. The findings are consistent with a recent model that suggests the distribution of learning-related plasticity across cortical and nuclear levels is task-dependent. There can be transfer to nuclear or brainstem levels for control of high-frequency responses but learning with lower frequency response components, such as in eyeblink conditioning, remains mainly dependent upon cortical memory storage.

  6. Sleep enhances memory consolidation in children.

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    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2014-06-01

    Sleep is an active state that plays an important role in the consolidation of memory. It has been found to enhance explicit memories in both adults and children. However, in contrast to adults, children do not always show a sleep-related improvement in implicit learning. The majority of research on sleep-dependent memory consolidation focuses on adults; hence, the current study examined sleep-related effects on two tasks in children. Thirty-three typically developing children aged 6-12 years took part in the study. Actigraphy was used to monitor sleep. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation was assessed using a novel non-word learning task and the Tower of Hanoi cognitive puzzle, which involves discovering an underlying rule to aid completion. Children were trained on the two tasks and retested following approximately equal retention intervals of both wake and sleep. After sleep, children showed significant improvements in performance of 14% on the non-word learning task and 25% on the Tower of Hanoi task, but no significant change in score following the wake retention interval. Improved performance on the Tower of Hanoi may have been due to children consolidating explicit aspects of the task, for example rule-learning or memory of previous sequences; thus, we propose that sleep is necessary for consolidation of explicit memory in children. Sleep quality and duration were not related to children's task performance. If such experimental sleep-related learning enhancement is generalizable to everyday life, then it is clear that sleep plays a vital role in children's educational attainment. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard; Korsgaard Johnsen, Line; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2016-01-01

    an important role in modulating the effects that a single bout of cardiovascular exercise has on the consolidation phase following motor skill learning. There appears to be a dose-response relationship in favour of higher intensity exercise in order to augment off-line effects and strengthen procedural memory.......A single bout of high intensity aerobic exercise (~90% VO2peak) was previously demonstrated to amplify off-line gains in skill level during the consolidation phase of procedural memory. High intensity exercise is not always a viable option for many patient groups or in a rehabilitation setting...... where low to moderate intensities may be more suitable. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of intensity in mediating the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on motor skill learning. We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on the retention (performance score...

  8. Endogenous cannabinoid release within prefrontal-limbic pathways affects memory consolidation of emotional training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morena, M.; Roozendaal, B.; Trezza, V.; Ratano, P.; Peloso, A.; Hauer, D.; Atsak, P.; Trabace, L.; Cuomo, V.; McGaugh, J.L.; Schelling, G.; Campolongo, P.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have provided extensive evidence that administration of cannabinoid drugs after training modulates the consolidation of memory for an aversive experience. The present experiments investigated whether the memory consolidation is regulated by endogenously released cannabinoids. The

  9. Negative Reinforcement Impairs Overnight Memory Consolidation

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    Stamm, Andrew W.; Nguyen, Nam D.; Seicol, Benjamin J.; Fagan, Abigail; Oh, Angela; Drumm, Michael; Lundt, Maureen; Stickgold, Robert; Wamsley, Erin J.

    2014-01-01

    Post-learning sleep is beneficial for human memory. However, it may be that not all memories benefit equally from sleep. Here, we manipulated a spatial learning task using monetary reward and performance feedback, asking whether enhancing the salience of the task would augment overnight memory consolidation and alter its incorporation into…

  10. Sleep's Function in the Spontaneous Recovery and Consolidation of Memories

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    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Schulze, Claudia; Fischer, Stefan; Born, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Building on 2 previous studies (B. R. Ekstrand, 1967; B. R. Ekstrand, M. J. Sullivan, D. F. Parker, & J. N. West, 1971), the authors present 2 experiments that were aimed at characterizing the role of retroactive interference in sleep-associated declarative memory consolidation. Using an A-B, A-C paradigm with lists of word pairs in Experiment 1,…

  11. Memory, Sleep and Dreaming: Experiencing Consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Wamsley, Erin J.; Stickgold, Robert

    2011-01-01

    It is now well established that post-learning sleep is beneficial for human memory performance. At the same time, it has long been known that learning experiences influence the content of subsequent sleep mentation (i.e., “dreaming”). Here, we review evidence that newly encoded memories are reactivated and consolidated in the sleeping brain, and that this process is directly reflected in the content of concomitant sleep mentation, providing a valuable window into the mnemonic functions of sle...

  12. Autobiographical thinking interferes with episodic memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Craig

    Full Text Available New episodic memories are retained better if learning is followed by a few minutes of wakeful rest than by the encoding of novel external information. Novel encoding is said to interfere with the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories. Here we report four experiments in which we examined whether autobiographical thinking, i.e. an 'internal' memory activity, also interferes with episodic memory consolidation. Participants were presented with three wordlists consisting of common nouns; one list was followed by wakeful rest, one by novel picture encoding and one by autobiographical retrieval/future imagination, cued by concrete sounds. Both novel encoding and autobiographical retrieval/future imagination lowered wordlist retention significantly. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the interference by our cued autobiographical retrieval/future imagination delay condition could not be accounted for by the sound cues alone or by executive retrieval processes. Moreover, our results demonstrated evidence of a temporal gradient of interference across experiments. Thus, we propose that rich autobiographical retrieval/future imagination hampers the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories and that such interference is particularly likely in the presence of external concrete cues.

  13. Relief memory consolidation requires protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens.

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    Bruning, Johann E A; Breitfeld, Tino; Kahl, Evelyn; Bergado-Acosta, Jorge R; Fendt, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Relief learning refers to the association of a stimulus with the relief from an aversive event. The thus-learned relief stimulus then can induce, e.g., an attenuation of the startle response or approach behavior, indicating positive valence. Previous studies revealed that the nucleus accumbens is essential for the acquisition and retrieval of relief memory. Here, we ask whether the nucleus accumbens is also the brain site for consolidation of relief memory into a long-term form. In rats, we blocked local protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens by local infusions of anisomycin at different time points during a relief conditioning experiment. Accumbal anisomycin injections immediately after the relief conditioning session, but not 4 h later, prevented the consolidation into long-term relief memory. The retention of already consolidated relief memory was not affected by anisomycin injections. This identifies a time window and site for relief memory consolidation. These findings should complement our understanding of the full range of effects of adverse experiences, including cases of their distortion in humans such as post-traumatic stress disorder and/or phobias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Consolidation and restoration of memory traces in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schrijver, Sébastien; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    Consolidation is the process through which ephemeral sensory traces are transformed into more stable short-term memory traces. It has been shown that consolidation plays a crucial role in working memory (WM) performance, by strengthening memory traces that then better resist interference and decay. In a recent study, Bayliss, Bogdanovs, and Jarrold (Journal of Memory and Language, 81, 34-50, 2015) argued that this process is separate from the processes known to restore WM traces after degradation, such as attentional refreshing and verbal rehearsal. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the two types of processes in the context of WM span tasks. Participants were presented with series of letters for serial recall, each letter being followed by four digits for parity judgment. Consolidation opportunity was manipulated by varying the delay between each letter and the first digit to be processed, while opportunities for restoration were manipulated by varying the pace at which the parity task had to be performed (i.e., its cognitive load, or CL). Increasing the time available for either consolidation or restoration resulted in higher WM spans, with some substitutability between the two processes. Accordingly, when consolidation time was added to restoration time in the calculation of CL, the new resulting index, called extended CL, proved a very good predictor of recall performance, a finding also observed when verbal rehearsal was prevented by articulatory suppression. This substitutability between consolidation and restoration suggests that both processes may rely on the same mechanisms.

  15. Interacting Brain Systems Modulate Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Christa K.; McGaugh, James L.; Williams, Cedric L.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional arousal influences the consolidation of long-term memory. This review discusses experimental approaches and relevant findings that provide the foundation for current understanding of coordinated interactions between arousal activated peripheral hormones and the brain processes that modulate memory formation. Rewarding or aversive experiences release the stress hormones epinephrine (adrenalin) and glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands into the bloodstream. The effect of these hormones on memory consolidation depends upon binding of norepinephrine to beta-adrenergic receptors in the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). Much evidence indicates that the stress hormones influence release of norepinephrine in the BLA through peripheral actions on the vagus nerve which stimulates, through polysynaptic connections, cells of the locus coeruleus to release norepinephrine. The BLA influences memory storage by actions on synapses, distributed throughout the brain, that are engaged in sensory and cognitive processing at the time of amygdala activation. The implications of the activation of these stress-activated memory processes are discussed in relation to stress-related memory disorders. PMID:22085800

  16. Reward Value Determines Memory Consolidation in Parasitic Wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Fatouros, N.E.; Figueroa, I.A.; Vet, L.E.M.; Smid, H.M.; Huigens, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can store learned information in their brains through a series of distinct memory forms. Short-lasting memory forms can be followed by longer-lasting, consolidated memory forms. However, the factors determining variation in memory consolidation encountered in nature have thus far not been

  17. Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maski, Kiran P

    2015-06-01

    In the past 30 years, much research has been conducted elucidating the role of sleep in memory and learning; however, the interaction between sleep and cognitive functioning may be unknown in clinical realms. This article serves to provide a primer on sleep-dependent memory consolidation, a process in which memory is stabilized or even enhanced over a period of sleep. Given the increased amounts of sleep needed in infancy and childhood, the link between sleep and neuronal plasticity is highlighted in this article. Furthermore, sleep disruptions are common to children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; thus, recent studies showing direct relationships between sleep and memory functioning in such vulnerable groups are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Laugh yourself to sleep: memory consolidation for humorous information.

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    Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-05-01

    There is extensive evidence that emotional information is better remembered than neutral information across long delays, especially if the delay interval contains an opportunity for sleep. However, as prior studies have focused on memory for negative stimuli, it is unclear whether positive memories benefit from time and sleep as well. To investigate the consolidation of positive memories, the current study examined differences in memory for humorous and non-humorous cartoons. While prior evidence demonstrates that humorous information is preferentially remembered relative to non-humorous information over brief delays, it is unknown whether this benefit lasts across longer delay intervals or whether sleep is important for lasting humor memories to form. Thus, we tested memory for 27 cartoons across 12-h delay periods containing either sleep or wakefulness. Results indicate that humor's enhancing effect on recall memory is robust across a 12-h delay and that a period of sleep facilitates this effect over wakefulness when cartoons are novel to participants and ranked based on subjective emotional ratings. Further, in accordance with previous studies that reveal diminished emotional reactivity to stimuli following sleep, in a supplemental experiment, we found that sleep reduced subjective ratings of humor, arousal, and positivity of humorous cartoons. These findings provide preliminary evidence that sleep's impact on negative emotional memory consolidation and emotional reactivity can be extended to positive stimuli as well.

  19. Emotional memory consolidation under lower versus higher stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna eKogan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An exposure to stress can enhance memory for emotionally arousing experiences. The phenomenon is suggested to be amygdala-dependent and in accordance with that view the amygdala was found to modulate mnemonic processes in other brain regions. Previously, we illustrated increased amygdala activation and reduced activation of CA1 following spatial learning under high versus low emotionality conditions. When spatial learning was followed by reversal training interference, impaired retention was detected only under high emotionality conditions. Here we further evaluate the potential implications of the difference in the level of amygdala activation on the quality of the memory formed under these stress conditions. We attempted to affect spatial memory consolidation under low or high stress conditions by either introducing a foot shock interference following massed training in the water maze; by manipulating the threshold for acquisition employing either brief (3 trials or full (12 trials training sessions; or by employing a spaced training (over three days rather than massed training protocol. The current findings reveal that under heightened emotionality, the process of consolidation seems to become less effective and more vulnerable to interference; however, when memory consolidation is not interrupted, retention is improved. These differential effects might underlie the complex interactions of stress, and, particularly, of traumatic stress with memory formation processes.

  20. Reward value determines memory consolidation in parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruidhof, H Marjolein; Pashalidou, Foteini G; Fatouros, Nina E; Figueroa, Ilich A; Vet, Louise E M; Smid, Hans M; Huigens, Martinus E

    2012-01-01

    Animals can store learned information in their brains through a series of distinct memory forms. Short-lasting memory forms can be followed by longer-lasting, consolidated memory forms. However, the factors determining variation in memory consolidation encountered in nature have thus far not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that two parasitic wasp species belonging to different families, Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Trichogramma evanescens (Hymenoptera; Trichogrammatidae), similarly adjust the memory form they consolidate to a fitness-determining reward: egg-laying into a host-insect that serves as food for their offspring. Protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) was consolidated after single-trial conditioning with a high-value host. However, single-trial conditioning with a low-value host induced consolidation of a shorter-lasting memory form. For Cotesia glomerata, we subsequently identified this shorter-lasting memory form as anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) because it was not sensitive to protein synthesis inhibitors or anesthesia. Associative conditioning using a single reward of different value thus induced a physiologically different mechanism of memory formation in this species. We conclude that the memory form that is consolidated does not only change in response to relatively large differences in conditioning, such as the number and type of conditioning trials, but is also sensitive to more subtle differences, such as reward value. Reward-dependent consolidation of exclusive ARM or LTM provides excellent opportunities for within-species comparison of mechanisms underlying memory consolidation.

  1. Is sleep-related verbal memory consolidation impaired in sleepwalkers?

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    Uguccioni, Ginevra; Pallanca, Olivier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    In order to evaluate verbal memory consolidation during sleep in subjects experiencing sleepwalking or sleep terror, 19 patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror and 19 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16-word list from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, and a 220- and 263-word modified story recall test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video polysomnography (n = 29) and morning recall (night-time consolidation after 14 h, n = 38). The following morning, they were given a daytime learning task using the modified story recall test in reverse order, followed by an evening recall test after 9 h of wakefulness (daytime consolidation, n = 38). The patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror exhibited more frequent awakenings during slow-wave sleep and longer wakefulness after sleep onset than the controls. Despite this reduction in sleep quality among sleepwalking/sleep terror patients, they improved their scores on the verbal tests the morning after sleep compared with the previous evening (+16 ± 33%) equally well as the controls (+2 ± 13%). The performance of both groups worsened during the daytime in the absence of sleep (-16 ± 15% for the sleepwalking/sleep terror group and -14 ± 11% for the control group). There was no significant correlation between the rate of memory consolidation and any of the sleep measures. Seven patients experiencing sleepwalking also sleep-talked during slow-wave sleep, but their sentences were unrelated to the tests or the list of words learned during the evening. In conclusion, the alteration of slow-wave sleep during sleepwalking/sleep terror does not noticeably impact on sleep-related verbal memory consolidation. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Post-training Meditation Promotes Motor Memory Consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Immink, Maarten A.

    2016-01-01

    Following training, motor memory consolidation is thought to involve either memory stabilization or off-line learning processes. The extent to which memory stabilization or off-line learning relies on post-training wakeful periods or sleep is not clear and thus, novel research approaches are needed to further explore the conditions that promote motor memory consolidation. The present experiment represents the first empirical test of meditation as potential facilitator of motor memory consol...

  3. Spicatoside A enhances memory consolidation through the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Guyoung; Lee, Hyung Eun; Lee, Dong Hwa; Woo, Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Gao, Qingtao; Ahn, Young Je; Son, Kun Ho; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2014-06-20

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a pivotal role in memory consolidation. Previously, we found that the increased mature BDNF (mBDNF) levels in the hippocampal region at a specific time window after the acquisition trial are required for memory consolidation. In the present study, we investigated whether spicatoside A enhances memory consolidation, and whether its effects on memory consolidation are related to hippocampal mBDNF levels. Spicatoside A (2.5, 5, 10 or 20mg/kg) enhanced memory consolidation in a dose-dependent manner, and enhanced memory consolidation was also observed when spicatoside A was administered 1h after the acquisition trial. Concurrently, when spicatoside A was administered immediately or 1h after the acquisition trial, hippocampal mBDNF levels were similar or significantly increased at 9h after the acquisition trial compared to levels at 6h. These results suggest that increased mBDNF levels in the hippocampal region at 9h after the acquisition trial might play a pivotal role in memory consolidation and that spicatoside A might enhance memory consolidation by increasing hippocampal mBDNF levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Lind, Rune Rasmussen

    2016-01-01

    High intensity aerobic exercise amplifies offline gains in procedural memory acquired during motor practice. This effect seems to be evident when exercise is placed immediately after acquisition, during the first stages of memory consolidation, but the importance of temporal proximity...... of the exercise bout used to stimulate improvements in procedural memory is unknown. The effects of three different temporal placements of high intensity exercise were investigated following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 48 young (24.0 ± 2.5 yrs), healthy male subjects randomly...... assigned to one of four groups either performing a high intensity (90% Maximal Power Output) exercise bout at 20 min (EX90), 1 h (EX90+1), 2 h (EX90+2) after acquisition or rested (CON). Retention tests were performed at 1 d (R1) and 7 d (R7). At R1 changes in performance scores after acquisition were...

  5. Additive Expression of Consolidated Memory through Drosophila Mushroom Body Subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Huai Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Associative olfactory memory in Drosophila has two components called labile anesthesia-sensitive memory and consolidated anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM. Mushroom body (MB is a brain region critical for the olfactory memory and comprised of 2000 neurons that can be classified into αβ, α'β', and γ neurons. Previously we demonstrated that two parallel pathways mediated ARM consolidation: the serotonergic dorsal paired medial (DPM-αβ neurons and the octopaminergic anterior paired lateral (APL-α'β' neurons. This finding prompted us to ask how this composite ARM is retrieved. Here, we showed that blocking the output of αβ neurons and that of α'β' neurons each impaired ARM retrieval, and blocking both simultaneously had an additive effect. Knockdown of radish and octβ2R in αβ and α'β' neurons, respectively, impaired ARM. A combinatorial assay of radish mutant background rsh1 and neurotransmission blockade confirmed that ARM retrieved from α'β' neuron output is independent of radish. We identified MBON-β2β'2a and MBON-β'2mp as the MB output neurons downstream of αβ and α'β' neurons, respectively, whose glutamatergic transmissions also additively contribute to ARM retrieval. Finally, we showed that α'β' neurons could be functionally subdivided into α'β'm neurons required for ARM retrieval, and α'β'ap neurons required for ARM consolidation. Our work demonstrated that two parallel neural pathways mediating ARM consolidation in Drosophila MB additively contribute to ARM expression during retrieval.

  6. Memory consolidation reconfigures neural pathways involved in the suppression of emotional memories.

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    Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Liu, Chao; Luo, Yuejia; Wu, Jianhui; Bayley, Peter J; Qin, Shaozheng

    2016-11-29

    The ability to suppress unwanted emotional memories is crucial for human mental health. Through consolidation over time, emotional memories often become resistant to change. However, how consolidation impacts the effectiveness of emotional memory suppression is still unknown. Using event-related fMRI while concurrently recording skin conductance, we investigated the neurobiological processes underlying the suppression of aversive memories before and after overnight consolidation. Here we report that consolidated aversive memories retain their emotional reactivity and become more resistant to suppression. Suppression of consolidated memories involves higher prefrontal engagement, and less concomitant hippocampal and amygdala disengagement. In parallel, we show a shift away from hippocampal-dependent representational patterns to distributed neocortical representational patterns in the suppression of aversive memories after consolidation. These findings demonstrate rapid changes in emotional memory organization with overnight consolidation, and suggest possible neurobiological bases underlying the resistance to suppression of emotional memories in affective disorders.

  7. Memory Consolidation and Gene Expression in "Periplaneta Americana"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J.; Pinter, Marianna; Lent, David D.

    2005-01-01

    A unique behavioral paradigm has been developed for "Periplaneta americana" that assesses the timing and success of memory consolidation leading to long-term memory of visual-olfactory associations. The brains of trained and control animals, removed at the critical consolidation period, were screened by two-directional suppression subtractive…

  8. Impaired memory consolidation in children with obstructive sleep disordered breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Maski, Kiran; Steinhart, Erin; Holbrook, Hannah; Katz, Eliot S.; Kapur, Kush; Stickgold, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Memory consolidation is stabilized and even enhanced by sleep (and particularly by 12–15 Hz sleep spindles in NREM stage 2 sleep) in healthy children but it is unclear what happens to these processes when sleep is disturbed by obstructive sleep disordered breathing. This cross-sectional study investigates differences in declarative memory consolidation among children with primary snoring (PS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) compared to controls. We further investigate whether memory consoli...

  9. Optogenetic disruption of sleep continuity impairs memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Rolls, Asya; Colas, Damien; Adamantidis, Antoine; Carter, Matt; Lanre-Amos, Tope; Heller, H. Craig; de Lecea, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Memory consolidation has been proposed as a function of sleep. However, sleep is a complex phenomenon characterized by several features including duration, intensity, and continuity. Sleep continuity is disrupted in different neurological and psychiatric conditions, many of which are accompanied by memory deficits. This finding has raised the question of whether the continuity of sleep is important for memory consolidation. However, current techniques used in sleep research cannot manipulate ...

  10. Acute exposure to blue wavelength light during memory consolidation improves verbal memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Dailey, Natalie S; Bajaj, Sahil; Killgore, William D S

    2017-01-01

    Acute exposure to light within the blue wavelengths has been shown to enhance alertness and vigilance, and lead to improved speed on reaction time tasks, possibly due to activation of the noradrenergic system. It remains unclear, however, whether the effects of blue light extend beyond simple alertness processes to also enhance other aspects of cognition, such as memory performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a thirty minute pulse of blue light versus placebo (amber light) exposure in healthy normally rested individuals in the morning during verbal memory consolidation (i.e., 1.5 hours after memory acquisition) using an abbreviated version of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II). At delayed recall, individuals who received blue light (n = 12) during the consolidation period showed significantly better long-delay verbal recall than individuals who received amber light exposure (n = 18), while controlling for the effects of general intelligence, depressive symptoms and habitual wake time. These findings extend previous work demonstrating the effect of blue light on brain activation and alertness to further demonstrate its effectiveness at facilitating better memory consolidation and subsequent retention of verbal material. Although preliminary, these findings point to a potential application of blue wavelength light to optimize memory performance in healthy populations. It remains to be determined whether blue light exposure may also enhance performance in clinical populations with memory deficits.

  11. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation and its implications for psychiatry.

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    Goerke, Monique; Müller, Notger G; Cohrs, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Both sleep disturbance and memory impairment are very common in psychiatric disorders. Since sleep has been shown to play a role in the process of transferring newly acquired information into long-term memory, i.e., consolidation, it is important to highlight this link in the context of psychiatric disorders. Along these lines, after providing a brief overview of healthy human sleep, current neurobiological models on sleep-dependent memory consolidation and resultant opportunities to manipulate the memory consolidation process, recent findings on sleep disturbances and sleep-dependent memory consolidation in patients with insomnia, major depression, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress disorder are systematically reviewed. Furthermore, possible underlying neuropathologies and their implications on therapeutic strategies are discussed. This review aims at sensitizing the reader for recognizing sleep disturbances as a potential contributor to cognitive deficits in several disorders, a fact which is often overlooked up to date.

  12. Offline consolidation of memory varies with time in slow wave sleep and can be accelerated by cuing memory reactivations.

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    Diekelmann, Susanne; Biggel, Simon; Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Memory representations are reactivated during slow-wave sleep (SWS) after learning, and these reactivations cause a beneficial effect of sleep for memory consolidation. Memory reactivations can also be externally triggered during sleep by associated cues which enhance the sleep-dependent memory consolidation process. Here, we compared in humans the influence of sleep periods (i) of 40min and (ii) of 90min without externally triggered reactivations and (iii) of externally triggered reactivations by an associated odor cue during a 40-min sleep period on the consolidation of previously learned hippocampus-dependent visuo-spatial memories. We show that external reactivation by an odor cue during the 40-min sleep period enhanced memory stability to the same extent as 90min of sleep without odor reactivation. In contrast, 40min of sleep without external reactivations were not sufficient to benefit memory. In the 90-min sleep condition, memory enhancements were associated with time spent in SWS and were independent of the presence or absence of REM sleep. These results suggest that the efficacy of hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation depends on the duration of sleep and particularly SWS. External reactivation cues can accelerate the consolidation process even during shorter sleep episodes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Negative emotion elicited in high school students enhances consolidation of item memory, but not source memory.

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    Wang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    The study examined the effect of negative emotion on consolidation of both item and source memory. Participants learned words read by either a male or female. Then they watched either a negative or a neutral video clip. Memory tests were carried out either 25min or 24h after learning. The study yielded the following findings. First, negative emotion enhanced consolidation of item memory as measured by recognition memory in the 25-min delay, and enhanced consolidation of item memory as measured by free recall in both the 25-min and the 24-h delay. Second, negative emotion had little effect on consolidation of source memory, either in the 25-min or the 24-h delay. These findings provide evidence for the differential effects of negative emotion on item memory and source memory and have implications for using emotion as a strategy to intervene memory consolidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Does abnormal sleep impair memory consolidation in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara S Manoach

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although disturbed sleep is a prominent feature of schizophrenia, its relation to the pathophysiology, signs, and symptoms of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. Sleep disturbances are well known to impair cognition in healthy individuals. Yet, in spite of its ubiquity in schizophrenia, abnormal sleep has generally been overlooked as a potential contributor to cognitive deficits. Amelioration of cognitive deficits is a current priority of the schizophrenia research community, but most efforts to define, characterize, and quantify cognitive deficits focus on cross-sectional measures. While this approach provides a valid snapshot of function, there is now overwhelming evidence that critical aspects of learning and memory consolidation happen offline, both over time and with sleep. Initial memory encoding is followed by a prolonged period of consolidation, integration, and reorganization, that continues over days or even years. Much of this evolution of memories is mediated by sleep. This article briefly reviews (i abnormal sleep in schizophrenia, (ii sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy individuals, (iii recent findings of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia, and (iv implications of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia. This literature suggests that abnormal sleep in schizophrenia disrupts attention and impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation and task automation. We conclude that these sleep-dependent impairments may contribute substantially to generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Understanding this contribution may open new avenues to ameliorating cognitive dysfunction and thereby improve outcome in schizophrenia.

  15. Possible Overlapping Time Frames of Acquisition and Consolidation Phases in Object Memory Processes: A Pharmacological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Sven; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) are able to improve object memory by enhancing acquisition processes. On the other hand, only PDE-Is improve consolidation processes. Here we show that the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil also improves memory performance when…

  16. The role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Takashima, A.

    2011-01-01

    System-level memory consolidation theory posits that the hippocampus initially links the neocortical representations, followed by a shift to a hippocampus-independent neocortical network. With consolidation, an increase in activity in the human subgenual ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has

  17. The Time Course of Consolidation in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Edward K.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Luck, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    How long does it take to form a durable representation in visual working memory? Several theorists have proposed that this consolidation process is very slow. Here, we measured the time course of consolidation. Observers performed a change-detection task for colored squares, and shortly after the presentation of the first array, pattern masks were…

  18. Better than sleep: theta neurofeedback training accelerates memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Miriam; Rozengurt, Roman; Barnea, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Consistent empirical results showed that both night and day sleep enhanced memory consolidation. In this study we explore processes of consolidation of memory during awake hours. Since theta oscillations have been shown to play a central role in exchange of information, we hypothesized that elevated theta during awake hours will enhance memory consolidation. We used a neurofeedback protocol, to enhance the relative power of theta or beta oscillations. Participants trained on a tapping task, were divided into three groups: neurofeedback theta; neurofeedback beta; control. We found a significant improvement in performance in the theta group, relative to the beta and control groups, immediately after neurofeedback. Performance was further improved after night sleep in all groups, with a significant advantage favoring the theta group. Theta power during training was correlated with the level of improvement, indicating a clear relationship between memory consolidation, and theta neurofeedback. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of the swimming exercise on the consolidation and persistence of auditory and contextual fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Rodolfo Souza; Gutierres, Luís Felipe Soares; Sobrinho, Fernando César Faria; Miranda, Iris do Vale; Reis, Júlia Dos; Dias, Elayne Vieira; Sartori, Cesar Renato; Moreira, Dalmo Antonio Ribeiro

    2016-08-15

    Exposure to negative environmental events triggers defensive behavior and leads to the formation of aversive associative memory. Cellular and molecular changes in the central nervous system underlie this memory formation, as well as the associated behavioral changes. In general, memory process is established in distinct phases such as acquisition, consolidation, evocation, persistence, and extinction of the acquired information. After exposure to a particular event, early changes in involved neural circuits support the memory consolidation, which corresponds to the short-term memory. Re-exposure to previously memorized events evokes the original memory, a process that is considered essential for the reactivation and consequent persistence of memory, ensuring that long-term memory is established. Different environmental stimuli may modulate the memory formation process, as well as their distinct phases. Among the different environmental stimuli able of modulating memory formation is the physical exercise which is a potent modulator of neuronal activity. There are many studies showing that physical exercise modulates learning and memory processes, mainly in the consolidation phase of the explicit memory. However, there are few reports in the literature regarding the role of physical exercise in implicit aversive associative memory, especially at the persistence phase. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between swimming exercise and the consolidation and persistence of contextual and auditory-cued fear memory. Male Wistar rats were submitted to sessions of swimming exercise five times a week, over six weeks. After that, the rats were submitted to classical aversive conditioning training by a pairing tone/foot shock paradigm. Finally, rats were evaluated for consolidation and persistence of fear memory to both auditory and contextual cues. Our results demonstrate that classical aversive conditioning with tone/foot shock pairing induced

  20. A Bird's Eye View of Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawn, Timothy P; Margoliash, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    How new experiences are solidified into long-lasting memories is a central question in the study of brain and behavior. One of the most intriguing discoveries in memory research is that brain activity during sleep helps to transform newly learned information and skills into robust memories. Though the first experimental work linking sleep and memory was conducted 90 years ago by Jenkins and Dallenbach, the case for sleep-dependent memory consolidation has only garnered strong support in the last decade. Recent studies in humans provide extensive behavioral, imaging, and polysomnographic data supporting sleep consolidation of a broad range of memory tasks. Likewise, studies in a few animal model systems have elucidated potential mechanisms contributing to sleep consolidation such as neural reactivation and synaptic homeostasis. Here, we present an overview of sleep-dependent memory consolidation, focusing on how investigations of sleep and learning in birds have complemented the progress made in mammalian systems by emphasizing a strong connection between behavior and physiology. We begin by describing the behavioral approach that has been utilized to demonstrate sleep consolidation in humans. We then address neural reactivation in the rodent hippocampal system as a putative mechanism of sleep consolidation. Next, we discuss the role of sleep in the learning and maintenance of song in zebra finches. We note that while both the rodent and zebra finch systems provide evidence for sleep-dependent memory changes in physiology and behavior, neither duplicates the pattern of changes most commonly observed in humans. Finally, we present a recently developed model of sleep consolidation involving auditory classification learning in European starlings , which has the potential to connect behavioral evidence of sleep consolidation as developed in humans with underlying neural mechanisms observable in animals.

  1. Peripheral and central CB1 cannabinoid receptors control stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets-Garcia, Arnau; Gomis-González, Maria; Srivastava, Raj Kamal; Cutando, Laura; Ortega-Alvaro, Antonio; Ruehle, Sabine; Remmers, Floortje; Bindila, Laura; Bellocchio, Luigi; Marsicano, Giovanni; Lutz, Beat; Maldonado, Rafael; Ozaita, Andrés

    2016-08-30

    Stressful events can generate emotional memories linked to the traumatic incident, but they also can impair the formation of nonemotional memories. Although the impact of stress on emotional memories is well studied, much less is known about the influence of the emotional state on the formation of nonemotional memories. We used the novel object-recognition task as a model of nonemotional memory in mice to investigate the underlying mechanism of the deleterious effect of stress on memory consolidation. Systemic, hippocampal, and peripheral blockade of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors abolished the stress-induced memory impairment. Genetic deletion and rescue of CB1 receptors in specific cell types revealed that the CB1 receptor population specifically in dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH)-expressing cells is both necessary and sufficient for stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation, but CB1 receptors present in other neuronal populations are not involved. Strikingly, pharmacological manipulations in mice expressing CB1 receptors exclusively in DBH(+) cells revealed that both hippocampal and peripheral receptors mediate the impact of stress on memory consolidation. Thus, CB1 receptors on adrenergic and noradrenergic cells provide previously unrecognized cross-talk between central and peripheral mechanisms in the stress-dependent regulation of nonemotional memory consolidation, suggesting new potential avenues for the treatment of cognitive aspects on stress-related disorders.

  2. Hippocampo-cortical coupling mediates memory consolidation during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingret, Nicolas; Girardeau, Gabrielle; Todorova, Ralitsa; Goutierre, Marie; Zugaro, Michaël

    2016-07-01

    Memory consolidation is thought to involve a hippocampo-cortical dialog during sleep to stabilize labile memory traces for long-term storage. However, direct evidence supporting this hypothesis is lacking. We dynamically manipulated the temporal coordination between the two structures during sleep following training on a spatial memory task specifically designed to trigger encoding, but not memory consolidation. Reinforcing the endogenous coordination between hippocampal sharp wave-ripples, cortical delta waves and spindles by timed electrical stimulation resulted in a reorganization of prefrontal cortical networks, along with subsequent increased prefrontal responsivity to the task and high recall performance on the next day, contrary to control rats, which performed at chance levels. Our results provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first direct evidence for a causal role of a hippocampo-cortical dialog during sleep in memory consolidation, and indicate that the underlying mechanism involves a fine-tuned coordination between sharp wave-ripples, delta waves and spindles.

  3. How aging affects sleep-dependent memory consolidation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eHarand

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep plays multiple functions among which energy conservation or recuperative processes. Besides, growing evidence indicate that sleep plays also a major role in memory consolidation, a process by which recently acquired and labile memory traces are progressively strengthened into more permanent and/or enhanced forms. Indeed, memories are not stored as they were initially encoded but rather undergo a gradual reorganization process, which is favoured by the neurochemical environment and the electrophysiological activity observed during sleep. Two putative, probably not exclusive, models (hippocampo-neocortical dialogue and synaptic homeostasis hypothesis have been proposed to explain the beneficial effect of sleep on memory processes. It is worth noting that all data gathered until now emerged from studies conducted in young subjects. The investigation of the relationships between sleep and memory in older adults has sparked off little interest until recently. Though, aging is characterized by memory impairment, changes in sleep architecture, as well as brain and neurochemical alterations. All these elements suggest that sleep-dependent memory consolidation may be impaired or occurs differently in older adults.Here, we give an overview of the mechanisms governing sleep-dependent memory consolidation, and the crucial points of this complex process that may dysfunction and result in impaired memory consolidation in aging.

  4. Propranolol disrupts consolidation of emotional memory in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shymansky, Tamila; Hughes, Emily; Rothwell, Cailin M; Lukowiak, Ken

    2018-03-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of the synthetic β-adrenergic receptor blocker, propranolol, for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is currently being debated. Mixed results have been published regarding propranolol's ability to disrupt the consolidation and reconsolidation of memories. Here, we use the invertebrate model Lymnaea to study propranolol's ability to disrupt consolidation of memories formed under varying various types of stress which cause differing degrees of emotional memory. We show that when propranolol is administered immediately following operant conditioning, only the consolidation process of memories enhanced by individual stressors (i.e. a non-emotional memory) is susceptible to disruption. However, when propranolol is administered prior to training, only memories enhanced by a combination of stressors leading to an emotional memory are susceptible to disruption. These data suggest that the time of propranolol administration, as well as the type of memory formed play a key role in propranolol's ability to obstruct memory consolidation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender differences in the effects of post-learning emotion on consolidation of item memory and source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Fu, Xiaolan

    2010-05-01

    Item memory and source memory are two integral elements of episodic memory. Although many studies have examined the effect of emotion on item memory, little research has simultaneously taken into account item memory and source memory. In addition, in the majority of previous studies, learning stimuli are used as the source of emotion, making it difficult to understand whether emotion has an effect on encoding or on consolidation of episodic memory. Furthermore, although gender differences exist in neurophysiological responses to emotional stimuli, in many studies gender differences were neglected and this leaves the picture incomplete regarding the effect of emotion on episodic memory. In this study, we examined gender differences in the effects of post-learning emotion on consolidation of item memory and source memory. Participants learned neutral Chinese nouns, took a memory pretest, and were then randomly assigned to three conditions, in which they either watched a 3-min negative video clip, or watched a 3-min positive video clip, or remained calm and relaxed for 3 min. Thirty minutes after the initial learning, participants took a memory posttest. We found that: (1) For females, post-learning negative emotion enhanced consolidation of item memory; however, neither negative emotion nor positive emotion had a significant effect on consolidation of source memory; (2) For males, neither negative nor positive emotion after learning had a significant effect on either item memory or source memory. Possible reasons for the gender differences, as well as the theoretical significance and practical implications of this study were discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impaired memory consolidation in children with obstructive sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maski, Kiran; Steinhart, Erin; Holbrook, Hannah; Katz, Eliot S; Kapur, Kush; Stickgold, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Memory consolidation is stabilized and even enhanced by sleep (and particularly by 12-15 Hz sleep spindles in NREM stage 2 sleep) in healthy children but it is unclear what happens to these processes when sleep is disturbed by obstructive sleep disordered breathing. This cross-sectional study investigates differences in declarative memory consolidation among children with primary snoring (PS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) compared to controls. We further investigate whether memory consolidation group differences are associated with NREM stage 2 (N2) sigma (12-15 Hz) or NREM slow oscillation (0.5-1 Hz) spectral power bands. In this study, we trained and tested participants on a spatial declarative memory task with cued recall. Retest occurred after a period of daytime wake (Wake) or a night of sleep (Sleep) with in-lab polysomnography. 36 participants ages 5-9 years completed the protocol: 14 with OSA as defined by respiratory disturbance index (RDI) > 1/hour, 12 with primary snoring (PS) and 10 controls. OSA participants had poorer overall memory consolidation than controls across Wake and Sleep conditions [OSA: mean = -18.7% (5.8), controls: mean = 1.9% (7.2), t = -2.20, P = 0.04]. In contrast, PS participants and controls had comparable memory consolidation across conditions (t = 0.41; P = 0.38). We did not detect a main effect for condition (Sleep, Wake) or group x condition interaction on memory consolidation. OSA participants had lower N2 sigma power than PS (P = 0.03) and controls (P = 0.004) and N2 sigma power inversely correlated with percentage of time snoring on the study night (r = -0.33, Pmemory consolidation in both Sleep (r = 0.37, P = 0.03) and Wake conditions (r = 0.44, P = 0.009). Further observed variable path analysis showed that N2 sigma power mediated the relationship between group and mean memory consolidation across Sleep and Wake states [Bindirect = 6.76(3.5), z = 2.03, P = 0.04]. NREM slow oscillation power did not correlate with memory

  7. No Associations between Interindividual Differences in Sleep Parameters and Episodic Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Rasch, Björn

    2015-06-01

    Sleep and memory are stable and heritable traits that strongly differ between individuals. Sleep benefits memory consolidation, and the amount of slow wave sleep, sleep spindles, and rapid eye movement sleep have been repeatedly identified as reliable predictors for the amount of declarative and/or emotional memories retrieved after a consolidation period filled with sleep. These studies typically encompass small sample sizes, increasing the probability of overestimating the real association strength. In a large sample we tested whether individual differences in sleep are predictive for individual differences in memory for emotional and neutral pictures. Between-subject design. Cognitive testing took place at the University of Basel, Switzerland. Sleep was recorded at participants' homes, using portable electroencephalograph-recording devices. Nine hundred-twenty-nine healthy young participants (mean age 22.48 ± 3.60 y standard deviation). None. In striking contrast to our expectations as well as numerous previous findings, we did not find any significant correlations between sleep and memory consolidation for pictorial stimuli. Our results indicate that individual differences in sleep are much less predictive for pictorial memory processes than previously assumed and suggest that previous studies using small sample sizes might have overestimated the association strength between sleep stage duration and pictorial memory performance. Future studies need to determine whether intraindividual differences rather than interindividual differences in sleep stage duration might be more predictive for the consolidation of emotional and neutral pictures during sleep. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Memory Consolidation Is Linked to Spindle-Mediated Information Processing during Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, Scott A; Guttesen, Anna Á Váli; El Marj, Nicole; Staresina, Bernhard P

    2018-03-02

    How are brief encounters transformed into lasting memories? Previous research has established the role of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, along with its electrophysiological signatures of slow oscillations (SOs) and spindles, for memory consolidation [1-4]. In related work, experimental manipulations have demonstrated that NREM sleep provides a window of opportunity to selectively strengthen particular memory traces via the delivery of auditory cues [5-10], a procedure known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR). It has remained unclear, however, whether TMR triggers the brain's endogenous consolidation mechanisms (linked to SOs and/or spindles) and whether those mechanisms in turn mediate effective processing of mnemonic information. We devised a novel paradigm in which associative memories (adjective-object and adjective-scene pairs) were selectively cued during a post-learning nap, successfully stabilizing next-day retention relative to non-cued memories. First, we found that, compared to novel control adjectives, memory cues evoked an increase in fast spindles. Critically, during the time window of cue-induced spindle activity, the memory category linked to the verbal cue (object or scene) could be reliably decoded, with the fidelity of this decoding predicting the behavioral consolidation benefits of TMR. These results provide correlative evidence for an information processing role of sleep spindles in service of memory consolidation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Consolidation of long-term memory: Evidence and alternatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Memory loss in retrograde amnesia has long been held to be larger for recent periods than for remote periods, a pattern usually referred to as the Ribot gradient. One explanation for this gradient is consolidation of long-term memories. Several computational models of such a process have shown how

  10. Memory Reactivation and Consolidation during Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, Ken A.; Voss, Joel L.

    2004-01-01

    Do our memories remain static during sleep, or do they change? We argue here that memory change is not only a natural result of sleep cognition, but further, that such change constitutes a fundamental characteristic of declarative memories. In general, declarative memories change due to retrieval events at various times after initial learning and…

  11. Acute Exercise and Motor Memory Consolidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard

    implications for different settings, including rehabilitation, schools and sports, it is currently unclear to what extent the parameters within exercise itself differentially affect the consolidation process of motor skill learning. The aim of this thesis was, therefore, to investigate the variables...... of exercise intensity, timing and type on the consolidation of visuomotor skill learning, to obtain further understanding of the behavioral effects and underlying mechanisms. Study I focused on the role of exercise intensity and included a low (EX45: 45% Wmax) and high (EX90: 90% Wmax) intensity aerobic......-acquisition level and CON. There were no between-group differences 1 day for the exercise groups. Exercise type did not differentially affect the consolidation and retention of the visuomotor skill learning. Conclusions: Acute exercise modulates the consolidation of newly acquired motor skills in humans...

  12. Reversible Plasticity of Fear Memory-Encoding Amygdala Synaptic Circuits Even after Fear Memory Consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Ingie; Kim, Jihye; Lee, Junuk; Park, Sungmo; Song, Beomjong; Kim, Jeongyeon; An, Bobae; Park, Kyungjoon; Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Hyun; Park, Sang-Hyun; Eom, Khee Dong; Lee, Sukwon; Choi, Sukwoo

    2011-01-01

    It is generally believed that after memory consolidation, memory-encoding synaptic circuits are persistently modified and become less plastic. This, however, may hinder the remaining capacity of information storage in a given neural circuit. Here we consider the hypothesis that memory-encoding synaptic circuits still retain reversible plasticity even after memory consolidation. To test this, we employed a protocol of auditory fear conditioning which recruited the vast majority of the thalamic...

  13. Sleep Deprivation Selectively Impairs Memory Consolidation for Contextual Fear Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, Laurel A.; Heller, Elizabeth A.; Pack, Allan I.; Abel, Ted

    2003-01-01

    Many behavioral and electrophysiological studies in animals and humans have suggested that sleep and circadian rhythms influence memory consolidation. In rodents, hippocampus-dependent memory may be particularly sensitive to sleep deprivation after training, as spatial memory in the Morris water maze is impaired by rapid eye movement sleep deprivation following training. Spatial learning in the Morris water maze, however, requires multiple training trials and performan...

  14. Consolidation differentially modulates schema effects on memory for items and associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlieke T R van Kesteren

    Full Text Available Newly learned information that is congruent with a preexisting schema is often better remembered than information that is incongruent. This schema effect on memory has previously been associated to more efficient encoding and consolidation mechanisms. However, this effect is not always consistently supported in the literature, with differential schema effects reported for different types of memory, different retrieval cues, and the possibility of time-dependent effects related to consolidation processes. To examine these effects more directly, we tested participants on two different types of memory (item recognition and associative memory for newly encoded visuo-tactile associations at different study-test intervals, thus probing memory retrieval accuracy for schema-congruent and schema-incongruent items and associations at different time points (t = 0, t = 20, and t = 48 hours after encoding. Results show that the schema effect on visual item recognition only arises after consolidation, while the schema effect on associative memory is already apparent immediately after encoding, persisting, but getting smaller over time. These findings give further insight into different factors influencing the schema effect on memory, and can inform future schema experiments by illustrating the value of considering effects of memory type and consolidation on schema-modulated retrieval.

  15. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation and accelerated forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Kathryn E; Nobre, Anna C; Zeman, Adam Z; Butler, Christopher R

    2014-05-01

    Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is a form of memory impairment in which learning and initial retention of information appear normal but subsequent forgetting is excessively rapid. ALF is most commonly associated with epilepsy and, in particular, a form of late-onset epilepsy called transient epileptic amnesia (TEA). ALF provides a novel opportunity to investigate post-encoding memory processes, such as consolidation. Sleep is implicated in the consolidation of memory in healthy people and a deficit in sleep-dependent memory consolidation has been proposed as an explanation for ALF. If this proposal were correct, then sleep would not benefit memory retention in people with ALF as much as in healthy people, and ALF might only be apparent when the retention interval contains sleep. To test this theory, we compared performance on a sleep-sensitive memory task over a night of sleep and a day of wakefulness. We found, contrary to the hypothesis, that sleep benefits memory retention in TEA patients with ALF and that this benefit is no smaller in magnitude than that seen in healthy controls. Indeed, the patients performed significantly more poorly than the controls only in the wake condition and not the sleep condition. Patients were matched to controls on learning rate, initial retention, and the effect of time of day on cognitive performance. These results indicate that ALF is not caused by a disruption of sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Instead, ALF may be due to an encoding abnormality that goes undetected on behavioural assessments of learning, or by a deficit in memory consolidation processes that are not sleep-dependent. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Post-training meditation promotes motor memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten A Immink

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Following training, motor memory consolidation is thought to involve either memory stabilization or off-line learning processes. The extent to which memory stabilization or off-line learning relies on post-training wakeful periods or sleep is not clear and thus, novel research approaches are needed to further explore the conditions that promote motor memory consolidation. The present experiment represents the first empirical test of meditation as potential facilitator of motor memory consolidation. Twelve adult residents of a yoga center with a mean of nine years meditation experience were trained on a sequence key pressing task. Three hours after training, the meditation group completed a 30 minute session of yoga nidra meditation while a control group completed 30 minutes of light work duties. A wakeful period of 4.5 hours followed meditation after which participants completed a test involving both trained and untrained sequences. Training performance did not significantly differ between groups. Comparison of group performance at test, revealed a performance benefit of post-training meditation but this was limited to trained sequences only. That the post-training meditation performance benefit was specific to trained sequences is consistent with the notion of meditation promoting motor memory consolidation as opposed to general motor task performance benefits from meditation. Further, post-training meditation appears to have promoted motor memory stabilization as opposed to off-line learning. These findings represent the first demonstration of meditation related motor memory consolidation and are consistent with a growing body of literature demonstrating the benefits of meditation for cognitive function, including memory.

  17. Post-training Meditation Promotes Motor Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immink, Maarten A

    2016-01-01

    Following training, motor memory consolidation is thought to involve either memory stabilization or off-line learning processes. The extent to which memory stabilization or off-line learning relies on post-training wakeful periods or sleep is not clear and thus, novel research approaches are needed to further explore the conditions that promote motor memory consolidation. The present experiment represents the first empirical test of meditation as potential facilitator of motor memory consolidation. Twelve adult residents of a yoga center with a mean of 9 years meditation experience were trained on a sequence key pressing task. Three hours after training, the meditation group completed a 30 min session of yoga nidra meditation while a control group completed 30 min of light work duties. A wakeful period of 4.5 h followed meditation after which participants completed a test involving both trained and untrained sequences. Training performance did not significantly differ between groups. Comparison of group performance at test, revealed a performance benefit of post-training meditation but this was limited to trained sequences only. That the post-training meditation performance benefit was specific to trained sequences is consistent with the notion of meditation promoting motor memory consolidation as opposed to general motor task performance benefits from meditation. Further, post-training meditation appears to have promoted motor memory stabilization as opposed to off-line learning. These findings represent the first demonstration of meditation related motor memory consolidation and are consistent with a growing body of literature demonstrating the benefits of meditation for cognitive function, including memory.

  18. Sleep deprivation impairs consolidation of cued fear memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Tankesh; Jha, Sushil K

    2012-01-01

    Post-learning sleep facilitates negative memory consolidation and also helps preserve it over several years. It is believed, therefore, that sleep deprivation may help prevent consolidation of fearful memory. Its effect, however, on consolidation of negative/frightening memories is not known. Cued fear-conditioning (CuFC) is a widely used model to understand the neural basis of negative memory associated with anxiety disorders. In this study, we first determined the suitable circadian timing for consolidation of CuFC memory and changes in sleep architecture after CuFC. Thereafter, we studied the effect of sleep deprivation on CuFC memory consolidation. Three sets of experiments were performed in male Wistar rat (n=51). In experiment-I, animals were conditioned to cued-fear by presenting ten tone-shock paired stimuli during lights-on (7 AM) (n=9) and lights-off (7 PM) (n=9) periods. In experiment-II, animals were prepared for polysomnographic recording (n=8) and changes in sleep architecture after CuFC was determined. Further in experiment-III, animals were cued fear-conditioned during the lights-off period and were randomly divided into four groups: Sleep-Deprived (SD) (n=9), Non-Sleep Deprived (NSD) (n=9), Stress Control (SC) (n=9) and Tone Control (n=7). Percent freezing amount, a hallmark of fear, was compared statistically in these groups. Rats trained during the lights-off period exhibited significantly more freezing compared to lights-on period. In CuFC trained animals, total sleep amount did not change, however, REM sleep decreased significantly. Further, out of total sleep time, animals spent proportionately more time in NREM sleep. Nevertheless, SD animals exhibited significantly less freezing compared to NSD and SC groups. These data suggest that sleep plays an important role in the consolidation of cued fear-conditioned memory.

  19. Sleep deprivation impairs consolidation of cued fear memory in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tankesh Kumar

    Full Text Available Post-learning sleep facilitates negative memory consolidation and also helps preserve it over several years. It is believed, therefore, that sleep deprivation may help prevent consolidation of fearful memory. Its effect, however, on consolidation of negative/frightening memories is not known. Cued fear-conditioning (CuFC is a widely used model to understand the neural basis of negative memory associated with anxiety disorders. In this study, we first determined the suitable circadian timing for consolidation of CuFC memory and changes in sleep architecture after CuFC. Thereafter, we studied the effect of sleep deprivation on CuFC memory consolidation. Three sets of experiments were performed in male Wistar rat (n=51. In experiment-I, animals were conditioned to cued-fear by presenting ten tone-shock paired stimuli during lights-on (7 AM (n=9 and lights-off (7 PM (n=9 periods. In experiment-II, animals were prepared for polysomnographic recording (n=8 and changes in sleep architecture after CuFC was determined. Further in experiment-III, animals were cued fear-conditioned during the lights-off period and were randomly divided into four groups: Sleep-Deprived (SD (n=9, Non-Sleep Deprived (NSD (n=9, Stress Control (SC (n=9 and Tone Control (n=7. Percent freezing amount, a hallmark of fear, was compared statistically in these groups. Rats trained during the lights-off period exhibited significantly more freezing compared to lights-on period. In CuFC trained animals, total sleep amount did not change, however, REM sleep decreased significantly. Further, out of total sleep time, animals spent proportionately more time in NREM sleep. Nevertheless, SD animals exhibited significantly less freezing compared to NSD and SC groups. These data suggest that sleep plays an important role in the consolidation of cued fear-conditioned memory.

  20. Cerebral Activation During Initial Motor Learning Forecasts Subsequent Sleep-Facilitated Memory Consolidation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bradley R; Saucier, Philippe; Albouy, Genevieve; Fogel, Stuart M; Rumpf, Jost-Julian; Klann, Juliane; Buccino, Giovanni; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Classen, Joseph; Karni, Avi; Doyon, Julien

    2017-02-01

    Older adults exhibit deficits in motor memory consolidation; however, little is known about the cerebral correlates of this impairment. We thus employed fMRI to investigate the neural substrates underlying motor sequence memory consolidation, and the modulatory influence of post-learning sleep, in healthy older adults. Participants were trained on a motor sequence and retested following an 8-h interval including wake or diurnal sleep as well as a 22-h interval including a night of sleep. Results demonstrated that a post-learning nap improved offline consolidation across same- and next-day retests. This enhanced consolidation was reflected by increased activity in the putamen and the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, regions that have previously been implicated in sleep-dependent neural plasticity in young adults. Moreover, for the first time in older adults, the neural substrates subserving initial motor learning, including the putamen, cerebellum, and parietal cortex, were shown to forecast subsequent consolidation depending on whether a post-learning nap was afforded. Specifically, sufficient activation in a motor-related network appears to be necessary to trigger sleep-facilitated consolidation in older adults. Our findings not only demonstrate that post-learning sleep can enhance motor memory consolidation in older adults, but also provide the system-level neural correlates of this beneficial effect. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Diminished nap effects on memory consolidation are seen under oral contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, Lisa; Bäurle, Anna; Potyka, Alina; Wehrle, Renate; Adamczyk, Marek; Friess, Elisabeth; Steiger, Axel; Dresler, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many young females take exogenous hormones as oral contraceptive (OC), a condition rarely controlled for in studies on sleep and memory consolidation even though sex hormones influence consolidation. This study investigated the effects of OCs on sleep-related consolidation of a motor and declarative task, utilizing a daytime nap protocol. Fifteen healthy, young females taking OCs came to the sleep lab for three different conditions: nap with previous learning, wake with previous learning and nap without learning. They underwent each condition twice, once during the "pill-active" weeks and once during the "pill-free" week, resulting in 6 visits. In all conditions, participants showed a significant off-line consolidation effect, independent of pill week or nap/wake condition. There were no significant differences in sleep stage duration, spindle activity or spectral EEG frequency bands between naps with or without the learning condition. The present data showed a significant off-line enhancement in memory irrespective of potential beneficial effects of a nap. In comparison to previous studies, this may suggest that the use of OCs may enhance off-line memory consolidation in motor and verbal tasks per se. These results stress the importance to control for the use of OCs in studies focusing on memory performance. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Familiarity speeds up visual short-term memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2017-06-01

    Existing long-term memory (LTM) can boost the number of retained representations over a short delay in visual short-term memory (VSTM). However, it is unclear whether and how prior LTM affects the initial process of transforming fragile sensory inputs into durable VSTM representations (i.e., VSTM consolidation). The consolidation speed hypothesis predicts faster consolidation for familiar relative to unfamiliar stimuli. Alternatively, the perceptual boost hypothesis predicts that the advantage in perceptual processing of familiar stimuli should add a constant boost for familiar stimuli during VSTM consolidation. To test these competing hypotheses, the present study examined how the large variance in participants' prior multimedia experience with Pokémon affected VSTM for Pokémon. In Experiment 1, the amount of time allowed for VSTM consolidation was manipulated by presenting consolidation masks at different intervals after the onset of to-be-remembered Pokémon characters. First-generation Pokémon characters that participants were more familiar with were consolidated faster into VSTM as compared with recent-generation Pokémon characters that participants were less familiar with. These effects were absent in participants who were unfamiliar with both generations of Pokémon. Although familiarity also increased the number of retained Pokémon characters when consolidation was uninterrupted but still incomplete due to insufficient encoding time in Experiment 1, this capacity effect was absent in Experiment 2 when consolidation was allowed to complete with sufficient encoding time. Together, these results support the consolidation speed hypothesis over the perceptual boost hypothesis and highlight the importance of assessing experimental effects on both processing and representation aspects of VSTM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Sleep Dependent Memory Consolidation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maski, Kiran; Holbrook, Hannah; Manoach, Dara; Hanson, Ellen; Kapur, Kush; Stickgold, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Examine the role of sleep in the consolidation of declarative memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Case-control study. Home-based study with sleep and wake conditions. Twenty-two participants with ASD and 20 control participants between 9 and 16 y of age. Participants were trained to criterion on a spatial declarative memory task and then given a cued recall test. Retest occurred after a period of daytime wake (Wake) or a night of sleep (Sleep) with home-based polysomnography; Wake and Sleep conditions were counterbalanced. Children with ASD had poorer sleep efficiency than controls, but other sleep macroarchitectural and microarchitectural measures were comparable after controlling for age and medication use. Both groups demonstrated better memory consolidation across Sleep than Wake, although participants with ASD had poorer overall memory consolidation than controls. There was no interaction between group and condition. The change in performance across sleep, independent of medication and age, showed no significant relationships with any specific sleep parameters other than total sleep time and showed a trend toward less forgetting in the control group. This study shows that despite their more disturbed sleep quality, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) still demonstrate more stable memory consolidation across sleep than in wake conditions. The findings support the importance of sleep for stabilizing memory in children with and without neurodevelopmental disabilities. Our results suggest that improving sleep quality in children with ASD could have direct benefits to improving their overall cognitive functioning. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Optogenetic disruption of sleep continuity impairs memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Asya; Colas, Damien; Adamantidis, Antoine; Carter, Matt; Lanre-Amos, Tope; Heller, H Craig; de Lecea, Luis

    2011-08-09

    Memory consolidation has been proposed as a function of sleep. However, sleep is a complex phenomenon characterized by several features including duration, intensity, and continuity. Sleep continuity is disrupted in different neurological and psychiatric conditions, many of which are accompanied by memory deficits. This finding has raised the question of whether the continuity of sleep is important for memory consolidation. However, current techniques used in sleep research cannot manipulate a single sleep feature while maintaining the others constant. Here, we introduce the use of optogenetics to investigate the role of sleep continuity in memory consolidation. We optogenetically targeted hypocretin/orexin neurons, which play a key role in arousal processes. We used optogenetics to activate these neurons at different intervals in behaving mice and were able to fragment sleep without affecting its overall amount or intensity. Fragmenting sleep after the learning phase of the novel object recognition (NOR) task significantly decreased the performance of mice on the subsequent day, but memory was unaffected if the average duration of sleep episodes was maintained at 62-73% of normal. These findings demonstrate the use of optogenetic activation of arousal-related nuclei as a way to systematically manipulate a specific feature of sleep. We conclude that regardless of the total amount of sleep or sleep intensity, a minimal unit of uninterrupted sleep is crucial for memory consolidation.

  5. Sculpting memory during sleep: concurrent consolidation and forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Gordon B; Born, Jan

    2017-06-01

    There is compelling evidence that sleep actively supports the formation of long-lasting memory representations. Experimental cuing of memories proved that neural replay of representations during sleep plays a causal role for this consolidation, which has also been shown to promote neocortical synaptic plasticity and spine formation. Concurrently, sleep has been proposed to facilitate forgetting through processes of synaptic renormalisation. This view received indirect support by findings in humans of sleep enhancing TMS-evoked plasticity and capabilities for encoding new information. First direct behavioural evidence of sleep inducing forgetting has only recently emerged after encoding large amounts of stimuli in adults. We propose forgetting complements sleep-dependent consolidation and facilitates gist abstraction especially at high memory loads, when reactivation-based consolidation reaches capacity limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synaptic Mechanisms of Memory Consolidation during Sleep Slow Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yina; Krishnan, Giri P; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2016-04-13

    Sleep is critical for regulation of synaptic efficacy, memories, and learning. However, the underlying mechanisms of how sleep rhythms contribute to consolidating memories acquired during wakefulness remain unclear. Here we studied the role of slow oscillations, 0.2-1 Hz rhythmic transitions between Up and Down states during stage 3/4 sleep, on dynamics of synaptic connectivity in the thalamocortical network model implementing spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity. We found that the spatiotemporal pattern of Up-state propagation determines the changes of synaptic strengths between neurons. Furthermore, an external input, mimicking hippocampal ripples, delivered to the cortical network results in input-specific changes of synaptic weights, which persisted after stimulation was removed. These synaptic changes promoted replay of specific firing sequences of the cortical neurons. Our study proposes a neuronal mechanism on how an interaction between hippocampal input, such as mediated by sharp wave-ripple events, cortical slow oscillations, and synaptic plasticity, may lead to consolidation of memories through preferential replay of cortical cell spike sequences during slow-wave sleep. Sleep is critical for memory and learning. Replay during sleep of temporally ordered spike sequences related to a recent experience was proposed to be a neuronal substrate of memory consolidation. However, specific mechanisms of replay or how spike sequence replay leads to synaptic changes that underlie memory consolidation are still poorly understood. Here we used a detailed computational model of the thalamocortical system to report that interaction between slow cortical oscillations and synaptic plasticity during deep sleep can underlie mapping hippocampal memory traces to persistent cortical representation. This study provided, for the first time, a mechanistic explanation of how slow-wave sleep may promote consolidation of recent memory events. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/364231-17$15.00/0.

  7. Sleep and cortisol interact to support memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Kelly A; Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Payne, Jessica D

    2015-03-01

    Separate lines of research have demonstrated that rises in cortisol can benefit memory consolidation, as can the occurrence of sleep soon after encoding. For the first time, we demonstrate that pre-learning cortisol interacts with sleep to benefit memory consolidation, particularly for negative arousing items. Resting cortisol levels during encoding were positively correlated with subsequent memory, but only following a period of sleep. There was no such relation following a period of wakefulness. Using eye tracking, we further reveal that for negative stimuli, this facilitative effect may arise because cortisol strengthens the relationship between looking time at encoding and subsequent memory. We suggest that elevated cortisol may "tag" attended information as important to remember at the time of encoding, thus enabling sleep-based processes to optimally consolidate salient information in a selective manner. Neuroimaging data suggest that this optimized consolidation leads to a refinement of the neural processes recruited for successful retrieval of negative stimuli, with the retrieval of items attended in the presence of elevated cortisol and consolidated over a night of sleep associated with activity in the amygdala and vmPFC. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Regions Required for the Consolidation of Social Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimizu, Toshiyuki; Kenney, Justin W; Okano, Emiko; Kadoma, Kazune; Frankland, Paul W; Kida, Satoshi

    2017-04-12

    Social recognition memory is an essential and basic component of social behavior that is used to discriminate familiar and novel animals/humans. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for social recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of social recognition memory at the molecular and anatomic levels remain unknown. Here, we show a brain network necessary for the generation of social recognition memory in mice. A mouse genetic study showed that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription is required for the formation of social recognition memory. Importantly, significant inductions of the CREB target immediate-early genes c-fos and Arc were observed in the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3 regions), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala (basolateral region) when social recognition memory was generated. Pharmacological experiments using a microinfusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin showed that protein synthesis in these brain regions is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory. These findings suggested that social recognition memory is consolidated through the activation of CREB-mediated gene expression in the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala. Network analyses suggested that these four brain regions show functional connectivity with other brain regions and, more importantly, that the hippocampus functions as a hub to integrate brain networks and generate social recognition memory, whereas the ACC and amygdala are important for coordinating brain activity when social interaction is initiated by connecting with other brain regions. We have found that a brain network composed of the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here, we identify brain networks composed of multiple brain regions for the consolidation of social recognition memory. We

  9. Does age worsen sleep-dependent memory consolidation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdieu, Melaine; Reynaud, Emanuelle; Uhlrich, Josselin; Versace, Remy; Mazza, Stephanie

    2014-02-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) is known to favour episodic memory consolidation. Given that ageing is associated with a reduction in SWS and episodic memory impairment, our aim was to investigate whether memory continues to benefit from sleep in older adults. Episodic memory consolidation was tested in 20 young (22.1 ± 1.7 years) and 20 older volunteers (68.9 ± 5.3 years) who performed a visuospatial two-dimensional object-location task. Retention capacities were evaluated after 12 h of wakefulness or 12 h of sleep. Performances before and after the interval allowed us to calculate a forgetting rate. Sleep architecture was measured by polysomnography (older adults = 410 min; young adults: 467 min). Our results showed that the beneficial effect of sleep on memory consolidation was reduced in older adults compared to young adults. In older adults, sleep did not enhance memory consolidation significantly compared to wakefulness. Sleep prevented young adults from forgetting (-0.10% ± 2.1), while the forgetting rate in older adults was still important after a period of sleep (16.60% ± 4.2; P = 0.05). The sleep architecture of older adults was characterized by a decrease in sleep efficiency (-12%; P sleep was observed (-1%; not significant) and no correlation was found with performance. Age-related changes in sleep parameters may have a negative impact on memory consolidation in older adults. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. The Limited Capacity of Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon B Feld

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep supports memory consolidation. However, the conceptually important influence of the amount of items encoded in a memory test on this effect has not been investigated. In two experiments, participants (n=101 learned lists of word-pairs varying in length (40, 160, 320 word-pairs in the evening before a night of sleep (sleep group or of sleep deprivation (wake group. After 36 h (including a night allowing recovery sleep retrieval was tested. Compared with wakefulness, post-learning sleep enhanced retention for the 160 word-pair condition (p < 0.01, importantly, this effect completely vanished for the 320 word-pair condition. This result indicates a limited capacity for sleep-dependent memory consolidation, which is consistent with an active system consolidation view on sleep’s role for memory, if it is complemented by processes of active forgetting and/or gist abstraction. Whereas the absolute benefit from sleep should have increased with increasing amounts of successfully encoded items, if sleep only passively protected memory from interference. Moreover, the finding that retention performance was significantly diminished for the 320 word-pair condition compared to the 160 word-pair condition in the sleep group, makes it tempting to speculate that with increasing loads of information encoded during wakefulness, sleep might favour processes of forgetting over consolidation.

  11. Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Tests of object recognition memory, or the judgment of the prior occurrence of an object, have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the nature and neurobiological underpinnings of mammalian memory. Only in recent years, however, have researchers begun to elucidate the specific brain areas and neural processes involved in object recognition memory. The present review considers some of this recent research, with an emphasis on studies addressing the neural bases of perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory processes. We first briefly discuss operational definitions of object recognition and the common behavioural tests used to measure it in non-human primates and rodents. We then consider research from the non-human primate and rat literature examining the anatomical basis of object recognition memory in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) and spontaneous object recognition (SOR) tasks, respectively. The results of these studies overwhelmingly favor the view that perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical region for object recognition memory. We then discuss the involvement of PRh in the different stages--encoding, consolidation, and retrieval--of object recognition memory. Specifically, recent work in rats has indicated that neural activity in PRh contributes to object memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes. Finally, we consider the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular factors that might play a part in PRh-mediated object recognition memory. Recent studies in rodents have begun to indicate the remarkable complexity of the neural substrates underlying this seemingly simple aspect of declarative memory.

  12. Resting state networks and memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Neil B.; Robertson, Edwin M.; Mehta, Puja; Miall, R. Chris

    2009-01-01

    Despite their name, resting state networks (RSNs) provide a clear indication that the human brain may be hard-working. Unlike the cardiac and respiratory systems, which greatly reduce their rate of function during periods of inactivity, the human brain may have additional responsibilities during rest. One particularly intriguing function performed by the resting brain is the consolidation of recent learned information, which is known to take place over a period of several hours after learning...

  13. Consolidation differentially modulates schema effects on memory for items and associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Fernández, Guillén

    2013-01-01

    Newly learned information that is congruent with a preexisting schema is often better remembered than information that is incongrSaveuent. This schema effect on memory has previously been associated to more efficient encoding and consolidation mechanisms. However, this effect is not always

  14. Consolidation differentially modulates schema effects on memory for items and associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesteren, M.T. van; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Ruiter, D.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Newly learned information that is congruent with a preexisting schema is often better remembered than information that is incongruent. This schema effect on memory has previously been associated to more efficient encoding and consolidation mechanisms. However, this effect is not always consistently

  15. Does sleep benefit memory consolidation in children with focal epilepsy?

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, S.; Pressler, R.; Boyd, S. G.; Baldeweg, T.; Cross, J. H.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Children with epilepsy have high rates of both cognitive impairment and sleep disruption. It is thus assumed that sleep-dependent memory consolidation is vulnerable to ongoing epileptic activity, but direct evidence of this is limited. METHODS: We performed a within-subject comparison of memory retention across intervals of wake or overnight sleep. Healthy children (n = 21, 6-16 years, 12 female) and children with focal epilepsy (n = 22, 6-16 years, 9 female) performed verbal and v...

  16. Sequential learning during contextual fear conditioning guides the rate of systems consolidation: Implications for consolidation of multiple memory traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Lizeth K; Sierra, Rodrigo O; Crestani, Ana P; Quillfeldt, Jorge A; de Oliveira Alvares, Lucas

    2017-05-01

    Systems consolidation has been described as a time-dependent reorganization process involving the neocortical and hippocampal networks underlying memory storage and retrieval. Previous studies of our lab were able to demonstrate that systems consolidation is a dynamic process, rather than a merely passive, time-dependent phenomenon. Here, we studied the influence of sequential learning in contextual fear conditioning (CFC) with different training intensities in the time-course of hippocampal dependency and contextual specificity. We found that sequential learning with high-intensity shocks during CFC induces generalization of the first learning (context A) and maintains contextual specificity of the second learning (context B) 15 days after acquisition. Moreover, subsequent experiences reorganize brain structures involved in retrieval, accelerating the involvement of cortical structures and diminishing the hippocampal participation. Exposure to original context before novelty seems to only induce context specificity in hippocampal-dependent memories. We propose that systems consolidation could be considered a potential biological mechanism for reducing possible interferences between similar memory traces. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Post-learning molecular reactivation underlies taste memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kioko eGuzman-Ramos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that memory consolidation is a progressive process that requires post-trial stabilization of the information. In this regard, it has been speculated that waves of receptors activation, expression of immediate early genes and replenishment of receptor subunit pools occur to induce functional or morphological changes to maintain the information for longer periods. In this paper, we will review data related to neuronal changes in the post-acquisition stage of taste aversion learning that could be involved in further stabilization of the memory trace. In order to achieve such stabilization, evidence suggests that the functional integrity of the insular cortex (IC and the amygdala (AMY is required. Particularly the increase of extracellular levels of glutamate and activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors within the IC shows a main role in the consolidation process. Additionally the modulatory actions of the dopaminergic system in the IC appear to be involved in the mechanisms that lead to taste aversion memory consolidation through the activation of pathways related to enhancement of protein synthesis such as the Protein Kinase A pathway. In summary, we suggest that post-acquisition molecular and neuronal changes underlying memory consolidation are dependent on the interactions between the AMY and the IC.

  18. New learning while consolidating memory during sleep is actively blocked by a protein synthesis dependent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roi; Levitan, David; Susswein, Abraham J

    2016-12-06

    Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences. Inhibiting protein synthesis eliminated the block and allowed even a brief, generally ineffective training to produce long-term memory. Memory formation depended on consolidative proteins already expressed before training. After effective training, long term memory required subsequent transcription and translation. Memory formation during the sleep phase was correlated with increased CREB1 transcription, but not CREB2 transcription. Increased C/EBP transcription was a correlate of both effective and ineffective training and of treatments not producing memory.

  19. Drug enhancement of memory consolidation: historical perspective and neurobiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, James L; Roozendaal, Benno

    2009-01-01

    Studies of drug enhancement of cognition began with Lashley's (Psychobiology 1:141-170, 1917) report that strychnine administered before daily training trials enhanced rats' maze learning. Many subsequent studies confirmed that finding and found that stimulant drugs also enhance the learning of a wide range of tasks. A central problem in interpreting such findings is that of distinguishing the drug effects on brain processes underlying memory formation from many other possible effects of the drugs on the behavior used to assess learning. The subsequent finding that comparable learning enhancement can be obtained by posttraining drug administration provided compelling evidence that drugs can enhance memory by acting on memory consolidation processes. Such evidence stimulated the investigation of endogenous regulation of memory consolidation by arousal-released adrenal stress hormones. Considerable evidence now indicates that such hormones regulate memory consolidation via activation of the basolateral amygdala and subsequent influences on many efferent brain regions involved in processing recent experiences. The implications of these findings for the development of cognitive enhancing drugs are discussed.

  20. Endocannabinoids in the rat basolateral amygdala enhance memory consolidation and enable glucocorticoid modulation of memory

    OpenAIRE

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Roozendaal, Benno; Trezza, Viviana; Hauer, Daniela; Schelling, Gustav; McGaugh, James L.; Cuomo, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) modulates the consolidation of memories for emotionally arousing experiences, an effect that involves the activation of the glucocorticoid system. Because the BLA expresses high densities of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, the present experiments investigated whether the endocannabinoid system in the BLA influences memory consolidation and whether glucocorticoids interact with this system. The CB1 receptor agonist WIN5...

  1. The nature of short-term consolidation in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Timothy J; Hardman, Kyle O

    2017-11-01

    Short-term consolidation is the process by which stable working memory representations are created. This process is fundamental to cognition yet poorly understood. The present work examines short-term consolidation using a Bayesian hierarchical model of visual working memory recall to determine the underlying processes at work. Our results show that consolidation functions largely through changing the proportion of memory items successfully maintained until test. Although there was some evidence that consolidation affects representational precision, this change was modest and could not account for the bulk of the consolidation effect on memory performance. The time course of the consolidation function and selective influence of consolidation on specific serial positions strongly indicates that short-term consolidation induces an attentional blink. The blink leads to deficits in memory for the immediately following item when time pressure is introduced. Temporal distinctiveness accounts of the consolidation process are tested and ruled out. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Reversible plasticity of fear memory-encoding amygdala synaptic circuits even after fear memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingie Hong

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that after memory consolidation, memory-encoding synaptic circuits are persistently modified and become less plastic. This, however, may hinder the remaining capacity of information storage in a given neural circuit. Here we consider the hypothesis that memory-encoding synaptic circuits still retain reversible plasticity even after memory consolidation. To test this, we employed a protocol of auditory fear conditioning which recruited the vast majority of the thalamic input synaptic circuit to the lateral amygdala (T-LA synaptic circuit; a storage site for fear memory with fear conditioning-induced synaptic plasticity. Subsequently the fear memory-encoding synaptic circuits were challenged with fear extinction and re-conditioning to determine whether these circuits exhibit reversible plasticity. We found that fear memory-encoding T-LA synaptic circuit exhibited dynamic efficacy changes in tight correlation with fear memory strength even after fear memory consolidation. Initial conditioning or re-conditioning brought T-LA synaptic circuit near the ceiling of their modification range (occluding LTP and enhancing depotentiation in brain slices prepared from conditioned or re-conditioned rats, while extinction reversed this change (reinstating LTP and occluding depotentiation in brain slices prepared from extinguished rats. Consistently, fear conditioning-induced synaptic potentiation at T-LA synapses was functionally reversed by extinction and reinstated by subsequent re-conditioning. These results suggest reversible plasticity of fear memory-encoding circuits even after fear memory consolidation. This reversible plasticity of memory-encoding synapses may be involved in updating the contents of original memory even after memory consolidation.

  3. Memory Consolidation and Neural Substrate of Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mañas, Mauro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity is one of the most relevant health problems among children in the developed countries. Around 8 to 10% of children birth before the 37 week and/or with a very low birth weight (VLBW (1500 g. This causes 75% of the prenatal mortality and the 50% of the children disability. The aim of this study was to assess neuropsychological and emotional impairments in 7 year old children who were born VLBW. A clinical interview, the Children Neuropsychological Assessment Battery, and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC were administrated. VLBW children showed memory and executive function deficits, as well as, behavioral and attention problems. These results highlight the importance of long term follow up of the VLBW children and point out the necessity of developing adequate neuropsychological and emotional treatment program for these children.

  4. Structural Components of Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Craig H.; Kandel, Eric R.; Harris, Kristen M.

    2015-01-01

    Consolidation of implicit memory in the invertebrate Aplysia and explicit memory in the mammalian hippocampus are associated with remodeling and growth of preexisting synapses and the formation of new synapses. Here, we compare and contrast structural components of the synaptic plasticity that underlies these two distinct forms of memory. In both cases, the structural changes involve time-dependent processes. Thus, some modifications are transient and may contribute to early formative stages of long-term memory, whereas others are more stable, longer lasting, and likely to confer persistence to memory storage. In addition, we explore the possibility that trans-synaptic signaling mechanisms governing de novo synapse formation during development can be reused in the adult for the purposes of structural synaptic plasticity and memory storage. Finally, we discuss how these mechanisms set in motion structural rearrangements that prepare a synapse to strengthen the same memory and, perhaps, to allow it to take part in other memories as a basis for understanding how their anatomical representation results in the enhanced expression and storage of memories in the brain. PMID:26134321

  5. Sleep-dependent consolidation in multiple memory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schönauer, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Before newly formed memories can last for the long-term, they must undergo a period of consolidation. It has been shown that sleep facilitates this process. One hypothesis about how this may occur is that learning-related neuronal activity is replayed during following sleep periods. Such a reactivation of neural activity patterns has been repeatedly shown in the hippocampal formation in animals. Hippocampally-induced reactivation can also be observed in other brain areas like the neocortex an...

  6. Aversive Memory Reactivation Engages in the Amygdala Only Some Neurotransmitters Involved in Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucherelli, Corrado; Baldi, Elisabetta; Mariottini, Chiara; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Blandina, Patrizio

    2006-01-01

    Consolidation refers to item stabilization in long-term memory. Retrieval renders a consolidated memory sensitive, and a "reconsolidation" process has been hypothesized to keep the original memory persistent. Some authors could not detect this phenomenon. Here we show that retrieved contextual fear memory is vulnerable to amnesic treatments and…

  7. REGULAR REHEARSAL HELPS IN CONSOLIDATION OF LONG TERM MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Parle

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Memory, one of the most complex functions of the brain comprises of multiple components such as perception, registration, consolidation, storage, retrieval and decay. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of different training sessions on the retention capacity of rats. The capacity of retention of learnt task was measured using exteroceptive behavioral models such as Hexagonal swimming pool apparatus, Hebb-Williams maze and Elevated plus-maze. A total of 150 rats divided into fifteen groups were employed in the present study. The animals were subjected to different training sessions during first three days. The ability to retain the learned task was tested after single, sub-acute, acute, sub-chronic and chronic exposure to above exteroceptive memory models in separate groups of animals. The memory score of all animals was recorded after 72 h, 192 h and 432 h of their last training trial. Rats of single exposure group did not show any effect on memory. Sub-acute training group animals showed improved memory up to 72 h only, where as in acute and sub-chronic training groups this memory improvement was extended up to 192 h. The rats, which were subjected to chronic exposures showed a significant improvement in retention capacity that lasted up to a period of eighteen days. These observations suggest that repeated rehearsals at regular intervals are probably necessary for consolidation of long-term memory. It was observed that sub-acute, acute and sub-chronic exposures, improved the retrieval ability of rats but this memory improving effect was short lived. Thus, rehearsal or training plays a crucial role in enhancing one's capacity of retaining the learnt information

  8. Working-memory consolidation : Insights from studies on attention and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricker, Timothy; Nieuwenstein, Mark; Bayliss, Donna; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Working memory, the system that maintains a limited set of representations for immediate use in cognition, is a central part of human cognition. Three processes have recently been proposed to govern information storage in working memory: Consolidation, refreshing and removal. Here we discuss in

  9. Daytime naps, motor memory consolidation and regionally specific sleep spindles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Nishida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence demonstrates that motor-skill memories improve across a night of sleep, and that non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep commonly plays a role in orchestrating these consolidation enhancements. Here we show the benefit of a daytime nap on motor memory consolidation and its relationship not simply with global sleep-stage measures, but unique characteristics of sleep spindles at regionally specific locations; mapping to the corresponding memory representation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two groups of subjects trained on a motor-skill task using their left hand - a paradigm known to result in overnight plastic changes in the contralateral, right motor cortex. Both groups trained in the morning and were tested 8 hr later, with one group obtaining a 60-90 minute intervening midday nap, while the other group remained awake. At testing, subjects that did not nap showed no significant performance improvement, yet those that did nap expressed a highly significant consolidation enhancement. Within the nap group, the amount of offline improvement showed a significant correlation with the global measure of stage-2 NREM sleep. However, topographical sleep spindle analysis revealed more precise correlations. Specifically, when spindle activity at the central electrode of the non-learning hemisphere (left was subtracted from that in the learning hemisphere (right, representing the homeostatic difference following learning, strong positive relationships with offline memory improvement emerged-correlations that were not evident for either hemisphere alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that motor memories are dynamically facilitated across daytime naps, enhancements that are uniquely associated with electrophysiological events expressed at local, anatomically discrete locations of the brain.

  10. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala modulates the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areg eBarsegyan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA is well known to enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of highly emotionally arousing training experiences. The present study investigated whether such noradrenergic activation of the BLA also influences the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory, a low-arousing training task assessing episodic-like memory. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to two identical objects in one context for either 3 or 10 min, immediately followed by exposure to two other identical objects in a distinctly different context. Immediately after the training they received bilateral intra-BLA infusions of norepinephrine (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 μg or the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 μg. On the 24-h retention test, rats were placed back into one of the training contexts with one copy of each of the two training objects. Thus, although both objects were familiar, one of the objects had not previously been encountered in this particular test context. Hence, if the animal generated a long-term memory for the association between an object and its context, it would spend significantly more time exploring the object that was not previously experienced in this context. Saline-infused control rats exhibited poor 24-h retention when given 3 min of training and good retention when given 10 min of training. Norepinephrine administered after 3 min of object-in-context training induced a dose-dependent memory enhancement, whereas propranolol administered after 10 min of training produced memory impairment. These findings provide evidence that posttraining noradrenergic activation of the BLA also enhances the consolidation of memory of object-in-context recognition training, enabling accuracy of episodic-like memories.

  11. Does sleep benefit memory consolidation in children with focal epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Samantha; Pressler, Ronit; Boyd, Stewart G; Baldeweg, Torsten; Cross, J Helen

    2017-03-01

    Children with epilepsy have high rates of both cognitive impairment and sleep disruption. It is thus assumed that sleep-dependent memory consolidation is vulnerable to ongoing epileptic activity, but direct evidence of this is limited. We performed a within-subject comparison of memory retention across intervals of wake or overnight sleep. Healthy children (n = 21, 6-16 years, 12 female) and children with focal epilepsy (n = 22, 6-16 years, 9 female) performed verbal and visuospatial memory tasks under each condition. Sleep was assessed with electroencephalography (EEG) polysomnography during the overnight interval. Interictal discharges were quantified manually. Memory retention was greater in the sleep condition in both the verbal (F 1,39 = 10.8, p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.67) and the visuospatial (F 1,36 = 4.23, p = 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.40) tasks, with no significant interaction of group by condition in either task. Across the total sample, gain in memory retention with sleep in the verbal task correlated with duration of slow wave sleep (r = 0.4, p = 0.01). In patients, sleep-dependent memory consolidation was negatively correlated with interictal discharge rate in both the verbal (ρ = -0.49, p = 0.04) and visuospatial (ρ = -0.45, p = 0.08) tasks. On post hoc analysis, a longer history of epilepsy (r = 0.53, p = 0.01) and a temporal (t 10 = 1.8, p = 0.1, Cohen's d = 0.86) rather than an extratemporal seizure focus (t 10 = 0.8, p = 0.4, Cohen's d = 0.30) was associated with greater contribution of sleep to verbal memory retention. We have demonstrated that memory consolidation in children with focal epilepsy benefits from sleep, showing the same correlation with slow wave sleep as in healthy children, but an inverse relationship with the interictal discharge load during sleep. This mechanism appears to be increasingly recruited with longer duration of illness, indicating a resilient homeostatic function which may be harnessed to aid learning. Wiley Periodicals

  12. The consolidation of implicit sequence memory in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Csabi

    Full Text Available Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA Syndrome is a relatively frequent sleep disorder characterized by disrupted sleep patterns. It is a well-established fact that sleep has beneficial effect on memory consolidation by enhancing neural plasticity. Implicit sequence learning is a prominent component of skill learning. However, the formation and consolidation of this fundamental learning mechanism remains poorly understood in OSA. In the present study we examined the consolidation of different aspects of implicit sequence learning in patients with OSA. We used the Alternating Serial Reaction Time task to measure general skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 10-hour offline period with sleep. Our data showed differences in offline changes of general skill learning between the OSA and control group. The control group demonstrated offline improvement from evening to morning, while the OSA group did not. In contrast, we did not observe differences between the groups in offline changes in sequence-specific learning. Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep in OSA differently affects neural circuits involved in the consolidation of sequence learning.

  13. Consolidation of human somatosensory memory during motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppone, Anna Vera; Semprini, Marianna; Konczak, Jürgen

    2018-03-13

    Sensorimotor learning is a bidirectional process associated with concurrent neuroplastic changes in the motor and somatosensory system. While motor memory consolidation and retention have been extensively studied during skill acquisition, little is known about the formation and consolidation of somatosensory memory associated with motor learning. Using a robotic exoskeleton, we tracked markers of somatosensory and motor learning while healthy participants trained to make goal-directed wrist reaching movements over five days and evaluated retention for up to 10 days after practice. Markers of somatosensory learning were changes in wrist position sense bias (systematic error) and precision (random error). The main results are as follows: First, somatosensory (proprioceptive) memory consolidation shows signs of cost savings with repeated sensorimotor training - the same feature is known for motor memory formation. Moreover, somatosensory learning generalized to untrained workspace. Second, somatosensory learning over days can be characterized as an early improvement in sensory precision and a later improvement in sensory bias. Third, the time course of learning gains in position sense acuity coincided with improvements in spatial movement accuracy. Finally, the gains of somatosensory learning were retained for several days. Improvements in position sense bias were still visible up to 3 days after the end of practice for the trained workspace positions, but decayed faster in the untrained workspace. Improvements in position sense precision were retained for up to 10 days and were workspace independent. The findings are consistent with the view that an internal model of somatosensory joint space is formed during motor learning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensory memory consolidation observed: increased specificity of detail over days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Norman M; Miasnikov, Alexandre A; Chen, Jemmy C

    2009-03-01

    Memories are usually multidimensional, including contents such as sensory details, motivational state and emotional overtones. Memory contents generally change over time, most often reported as a loss in the specificity of detail. To study the temporal changes in the sensory contents of associative memory without motivational and emotional contents, we induced memory for acoustic frequency by pairing a tone with stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis. Adult male rats were first tested for behavioral responses (disruption of ongoing respiration) to tones (1-15 kHz), yielding pre-training behavioral frequency generalization gradients (BFGG). They next received three days of training consisting of a conditioned stimulus (CS) tone (8.00 kHz, 70 dB, 2 s) either Paired (n=5) or Unpaired (n=5) with weak electrical stimulation (approximately 48 microA) of the nucleus basalis (100 Hz, 0.2 s, co-terminating with CS offset). Testing for behavioral memory was performed by obtaining post-training BFGGs at two intervals, 24 and 96 h after training. At 24 h post-training, the Paired group exhibited associative behavioral memory manifested by significantly larger responses to tone than the Unpaired group. However, they exhibited no specificity in memory for the frequency of the tonal CS, as indexed by a flat BFGG. In contrast, after 96 h post-training the Paired group did exhibit specificity of memory as revealed by tuned BFGGs with a peak at the CS-band of frequencies. This increased detail of memory developed due to a loss of response to lower and higher frequency side-bands, without any change in the absolute magnitude of response to CS-band frequencies. These findings indicate that the sensory contents of associative memory can be revealed to become more specific, through temporal consolidation in the absence of non-sensory factors such as motivation and emotion.

  15. Acute exercise improves motor memory consolidation in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Skriver, Kasper Christen; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The ability to acquire new motor skills is essential both during childhood and later in life. Recent studies have demonstrated that an acute bout of exercise can improve motor memory consolidation in adults. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether acute exercise...... protocols following motor skill practice in a school setting can also improve long-term retention of motor memory in preadolescent children. Methods: Seventy-seven pre-adolescent children (age 10.5 ± 0.75 (SD)) participated in the study. Prior to the main experiment age, BMI, fitness status and general...... for exercise groups. Delayed retention of motor memory was assessed 1 h, 24 h and 7 days after motor skill acquisition. Results: During skill acquisition, motor performance improved significantly to the immediate retention test with no differences between groups. One hour following skill acquisition, motor...

  16. The effect of mild acute stress during memory consolidation on emotional recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Brittany; Weinberg, Lisa; Duarte, Audrey

    2017-11-01

    Stress during consolidation improves recognition memory performance. Generally, this memory benefit is greater for emotionally arousing stimuli than neutral stimuli. The strength of the stressor also plays a role in memory performance, with memory performance improving up to a moderate level of stress and thereafter worsening. As our daily stressors are generally minimal in strength, we chose to induce mild acute stress to determine its effect on memory performance. In the current study, we investigated if mild acute stress during consolidation improves memory performance for emotionally arousing images. To investigate this, we had participants encode highly arousing negative, minimally arousing negative, and neutral images. We induced stress using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST) in half of the participants and a control task to the other half of the participants directly after encoding (i.e. during consolidation) and tested recognition 48h later. We found no difference in memory performance between the stress and control group. We found a graded pattern among confidence, with responders in the stress group having the least amount of confidence in their hits and controls having the most. Across groups, we found highly arousing negative images were better remembered than minimally arousing negative or neutral images. Although stress did not affect memory accuracy, responders, as defined by cortisol reactivity, were less confident in their decisions. Our results suggest that the daily stressors humans experience, regardless of their emotional affect, do not have adverse effects on memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of mild acute stress during memory consolidation on emotional recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Brittany; Weinberg, Lisa; Duarte, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    Stress during consolidation improves recognition memory performance. Generally, this memory benefit is greater for emotionally arousing stimuli than neutral stimuli. The strength of the stressor also plays a role in memory performance, with memory performance improving up to a moderate level of stress and thereafter worsening. As our daily stressors are generally minimal in strength, we chose to induce mild acute stress to determine its effect on memory performance. In the current study, we investigated if mild acute stress during consolidation improves memory performance for emotionally arousing images. To investigate this, we had participants encode highly arousing negative, minimally arousing negative, and neutral images. We induced stress using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST) in half of the participants and a control task to the other half of the participants directly after encoding (i.e. during consolidation) and tested recognition 48 h later. We found no difference in memory performance between the stress and control group. We found a graded pattern among confidence, with responders in the stress group having the least amount of confidence in their hits and controls having the most. Across groups, we found highly arousing negative images were better remembered than minimally arousing negative or neutral images. Although stress did not affect memory accuracy, responders, as defined by cortisol reactivity, were less confident in their decisions. Our results suggest that the daily stressors humans experience, regardless of their emotional affect, do not have adverse effects on memory. PMID:28838881

  18. Medial prefrontal-hippocampal connectivity and motor memory consolidation in depression and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genzel, L.K.E.; Dresler, M.; Cornu, M.; Jager, E.; Konrad, B.; Adamczyk, M.; Friess, E.; Steiger, A.; Czisch, M.; Goya-Maldonado, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overnight memory consolidation is disturbed in both depression and schizophrenia, creating an ideal situation to investigate the mechanisms underlying sleep-related consolidation and to distinguish disease-specific processes from common elements in their pathophysiology. METHODS: We

  19. Temporal dynamics of immediate early gene expression during cellular consolidation of spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Daniel N; Commins, Sean

    2017-06-01

    The consolidation of newly acquired memories on a cellular level is thought to take place in the first few hours following learning. This process is dependent on de novo protein synthesis during this time, which ultimately leads to long-term structural and functional neuronal changes and the stabilisation of a memory trace. Immediate early genes (IEGs) are rapidly expressed in neurons following learning, and previous research has suggested more than one wave of IEG expression facilitates consolidation in the hours following learning. We analysed the expression of Zif268, c-Fos and Arc protein in a number of brain regions involved in spatial learning either 90min, 4h or 8h following training in the Morris water maze task. Consistent with the role of IEGs in the earliest stages of consolidation, a single wave of expression was observed in most brain regions at 90min, however a subsequent wave of expression was not observed at 8h. In fact, Zif268 expression was observed to fall below the levels of naïve controls at this time-point in the medial prefrontal and perirhinal cortices. This may be indicative of synaptic downscaling in these regions in the hours following learning, and an important marker of the consolidation of spatial memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Piracetam, an AMPAkine drug, facilitates memory consolidation in the day-old chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samartgis, Jodi R; Schachte, Leslie; Hazi, Agnes; Crowe, Simon F

    2012-12-01

    Piracetam is an AMPAkine drug that may have a range of different mechanisms at the cellular level, and which has been shown to facilitate memory, amongst its other effects. This series of experiments demonstrated that a 10mg/kg dose of piracetam facilitated memory consolidation in the day-old chick when injected from immediately until 120min after weak training (i.e. using a 20% v/v concentration of methyl anthranilate) with the passive avoidance learning task. Administration of piracetam immediately after training led to memory facilitation which lasted for up to 24h following training. This dose of the AMPAkine was not shown to facilitate memory reconsolidation. These findings support the contention that application of the AMPAkine piracetam facilitates memory using a weak training task, and extend the range of actions previously noted with NMDA-related agents to those which also facilitate the AMPA receptor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Memory consolidation in children with epilepsy: does sleep matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Shama; Sadaka, Yair; Massicotte, Colin; Smith, Mary Lou; Bradbury, Laura; Go, Cristina; Weiss, Shelly K

    2014-02-01

    Children with epilepsy have frequent sleep disturbance and challenges in learning and memory. There is little research on the consolidation of memory during sleep in this population. The goal of this pilot study was to determine whether children with epilepsy are able to consolidate memories better after a sleep versus wake period as has been demonstrated in typically developing children. This study was a prospective evaluation of children with epilepsy to determine if sleep improved episodic memory (using word lists) as compared with memory following a wake period of similar duration. The study was conducted in patients in the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit at a single academic health science center. In the sleep recall condition, the learning trials were presented in the evening, and delayed recall of the words was tested in the morning. In the wake condition, the learning took place in the morning, and the delayed recall took place later in the day. Subjects wore an actigraph to evaluate sleep/wake patterns. Data regarding the children's epilepsy, antiepileptic medications, and frequency of interictal epileptiform discharges were also documented. Ten children (agd 8-17years) participated in the study. For the entire sample, recall after sleep was better than recall after awake (p=0.03), and 7 of the 10 children showed this effect. However, reanalyses removing an outlier showed no difference between the two recall conditions. The mean number of interictal epileptiform discharges was 8.8 during the recall after sleep and 7.8 during the recall after awake. Three children had seizures during the evaluation. In this pilot study, we demonstrated that a small cohort of children with epilepsy, with similar interictal epileptiform discharges during sleep and wake, showed no advantage in memory for a word list after a period of sleep than after a period of being awake. This finding requires further study in a larger cohort. Poor memory consolidation during sleep may contribute

  2. Age-related differences in sleep-based memory consolidation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Wen-Jun; Li, Hui-Jie; Guo, Yu-Hua; Peng, Peng; Lei, Xu; Yu, Jing

    2017-03-01

    A period of post-learning sleep benefits memory consolidation compared with an equal-length wake interval. However, whether this sleep-based memory consolidation changes as a function of age remains controversial. Here we report a meta-analysis that investigates the age differences in the sleep-based memory consolidation in two types of memory: declarative memory and procedural memory. The meta-analysis included 22 comparisons of the performance between young adults (N =640) and older adults (N =529) on behavioral tasks measuring sleep-based memory consolidation. Our results showed a significant overall sleep-based beneficial effect in young adults but not in older adults. However, further analyses suggested that the age differences were mainly manifested in sleep-based declarative memory consolidation but not in procedural memory consolidation. We discussed the possible underlying mechanisms for the age-related degradation in sleep-based memory consolidation. Further research is needed to determine the crucial components for sleep-related memory consolidation in older adults such as age-related changes in neurobiological and cardiovascular functions, which may play an important role in this context and have the potential to delineate the interrelationships between age-related changes in sleep and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Opposite Effects of Cortisol on Consolidation of Temporal Sequence Memory during Waking and Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Ines; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Memory functions involve three stages: encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Modulating effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) have been consistently observed for declarative memory with GCs enhancing encoding and impairing retrieval, but surprisingly, little is known on how GCs affect memory consolidation. Studies in rats suggest a beneficial effect…

  4. Transcranial electrical currents to probe EEG brain rhythms and memory consolidation during sleep in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Marshall

    Full Text Available Previously the application of a weak electric anodal current oscillating with a frequency of the sleep slow oscillation (∼0.75 Hz during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NonREM sleep boosted endogenous slow oscillation activity and enhanced sleep-associated memory consolidation. The slow oscillations occurring during NonREM sleep and theta oscillations present during REM sleep have been considered of critical relevance for memory formation. Here transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS oscillating at 5 Hz, i.e., within the theta frequency range (theta-tDCS is applied during NonREM and REM sleep. Theta-tDCS during NonREM sleep produced a global decrease in slow oscillatory activity conjoint with a local reduction of frontal slow EEG spindle power (8-12 Hz and a decrement in consolidation of declarative memory, underlining the relevance of these cortical oscillations for sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In contrast, during REM sleep theta-tDCS appears to increase global gamma (25-45 Hz activity, indicating a clear brain state-dependency of theta-tDCS. More generally, results demonstrate the suitability of oscillating-tDCS as a tool to analyze functions of endogenous EEG rhythms and underlying endogenous electric fields as well as the interactions between EEG rhythms of different frequencies.

  5. Locus coeruleus and dopaminergic consolidation of everyday memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takeuchi, T.; Duszkiewicz, A.J.; Sonneborn, A.; Spooner, P.A.; Yamasaki, M.; Watanabe, M.; Smith, C.C.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Deisseroth, K.; Greene, R.W.; Morris, R.G.

    2016-01-01

    The retention of episodic-like memory is enhanced, in humans and animals, when something novel happens shortly before or after encoding. Using an everyday memory task in mice, we sought the neurons mediating this dopamine-dependent novelty effect, previously thought to originate exclusively from the

  6. Money Enhances Memory Consolidation--But Only for Boring Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Money's ability to enhance memory has received increased attention in recent research. However, previous studies have not directly addressed the time-dependent nature of monetary effects on memory, which are suggested to exist by research in cognitive neuroscience, and the possible detrimental effects of monetary rewards on learning interesting…

  7. The Roles of Cortical Slow Waves in Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Miyamoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sleep plays important roles in sensory and motor memory consolidation. Sleep oscillations, reflecting neural population activity, involve the reactivation of learning-related neurons and regulate synaptic strength and, thereby affect memory consolidation. Among sleep oscillations, slow waves (0.5–4 Hz are closely associated with memory consolidation. For example, slow-wave power is regulated in an experience-dependent manner and correlates with acquired memory. Furthermore, manipulating slow waves can enhance or impair memory consolidation. During slow wave sleep, inter-areal interactions between the cortex and hippocampus (HC have been proposed to consolidate declarative memory; however, interactions for non-declarative (HC-independent memory remain largely uninvestigated. We recently showed that the directional influence in a slow-wave range through a top-down cortical long-range circuit is involved in the consolidation of non-declarative memory. At the synaptic level, the average cortical synaptic strength is known to be potentiated during wakefulness and depressed during sleep. Moreover, learning causes plasticity in a subset of synapses, allocating memory to them. Sleep may help to differentiate synaptic strength between allocated and non-allocated synapses (i.e., improving the signal-to-noise ratio, which may facilitate memory consolidation. Herein, we offer perspectives on inter-areal interactions and synaptic plasticity for memory consolidation during sleep.

  8. Autonomic activity during sleep predicts memory consolidation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Lauren N; Cellini, Nicola; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Duggan, Katherine A; Mednick, Sara C

    2016-06-28

    Throughout history, psychologists and philosophers have proposed that good sleep benefits memory, yet current studies focusing on the relationship between traditionally reported sleep features (e.g., minutes in sleep stages) and changes in memory performance show contradictory findings. This discrepancy suggests that there are events occurring during sleep that have not yet been considered. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) shows strong variation across sleep stages. Also, increases in ANS activity during waking, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), have been correlated with memory improvement. However, the role of ANS in sleep-dependent memory consolidation has never been examined. Here, we examined whether changes in cardiac ANS activity (HRV) during a daytime nap were related to performance on two memory conditions (Primed and Repeated) and a nonmemory control condition on the Remote Associates Test. In line with prior studies, we found sleep-dependent improvement in the Primed condition compared with the Quiet Wake control condition. Using regression analyses, we compared the proportion of variance in performance associated with traditionally reported sleep features (model 1) vs. sleep features and HRV during sleep (model 2). For both the Primed and Repeated conditions, model 2 (sleep + HRV) predicted performance significantly better (73% and 58% of variance explained, respectively) compared with model 1 (sleep only, 46% and 26% of variance explained, respectively). These findings present the first evidence, to our knowledge, that ANS activity may be one potential mechanism driving sleep-dependent plasticity.

  9. Peri-encoding predictors of memory encoding and consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Noga; Pell, Liat; Edelson, Micah G; Ben-Yakov, Aya; Pine, Alex; Dudai, Yadin

    2015-03-01

    We review reports of brain activations that occur immediately prior to the onset or following the offset of to-be-remembered information and can predict subsequent mnemonic success. Memory-predictive pre-encoding processes, occurring from fractions of a second to minutes prior to event onset, are mainly associated with activations in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), amygdala and midbrain, and with enhanced theta oscillations. These activations may be considered as the neural correlates of one or more cognitive operations, including contextual processing, attention, and the engagement of distinct computational modes associated with prior encoding or retrieval. Post-encoding activations that correlate with subsequent memory performance are mainly observed in the MTL, sensory cortices and frontal regions. These activations may reflect binding of elements of the encoded information and initiation of memory consolidation. In all, the findings reviewed here illustrate the importance of brain states in the immediate peri-encoding time windows in determining encoding success. Understanding these brain states and their specific effects on memory may lead to optimization of the encoding of desired memories and mitigation of undesired ones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep restriction can attenuate prioritization benefits on declarative memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Bennion, Kelly A; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-12-01

    As chronic sleep restriction is a widespread problem among adolescents, the present study investigated the effects of a 1-week sleep restriction (SR) versus control period on the consolidation of long-term memory for prose passages. We also determined whether the benefit of prioritization on memory is modulated by adequate sleep occurring during consolidation. Fifty-six healthy adolescents (25 male, aged 15-19 years) were instructed to remember a prose passage in which half of the content was highlighted (prioritized), and were told that they would receive an additional bonus for remembering highlighted content. Following an initial free recall test, participants underwent a 7-night period in which they received either a 5-h (SR) or 9-h (control) nightly sleep opportunity, monitored by polysomnography on selected nights. Free recall of the passage was tested at the end of the sleep manipulation period (1 week after encoding), and again 6 weeks after encoding. Recall of highlighted content was superior to that of non-highlighted content at all three time-points (initial, 1 week, 6 weeks). This beneficial effect of prioritization on memory was stronger 1 week relative to a few minutes after encoding for the control, but not the SR group. N3 duration was similar in the control and SR groups. Overall, the present study shows that the benefits of prioritization on memory are enhanced over time, requiring time and sleep to unfold fully. Partial sleep deprivation (i.e. 5-h nocturnal sleep opportunity) may attenuate such benefits, but this may be offset by preservation of N3 sleep duration. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  11. Memory consolidation and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression during different sleep stages in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dean; Tseng, Ing-Jy; Yuan, Rey-Yue; Hsieh, Chia-Yu; Hu, Chaur-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and nonmotor dysfunctions, which include sleep disturbances. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with numerous physiologic changes such as memory consolidation. Compelling evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) is crucial to both sleep regulation and memory consolidation. In our study, we explored changes in biologic molecules during various sleep stages and the effects of sleep on memory consolidation in PD. Ten PD patients and 14 volunteers without PD participated in our study. The gene expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in all sleep stages was measured using realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on polysomnography (PSG)-guided peripheral blood sampling. In addition, the efficiency of memory consolidation during the sleep of the participants was measured using the Wechsler Memory Scale, third edition (WMS-III). The iNOS expression increased in all sleep stages among the PD patients compared to the control participants, in whom iNOS expression decreased during REM sleep. Regarding memory consolidation, the performance of the controls in logic memory and the patients in visual reproduction tasks improved after sleep. The iNOS synthase expression was different from control participants among PD patients, and the expression was dissimilar in various sleep stages. Sleep might enhance memory consolidation and there are different memory consolidation profiles between PD and control participants demonstrating distinct memory consolidation profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute Exercise Improves Motor Memory Consolidation in Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Lundbye-Jensen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ability to acquire new motor skills is essential both during childhood and later in life. Recent studies have demonstrated that an acute bout of exercise can improve motor memory consolidation in adults. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether acute exercise protocols following motor skill practice in a school setting can also improve long-term retention of motor memory in preadolescent children.Methods: Seventy-seven pre-adolescent children (age 10.5 ± 0.75 (SD participated in the study. Prior to the main experiment age, BMI, fitness status and general physical activity level was assessed in all children and they were then randomly allocated to three groups. All children practiced a visuomotor tracking task followed by 20 min of rest (CON, high intensity intermittent floorball (FLB or running (RUN with comparable exercise intensity and duration for exercise groups. Delayed retention of motor memory was assessed 1 h, 24 h and 7 days after motor skill acquisition.Results: During skill acquisition, motor performance improved significantly to the immediate retention test with no differences between groups. One hour following skill acquisition, motor performance decreased significantly for RUN. Twenty-four hours following skill acquisition there was a tendency towards improved performance for FLB but no significant effects. Seven days after motor practice however, both FLB and RUN performed better when compared to their immediate retention test indicating significant offline gains. This effect was not observed for CON. In contrast, 7 days after motor practice, retention of motor memory was significantly better for FLB and RUN compared to CON. No differences were observed when comparing FLB and RUN.Conclusions: Acute intense intermittent exercise performed immediately after motor skill acquisition facilitates long-term motor memory in pre-adolescent children, presumably by promoting memory consolidation. The

  13. Acute Exercise Improves Motor Memory Consolidation in Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Skriver, Kasper; Nielsen, Jens B; Roig, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Objective : The ability to acquire new motor skills is essential both during childhood and later in life. Recent studies have demonstrated that an acute bout of exercise can improve motor memory consolidation in adults. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether acute exercise protocols following motor skill practice in a school setting can also improve long-term retention of motor memory in preadolescent children. Methods : Seventy-seven pre-adolescent children (age 10.5 ± 0.75 (SD)) participated in the study. Prior to the main experiment age, BMI, fitness status and general physical activity level was assessed in all children and they were then randomly allocated to three groups. All children practiced a visuomotor tracking task followed by 20 min of rest (CON), high intensity intermittent floorball (FLB) or running (RUN) with comparable exercise intensity and duration for exercise groups. Delayed retention of motor memory was assessed 1 h, 24 h and 7 days after motor skill acquisition. Results : During skill acquisition, motor performance improved significantly to the immediate retention test with no differences between groups. One hour following skill acquisition, motor performance decreased significantly for RUN. Twenty-four hours following skill acquisition there was a tendency towards improved performance for FLB but no significant effects. Seven days after motor practice however, both FLB and RUN performed better when compared to their immediate retention test indicating significant offline gains. This effect was not observed for CON. In contrast, 7 days after motor practice, retention of motor memory was significantly better for FLB and RUN compared to CON. No differences were observed when comparing FLB and RUN. Conclusions : Acute intense intermittent exercise performed immediately after motor skill acquisition facilitates long-term motor memory in pre-adolescent children, presumably by promoting memory consolidation. The results also

  14. Impairment of fear memory consolidation and expression by antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Ayako; Masuda, Fumitaka; Nomura, Hiroshi; Matsuki, Norio

    2013-02-01

    Antihistamines are widely used to treat allergy symptoms. First-generation antihistamines have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS), such as hypnotic and amnesic effects, whereas second-generation antihistamines have poor brain penetration, and therefore, have fewer CNS-related adverse effects. Memory consists of several phases, including acquisition, consolidation, expression, and extinction. It remains unclear whether these phases are affected by antihistamines. We investigated the effects of diphenhydramine, a first-generation antihistamine, and levocetirizine and olopatadine, second-generation antihistamines, on memory phases. Mice were subjected to fear conditioning on day 1 and tested on day 2. Antihistamines were administered before conditioning, immediately after conditioning, or before the test session. Diphenhydramine (30mg/kg) decreased freezing time when administered immediately after conditioning or before the test session. These effects were not attributable to a change in locomotor activity. Levocetirizine (0.1, 1, 10mg/kg) and olopatadine (1, 10, 20mg/kg) had no effects on conditioned fear. We also examined the effect of diphenhydramine and levocetirizine on the expression of an activity-dependent gene associated with the test session. Diphenhydramine, but not levocetirizine, increased Arc transcription in the central nucleus of the amygdala. These data indicate that diphenhydramine, but not levocetirizine or olopatadine, impairs the consolidation and expression of conditioned fear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Endocannabinoids in the rat basolateral amygdala enhance memory consolidation and enable glucocorticoid modulation of memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Roozendaal, Benno; Trezza, Viviana; Hauer, Daniela; Schelling, Gustav; McGaugh, James L.; Cuomo, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) modulates the consolidation of memories for emotionally arousing experiences, an effect that involves the activation of the glucocorticoid system. Because the BLA expresses high densities of cannabinoid CB1 receptors,

  16. Enhancing memory performance after organic brain disease relies on retrieval processes rather than encoding or consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrandt, H.; Gehrmann, A.; Mödden, C.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological rehabilitation of memory performance is still a controversial topic, and rehabilitation studies have not analyzed to which stage of memory processing (encoding, consolidation, or retrieval) enhancement may be attributed. We first examined the efficacy of a computer training

  17. Diminished nap effects on memory consolidation are seen under oral contraceptive use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genzel, L.K.E.; Baurle, A.; Potyka, A.; Wehrle, R.; Adamczyk, M.; Friess, E.; Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.

    2014-01-01

    Many young females take exogenous hormones as oral contraceptive (OC), a condition rarely controlled for in studies on sleep and memory consolidation even though sex hormones influence consolidation. This study investigated the effects of OCs on sleep-related consolidation of a motor and declarative

  18. A role for central nervous growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling in the consolidation of declarative memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hallschmid

    Full Text Available Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarative memory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone (GHRH; 600 µg that has direct access to the brain and suppresses endogenous GHRH via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Twelve healthy young men learned word-pair associates at 2030 h and were administered GHRH and placebo, respectively, at 2100 h. Retrieval was tested after 11 hours of wakefulness. Compared to placebo, intranasal GHRH blunted GH release within 3 hours after substance administration and reduced the number of correctly recalled word-pairs by ∼12% (both P<0.05. The impairment of declarative memory consolidation was directly correlated to diminished GH concentrations (P<0.05. Procedural memory consolidation as examined by the parallel assessment of finger sequence tapping performance was not affected by GHRH administration. Our findings indicate that intranasal GHRH, by counteracting endogenous GHRH release, impairs hippocampal memory processing. They provide first evidence for a critical contribution of central nervous somatotropic activity to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  19. Neuronal mechanisms of motor learning and motor memory consolidation in healthy old adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, K. M. M.; Veldman, M. P.; Solnik, S.; Koch, G.; Zijdewind, I.; Hortobagyi, T.

    It is controversial whether or not old adults are capable of learning new motor skills and consolidate the performance gains into motor memory in the offline period. The underlying neuronal mechanisms are equally unclear. We determined the magnitude of motor learning and motor memory consolidation

  20. Involvement of Spindles in Memory Consolidation Is Slow Wave Sleep-Specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Roy; Hofman, Winni F.; Talamini, Lucia M.

    2012-01-01

    Both sleep spindles and slow oscillations have been implicated in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Whereas spindles occur during both light and deep sleep, slow oscillations are restricted to deep sleep, raising the possibility of greater consolidation-related spindle involvement during deep sleep. We assessed declarative memory retention…

  1. Corticosterone infused into the dorsal striatum selectively enhances memory consolidation of cued water-maze training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirarte, Gina L.; Sofia Ledesma de la Teja, I.; Casillas, Miriam; Serafin, Norma; Prado-Alcala, Roberto A.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2009-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones enhance memory consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial/contextual learning, but little is known about their possible influence on the consolidation of procedural/implicit memory. Therefore, in this study we examined the effect of corticosterone (2, 5, or 10 ng) infused

  2. On the interplay between working memory consolidation and attentional selection in controlling conscious access : Parallel processing at a cost-a comment on 'The interplay of attention and consciousness in visual search, attentional blink and working memory consolidation'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyble, Brad; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    On the interplay between working memory consolidation and attentional selection in controlling conscious access: parallel processing at a cost-a comment on 'The interplay of attention and consciousness in visual search, attentional blink and working memory consolidation'

  3. Autobiographical memory and hyperassociativity in the dreaming brain: Implications for memory consolidation in sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Horton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue that autobiographical memory activity across sleep and wake can provide insight into the nature of dreaming, and vice versa. Activated memories within the sleeping brain reflect one’s personal life history (autobiography. They can appear in largely fragmentary forms and differ from conventional manifestations of episodic memory. Autobiographical memories in dreams can be sampled from non-REM as well as REM periods, which contain fewer episodic references and become more bizarre across the night. Salient fragmented memory features are activated in sleep and re-bound with fragments not necessarily emerging from the same memory, thus de-contextualising those memories and manifesting as experiences that differ from waking conceptions. The constructive nature of autobiographical recall further encourages synthesis of these hyper-associated images into an episode via recalling and reporting dreams. We use a model of autobiographical memory to account for the activation of memories in dreams as a reflection of sleep-dependent memory consolidation processes. We focus in particular on the hyperassociative nature of autobiographical memory during sleep.

  4. New learning while consolidating memory during sleep is actively blocked by a protein synthesis dependent process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roi; Levitan, David; Susswein, Abraham J

    2016-01-01

    Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences. Inhibiting protein synthesis eliminated the block and allowed even a brief, generally ineffective training to produce long-term memory. Memory formation depended on consolidative proteins already expressed before training. After effective training, long term memory required subsequent transcription and translation. Memory formation during the sleep phase was correlated with increased CREB1 transcription, but not CREB2 transcription. Increased C/EBP transcription was a correlate of both effective and ineffective training and of treatments not producing memory. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17769.001 PMID:27919318

  5. Functional Integrity of the Retrosplenial Cortex Is Essential for Rapid Consolidation and Recall of Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katche, Cynthia; Dorman, Guido; Slipczuk, Leandro; Cammarota, Martin; Medina, Jorge H.

    2013-01-01

    Memory storage is a temporally graded process involving different phases and different structures in the mammalian brain. Cortical plasticity is essential to store stable memories, but little is known regarding its involvement in memory processing. Here we show that fear memory consolidation requires early post-training macromolecular synthesis in…

  6. Induction and requirement of gene expression in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex for the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory consolidation is a process to stabilize short-term memory, generating long-term memory. A critical biochemical feature of memory consolidation is a requirement for gene expression. Previous studies have shown that fear memories are consolidated through the activation of gene expression in the amygdala and hippocampus, indicating essential roles of these brain regions in memory formation. However, it is still poorly understood whether gene expression in brain regions other than the amygdala/hippocampus is required for the consolidation of fear memory; however, several brain regions are known to play modulatory roles in fear memory formation. Results To further understand the mechanisms underlying the formation of fear memory, we first identified brain regions where gene expression is activated after learning inhibitory avoidance (IA by analyzing the expression of the immediately early genes c-fos and Arc as markers. Similarly with previous findings, the induction of c-fos and Arc expression was observed in the amygdala and hippocampus. Interestingly, we also observed the induction of c-fos and Arc expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC: prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL regions and Arc expression in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. We next examined the roles of these brain regions in the consolidation of IA memory. Consistent with previous findings, inhibiting protein synthesis in the hippocampus blocked the consolidation of IA memory. More importantly, inhibition in the mPFC or ACC also blocked the formation of IA memory. Conclusion Our observations indicated that the formation of IA memory requires gene expression in the ACC and mPFC as well as in the amygdala and hippocampus, suggesting essential roles of the ACC and mPFC in IA memory formation.

  7. The influence of catch trials on the consolidation of motor memory in force field adaptation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eFocke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In computational neuroscience it is generally accepted that human motor memory contains neural representations of the physics of the musculoskeletal system and the objects in the environment. These representations are called internal models. Force field studies, in which subjects have to adapt to dynamic perturbations induced by a robotic manipulandum, are an established tool to analyze the characteristics of such internal models. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether catch trials during force field learning could influence the consolidation of motor memory in more complex tasks. Thereby, the force field was more than double the force field of previous studies (35 Ns/m. Moreover, the arm of the subjects was not supported. A total of forty-six subjects participated in this study and performed center-out movements at a robotic manipulandum in two different force fields. Two control groups learned force field A on day 1 and were retested in the same force field on day 3 (AA. Two test groups additionally learned an interfering force field B (=-A on day 2 (ABA. The difference between the two test and control groups, respectively, was the absence (0% or presence (19% of catch trials, in which the force field was turned off suddenly. The results showed consolidation of force field A on day 3 for both control groups. Test groups showed no consolidation of force field A (19% catch trials and even poorer performance on day 3 (0% catch trials. In conclusion, it can be stated that catch trials seem to have a positive effect on the performance on day 3 but do not trigger a consolidation process as shown in previous studies that used a lower force field viscosity with supported arm. These findings indicate that the results of previous studies in which less complex tasks were analyzed, cannot be fully transferred to more complex tasks. Moreover, the effects of catch trials in these situations are insufficiently understood and further research

  8. Glucocorticoid Effects on Memory Consolidation Depend on Functional Interactions between the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McReynolds, Jayme R.; Van der Zee, Eddy A.; Lee, Sangkwan; McGaugh, James L.; McIntyre, Christa K.

    2009-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) interacts with efferent brain regions in mediating glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation. Here, we investigated whether glucocorticoid influences on the consolidation of memory for emotionally arousing

  9. Stress Enables Reinforcement-Elicited Serotonergic Consolidation of Fear Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratta, Michael V; Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Monahan, Patrick E; Yao, Junmei; Weber, Michael D; Lin, Pei-Ann; Gisabella, Barbara; Petrossian, Natalie; Amat, Jose; Kim, Kyungman; Yang, Aimei; Forest, Craig R; Boyden, Edward S; Goosens, Ki A

    2016-05-15

    Prior exposure to stress is a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to trauma, yet the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. Using a rodent model of stress-based susceptibility to PTSD, we investigated the role of serotonin in this phenomenon. Adult mice were exposed to repeated immobilization stress or handling, and the role of serotonin in subsequent fear learning was assessed using pharmacologic manipulation and western blot detection of serotonin receptors, measurements of serotonin, high-speed optogenetic silencing, and behavior. Both dorsal raphe serotonergic activity during aversive reinforcement and amygdala serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) activity during memory consolidation were necessary for stress enhancement of fear memory, but neither process affected fear memory in unstressed mice. Additionally, prior stress increased amygdala sensitivity to serotonin by promoting surface expression of 5-HT2CR without affecting tissue levels of serotonin in the amygdala. We also showed that the serotonin that drives stress enhancement of associative cued fear memory can arise from paired or unpaired footshock, an effect not predicted by theoretical models of associative learning. Stress bolsters the consequences of aversive reinforcement, not by simply enhancing the neurobiological signals used to encode fear in unstressed animals, but rather by engaging distinct mechanistic pathways. These results reveal that predictions from classical associative learning models do not always hold for stressed animals and suggest that 5-HT2CR blockade may represent a promising therapeutic target for psychiatric disorders characterized by excessive fear responses such as that observed in PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeted memory reactivation during slow wave sleep facilitates emotional memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, Scott A; Durrant, Simon J; Hulleman, Johan; Lewis, Penelope A

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the mechanisms by which auditory targeted memory reactivation (TMR) during slow wave sleep (SWS) influences the consolidation of emotionally negative and neutral memories. Each of 72 (36 negative, 36 neutral) picture-location associations were encoded with a semantically related sound. During a subsequent nap, half of the sounds were replayed in SWS, before picture-location recall was examined in a final test. Manchester Sleep Laboratory, University of Manchester. 15 adults (3 male) mean age = 20.40 (standard deviation ± 3.07). TMR with auditory cues during SWS. Performance was assessed by memory accuracy and recall response times (RTs). Data were analyzed with a 2 (sound: replayed/not replayed) × 2 (emotion: negative/neutral) repeated measures analysis of covariance with SWS duration, and then SWS spindles, as the mean-centered covariate. Both analyses revealed a significant three-way interaction for RTs but not memory accuracy. Critically, SWS duration and SWS spindles predicted faster memory judgments for negative, relative to neutral, picture locations that were cued with TMR. TMR initiates an enhanced consolidation process during subsequent SWS, wherein sleep spindles mediate the selective enhancement of reactivated emotional memories.

  11. Differential effect of an anticholinergic antidepressant on sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, Monique; Cohrs, Stefan; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Kunz, Dieter

    2014-05-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is considered critical to the consolidation of procedural memory - the memory of skills and habits. Many antidepressants strongly suppress REM sleep, however, and procedural memory consolidation has been shown to be impaired in depressed patients on antidepressant therapy. As a result, it is important to determine whether antidepressive therapy can lead to amnestic impairment. We thus investigated the effects of the anticholinergic antidepressant amitriptyline on sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-group study. Sleep laboratory. Twenty-five healthy men (mean age: 26.8 ± 5.6 y). 75 mg amitriptyline versus placebo. To test memory consolidation, a visual discrimination task, a finger-tapping task, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test were performed. Sleep was measured using polysomnography. Our findings show that amitriptyline profoundly suppressed REM sleep and impaired perceptual skill learning, but not motor skill or declarative learning. Our study is the first to demonstrate that an antidepressant can affect procedural memory consolidation in healthy subjects. Moreover, considering the results of a recent study, in which selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors were shown not to impair procedural memory consolidation, our findings suggest that procedural memory consolidation is not facilitated by the characteristics of REM sleep captured by visual sleep scoring, but rather by the high cholinergic tone associated with REM sleep. Our study contributes to the understanding of potentially undesirable behavioral effects of amitriptyline.

  12. [Current understanding of sleep, dreaming and related memory consolidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Victor Z; Shi, Jun-Han

    2013-12-01

    Sleep is a naturally recurring state found throughout the animal kingdom and characterized by a reversible loss of consciousness. Although in humans the daily amount of sleep decreases with aging, the total amount of time spent for sleep is estimated as up to one-third of one's lifetime. In mammals, sleep shows a clear daily rhythmicity as well as nightly phases, which are strongly controlled by the circadian clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei and are also regulated by ambient light. While it is certain that sleep is critical for survival in general, the functional significance of sleep is still under investigation. Dreaming is a common psychological phenomenon occurring during human sleep, yet its content and natural function, if any, are still a matter of debate. In recent years, accumulated evidence strongly supports the notion that new information acquired during the day time is processed and transformed into long-term memory in a complicated and sophisticated way during sleeping. Such information processing is commonly referred to as memory consolidation.

  13. Cerebral Asymmetries in Sleep-Dependent Processes of Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigneux, Philippe; Schmitz, Remy; Willems, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    Preference for previously seen, unfamiliar objects reflects a memory bias on affective judgment, known as the "mere exposure effect" (MEE). Here, we investigated the effect of time, post-exposure sleep, and the brain hemisphere solicited on preference generalization toward objects viewed in different perspectives. When presented in the right…

  14. Selective REM-Sleep Deprivation Does Not Diminish Emotional Memory Consolidation in Young Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenthaler, Jarste; Wiesner, Christian D.; Hinze, Karoline; Abels, Lena C.; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N = 29 healthy medical students) were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived). Both ...

  15. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala modulates the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Barsegyan, Areg; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2014-01-01

    Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) is well known to enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of highly emotionally arousing training experiences. The present study investigated whether such noradrenergic activation of the BLA also influences the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory, a low-arousing training task assessing episodic-like memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to two identical objects in one context for either 3 ...

  16. No Associations between Interindividual Differences in Sleep Parameters and Episodic Memory Consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J.F.; Rasch, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and memory are stable and heritable traits that strongly differ between individuals. Sleep benefits memory consolidation and the amount of slow wave sleep sleep spindles and rapid eye movement sleep have been repeatedly identified as reliable predictors for the amount of declarative and/or emotional memories retrieved after a consolidation period filled with sleep. These studies typically encompass small sample sizes increasing the probability of overestimating the real association stre...

  17. Autobiographical memory and hyperassociativity in the dreaming brain: implications for memory consolidation in sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Caroline L.; Malinowski, Josie E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we argue that autobiographical memory (AM) activity across sleep and wake can provide insight into the nature of dreaming, and vice versa. Activated memories within the sleeping brain reflect one’s personal life history (autobiography). They can appear in largely fragmentary forms and differ from conventional manifestations of episodic memory. Autobiographical memories in dreams can be sampled from non-REM as well as REM periods, which contain fewer episodic references and become more bizarre across the night. Salient fragmented memory features are activated in sleep and re-bound with fragments not necessarily emerging from the same memory, thus de-contextualizing those memories and manifesting as experiences that differ from waking conceptions. The constructive nature of autobiographical recall further encourages synthesis of these hyper-associated images into an episode via recalling and reporting dreams. We use a model of AM to account for the activation of memories in dreams as a reflection of sleep-dependent memory consolidation processes. We focus in particular on the hyperassociative nature of AM during sleep. PMID:26191010

  18. Autobiographical memory and hyperassociativity in the dreaming brain: implications for memory consolidation in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Caroline L; Malinowski, Josie E

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we argue that autobiographical memory (AM) activity across sleep and wake can provide insight into the nature of dreaming, and vice versa. Activated memories within the sleeping brain reflect one's personal life history (autobiography). They can appear in largely fragmentary forms and differ from conventional manifestations of episodic memory. Autobiographical memories in dreams can be sampled from non-REM as well as REM periods, which contain fewer episodic references and become more bizarre across the night. Salient fragmented memory features are activated in sleep and re-bound with fragments not necessarily emerging from the same memory, thus de-contextualizing those memories and manifesting as experiences that differ from waking conceptions. The constructive nature of autobiographical recall further encourages synthesis of these hyper-associated images into an episode via recalling and reporting dreams. We use a model of AM to account for the activation of memories in dreams as a reflection of sleep-dependent memory consolidation processes. We focus in particular on the hyperassociative nature of AM during sleep.

  19. Does recall after sleep-dependent memory consolidation reinstate sensitivity to retroactive interference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaétane Deliens

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that newly encoded memories are more resistant to retroactive interference when participants are allowed to sleep after learning the original material, suggesting a sleep-related strengthening of memories. In the present study, we investigated delayed, long-term effects of sleep vs. sleep deprivation (SD on the first post-training night on memory consolidation and resistance to interference. On day 1, participants learned a list of unrelated word pairs (AB, either in the morning or in the evening, then spent the post-training night in a sleep or sleep deprivation condition, in a within-subject paradigm. On day 4, at the same time of day, they learned a novel list of word pairs (AC in which 50% of the word pairs stemmed with the same word than in the AB list, resulting in retroactive interference. Participants had then to recall items from the AB list upon presentation of the "A" stem. Recall was marginally improved in the evening, as compared to the morning learning group. Most importantly, retroactive interference effects were found in the sleep evening group only, contrary to the hypothesis that sleep exerts a protective role against intrusion by novel but similar learning. We tentatively suggest that these results can be explained in the framework of the memory reconsolidation theory, stating that exposure to similar information sets back consolidated items in a labile form again sensitive to retroactive interference. In this context, sleep might not protect against interference but would promote an update of existing episodic memories while preventing saturation of the memory network due to the accumulation of dual traces.

  20. Exogenous insulin-like growth factor 2 administration enhances memory consolidation and persistence in a time-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younghwan; Lee, Young Woo; Gao, Qingtao; Lee, Younghwa; Lee, Hyung Eun; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-10-05

    Memory consolidation is an important process for the formation of long-term memory. We have previously reported that mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances memory consolidation within 9h after initial learning. Recent studies suggest that insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) significantly enhances memory consolidation and prevents forgetting. Thus, we hypothesized that IGF2 exerts its activity on cognitive performance in a time-dependent manner as observed in our previous study. In the one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task, we demonstrate that a bilateral injection of IGF2 into the dorsal hippocampus 6 or 9 h after training significantly enhanced the step-through latencies compared with the vehicle-treated controls in the retention trial, which was conducted 24 h after the acquisition trial. However, 12h post-training, IGF2 injection did not increase the step-through latencies. Intriguingly, in the retention trial at 21 days after the training, hippocampal IGF2 injection 6, 9 or 12 h after the acquisition trial significantly increased the step-through latencies compared with the vehicle-treated controls. IGF2 administration at 9 h and 12 h after the acquisition trial significantly increased discrimination index and exploration time on the novel-located object in the test trial at 24 h and 21 days, respectively, after the acquisition trial in the novel location recognition task. In addition, IGF2-induced an increase in the step-through latencies in the retention trial 24 h or 21 days, respectively, after the initial learning was completely abolished by co-injected anti-IGF2 receptor antibody. These results suggest that IGF2 enhances memory consolidation within 9h after initial learning, and increased IGF2 within the 12 h after the acquisition trial, which represents a delayed consolidation phase, is also critical for memory persistence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of slow oscillatory activity and slow wave sleep in consolidation of episodic-like memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanedel, Carlos N; Binder, Sonja; Kelemen, Eduard; Petersen, Kimberley; Born, Jan; Inostroza, Marion

    2014-12-15

    Our previous experiments showed that sleep in rats enhances consolidation of hippocampus dependent episodic-like memory, i.e. the ability to remember an event bound into specific spatio-temporal context. Here we tested the hypothesis that this enhancing effect of sleep is linked to the occurrence of slow oscillatory and spindle activity during slow wave sleep (SWS). Rats were tested on an episodic-like memory task and on three additional tasks covering separately the where (object place recognition), when (temporal memory), and what (novel object recognition) components of episodic memory. In each task, the sample phase (encoding) was followed by an 80-min retention interval that covered either a period of regular morning sleep or sleep deprivation. Memory during retrieval was tested using preferential exploration of novelty vs. familiarity. Consistent with previous findings, the rats which had slept during the retention interval showed significantly stronger episodic-like memory and spatial memory, and a trend of improved temporal memory (although not significant). Object recognition memory was similarly retained across sleep and sleep deprivation retention intervals. Recall of episodic-like memory was associated with increased slow oscillatory activity (0.85-2.0Hz) during SWS in the retention interval. Spatial memory was associated with increased proportions of SWS. Against our hypothesis, a relationship between spindle activity and episodic-like memory performance was not detected, but spindle activity was associated with object recognition memory. The results provide support for the role of SWS and slow oscillatory activity in consolidating hippocampus-dependent memory, the role of spindles in this process needs to be further examined. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Coupling of Thalamocortical Sleep Oscillations Are Important for Memory Consolidation in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Niknazar

    Full Text Available Sleep, specifically non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, is thought to play a critical role in the consolidation of recent memories. Two main oscillatory activities observed during NREM, cortical slow oscillations (SO, 0.5-1.0 Hz and thalamic spindles (12-15 Hz, have been shown to independently correlate with memory improvement. Yet, it is not known how these thalamocortical events interact, or the significance of this interaction, during the consolidation process. Here, we found that systemic administration of the GABAergic drug (zolpidem increased both the phase-amplitude coupling between SO and spindles, and verbal memory improvement in humans. These results suggest that thalamic spindles that occur during transitions to the cortical SO Up state are optimal for memory consolidation. Our study predicts that the timely interactions between cortical and thalamic events during consolidation, contribute to memory improvement and is mediated by the level of inhibitory neurotransmission.

  3. Circadian Modulation of Consolidated Memory Retrieval Following Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glou, Eric Le; Seugnet, Laurent; Shaw, Paul J.; Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several lines of evidence indicate that sleep plays a critical role in learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate anesthesia resistant memory following sleep deprivation in Drosophila. Design: Four to 16 h after aversive olfactory training, flies were sleep deprived for 4 h. Memory was assessed 24 h after training. Training, sleep deprivation, and memory tests were performed at different times during the day to evaluate the importance of the time of day for memory formation. The role of circadian rhythms was further evaluated using circadian clock mutants. Results Memory was disrupted when flies were exposed to 4 h of sleep deprivation during the consolidation phase. Interestingly, normal memory was observed following sleep deprivation when the memory test was performed during the 2 h preceding lights-off, a period characterized by maximum wake in flies. We also show that anesthesia resistant memory was less sensitive to sleep deprivation in flies with disrupted circadian rhythms. Conclusions Our results indicate that anesthesia resistant memory, a consolidated memory less costly than long-term memory, is sensitive to sleep deprivation. In addition, we provide evidence that circadian factors influence memory vulnerability to sleep deprivation and memory retrieval. Taken together, the data show that memories weakened by sleep deprivation can be retrieved if the animals are tested at the optimal circadian time. Citation: Le Glou E; Seugnet L; Shaw PJ; Preat T; Goguel V. Circadian modulation of consolidated memory retrieval following sleep deprivation in Drosophila. SLEEP 2012;35(10):1377-1384. PMID:23024436

  4. Locus coeruleus and dopaminergic consolidation of everyday memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tomonori; Duszkiewicz, Adrian J.; Sonneborn, Alex; Spooner, Patrick A.; Yamasaki, Miwako; Watanabe, Masahiko; Smith, Caroline C.; Fernández, Guillén; Deisseroth, Karl; Greene, Robert W.; Morris, Richard G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retention of episodic-like memory is enhanced, in humans and animals, when something novel happens shortly before or after encoding. Using an everyday memory task in mice, we sought the neurons mediating this dopamine-dependent novelty effect, previously thought to originate exclusively from the tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing (TH+) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We report that neuronal firing in the locus coeruleus (LC) is especially sensitive to environmental novelty, LC-TH+ neurons project more profusely than VTA-TH+ neurons to the hippocampus, optogenetic activation of LC-TH+ neurons mimics the novelty effect, and this novelty-associated memory enhancement is unaffected by VTA inactivation. Surprisingly, two effects of LC-TH+ photoactivation are sensitive to hippocampal D1/D5 receptor blockade and resistant to adrenoceptors blockade – memory enhancement and long lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in CA1 ex vivo. Thus, LC-TH+ neurons can mediate post-encoding memory enhancement in a manner consistent with possible co-release of dopamine in hippocampus. PMID:27602521

  5. Serial consolidation of orientation information into visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taosheng; Becker, Mark W

    2013-06-01

    Previous research suggests that there is a limit to the rate at which items can be consolidated in visual short-term memory (VSTM). This limit could be due to either a serial or a limited-capacity parallel process. Historically, it has proven difficult to distinguish between these two types of processes. In the present experiment, we took a novel approach that allowed us to do so. Participants viewed two oriented gratings either sequentially or simultaneously and reported one of the gratings' orientation via method of adjustment. Performance was worse for the simultaneous than for the sequential condition. We fit the data with a mixture model that assumes performance is limited by a noisy memory representation plus random guessing. Critically, the serial and limited-capacity parallel processes made distinct predictions regarding the model's guessing and memory-precision parameters. We found strong support for a serial process, which implies that one can consolidate only a single orientation into VSTM at a time.

  6. Effects of daytime food intake on memory consolidation during sleep or sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Herzog

    Full Text Available Sleep enhances memory consolidation. Bearing in mind that food intake produces many metabolic signals that can influence memory processing in humans (e.g., insulin, the present study addressed the question as to whether the enhancing effect of sleep on memory consolidation is affected by the amount of energy consumed during the preceding daytime. Compared to sleep, nocturnal wakefulness has been shown to impair memory consolidation in humans. Thus, a second question was to examine whether the impaired memory consolidation associated with sleep deprivation (SD could be compensated by increased daytime energy consumption. To these aims, 14 healthy normal-weight men learned a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory and a list of semantically associated word pairs (declarative memory. After the learning period, standardized meals were administered, equaling either ∼50% or ∼150% of the estimated daily energy expenditure. In the morning, after sleep or wakefulness, memory consolidation was tested. Plasma glucose was measured both before learning and retrieval. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed by electroencephalography (EEG. Independent of energy intake, subjects recalled significantly more word pairs after sleep than they did after SD. When subjects stayed awake and received an energy oversupply, the number of correctly recalled finger sequences was equal to those seen after sleep. Plasma glucose did not differ among conditions, and sleep time in the sleep conditions was not influenced by the energy intake interventions. These data indicate that the daytime energy intake level affects neither sleep's capacity to boost the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories, nor sleep's quality. However, high energy intake was followed by an improved procedural but not declarative memory consolidation under conditions of SD. This suggests that the formation of procedural memory is not only triggered by sleep but is also

  7. Effects of daytime food intake on memory consolidation during sleep or sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Nina; Friedrich, Alexia; Fujita, Naoko; Gais, Steffen; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Benedict, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation. Bearing in mind that food intake produces many metabolic signals that can influence memory processing in humans (e.g., insulin), the present study addressed the question as to whether the enhancing effect of sleep on memory consolidation is affected by the amount of energy consumed during the preceding daytime. Compared to sleep, nocturnal wakefulness has been shown to impair memory consolidation in humans. Thus, a second question was to examine whether the impaired memory consolidation associated with sleep deprivation (SD) could be compensated by increased daytime energy consumption. To these aims, 14 healthy normal-weight men learned a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory) and a list of semantically associated word pairs (declarative memory). After the learning period, standardized meals were administered, equaling either ∼50% or ∼150% of the estimated daily energy expenditure. In the morning, after sleep or wakefulness, memory consolidation was tested. Plasma glucose was measured both before learning and retrieval. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed by electroencephalography (EEG). Independent of energy intake, subjects recalled significantly more word pairs after sleep than they did after SD. When subjects stayed awake and received an energy oversupply, the number of correctly recalled finger sequences was equal to those seen after sleep. Plasma glucose did not differ among conditions, and sleep time in the sleep conditions was not influenced by the energy intake interventions. These data indicate that the daytime energy intake level affects neither sleep's capacity to boost the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories, nor sleep's quality. However, high energy intake was followed by an improved procedural but not declarative memory consolidation under conditions of SD. This suggests that the formation of procedural memory is not only triggered by sleep but is also sensitive to the

  8. Light sleep versus slow wave sleep in memory consolidation: a question of global versus local processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, Lisa; Kroes, Marijn C W; Dresler, Martin; Battaglia, Francesco P

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is strongly involved in memory consolidation, but its role remains unclear. 'Sleep replay', the active potentiation of relevant synaptic connections via reactivation of patterns of network activity that occurred during previous experience, has received considerable attention. Alternatively, sleep has been suggested to regulate synaptic weights homeostatically and nonspecifically, thereby improving the signal:noise ratio of memory traces. Here, we reconcile these theories by highlighting the distinction between light and deep nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Specifically, we draw on recent studies to suggest a link between light NREM and active potentiation, and between deep NREM and homeostatic regulation. This framework could serve as a key for interpreting the physiology of sleep stages and reconciling inconsistencies in terminology in this field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distinct effects of estrogen receptor antagonism on object recognition and spatial memory consolidation in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaekyoon; Frick, Karyn M

    2017-11-01

    Exogenous treatment with the potent estrogen 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) or selective estrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β) agonists enhances the consolidation of hippocampal-dependent object recognition (OR) and object placement (OP) memories in ovariectomized rodents. Although such data suggest that individual ERs are sufficient for memory consolidation, the necessity of a given ER for memory consolidation can only be demonstrated by blocking receptor function, for example with an ER antagonist. However, the effects on memory of antagonizing ERα or ERβ function are not well understood. Moreover, ER antagonism in ovariectomized subjects also provides indirect information about the role of individual ERs in the memory-enhancing effects of local hippocampal E 2 synthesis. Therefore, this study used pharmacological inhibition of ERα and ERβ to elucidate the importance of each ER to memory consolidation. Specifically, we examined effects on OR and OP memory consolidation of immediate post-training dorsal hippocampal (DH) infusion of MPP and PHTPP, selective antagonists for ERα and ERβ, respectively. Each drug exhibited a distinct effect on OR and OP. DH infusion of MPP (0.28 or 2.78ng/hemisphere) impaired memory in OP, but not OR. However, DH infusion of PHTPP (0.21 or 2.12ng/hemisphere) impaired memory in both OR and OP. Neither drug affected the elapsed time to accumulate object exploration in either task, suggesting a specific effect on memory. These results indicate that activation of either classical ER within the dorsal hippocampus is important for hippocampal memory consolidation in ovariectomized mice, but suggest that specific ER involvement is memory- or task-specific. The findings also indirectly support a role for ERα and ERβ in mediating the memory-enhancing effects of hippocampally-synthesized E 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Possible role of cholinesterase inhibitors on memory consolidation following hypobaric hypoxia of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraju, Sangu; Maiti, Panchanan; Solanki, Preeti; Sharma, Alpesh Kumar; Pati, Soumya; Singh, Shashi Bala; Prasad, Dipti; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy

    2011-05-01

    High altitude (HA) generates a deleterious effect known as hypobaric hypoxia (HBH). This causes severe physiological and psychological changes such as acute mountain sickness (AMS) and cognitive functions in terms of learning and memory. The present study has evaluated the effect of cholinesterase inhibitors on memory consolidation following HBH. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (80-90 days old) with an average body weight of 250 ± 25 g were used. Rats were assessed memory consolidation by using Morris water maze (MWM) for 8 days. After assessment of memory consolidation, rats were then exposed to HBH in stimulated chamber for 7 days at 6,100 m. After exposure to HBH, the memory consolidation of rats has been assessed in MWM. The results showed that there was memory consolidation impairment in HBH-exposed rats as compared to normoxic rats in terms of time spent in quaradents, rings, and counters. The rats which have been treated with physostigmine (PHY) and galantamine (GAL) showed better time spent in quaradents, rings, and counters as compared with hypoxic rats. In conclusion, the cholinesterase inhibitors could ameliorate the impairment of memory consolidation following HBH.

  11. Non-interfering effects of active post-encoding tasks on episodic memory consolidation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varma, S.; Takashima, A.; Krewinkel, S.C.; Kooten, M.E. van; Fu, L.; Medendorp, W.P.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Daselaar, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    So far, studies that investigated interference effects of post-learning processes on episodic memory consolidation in humans have only used tasks involving complex and meaningful information. Such tasks require reallocation of general or encoding-specific resources away from consolidation-relevant

  12. Consolidation power of extrinsic rewards: reward cues enhance long-term memory for irrelevant past events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Kitagami, Shinji

    2014-02-01

    Recent research suggests that extrinsic rewards promote memory consolidation through dopaminergic modulation processes. However, no conclusive behavioral evidence exists given that the influence of extrinsic reward on attention and motivation during encoding and consolidation processes are inherently confounded. The present study provides behavioral evidence that extrinsic rewards (i.e., monetary incentives) enhance human memory consolidation independently of attention and motivation. Participants saw neutral pictures, followed by a reward or control cue in an unrelated context. Our results (and a direct replication study) demonstrated that the reward cue predicted a retrograde enhancement of memory for the preceding neutral pictures. This retrograde effect was observed only after a delay, not immediately upon testing. An additional experiment showed that emotional arousal or unconscious resource mobilization cannot explain the retrograde enhancement effect. These results provide support for the notion that the dopaminergic memory consolidation effect can result from extrinsic reward.

  13. Declarative memory consolidation in humans: a prospective functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takashima, A.; Petersson, K.M.; Rutters, F.; Tendolkar, I.; Jensen, O.; Zwarts, M.J.; McNaughton, B.L.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2006-01-01

    Retrieval of recently acquired declarative memories depends on the hippocampus, but with time, retrieval is increasingly sustainable by neocortical representations alone. This process has been conceptualized as system-level consolidation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed over

  14. The Roles of Protein Expression in Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali eRosenberg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The amount and availability of proteins are regulated by their synthesis, degradation, and transport. These processes can specifically, locally, and temporally regulate a protein or a population of proteins, thus affecting numerous biological processes in health and disease states. Accordingly, malfunction in the processes of protein turnover and localization underlies different neuronal diseases. However, as early as a century ago, it was recognized that there is a specific need for normal macromolecular synthesis in a specific fragment of the learning process, memory consolidation, which takes place minutes to hours following acquisition. Memory consolidation is the process by which fragile short-term memory is converted into stable long-term memory. It is accepted today that synaptic plasticity is a cellular mechanism of learning and memory processes. Interestingly, similar molecular mechanisms subserve both memory and synaptic plasticity consolidation. In this review, we survey the current view on the connection between memory consolidation processes and proteostasis, i.e., maintaining the protein contents at the neuron and the synapse. In addition, we describe the technical obstacles and possible new methods to determine neuronal proteostasis of synaptic function and better explain the process of memory and synaptic plasticity consolidation.

  15. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation--what can be learnt from children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, I; Prehn-Kristensen, A; Born, J

    2012-08-01

    Extensive research has been accumulated demonstrating that sleep is essential for processes of memory consolidation in adults. In children and infants, a great capacity to learn and to memorize coincides with longer and more intense sleep. Here, we review the available data on the influence of sleep on memory consolidation in healthy children and infants, as well as in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a model of prefrontal impairment, and consider possible mechanisms underlying age-dependent differences. Findings indicate a major role of slow wave sleep (SWS) for processes of memory consolidation during early development. Importantly, longer and deeper SWS during childhood appears to produce a distinctly superior strengthening of hippocampus-dependent declarative memories, but concurrently prevents an immediate benefit from sleep for procedural memories, as typically observed in adults. Studies of ADHD children point toward an essential contribution of prefrontal cortex to the preferential consolidation of declarative memory during SWS. Developmental studies of sleep represent a particularly promising approach for characterizing the supra-ordinate control of memory consolidation during sleep by prefrontal-hippocampal circuitry underlying the encoding of declarative memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A severe capacity limit in the consolidation of orientation information into visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mark W; Miller, James R; Liu, Taosheng

    2013-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that two color patches can be consolidated into visual short-term memory (VSTM) via an unlimited parallel process. Here we examined whether the same unlimited-capacity parallel process occurs for two oriented grating patches. Participants viewed two gratings that were presented briefly and masked. In blocks of trials, the gratings were presented either simultaneously or sequentially. In Experiments 1 and 2, the presentation of the stimuli was followed by a location cue that indicated the grating on which to base one's response. In Experiment 1, participants responded whether the target grating was oriented clockwise or counterclockwise with respect to vertical. In Experiment 2, participants indicated whether the target grating was oriented along one of the cardinal directions (vertical or horizontal) or was obliquely oriented. Finally, in Experiment 3, the location cue was replaced with a third grating that appeared at fixation, and participants indicated whether either of the two test gratings matched this probe. Despite the fact that these responses required fairly coarse coding of the orientation information, across all methods of responding we found superior performance for sequential over simultaneous presentations. These findings suggest that the consolidation of oriented gratings into VSTM is severely limited in capacity and differs from the consolidation of color information.

  17. Interaction between hippocampal and striatal systems predicts subsequent consolidation of motor sequence memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Albouy

    Full Text Available The development of fast and reproducible motor behavior is a crucial human capacity. The aim of the present study was to address the relationship between the implementation of consistent behavior during initial training on a sequential motor task (the Finger Tapping Task and subsequent sleep-dependent motor sequence memory consolidation, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and total sleep deprivation protocol. Our behavioral results indicated significant offline gains in performance speed after sleep whereas performance was only stabilized, but not enhanced, after sleep deprivation. At the cerebral level, we previously showed that responses in the caudate nucleus increase, in parallel to a decrease in its functional connectivity with frontal areas, as performance became more consistent. Here, the strength of the competitive interaction, assessed through functional connectivity analyses, between the caudate nucleus and hippocampo-frontal areas during initial training, predicted delayed gains in performance at retest in sleepers but not in sleep-deprived subjects. Moreover, during retest, responses increased in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex in sleepers whereas in sleep-deprived subjects, responses increased in the putamen and cingulate cortex. Our results suggest that the strength of the competitive interplay between the striatum and the hippocampus, participating in the implementation of consistent motor behavior during initial training, conditions subsequent motor sequence memory consolidation. The latter process appears to be supported by a reorganisation of cerebral activity in hippocampo-neocortical networks after sleep.

  18. Effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant in consolidation and reconsolidation of methamphetamine reward memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu-lu; Wang, Xue-yi; Zhao, Mei; Liu, Yu; Li, Yan-qin; Li, Fang-qiong; Wang, Xiaoyi; Xue, Yan-xue; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that cannabinoid CB1 receptors play an important role in specific aspects of learning and memory, yet there has been no systematic study focusing on the involvement of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in methamphetamine-related reward memory. The purpose of this study was to examine whether rimonabant, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, would disrupt the consolidation and reconsolidation of methamphetamine-related reward memory, using conditioned place preference paradigm (CPP). Separate groups of male Kunming mice were trained to acquire methamphetamine CPP. Vehicle or rimonabant (1 mg/kg or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) was given at different time points: immediately after each CPP training session (consolidation), 30 min before the reactivation of CPP (retrieval), or immediately after the reactivation of CPP (reconsolidation). Methamphetamine CPP was retested 24 h and 1 and 2 weeks after rimonabant administration. Rimonabant at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg significantly inhibited the consolidation of methamphetamine CPP. Only high-dose rimonabant (3 mg/kg) disrupted the retrieval and reconsolidation of methamphetamine CPP. Rimonabant had no effect on methamphetamine CPP in the absence of methamphetamine CPP reactivation. Our findings suggest that cannabinoid CB1 receptors play a major role in methamphetamine reward memory, and cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists may be a potential pharmacotherapy to manage relapse associated with drug-reward-related memory.

  19. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarste Morgenthaler

    Full Text Available Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived. Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  20. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Jarste; Wiesner, Christian D; Hinze, Karoline; Abels, Lena C; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students) were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived). Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional) between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  1. Heart rate response to post-learning stress predicts memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larra, Mauro F; Schulz, André; Schilling, Thomas M; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Best, Daniel; Kozik, Bartlomiej; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Stressful experiences are often well remembered, an effect that has been explained by beta-adrenergic influences on memory consolidation. Here, we studied the impact of stress induced heart rate (HR) responses on memory consolidation in a post-learning stress paradigm. 206 male and female participants saw 52 happy and angry faces immediately before being exposed to the Cold Pressor Test or a non-stressful control procedure. Memory for the faces and their respective expression was tested twice, after 30 min and on the next day. High HR responders (in comparison to low HR responders as well as to the non-stressful control group) showed enhanced recognition memory one day after learning. Our results show that beta-adrenergic activation elicited shortly after learning enhances memory consolidation and that the stress induced HR response is a predictor for this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep Spindle Density Predicts the Effect of Prior Knowledge on Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennies, Nora; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Kempkes, Marleen; Cousins, James N; Lewis, Penelope A

    2016-03-30

    Information that relates to a prior knowledge schema is remembered better and consolidates more rapidly than information that does not. Another factor that influences memory consolidation is sleep and growing evidence suggests that sleep-related processing is important for integration with existing knowledge. Here, we perform an examination of how sleep-related mechanisms interact with schema-dependent memory advantage. Participants first established a schema over 2 weeks. Next, they encoded new facts, which were either related to the schema or completely unrelated. After a 24 h retention interval, including a night of sleep, which we monitored with polysomnography, participants encoded a second set of facts. Finally, memory for all facts was tested in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Behaviorally, sleep spindle density predicted an increase of the schema benefit to memory across the retention interval. Higher spindle densities were associated with reduced decay of schema-related memories. Functionally, spindle density predicted increased disengagement of the hippocampus across 24 h for schema-related memories only. Together, these results suggest that sleep spindle activity is associated with the effect of prior knowledge on memory consolidation. Episodic memories are gradually assimilated into long-term memory and this process is strongly influenced by sleep. The consolidation of new information is also influenced by its relationship to existing knowledge structures, or schemas, but the role of sleep in such schema-related consolidation is unknown. We show that sleep spindle density predicts the extent to which schemas influence the consolidation of related facts. This is the first evidence that sleep is associated with the interaction between prior knowledge and long-term memory formation. Copyright © 2016 Hennies et al.

  3. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation: The role of exercise intensity and timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard; Korsgaard Johnsen, Line; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2015-01-01

    that exercise intensity plays an important role for motor memory consolidation in favour of higher intensity aerobic exercise, while Experiment B indicates that timing of exercise is also important, with exercise immediately following motor skill learning being more efficient. Motor performance in retention......Background A single bout of high intensity cycling (~90% VO2peak) immediately after motor skill training enhances motor memory consolidation. It is unclear how different parameters of exercise may influence this process and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize...... that the effects of exercise on consolidation are time-dependent with a decreasing positive effect of exercise post acquisition and investigate the role of exercise intensity and timing on motor memory consolidation. Furthermore, we explore the potential role of transient changes in corticospinal excitability (CSE...

  4. Circadian modulation of consolidated memory retrieval following sleep deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Glou, Eric; Seugnet, Laurent; Shaw, Paul J; Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2012-10-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that sleep plays a critical role in learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate anesthesia resistant memory following sleep deprivation in Drosophila. Four to 16 h after aversive olfactory training, flies were sleep deprived for 4 h. Memory was assessed 24 h after training. Training, sleep deprivation, and memory tests were performed at different times during the day to evaluate the importance of the time of day for memory formation. The role of circadian rhythms was further evaluated using circadian clock mutants. Memory was disrupted when flies were exposed to 4 h of sleep deprivation during the consolidation phase. Interestingly, normal memory was observed following sleep deprivation when the memory test was performed during the 2 h preceding lights-off, a period characterized by maximum wake in flies. We also show that anesthesia resistant memory was less sensitive to sleep deprivation in flies with disrupted circadian rhythms. Our results indicate that anesthesia resistant memory, a consolidated memory less costly than long-term memory, is sensitive to sleep deprivation. In addition, we provide evidence that circadian factors influence memory vulnerability to sleep deprivation and memory retrieval. Taken together, the data show that memories weakened by sleep deprivation can be retrieved if the animals are tested at the optimal circadian time.

  5. Evidence for parallel consolidation of motion direction and orientation into visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideaux, Reuben; Apthorp, Deborah; Edwards, Mark

    2015-02-12

    Recent findings have indicated the capacity to consolidate multiple items into visual short-term memory in parallel varies as a function of the type of information. That is, while color can be consolidated in parallel, evidence suggests that orientation cannot. Here we investigated the capacity to consolidate multiple motion directions in parallel and reexamined this capacity using orientation. This was achieved by determining the shortest exposure duration necessary to consolidate a single item, then examining whether two items, presented simultaneously, could be consolidated in that time. The results show that parallel consolidation of direction and orientation information is possible, and that parallel consolidation of direction appears to be limited to two. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of adequate separation between feature intervals used to define items when attempting to consolidate in parallel, suggesting that when multiple items are consolidated in parallel, as opposed to serially, the resolution of representations suffer. Finally, we used facilitation of spatial attention to show that the deterioration of item resolution occurs during parallel consolidation, as opposed to storage. © 2015 ARVO.

  6. Fatty-acid binding proteins modulate sleep and enhance long-term memory consolidation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R Gerstner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is thought to be important for memory consolidation, since sleep deprivation has been shown to interfere with memory processing. However, the effects of augmenting sleep on memory formation are not well known, and testing the role of sleep in memory enhancement has been limited to pharmacological and behavioral approaches. Here we test the effect of overexpressing the brain-type fatty acid binding protein (Fabp7 on sleep and long-term memory (LTM formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Transgenic flies carrying the murine Fabp7 or the Drosophila homologue dFabp had reduced baseline sleep but normal LTM, while Fabp induction produced increases in both net sleep and LTM. We also define a post-training consolidation "window" that is sufficient for the observed Fabp-mediated memory enhancement. Since Fabp overexpression increases consolidated daytime sleep bouts, these data support a role for longer naps in improving memory and provide a novel role for lipid-binding proteins in regulating memory consolidation concurrently with changes in behavioral state.

  7. Sleep, Dreams, and Memory Consolidation: The Role of the Stress Hormone Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jessica D.; Nadel, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert…

  8. Midlife Decline in Declarative Memory Consolidation Is Correlated with a Decline in Slow Wave Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Jutta; Born, Jan; Hoeckesfeld, Ralf; Fokuhl, Sylvia; Hohagen, Fritz; Junghanns, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Sleep architecture as well as memory function are strongly age dependent. Slow wave sleep (SWS), in particular, decreases dramatically with increasing age, starting already beyond the age of 30. SWS normally predominates during early nocturnal sleep and is implicated in declarative memory consolidation. However, the consequences of changes in…

  9. A dream model: Reactivation and re-encoding mechanisms for sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kachergis, G.E.; Kleijn, R. de; Hommel, B.; Papafragou, A.; Grodner, D.; Mirman, D.; Trueswell, J.

    2016-01-01

    We humans spend almost a third of our lives asleep, and there is mounting evidence that sleep not only maintains, but actually improves many of our cognitive functions. Memory consolidation - the process of crystallizing and integrating memories into knowledge and skills - is particularly benefitted

  10. Histone Acetylation is Recruited in Consolidation as a Molecular Feature of Stronger Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Noel; Fustinana, Maria Sol; Romano, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression is a key process for memory consolidation. Recently, the participation of epigenetic mechanisms like histone acetylation was evidenced in long-term memories. However, until now the training strength required and the persistence of the chromatin acetylation recruited are not well characterized. Here we studied whether histone…

  11. The effect of two benzodiazepine receptor agonist hypnotics on sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Porter, Janine M; Schweitzer, Paula K; Eisenstein, Rhody D; Ahmed, Hasan Ali H; Walsh, James K

    2014-01-15

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that sleep promotes memory consolidation, but there is little research on the effect of hypnotics on sleep-dependent memory consolidation. We compared bedtime administration of zolpidem-ER 12.5 mg (6- to 8-h duration of action), middle-of-the-night administration of zaleplon 10 mg (3- to 4-h duration of action), and placebo to examine the effect of different durations of hypnotic drug exposure on memory consolidation during sleep. Twenty-two participants with no sleep complaints underwent 3 conditions in a counterbalanced crossover study: (1) zolpidem-ER 12.5 mg (bedtime dosing), (2) zaleplon 10 mg (middle-of-the-night dosing), and (3) placebo. Memory testing was conducted before and after an 8-h sleep period, using a word pair association task (WPT; declarative memory) and a finger-tapping task (FTT; procedural memory). ANOVA revealed a significant condition effect for the WPT (p = 0.025) and a trend for the FTT (p = 0.067), which was significant when sex was added to the model (p = 0.014). Improvement in memory performance following sleep was lower with bedtime dosing of zolpidem-ER compared to placebo and middle-of-the-night dosing of zaleplon. There were no differences between placebo and zaleplon. The results suggest that in some circumstances hypnotics may have the potential to reduce the degree of sleep-dependent memory consolidation and that drug-free sleep early in the night may ameliorate this effect.

  12. Differential Recruitment of Auditory Cortices in the Consolidation of Recent Auditory Fearful Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Grosso, Anna; Renna, Annamaria; Sacchetti, Benedetto

    2016-08-17

    Memories of frightening events require a protracted consolidation process. Sensory cortex, such as the auditory cortex, is involved in the formation of fearful memories with a more complex sensory stimulus pattern. It remains controversial, however, whether the auditory cortex is also required for fearful memories related to simple sensory stimuli. In the present study, we found that, 1 d after training, the temporary inactivation of either the most anterior region of the auditory cortex, including the primary (Te1) cortex, or the most posterior region, which included the secondary (Te2) component, did not affect the retention of recent memories, which is consistent with the current literature. However, at this time point, the inactivation of the entire auditory cortices completely prevented the formation of new memories. Amnesia was site specific and was not due to auditory stimuli perception or processing and strictly related to the interference with memory consolidation processes. Strikingly, at a late time interval 4 d after training, blocking the posterior part (encompassing the Te2) alone impaired memory retention, whereas the inactivation of the anterior part (encompassing the Te1) left memory unaffected. Together, these data show that the auditory cortex is necessary for the consolidation of auditory fearful memories related to simple tones in rats. Moreover, these results suggest that, at early time intervals, memory information is processed in a distributed network composed of both the anterior and the posterior auditory cortical regions, whereas, at late time intervals, memory processing is concentrated in the most posterior part containing the Te2 region. Memories of threatening experiences undergo a prolonged process of "consolidation" to be maintained for a long time. The dynamic of fearful memory consolidation is poorly understood. Here, we show that 1 d after learning, memory is processed in a distributed network composed of both primary Te1 and

  13. Sleep supports cued fear extinction memory consolidation independent of circadian phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Irene; Ehrlich, Ingrid

    2016-07-01

    Sleep promotes memory, particularly for declarative learning. However, its role in non-declarative, emotional memories is less well understood. Some studies suggest that sleep may influence fear-related memories, and thus may be an important factor determining the outcome of treatments for emotional disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Here, we investigated the effect of sleep deprivation and time of day on fear extinction memory consolidation. Mice were subjected to a cued Pavlovian fear and extinction paradigm at the beginning of their resting or active phase. Immediate post-extinction learning sleep deprivation for 5h compromised extinction memory when tested 24h after learning. Context-dependent extinction memory recall was completely prevented by sleep-manipulation during the resting phase, while impairment was milder during the active phase and extinction memory retained its context-specificity. Importantly, control experiments excluded confounding factors such as differences in baseline locomotion, fear generalization and stress hormone levels. Together, our findings indicate that post-learning sleep supports cued fear extinction memory consolidation in both circadian phases. The lack of correlation between memory efficacy and sleep time suggests that extinction memory may be influenced by specific sleep events in the early consolidation period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulation of the consolidation and reconsolidation of fear memory by three different serotonin receptors in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S D; Furini, C R G; Zinn, C G; Cavalcante, L E; Ferreira, F F; Behling, J A K; Myskiw, J C; Izquierdo, I

    2017-07-01

    The process of memory formation is complex and highly dynamic. During learning, the newly acquired information is found in a fragile and labile state. Through a process known as consolidation, which requires specific mechanisms such as protein synthesis, the memory trace is stored and stabilized. It is known that when a consolidated memory is recalled, it again becomes labile and sensitive to disruption. To be maintained, this memory must undergo an additional process of restabilization called reconsolidation, which requires another phase of protein synthesis. Memory consolidation has been studied for more than a century, while the molecular mechanisms underlying the memory reconsolidation are starting to be elucidated. For this, is essential compare the participation of important neurotransmitters and its receptors in both processes in brain regions that play a central role in the fear response learning. With focus on serotonin (5-HT), a well characterized neurotransmitter that has been strongly implicated in learning and memory, we investigated, in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus, whether the latest discovered serotonergic receptors, 5-HT 5A , 5-HT 6 and 5-HT 7 , are involved in the consolidation and reconsolidation of contextual fear conditioning (CFC) memory. For this, male rats with cannulae implanted in the CA1 region received immediately after the training or reactivation session, or 3h post-reactivation of the CFC, infusions of agonists or antagonists of the 5-HT 5A , 5-HT 6 and 5-HT 7 receptors. After 24h, animals were subjected to a 3-min retention test. The results indicated that in the CA1 region of the hippocampus the 5-HT 5A , 5-HT 6 and 5-HT 7 serotonin receptors participate in the reconsolidation of the CFC memory 3h post-reactivation. Additionally, the results suggest that the 5-HT 6 and 5-HT 7 receptors also participate in the consolidation of the CFC memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in the epilepsy monitoring unit: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Rani A; Alam, Javad; Pavlova, Milena K; Dworetzky, Barbara A; Pennell, Page B; Stickgold, Robert; Bubrick, Ellen J

    2016-08-01

    We sought to examine whether patients with focal epilepsy exhibit sleep dependent memory consolidation, whether memory retention rates correlated with particular aspects of sleep physiology, and how the process was affected by seizures. We prospectively recruited patients with focal epilepsy and assessed declarative memory using a task consisting of 15 pairs of colored pictures on a 5×6 grid. Patients were tested 12h after training, once after 12h of wakefulness and once after 12h that included sleep. EMG chin electrodes were placed to enable sleep scoring. The number and density of sleep spindles were assessed using a wavelet-based algorithm. Eleven patients were analyzed age 21-56years. The percentage memory retention over 12h of wakefulness was 62.7% and over 12h which included sleep 83.6% (p=0.04). Performance on overnight testing correlated with the duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) (r=+0.63, psleep dependent memory consolidation in patients with epilepsy which mostly correlates with the amount of SWS. Our preliminary findings suggest that nocturnal seizures likely disrupt sleep dependent memory consolidation. Findings highlight the importance of SWS in sleep dependent memory consolidation and the adverse impact of nocturnal seizures on this process. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Posttraining administration of pentylenetetrazol dissociates gabapentin effects on memory consolidation from that on memory retrieval process in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Mariano G; Boccia, Mariano M; Acosta, Gabriela B; Baratti, Carlos María

    2004-09-23

    Gabapentin (GBP), an anticonvulsant drug, 10 mg/kg, i.p., but not 100 mg/kg, i.p., enhanced retention of an inhibitory avoidance task when given 20 min after training, as indicated by retention performance 48 h later. The immediate post-training administration of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p.) impaired retention performance. The amnesic effects of the convulsant drug PTZ were not influenced by GBP at any level of doses. However, GBP 100 mg/kg, but not 10 mg/kg, delayed the latency to first clonic body seizures and decreased the duration of convulsion induced by PTZ. The enhancing effect of GBP on retention was not prevented by the opiate receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0.01 mg/kg, i.p.), which completely prevented the impairment of retention caused by PTZ. Further, naltrexone did not modify the convulsions induced by PTZ. In mice pretreated with naltrexone and that received PTZ, the administration of GBP again, enhanced retention performance during the retention test. Since previous results indicate that the amnesic action of PTZ are due to an effect on memory retrieval, the present results provide additional pharmacological evidence suggesting that GBP influenced memory consolidation and not memory retrieval of an inhibitory avoidance task in mice.

  17. Sleep, dreams, and memory consolidation: The role of the stress hormone cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Jessica D.; Nadel, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert influence on many of the brain systems involved in memory. The concentration of cortisol escalates over the course of the night's sleep, in ways that we ...

  18. Reversible Inactivation of the Higher Order Auditory Cortex during Fear Memory Consolidation Prevents Memory-Related Activity in the Basolateral Amygdala during Remote Memory Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cambiaghi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings have shown that the auditory cortex, and specifically the higher order Te2 area, is necessary for the consolidation of long-term fearful memories and that it interacts with the amygdala during the retrieval of long-term fearful memories. Here, we tested whether the reversible blockade of Te2 during memory consolidation may affect the activity changes occurring in the amygdala during the retrieval of fearful memories. To address this issue, we blocked Te2 in a reversible manner during memory consolidation processes. After 4 weeks, we assessed the activity of Te2 and individual nuclei of the amygdala during the retrieval of long-term memories. Rats in which Te2 was inactivated upon memory encoding showed a decreased freezing and failed to show Te2-to-basolateral amygdala (BLA synchrony during memory retrieval. In addition, the expression of the immediate early gene zif268 in the lateral, basal and central amygdala nuclei did not show memory-related enhancement. As all sites were intact upon memory retrieval, we propose that the auditory cortex represents a key node in the consolidation of fear memories and it is essential for amygdala nuclei to support memory retrieval process.

  19. Reversible Inactivation of the Higher Order Auditory Cortex during Fear Memory Consolidation Prevents Memory-Related Activity in the Basolateral Amygdala during Remote Memory Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Renna, Annamaria; Milano, Luisella; Sacchetti, Benedetto

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings have shown that the auditory cortex, and specifically the higher order Te2 area, is necessary for the consolidation of long-term fearful memories and that it interacts with the amygdala during the retrieval of long-term fearful memories. Here, we tested whether the reversible blockade of Te2 during memory consolidation may affect the activity changes occurring in the amygdala during the retrieval of fearful memories. To address this issue, we blocked Te2 in a reversible manner during memory consolidation processes. After 4 weeks, we assessed the activity of Te2 and individual nuclei of the amygdala during the retrieval of long-term memories. Rats in which Te2 was inactivated upon memory encoding showed a decreased freezing and failed to show Te2-to-basolateral amygdala (BLA) synchrony during memory retrieval. In addition, the expression of the immediate early gene zif268 in the lateral, basal and central amygdala nuclei did not show memory-related enhancement. As all sites were intact upon memory retrieval, we propose that the auditory cortex represents a key node in the consolidation of fear memories and it is essential for amygdala nuclei to support memory retrieval process.

  20. Top-down cortical input during NREM sleep consolidates perceptual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, D; Hirai, D; Fung, C C A; Inutsuka, A; Odagawa, M; Suzuki, T; Boehringer, R; Adaikkan, C; Matsubara, C; Matsuki, N; Fukai, T; McHugh, T J; Yamanaka, A; Murayama, M

    2016-06-10

    During tactile perception, long-range intracortical top-down axonal projections are essential for processing sensory information. Whether these projections regulate sleep-dependent long-term memory consolidation is unknown. We altered top-down inputs from higher-order cortex to sensory cortex during sleep and examined the consolidation of memories acquired earlier during awake texture perception. Mice learned novel textures and consolidated them during sleep. Within the first hour of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, optogenetic inhibition of top-down projecting axons from secondary motor cortex (M2) to primary somatosensory cortex (S1) impaired sleep-dependent reactivation of S1 neurons and memory consolidation. In NREM sleep and sleep-deprivation states, closed-loop asynchronous or synchronous M2-S1 coactivation, respectively, reduced or prolonged memory retention. Top-down cortical information flow in NREM sleep is thus required for perceptual memory consolidation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. The role of sleep in cognitive processing: focusing on memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alexis M

    2017-05-01

    Research indicates that sleep promotes various cognitive functions, such as decision-making, language, categorization, and memory. Of these, most work has focused on the influence of sleep on memory, with ample work showing that sleep enhances memory consolidation, a process that stores new memories in the brain over time. Recent psychological and neurophysiological research has vastly increased understanding of this process. Such work not only suggests that consolidation relies on plasticity-related mechanisms that reactivate and stabilize memory representations, but also that this process may be experimentally manipulated by methods that target which memory traces are reactivated during sleep. Furthermore, aside from memory storage capabilities, memory consolidation also appears to reorganize and integrate memories with preexisting knowledge, which may facilitate the discovery of underlying rules and associations that benefit other cognitive functioning, including problem solving and creativity. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1433. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1433 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. White Matter Structure in Older Adults Moderates the Benefit of Sleep Spindles on Motor Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Bryce A; Zhu, Alyssa H; Lindquist, John R; Villeneuve, Sylvia; Rao, Vikram; Lu, Brandon; Saletin, Jared M; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Jagust, William J; Walker, Matthew P

    2017-11-29

    Sleep spindles promote the consolidation of motor skill memory in young adults. Older adults, however, exhibit impoverished sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism(s) explaining why motor memory consolidation in older adults fails to benefit from sleep remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that male and female older adults show impoverished overnight motor skill memory consolidation relative to young adults, with the extent of impairment being associated with the degree of reduced frontal fast sleep spindle density. The magnitude of the loss of frontal fast sleep spindles in older adults was predicted by the degree of reduced white matter integrity throughout multiple white matter tracts known to connect subcortical and cortical brain regions. We further demonstrate that the structural integrity of selective white matter fiber tracts, specifically within right posterior corona radiata, right tapetum, and bilateral corpus callosum, statistically moderates whether sleep spindles promoted overnight consolidation of motor skill memory. Therefore, white matter integrity within tracts known to connect cortical sensorimotor control regions dictates the functional influence of sleep spindles on motor skill memory consolidation in the elderly. The deterioration of white matter fiber tracts associated with human brain aging thus appears to be one pathophysiological mechanism influencing subcortical-cortical propagation of sleep spindles and their related memory benefits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous studies have shown that sleep spindle expression is reduced and sleep-dependent motor memory is impaired in older adults. However, the mechanisms underlying these alterations have remained unknown. The present study reveals that age-related degeneration of white matter within select fiber tracts is associated with reduced sleep spindles in older adults. We further demonstrate that, within these same fiber tracts, the degree of

  3. Reward retroactively enhances memory consolidation for related items

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Anuya; Murty, Vishnu P.; Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Davachi, Lila

    2017-01-01

    Reward motivation has been shown to modulate episodic memory processes in order to support future adaptive behavior. However, for a memory system to be truly adaptive, it should enhance memory for rewarded events as well as for neutral events that may seem inconsequential at the time of encoding but can gain importance later. Here, we investigated the influence of reward motivation on retroactive memory enhancement selectively for conceptually related information. We found behavioral evidence...

  4. Reward Retroactively Enhances Memory Consolidation for Related Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Anuya; Murty, Vishnu P.; Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Davachi, Lila

    2017-01-01

    Reward motivation has been shown to modulate episodic memory processes in order to support future adaptive behavior. However, for a memory system to be truly adaptive, it should enhance memory for rewarded events as well as for neutral events that may seem inconsequential at the time of encoding but can gain importance later. Here, we investigated…

  5. Fear Extinction Memory Consolidation Requires Potentiation of Pontine-Wave Activity during REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W .

    2013-01-01

    Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that these animals exhibited an increase in phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity during post-training REM sleep, which was absent in the 43% of animals that failed to retain fear extinction memory. The results of this study provide evidence that brainstem activation, specifically potentiation of phasic P-wave activity, during post-training REM sleep is critical for consolidation of fear extinction memory. The results of this study also suggest that, contrary to the popular hypothesis of sleep and memory, increased sleep after training alone does not guarantee consolidation and/or retention of fear extinction memory. Rather, the potentiation of specific sleep-dependent physiological events may be a more accurate predictor for successful consolidation of fear extinction memory. Identification of this unique mechanism will significantly improve our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the sleep-dependent regulation of emotional memory. Additionally, this discovery may also initiate development of a new, more targeted treatment method for clinical disorders of fear and anxiety in humans that is more efficacious than existing methods such as exposure therapy that incorporate only fear extinction. PMID:23467372

  6. Post-encoding emotional arousal enhances consolidation of item memory, but not reality-monitoring source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Sun, Bukuan

    2017-03-01

    The current study examined whether the effect of post-encoding emotional arousal on item memory extends to reality-monitoring source memory and, if so, whether the effect depends on emotionality of learning stimuli and testing format. In Experiment 1, participants encoded neutral words and imagined or viewed their corresponding object pictures. Then they watched a neutral, positive, or negative video. The 24-hour delayed test showed that emotional arousal had little effect on both item memory and reality-monitoring source memory. Experiment 2 was similar except that participants encoded neutral, positive, and negative words and imagined or viewed their corresponding object pictures. The results showed that positive and negative emotional arousal induced after encoding enhanced consolidation of item memory, but not reality-monitoring source memory, regardless of emotionality of learning stimuli. Experiment 3, identical to Experiment 2 except that participants were tested only on source memory for all the encoded items, still showed that post-encoding emotional arousal had little effect on consolidation of reality-monitoring source memory. Taken together, regardless of emotionality of learning stimuli and regardless of testing format of source memory (conjunction test vs. independent test), the facilitatory effect of post-encoding emotional arousal on item memory does not generalize to reality-monitoring source memory.

  7. Stress enhances the consolidation of extinction memory in a predictive learning task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja eHamacher-Dang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Extinction is not always permanent, as indicated by several types of recovery effects, such as the renewal effect, which may occur after a context change and points towards the importance of contextual cues. Strengthening the retrieval of extinction memory is a crucial aim of extinction-based psychotherapeutic treatments of anxiety disorders to prevent relapse. Stress is known to modulate learning and memory, with mostly enhancing effects on memory consolidation. However, whether such a consolidation-enhancing effect of acute stress can also be found for extinction memory has not yet been examined in humans. In this study, we investigated the effect of stress after extinction learning on the retrieval of extinction memory in a predictive learning renewal paradigm. Participants took the part of being the doctor of a fictitious patient and learned to predict whether certain food stimuli were associated with ‘stomach trouble’ in two different restaurants (contexts. On the first day, critical stimuli were associated with stomach trouble in context A (acquisition phase. On the second day, these associations were extinguished in context B. Directly after extinction, participants were either exposed to a stressor (socially evaluated cold pressor test; n = 22 or a control condition (n = 24. On the third day, we tested retrieval of critical associations in contexts A and B. Participants exposed to stress after extinction exhibited a reduced recovery of responding at test in context B, suggesting that stress may context-dependently enhance the consolidation of extinction memory. Furthermore, the increase in cortisol in response to the stressor was negatively correlated with the recovery of responding in context A. Our findings suggest that in parallel to the known effects of stress on the consolidation of episodic memory, stress also enhances the consolidation of extinction memory, which might be relevant for potential applications in extinction

  8. System Consolidation of Spatial Memories in Mice: Effects of Enriched Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Bonaccorsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE is known to enhance learning and memory. Declarative memories are thought to undergo a first rapid and local consolidation process, followed by a prolonged process of system consolidation, which consist in a time-dependent gradual reorganization of brain regions supporting remote memory storage and crucial for the formation of enduring memories. At present, it is not known whether EE can affect the process of declarative memory system consolidation. We characterized the time course of hippocampal and cortical activation following recall of progressively more remote spatial memories. Wild-type mice either exposed to EE for 40 days or left in standard environment were subjected to spatial learning in the Morris water maze and to the probe test 1, 10, 20, 30, and 50 days after learning. Following the probe test, regional expression of the inducible immediate early gene c-Fos was mapped by immunohistochemistry, as an indicator of neuronal activity. We found that activation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, suggested to have a privileged role in processing remote spatial memories, was evident at shorter time intervals after learning in EE mice; in addition, EE induced the progressive activation of a distributed cortical network not activated in non-EE mice. This suggests that EE not only accelerates the process of mPFC recruitment but also recruits additional cortical areas into the network supporting remote spatial memories.

  9. Procedural Memory Consolidation in the Performance of Brief Keyboard Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Robert A.; Davis, Carla M.

    2006-01-01

    Using two sequential key press sequences, we tested the extent to which subjects' performance on a digital piano keyboard changed between the end of training and retest on subsequent days. We found consistent, significant improvements attributable to sleep-based consolidation effects, indicating that learning continued after the cessation of…

  10. Slow sleep spindle and procedural memory consolidation in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masaki; Nakashima, Yusaku; Nishikawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated, which indicates that, in healthy individuals, sleep enhances procedural memory consolidation, and that sleep spindle activity modulates this process. However, whether sleep-dependent procedural memory consolidation occurs in patients medicated for major depressive disorder remains unclear, as are the pharmacological and physiological mechanisms that underlie this process. Healthy control participants (n=17) and patients medicated for major depressive disorder (n=11) were recruited and subjected to a finger-tapping motor sequence test (MST; nondominant hand) paradigm to compare the averaged scores of different learning phases (presleep, postsleep, and overnight improvement). Participants' brain activity was recorded during sleep with 16 electroencephalography channels (between MSTs). Sleep scoring and frequency analyses were performed on the electroencephalography data. Additionally, we evaluated sleep spindle activity, which divided the spindles into fast-frequency spindle activity (12.5-16 Hz) and slow-frequency spindle activity (10.5-12.5 Hz). Sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation in patients with depression was impaired in comparison with that in control participants. In patients with depression, age correlated negatively with overnight improvement. The duration of slow-wave sleep correlated with the magnitude of motor memory consolidation in patients with depression, but not in healthy controls. Slow-frequency spindle activity was associated with reduction in the magnitude of motor memory consolidation in both groups. Because the changes in slow-frequency spindle activity affected the thalamocortical network dysfunction in patients medicated for depression, dysregulated spindle generation may impair sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Our findings may help to elucidate the cognitive deficits that occur in patients with major depression both in the waking state and during sleep.

  11. Facilitating influence of stress on the consolidation of fear memory induced by a weak training: reversal by midazolam pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Noelia Martina; Martijena, Irene Delia; Molina, Víctor Alejandro

    2011-11-20

    It is well known that an emotionally arousing experience usually results in a robust and persistent memory trace. The present study explored the potential mechanisms involved in the influence of stress on the consolidation of a contextual fear memory in animals subjected to a weak fear training protocol, and whether pretreatment with intra-basolateral amygdala or systemic administration of midazolam (MDZ) prevents the potential stress-induced influence on fear memory formation. A previous restraint session facilitated fear retention, this effect was not due to a sensitized effect of restraint on the footshock experience. MDZ, both systemically or intra-basolateral amygdala infusion prior to the restraint, attenuated the stress-induced promoting influence on fear memory formation. In addition, stress exposure activated the ERK1/2 pathway in basolateral amygdala (BLA) after the weak training procedure but not after the immediate footshock protocol. Similar to our behavioral findings, MDZ attenuated stress-induced elevation of phospho-ERK2 (p-ERK2) in BLA following the acquisition session. Given that the activation of ERK1/2 pathway is essential for associative learning, we propose that stress-induced facilitation of p-ERK2 in BLA is an important mechanism for the promoting influence of stress on the consolidation of contextual fear memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Coordination of Slow Waves With Sleep Spindles Predicts Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanuele, Charmaine; Bartsch, Ullrich; Baran, Bengi; Khan, Sheraz; Vangel, Mark G; Cox, Roy; Hämäläinen, Matti; Jones, Matthew W; Stickgold, Robert; Manoach, Dara S

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have correlated deficits in sleep spindle density and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In addition to spindle density, memory consolidation is thought to rely on the precise temporal coordination of spindles with slow waves (SWs). We investigated whether this coordination is intact in schizophrenia and its relation to motor procedural memory consolidation. Twenty-one chronic medicated schizophrenia patients and 17 demographically matched healthy controls underwent two nights of polysomnography, with training on the finger tapping motor sequence task (MST) on the second night and testing the following morning. We detected SWs (0.5-4 Hz) and spindles during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. We measured SW-spindle phase-amplitude coupling and its relation with overnight improvement in MST performance. Patients did not differ from controls in the timing of SW-spindle coupling. In both the groups, spindles peaked during the SW upstate. For patients alone, the later in the SW upstate that spindles peaked and the more reliable this phase relationship, the greater the overnight MST improvement. Regression models that included both spindle density and SW-spindle coordination predicted overnight improvement significantly better than either parameter alone, suggesting that both contribute to memory consolidation. Schizophrenia patients show intact spindle-SW temporal coordination, and these timing relationships, together with spindle density, predict sleep-dependent memory consolidation. These relations were seen only in patients suggesting that their memory is more dependent on optimal spindle-SW timing, possibly due to reduced spindle density. Interventions to improve memory may need to increase spindle density while preserving or enhancing the coordination of NREM oscillations. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  13. Molecular mechanisms underlying memory consolidation of taste information in the cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunit eGal-Ben-Ari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The senses of taste and odor are both chemical senses. However, whereas an organism can detect an odor at a relatively long distance from its source, taste serves as the ultimate proximate gatekeeper of food intake: it helps in avoiding poisons and consuming beneficial substances. The automatic reaction to a given taste has been developed during evolution and is well adapted to conditions that may occur with high probability during the lifetime of an organism. However, in addition to this automatic reaction, animals can learn and remember tastes, together with their positive or negative values, with high precision and in light of minimal experience. This ability of mammalians to learn and remember tastes has been studied extensively in rodents through application of reasonably simple and well defined behavioral paradigms. The learning process follows a temporal continuum similar to those of other memories: acquisition, consolidation, retrieval, relearning, and reconsolidation. Moreover, inhibiting protein synthesis in the gustatory cortex specifically affects the consolidation phase of taste memory, i.e., the transformation of short- to long-term memory, in keeping with the general biochemical definition of memory consolidation. This review aims to present a general background of taste learning, and to focus on recent findings regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying taste memory consolidation in the gustatory cortex. Specifically, the role of neurotransmitters, meuromodulators, immediate early genes, and translation regulation are addressed.

  14. Endocannabinoid signaling within the basolateral amygdala integrates multiple stress hormone effects on memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsak, Piray; Hauer, Daniela; Campolongo, Patrizia; Schelling, Gustav; Fornari, Raquel V; Roozendaal, Benno

    2015-05-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones are known to act synergistically with other stress-activated neuromodulatory systems, such as norepinephrine and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), within the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) to induce optimal strengthening of the consolidation of long-term memory of emotionally arousing experiences. However, as the onset of these glucocorticoid actions appear often too rapid to be explained by genomic regulation, the neurobiological mechanism of how glucocorticoids could modify the memory-enhancing properties of norepinephrine and CRF remained elusive. Here, we show that the endocannabinoid system, a rapidly activated retrograde messenger system, is a primary route mediating the actions of glucocorticoids, via a glucocorticoid receptor on the cell surface, on BLA neural plasticity and memory consolidation. Furthermore, glucocorticoids recruit downstream endocannabinoid activity within the BLA to interact with both the norepinephrine and CRF systems in enhancing memory consolidation. These findings have important implications for understanding the fine-tuned crosstalk between multiple stress hormone systems in the coordination of (mal)adaptive stress and emotional arousal effects on neural plasticity and memory consolidation.

  15. Declarative Memory Consolidation: Mechanisms Acting during Human Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Of late, an increasing number of studies have shown a strong relationship between sleep and memory. Here we summarize a series of our own studies in humans supporting a beneficial influence of slow-wave sleep (SWS) on declarative memory formation, and try to identify some mechanisms that might underlie this influence. Specifically, these…

  16. Sleep directly following learning benefits consolidation of spatial associative memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, L.M.; Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Takashima, A.

    2008-01-01

    The last decade has brought forth convincing evidence for a role of sleep in non-declarative memory. A similar function of sleep in episodic memory is supported by various correlational studies, but direct evidence is limited. Here we show that cued recall of face–location associations is

  17. Sleep directly following learning benefits consolidation of spatial associative memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, L.M.; Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Takashima, A.; Jensen, O.

    2008-01-01

    The last decade has brought forth convincing evidence for a role of sleep in non-declarative memory. A similar function of sleep in episodic memory is supported by various correlational studies, but direct evidence is limited. Here we show that cued recall of face-location associations is

  18. The relationship between masking and short-term consolidation during recall from visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Timothy J; Sandry, Joshua

    2018-04-10

    The presentation of a similar but irrelevant stimulus immediately following presentation of a memory item is called masking. Masking is known to reduce performance on working memory tests. This is the type of memory used to hold information in mind for brief periods of time for use in ongoing cognition. Two approaches to understanding masking effects have been proposed in different literatures. Working memory researchers often assume that the reduction in working memory performance after masking is because masking interferes with a transient sensory representation that is needed to complete consolidation into a working memory state. Researchers focused on the attentional blink, a finding that attention cannot be directed to new stimuli during working memory consolidation, have an alternative theory. Attentional blink researchers assume that masking slows the short-term consolidation process, thereby extending the length of the attentional blink. In two experiments, we contrast these two approaches to explaining masking effects and investigate the validity of both hypotheses. Some aspects of both approaches are validated, but neither theoretical perspective alone sufficiently explains the entire pattern of results. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Dopamine modulates memory consolidation of discrimination learning in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicknick, Horst; Reichenbach, Nicole; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Scheich, Henning; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Tischmeyer, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    In Mongolian gerbils, the auditory cortex is critical for discriminating rising vs. falling frequency-modulated tones. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesized that dopaminergic inputs to the auditory cortex during and shortly after acquisition of the discrimination strategy control long-term memory formation. To test this hypothesis, we studied frequency-modulated tone discrimination learning of gerbils in a shuttle box GO/NO-GO procedure following differential treatments. (i) Pre-exposure of gerbils to the frequency-modulated tones at 1 day before the first discrimination training session severely impaired the accuracy of the discrimination acquired in that session during the initial trials of a second training session, performed 1 day later. (ii) Local injection of the D1/D5 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH-23390 into the auditory cortex after task acquisition caused a discrimination deficit of similar extent and time course as with pre-exposure. This effect was dependent on the dose and time point of injection. (iii) Injection of the D1/D5 dopamine receptor agonist SKF-38393 into the auditory cortex after retraining caused a further discrimination improvement at the beginning of subsequent sessions. All three treatments, which supposedly interfered with dopamine signalling during conditioning and/or retraining, had a substantial impact on the dynamics of the discrimination performance particularly at the beginning of subsequent training sessions. These findings suggest that auditory-cortical dopamine activity after acquisition of a discrimination of complex sounds and after retrieval of weak frequency-modulated tone discrimination memory further improves memory consolidation, i.e. the correct association of two sounds with their respective GO/NO-GO meaning, in support of future memory recall. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Analysis of memory consolidation and evocation in rats by proton induced X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobim, P. F. C.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Maurmann, N.; Reolon, G. K.; Debastiani, R.; Pedroso, T. R.; Carvalho, L. M.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-08-01

    It is well known that trace elements such as Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn have a key role in synapse plasticity and learning. Learning process is conventionally divided in three distinct and complementary stages: memory acquisition, consolidation and evocation. Consolidation is the stabilization of the synaptic trace formed by acquisition, while evocation is the recall of this trace. Ion-based techniques capable of providing information concerning the elemental composition of organic tissues may be helpful to improve our understanding on memory consolidation and evocation processes. In particular, the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique can be used to analyze different biological tissues with good accuracy. In this work we explore the versatility of PIXE to measure the elemental concentrations in rat brain tissues in order to establish any possible correlation between them and the memory consolidation and evocation processes. To this end, six groups of middle-age male Wistar rats were trained and tested in a step-down Inhibitory Avoidance conditioning. After the behavior tests, the animals were decapitated in accordance with the legal procedures and their brains were removed and dissected for the PIXE analyses. The results demonstrated that there are differences in the elemental concentration among the groups and such variations may be associated with their availability to the learning processes (by memory consolidation and evocation). Moreover, the control groups circumvent the possibility that a non-specific event involved in learning tasks cause such variations. Our results suggest that PIXE may be a useful tool to investigate memory consolidation and evocation in animal models.

  1. A Cross-Syndrome Study of the Differential Effects of Sleep on Declarative Memory Consolidation in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Sleep plays an active role in memory consolidation. Because children with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) experience significant problems with sleep and also with learning, we predicted that sleep-dependent memory consolidation would be impaired in these children when compared to typically developing (TD) children. This is the first…

  2. Sleep-mediated memory consolidation depends on the level of integration at encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmer, Lea; Müller, Elias; Gais, Steffen; Schönauer, Monika

    2017-01-01

    There is robust evidence that sleep facilitates declarative memory consolidation. Integration of newly acquired memories into existing neocortical knowledge networks has been proposed to underlie this effect. Here, we test whether sleep affects memory retention for word-picture associations differently when it was learned explicitly or using a fast mapping strategy. Fast mapping is an incidental form of learning that references new information to existing knowledge and possibly allows neocortical integration already during encoding. If the integration of information into neocortical networks is a main function of sleep-dependent memory consolidation, material learned via fast mapping should therefore benefit less from sleep. Supporting this idea, we find that sleep has a protective effect on explicitly learned associations. In contrast, memory for associations learned by fast mapping does not benefit from sleep and remains stable regardless of whether sleep or wakefulness follows learning. Our results thus indicate that the need for sleep-mediated consolidation depends on the strategy used for learning and might thus be related to the level of integration of newly acquired memory achieved during encoding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impairment of sleep-related memory consolidation in schizophrenia: relevance of sleep spindles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göder, Robert; Graf, Anna; Ballhausen, Felix; Weinhold, Sara; Baier, Paul Christian; Junghanns, Klaus; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Deficits in declarative memory performance are among the most severe neuropsychological impairments in schizophrenia and contribute to poor clinical outcomes. The importance of sleep for brain plasticity and memory consolidation is widely accepted, and sleep spindles seem to play an important role in these processes. The aim of this study was to test the associations of sleep spindles and picture memory consolidation in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. We studied 16 patients with schizophrenia on stable antipsychotic medication (mean age ± standard deviation, 29.4 ± 6.4 years) and 16 healthy controls matched for age and educational level. Sleep was recorded and scored according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) standard criteria. We performed a picture recognition paradigm and compared recognition performance for neutral and emotional pictures in sleep and wake conditions. Recognition accuracy was better in healthy controls than in patients with schizophrenia in the sleep and wake conditions. However, the memory-promoting effect of sleep was significantly lower in schizophrenia patients than in controls. Sleep spindle activity was reduced in patients, and sleep spindle density was correlated with sleep-associated facilitation of recognition accuracy for neutral pictures. Reduced sleep spindles seem to play an important role as a possible mechanism or biomarker for impaired sleep-related memory consolidation in patients with schizophrenia, and are a new target for treatment to improve memory functions and clinical outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Noradrenergic Action in Prefrontal Cortex in the Late Stage of Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronel, Sophie; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.; Sara, Susan J.

    2004-01-01

    These experiments investigated the role of the noradrenergic system in the late stage of memory consolidation and in particular its action at beta receptors in the prelimbic region (PL) of the prefrontal cortex in the hours after training. Rats were trained in a rapidly acquired, appetitively motivated foraging task based on olfactory…

  5. Noradrenergic action in prefrontal cortex in the late stage of memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tronel, Sophie; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.; Sara, Susan J.

    2004-01-01

    These experiments investigated the role of the noradrenergic system in the late stage of memory consolidation and in particular its action at beta receptors in the prelimbic region (PL) of the prefrontal cortex in the hours after training. Rats were trained in a rapidly acquired, appetitively

  6. A single pair of neurons links sleep to memory consolidation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Paula R; Christmann, Bethany L; Griffith, Leslie C

    2015-01-07

    Sleep promotes memory consolidation in humans and many other species, but the physiological and anatomical relationships between sleep and memory remain unclear. Here, we show the dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons, which are required for memory consolidation in Drosophila, are sleep-promoting inhibitory neurons. DPMs increase sleep via release of GABA onto wake-promoting mushroom body (MB) α'/β' neurons. Functional imaging demonstrates that DPM activation evokes robust increases in chloride in MB neurons, but is unable to cause detectable increases in calcium or cAMP. Downregulation of α'/β' GABAA and GABABR3 receptors results in sleep loss, suggesting these receptors are the sleep-relevant targets of DPM-mediated inhibition. Regulation of sleep by neurons necessary for consolidation suggests that these brain processes may be functionally interrelated via their shared anatomy. These findings have important implications for the mechanistic relationship between sleep and memory consolidation, arguing for a significant role of inhibitory neurotransmission in regulating these processes.

  7. Blocking Dopaminergic Signaling Soon after Learning Impairs Memory Consolidation in Guinea Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiera-Nicole Lee

    Full Text Available Formation of episodic memories (i.e. remembered experiences requires a process called consolidation which involves communication between the neocortex and hippocampus. However, the neuromodulatory mechanisms underlying this neocortico-hippocampal communication are poorly understood. Here, we examined the involvement of dopamine D1 receptors (D1R and D2 receptors (D2R mediated signaling on memory consolidation using the Novel Object Recognition (NOR test. We conducted the tests in male Hartley guinea pigs and cognitive behaviors were assessed in customized Phenotyper home cages utilizing Ethovision XT software from Noldus enabled for the 3-point detection system (nose, center of the body, and rear. We found that acute intraperitoneal injections of either 0.25 mg/kg SCH23390 to block D1Rs or 1.0 mg/kg sulpiride to block D2Rs soon after acquisition (which involved familiarization to two similar objects attenuated subsequent discrimination for novel objects when tested after 5-hours in the NOR test. By contrast guinea pigs treated with saline showed robust discrimination for novel objects indicating normal operational processes undergirding memory consolidation. The data suggests that involvement of dopaminergic signaling is a key post-acquisition factor in modulating memory consolidation in guinea pigs.

  8. Involvement of the insular cortex in regulating glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fornari, R.V.; Wichmann, R.; Atucha Trevino, E.; Desprez, T.; Eggens-Meijer, E.; Roozendaal, B.

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are known to enhance the consolidation of memory of emotionally arousing experiences by acting upon a network of interconnected brain regions. Although animal studies typically do not consider the insular cortex (IC) to be part of this network, the present findings indicate that the

  9. Endocannabinoid signaling within the basolateral amygdala integrates multiple stress hormone effects on memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atsak, P.; Hauer, D.; Campolongo, P.; Schelling, G.; Fornari, R.V.; Roozendaal, B.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones are known to act synergistically with other stress-activated neuromodulatory systems, such as norepinephrine and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), within the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) to induce optimal strengthening of the consolidation of long-term memory

  10. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala modulates the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsegyan, Areg; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2014-01-01

    Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) is well known to enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of highly emotionally arousing training experiences. The present study investigated whether such noradrenergic activation of the BLA also influences the

  11. Effects of Model Performances on Music Skill Acquisition and Overnight Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Carla D.; Allen, Sarah E.; Simmons, Amy L.; Duke, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the extent to which the presentation of an auditory model prior to learning a novel melody affects performance during active practice and the overnight consolidation of procedural memory. During evening training sessions, 32 nonpianist musicians practiced a 13-note keyboard melody with their left…

  12. Activation of MAPK Is Necessary for Long-Term Memory Consolidation Following Food-Reward Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maria J.; Schofield, Michael G.; Kemenes, Ildiko; O'Shea, Michael; Kemenes, Gyorgy; Benjamin, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Although an important role for the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been established for memory consolidation in a variety of learning paradigms, it is not known if this pathway is also involved in appetitive classical conditioning. We address this question by using a single-trial food-reward conditioning paradigm in the freshwater…

  13. Surface Expression of NMDA Receptor Changes during Memory Consolidation in the Crab "Neohelice granulata"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Yanil; Salles, Angeles; Carbo-Tano, Martin; Pedreira, Maria Eugenia; Freudenthal, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the surface expression of the NMDA-like receptors during the consolidation of contextual learning in the crab "Neohelice granulata". Memory storage is based on alterations in the strength of synaptic connections between neurons. The glutamatergic synapses undergo various forms of…

  14. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on consolidation of fear memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish eAsthana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC influences declarative memory processes. This study investigates the efficacy of tDCS on emotional memory consolidation, especially experimental fear conditioning. We applied an auditory fear-conditioning paradigm; in which two differently colored squares (blue and yellow were presented as conditioned stimuli (CS and an auditory stimulus as unconditioned stimulus (UCS. Sixty-nine participants were randomly assigned into three groups: anodal, cathodal and sham stimulation. The participants of the two active groups (i.e., anodal and cathodal received tDCS over the left DLPFC for 12 minutes after fear conditioning. The effect of fear conditioning and consolidation (24 hours later was measured by assessing the skin conductance response (SCR to the CS. The results provide evidence that cathodal stimulation of the left DLPFC leads to an inhibitory effect on fear memory consolidation compared to anodal and sham stimulation, as indicated by decreased SCRs to CS+ presentation during extinction training at day 2. In conclusion, current work suggests that cathodal stimulation interferes with processes of fear memory consolidation.

  15. Sleep modulates the neural substrates of both spatial and contextual memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Rauchs

    Full Text Available It is known that sleep reshapes the neural representations that subtend the memories acquired while navigating in a virtual environment. However, navigation is not process-pure, as manifold learning components contribute to performance, notably the spatial and contextual memory constituents. In this context, it remains unclear whether post-training sleep globally promotes consolidation of all of the memory components embedded in virtual navigation, or rather favors the development of specific representations. Here, we investigated the effect of post-training sleep on the neural substrates of the consolidation of spatial and contextual memories acquired while navigating in a complex 3D, naturalistic virtual town. Using fMRI, we mapped regional cerebral activity during various tasks designed to tap either the spatial or the contextual memory component, or both, 72 h after encoding with or without sleep deprivation during the first post-training night. Behavioral performance was not dependent upon post-training sleep deprivation, neither in a natural setting that engages both spatial and contextual memory processes nor when looking more specifically at each of these memory representations. At the neuronal level however, analyses that focused on contextual memory revealed distinct correlations between performance and neuronal activity in frontal areas associated with recollection processes after post-training sleep, and in the parahippocampal gyrus associated with familiarity processes in sleep-deprived participants. Likewise, efficient spatial memory was associated with posterior cortical activity after sleep whereas it correlated with parahippocampal/medial temporal activity after sleep deprivation. Finally, variations in place-finding efficiency in a natural setting encompassing spatial and contextual elements were associated with caudate activity after post-training sleep, suggesting the automation of navigation. These data indicate that post

  16. Reduced susceptibility to interference in the consolidation of motor memory before adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshi Dorfberger

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Are children superior to adults in consolidating procedural memory? This notion has been tied to "critical," early life periods of increased brain plasticity. Here, using a motor sequence learning task, we show, in experiment 1, that a the rate of learning during a training session, b the gains accrued, without additional practice, within a 24 hours post-training interval (delayed consolidation gains, and c the long-term retention of these gains, were as effective in 9, 12 and 17-year-olds and comparable to those reported for adults. However, a follow-up experiment showed that the establishment of a memory trace for the trained sequence of movements was significantly more susceptible to interference by a subsequent motor learning experience (practicing a reversed movement sequence in the 17-year-olds compared to the 9 and 12-year-olds. Unlike the 17-year-olds, the younger age-groups showed significant delayed gains even after interference training. Altogether, our results indicate the existence of an effective consolidation phase in motor learning both before and after adolescence, with no childhood advantage in the learning or retention of a motor skill. However, the ability to co-consolidate different, successive motor experiences, demonstrated in both the 9 and 12-year-olds, diminishes after puberty, suggesting that a more selective memory consolidation process takes over from the childhood one. Only the adult consolidation process is gated by a recency effect, and in situations of multiple, clashing, experiences occurring within a short time-interval, adults may less effectively establish in memory experiences superseded by newer ones.

  17. [Sleep deprivation effect upon spatial memory consolidation in rats after one-day learning in a Morris water maze].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, V B; Kozhedub, R G; Arsen'ev, G N; Kozhechkin, S N; Ukraintseva, Iu V; Kulikov, M A; Manolov, A I; Koval'zon, V M

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation by 'carousel' method on spatial memory consolidation in a Morris water maze was studied in Wistar male rats after one-day learning (in accordance to a protocol by Frick et al., 2000). It was found that after fast 3-hr learning the memory trace retains during 24-hr. Twenty four hour sleep deprivation followed learning impaired consolidation of spatial memory. So the rat model of a one-day learning is suitable for the studying of neurophysiological mechanisms of sleep deprivation effects on spatial memory consolidation.

  18. Hearing something emotional influences memory for what was just seen: How arousal amplifies effects of competition in memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzio, Allison; Mather, Mara

    2014-12-01

    Enhanced memory for emotional items often comes at the cost of memory for the background scenes. Because emotional foreground items both induce arousal and attract attention, it is not clear whether the emotion effects are simply the result of shifts in visual attention during encoding or whether arousal has effects beyond simple attention capture. In the current study, participants viewed a series of scenes that each either had a foreground object or did not have one, and then, after each image, heard either an emotionally arousing negative sound or a neutral sound. After a 24-hr delay, they returned for a memory test for the objects and scenes. Postencoding arousal decreased recognition memory of scenes shown behind superimposed objects but not memory of scenes shown alone. These findings support the hypothesis that arousal amplifies the effects of competition between mental representations, influencing memory consolidation of currently active representations.

  19. Boosting long-term memory via wakeful rest: intentional rehearsal is not necessary, consolidation is sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Michaela; Alber, Jessica; Cowan, Nelson; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as 'foreign names in a bridge club abroad' and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is not dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is sufficient for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition.

  20. Boosting long-term memory via wakeful rest: intentional rehearsal is not necessary, consolidation is sufficient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Dewar

    Full Text Available People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as 'foreign names in a bridge club abroad' and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is not dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is sufficient for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition.

  1. Declarative and procedural memory consolidation during sleep in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Orla P; Regen, Francesca; Warnstedt, Claudia; Anghelescu, Ion; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Heuser, Isabella; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich

    2008-07-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by changes in subjective and objective measures of sleep quality. As recent findings point to the importance of sleep in memory consolidation, sleep-related memory consolidation was investigated in 15 female BPD patients (mean age 26.1+/-6.1 years) and 15 female healthy controls (mean age 25.6+/-6.8 years). Before and after the study night, declarative and procedural memory performance was tested by a paired associate list and a mirror tracing task. Subjective sleep quality was assessed by a sleep questionnaire, objective sleep quality was measured by a portable sleep recording device. During the study night the restorative value of sleep was significantly reduced in BPD patients (psleep quality showed a trend for longer REM sleep duration (p=0.054). No significant differences were found regarding overnight performance improvement in the declarative and procedural memory tasks. Present findings suggest that declarative and procedural memory consolidation during sleep is intact in BPD patients.

  2. Slow wave sleep induced by GABA agonist tiagabine fails to benefit memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Gordon B; Wilhelm, Ines; Ma, Ying; Groch, Sabine; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a pivotal role in consolidating memories. Tiagabine has been shown to increase SWS in favor of REM sleep without impacting subjective sleep. However, it is unknown whether this effect is paralleled by an improved sleep-dependent consolidation of memory. This double-blind within-subject crossover study tested sensitivity of overnight retention of declarative neutral and emotional materials (word pairs, pictures) as well as a procedural memory task (sequence finger tapping) to oral administration of placebo or 10 mg tiagabine (at 22:30). Fourteen healthy young men aged 21.9 years (range 18-28 years). Tiagabine significantly increased the time spent in SWS and decreased REM sleep compared to placebo. Tiagabine also enhanced slow wave activity (0.5-4.0 Hz) and density of sleep. Fast (12-15 Hz) and slow (9-12 Hz) spindle activity, in particular that occurring phase-locked to the slow oscillation cycle, was decreased following tiagabine. Despite signs of deeper and more SWS, overnight retention of memory tested after sleep the next evening (19:30) was generally not improved after tiagabine, but on average even lower than after placebo, with this impairing effect reaching significance for procedural sequence finger tapping. Our data show that increasing slow wave sleep with tiagabine does not improve memory consolidation. Possibly this is due to functional differences from normal slow wave sleep, i.e., the concurrent suppressive influence of tiagabine on phase-locked spindle activity.

  3. Sleep, dreams, and memory consolidation: the role of the stress hormone cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jessica D; Nadel, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert influence on many of the brain systems involved in memory. The concentration of cortisol escalates over the course of the night's sleep, in ways that we propose can help explain the changing nature of dreams across the sleep cycle.

  4. Sleep, dreams, and memory consolidation: The role of the stress hormone cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jessica D.; Nadel, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert influence on many of the brain systems involved in memory. The concentration of cortisol escalates over the course of the night's sleep, in ways that we propose can help explain the changing nature of dreams across the sleep cycle. PMID:15576884

  5. Sleep and memory consolidation: motor performance and proactive interference effects in sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borragán, Guillermo; Urbain, Charline; Schmitz, Rémy; Mary, Alison; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    That post-training sleep supports the consolidation of sequential motor skills remains debated. Performance improvement and sensitivity to proactive interference are both putative measures of long-term memory consolidation. We tested sleep-dependent memory consolidation for visuo-motor sequence learning using a proactive interference paradigm. Thirty-three young adults were trained on sequence A on Day 1, then had Regular Sleep (RS) or were Sleep Deprived (SD) on the night after learning. After two recovery nights, they were tested on the same sequence A, then had to learn a novel, potentially competing sequence B. We hypothesized that proactive interference effects on sequence B due to the prior learning of sequence A would be higher in the RS condition, considering that proactive interference is an indirect marker of the robustness of sequence A, which should be better consolidated over post-training sleep. Results highlighted sleep-dependent improvement for sequence A, with faster RTs overnight for RS participants only. Moreover, the beneficial impact of sleep was specific to the consolidation of motor but not sequential skills. Proactive interference effects on learning a new material at Day 4 were similar between RS and SD participants. These results suggest that post-training sleep contributes to optimizing motor but not sequential components of performance in visuo-motor sequence learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Familiarity Speeds Up Visual Short-term Memory Consolidation: Electrophysiological Evidence from Contralateral Delay Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2018-01-01

    To test how preexisting long-term memory influences visual STM, this study takes advantage of individual differences in participants' prior familiarity with Pokémon characters and uses an ERP component, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), to assess whether observers' prior stimulus familiarity affects STM consolidation and storage capacity. In two change detection experiments, consolidation speed, as indexed by CDA fractional area latency and/or early-window (500-800 msec) amplitude, was significantly associated with individual differences in Pokémon familiarity. In contrast, the number of remembered Pokémon stimuli, as indexed by Cowan's K and late-window (1500-2000 msec) CDA amplitude, was significantly associated with individual differences in Pokémon familiarity when STM consolidation was incomplete because of a short presentation of Pokémon stimuli (500 msec, Experiment 2), but not when STM consolidation was allowed to complete given sufficient encoding time (1000 msec, Experiment 1). Similar findings were obtained in between-group analyses when participants were separated into high-familiarity and low-familiarity groups based on their Pokémon familiarity ratings. Together, these results suggest that stimulus familiarity, as a proxy for the strength of preexisting long-term memory, primarily speeds up STM consolidation, which may subsequently lead to an increase in the number of remembered stimuli if consolidation is incomplete. These findings thus highlight the importance of research assessing how effects on representations (e.g., STM capacity) are in general related to (or even caused by) effects on processes (e.g., STM consolidation) in cognition.

  7. Reactivation or transformation? Motor memory consolidation associated with cerebral activation time-locked to sleep spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Stuart; Albouy, Genevieve; King, Bradley R; Lungu, Ovidiu; Vien, Catherine; Bore, Arnaud; Pinsard, Basile; Benali, Habib; Carrier, Julie; Doyon, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Motor memory consolidation is thought to depend on sleep-dependent reactivation of brain areas recruited during learning. However, up to this point, there has been no direct evidence to support this assertion in humans, and the physiological processes supporting such reactivation are unknown. Here, simultaneous electroencephalographic and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) recordings were conducted during post-learning sleep to directly investigate the spindle-related reactivation of a memory trace formed during motor sequence learning (MSL), and its relationship to overnight enhancement in performance (reflecting consolidation). We show that brain regions within the striato-cerebello-cortical network recruited during training on the MSL task, and in particular the striatum, were also activated during sleep, time-locked to spindles. Interestingly, the consolidated trace in the striatum was not simply strengthened, but was transformed/reorganized from rostrodorsal (associative) to caudoventral (sensorimotor) subregions. Moreover, the degree of the reactivation was correlated with overnight improvements in performance. Altogether, the present findings demonstrate that striatal reactivation linked to sleep spindles in the post-learning night, is related to motor memory consolidation.

  8. The Influence of Sleep on the Consolidation of Positive Emotional Memories: Preliminary Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis M. Chambers

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have not only shown that a period of sleep following learning offers greater benefits to later memory than a period of wakefulness, but also that sleep actively promotes those components of memories that are emotionally salient. However, sleep's role in emotional memory consolidation has largely been investigated with memories that are specifically negative in content, such as memory for negative images or texts, leaving open the question of whether sleep influences positive memories in a similar manner. The current study investigated the emotional memory trade-off effect for positive versus neutral information. Scenes in which a positive or neutral object was placed on a neutral background were encoded prior to a period of polysomnographically-monitored nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness. Recognition memory was tested for the objects and backgrounds separately following the delay using the Remember/Know paradigm. Compared to wake participants, those who slept during the delay had increased recollection memory performance for positive objects, but not the neutral components of the studied scenes. Further, familiarity of positive objects was negatively correlated with REM latency. These results provide preliminary evidence that sleep contributes to the selective processing of positive memories, and point toward a role for REM sleep in positive memory formation.

  9. The effect of exogenous cortisol during sleep on the behavioral and neural correlates of emotional memory consolidation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marle, Hein J F; Hermans, Erno J; Qin, Shaozheng; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Fernández, Guillén

    2013-09-01

    A host of animal work demonstrates that the retention benefit for emotionally aversive over neutral memories is regulated by glucocorticoid action during memory consolidation. Particularly, glucocorticoids may affect systems-level processes that promote the gradual reorganization of emotional memory traces. These effects remain largely uninvestigated in humans. Therefore, in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study we administered hydrocortisone during a polysomnographically monitored night of sleep directly after healthy volunteers studied negative and neutral pictures in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. The following evening memory consolidation was probed during a recognition memory test in the MR scanner by assessing the difference in brain activity associated with memory for the consolidated items studied before sleep and new, unconsolidated items studied shortly before test (remote vs. recent memory paradigm). Hydrocortisone administration resulted in elevated cortisol levels throughout the experimental night with no group difference at recent encoding or test. Behaviorally, we showed that cortisol enhanced the difference between emotional and neutral consolidated memory, effectively prioritizing emotional memory consolidation. On a neural level, we found that cortisol reduced amygdala reactivity related to the retrieval of these same consolidated, negative items. These findings show that cortisol administration during first post-encoding sleep had a twofold effect on the first 24h of emotional memory consolidation. While cortisol prioritized recognition memory for emotional items, it reduced reactivation of the neural circuitry underlying emotional responsiveness during retrieval. These findings fit recent theories on emotional depotentiation following consolidation during sleep, although future research should establish the sleep-dependence of this effect. Moreover, our data may shed light on mechanisms underlying

  10. NREM2 and Sleep Spindles Are Instrumental to the Consolidation of Motor Sequence Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laventure, Samuel; Fogel, Stuart; Lungu, Ovidiu; Albouy, Geneviève; Sévigny-Dupont, Pénélope; Vien, Catherine; Sayour, Chadi; Carrier, Julie; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have convincingly demonstrated that sleep plays a critical role in motor sequence learning (MSL) consolidation, the specific contribution of the different sleep stages in this type of memory consolidation is still contentious. To probe the role of stage 2 non-REM sleep (NREM2) in this process, we used a conditioning protocol in three different groups of participants who either received an odor during initial training on a motor sequence learning task and were re-exposed to this odor during different sleep stages of the post-training night (i.e., NREM2 sleep [Cond-NREM2], REM sleep [Cond-REM], or were not conditioned during learning but exposed to the odor during NREM2 [NoCond]). Results show that the Cond-NREM2 group had significantly higher gains in performance at retest than both the Cond-REM and NoCond groups. Also, only the Cond-NREM2 group yielded significant changes in sleep spindle characteristics during cueing. Finally, we found that a change in frequency of sleep spindles during cued-memory reactivation mediated the relationship between the experimental groups and gains in performance the next day. These findings strongly suggest that cued-memory reactivation during NREM2 sleep triggers an increase in sleep spindle activity that is then related to the consolidation of motor sequence memories. PMID:27032084

  11. Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons coordinate hippocampal network dynamics required for memory consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognjanovski, Nicolette; Schaeffer, Samantha; Wu, Jiaxing; Mofakham, Sima; Maruyama, Daniel; Zochowski, Michal; Aton, Sara J.

    2017-04-01

    Activity in hippocampal area CA1 is essential for consolidating episodic memories, but it is unclear how CA1 activity patterns drive memory formation. We find that in the hours following single-trial contextual fear conditioning (CFC), fast-spiking interneurons (which typically express parvalbumin (PV)) show greater firing coherence with CA1 network oscillations. Post-CFC inhibition of PV+ interneurons blocks fear memory consolidation. This effect is associated with loss of two network changes associated with normal consolidation: (1) augmented sleep-associated delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-12 Hz) and ripple (150-250 Hz) oscillations; and (2) stabilization of CA1 neurons' functional connectivity patterns. Rhythmic activation of PV+ interneurons increases CA1 network coherence and leads to a sustained increase in the strength and stability of functional connections between neurons. Our results suggest that immediately following learning, PV+ interneurons drive CA1 oscillations and reactivation of CA1 ensembles, which directly promotes network plasticity and long-term memory formation.

  12. Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Prejudice Formation: The Role of Time-Dependent Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enge, Luke R; Lupo, Amber K; Zárate, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Prejudice is generally thought to derive from learned, emotion-laden experiences. The mechanisms underlying the formation of prejudice over time, however, remain unknown. In the present research, we proposed and tested hypotheses regarding prejudice formation derived from research on memory consolidation and social perception. We hypothesized that time-dependent memory consolidation would produce better implicit memory for negative out-group information and positive in-group information, compared with negative in-group information and positive out-group information. Fifty undergraduates learned positive and negative information about racial in-group (Latino) and out-group (African American) targets. Participants returned after both a short time delay (2-6 hr after the learning session) and a long time delay (48 hr after the learning session) to complete a lexical decision task. Results demonstrated that participants responded to information consistent with an in-group bias faster after a long time delay than after a short time delay. Our findings have important implications for the study of social perception and memory consolidation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. CA1 hippocampal network activity changes during sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette N Ognjanovski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A period of sleep over the first few hours following single-trial contextual fear conditioning (CFC is essential for hippocampally-mediated memory consolidation. Recent studies have uncovered intracellular mechanisms required for memory formation that are affected by post-conditioning sleep and sleep deprivation. However, almost nothing is known about the circuit-level activity changes during sleep that underlie activation of these intracellular pathways. Here we continuously record neuronal activity from the CA1 region of freely-behaving mice to characterize neuronal and network activity changes occurring during active memory consolidation. C57BL/6J mice were implanted with custom stereotrode recording arrays to monitor activity of individual CA1 neurons, local field potentials (LFPs, and electromyographic activity. Sleep architecture and state-specific CA1 activity patterns were assessed during a 24 h baseline recording period, and for 24 h following either single-trial CFC or Sham conditioning. We find that consolidation of CFC is not associated with significant sleep architecture changes, but is accompanied by long-lasting increases in CA1 neuronal firing, as well as increases in delta, theta, and gamma-frequency CA1 LFP activity. These changes occurred in both sleep and wakefulness, and may drive synaptic plasticity within the hippocampus during memory formation. We also find that functional connectivity within the CA1 network, assessed through functional clustering analysis (FCA of spike timing relationships among recorded neurons, becomes more stable during consolidation of CFC. This increase in network stability was not present following Sham conditioning, was most evident during post-CFC slow wave sleep, and was negligible during post-CFC wakefulness. Thus in the interval between encoding and recall, slow wave sleep may stabilize the hippocampal contextual fear memory trace by promoting CA1 network stability.

  14. The effect of psilocin on memory acquisition, retrieval and consolidation in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas eRambousek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the serotonin system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been elucidated by experiments with hallucinogens. Application of a hallucinogen to humans leads to changes in perception, cognition, emotions and induction of psychotic-like symptoms that resemble symptoms of schizophrenia. In rodent studies, their acute administration affects sensorimotor gating, locomotor activity, social behavior and cognition including working memory, the phenotypes are considered as an animal model of schizophrenia. The complexity and singularity of human cognition raises questions about the validity of animal models utilizing agonists of 5-HT2A receptors. The present study thus investigated the effect of psilocin on memory acquisition, reinforced retrieval and memory consolidation in rats. Psilocin is a main metabolite of psilocybin acting as an agonist at 5-HT2A receptors with a contribution of 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A receptors. First, we tested the effect of psilocin on the acquisition of a Carousel maze, a spatial task requiring navigation using distal cues, attention and cognitive coordination. Psilocin significantly impaired the acquisition of the Carousel Maze at both doses (1 and 4 mg/kg. The higher dose of psilocin blocked the learning processes even in an additional session when the rats received only saline. Next, we examined the effect of psilocin on reinforced retrieval and consolidation in the Morris water maze (MWM. The dose of 4 mg/kg disrupted reinforced retrieval in the Morris water maze. However, the application of a lower dose was without any significant effect. Finally, neither the low nor high dose of psilocin injected post-training caused a deficit in memory consolidation in the MWM. Taken together, the psilocin dose dependently impaired the acquisition of the Carousel maze and reinforced retrieval in MWM; however, it had no effect on memory consolidation.

  15. Memantine facilitates memory consolidation and reconsolidation in the day-old chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samartgis, Jodi R; Schachte, Leslie; Hazi, Agnes; Crowe, Simon F

    2012-05-01

    Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has been approved for the treatment of the cognitive deficits noted in Alzheimer's disease. While there is a body of research that supports memantine's facilitative action upon memory compromise, this series of studies aimed to investigate the effects of this drug in healthy animals with intact memory functioning. A 0.1 mM dose of memantine injected immediately after a weakly aversive training event (i.e. 20% v/v methyl anthranilate) was found to enhance passive avoidance learning for this event in day-old chicks up to 24 h following training. The same dose of memantine was also observed to enhance memory for the training event when it was administered in conjunction with a reminder trial. These results suggest that memantine is capable of facilitating both memory consolidation as well as memory reconsolidation. It was concluded that memantine's mechanism may involve the short-term or intermediate memory phases of the Gibbs and Ng model of memory, and that the current findings represent enhancement of intact memory, rather than amelioration of memory compromise. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Boosting Slow Oscillatory Activity Using tDCS during Early Nocturnal Slow Wave Sleep Does Not Improve Memory Consolidation in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paßmann, Sven; Külzow, Nadine; Ladenbauer, Julia; Antonenko, Daria; Grittner, Ulrike; Tamm, Sascha; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an enhancement of hippocampal-dependent declarative memory consolidation, associated slow wave sleep (SWS) and slow wave activity (SWA) after weak slow oscillatory stimulation (so-tDCS) during early non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) in young adults. Recent studies in older individuals could not confirm these findings. However, it remained unclear if this difference was due to variations in study protocol or to the age group under study. Here, we asked if so-tDCS promotes neurophysiological events and associated sleep-dependent memory in the visuo-spatial domain in older adults, using a stimulation protocol that closely resembled the one employed in young adults. In a randomized, placebo-controlled single-blind (participant) crossover study so-tDCS (0.75 Hz; max. current density 0.522 mA/cm(2)) vs. sham stimulation was applied over the frontal cortex of 21 healthy older subjects. Impact of stimulation on frequency band activity (linear mixed models), two declarative and one procedural memory tasks (repeated measures ANOVA) and percentage of sleep stages (comparison of means) was assessed. so-tDCS, as compared to sham, increased SWA and spindle activity immediately following stimulation, accompanied by significantly impaired visuo-spatial memory consolidation. Furthermore, verbal and procedural memory remained unchanged, while percentage of NREM sleep stage 4 was decreased over the entire night (uncorrected). so-tDCS increased SWA and spindle activity in older adults, events previously associated with stimulation-induced improved consolidation of declarative memories in young subjects. However, consolidation of visuo-spatial (primary outcome) and verbal memories was not beneficially modulated, possibly due to decline in SWS over the entire night that may have prevented and even reversed immediate beneficial effects of so-tDCS on SWA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A cortical–hippocampal–cortical loop of information processing during memory consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Gideon; Eban, Elad; Frank, Loren M

    2018-01-01

    Hippocampal replay during sharp-wave ripple events (SWRs) is thought to drive memory consolidation in hippocampal and cortical circuits. Changes in neocortical activity can precede SWR events, but whether and how these changes influence the content of replay remains unknown. Here we show that during sleep there is a rapid cortical–hippocampal–cortical loop of information flow around the times of SWRs. We recorded neural activity in auditory cortex (AC) and hippocampus of rats as they learned a sound-guided task and during sleep. We found that patterned activation in AC precedes and predicts the subsequent content of hippocampal activity during SWRs, while hippocampal patterns during SWRs predict subsequent AC activity. Delivering sounds during sleep biased AC activity patterns, and sound-biased AC patterns predicted subsequent hippocampal activity. These findings suggest that activation of specific cortical representations during sleep influences the identity of the memories that are consolidated into long-term stores. PMID:27941790

  18. Selective post-training time window for memory consolidation interference of cannabidiol into the prefrontal cortex: Reduced dopaminergic modulation and immediate gene expression in limbic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignoli, Matheus Teixeira; Lopes-Aguiar, Cleiton; Ruggiero, Rafael Naime; Do Val da Silva, Raquel Araujo; Bueno-Junior, Lezio Soares; Kandratavicius, Ludmyla; Peixoto-Santos, José Eduardo; Crippa, José Alexandre; Cecilio Hallak, Jaime Eduardo; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Szawka, Raphael Escorsim; Anselmo-Franci, Janete; Leite, João Pereira; Romcy-Pereira, Rodrigo Neves

    2017-05-14

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala and hippocampus display a coordinated activity during acquisition of associative fear memories. Evidence indicates that PFC engagement in aversive memory formation does not progress linearly as previously thought. Instead, it seems to be recruited at specific time windows after memory acquisition, which has implications for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid of the Cannabis sativa plant, is known to modulate contextual fear memory acquisition in rodents. However, it is still not clear how CBD interferes with PFC-dependent processes during post-training memory consolidation. Here, we tested whether intra-PFC infusions of CBD immediately after or 5h following contextual fear conditioning was able to interfere with memory consolidation. Neurochemical and cellular correlates of the CBD treatment were evaluated by the quantification of extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin, and their metabolites in the PFC and by measuring the cellular expression of activity-dependent transcription factors in cortical and limbic regions. Our results indicate that bilateral intra-PFC CBD infusion impaired contextual fear memory consolidation when applied 5h after conditioning, but had no effect when applied immediately after it. This effect was associated with a reduction in DA turnover in the PFC following retrieval 5days after training. We also observed that post-conditioning infusion of CBD reduced c-fos and zif-268 protein expression in the hippocampus, PFC, and thalamus. Our findings support that CBD interferes with contextual fear memory consolidation by reducing PFC influence on cortico-limbic circuits. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep-dependent motor sequence memory consolidation in individuals with periodic limb movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, Valya; Viczko, Jeremy; Ray, Laura B; Owen, Adrian M; Fogel, Stuart M

    2017-12-01

    Periodic limb movements (PLMs) during sleep increase with age and are associated with striatal neurodegeneration and dopamine deficiency. Limb movements are often associated with disruptions to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Motor skill memory consolidation recruits the striatum, and learning-dependent striatal activation is associated with NREM sleep. Therefore, we investigated whether de novo individuals who significantly experience elevated levels of PLMs but have not been formally diagnosed with periodic limb movement disorder had learning and sleep-related memory deficits and whether these deficits were related to sleep quality and symptom severity. In total, 14 adults with significantly elevated PLMs (PLM condition), 15 age-matched controls (CTRL), and 14 age-matched "disturbed" sleep (through induced leg movements) controls (CTRL-ES) participated. The participants were trained (PM) and retested (AM) on procedural motor sequence learning (MSL) and declarative paired associates memory tasks. Baseline sleep quality was significantly worse in PLM than in CTRL. Despite the continued presence of PLMs in the PLM condition on the experimental night, remarkably, sleep quality improved and arousals decreased, vs. baseline, and did not differ from CTRL. MSL was significantly slower in the PLM condition than in CTRL at training but surprisingly exhibited overnight performance gains, which correlated with reduced arousals. As predicted, CTRL but not CTRL-ES had overnight gains in MSL. Taken together, this suggests that in the PLM condition, sleep quality was normalized following MSL, where they derived the same benefit of sleep to procedural memory consolidation as in CTRL. Sleep did not benefit declarative memory. Although preliminary, these results suggest that MSL in individuals with PLMs may provide a benefit to sleep, which in turn may benefit memory consolidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Multidimensional Aspects of Sleep Spindles and Their Relationship to Word-Pair Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Wehrle, Flavia; Tüshaus, Laura; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2015-07-01

    Several studies proposed a link between sleep spindles and sleep dependent memory consolidation in declarative learning tasks. In addition to these state-like aspects of sleep spindles, they have also trait-like characteristics, i.e., were related to general cognitive performance, an important distinction that has often been neglected in correlative studies. Furthermore, from the multitude of different sleep spindle measures, often just one specific aspect was analyzed. Thus, we aimed at taking multidimensional aspects of sleep spindles into account when exploring their relationship to word-pair memory consolidation. Each subject underwent 2 study nights with all-night high-density electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Sleep spindles were automatically detected in all EEG channels. Subjects were trained and tested on a word-pair learning task in the evening, and retested in the morning to assess sleep related memory consolidation (overnight retention). Trait-like aspects refer to the mean of both nights and state-like aspects were calculated as the difference between night 1 and night 2. Sleep laboratory. Twenty healthy male subjects (age: 23.3 ± 2.1 y). Overnight retention was negatively correlated with trait-like aspects of fast sleep spindle density and positively with slow spindle density on a global level. In contrast, state-like aspects were observed for integrated slow spindle activity, which was positively related to the differences in overnight retention in specific regions. Our results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional approach when investigating the relationship between sleep spindles and memory consolidation and thereby provide a more complete picture explaining divergent findings in the literature. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Reduced sleep spindles and spindle coherence in schizophrenia: mechanisms of impaired memory consolidation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Erin J; Tucker, Matthew A; Shinn, Ann K; Ono, Kim E; McKinley, Sophia K; Ely, Alice V; Goff, Donald C; Stickgold, Robert; Manoach, Dara S

    2012-01-15

    Sleep spindles are thought to induce synaptic changes and thereby contribute to memory consolidation during sleep. Patients with schizophrenia show dramatic reductions of both spindles and sleep-dependent memory consolidation, which may be causally related. To examine the relations of sleep spindle activity to sleep-dependent consolidation of motor procedural memory, 21 chronic, medicated schizophrenia outpatients and 17 healthy volunteers underwent polysomnography on two consecutive nights. On the second night, participants were trained on the finger-tapping motor sequence task (MST) at bedtime and tested the following morning. The number, density, frequency, duration, amplitude, spectral content, and coherence of stage 2 sleep spindles were compared between groups and examined in relation to overnight changes in MST performance. Patients failed to show overnight improvement on the MST and differed significantly from control participants who did improve. Patients also exhibited marked reductions in the density (reduced 38% relative to control participants), number (reduced 36%), and coherence (reduced 19%) of sleep spindles but showed no abnormalities in the morphology of individual spindles or of sleep architecture. In patients, reduced spindle number and density predicted less overnight improvement on the MST. In addition, reduced amplitude and sigma power of individual spindles correlated with greater severity of positive symptoms. The observed sleep spindle abnormalities implicate thalamocortical network dysfunction in schizophrenia. In addition, the findings suggest that abnormal spindle generation impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia, contributes to positive symptoms, and is a promising novel target for the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation: Does exercise type play a role?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard; Flindtgaard, Mads; Skriver, Kasper Christen

    2017-01-01

    following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 40 young (25.3 ±3.6 years), able-bodied male participants randomly assigned to one of four groups either performing strength training (STR), circuit training (CT), indoor hockey (HOC) or rest (CON). Retention tests of the motor skill......-line effects on motor memory, we conclude that exercise-induced effects beneficial to consolidation appear to depend primarily on the physiological stimulus rather than type of exercise and movements employed....

  3. Enhanced Noradrenergic Activity Potentiates Fear Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation by Differentially Recruiting alpha1- and beta-Adrenergic Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazarini, Lucas; Stern, Cristina A. Jark; Carobrez, Antonio P.; Bertoglio, Leandro J.

    2013-01-01

    Consolidation and reconsolidation are phases of memory stabilization that diverge slightly. Noradrenaline is known to influence both processes, but the relative contribution of alpha1- and beta-adrenoceptors is unclear. The present study sought to investigate this matter by comparing their recruitment to consolidate and/or reconsolidate a…

  4. An overview of the neuro-cognitive processes involved in the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of true and false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Benjamin

    2012-07-24

    Perception and memory are imperfect reconstructions of reality. These reconstructions are prone to be influenced by several factors, which may result in false memories. A false memory is the recollection of an event, or details of an episode, that did not actually occur. Memory formation comprises at least three different sub-processes: encoding, consolidation and the retrieval of the learned material. All of these sub-processes are vulnerable for specific errors and consequently may result in false memories. Whereas, processes like imagery, self-referential encoding or spreading activation can lead to the formation of false memories at encoding, semantic generalization during sleep and updating processes due to misleading post event information, in particular, are relevant at the consolidation stage. Finally at the retrieval stage, monitoring processes, which are assumed to be essential to reject false memories, are of specific importance. Different neuro-cognitive processes have been linked to the formation of true and false memories. Most consistently the medial temporal lobe and the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex have been reported with regard to the formation of true and false memories. Despite the fact that all phases entailing memory formation, consolidation of stored information and retrieval processes, are relevant for the forming of false memories, most studies focused on either memory encoding or retrieval. Thus, future studies should try to integrate data from all phases to give a more comprehensive view on systematic memory distortions. An initial outline is developed within this review to connect the different memory stages and research strategies.

  5. Relaxing music counters heightened consolidation of emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Nikki S; Wong, Wendy Wing; Velik, Lauren

    2012-02-01

    Emotional events tend to be retained more strongly than other everyday occurrences, a phenomenon partially regulated by the neuromodulatory effects of arousal. Two experiments demonstrated the use of relaxing music as a means of reducing arousal levels, thereby challenging heightened long-term recall of an emotional story. In Experiment 1, participants (N=84) viewed a slideshow, during which they listened to either an emotional or neutral narration, and were exposed to relaxing or no music. Retention was tested 1 week later via a forced choice recognition test. Retention for both the emotional content (Phase 2 of the story) and material presented immediately after the emotional content (Phase 3) was enhanced, when compared with retention for the neutral story. Relaxing music prevented the enhancement for material presented after the emotional content (Phase 3). Experiment 2 (N=159) provided further support to the neuromodulatory effect of music by post-event presentation of both relaxing music and non-relaxing auditory stimuli (arousing music/background sound). Free recall of the story was assessed immediately afterwards and 1 week later. Relaxing music significantly reduced recall of the emotional story (Phase 2). The findings provide further insight into the capacity of relaxing music to attenuate the strength of emotional memory, offering support for the therapeutic use of music for such purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. fMRI and sleep correlates of the age-related impairment in motor memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Stuart M; Albouy, Genevieve; Vien, Catherine; Popovicci, Romana; King, Bradley R; Hoge, Rick; Jbabdi, Saad; Benali, Habib; Karni, Avi; Maquet, Pierre; Carrier, Julie; Doyon, Julien

    2014-08-01

    Behavioral studies indicate that older adults exhibit normal motor sequence learning (MSL), but paradoxically, show impaired consolidation of the new memory trace. However, the neural and physiological mechanisms underlying this impairment are entirely unknown. Here, we sought to identify, through functional magnetic resonance imaging during MSL and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings during daytime sleep, the functional correlates and physiological characteristics of this age-related motor memory deficit. As predicted, older subjects did not exhibit sleep-dependent gains in performance (i.e., behavioral changes that reflect consolidation) and had reduced sleep spindles compared with young subjects. Brain imaging analyses also revealed that changes in activity across the retention interval in the putamen and related brain regions were associated with sleep spindles. This change in striatal activity was increased in young subjects, but reduced by comparison in older subjects. These findings suggest that the deficit in sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation in elderly individuals is related to a reduction in sleep spindle oscillations and to an associated decrease of activity in the cortico-striatal network. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Altered resting-state brain activity at functional MRI during automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tingyong; Feng, Pan; Chen, Zhencai

    2013-07-26

    Investigations of fear conditioning in rodents and humans have illuminated the neural mechanisms of fear acquisition and extinction. However, the neural mechanism of automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning is still unclear. To address this question, we measured brain activity following fear acquisition using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). In the current study, we used a marker of fMRI, amplitude of low-frequency (0.01-0.08Hz) fluctuation (ALFF) to quantify the spontaneous brain activity. Brain activity correlated to fear memory consolidation was observed in parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus in resting-state. Furthermore, after acquired fear conditioning, compared with control group some brain areas showed ALFF increased in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the experimental group, whereas some brain areas showed decreased ALFF in striatal regions (caudate, putamen). Moreover, the change of ALFF in vmPFC was positively correlated with the subjective fear ratings. These findings suggest that the parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus are the neural substrates of fear memory consolidation. The difference in activity could be attributed to a homeostatic process in which the vmPFC and ACC were involved in the fear recovery process, and change of ALFF in vmPFC predicts subjective fear ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence for two distinct sleep-related long-term memory consolidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönauer, Monika; Grätsch, Melanie; Gais, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    Numerous studies examine the effect of a night's sleep on memory consolidation, but few go beyond this short time-scale to test long-lasting effects of sleep on memory. We investigated long-term effects of sleep on typical memory tasks. During the hours following learning, participants slept or stayed awake. We compared recall performance between wake and sleep conditions after delays of up to 6 days. Performance develops in two distinct ways. Word pair, syllable, and motor sequence learning tasks benefit from sleep during the first day after encoding, when compared with daytime or nighttime wakefulness. However, performance in the wake conditions recovers after another night of sleep, so that we observe no lasting effect of sleep. Sleep deprivation before recall does not impair performance. Thus, fatigue cannot adequately explain the lack of long-term effects. We suggest that the hippocampus might serve as a buffer during the retention interval, and consolidation occurs during delayed sleep. In contrast, a non-hippocampal mirror-tracing task benefits significantly from sleep, even when tested after a 4-day delay including recovery sleep. This indicates a dissociation between two sleep-related consolidation mechanisms, which could rely on distinct neuronal processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Real-World-Time Simulation of Memory Consolidation in a Large-Scale Cerebellar Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosui, Masato; Yamazaki, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    We report development of a large-scale spiking network model of the cerebellum composed of more than 1 million neurons. The model is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs), which are dedicated hardware for parallel computing. Using 4 GPUs simultaneously, we achieve realtime simulation, in which computer simulation of cerebellar activity for 1 s completes within 1 s in the real-world time, with temporal resolution of 1 ms. This allows us to carry out a very long-term computer simulation of cerebellar activity in a practical time with millisecond temporal resolution. Using the model, we carry out computer simulation of long-term gain adaptation of optokinetic response (OKR) eye movements for 5 days aimed to study the neural mechanisms of posttraining memory consolidation. The simulation results are consistent with animal experiments and our theory of posttraining memory consolidation. These results suggest that realtime computing provides a useful means to study a very slow neural process such as memory consolidation in the brain.

  10. A role for nitric oxide-driven retrograde signaling in the consolidation of a fear memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie A Overeem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In both invertebrate and vertebrate models of synaptic plasticity, signaling via the putative “retrograde messenger” nitric oxide (NO has been hypothesized to serve as a critical link between functional and structural alterations at pre- and postsynaptic sites. However, while in vitro models of synaptic plasticity have consistently implicated NO signaling in linking postsynaptic induction mechanisms with accompanying presynaptic changes, a convincing role of such “retrograde signaling” in mammalian memory formation has remained elusive. Using auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning, we show that synaptic plasticity and NO signaling in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA regulate the expression of the ERK-driven immediate early gene early growth response gene I (EGR-1 in regions of the auditory thalamus that are presynaptic to the LA. Further, antisense knockdown of EGR-1 in the auditory thalamus impairs both fear memory consolidation and the training-induced elevation of two presynaptically localized proteins in the LA. These findings indicate that synaptic plasticity and NO signaling in the LA during auditory fear conditioning promote alterations in ERK-driven gene expression in auditory thalamic neurons that are required for both fear memory consolidation as well as presynaptic correlates of fear memory formation in the LA, and provide general support for a role of NO as a “retrograde signal” in mammalian memory formation.

  11. Astrocytic β2-adrenergic receptors mediate hippocampal long-term memory consolidation

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Virginia

    2016-07-12

    Emotionally relevant experiences form strong and long-lasting memories by critically engaging the stress hormone/neurotransmitter noradrenaline, which mediates and modulates the consolidation of these memories. Noradrenaline acts through adrenergic receptors (ARs), of which β2- Adrenergic receptors (βARs) are of particular importance. The differential anatomical and cellular distribution of βAR subtypes in the brain suggests that they play distinct roles in memory processing, although much about their specific contributions and mechanisms of action remains to be understood. Here we show that astrocytic rather than neuronal β2ARs in the hippocampus play a key role in the consolidation of a fear-based contextual memory. These hippocampal β2ARs, but not β1ARs, are coupled to the training-dependent release of lactate from astrocytes, which is necessary for long- Term memory formation and for underlying molecular changes. This key metabolic role of astrocytic β2ARs may represent a novel target mechanism for stress-related psychopathologies and neurodegeneration.

  12. Enhanced Memory Consolidation Via Automatic Sound Stimulation During Non-REM Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leminen, Miika M; Virkkala, Jussi; Saure, Emma; Paajanen, Teemu; Zee, Phyllis C; Santostasi, Giovanni; Hublin, Christer; Müller, Kiti; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Huotilainen, Minna; Paunio, Tiina

    2017-03-01

    Slow-wave sleep (SWS) slow waves and sleep spindle activity have been shown to be crucial for memory consolidation. Recently, memory consolidation has been causally facilitated in human participants via auditory stimuli phase-locked to SWS slow waves. Here, we aimed to develop a new acoustic stimulus protocol to facilitate learning and to validate it using different memory tasks. Most importantly, the stimulation setup was automated to be applicable for ambulatory home use. Fifteen healthy participants slept 3 nights in the laboratory. Learning was tested with 4 memory tasks (word pairs, serial finger tapping, picture recognition, and face-name association). Additional questionnaires addressed subjective sleep quality and overnight changes in mood. During the stimulus night, auditory stimuli were adjusted and targeted by an unsupervised algorithm to be phase-locked to the negative peak of slow waves in SWS. During the control night no sounds were presented. Results showed that the sound stimulation increased both slow wave (p = .002) and sleep spindle activity (p memory performance was compared between stimulus and control nights, we found a significant effect in word pair task but not in other memory tasks. The stimulation did not affect sleep structure or subjective sleep quality. We showed that the memory effect of the SWS-targeted individually triggered single-sound stimulation is specific to verbal associative memory. Moreover, the ambulatory and automated sound stimulus setup was promising and allows for a broad range of potential follow-up studies in the future. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  13. Effects of stress and corticosterone in two post-training periods, on spatial memory consolidation in adult male Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeimmy Marcela Cerón

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Memory consolidation is the process of gradual stabilization of long-term memory after learning (Alberini & Taubenfeld, 2008. This process involves the activation of intracellular signaling cascades that lead to the reorganization of synaptic proteins. Activation of these signaling pathways can regulate gene expression and protein synthesis (Brivanlou & Darnell, 2002. It is considered that the new proteins synthesized after learning are responsible for the changes in the neural architecture associated with memory consolidation (Mileusnic, 2004. In this sense, it has been shown that consolidation may be interrupted by inhibiting protein synthesis, leading to forgetfulness of the experience (Meeter & Murre, 2004. Although the dominant hypothesis is that memory consolidation requires a single molecular cascade, it has been suggested that multiple sets of synaptic modifications are required to reinforce changes after memory acquisition (Wittenber & Tsien, 2002. Consistently, recent studies have shown that protein synthesis associated with memory consolidation occurs in at least two post-training periods: immediately and 3-6 hours after training (Igaz et al., 2002; Bekinschtein et al., 2007. These memory consolidation periods share some molecular phenomena; however, each period is also associated with events that are different from the other (Igaz et al., 2002. To date, there is a substantial amount of evidence showing that stressful events may facilitate neuronal function and cognition. The term "stress" usually refers to a nonspecific response of the body to stimuli that threaten the physiological/psychological homeostasis (Selye, 1976; Chrousos et al., 1988. The stress response is associated with the activation of two physiological systems: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM. Glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and corticosterone in rodents are steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal glands as a

  14. Memory consolidation from seconds to weeks: A three-stage neural network model with autonomous reinstatement dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eFiebig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Declarative long-term memories are not created at an instant. Gradual stabilization and temporally shifting dependence of acquired declarative memories on different brain regions - called systems consolidation - can be tracked in time by lesion experiments. The observation of temporally graded retrograde amnesia following hippocampal lesions, points to a gradual transfer of memory from hippocampus to neocortical long-term memory. Spontaneous reactivations of hippocampal memories, as observed in place cell reactivations during slow-wave-sleep, are supposed to drive neocortical reinstatements and facilitate this process.We propose a functional neural network implementation of these ideas and furthermore suggest an extended three-stage framework that also includes the prefrontal cortex and bridges the temporal chasm between working memory percepts on the scale of seconds and consolidated long-term memory on the scale of weeks or months.We show that our three-stage model can autonomously produce the necessary stochastic reactivation dynamics for successful episodic memory consolidation. The resulting learning system is shown to exhibit classical memory effects seen in experimental studies, such as retrograde and anterograde amnesia after simulated hippocampal lesioning; furthermore the model reproduces peculiar biological findings on memory modulation, such as retrograde facilitation of memory after suppressed acquisition of new long-term memories - similar to the effects of benzodiazepines on memory.

  15. Involvement of the insular cortex in regulating glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Raquel V; Wichmann, Romy; Atucha, Erika; Desprez, Tifany; Eggens-Meijer, Ellie; Roozendaal, Benno

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are known to enhance the consolidation of memory of emotionally arousing experiences by acting upon a network of interconnected brain regions. Although animal studies typically do not consider the insular cortex (IC) to be part of this network, the present findings indicate that the IC is importantly involved in regulating glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation of emotionally arousing inhibitory avoidance training. The specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist RU 28362 (3 or 10 ng in 0.5 μl) infused bilaterally into the IC of male Sprague-Dawley rats immediately after one-trial inhibitory avoidance training dose-dependently enhanced 48 h retention performance. Moreover, training on the inhibitory avoidance task increased neuronal activity of the IC, as assessed by an increased number of cells expressing immunoreactivity for phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2). However, systemic administration of a memory-enhancing dose of corticosterone (1 mg/kg) after inhibitory avoidance training rapidly reduced the number of pERK1/2-positive cells in the IC, suggesting that glucocorticoid administration reduces overall neuronal activity of the IC. To investigate which components of the inhibitory avoidance training experience were influenced by the intra-IC glucocorticoid administration, in the last experiment rats were trained on a modified inhibitory avoidance task in which context exposure and footshock training occur on two sequential days. RU 28362 administration into the IC enhanced later retention when infused immediately after either the context or footshock training. Thus, these findings indicate that the IC mediates glucocorticoid effects on the consolidation of memory of different components of inhibitory avoidance training and suggest that the IC might be an important element of the rodent brain network involved in emotional regulation of learning and memory.

  16. Involvement of the insular cortex in regulating glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel eFornari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids are known to enhance the consolidation of memory of emotionally arousing experiences by acting upon a network of interconnected brain regions. Although animal studies typically do not consider the insular cortex (IC to be part of this network, the present findings indicate that the IC is importantly involved in regulating glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation of emotionally arousing inhibitory avoidance training. The specific glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU 28362 (3 or 10 ng in 0.5 l infused bilaterally into the IC of male Sprague-Dawley rats immediately after one-trial inhibitory avoidance training dose-dependently enhanced 48-h retention performance. Moreover, training on the inhibitory avoidance task increased neuronal activity of the IC, as assessed by an increased number of cells expressing immunoreactivity for phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2. However, systemic administration of a memory-enhancing dose of corticosterone (1 mg/kg after inhibitory avoidance training rapidly reduced the number of pERK1/2-positive cells in the IC, suggesting that glucocorticoid administration reduces overall neuronal activity of the IC. To investigate which components of the inhibitory avoidance training experience were influenced by the intra-IC glucocorticoid administration, in the last experiment rats were trained on a modified inhibitory avoidance task in which context exposure and footshock training occur on two sequential days. RU 28362 administration into the IC enhanced later retention when infused immediately after either the context or footshock training. Thus, these findings indicate that the IC mediates glucocorticoid effects on the consolidation of memory of different components of inhibitory avoidance training and suggest that the IC might be an important element of the rodent brain network involved in emotional regulation of learning and memory.

  17. Time course of scopolamine effect on memory consolidation and forgetting in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Miroljub; Giménez de Béjar, Verónica; Popović, Natalija; Caballero-Bleda, María

    2015-02-01

    The effect of scopolamine on the consolidation and forgetting of emotional memory has not been completely elucidated yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the time course of scopolamine effect on consolidation and forgetting of passive avoidance response. In a first experiment of the present study, we tested the effect of scopolamine (1mg/kg, i.p., immediately after acquisition), on 24h and 48h retention performance of the step-through passive avoidance task, in adult male Wistar rats. On the 24h retested trial, the latency of the passive avoidance response was significantly lower, while on the 48h retested trial it was significantly higher in scopolamine than in the saline-treated group. In a second experiment, we assessed the 24h time course of scopolamine (1mg/kg) effect on memory consolidation in passive avoidance task. We found that scopolamine administration only within the first six and half hours after acquisition improved memory consolidation in 48h retention performance. Finally, a third experiment was performed on the saline- and scopolamine-treated rats (given immediately after acquisition) that on the 48h retention test did not step through into the dark compartment during the cut-off time. These animals were retested weekly for up to first three months, and after that, every three months until the end of experiment (i.e., 15 months after acquisition). The passive avoidance response in the saline treated group lasted up to 6 weeks after acquisition, while in the scopolamine treated group 50% of animals conserved the initial level of passive avoidance response until the experiment end point. In conclusion, the present data suggest that (1) improving or impairment effect of scopolamine given in post-training periods depends on delay of retention trial, (2) memory consolidation process could be modify by scopolamine within first six and half hours after training and (3) scopolamine could delay forgetting of emotional memory. Copyright

  18. The Relative Impact of Sleep and Circadian Drive on Motor Skill Acquisition and Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew A; Morris, Christopher J; Morgan, Alexandra; Yang, Jessica; Myers, Samantha; Pierce, Joanna Garcia; Stickgold, Robert; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2017-04-01

    Sleep during the biological night facilitates memory consolidation. Here we determined the impact of sleep and wake on motor skill learning (acquisition) and subsequent off-line skill improvement (memory consolidation), independent of circadian phase, and compared this to the impact of the endogenous circadian system, independent of whether sleep occurred during the biological night or day. Participants completed two 8-day sleep laboratory visits, adhering on one visit to a circadian aligned ("normal") sleep schedule for the full duration of the protocol, and on the other to a circadian misaligned (12-hour inverted) schedule, with alignment during the first 3 days, a 12-hour 'slam shift' on Day 4, followed by circadian misalignment during the last 4 days of the protocol. Participants were repeatedly trained and tested on different versions of the finger-tapping motor sequence task across each visit. Sleep facilitated offline memory consolidation regardless of whether it occurred during the biological day or night, while circadian phase had no significant impact. These sleep-related benefits remained after accounting for general motor speed, measured in the absence of learning. In addition, motor skill acquisition was facilitated when the training session followed shortly after sleep, without significant impact of circadian phase (biological morning vs. evening). This effect was largely driven by heightened acquisition in participants who slept during the day and were trained shortly thereafter, that is, when acquisition occurred during the biological evening. These benefits were also retained after controlling for general motor speed. Sleep benefits both the acquisition and consolidation of motor skill regardless of whether they occur during the biological day or night. After controlling for general motor speed, a critical adjustment that few studies perform, these sleep benefits remain intact. Our findings have clear implications for night shift workers who obtain

  19. An overview of the neuro-cognitive processes involved in the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of true and false memories

    OpenAIRE

    Straube Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Perception and memory are imperfect reconstructions of reality. These reconstructions are prone to be influenced by several factors, which may result in false memories. A false memory is the recollection of an event, or details of an episode, that did not actually occur. Memory formation comprises at least three different sub-processes: encoding, consolidation and the retrieval of the learned material. All of these sub-processes are vulnerable for specific errors and consequently may...

  20. Visual working memory encoding in schizophrenia and first-degree relatives: neurofunctional abnormalities and impaired consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stäblein, Michael; Storchak, Helena; Ghinea, Denisa; Kraft, Dominik; Knöchel, Christian; Prvulovic, David; Bittner, Robert A; Reif, Andreas; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola

    2018-03-09

    Working memory (WM) deficits in schizophrenia (SCZ) have been linked to impairments in the encoding phase that are associated with aberrant neuronal functioning. Similar abnormalities have been observed in unaffected first-degree relatives (REL) and are thus discussed as candidate endophenotypes. The process of WM consolidation - i.e. the formation of durable WM representations - is assumed to be impaired in SCZ, but no study has investigated WM consolidation and neuronal correlates of visual WM encoding in REL before. We examined whole-brain activation during the encoding phase with an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study design in 25 SCZ subjects, 22 REL subjects, and 25 healthy controls. Subjects performed a visual masked change detection task that assessed WM performance and consolidation. SCZ showed deficient WM performance indicating an impairment consolidation process, accompanied by broad neuronal hypoactivation, most prominently in frontal brain regions, as well as increased activity of the anterior cingulate during the encoding phase. REL showed decreased neuronal activity in the middle and medial frontal gyrus and increased activity in the precentral gyrus and insula during encoding, but no significant behavioral deficits were observed. In respect of given consolidation times, REL showed a shift from decreased frontal activity at short time intervals to increased frontal activity at longer time intervals. Findings suggest WM consolidation may be slowed in REL so that the deployment of compensatory neuronal resources during encoding is needed to assure proper WM performance. This supports the view of WM-related neuronal dysfunctions as a potential endophenotypic marker.

  1. Changes in corticospinal excitability during consolidation predict acute exercise-induced off-line gains in procedural memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostadan, Fatemeh; Centeno, Carla; Daloze, Jean-Felix

    2016-01-01

    A single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after practicing a motor task improves the long-term retention of the skill through an optimization of memory consolidation. However, the specific brain mechanisms underlying the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on procedural...... memory are poorly understood. We sought to determine if a single bout of exercise modifies corticospinal excitability (CSE) during the early stages of memory consolidation. In addition, we investigated if changes in CSE are associated with exercise-induced off-line gains in procedural memory...... in the exercise condition showed larger (∼24%) improvements in procedural memory through consolidation although differences between groups did not reach statistical significance. Exercise promoted an increase in CSE, which remained elevated 2h after exercise. More importantly, global increases in CSE following...

  2. Dreaming of a learning task is associated with enhanced sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Erin J; Tucker, Matthew; Payne, Jessica D; Benavides, Joseph A; Stickgold, Robert

    2010-05-11

    It is now well established that postlearning sleep is beneficial for human memory performance. Meanwhile, human and animal studies have demonstrated that learning-related neural activity is re-expressed during posttraining nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. NREM sleep processes appear to be particularly beneficial for hippocampus-dependent forms of memory. These observations suggest that learning triggers the reactivation and reorganization of memory traces during sleep, a systems-level process that in turn enhances behavioral performance. Here, we hypothesized that dreaming about a learning experience during NREM sleep would be associated with improved performance on a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory task. Subjects were trained on a virtual navigation task and then retested on the same task 5 hr after initial training. Improved performance at retest was strongly associated with task-related dream imagery during an intervening afternoon nap. Task-related thoughts during wakefulness, in contrast, did not predict improved performance. These observations suggest that sleep-dependent memory consolidation in humans is facilitated by the offline reactivation of recently formed memories, and furthermore that dream experiences reflect this memory processing. That similar effects were not observed during wakefulness suggests that these mnemonic processes are specific to the sleep state. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation disrupts consolidation but not reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Tian, Shaowen; Ke, Jie

    2014-03-20

    There is increasing evidence that sleep plays a critical role in memory consolidation. However, there are comparatively few studies that have assessed the relationship between sleep and memory reconsolidation. In the present study, we explored the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (RSD) on the consolidation (experiment 1) and reconsolidation (experiment 2) of novel object recognition memory in rats. In experiment 1 behavioral procedure involved two training phases: sample and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after sample (exposed to 2 objects) or 6h later. In experiment 2 behavioral procedure involved three training phases: sample, reactivation and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after reactivation (exposed to the same 2 sample objects to reactivate the memory trace) or 6h later. Results from experiment 1 showed that post-sample RSD from 0 to 6h but not 6 to 12h disrupted novel object recognition memory consolidation. However, we found that post-reactivation RSD whether from 0 to 6h or 6 to 12h had no effect on novel object recognition memory reconsolidation in experiment 2. The results indicated that RSD selectively disrupted consolidation of novel object recognition memory, suggesting a dissociation effect of RSD on consolidation and reconsolidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Aging on Slow Wave Sleep Dynamics and Human Spatial Navigational Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W.; Ducca, Emma L.; Kishi, Akifumi; Fischer, Esther; Parekh, Ankit; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Yau, Po Lai; Gumb, Tyler; Leibert, David P.; Wohlleber, Margaret E.; Burschtin, Omar E.; Convit, Antonio; Rapoport, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The consolidation of spatial navigational memory during sleep is supported by electrophysiological and behavioral evidence. The features of sleep that mediate this ability may change with aging, as percentage of slow wave sleep is canonically thought to decrease with age, and slow waves are thought to help orchestrate hippocampal-neocortical dialogue that supports systems level consolidation. In this study, groups of younger and older subjects performed timed trials before and after polysomnographically recorded sleep on a 3D spatial maze navigational task. Although younger subjects performed better than older subjects at baseline, both groups showed similar improvement across pre-sleep trials. However, younger subjects experienced significant improvement in maze performance during sleep that was not observed in older subjects, without differences in morning psychomotor vigilance between groups. Older subjects had sleep quality marked by decreased amount of slow wave sleep and increased fragmentation of slow wave sleep, resulting in decreased slow wave activity. Across all subjects, frontal slow wave activity was positively correlated with both overnight change in maze performance and medial prefrontal cortical volume, illuminating a potential neuroanatomical substrate for slow wave activity changes with aging and underscoring the importance of slow wave activity in sleep-dependent spatial navigational memory consolidation. PMID:27143431

  5. Effects of aging on slow-wave sleep dynamics and human spatial navigational memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W; Ducca, Emma L; Kishi, Akifumi; Fischer, Esther; Parekh, Ankit; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Yau, Po Lai; Gumb, Tyler; Leibert, David P; Wohlleber, Margaret E; Burschtin, Omar E; Convit, Antonio; Rapoport, David M; Osorio, Ricardo S; Ayappa, Indu

    2016-06-01

    The consolidation of spatial navigational memory during sleep is supported by electrophysiological and behavioral evidence. The features of sleep that mediate this ability may change with aging, as percentage of slow-wave sleep is canonically thought to decrease with age, and slow waves are thought to help orchestrate hippocampal-neocortical dialog that supports systems level consolidation. In this study, groups of younger and older subjects performed timed trials before and after polysomnographically recorded sleep on a 3D spatial maze navigational task. Although younger subjects performed better than older subjects at baseline, both groups showed similar improvement across presleep trials. However, younger subjects experienced significant improvement in maze performance during sleep that was not observed in older subjects, without differences in morning psychomotor vigilance between groups. Older subjects had sleep quality marked by decreased amount of slow-wave sleep and increased fragmentation of slow-wave sleep, resulting in decreased slow-wave activity. Across all subjects, frontal slow-wave activity was positively correlated with both overnight change in maze performance and medial prefrontal cortical volume, illuminating a potential neuroanatomical substrate for slow-wave activity changes with aging and underscoring the importance of slow-wave activity in sleep-dependent spatial navigational memory consolidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing the Effect of Early Visual Cortex Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Working Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Johnson, Jeffrey S

    2017-07-01

    Maintaining visual working memory (VWM) representations recruits a network of brain regions, including the frontal, posterior parietal, and occipital cortices; however, it is unclear to what extent the occipital cortex is engaged in VWM after sensory encoding is completed. Noninvasive brain stimulation data show that stimulation of this region can affect working memory (WM) during the early consolidation time period, but it remains unclear whether it does so by influencing the number of items that are stored or their precision. In this study, we investigated whether single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (spTMS) to the occipital cortex during VWM consolidation affects the quantity or quality of VWM representations. In three experiments, we disrupted VWM consolidation with either a visual mask or spTMS to retinotopic early visual cortex. We found robust masking effects on the quantity of VWM representations up to 200 msec poststimulus offset and smaller, more variable effects on WM quality. Similarly, spTMS decreased the quantity of VWM representations, but only when it was applied immediately following stimulus offset. Like visual masks, spTMS also produced small and variable effects on WM precision. The disruptive effects of both masks and TMS were greatly reduced or entirely absent within 200 msec of stimulus offset. However, there was a reduction in swap rate across all time intervals, which may indicate a sustained role of the early visual cortex in maintaining spatial information.

  7. Background matters: Minor vibratory stimulation during motor skill acquisition selectively reduces off-line memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Maria; Herling, Zohar; Levy, Ishay; Egbarieh, Nebal; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Karni, Avi

    2017-04-01

    Although a ubiquitous situation, it is not clear how effective is a learning experience when task-irrelevant, sensory noise occurs in the background. Here, young adults were trained on the finger opposition sequence task, in a well-established training and testing protocol affording measures for online as well as off-line learning. During the training session, one group experienced a minor background vibratory stimulation to the trunk by the means of vibrating cushion, while the second group experienced recorded sound vibrations. A control group was trained with no extra sensory stimulation. Sensory stimulation during training had no effect on the online within-session gains, but dampened the expression of the off-line, consolidation phase, gains in the two sensory stimulation groups. These results suggest that background sensory stimulation can selectively modify off-line, procedural memory consolidation processes, despite well-preserved on-line learning. Classical studies have shown that neural plasticity in sensory systems is modulated by motor input. The current results extend this notion and suggest that some types of task-irrelevant sensory stimulation, concurrent with motor training, may constitute a 'gating' factor - modulating the triggering of long-term procedural memory consolidation processes. Thus, vibratory stimulation may be considered as a behavioral counterpart of pharmacological interventions that do not interfere with short term neural plasticity but block long-term plasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Consolidation and Retention of Motor Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Kasper Christen

    . Hence, the overall aim of the present thesis was to investigate the relationship between acute exercise and motor memory, with special interest in investigating if exercise performed after motor skill learning could improve skill retention. Study I was designed to assess if a single bout of exercise....... Additionally, POST outperformed PRE after seven days, thus indicating that exercise affects the process during which the memory is consolidated more than learning itself. In order to investigate if the behavioral effects of exercise could be demonstrated in school children, we conducted Study II, partially......There is substantial evidence that a single bout of exercise can improve cognitive functions and retention of certain types of declarative memory. However, it is unclear if a similar effect can be demonstrated when coupling physical activity with the acquisition and retention of a motor skill...

  9. Transcranial electrical stimulation during sleep enhances declarative (but not procedural) memory consolidation: Evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Michael P; Enticott, Peter G; Conduit, Russell; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2016-04-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes research examining whether transcranial electrical stimulation (transcranial direct current stimulation with oscillating and constant currents; transcranial alternating current stimulation), administered during sleep, can modulate declarative and procedural memory consolidation. Included in the meta-analysis were 13 experiments that represented data from 179 participants. Study findings were summarized using standardized mean difference (SMD) which is an effect size that summarizes differences in standard deviation units. Results showed electrical stimulation during sleep could enhance (SMD=0.447; p=.003) or disrupt (SMD=-0.476, p=.030) declarative memory consolidation. However, transcranial electric stimulation does not appear to be able to enhance (SMD=0.154, p=.279) or disrupt (SMD=0.076, p=.675) procedural memory consolidation. This meta-analysis provides strong evidence that TES is able to modulate some consolidation processes. Additional research is required to determine the mechanisms by which transcranial electrical stimulation is able to influence declarative memory consolidation. Finally, it is yet to be determined whether transcranial electrical stimulation can modulate procedural memory consolidation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of positive emotion on consolidation of memory for faces: the modulation of facial valence and facial gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that emotion elicited after learning enhances memory consolidation. However, no prior studies have used facial photos as stimuli. This study examined the effect of post-learning positive emotion on consolidation of memory for faces. During the learning participants viewed neutral, positive, or negative faces. Then they were assigned to a condition in which they either watched a 9-minute positive video clip, or a 9-minute neutral video. Then 30 minutes after the learning participants took a surprise memory test, in which they made "remember", "know", and "new" judgements. The findings are: (1) Positive emotion enhanced consolidation of recognition for negative male faces, but impaired consolidation of recognition for negative female faces; (2) For males, recognition for negative faces was equivalent to that for positive faces; for females, recognition for negative faces was better than that for positive faces. Our study provides the important evidence that effect of post-learning emotion on memory consolidation can extend to facial stimuli and such an effect can be modulated by facial valence and facial gender. The findings may shed light on establishing models concerning the influence of emotion on memory consolidation.

  11. Autobiographical memory and hyperassociativity in the dreaming brain: implications for memory consolidation in sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Caroline L.; Malinowski, Josie E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we argue that autobiographical memory activity across sleep and wake can provide insight into the nature of dreaming, and vice versa. Activated memories within the sleeping brain reflect one’s personal life history (autobiography). They can appear in largely fragmentary forms and differ from conventional manifestations of episodic memory. Autobiographical memories in dreams can be sampled from non-REM as well as REM periods, which contain fewer episodic references and become mor...

  12. Acute Exercise and Motor Memory Consolidation: The Role of Exercise Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High intensity aerobic exercise amplifies offline gains in procedural memory acquired during motor practice. This effect seems to be evident when exercise is placed immediately after acquisition, during the first stages of memory consolidation, but the importance of temporal proximity of the exercise bout used to stimulate improvements in procedural memory is unknown. The effects of three different temporal placements of high intensity exercise were investigated following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 48 young (24.0 ± 2.5 yrs, healthy male subjects randomly assigned to one of four groups either performing a high intensity (90% Maximal Power Output exercise bout at 20 min (EX90, 1 h (EX90+1, 2 h (EX90+2 after acquisition or rested (CON. Retention tests were performed at 1 d (R1 and 7 d (R7. At R1 changes in performance scores after acquisition were greater for EX90 than CON (p<0.001 and EX90+2 (p=0.001. At R7 changes in performance scores for EX90, EX90+1, and EX90+2 were higher than CON (p<0.001, p=0.008, and p=0.008, resp.. Changes for EX90 at R7 were greater than EX90+2 (p=0.049. Exercise-induced improvements in procedural memory diminish as the temporal proximity of exercise from acquisition is increased. Timing of exercise following motor practice is important for motor memory consolidation.

  13. Differences between Presentation Methods in Working Memory Procedures: A Matter of Working Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Timothy J.; Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Understanding forgetting from working memory, the memory used in ongoing cognitive processing, is critical to understanding human cognition. In the past decade, a number of conflicting findings have been reported regarding the role of time in forgetting from working memory. This has led to a debate concerning whether longer retention intervals…

  14. NF-κB Transcription Factor Role in Consolidation and Reconsolidation of Persistent Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica ede la Fuente

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation is an important molecular process required for long-term neural plasticity and long-term memory formation. Thus, one main interest in molecular neuroscience in the last decades has been the identification of transcription factors that are involved in memory processes. Among them, the NF-κB family of transcription factors has gained interest due to a significant body of evidence that supports a key role of these proteins in synaptic plasticity and memory. In recent years, the interest was particularly reinforced because NF-κB was characterized as an important regulator of synaptogenesis. This function may be explained by its participation in synapse to nucleus communication, as well as a possible local role at the synapse. This review provides an overview of experimental work obtained in the last years, showing the essential role of this transcription factor in memory processes in different learning tasks in mammals. We focus the review on the consolidation and reconsolidation memory phases as well as on the regulation of immediate-early and late genes by epigenetic mechanisms that determine enduring forms of memories.

  15. NF-κB transcription factor role in consolidation and reconsolidation of persistent memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Verónica; Federman, Noel; Zalcman, Gisela; Salles, Angeles; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Romano, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is an important molecular process required for long-term neural plasticity and long-term memory (LTM) formation. Thus, one main interest in molecular neuroscience in the last decades has been the identification of transcription factors that are involved in memory processes. Among them, the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors has gained interest due to a significant body of evidence that supports a key role of these proteins in synaptic plasticity and memory. In recent years, the interest was particularly reinforced because NF-κB was characterized as an important regulator of synaptogenesis. This function may be explained by its participation in synapse to nucleus communication, as well as a possible local role at the synapse. This review provides an overview of experimental work obtained in the last years, showing the essential role of this transcription factor in memory processes in different learning tasks in mammals. We focus the review on the consolidation and reconsolidation memory phases as well as on the regulation of immediate-early and late genes by epigenetic mechanisms that determine enduring forms of memories. PMID:26441513

  16. Estradiol-Induced Object Recognition Memory Consolidation Is Dependent on Activation of mTOR Signaling in the Dorsal Hippocampus

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    Fortress, Ashley M.; Fan, Lu; Orr, Patrick T.; Zhao, Zaorui; Frick, Karyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is an important regulator of protein synthesis and is essential for various forms of hippocampal memory. Here, we asked whether the enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation produced by dorsal hippocampal infusion of 17[Beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) is dependent on mTOR…

  17. Sleep promotes consolidation of emotional memory in healthy children but not in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Munz, Manuel; Molzow, Ina; Wilhelm, Ines; Wiesner, Christian D; Baving, Lioba

    2013-01-01

    Fronto-limbic brain activity during sleep is believed to support the consolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by emotional deficits coincidently caused by dysfunctional interplay of fronto-limbic circuits. This study aimed to examine the role of sleep in the consolidation of emotional memory in ADHD in the context of healthy development. 16 children with ADHD, 16 healthy children, and 20 healthy adults participated in this study. Participants completed an emotional picture recognition paradigm in sleep and wake control conditions. Each condition had an immediate (baseline) and delayed (target) retrieval session. The emotional memory bias was baseline-corrected, and groups were compared in terms of sleep-dependent memory consolidation (sleep vs. wake). We observed an increased sleep-dependent emotional memory bias in healthy children compared to children with ADHD and healthy adults. Frontal oscillatory EEG activity (slow oscillations, theta) during sleep correlated negatively with emotional memory performance in children with ADHD. When combining data of healthy children and adults, correlation coefficients were positive and differed from those in children with ADHD. Since children displayed a higher frontal EEG activity than adults these data indicate a decline in sleep-related consolidation of emotional memory in healthy development. In addition, it is suggested that deficits in sleep-related selection between emotional and non-emotional memories in ADHD exacerbate emotional problems during daytime as they are often reported in ADHD.

  18. Sleep promotes consolidation of emotional memory in healthy children but not in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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    Alexander Prehn-Kristensen

    Full Text Available Fronto-limbic brain activity during sleep is believed to support the consolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is accompanied by emotional deficits coincidently caused by dysfunctional interplay of fronto-limbic circuits. This study aimed to examine the role of sleep in the consolidation of emotional memory in ADHD in the context of healthy development. 16 children with ADHD, 16 healthy children, and 20 healthy adults participated in this study. Participants completed an emotional picture recognition paradigm in sleep and wake control conditions. Each condition had an immediate (baseline and delayed (target retrieval session. The emotional memory bias was baseline-corrected, and groups were compared in terms of sleep-dependent memory consolidation (sleep vs. wake. We observed an increased sleep-dependent emotional memory bias in healthy children compared to children with ADHD and healthy adults. Frontal oscillatory EEG activity (slow oscillations, theta during sleep correlated negatively with emotional memory performance in children with ADHD. When combining data of healthy children and adults, correlation coefficients were positive and differed from those in children with ADHD. Since children displayed a higher frontal EEG activity than adults these data indicate a decline in sleep-related consolidation of emotional memory in healthy development. In addition, it is suggested that deficits in sleep-related selection between emotional and non-emotional memories in ADHD exacerbate emotional problems during daytime as they are often reported in ADHD.

  19. Impairment of fear memory consolidation in maternally stressed male mouse offspring: evidence for nongenomic glucocorticoid action on the amygdala.

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    Lee, Eun Jeong; Son, Gi Hoon; Chung, Sooyoung; Lee, Sukwon; Kim, Jeongyeon; Choi, Sukwoo; Kim, Kyungjin

    2011-05-11

    The environment in early life elicits profound effects on fetal brain development that can extend into adulthood. However, the long-lasting impact of maternal stress on emotional learning remains largely unknown. Here, we focus on amygdala-related learning processes in maternally stressed mice. In these mice, fear memory consolidation and certain related signaling cascades were significantly impaired, though innate fear, fear memory acquisition, and synaptic NMDA receptor expression in the amygdala were unaltered. In accordance with these findings, maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) at amygdala synapses, but not its induction, was significantly impaired in the maternally stressed animals. Interestingly, amygdala glucocorticoid receptor expression was reduced in the maternally stressed mice, and administration of glucocorticoids (GCs) immediately after fear conditioning and LTP induction restored memory consolidation and LTP maintenance, respectively, suggesting that a weakening of GC signaling was responsible for the observed impairment. Furthermore, microinfusion of a membrane-impermeable form of GC (BSA-conjugated GC) into the amygdala mimicked the restorative effects of GC, indicating that a nongenomic activity of GC mediates the restorative effect. Together, these findings suggest that prenatal stress induces long-term dysregulation of nongenomic GC action in the amygdala of adult offspring, resulting in the impairment of fear memory consolidation. Since modulation of amygdala activity is known to alter the consolidation of emotionally influenced memories allocated in other brain regions, the nongenomic action of GC on the amygdala shown herein may also participate in the amygdala-dependent modulation of memory consolidation.

  20. Fact retrieval and memory consolidation for a movement sequence: bidirectional effects of 'unrelated' cognitive tasks on procedural memory.

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    Rachel Tibi

    Full Text Available The generation of long-term memory for motor skills can be modulated by subsequent motor experiences that interfere with the consolidation process. Recent studies suggest that even a non-motor task may adversely affect some aspects of motor sequence memory. Here we show that motor sequence memory can be either enhanced or reduced, by different cognitive tasks. Participants were trained in performing finger movement sequences. Fully explicit instructions about the target sequence were given before practice. The buildup of procedural knowledge was tested at three time-points: immediately before training (T1, after practice (T2, and 24 hours later (T3. Each participant performed the task on two separate occasions; training on a different movement sequence on each occasion. In one condition, interference, participants performed a non-motor task immediately after T2. Half the participants solved simple math problems and half performed a simple semantic judgment task. In the baseline condition there was no additional task. All participants improved significantly between T1 and T2 (within-session gains. In addition, in the baseline condition, performance significantly improved between T2 and T3 (delayed 'off-line' gains. Solving math problems significantly enhanced these delayed gains in motor performance, whereas performing semantic decisions significantly reduced delayed gains compared to baseline. Thus, procedural motor memory consolidation can be either enhanced or inhibited by subsequent cognitive experiences. These effects do not require explicit or implicit new learning. The retrieval of unrelated, non-motor, well established knowledge can modulate procedural memory.

  1. Interaction between episodic and semantic memory networks in the acquisition and consolidation of novel spoken words.

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    Takashima, Atsuko; Bakker, Iske; van Hell, Janet G; Janzen, Gabriele; McQueen, James M

    2017-04-01

    When a novel word is learned, its memory representation is thought to undergo a process of consolidation and integration. In this study, we tested whether the neural representations of novel words change as a function of consolidation by observing brain activation patterns just after learning and again after a delay of one week. Words learned with meanings were remembered better than those learned without meanings. Both episodic (hippocampus-dependent) and semantic (dependent on distributed neocortical areas) memory systems were utilised during recognition of the novel words. The extent to which the two systems were involved changed as a function of time and the amount of associated information, with more involvement of both systems for the meaningful words than for the form-only words after the one-week delay. These results suggest that the reason the meaningful words were remembered better is that their retrieval can benefit more from these two complementary memory systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Does sleep play a role in memory consolidation? A comparative test.

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    Isabella Capellini

    Full Text Available Sleep is a pervasive characteristic of mammalian species, yet its purpose remains obscure. It is often proposed that 'sleep is for the brain', a view that is supported by experimental studies showing that sleep improves cognitive processes such as memory consolidation. Some comparative studies have also reported that mammalian sleep durations are higher among more encephalized species. However, no study has assessed the relationship between sleep and the brain structures that are implicated in specific cognitive processes across species. The hippocampus, neocortex and amygdala are important for memory consolidation and learning and are also in a highly actived state during sleep. We therefore investigated the evolutionary relationship between mammalian sleep and the size of these brain structures using phylogenetic comparative methods. We found that evolutionary increases in the size of the amygdala are associated with corresponding increases in NREM sleep durations. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that NREM sleep is functionally linked with specializations of the amygdala, including perhaps memory processing.

  3. Evaluation Effects of Verapamil as a Calcium Channel Blocker on Acquisition, Consolidation and Retrieval of Memory in Mice

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    Nooshin Masoudian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many factors are involved in learning and memory processes including brain nuclei, neurotransmitter systems, and the activity of ion channels. Studies showed inconsistent effects of calcium channel blockers on learning process, especially memory consolidation; however, little is known about their effect on memory acquisition and retrieval. Accordingly, the present study aimed to determine the effects of verapamil calcium channel antagonist as a representative of the phenylalkylamine group on different stages of memory and learning processes including acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in mice. In this experimental study, 150 male albino mice with a mean weight of 30 g were used. The mice were trained in a passive avoidance-learning task (1 mA shock for 2 seconds for evaluation of memory acquisition and consolidation and 3 seconds for evaluation of memory retrieval. The effect of verapamil (1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg on memory consolidation and the most effective dose of consolidation phase on memory acquisition and retrieval was assessed. For the evaluation of memory consolidation, the animals received the drug intraperitoneally immediately after training, while for evaluation of memory acquisition and retrieval, the drug was injected one hour before training. Memory retrieval test was performed 48 hours after training (the length of time it took the animal to enter the dark part of the device. The results showed that verapamil injection exerted no effect on memory acquisition and consolidation; nevertheless, it was capable to disrupt memory retrieval in 10 and 20 mg doses. These results indicate that as a phenylalkylamine calcium channel antagonist, high doses of verapamil can impair memory. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso

  4. Untreated sleep-disordered breathing: links to aging-related decline in sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

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    Ina Djonlagic

    Full Text Available Increasing age is associated with a decline in cognition and motor skills, while at the same time exacerbating one's risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. OSA-related cognitive deficits are highly prevalent and can affect various memory systems including overnight memory consolidation on a motor sequence task. Thus, the aim of our study was to examine the effect of aging on sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation in patients with and without OSA.We studied 44 patients (19-68 years who had been referred by a physician for a baseline polysomnography (PSG evaluation. Based on their PSG, patients were assigned either to the OSA group (AHI>5/h, or control (Non-OSA group (AHI<5/h. All subjects performed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT and the Motor Sequence Learning Task (MST in the evening and again in the morning after their PSG.Despite similar learning in the evening, OSA subjects showed significantly less overnight improvement on the MST, both for immediate (OSA -2.7% ± 2.8% vs. controls 12.2% ± 3.5%; p = 0.002 and plateau improvement (OSA 4.9% ± 2.3% vs. controls 21.1%± 4.0%; p = 0.001. Within the OSA group, there was a significant negative correlation between overnight MST improvement and age (r(2 = 0.3; p = 0.01, an effect that was not observed in the Non-OSA group (r(2 = 0.08; p = 0.23.Consistent with previous research, healthy sleepers demonstrated a higher degree of sleep-dependent overnight improvement on the MST, an effect not mitigated by increasing age. However, the presence of untreated obstructive sleep apnea is associated with an aging-related cognitive deficit, otherwise not present in individuals without OSA. As other research has linked the presence of OSA to a higher likelihood of developing dementia, future studies are necessary to examine if the inhibition of memory consolidation is tied to the onset of neurodegenerative disease.

  5. "The seven sins" of the Hebbian synapse: can the hypothesis of synaptic plasticity explain long-term memory consolidation?

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    Arshavsky, Yuri I

    2006-10-01

    Memorizing new facts and events means that entering information produces specific physical changes within the brain. According to the commonly accepted view, traces of memory are stored through the structural modifications of synaptic connections, which result in changes of synaptic efficiency and, therefore, in formations of new patterns of neural activity (the hypothesis of synaptic plasticity). Most of the current knowledge on learning and initial stages of memory consolidation ("synaptic consolidation") is based on this hypothesis. However, the hypothesis of synaptic plasticity faces a number of conceptual and experimental difficulties when it deals with potentially permanent consolidation of declarative memory ("system consolidation"). These difficulties are rooted in the major intrinsic self-contradiction of the hypothesis: stable declarative memory is unlikely to be based on such a non-stable foundation as synaptic plasticity. Memory that can last throughout an entire lifespan should be "etched in stone." The only "stone-like" molecules within living cells are DNA molecules. Therefore, I advocate an alternative, genomic hypothesis of memory, which suggests that acquired information is persistently stored within individual neurons through modifications of DNA, and that these modifications serve as the carriers of elementary memory traces.

  6. Consolidation and reconsolidation are impaired by oral propranolol administered before but not after memory (re)activation in humans.

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    Thomas, Émilie; Saumier, Daniel; Pitman, Roger K; Tremblay, Jacques; Brunet, Alain

    2017-07-01

    Propranolol administered immediately after learning or after recall has been found to impair memory consolidation or reconsolidation (respectively) in animals, but less reliably so in humans. Since reconsolidation impairment has been proposed as a treatment for mental disorders that have at their core an emotional memory, it is desirable to understand how to reliably reduce the strength of pathogenic memories in humans. We postulated that since humans (unlike experimental animals) typically receive propranolol orally, this introduces a delay before this drug can exert its memory impairment effects, which may render it less effective. As a means to test this, in two double-blind placebo-controlled experiments, we examined the capacity of propranolol to impair consolidation and reconsolidation as a function of timing of ingestion in healthy subjects. In Experiment 1, (n=36), propranolol administered immediately after learning or recall failed to impair the consolidation or reconsolidation of the memory of a standardized slideshow with an accompanying emotional story. In Experiment 2 (n=50), propranolol given 60-75min before learning or recall successfully impaired memory consolidation and reconsolidation. These results suggest that it is possible to achieve reliable memory impairment in humans if propranolol is given before learning or before recall, but not after. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulating influences of memory strength and sensitivity of the retrieval test on the detectability of the sleep consolidation effect.

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    Schoch, Sarah F; Cordi, Maren J; Rasch, Björn

    2017-11-01

    Emotionality can increase recall probability of memories as emotional information is highly relevant for future adaptive behavior. It has been proposed that memory processes acting during sleep selectively promote the consolidation of emotional memories, so that neutral memories no longer profit from sleep consolidation after learning. This appears as a selective effect of sleep for emotional memories. However, other factors contribute to the appearance of a consolidation benefit and influence this interpretation. Here we show that the strength of the memory trace before sleep and the sensitivity of the retrieval test after sleep are critical factors contributing to the detection of the benefit of sleep on memory for emotional and neutral stimuli. 228 subjects learned emotional and neutral pictures and completed a free recall after a 12-h retention interval of either sleep or wakefulness. We manipulated memory strength by including an immediate retrieval test before the retention interval in half of the participants. In addition, we varied the sensitivity of the retrieval test by including an interference learning task before retrieval testing in half of the participants. We show that a "selective" benefit of sleep for emotional memories only occurs in the condition with high memory strength. Furthermore, this "selective" benefit disappeared when we controlled for the memory strength before the retention interval and used a highly sensitive retrieval test. Our results indicate that although sleep benefits are more robust for emotional memories, neutral memories similarly profit from sleep after learning when more sensitive indicators are used. We conclude that whether sleep benefits on memory appear depends on several factors, including emotion, memory strength and sensitivity of the retrieval test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation

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    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Hambrick, David Z.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research have established that "online" cognitive processes, which operate during conscious encoding and retrieval of information, contribute substantially to individual differences in memory. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that "offline" processes during sleep also contribute to memory performance. However, the question of whether…

  9. Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation.

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    June C Lo

    Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1 and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2. Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen's d=0.71 and 0.68 than for related ones (Cohen's d=0.58 and 0.15. While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting.

  10. Reciprocal Interaction of Dendrite Geometry and Nuclear Calcium-VEGFD Signaling Gates Memory Consolidation and Extinction.

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    Hemstedt, Thekla J; Bengtson, C Peter; Ramírez, Omar; Oliveira, Ana M M; Bading, Hilmar

    2017-07-19

    Nuclear calcium is an important signaling end point in synaptic excitation-transcription coupling that is critical for long-term neuroadaptations. Here, we show that nuclear calcium acting via a target gene, VEGFD, is required for hippocampus-dependent fear memory consolidation and extinction in mice. Nuclear calcium-VEGFD signaling upholds the structural integrity and complexity of the dendritic arbor of CA1 neurons that renders those cells permissive for the efficient generation of synaptic input-evoked nuclear calcium transients driving the expression of plasticity-related genes. Therefore, the gating of memory functions rests on the reciprocally reinforcing maintenance of an intact dendrite geometry and a functional synapse-to-nucleus communication axis. In psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, therapeutic application of VEGFD may help to stabilize dendritic structures and network connectivity, which may prevent cognitive decline and could boost the efficacy of extinction-based exposure therapies. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study uncovers a reciprocal relationship between dendrite geometry, the ability to generate nuclear calcium transients in response to synaptic inputs, and the subsequent induction of expression of plasticity-related and dendritic structure-preserving genes. Insufficient nuclear calcium signaling in CA1 hippocampal neurons and, consequently, reduced expression of the nuclear calcium target gene VEGFD, a dendrite maintenance factor, leads to reduced-complexity basal dendrites of CA1 neurons, which severely compromises the animals' consolidation of both memory and extinction memory. The structure-protective function of VEGFD may prove beneficial in psychiatric disorders as well as neurodegenerative and aging-related conditions that are associated with loss of neuronal structures, dysfunctional excitation-transcription coupling, and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376946-10$15.00/0.

  11. Sleep-related declarative memory consolidation and verbal replay during sleep talking in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder.

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    Uguccioni, Ginevra; Pallanca, Olivier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Dodet, Pauline; Herlin, Bastien; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    To determine if sleep talkers with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) would utter during REM sleep sentences learned before sleep, and to evaluate their verbal memory consolidation during sleep. Eighteen patients with RBD and 10 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16 words from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test and a 220-263 word long modified Story Recall Test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video-polysomnography and morning recall (night-time consolidation). In 9 patients with RBD, daytime consolidation (morning learning/recall, evening recall) was also evaluated with the modified Story Recall Test in a cross-over order. Two RBD patients with dementia were studied separately. Sleep talking was recorded using video-polysomnography, and the utterances were compared to the studied texts by two external judges. Sleep-related verbal memory consolidation was maintained in patients with RBD (+24±36% words) as in controls (+9±18%, p=0.3). The two demented patients with RBD also exhibited excellent nighttime consolidation. The post-sleep performance was unrelated to the sleep measures (including continuity, stages, fragmentation and apnea-hypopnea index). Daytime consolidation (-9±19%) was worse than night-time consolidation (+29±45%, p=0.03) in the subgroup of 9 patients with RBD. Eleven patients with RBD spoke during REM sleep and pronounced a median of 20 words, which represented 0.0003% of sleep with spoken language. A single patient uttered a sentence that was judged to be semantically (but not literally) related to the text learned before sleep. Verbal declarative memory normally consolidates during sleep in patients with RBD. The incorporation of learned material within REM sleep-associated sleep talking in one patient (unbeknownst to himself) at the semantic level suggests a replay at a highly cognitive creative level.

  12. An overview of the neuro-cognitive processes involved in the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of true and false memories

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    Straube Benjamin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Perception and memory are imperfect reconstructions of reality. These reconstructions are prone to be influenced by several factors, which may result in false memories. A false memory is the recollection of an event, or details of an episode, that did not actually occur. Memory formation comprises at least three different sub-processes: encoding, consolidation and the retrieval of the learned material. All of these sub-processes are vulnerable for specific errors and consequently may result in false memories. Whereas, processes like imagery, self-referential encoding or spreading activation can lead to the formation of false memories at encoding, semantic generalization during sleep and updating processes due to misleading post event information, in particular, are relevant at the consolidation stage. Finally at the retrieval stage, monitoring processes, which are assumed to be essential to reject false memories, are of specific importance. Different neuro-cognitive processes have been linked to the formation of true and false memories. Most consistently the medial temporal lobe and the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex have been reported with regard to the formation of true and false memories. Despite the fact that all phases entailing memory formation, consolidation of stored information and retrieval processes, are relevant for the forming of false memories, most studies focused on either memory encoding or retrieval. Thus, future studies should try to integrate data from all phases to give a more comprehensive view on systematic memory distortions. An initial outline is developed within this review to connect the different memory stages and research strategies.

  13. Surface expression of NMDA receptor changes during memory consolidation in the crab Neohelice granulata

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    Hepp, Yanil; Salles, Angeles; Carbo-Tano, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the surface expression of the NMDA-like receptors during the consolidation of contextual learning in the crab Neohelice granulata. Memory storage is based on alterations in the strength of synaptic connections between neurons. The glutamatergic synapses undergo various forms of N-methyl-D aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent changes in strength, a process that affects the abundance of other receptors at the synapse and underlies some forms of learning and memory. Here we propose a direct regulation of the NMDAR. Changes in NMDAR's functionality might be induced by the modification of the subunit's expression or cellular trafficking. This trafficking does not only include NMDAR's movement between synaptic and extra-synaptic localizations but also the cycling between intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane, a process called surface expression. Consolidation of contextual learning affects the surface expression of the receptor without affecting its general expression. The surface expression of the GluN1 subunit of the NMDAR is down-regulated immediately after training, up-regulated 3 h after training and returns to naïve and control levels 24 h after training. The changes in NMDAR surface expression observed in the central brain are not seen in the thoracic ganglion. A similar increment in surface expression of GluN1 in the central brain is observed 3 h after administration of the competitive GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline. These consolidation changes are part of a plasticity event that first, during the down-regulation, stabilizes the trace and later, at 3-h post-training, changes the threshold for synapse activation. PMID:27421895

  14. Anisomycin administered in the olfactory bulb and dorsal hippocampus impaired social recognition memory consolidation in different time-points.

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    Pena, R R; Pereira-Caixeta, A R; Moraes, M F D; Pereira, G S

    2014-10-01

    To identify an individual as familiar, rodents form a specific type of memory named social recognition memory. The olfactory bulb (OB) is an important structure for social recognition memory, while the hippocampus recruitment is still controversial. The present study was designed to elucidate the OB and the dorsal hippocampus contribution to the consolidation of social memory. For that purpose, we tested the effect of anisomycin (ANI), which one of the effects is the inhibition of protein synthesis, on the consolidation of social recognition memory. Swiss adult mice with cannulae implanted into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus or into the OB were exposed to a juvenile during 5 min (training session; TR), and once again 1.5 h or 24 h later to test social short-term memory (S-STM) or social long-term memory (S-LTM), respectively. To study S-LTM consolidation, mice received intra-OB or intra-CA1 infusion of saline or ANI immediately, 3, 6 or 18 h after TR. ANI impaired S-LTM consolidation in the OB, when administered immediately or 6h after TR. In the dorsal hippocampus, ANI was amnesic only if administered 3 h after TR. Furthermore, the infusion of ANI in either OB or CA1, immediately after training, did not affect S-STM. Moreover, ANI administered into the OB did not alter the animal's performance in the buried food-finding task. Altogether, our results suggest the consolidation of S-LTM requires both OB and hippocampus participation, although in different time points. This study may help shedding light on the specific roles of the OB and dorsal hippocampus in social recognition memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Topographic contribution of early visual cortex to short-term memory consolidation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

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    van de Ven, Vincent; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-01-04

    The neural correlates for retention of visual information in visual short-term memory are considered separate from those of sensory encoding. However, recent findings suggest that sensory areas may play a role also in short-term memory. We investigated the functional relevance, spatial specificity, and temporal characteristics of human early visual cortex in the consolidation of capacity-limited topographic visual memory using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Topographically specific TMS pulses were delivered over lateralized occipital cortex at 100, 200, or 400 ms into the retention phase of a modified change detection task with low or high memory loads. For the high but not the low memory load, we found decreased memory performance for memory trials in the visual field contralateral, but not ipsilateral to the side of TMS, when pulses were delivered at 200 ms into the retention interval. A behavioral version of the TMS experiment, in which a distractor stimulus (memory mask) replaced the TMS pulses, further corroborated these findings. Our findings suggest that retinotopic visual cortex contributes to the short-term consolidation of topographic visual memory during early stages of the retention of visual information. Further, TMS-induced interference decreased the strength (amplitude) of the memory representation, which most strongly affected the high memory load trials.

  16. Transient synchronization of hippocampo-striato-thalamo-cortical networks during sleep spindle oscillations induces motor memory consolidation.

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    Boutin, Arnaud; Pinsard, Basile; Boré, Arnaud; Carrier, Julie; Fogel, Stuart M; Doyon, Julien

    2018-04-01

    Sleep benefits motor memory consolidation. This mnemonic process is thought to be mediated by thalamo-cortical spindle activity during NREM-stage2 sleep episodes as well as changes in striatal and hippocampal activity. However, direct experimental evidence supporting the contribution of such sleep-dependent physiological mechanisms to motor memory consolidation in humans is lacking. In the present study, we combined EEG and fMRI sleep recordings following practice of a motor sequence learning (MSL) task to determine whether spindle oscillations support sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation by transiently synchronizing and coordinating specialized cortical and subcortical networks. To that end, we conducted EEG source reconstruction on spindle epochs in both cortical and subcortical regions using novel deep-source localization techniques. Coherence-based metrics were adopted to estimate functional connectivity between cortical and subcortical structures over specific frequency bands. Our findings not only confirm the critical and functional role of NREM-stage2 sleep spindles in motor skill consolidation, but provide first-time evidence that spindle oscillations [11-17 Hz] may be involved in sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation by locally reactivating and functionally binding specific task-relevant cortical and subcortical regions within networks including the hippocampus, putamen, thalamus and motor-related cortical regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased sleep fragmentation leads to impaired off-line consolidation of motor memories in humans.

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    Ina Djonlagic

    Full Text Available A growing literature supports a role for sleep after training in long-term memory consolidation and enhancement. Consequently, interrupted sleep should result in cognitive deficits. Recent evidence from an animal study indeed showed that optimal memory consolidation during sleep requires a certain amount of uninterrupted sleep. Sleep continuity is disrupted in various medical disorders. We compared performance on a motor sequence learning task (MST in relatively young subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (n = 16; apnea-hypopnea index 17.1±2.6/h [SEM] to a carefully matched control group (n = 15, apnea-hypopnea index 3.7±0.4/h, p<0.001. Apart from AHI, oxygen nadir and arousal index, there were no significant differences between groups in total sleep time, sleep efficiency and sleep architecture as well as subjective measures of sleepiness based on standard questionnaires. In addition performance on the psychomotor vigilance task (reaction time and lapses, which is highly sensitive to sleep deprivation showed no differences as well as initial learning performance during the training phase. However there was a significant difference in the primary outcome of immediate overnight improvement on the MST between the two groups (controls = 14.7±4%, patients = 1.1±3.6%; P = 0.023 as well as plateau performance (controls = 24.0±5.3%, patients = 10.1±2.0%; P = 0.017 and this difference was predicted by the arousal index (p = 0.02 rather than oxygen saturation (nadir and time below 90% saturation. Taken together, this outcome provides evidence that there is a clear minimum requirement of sleep continuity in humans to ensure optimal sleep dependent memory processes. It also provides important new information about the cognitive impact of obstructive sleep apnea and challenges its current definitions.

  18. Chronic corticosterone exposure persistently elevates the expression of memory-related genes in the lateral amygdala and enhances the consolidation of a Pavlovian fear memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S Monsey

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to stress has been widely implicated in the development of anxiety disorders, yet relatively little is known about the long-term effects of chronic stress on amygdala-dependent memory formation. Here, we examined the effects of a history of chronic exposure to the stress-associated adrenal steroid corticosterone (CORT on the consolidation of a fear memory and the expression of memory-related immediate early genes (IEGs in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA. Rats received chronic exposure to CORT (50 μg/ml in their drinking water for 2 weeks and were then titrated off the CORT for an additional 6 days followed by a 2 week 'wash-out' period consisting of access to plain water. Rats were then either sacrificed to examine the expression of memory-related IEG expression in the LA or given auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning. We show that chronic exposure to CORT leads to a persistent elevation in the expression of the IEGs Arc/Arg3.1 and Egr-1 in the LA. Further, we show that rats with a history of chronic CORT exposure exhibit enhanced consolidation of a fear memory; short-term memory (STM is not affected, while long-term memory (LTM is significantly enhanced. Treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI fluoxetine following the chronic CORT exposure period was observed to effectively reverse both the persistent CORT-related increases in memory-related IEG expression in the LA and the CORT-related enhancement in fear memory consolidation. Our findings suggest that chronic exposure to CORT can regulate memory-related IEG expression and fear memory consolidation processes in the LA in a long-lasting manner and that treatment with fluoxetine can reverse these effects.

  19. Chronic corticosterone exposure persistently elevates the expression of memory-related genes in the lateral amygdala and enhances the consolidation of a Pavlovian fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsey, Melissa S; Boyle, Lara M; Zhang, Melinda L; Nguyen, Caroline P; Kronman, Hope G; Ota, Kristie T; Duman, Ronald S; Taylor, Jane R; Schafe, Glenn E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to stress has been widely implicated in the development of anxiety disorders, yet relatively little is known about the long-term effects of chronic stress on amygdala-dependent memory formation. Here, we examined the effects of a history of chronic exposure to the stress-associated adrenal steroid corticosterone (CORT) on the consolidation of a fear memory and the expression of memory-related immediate early genes (IEGs) in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). Rats received chronic exposure to CORT (50 μg/ml) in their drinking water for 2 weeks and were then titrated off the CORT for an additional 6 days followed by a 2 week 'wash-out' period consisting of access to plain water. Rats were then either sacrificed to examine the expression of memory-related IEG expression in the LA or given auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning. We show that chronic exposure to CORT leads to a persistent elevation in the expression of the IEGs Arc/Arg3.1 and Egr-1 in the LA. Further, we show that rats with a history of chronic CORT exposure exhibit enhanced consolidation of a fear memory; short-term memory (STM) is not affected, while long-term memory (LTM) is significantly enhanced. Treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine following the chronic CORT exposure period was observed to effectively reverse both the persistent CORT-related increases in memory-related IEG expression in the LA and the CORT-related enhancement in fear memory consolidation. Our findings suggest that chronic exposure to CORT can regulate memory-related IEG expression and fear memory consolidation processes in the LA in a long-lasting manner and that treatment with fluoxetine can reverse these effects.

  20. CB1 receptor antagonism in the granular insular cortex or somatosensory area facilitates consolidation of object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Lesley D; Sticht, Martin A; Mitchnick, Krista A; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Parker, Linda A; Winters, Boyer D

    2014-08-22

    Cannabinoid agonists typically impair memory, whereas CB1 receptor antagonists enhance memory performance under specific conditions. The insular cortex has been implicated in object memory consolidation. Here we show that infusions of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 enhances long-term object recognition memory in rats in a dose-dependent manner (facilitation with 1.5, but not 0.75 or 3 μg/μL) when administered into the granular insular cortex; the SR141716 facilitation was seen with a memory delay of 72 h, but not when the delay was shorter (1 h), consistent with enhancement of memory consolidation. Moreover, a sub-group of rats with cannulas placed in the somatosensory area were also facilitated. These results highlight the robust potential of cannabinoid antagonists to facilitate object memory consolidation, as well as the capacity for insular and somatosensory cortices to contribute to object processing, perhaps through enhancement of tactile representation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Systems consolidation revisited, but not revised: The promise and limits of optogenetics in the study of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Oliver; Nadel, Lynn

    2017-12-05

    Episodic memories (in humans) and event-like memories (in non-human animals) require the hippocampus for some time after acquisition, but at remote points seem to depend more on cortical areas instead. Systems consolidation refers to the process that promotes this reorganization of memory. Various theoretical frameworks accounting for this process have been proposed, but clear evidence favoring one or another of these positions has been lacking. Addressing this issue, a recent study deployed some of the most advanced neurobiological technologies - optogenetics and calcium imaging - and provided high resolution, precise observations regarding brain systems involved in recent and remote contextual fear memories. We critically review these findings within their historical context and conclude that they do not resolve the debate concerning systems consolidation. This is because the relevant question concerning the quality of memory at recent and remote time points has not been answered: Does the memory reorganization taking place during systems consolidation result in changes to the content of memory? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of selective REM-sleep deprivation on the consolidation and affective evaluation of emotional memories.

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    Wiesner, Christian D; Pulst, Julika; Krause, Fanny; Elsner, Marike; Baving, Lioba; Pedersen, Anya; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Emotion boosts the consolidation of events in the declarative memory system. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is believed to foster the memory consolidation of emotional events. On the other hand, REM sleep is assumed to reduce the emotional tone of the memory. Here, we investigated the effect of selective REM-sleep deprivation, SWS deprivation, or wake on the affective evaluation and consolidation of emotional and neutral pictures. Prior to an 9-h retention interval, sixty-two healthy participants (23.5 ± 2.5 years, 32 female, 30 male) learned and rated their affect to 80 neutral and 80 emotionally negative pictures. Despite rigorous deprivation of REM sleep or SWS, the residual sleep fostered the consolidation of neutral and negative pictures. Furthermore, emotional arousal helped to memorize the pictures. The better consolidation of negative pictures compared to neutral ones was most pronounced in the SWS-deprived group where a normal amount of REM sleep was present. This emotional memory bias correlated with REM sleep only in the SWS-deprived group. Furthermore, emotional arousal to the pictures decreased over time, but neither sleep nor wake had any differential effect. Neither the comparison of the affective ratings (arousal, valence) during encoding and recognition, nor the affective ratings of the recognized targets and rejected distractors supported the hypothesis that REM sleep dampens the emotional reaction to remembered stimuli. The data suggest that REM sleep fosters the consolidation of emotional memories but has no effect on the affective evaluation of the remembered contents. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lithium prevents REM sleep deprivation-induced impairments on memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Simone M; Moreira, Karin Di Monteiro; Suchecki, Deborah; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela M; Tiba, Paula A

    2013-11-01

    Pre-training rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) deprivation affects memory acquisition and/or consolidation. It also produces major REMS rebound at the cost of waking and slow wave sleep (SWS). Given that both SWS and REMS appear to be important for memory processes, REMS rebound after training may disrupt the organization of sleep cycles, i.e., excessive amount of REMS and/or little SWS after training could be harmful for memory formation. To examine whether lithium, a drug known to increase SWS and reduce REMS, could prevent the memory impairment induced by pre-training sleep deprivation. Animals were divided in 2 groups: cage control (CC) and REMS-deprived (REMSDep), and then subdivided into 4 subgroups, treated either with vehicle or 1 of 3 doses of lithium (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg) 2 h before training on the multiple trial inhibitory avoidance task. Animals were tested 48 h later to make sure that the drug had been already metabolized and eliminated. Another set of animals was implanted with electrodes and submitted to the same experimental protocol for assessment of drug-induced sleep-wake changes. Wistar male rats weighing 300-400 g. Sleep deprived rats required more trials to learn the task and still showed a performance deficit during test, except from those treated with 150 mg/kg of lithium, which also reduced the time spent in REM sleep during sleep recovery. Lithium reduced rapid eye movement sleep and prevented memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation. These results indicate that these phenomena may be related, but cause-effect relationship cannot be ascertained.

  4. Beyond a Mask and Against the Bottleneck: Retroactive Dual-Task Interference During Working Memory Consolidation of a Masked Visual Target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark; Wyble, Brad

    While studies on visual memory commonly assume that the consolidation of a visual stimulus into working memory is interrupted by a trailing mask, studies on dual-task interference suggest that the consolidation of a stimulus can continue for several hundred milliseconds after a mask. As a result,

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Increases in Fear Memory Consolidation Within the Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aubry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear. Here we review the literature on the enhancing effects of acute and chronic stress on the acquisition and/or consolidation of a fear memory, as measured by auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning, and discuss potential mechanisms by which these changes occur in the amygdala. We hypothesize that stress-mediated activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR and norepinephrine release within the amygdala leads to the mobilization of AMPA receptors to the synapse, which underlies stress-induced increases in fear memory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for evaluating the effects of stress on extinction and for developing treatments for anxiety disorders. Understanding how stress-induced changes in glucocorticoid and norepinephrine signaling might converge to affect emotional learning by increasing the trafficking of AMPA receptors and enhancing amygdala excitability is a promising area for future research.

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Increases in Fear Memory Consolidation within the Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Antonio V; Serrano, Peter A; Burghardt, Nesha S

    2016-01-01

    Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear. Here we review the literature on the enhancing effects of acute and chronic stress on the acquisition and/or consolidation of a fear memory, as measured by auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning, and discuss potential mechanisms by which these changes occur in the amygdala. We hypothesize that stress-mediated activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and norepinephrine release within the amygdala leads to the mobilization of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors to the synapse, which underlies stress-induced increases in fear memory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for evaluating the effects of stress on extinction and for developing treatments for anxiety disorders. Understanding how stress-induced changes in glucocorticoid and norepinephrine signaling might converge to affect emotional learning by increasing the trafficking of AMPA receptors and enhancing amygdala excitability is a promising area for future research.

  7. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality and architecture as well as sleep's homeostatic and circadian controls change with healthy aging. Changes include reductions in slow-wave sleep's (SWS) percent and spectral power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), number and amplitude of sleep spindles, rapid eye movement (REM) density and the amplitude of circadian rhythms, as well as a phase advance (moved earlier in time) of the brain's circadian clock. With mild cognitive impairment (MCI) there are further reductions of sleep quality, SWS, spindles, and percent REM, all of which further diminish, along with a profound disruption of circadian rhythmicity, with the conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sleep disorders may represent risk factors for dementias (e.g., REM Behavior Disorder presages Parkinson's disease) and sleep disorders are themselves extremely prevalent in neurodegenerative diseases. Working memory , formation of new episodic memories, and processing speed all decline with healthy aging whereas semantic, recognition, and emotional declarative memory are spared. In MCI, episodic and working memory further decline along with declines in semantic memory. In young adults, sleep-dependent memory consolidation (SDC) is widely observed for both declarative and procedural memory tasks. However, with healthy aging, although SDC for declarative memory is preserved, certain procedural tasks, such as motor-sequence learning, do not show SDC. In younger adults, fragmentation of sleep can reduce SDC, and a normative increase in sleep fragmentation may account for reduced SDC with healthy aging. Whereas sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy can impair SDC in the absence of neurodegenerative changes, the incidence of sleep disorders increases both with normal aging and, further, with neurodegenerative disease. Specific features of sleep architecture, such as sleep spindles and SWS are strongly linked to SDC. Diminution of these features with healthy aging

  8. The interplay of attention and consciousness in visual search, attentional blink and working memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffone, Antonino; Srinivasan, Narayanan; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2014-05-05

    Despite the acknowledged relationship between consciousness and attention, theories of the two have mostly been developed separately. Moreover, these theories have independently attempted to explain phenomena in which both are likely to interact, such as the attentional blink (AB) and working memory (WM) consolidation. Here, we make an effort to bridge the gap between, on the one hand, a theory of consciousness based on the notion of global workspace (GW) and, on the other, a synthesis of theories of visual attention. We offer a theory of attention and consciousness (TAC) that provides a unified neurocognitive account of several phenomena associated with visual search, AB and WM consolidation. TAC assumes multiple processing stages between early visual representation and conscious access, and extends the dynamics of the global neuronal workspace model to a visual attentional workspace (VAW). The VAW is controlled by executive routers, higher-order representations of executive operations in the GW, without the need for explicit saliency or priority maps. TAC leads to newly proposed mechanisms for illusory conjunctions, AB, inattentional blindness and WM capacity, and suggests neural correlates of phenomenal consciousness. Finally, the theory reconciles the all-or-none and graded perspectives on conscious representation.

  9. Daytime sleep enhances consolidation of the spatial but not motoric representation of motor sequence memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Albouy

    Full Text Available Motor sequence learning is known to rely on more than a single process. As the skill develops with practice, two different representations of the sequence are formed: a goal representation built under spatial allocentric coordinates and a movement representation mediated through egocentric motor coordinates. This study aimed to explore the influence of daytime sleep (nap on consolidation of these two representations. Through the manipulation of an explicit finger sequence learning task and a transfer protocol, we show that both allocentric (spatial and egocentric (motor representations of the sequence can be isolated after initial training. Our results also demonstrate that nap favors the emergence of offline gains in performance for the allocentric, but not the egocentric representation, even after accounting for fatigue effects. Furthermore, sleep-dependent gains in performance observed for the allocentric representation are correlated with spindle density during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep of the post-training nap. In contrast, performance on the egocentric representation is only maintained, but not improved, regardless of the sleep/wake condition. These results suggest that motor sequence memory acquisition and consolidation involve distinct mechanisms that rely on sleep (and specifically, spindle or simple passage of time, depending respectively on whether the sequence is performed under allocentric or egocentric coordinates.

  10. Retro-Active Emotion: Do Negative Emotional Stimuli Disrupt Consolidation in Working Memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güven Kandemir

    Full Text Available While many studies have shown that a task-irrelevant emotionally arousing stimulus can interfere with the processing of a shortly following target, it remains unclear whether an emotional stimulus can also retro-actively interrupt the ongoing processing of an earlier target. In two experiments, we examined whether the presentation of a negative emotionally arousing picture can disrupt working memory consolidation of a preceding visual target. In both experiments, the effects of negative emotional pictures were compared with the effects of neutral pictures. In Experiment 1, the pictures were entirely task-irrelevant whereas in Experiment 2 the pictures were associated with a 2-alternative forced choice task that required participants to respond to the color of a frame surrounding the pictures. The results showed that the appearance of the pictures did not interfere with target consolidation when the pictures were task-irrelevant, whereas such interference was observed when the pictures were associated with a 2-AFC task. Most importantly, however, the results showed no effects of whether the picture had neutral or emotional content. Implications for further research are discussed.

  11. Reducing involuntary memory by interfering consolidation of stressful auditory information: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Fara; Jansson, Billy

    2016-03-01

    Intrusive emotional memories were induced by aversive auditory stimuli and modulated with cognitive tasks performed post-encoding (i.e., during consolidation). A between-subjects design was used with four conditions; three consolidation-interference tasks (a visuospatial and two verbal interference tasks) and a no-task control condition. Forty-one participants listened to a soundtrack depicting traumatic scenes (e.g., police brutality, torture and rape). Immediately after listening to the soundtrack, the subjects completed a randomly assigned task for 10 min. Intrusions from the soundtrack were reported in a diary during the following seven-day period. In line with a modality-specific approach to intrusion modulation, auditory intrusions were reduced by verbal tasks compared to both a no-task and a visuospatial interference task.. The study did not control for individual differences in imagery ability which may be a feature in intrusion development. The results provide an increased understanding of how intrusive mental images can be modulated which may have implications for preventive treatment.. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Consolidation of an olfactory memory trace in the olfactory bulb is required for learning-induced survival of adult-born neurons and long-term memory.

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    Florence Kermen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has recently been proposed that adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb, whose survival is modulated by learning, support long-term olfactory memory. However, the mechanism used to select which adult-born neurons following learning will participate in the long-term retention of olfactory information is unknown. We addressed this question by investigating the effect of bulbar consolidation of olfactory learning on memory and neurogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Initially, we used a behavioral ecological approach using adult mice to assess the impact of consolidation on neurogenesis. Using learning paradigms in which consolidation time was varied, we showed that a spaced (across days, but not a massed (within day, learning paradigm increased survival of adult-born neurons and allowed long-term retention of the task. Subsequently, we used a pharmacological approach to block consolidation in the olfactory bulb, consisting in intrabulbar infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, and found impaired learning and no increase in neurogenesis, while basic olfactory processing and the basal rate of adult-born neuron survival remained unaffected. Taken together these data indicate that survival of adult-born neurons during learning depends on consolidation processes taking place in the olfactory bulb. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We can thus propose a model in which consolidation processes in the olfactory bulb determine both survival of adult-born neurons and long-term olfactory memory. The finding that adult-born neuron survival during olfactory learning is governed by consolidation in the olfactory bulb strongly argues in favor of a role for bulbar adult-born neurons in supporting olfactory memory.

  13. Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation and Incremental Sentence Comprehension: Computational Dependencies during Language Learning as Revealed by Neuronal Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Zachariah R; Kohler, Mark J; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Gaskell, M G; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2018-01-01

    We hypothesize a beneficial influence of sleep on the consolidation of the combinatorial mechanisms underlying incremental sentence comprehension. These predictions are grounded in recent work examining the effect of sleep on the consolidation of linguistic information, which demonstrate that sleep-dependent neurophysiological activity consolidates the meaning of novel words and simple grammatical rules. However, the sleep-dependent consolidation of sentence-level combinatorics has not been studied to date. Here, we propose that dissociable aspects of sleep neurophysiology consolidate two different types of combinatory mechanisms in human language: sequence-based (order-sensitive) and dependency-based (order-insensitive) combinatorics. The distinction between the two types of combinatorics is motivated both by cross-linguistic considerations and the neurobiological underpinnings of human language. Unifying this perspective with principles of sleep-dependent memory consolidation, we posit that a function of sleep is to optimize the consolidation of sequence-based knowledge (the when ) and the establishment of semantic schemas of unordered items (the what ) that underpin cross-linguistic variations in sentence comprehension. This hypothesis builds on the proposal that sleep is involved in the construction of predictive codes, a unified principle of brain function that supports incremental sentence comprehension. Finally, we discuss neurophysiological measures (EEG/MEG) that could be used to test these claims, such as the quantification of neuronal oscillations, which reflect basic mechanisms of information processing in the brain.

  14. Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation and Incremental Sentence Comprehension: Computational Dependencies during Language Learning as Revealed by Neuronal Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachariah R. Cross

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize a beneficial influence of sleep on the consolidation of the combinatorial mechanisms underlying incremental sentence comprehension. These predictions are grounded in recent work examining the effect of sleep on the consolidation of linguistic information, which demonstrate that sleep-dependent neurophysiological activity consolidates the meaning of novel words and simple grammatical rules. However, the sleep-dependent consolidation of sentence-level combinatorics has not been studied to date. Here, we propose that dissociable aspects of sleep neurophysiology consolidate two different types of combinatory mechanisms in human language: sequence-based (order-sensitive and dependency-based (order-insensitive combinatorics. The distinction between the two types of combinatorics is motivated both by cross-linguistic considerations and the neurobiological underpinnings of human language. Unifying this perspective with principles of sleep-dependent memory consolidation, we posit that a function of sleep is to optimize the consolidation of sequence-based knowledge (the when and the establishment of semantic schemas of unordered items (the what that underpin cross-linguistic variations in sentence comprehension. This hypothesis builds on the proposal that sleep is involved in the construction of predictive codes, a unified principle of brain function that supports incremental sentence comprehension. Finally, we discuss neurophysiological measures (EEG/MEG that could be used to test these claims, such as the quantification of neuronal oscillations, which reflect basic mechanisms of information processing in the brain.

  15. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation: Does exercise type play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Flindtgaard, M; Skriver, K; Geertsen, S S; Christiansen, L; Korsgaard Johnsen, L; Busk, D V P; Bojsen-Møller, E; Madsen, M J; Ritz, C; Roig, M; Lundbye-Jensen, J

    2017-11-01

    A single bout of high-intensity exercise can augment off-line gains in skills acquired during motor practice. It is currently unknown if the type of physical exercise influences the effect on motor skill consolidation. This study investigated the effect of three types of high-intensity exercise following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 40 young (25.3 ±3.6 years), able-bodied male participants randomly assigned to one of four groups either performing strength training (STR), circuit training (CT), indoor hockey (HOC) or rest (CON). Retention tests of the motor skill were performed 1 (R1h) and 24 h (R1d) post acquisition. For all exercise groups, mean motor performance scores decreased at R1h compared to post acquisition (POST) level; STR (P = 0.018), CT (P = 0.02), HOC (P = 0.014) and performance scores decreased for CT compared to CON (P = 0.049). Mean performance scores increased from POST to R1d for all exercise groups; STR (P = 0.010), CT (P = 0.020), HOC (P = 0.007) while performance scores for CON decreased (P = 0.043). Changes in motor performance were thus greater for STR (P = 0.006), CT (P exercise can lead to a decrease in motor performance assessed shortly after motor skill practice (R1h), but enhances offline effects promoting long-term retention (R1d). Given that different exercise modalities produced similar positive off-line effects on motor memory, we conclude that exercise-induced effects beneficial to consolidation appear to depend primarily on the physiological stimulus rather than type of exercise and movements employed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Role of Sleep in Changing Our Minds: A Psychologist's Discussion of Papers on Memory Reactivation and Consolidation in Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Rosalind D.

    2004-01-01

    The group of papers on memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep included in this volume represents cutting edge work in both animals and humans. They support that the two types of sleep serve different necessary functions. The role of slow wave sleep (SWS) is reactivation of the hippocampal-neocortical circuits activated during a waking…

  17. Reduced Consolidation, Reinstatement, and Renewal of Conditioned Fear Memory by Repetitive Treatment of Radix Polygalae in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Won Shin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic goal for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is to promote extinction and to prevent the relapse of fearful memories. Research has identified pharmacological treatments that may regulate the formation and extinction of fear memories, but not many reagents that block the relapse of extinguished fear are known. Radix Polygalae (RP is an Asian herb used for sedation, and its ingredients have anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. As various neurological effects have been identified, we tested whether RP affects the relapse of fear. Freezing in response to a conditioned context and cues was used to measure the effects of RP in mice. In cohort 1 (n = 30, consolidation, extinction, and reinstatement were tested during the course of 18 days of treatment. In cohort 2 (n = 30, consolidation, extinction, and renewal were tested during 10 days of treatment. The consolidation, extinction, reinstatement, and possibly the renewal of context-induced freezing were inhibited due to the administration of RP in animal subjects. However, the effects of RP on the freezing responses of subjects elicited by conditioned auditory cues were less obvious. Because it effectively suppresses the consolidation of fear memories, RP may be used for primary and secondary prevention of symptoms in PTSD patients. Additionally, because it effectively suppresses the reinstatement and renewal of fear memories, RP may be applied for the prevention of fear relapse in PTSD patients who have undergone exposure therapy.

  18. Chronic and high alcohol consumption has a negative impact on sleep and sleep-associated consolidation of declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghanns, Klaus; Horbach, Regine; Ehrenthal, Dieter; Blank, Sebastian; Backhaus, Jutta

    2009-05-01

    The importance of sleep for memory consolidation has become a major focus of research. While it is known that abstaining alcohol-dependent patients often have sleep disorders and that there is some cognitive impairment during early abstention a possible interaction of disturbed sleep with overnight memory consolidation has not been addressed in a study as yet. Twenty-four alcohol-dependent patients with a short abstention period (mean 21.9 +/- 7.6 days) were compared with 12 patients with an abstention period of several months (115.7 +/- 43.8 days). Groups did not differ with respect to daily alcohol consumption before treatment, duration of alcohol dependence, and age. Before sleep all patients learned a list of semantically associated word pairs and a face name association task to a fixed criterion (at least 60% of correct recall) and they performed a mirror tracing task. After a polysomnographically registered night the patients were tested for retention of the learned declarative material by cued recall and had to perform the mirror tracing task again. The groups did not differ with respect to sleep parameters or sleep-associated memory consolidation. Across both groups the duration of alcohol dependence correlated negatively with the amount of non-REM sleep and recall in the face name association task correlated negatively with daily alcohol consumption before abstention. Among the longer-term abstainers the duration of abstention correlated with the amount of slow wave sleep. Our data support the hypothesis that chronic and high alcohol consumption negatively affects sleep and declarative memory consolidation during the first months of abstention. Between an abstention period of a few weeks and of several months no change in sleep parameters and nightly memory consolidation could be demonstrated, however.

  19. Post-training N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade offers protection from retrograde interference but does not affect consolidation of weak or strong memory traces in the water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M; Langston, R F

    2006-01-01

    Memory consolidation is the process where labile memory traces become long-lasting, stable memories. Previous work has demonstrated that spatial memory consolidation, several days after training in a water maze had ceased, can be disrupted by a temporary intra hippocampal infusion of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainate antagonist LY326325 (Riedel et al., 1999). Such reversible pharmacological techniques offer advantages over the permanent lesion studies that had first suggested a role for the hippocampus in memory consolidation. However, to date the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in such systems level processes remains controversial with evidence for impairments and augmentation of performance. Here we investigate the role of post-training hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade in rats and mice on the consolidation of weak and strong memory traces using an Atlantis water maze protocol. A hidden Atlantis platform was employed and rats (experiments 1 and 2) and mice (experiment 3) were required to dwell within 20 cm of the trained location to activate and subsequently reveal the escape platform. In experiments 1 and 3 a strong memory trace was established by training rats or mice for several days in the water maze. In experiment 2 a significantly weaker trace was instituted by reducing the training period. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade was induced after the last training trial and continued for seven days. Reliable memory for the trained platform location in a retention test 15 days after the last training day demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade did not affect memory consolidation in rats or mice. Our results also show that post-training N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade can lead to better performance in further retention tests conducted after the consolidation and drug administration period. Those data suggest that specific post-training N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade

  20. Promoting Sleep Oscillations and Their Functional Coupling by Transcranial Stimulation Enhances Memory Consolidation in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladenbauer, Julia; Ladenbauer, Josef; Külzow, Nadine; de Boor, Rebecca; Avramova, Elena; Grittner, Ulrike; Flöel, Agnes

    2017-07-26

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) not only involves loss of memory functions, but also prominent deterioration of sleep physiology, which is already evident at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cortical slow oscillations (SO; 0.5-1 Hz) and thalamocortical spindle activity (12-15 Hz) during sleep, and their temporal coordination, are considered critical for memory formation. We investigated the potential of slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS), applied during a daytime nap in a sleep-state-dependent manner, to modulate these activity patterns and sleep-related memory consolidation in nine male and seven female human patients with MCI. Stimulation significantly increased overall SO and spindle power, amplified spindle power during SO up-phases, and led to stronger synchronization between SO and spindle power fluctuations in EEG recordings. Moreover, visual declarative memory was improved by so-tDCS compared with sham stimulation and was associated with stronger synchronization. These findings indicate a well-tolerated therapeutic approach for disordered sleep physiology and memory deficits in MCI patients and advance our understanding of offline memory consolidation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the light of increasing evidence that sleep disruption is crucially involved in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), sleep appears as a promising treatment target in this pathology, particularly to counteract memory decline. This study demonstrates the potential of a noninvasive brain stimulation method during sleep in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a precursor of AD, and advances our understanding of its mechanism. We provide first time evidence that slow oscillatory transcranial stimulation amplifies the functional cross-frequency coupling between memory-relevant brain oscillations and improves visual memory consolidation in patients with MCI. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377111-14$15.00/0.

  1. Systemic inhibition of mTOR kinase via rapamycin disrupts consolidation and reconsolidation of auditory fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Callum, Phillip E; Hebert, Mark; Adamec, Robert E; Blundell, Jacqueline

    2014-07-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is a critical regulator of mRNA translation and is known to be involved in various long lasting forms of synaptic and behavioural plasticity. However, information concerning the temporal pattern of mTOR activation and susceptibility to pharmacological intervention during both consolidation and reconsolidation of long-term memory (LTM) remains scant. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected systemically with rapamycin at various time points following conditioning or retrieval in an auditory fear conditioning paradigm, and compared to vehicle (and/or anisomycin) controls for subsequent memory recall. Systemic blockade of mTOR with rapamycin immediately or 12h after training or reactivation impairs both consolidation and reconsolidation of an auditory fear memory. Further behavioural analysis revealed that the enduring effects of rapamycin on reconsolidation are dependent upon reactivation of the memory trace. Rapamycin, however, has no effect on short-term memory or the ability to retrieve an established fear memory. Collectively, our data suggest that biphasic mTOR signalling is essential for both consolidation and reconsolidation-like activities that contribute to the formation, re-stabilization, and persistence of long term auditory-fear memories, while not influencing other aspects of the memory trace. These findings also provide evidence for a cogent treatment model for reducing the emotional strength of established, traumatic memories analogous to those observed in acquired anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and specific phobias, through pharmacologic blockade of mTOR using systemic rapamycin following reactivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hippocampal sharp wave/ripples during sleep for consolidation of associative memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiâm Ramadan

    Full Text Available The beneficial effect of sleep on memory has been well-established by extensive research on humans, but the neurophysiological mechanisms remain a matter of speculation. This study addresses the hypothesis that the fast oscillations known as ripples recorded in the CA1 region of the hippocampus during slow wave sleep (SWS may provide a physiological substrate for long term memory consolidation. We trained rats in a spatial discrimination task to retrieve palatable reward in three fixed locations. Hippocampal local field potentials and cortical EEG were recorded for 2 h after each daily training session. There was an increase in ripple density during SWS after early training sessions, in both trained rats and in rats randomly rewarded for exploring the maze. In rats learning the place -reward association, there was a striking further significant increase in ripple density correlated with subsequent improvements in behavioral performance as the rat learned the spatial discrimination aspect of the task. The results corroborate others showing an experience-dependent increase in ripple activity and associated ensemble replay after exploratory activity, but in addition, for the first time, reveal a clear further increase in ripple activity related to associative learning based on spatial discrimination.

  3. Pharmacological differences between memory consolidation of habituation to an open field and inhibitory avoidance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianna M.R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats implanted bilaterally with cannulae in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex were submitted to either a one-trial inhibitory avoidance task, or to 5 min of habituation to an open field. Immediately after training, they received intrahippocampal or intraentorhinal 0.5-µl infusions of saline, of a vehicle (2% dimethylsulfoxide in saline, of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphono pentanoic acid (AP5, of the protein kinase A inhibitor Rp-cAMPs (0.5 µg/side, of the calcium-calmodulin protein kinase II inhibitor KN-62, of the dopaminergic D1 antagonist SCH23390, or of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD098059. Animals were tested in each task 24 h after training. Intrahippocampal KN-62 was amnestic for habituation; none of the other treatments had any effect on the retention of this task. In contrast, all of them strongly affected memory of the avoidance task. Intrahippocampal Rp-cAMPs, KN-62 and AP5, and intraentorhinal Rp-cAMPs, KN-62, PD098059 and SCH23390 caused retrograde amnesia. In view of the known actions of the treatments used, the present findings point to important biochemical differences in memory consolidation processes of the two tasks.

  4. Release of gliotransmitters through astroglial connexin 43 hemichannels is necessary for fear memory consolidation in the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehberg, Jimmy; Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Salazar, Christian; Becerra, Alvaro; Echeverría, Cesar; Orellana, Juan A; Bultynck, Geert; Ponsaerts, Raf; Leybaert, Luc; Simon, Felipe; Sáez, Juan C; Retamal, Mauricio A

    2012-09-01

    Recent in vitro evidence indicates that astrocytes can modulate synaptic plasticity by releasing neuroactive substances (gliotransmitters). However, whether gliotransmitter release from astrocytes is necessary for higher brain function in vivo, particularly for memory, as well as the contribution of connexin (Cx) hemichannels to gliotransmitter release, remain elusive. Here, we microinfused into the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA) TAT-Cx43L2, a peptide that selectively inhibits Cx43-hemichannel opening while maintaining synaptic transmission or interastrocyte gap junctional communication. In vivo blockade of Cx43 hemichannels during memory consolidation induced amnesia for auditory fear conditioning, as assessed 24 h after training, without affecting short-term memory, locomotion, or shock reactivity. The amnesic effect was transitory, specific for memory consolidation, and was confirmed after microinfusion of Gap27, another Cx43-hemichannel blocker. Learning capacity was recovered after coinfusion of TAT-Cx43L2 and a mixture of putative gliotransmitters (glutamate, glutamine, lactate, d-serine, glycine, and ATP). We propose that gliotransmitter release from astrocytes through Cx43 hemichannels is necessary for fear memory consolidation at the BLA. Thus, the present study is the first to demonstrate a physiological role for astroglial Cx43 hemichannels in brain function, making these channels a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder.

  5. Effects of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and propofol anesthesia on emotional memory consolidation in rats: Consequences for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morena, Maria; Berardi, Andrea; Peloso, Andrea; Valeri, Daniela; Palmery, Maura; Trezza, Viviana; Schelling, Gustav; Campolongo, Patrizia

    2017-06-30

    Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or emergency care patients, exposed to traumatic events, are at increased risk for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) development. Commonly used sedative/anesthetic agents can interfere with the mechanisms of memory formation, exacerbating or attenuating the memory for the traumatic event, and subsequently promote or reduce the risk of PTSD development. Here, we evaluated the effects of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and propofol on fear memory consolidation and subsequent cognitive and emotional alterations related to traumatic stress exposure. Immediately following an inhibitory avoidance training, rats were intraperitoneally injected with ketamine (100-125mg/kg), dexmedetomidine (0.3-0.4mg/kg) or their vehicle and tested for 48h memory retention. Furthermore, the effects of ketamine (125mg/kg), dexmedetomidine (0.4mg/kg), propofol (300mg/kg) or their vehicle on long-term memory and social interaction were evaluated two weeks after drug injection in a rat PTSD model. Ketamine anesthesia increased memory retention without altering the traumatic memory strength in the PTSD model. However, ketamine induced a long-term reduction of social behavior. Conversely, dexmedetomidine markedly impaired memory retention, without affecting long-lasting cognitive or emotional behaviors in the PTSD model. We have previously shown that propofol anesthesia enhanced 48h memory retention. Here, we found that propofol induced an enduring traumatic memory enhancement and anxiogenic effects in the PTSD model. These findings provide new evidence for clinical studies showing that the use of ketamine or propofol anesthesia in emergency care and ICU might be more likely to promote the development of PTSD, while dexmedetomidine might have prophylactic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Consolidation ou résistance à l'interférence ?Etude de la contribution des états de sommeil aux processus post-apprentissage de consolidation et de résistance à l'interférence lexicale et émotionnelle rétroactive./Consolidation or protection against interference? an investigation of sleep stages contribution in post-learning memory consolidation and protection against lexical and emotional retroactive interference processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Deliens, Gaétane

    2013-01-01

    Although a relative consensus exists about the contribution of post-learning sleep in the consolidation of novel information in long term memory, the definition of the respective contributions of sleep stages in memory consolidation processes remains a matter of debates. Scrima (1982) proposed the hypothesis that Slow Waves Sleep (SWS) contributes preventing retroactive interference on recently acquired information, whereas Rapid Eyes Movement sleep (REM) contributes consolidating this inform...

  7. BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Interacts with Sleep Consolidation to Predict Ability to Create New Declarative Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Nadia; De Beaumont, Louis; Gagnon, Katia; Baril, Andrée-Ann; Mongrain, Valérie; Blais, Hélène; Montplaisir, Jacques; Gagnon, Jean-François; Pelleieux, Sandra; Poirier, Judes; Carrier, Julie

    2016-08-10

    It is hypothesized that a fundamental function of sleep is to restore an individual's day-to-day ability to learn and to constantly adapt to a changing environment through brain plasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is among the key regulators that shape brain plasticity. However, advancing age and carrying the BDNF Met allele were both identified as factors that potentially reduce BDNF secretion, brain plasticity, and memory. Here, we investigated the moderating role of BDNF polymorphism on sleep and next-morning learning ability in 107 nondemented individuals who were between 55 and 84 years of age. All subjects were tested with 1 night of in-laboratory polysomnography followed by a cognitive evaluation the next morning. We found that in subjects carrying the BDNF Val66Val polymorphism, consolidated sleep was associated with significantly better performance on hippocampus-dependent episodic memory tasks the next morning (β-values from 0.290 to 0.434, p ≤ 0.01). In subjects carrying at least one copy of the BDNF Met allele, a more consolidated sleep was not associated with better memory performance in most memory tests (β-values from -0.309 to -0.392, p values from 0.06 to 0.15). Strikingly, increased sleep consolidation was associated with poorer performance in learning a short story presented verbally in Met allele carriers (β = -0.585, p = 0.005). This study provides new evidence regarding the interacting roles of consolidated sleep and BDNF polymorphism in the ability to learn and stresses the importance of considering BDNF polymorphism when studying how sleep affects cognition. Individuals with the BDNF Val/Val (valine allele) polymorphism showed better memory performance after a night of consolidated sleep. However, we observed that middle-aged and older individuals who are carriers of the BDNF Met allele displayed no positive association between sleep quality and their ability to learn the next morning. This interaction between sleep and

  8. The effects of eszopiclone on sleep spindles and memory consolidation in schizophrenia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Erin J; Shinn, Ann K; Tucker, Matthew A; Ono, Kim E; McKinley, Sophia K; Ely, Alice V; Goff, Donald C; Stickgold, Robert; Manoach, Dara S

    2013-09-01

    In schizophrenia there is a dramatic reduction of sleep spindles that predicts deficient sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Eszopiclone (Lunesta), a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic, acts on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus where spindles are generated. We investigated whether eszopiclone could increase spindles and thereby improve memory consolidation in schizophrenia. In a double-blind design, patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or 3 mg of eszopiclone. Patients completed Baseline and Treatment visits, each consisting of two consecutive nights of polysomnography. On the second night of each visit, patients were trained on the motor sequence task (MST) at bedtime and tested the following morning. Academic research center. Twenty-one chronic, medicated schizophrenia outpatients. We compared the effects of two nights of eszopiclone vs. placebo on stage 2 sleep spindles and overnight changes in MST performance. Eszopiclone increased the number and density of spindles over baseline levels significantly more than placebo, but did not significantly enhance overnight MST improvement. In the combined eszopiclone and placebo groups, spindle number and density predicted overnight MST improvement. Eszopiclone significantly increased sleep spindles, which correlated with overnight motor sequence task improvement. These findings provide partial support for the hypothesis that the spindle deficit in schizophrenia impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation and may be ameliorated by eszopiclone. Larger samples may be needed to detect a significant effect on memory. Given the general role of sleep spindles in cognition, they offer a promising novel potential target for treating cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  9. The emotional harbinger effect: Poor context memory for cues that previously predicted something arousing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Mara; Knight, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    A key function of memory is to use past experience to predict when something important might happen next. Indeed, cues that previously predicted arousing events (emotional harbingers) garner more attention than other cues. However, the current series of five experiments demonstrates that people have poorer memory for the context of emotional harbinger cues than of neutral harbinger cues. Participants first learned that some harbinger cues (neutral tones or faces) predicted emotionally arousing pictures and others predicted neutral pictures. Then they studied associations between the harbinger cues and new contextual details. They were worse at remembering associations with emotional harbingers than with neutral harbingers. Memory was impaired not only for the association between emotional harbingers and nearby digits but also for contextual details that overlapped with or were intrinsic to the emotional harbingers. However, new cues that were inherently emotionally arousing did not yield the same memory impairments as the emotional harbingers. Thus, emotional harbinger cues seem to suffer more from proactive interference than do neutral harbinger cues, impairing formation of new associations with cues that previously predicted something arousing. PMID:19102596

  10. Task-set inertia and memory-consolidation bottleneck in dual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Iring; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2006-11-01

    Three dual-task experiments examined the influence of processing a briefly presented visual object for deferred verbal report on performance in an unrelated auditory-manual reaction time (RT) task. RT was increased at short stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) relative to long SOAs, showing that memory consolidation processes can produce a functional processing bottleneck in dual-task performance. In addition, the experiments manipulated the spatial compatibility of the orientation of the visual object and the side of the speeded manual response. This cross-task compatibility produced relative RT benefits only when the instruction for the visual task emphasized overlap at the level of response codes across the task sets (Experiment 1). However, once the effective task set was in place, it continued to produce cross-task compatibility effects even in single-task situations ("ignore" trials in Experiment 2) and when instructions for the visual task did not explicitly require spatial coding of object orientation (Experiment 3). Taken together, the data suggest a considerable degree of task-set inertia in dual-task performance, which is also reinforced by finding costs of switching task sequences (e.g., AC --> BC vs. BC --> BC) in Experiment 3.

  11. Stroop effects from newly learned color words: effects of memory consolidation and episodic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning.

  12. Stroop effects from newly learned color words: Effects of memory consolidation and episodic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eGeukes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 hours later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word’s meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning.

  13. Inducible protein knockout reveals temporal requirement of CaMKII reactivation for memory consolidation in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin; Shimizu, Eiji; Tang, Ya-Ping; Cho, Min; Kyin, Maureen; Zuo, Wenqi; Robinson, Daphne A; Alaimo, Peter J; Zhang, Chao; Morimoto, Hiromi; Zhuo, Min; Feng, Ruiben; Shokat, Kevan M; Tsien, Joe Z

    2003-04-01

    By integrating convergent protein engineering and rational inhibitor design, we have developed an in vivo conditional protein knockout andor manipulation technology. This method is based on the creation of a specific interaction interface between a modified protein domain and sensitized inhibitors. By introducing this system into genetically modified mice, we can readily manipulate the activity of a targeted protein, such as alpha-Ca(2+)calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alphaCAMKII), on the time scale of minutes in specific brain subregions of freely behaving mice. With this inducible and region-specific protein knockout technique, we analyzed the temporal stages of memory consolidation process and revealed the first postlearning week as the critical time window during which a precise level of CaMKII reactivation is essential for the consolidation of long-term memories in the brain.

  14. BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Interacts with Sleep Consolidation to Predict Ability to Create New Declarative Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Nadia; De Beaumont, Louis; Gagnon, Katia; Baril, Andrée-Ann; Mongrain, Valérie; Blais, Hélène; Montplaisir, Jacques; Gagnon, Jean-François; Pelleieux, Sandra; Poirier, Judes; Carrier, Julie

    2016-01-01

    It is hypothesized that a fundamental function of sleep is to restore an individual’s day-to-day ability to learn and to constantly adapt to a changing environment through brain plasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is among the key regulators that shape brain plasticity. However, advancing age and carrying the BDNF Met allele were both identified as factors that potentially reduce BDNF secretion, brain plasticity, and memory. Here, we investigated the moderating role of BDNF polymorphism on sleep and next-morning learning ability in 107 nondemented individuals who were between 55 and 84 years of age. All subjects were tested with 1 night of in-laboratory polysomnography followed by a cognitive evaluation the next morning. We found that in subjects carrying the BDNF Val66Val polymorphism, consolidated sleep was associated with significantly better performance on hippocampus-dependent episodic memory tasks the next morning (β-values from 0.290 to 0.434, p ≤ 0.01). In subjects carrying at least one copy of the BDNF Met allele, a more consolidated sleep was not associated with better memory performance in most memory tests (β-values from −0.309 to −0.392, p values from 0.06 to 0.15). Strikingly, increased sleep consolidation was associated with poorer performance in learning a short story presented verbally in Met allele carriers (β = −0.585, p = 0.005). This study provides new evidence regarding the interacting roles of consolidated sleep and BDNF polymorphism in the ability to learn and stresses the importance of considering BDNF polymorphism when studying how sleep affects cognition. PMID:27511011

  15. Differential Involvement of Dopamine D1 Receptor and MEK Signaling Pathway in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Consolidation and Reconsolidation of Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroun, Mouna; Akirav, Irit

    2009-01-01

    We investigated MEK and D1 receptors in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in consolidation and reconsolidation of recognition memory in rats nonhabituated to the experimental context (NH) or with reduced arousal due to extensive prior habituation (H). The D1 receptor antagonist enhanced consolidation and impaired reconsolidation in NH but…

  16. Acute cardiovascular exercise promotes functional changes in cortico-motor networks during the early stages of motor memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Maso, Fabien; Desormeau, Bennet; Boudrias, Marie-Hélène; Roig, Marc

    2018-03-16

    A single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after practicing a visuo-motor tracking task has been shown to improve the long-term retention of this motor skill through an optimization of the memory consolidation process. The mechanisms underlying the time-dependent effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on motor memory consolidation, however, remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to determine the impact of a single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after motor skill practice on those mechanisms using electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG). Specifically, we assessed exercise-induced changes in the activity and connectivity of cortico-motor networks during early consolidation and the impact of these changes on skill retention. Participants practiced a visuo-motor tracking task followed by either a short bout of intense exercise or a rest period. EEG along with EMG data of hand muscles were collected during the production of low-force isometric contractions. Event-related desynchronization, functional connectivity and corticomuscular coherence were measured at baseline, 30, 60 and 90 min after the bout of exercise or the rest period. Improvements in motor memory were inferred via retention tests of the motor skill performed 8 and 24 h after motor practice. We found that participants who performed the single bout of exercise showed better motor skill retention 24 h after motor practice. This improvement in skill retention in the exercise group was associated with significant decreases in beta-band event-related desynchronization in EEG electrodes located over the left sensorimotor areas. We also found that after exercise, alpha-, and even more significantly, beta-band functional connectivity, increased between EEG electrodes located over left and right sensorimotor areas. The exercise group also showed greater beta-band corticomuscular coherence but only in a small number of electrodes. Neither

  17. Species-relevant inescapable stress differently influences memory consolidation and retrieval of mice in a spatial radial arm maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janitzky, K; Schwegler, H; Kröber, A; Roskoden, T; Yanagawa, Y; Linke, R

    2011-05-16

    Stress affects learning and there are both facilitating and impairing actions of stressors on memory processes. Here we investigated the influence of acute exposure to 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT), an ethological relevant stressor for rodents, on spatial memory formation and performance in a radial arm maze (RAM) task and studied TMT effects on corticosterone levels in GAD67-GFP knock-in mice and their wildtype littermates. Our results suggest that predator odor-exposure differently affects consolidation and retrieval of memory in a hippocampus-dependent spatial learning task in adult male mice, independently from their genotypes. Acute TMT-stress before retrieval facilitates performance, whereas repeated TMT-stress during consolidation exerts no influence. Additionally, we found genotype specific effects of TMT on corticosterone release. While TMT-stress tend to result in increased corticosterone release in wildtypes there was a significant decrease in transgenic mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that biologically significant predator odor-induced stress can have different actions on the strength of spatial memory formation depending on the timing with regard to memory phases. Furthermore, we suppose an impact of GABAergic mechanisms on HPA-stress axis activation to TMT resulting in absent peripheral corticosterone release of GAD67-GFP mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A new perspective on the role of the CREB family of transcription factors in memory consolidation via adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eOrtega-Martinez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons are generated in the brains of adults. Since its discovery 50 years ago, adult neurogenesis has been widely studied in the mammalian brain and has provided a new perspective on the pathophysiology of many psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, some of which affect memory. In this regard, adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN, which occurs in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, has been suggested to play a role in the formation and consolidation of new memories. This process involves many transcription factors, of which cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB is a well-documented one. In the developing brain, CREB regulates crucial cell stages, (e.g., proliferation, differentiation, and survival, and in the adult brain, it participates in neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory. In addition, new evidence supports the hypothesis that CREB may also participate in learning and memory through its involvement in AHN. This review examines the CREB family of transcription factors, including the different members and known signaling pathways. It highlights the role of CREB as a modulator of AHN, which could underlie its function in memory consolidation mechanisms.

  19. The effect of left frontal transcranial direct-current stimulation on propranolol-induced fear memory acquisition and consolidation deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Khani-Abyaneh, Mozhgan; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-07-28

    Accumulating evidence supports the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in modulating numerous cognitive functions. Despite the fact that tDCS has been used for the enhancement of memory and cognition, very few animal studies have addressed its impact on the modulation of fear memory. This study was designed to determine whether pre/post-training frontal tDCS application would alter fear memory acquisition and/or consolidation deficits induced by propranolol in NMRI mice. Results indicated that administration of β1-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol (0.1mg/kg) impaired fear memory retrieval. Pre/post-training application of anodal tDCS when propranolol was administered prior to training reversed contextual memory retrieval whereas only the anodal application prior to training could induce the same result in the auditory test. Meanwhile, anodal stimulation had no effect on fear memories by itself. Moreover, regardless of when cathode was applied and propranolol administered, their combination restored contextual memory retrieval, while only cathodal stimulation prior to training facilitated the contextual memory retrieval. Also, auditory memory retrieval was restored when cathodal stimulation and propranolol occurred prior to training but it was abolished when stimulation occurred after training and propranolol was administered prior to training. Collectively, our findings show that tDCS applied on the left frontal cortex of mice affects fear memory performance. This alteration seems to be task-dependent and varies depending on the nature and timing of the stimulation. In certain conditions, tDCS reverses the effect of propranolol. These results provide initial evidence to support the timely use of tDCS for the modulation of fear-related memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sequence specific motor performance gains after memory consolidation in children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshi Dorfberger

    Full Text Available Memory consolidation for a trained sequence of finger opposition movements, in 9- and 12-year-old children, was recently found to be significantly less susceptible to interference by a subsequent training experience, compared to that of 17-year-olds. It was suggested that, in children, the experience of training on any sequence of finger movements may affect the performance of the sequence elements, component movements, rather than the sequence as a unit; the latter has been implicated in the learning of the task by adults. This hypothesis implied a possible childhood advantage in the ability to transfer the gains from a trained to the reversed, untrained, sequence of movements. Here we report the results of transfer tests undertaken to test this proposal in 9-, 12-, and 17-year-olds after training in the finger-to-thumb opposition sequence (FOS learning task. Our results show that the performance gains in the trained sequence partially transferred from the left, trained hand, to the untrained hand at 48-hours after a single training session in the three age-groups tested. However, there was very little transfer of the gains from the trained to the untrained, reversed, sequence performed by either hand. The results indicate sequence specific post-training gains in FOS performance, as opposed to a general improvement in performance of the individual, component, movements that comprised both the trained and untrained sequences. These results do not support the proposal that the reduced susceptibility to interference, in children before adolescence, reflects a difference in movement syntax representation after training.

  1. Consciousness across Sleep and Wake: Discontinuity and Continuity of Memory Experiences As a Reflection of Consolidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L. Horton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The continuity hypothesis (1 posits that there is continuity, of some form, between waking and dreaming mentation. A recent body of work has provided convincing evidence for different aspects of continuity, for instance that some salient experiences from waking life seem to feature in dreams over others, with a particular role for emotional arousal as accompanying these experiences, both during waking and while asleep. However, discontinuities have been somewhat dismissed as being either a product of activation-synthesis, an error within the consciousness binding process during sleep, a methodological anomaly, or simply as yet unexplained. This paper presents an overview of discontinuity within dreaming and waking cognition, arguing that disruptions of consciousness are as common a feature of waking cognition as of dreaming cognition, and that processes of sleep-dependent memory consolidation of autobiographical experiences can in part account for some of the discontinuities of sleeping cognition in a functional way. By drawing upon evidence of the incorporation, fragmentation, and reorganization of memories within dreams, this paper proposes a model of discontinuity whereby the fragmentation of autobiographical and episodic memories during sleep, as part of the consolidation process, render salient aspects of those memories subsequently available for retrieval in isolation from their contextual features. As such discontinuity of consciousness in sleep is functional and normal.

  2. Effects of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on human sleep, sleep-associated memory consolidation, and blood monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eva-Maria; Linz, Barbara; Diekelmann, Susanne; Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) are major players in the interaction between the immune system and the central nervous system. Various animal studies report a sleep-promoting effect of IL-1 leading to enhanced slow wave sleep (SWS). Moreover, this cytokine was shown to affect hippocampus-dependent memory. However, the role of IL-1 in human sleep and memory is not yet understood. We administered the synthetic IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra (IL-1ra) in healthy humans (100mg, subcutaneously, before sleep; n=16) to investigate the role of IL-1 signaling in sleep regulation and sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Inasmuch monocytes have been considered a model for central nervous microglia, we monitored cytokine production in classical and non-classical blood monocytes to gain clues about how central nervous effects of IL-1ra are conveyed. Contrary to our expectation, IL-1ra increased EEG slow wave activity during SWS and non-rapid eye movement (NonREM) sleep, indicating a deepening of sleep, while sleep-associated memory consolidation remained unchanged. Moreover, IL-1ra slightly increased prolactin and reduced cortisol levels during sleep. Production of IL-1 by classical monocytes was diminished after IL-1ra. The discrepancy to findings in animal studies might reflect species differences and underlines the importance of studying cytokine effects in humans. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Consciousness across Sleep and Wake: Discontinuity and Continuity of Memory Experiences As a Reflection of Consolidation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Caroline L.

    2017-01-01

    The continuity hypothesis (1) posits that there is continuity, of some form, between waking and dreaming mentation. A recent body of work has provided convincing evidence for different aspects of continuity, for instance that some salient experiences from waking life seem to feature in dreams over others, with a particular role for emotional arousal as accompanying these experiences, both during waking and while asleep. However, discontinuities have been somewhat dismissed as being either a product of activation-synthesis, an error within the consciousness binding process during sleep, a methodological anomaly, or simply as yet unexplained. This paper presents an overview of discontinuity within dreaming and waking cognition, arguing that disruptions of consciousness are as common a feature of waking cognition as of dreaming cognition, and that processes of sleep-dependent memory consolidation of autobiographical experiences can in part account for some of the discontinuities of sleeping cognition in a functional way. By drawing upon evidence of the incorporation, fragmentation, and reorganization of memories within dreams, this paper proposes a model of discontinuity whereby the fragmentation of autobiographical and episodic memories during sleep, as part of the consolidation process, render salient aspects of those memories subsequently available for retrieval in isolation from their contextual features. As such discontinuity of consciousness in sleep is functional and normal. PMID:28936183

  4. Consciousness across Sleep and Wake: Discontinuity and Continuity of Memory Experiences As a Reflection of Consolidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Caroline L

    2017-01-01

    The continuity hypothesis (1) posits that there is continuity, of some form, between waking and dreaming mentation. A recent body of work has provided convincing evidence for different aspects of continuity, for instance that some salient experiences from waking life seem to feature in dreams over others, with a particular role for emotional arousal as accompanying these experiences, both during waking and while asleep. However, discontinuities have been somewhat dismissed as being either a product of activation-synthesis, an error within the consciousness binding process during sleep, a methodological anomaly, or simply as yet unexplained. This paper presents an overview of discontinuity within dreaming and waking cognition, arguing that disruptions of consciousness are as common a feature of waking cognition as of dreaming cognition, and that processes of sleep-dependent memory consolidation of autobiographical experiences can in part account for some of the discontinuities of sleeping cognition in a functional way. By drawing upon evidence of the incorporation, fragmentation, and reorganization of memories within dreams, this paper proposes a model of discontinuity whereby the fragmentation of autobiographical and episodic memories during sleep, as part of the consolidation process, render salient aspects of those memories subsequently available for retrieval in isolation from their contextual features. As such discontinuity of consciousness in sleep is functional and normal.

  5. Cooperative interaction between the basolateral amygdala and ventral tegmental area modulates the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari-Serenjeh, Farzaneh; Rezayof, Ameneh

    2013-01-10

    The aim of the current study was to examine the existence of a cooperative interaction between the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in inhibitory avoidance task. The BLA and the VTA regions of adult male Wistar rats were simultaneously cannulated and memory consolidation was measured in a step-through type inhibitory avoidance apparatus. Post-training microinjection of muscimol, a potent GABA-A receptor agonist (0.01-0.02 μg/rat), into the VTA impaired memory in a dose-dependent manner. Post-training intra-BLA microinjection of NMDA (0.02-0.04 μg/rat), 5 min before the intra-VTA injection of muscimol (0.02 μg/rat), attenuated muscimol-induced memory impairment. Microinjection of a NMDA receptor antagonist, D-AP5 (0.02-0.06 μg/rat) into the BLA inhibited NMDA effect on the memory impairment induced by intra-VTA microinjection of muscimol. On the other hand, post-training intra-BLA microinjection of muscimol (0.02-0.04 μg/rat) dose-dependently decreased step-through latency, indicating an impairing effect on memory. This impairing effect was however significantly attenuated by intra-VTA microinjection of NMDA (0.01-0.03 μg/rat). Intra-VTA microinjection of D-AP5 (0.02-0.08 μg/rat), 5 min prior to NMDA injection, inhibited NMDA response on the impairing effect induced by intra-BLA microinjection of muscimol. It should be considered that post-training microinjection of the same doses of NMDA or D-AP5 into the BLA or the VTA alone had no effect on memory consolidation. The data suggest that the relationship between the BLA and the VTA in mediating memory consolidation in inhibitory avoidance learning may be dependent on a cooperative interaction between the glutamatergic and GABAergic systems via NMDA and GABA-A receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fragmentation of Rapid Eye Movement and Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep without Total Sleep Loss Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Fear Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael L; Katsuyama, Ângela M; Duge, Leanne S; Sriram, Chaitra; Krushelnytskyy, Mykhaylo; Kim, Jeansok J; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2016-11-01

    Sleep is important for consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memories. It is hypothesized that the temporal sequence of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is critical for the weakening of nonadaptive memories and the subsequent transfer of memories temporarily stored in the hippocampus to more permanent memories in the neocortex. A great body of evidence supporting this hypothesis relies on behavioral, pharmacological, neural, and/or genetic manipulations that induce sleep deprivation or stage-specific sleep deprivation. We exploit an experimental model of circadian desynchrony in which intact animals are not deprived of any sleep stage but show fragmentation of REM and NREM sleep within nonfragmented sleep bouts. We test the hypothesis that the shortening of NREM and REM sleep durations post-training will impair memory consolidation irrespective of total sleep duration. When circadian-desynchronized animals are trained in a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear-conditioning task they show normal short-term memory but impaired long-term memory consolidation. This impairment in memory consolidation is positively associated with the post-training fragmentation of REM and NREM sleep but is not significantly associated with the fragmentation of total sleep or the total amount of delta activity. We also show that the sleep stage fragmentation resulting from circadian desynchrony has no effect on hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and no effect on hippocampus-independent cued fear-conditioning memory. Our findings in an intact animal model, in which sleep deprivation is not a confounding factor, support the hypothesis that the stereotypic sequence and duration of sleep stages play a specific role in long-term hippocampus-dependent fear memory consolidation. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Decreased nocturnal growth hormone secretion and sleep fragmentation in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder; potential predictors of impaired memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liempt, Saskia; Vermetten, Eric; Lentjes, Eef; Arends, Johan; Westenberg, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Background: Healthy sleep facilitates the consolidation of newly acquired memories. Although patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often complain of sleep disturbances and memory deficits, the interrelatedness of these symptoms is not well understood. Sleep may be disturbed in PTSD by

  8. Ripple-Triggered Stimulation of the Locus Coeruleus during Post-Learning Sleep Disrupts Ripple/Spindle Coupling and Impairs Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitskaya, Yulia; Sara, Susan J.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Eschenko, Oxana

    2016-01-01

    Experience-induced replay of neuronal ensembles occurs during hippocampal high-frequency oscillations, or ripples. Post-learning increase in ripple rate is predictive of memory recall, while ripple disruption impairs learning. Ripples may thus present a fundamental component of a neurophysiological mechanism of memory consolidation. In addition to…

  9. Behavioral Interference and C/EBP[Beta] Expression in the Insular-Cortex Reveal a Prolonged Time Period for Taste Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkobi, Alina; Jacobson-Pick, Shlomit; Karni, Avi; Rosenblum, Kobi; Merhav, Maayan; Kuulmann-Vander, Shelly

    2006-01-01

    Memory consolidation is defined as the time window during which the memory trace is susceptible to behavioral, electrical, or pharmacological interventions. Here, the authors presented rats with two novel tastes at consecutive time intervals. Clear interference was evident when a novel taste formed the second taste input whereby, surprisingly, the…

  10. Pheromone-Induced Olfactory Memory in Newborn Rabbits: Involvement of Consolidation and Reconsolidation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coureaud, Gerard; Languille, Solene; Schaal, Benoist; Hars, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Mammary pheromone (MP)-induced odor memory is a new model of appetitive memory functioning early in a mammal, the newborn rabbit. Some properties of this associative memory are analyzed by the use of anisomycin as an amnesic agent. Long-term memory (LTM) was impaired by anisomycin delivered immediately, but not 4 h after either acquisition or…

  11. The function of the sleep spindle: a physiological index of intelligence and a mechanism for sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Stuart M; Smith, Carlyle T

    2011-04-01

    Until recently, the electrophysiological mechanisms involved in strengthening new memories into a more permanent form during sleep have been largely unknown. The sleep spindle is an event in the electroencephalogram (EEG) characterizing Stage 2 sleep. Sleep spindles may reflect, at the electrophysiological level, an ideal mechanism for inducing long-term synaptic changes in the neocortex. Recent evidence suggests the spindle is highly correlated with tests of intellectual ability (e.g.; IQ tests) and may serve as a physiological index of intelligence. Further, spindles increase in number and duration in sleep following new learning and are correlated with performance improvements. Spindle density and sigma (14-16Hz) spectral power have been found to be positively correlated with performance following a daytime nap, and animal studies suggest the spindle is involved in a hippocampal-neocortical dialogue necessary for memory consolidation. The findings reviewed here collectively provide a compelling body of evidence that the function of the sleep spindle is related to intellectual ability and memory consolidation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Timing matters: negative emotion elicited 5 min but not 30 min or 45 min after learning enhances consolidation of internal-monitoring source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Bukuan, Sun

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments examined the time-dependent effects of negative emotion on consolidation of item and internal-monitoring source memory. In Experiment 1, participants (n=121) learned a list of words. They were asked to read aloud half of the words and to think about the remaining half. They were instructed to memorize each word and its associative cognitive operation ("reading" versus "thinking"). Immediately following learning they conducted free recall and then watched a 3-min either neutral or negative video clip when 5 min, 30 min or 45 min had elapsed after learning. Twenty-four hours later they returned to take surprise tests for item and source memory. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants, without conducting an immediate test of free recall, took tests of source memory for all encoded words both immediately and 24 h after learning. Experiment 1 showed that negative emotion enhanced consolidation of item memory (as measured by retention ratio of free recall) regardless of delay of emotion elicitation and that negative emotion enhanced consolidation of source memory when it was elicited at a 5 min delay but reduced consolidation of source memory when it was elicited at a 30 min delay; when elicited at a 45 min delay, negative emotion had little effect. Furthermore, Experiment 2 replicated the enhancement effect on source memory in the 5 min delay even when participants were tested on all the encoded words. The current study partially replicated prior studies on item memory and extends the literature by providing evidence for a time-dependent effect of negative emotion on consolidation of source memory based on internal monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The dynamic nature of systems consolidation: Stress during learning as a switch guiding the rate of the hippocampal dependency and memory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Lizeth K; Sierra, Rodrigo O; Boos, Flávia Z; Haubrich, Josué; Quillfeldt, Jorge A; Alvares, Lucas de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Memory fades over time, becoming more schematic or abstract. The loss of contextual detail in memory may reflect a time-dependent change in the brain structures supporting memory. It has been well established that contextual fear memory relies on the hippocampus for expression shortly after learning, but it becomes hippocampus-independent at a later time point, a process called systems consolidation. This time-dependent process correlates with the loss of memory precision. Here, we investigated whether training intensity predicts the gradual decay of hippocampal dependency to retrieve memory, and the quality of the contextual memory representation over time. We have found that training intensity modulates the progressive decay of hippocampal dependency and memory precision. Strong training intensity accelerates systems consolidation and memory generalization in a remarkable timeframe match. The mechanisms underpinning such process are triggered by glucocorticoid and noradrenaline released during training. These results suggest that the stress levels during emotional learning act as a switch, determining the fate of memory quality. Moderate stress will create a detailed memory, whereas a highly stressful training will develop a generic gist-like memory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Repetition of previously novel melodies sometimes increases both remember and know responses in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, J M; Kaminska, Z; Dixon, M; Java, R I

    1996-09-01

    Recognition memory for previously novel melodies was tested in three experiments in which subjects usedremember andknow responses to report experiences of recollection, or of familiarity in the absence of recollection, for each melody they recognized. Some of the melodies were taken from Polish folk songs and presented vocally, but without the words. Others were taken from obscure pieces of classical music, presented as single-line melodies. Prior to the test, the melodies were repeated for varying numbers of study trials. Repetition of the Polish melodies increased both remember and know responses, while repetition of classical melodies increased remember but not know responses. When subjects were instructed to report guesses, guess responses were inversely related to remember and know responses and there were more guesses to lures than to targets. These findings establish that remembering and knowing are fully independent functionally and, by the same token, they provide further evidence against the idea that response exclusivity causes increases in remembering to force decreases in knowing. The findings also suggest that simultaneous increases in remembering and knowing occurred because the Polish melodies came from a genre for which the subjects had relatively little previous experience.

  15. Involvement of hippocampal NMDA receptors in encoding and consolidation, but not retrieval, processes of spontaneous object location memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuo; Arai, Misaki; Suenaga, Toshiko; Ichitani, Yukio

    2017-07-28

    The hippocampus is thought to be involved in object location recognition memory, yet the contribution of hippocampal NMDA receptors to the memory processes, such as encoding, retention and retrieval, is unknown. First, we confirmed that hippocampal infusion of a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5 (2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, 20-40nmol), impaired performance of spontaneous object location recognition test but not that of novel object recognition test in Wistar rats. Next, the effects of hippocampal AP5 treatment on each process of object location recognition memory were examined with three different injection times using a 120min delay-interposed test: 15min before the sample phase (Time I), immediately after the sample phase (Time II), and 15min before the test phase (Time III). The blockade of hippocampal NMDA receptors before and immediately after the sample phase, but not before the test phase, markedly impaired performance of object location recognition test, suggesting that hippocampal NMDA receptors play an important role in encoding and consolidation/retention, but not retrieval, of spontaneous object location memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond a mask and against the bottleneck: retroactive dual-task interference during working memory consolidation of a masked visual target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark; Wyble, Brad

    2014-06-01

    While studies on visual memory commonly assume that the consolidation of a visual stimulus into working memory is interrupted by a trailing mask, studies on dual-task interference suggest that the consolidation of a stimulus can continue for several hundred milliseconds after a mask. As a result, estimates of the time course of working memory consolidation differ more than an order of magnitude. Here, we contrasted these opposing views by examining if and for how long the processing of a masked display of visual stimuli can be disturbed by a trailing 2-alternative forced choice task (2-AFC; a color discrimination task or a visual or auditory parity judgment task). The results showed that the presence of the 2-AFC task produced a pronounced retroactive interference effect that dissipated across stimulus onset asynchronies of 250-1,000 ms, indicating that the processing elicited by the 2-AFC task interfered with the gradual consolidation of the earlier shown stimuli. Furthermore, this interference effect occurred regardless of whether the to-be-remembered stimuli comprised a string of letters or an unfamiliar complex visual shape, and it occurred regardless of whether these stimuli were masked. Conversely, the interference effect was reduced when the memory load for the 1st task was reduced, or when the 2nd task was a color detection task that did not require decision making. Taken together, these findings show that the formation of a durable and consciously accessible working memory trace for a briefly shown visual stimulus can be disturbed by a trailing 2-AFC task for up to several hundred milliseconds after the stimulus has been masked. By implication, the current findings challenge the common view that working memory consolidation involves an immutable central processing bottleneck, and they also make clear that consolidation does not stop when a stimulus is masked. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Chronic impairments in spatial learning and memory in rats previously exposed to chlorpyrfos or diisopropylfluorophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, A V; Beck, W D; Warner, S; Vandenhuerk, L; Callahan, P M

    2012-01-01

    The acute toxicity of organophosphates (OPs) has been studied extensively; however, much less attention has been given to the subject of repeated exposures that are not associated with overt signs of toxicity (i.e., subthreshold exposures). The objective of this study was to determine if the protracted spatial learning impairments we have observed previously after repeated subthreshold exposures to the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) or the alkylphosphate OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) persisted for longer periods after exposure. Male Wistar rats (beginning at two months of age) were initially injected subcutaneously with CPF (10.0 or 18.0mg/kg) or DFP (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg) every other day for 30 days. After an extended OP-free washout period (behavioral testing begun 50 days after the last OP exposure), rats previously exposed to CPF, but not DFP, were impaired in a radial arm maze (RAM) win-shift task as well as a delayed non-match to position procedure. Later experiments (i.e., beginning 140 days after the last OP exposure) revealed impairments in the acquisition of a water maze hidden platform task associated with both OPs. However, only rats previously exposed to DFP were impaired in a second phase of testing when the platform location was changed (indicative of deficits of cognitive flexibility). These results indicate, therefore, that repeated, subthreshold exposures to CPF and DFP may lead to chronic deficits in spatial learning and memory (i.e., long after cholinesterase inhibition has abated) and that insecticide and alkylphosphate-based OPs may have differential effects depending on the cognitive domain evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of cold narcosis on memory acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Yan-Mei; FU, Yu; HE, Jing; WANG, Jian-Hong

    2014-01-01

    In learning and memory studies on honeybees (Apis mellifera), cold-induced narcosis has been widely used to temporarily immobilize honeybees. In this study, we investigated the effects of cold narcosis on the associative memories in honeybees by using the proboscis extension response (PER) paradigm. Severeimpairments in memory acquisitionwas found when cold narcosis was performed 30 min, instead of 1 h before training. Locomotor activities were reduced when honeybees were tested 15 min, inste...

  19. Ganzfeld stimulation or sleep enhance long term motor memory consolidation compared to normal viewing in saccadic adaptation paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Voges

    Full Text Available Adaptation of saccade amplitude in response to intra-saccadic target displacement is a type of implicit motor learning which is required to compensate for physiological changes in saccade performance. Once established trials without intra-saccadic target displacement lead to de-adaptation or extinction, which has been attributed either to extra-retinal mechanisms of spatial constancy or to the influence of the stable visual surroundings. Therefore we investigated whether visual deprivation ("Ganzfeld"-stimulation or sleep can partially maintain this motor learning compared to free viewing of the natural surroundings. Thirty-five healthy volunteers performed two adaptation blocks of 100 inward adaptation trials - interspersed by an extinction block - which were followed by a two-hour break with or without visual deprivation (VD. Using additional adaptation and extinction blocks short and long (4 weeks term memory of this implicit motor learning were tested. In the short term, motor memory tested immediately after free viewing was superior to adaptation performance after VD. In the long run, however, effects were opposite: motor memory and relearning of adaptation was superior in the VD conditions. This could imply independent mechanisms that underlie the short-term ability of retrieving learned saccadic gain and its long term consolidation. We suggest that subjects mainly rely on visual cues (i.e., retinal error in the free viewing condition which makes them prone to changes of the visual stimulus in the extinction block. This indicates the role of a stable visual array for resetting adapted saccade amplitudes. In contrast, visual deprivation (GS and sleep, might train subjects to rely on extra-retinal cues, e.g., efference copy or prediction to remap their internal representations of saccade targets, thus leading to better consolidation of saccadic adaptation.

  20. Ganzfeld stimulation or sleep enhance long term motor memory consolidation compared to normal viewing in saccadic adaptation paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, Caroline; Helmchen, Christoph; Heide, Wolfgang; Sprenger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation of saccade amplitude in response to intra-saccadic target displacement is a type of implicit motor learning which is required to compensate for physiological changes in saccade performance. Once established trials without intra-saccadic target displacement lead to de-adaptation or extinction, which has been attributed either to extra-retinal mechanisms of spatial constancy or to the influence of the stable visual surroundings. Therefore we investigated whether visual deprivation ("Ganzfeld"-stimulation or sleep) can partially maintain this motor learning compared to free viewing of the natural surroundings. Thirty-five healthy volunteers performed two adaptation blocks of 100 inward adaptation trials - interspersed by an extinction block - which were followed by a two-hour break with or without visual deprivation (VD). Using additional adaptation and extinction blocks short and long (4 weeks) term memory of this implicit motor learning were tested. In the short term, motor memory tested immediately after free viewing was superior to adaptation performance after VD. In the long run, however, effects were opposite: motor memory and relearning of adaptation was superior in the VD conditions. This could imply independent mechanisms that underlie the short-term ability of retrieving learned saccadic gain and its long term consolidation. We suggest that subjects mainly rely on visual cues (i.e., retinal error) in the free viewing condition which makes them prone to changes of the visual stimulus in the extinction block. This indicates the role of a stable visual array for resetting adapted saccade amplitudes. In contrast, visual deprivation (GS and sleep), might train subjects to rely on extra-retinal cues, e.g., efference copy or prediction to remap their internal representations of saccade targets, thus leading to better consolidation of saccadic adaptation.

  1. Intra-cerebellar microinjection of histamine enhances memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance learning in mice via H2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianlorenço, A C L; Canto-de-Souza, A; Mattioli, R

    2013-12-17

    Studies have demonstrated the relationship between the histaminergic system and the cerebellum, and we intend to investigate the role of the cerebellar histaminergic system on memory consolidation. This study investigated the effect of intra-cerebellar microinjection of histamine on memory retention of inhibitory avoidance in mice, and the role of H1 and H2 receptors in it. The cerebellar vermis of male mice were implanted with guide cannulae, and after three days of recovery, the inhibitory avoidance test was performed. Immediately after a training session, animals received a microinjection of histaminergic drugs: in the experiment 1, saline (SAL) or histamine (HA 0.54, 1.36, 2.72 or 4.07 nmol); experiment 2, SAL or 1.36 nmol HA 5 min after a pretreatment with 0.16 nmol chlorpheniramine (CPA) or SAL; and experiment 3, SAL or 1.36 nmol HA 5 min after a pretreatment with 2.85 nmol ranitidine (RA) or SAL. Twenty-four hours later, a retention test was performed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's tests. In experiment 1, animals microinjected with 1.36 nmol HA showed a higher latency to cross to the dark compartment compared to controls and to 2.72 and 4.07 nmol HA groups. In experiment 2, the combined infusions revealed difference between control (SAL+SAL) and SAL+HA and CPA+HA; while in the experiment 3 the analysis indicated differences in retention latency between mice injected with SAL+SAL and SAL+HA. The groups that received the H2 antagonist RA did not show difference compared to control. These results indicate that 1.36 nmol HA enhances memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance learning in mice and that the pretreatment with H2 antagonist RA was able to prevent this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. No effects of slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Torsten; Dorn, Hans; Sauter, Cornelia; Nitsche, Michael A; Bajbouj, Malek; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2013-11-01

    Studies in young healthy volunteers provided evidence of a beneficial impact of an anodal time-varied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during early slow wave rich sleep on declarative memory but not on procedural memory. The present study investigated whether sleep-dependent memory consolidation can also be affected by slow oscillating tDCS in a population of elderly subjects. 26 subjects (69.1 years ± 7.7 years) received bi-frontal anodal stimulation (max. current density: 0.331 mA/cm(2)) during early NREM sleep in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized crossover study. Stimulation effects on offline consolidation were tested by using a declarative and a procedural memory task. Furthermore, sleep stages were scored, EEG power was analyzed and spindle densities were assessed. Independently from stimulation condition, performance in both memory tasks significantly decreased overnight. Stimulation revealed no significant effect on sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Verum tDCS was accompanied by significantly more time awake and significantly less NREM stage 3 sleep during five 1-min stimulation free intervals. The results of the present study are in line with other studies showing that offline consolidation during sleep varies with age and is less pronounced in the elderly than in young or middle-aged subjects. Contrary to an almost identical positive study in young adults, slow oscillatory tDCS applied to the elderly failed to show a beneficial effect on memory consolidation in the present study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The timing of learning before night-time sleep differentially affects declarative and procedural long-term memory consolidation in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Holz

    Full Text Available Sleep after learning has been shown to foster the consolidation of new memories. However, fundamental questions on the best timing of learning before night-time sleep persist. We tested the hypothesis that learning directly prior to night-time sleep compared to 7.5 hrs prior to night-time sleep provides better conditions for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories. Fifty healthy female adolescents (aged 16-17 years were trained on a declarative word-pair and a procedural finger-tapping task at 3 pm (afternoon group, n = 25 or at 9 pm (evening group, n = 25, followed by a sleep laboratory night. Retrieval was assessed 24 hours and 7 days after initial training. Subjects trained in the afternoon showed a significantly elevated retention rate of word-pairs compared to subjects trained in the evening after 24 hours, but not after 7 days. In contrast, off-line gains in finger-tapping performance were significantly higher in subjects trained in the evening compared to those trained in the afternoon after both retention intervals. The observed enhanced consolidation of procedural memories after training in the evening fits to current models of sleep-related memory consolidation. In contrast, the higher retention of declarative memories after encoding in the afternoon is surprising, appeared to be less robust and needs further investigation.

  4. The timing of learning before night-time sleep differentially affects declarative and procedural long-term memory consolidation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Johannes; Piosczyk, Hannah; Landmann, Nina; Feige, Bernd; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Sleep after learning has been shown to foster the consolidation of new memories. However, fundamental questions on the best timing of learning before night-time sleep persist. We tested the hypothesis that learning directly prior to night-time sleep compared to 7.5 hrs prior to night-time sleep provides better conditions for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories. Fifty healthy female adolescents (aged 16-17 years) were trained on a declarative word-pair and a procedural finger-tapping task at 3 pm (afternoon group, n = 25) or at 9 pm (evening group, n = 25), followed by a sleep laboratory night. Retrieval was assessed 24 hours and 7 days after initial training. Subjects trained in the afternoon showed a significantly elevated retention rate of word-pairs compared to subjects trained in the evening after 24 hours, but not after 7 days. In contrast, off-line gains in finger-tapping performance were significantly higher in subjects trained in the evening compared to those trained in the afternoon after both retention intervals. The observed enhanced consolidation of procedural memories after training in the evening fits to current models of sleep-related memory consolidation. In contrast, the higher retention of declarative memories after encoding in the afternoon is surprising, appeared to be less robust and needs further investigation.

  5. The association between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive function in older people with previous major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Shiang Chu

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate associations between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive performance in older people with previous major depression-a high-risk sample for cognitive impairment and later dementia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in people aged 60 or over with previous major depression but not fulfilling current major depression criteria according to DSM-IV-TR. People with dementia or Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 17 were excluded. Subjective memory complaint was defined on the basis of a score ≧4 on the subscale of Geriatric Mental State schedule, a maximum score of 8. Older people aged equal or over 60 without any psychiatric diagnosis were enrolled as healthy controls. Cognitive function was evaluated using a series of cognitive tests assessing verbal memory, attention/speed, visuospatial function, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility in all participants. One hundred and thirteen older people with previous major depression and forty-six healthy controls were enrolled. Subjective memory complaint was present in more than half of the participants with depression history (55.8%. Among those with major depression history, subjective memory complaint was associated with lower total immediate recall and delayed verbal recall scores after adjustment. The associations between subjective memory complaint and worse memory performance were stronger in participants with lower depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score<7. The results suggest subjective memory complaint may be a valid appraisal of memory performance in older people with previous major depression and consideration should be given to more proactive assessment and follow-up in these clinical samples.

  6. Memory Consolidation within the Central Amygdala Is Not Necessary for Modulation of Cerebellar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Adam B.; Ng, Ka H.; Freeman, John H.

    2017-01-01

    Amygdala lesions impair, but do not prevent, acquisition of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning suggesting that the amygdala modulates cerebellar learning. Two-factor theories of eyeblink conditioning posit that a fast-developing memory within the amygdala facilitates slower-developing memory within the cerebellum. The current study tested…

  7. Visual working memory supports the inhibition of previously processed information: evidence from preview search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen M; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay

    2012-06-01

    In four experiments we assessed whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains a record of previously processed visual information, allowing old information to be inhibited, and new information to be prioritized. Specifically, we evaluated whether VWM contributes to the inhibition (i.e., visual marking) of previewed distractors in a preview search. We evaluated this proposal by testing three predictions. First, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that preview inhibition is more effective when the number of previewed distractors is below VWM capacity than above; an effect that can only be observed at small preview set sizes (Experiment 2A) and when observers are allowed to move their eyes freely (Experiment 2B). Second, Experiment 3 shows that, when quantified as the number of inhibited distractors, the magnitude of the preview effect is stable across different search difficulties. Third, Experiment 4 demonstrates that individual differences in preview inhibition are correlated with individual differences in VWM capacity. These findings provide converging evidence that VWM supports the inhibition of previewed distractors. More generally, these findings demonstrate how VWM contributes to the efficiency of human visual information processing--VWM prioritizes new information by inhibiting old information from being reselected for attention.

  8. Effects of cold narcosis on memory acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Mei; Fu, Yu; He, Jing; Wang, Jian-Hong

    2014-03-01

    In learning and memory studies on honeybees (Apis mellifera), cold-induced narcosis has been widely used to temporarily immobilize honeybees. In this study, we investigated the effects of cold narcosis on the associative memories in honeybees by using the proboscis extension response (PER) paradigm. Severe impairments in memory acquisition was found when cold narcosis was performed 30 min, instead of 1 h before training. Locomotor activities were reduced when honeybees were tested 15 min, instead of 30 min after cold narcosis. These results indicate that cold narcosis impairs locomotor activities, as well as memory acquisition in a time-dependent manner, but by comparison no such effects on memory retrieval have yet been observed.[0].

  9. Delayed intrinsic activation of an NMDA-independent CaM-kinase II in a critical time window is necessary for late consolidation of an associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Huimin; Mackay, Beth; Iqbal, Hassan; Naskar, Souvik; Kemenes, György

    2010-01-06

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaM-kinases) are central to various forms of long-term memory (LTM) in a number of evolutionarily diverse organisms. However, it is still largely unknown what contributions specific CaM-kinases make to different phases of the same specific type of memory, such as acquisition, or early, intermediate, and late consolidation of associative LTM after classical conditioning. Here, we investigated the involvement of CaM-kinase II (CaMKII) in different phases of associative LTM induced by single-trial reward classical conditioning in Lymnaea, a well established invertebrate experimental system for studying molecular mechanisms of learning and memory. First, by using a general CaM-kinase inhibitor, KN-62, we found that CaM-kinase activation was necessary for acquisition and late consolidation, but not early or intermediate consolidation or retrieval of LTM. Then, we used Western blot-based phosphorylation assays and treatment with CaMKIINtide to identify CaMKII as the main CaM-kinase, the intrinsic activation of which, in a critical time window ( approximately 24 h after learning), is central to late consolidation of LTM. Additionally, using MK-801 and CaMKIINtide we found that acquisition was dependent on both NMDA receptor and CaMKII activation. However, unlike acquisition, CaMKII-dependent late memory consolidation does not require the activation of NMDA receptors. Our new findings support the notion that even apparently stable memory traces may undergo further molecular changes and identify NMDA-independent intrinsic activation of CaMKII as a mechanism underlying this "lingering consolidation." This process may facilitate the preservation of LTM in the face of protein turnover or active molecular processes that underlie forgetting.

  10. Increased entorhinal-prefrontal theta synchronization parallels decreased entorhinal-hippocampal theta synchronization during learning and consolidation of associative memory.

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    Kaori eTakehara-Nishiuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Memories are thought to be encoded as a distributed representation in the neocortex. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC has been shown to support the expression of memories that initially depend on the hippocampus (HPC, yet the mechanisms by which the HPC and mPFC access the distributed representations in the neocortex are unknown. By measuring phase synchronization of local field potential (LFP oscillations, we found that learning initiated changes in neuronal communication of the HPC and mPFC with the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC, an area that is connected with many other neocortical regions. LFPs were recorded simultaneously from the three brain regions while rats formed an association between an auditory stimulus (CS and eyelid stimulation (US in a trace eyeblink conditioning paradigm, as well as during retention one month following learning. Over the course of learning, theta oscillations in the LEC and mPFC became strongly synchronized following the presentation of the CS on trials in which rats exhibited a conditioned response (CR, and this strengthened synchronization was also observed during retention one month after learning. In contrast, CS-evoked theta synchronization between the LEC and HPC decreased with learning. Our results suggest that the communication between the LEC and mPFC is strengthened with learning whereas the communication between the LEC and HPC is concomitantly weakened, suggesting that enhanced LEC-mPFC communication may be a key process for theoretically-proposed neocortical reorganization accompanying encoding and consolidation of a memory.

  11. The effect of food quality during growth on spatial memory consolidation in adult pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, M F; Gasparini, J; Jacquin, L; Mettke-Hofmann, C; Rattenborg, N C; Roulin, A

    2017-02-15

    Poor environmental conditions experienced during early development can have negative long-term consequences on fitness. Animals can compensate for negative developmental effects through phenotypic plasticity by diverting resources from non-vital to vital traits such as spatial memory to enhance foraging efficiency. We tested in young feral pigeons ( Columba livia ) how diets of different nutritional value during development affect the capacity to retrieve food hidden in a spatially complex environment, a process we refer to as 'spatial memory'. Parents were fed with either high- or low-quality food from egg laying until young fledged, after which all young pigeons received the same high-quality diet until memory performance was tested at 6 months of age. The pigeons were trained to learn a food location out of 18 possible locations in one session, and then their memory of this location was tested 24 h later. Birds reared with the low-quality diet made fewer errors in the memory test. These results demonstrate that food quality during development has long-lasting effects on memory, with a moderate nutritional deficit improving spatial memory performance in a foraging context. It might be that under poor feeding conditions resources are redirected from non-vital to vital traits, or pigeons raised with low-quality food might be better in using environmental cues such as the position of the sun to find where food was hidden. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Intrahippocampal injection of Cortistatin-14 impairs recognition memory consolidation in mice through activation of sst2, ghrelin and GABAA/Breceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinhong; Peng, Yali; He, Zhen; Wei, Lijuan; Jin, Weidong; Wang, Xiaoli; Chang, Min

    2017-07-01

    Cortistatin-14 (CST-14), a neuropeptide related to somatostatin, is primarily localized within the cortex and hippocampus. In the hippocampus, CST-14 inhibits CA1 neuronal pyramidal cell firing and co-exists with GABA. However, its role in cognitive is still not clarified. The first aim of our study was to elucidate the role of CST-14 signaling in consolidation and reconsolidation of recognition memory in mice, using novel object recognition task. The results showed that central CST-14 induced in impairment of long-term and short-term recognition memory, indicating memory consolidation impairment effect. Similarly, we found that CST-14 did not impaired long-term and short-term reconsolidation recognition memory. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms of CST-14 in memory process, we used cyclosomatostatin (c-SOM, a selective sst 1-5 receptor antagonist), cyanamid154806 (a selective sst 2 receptor antagonist), ODN-8 (a high affinity and selectivity compound for sst 3 receptor), [d-Lys 3 ]GHRP-6 (a selective ghrelin receptor antagonist), picrotoxin (PTX, a GABA A receptor antagonist), and sacolfen (a GABA B receptor antagonist) to research its effects in recognition. Our results firstly indicated that the memory-impairing effects of CST-14 were significantly reversed by c-SOM, cyanamid154806, [d-Lys 3 ]GHRP-6, PTX and sacolfen, but not ODN-8, suggesting that the blockage of recognition memory consolidation induced by CST-14 involves sst 2 , ghrelin and GABA system. The present study provides a potential strategy to regulate memory processes, providing new evidence that reconsolidation is not a simple reiteration of consolidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity

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    Médhi Gilson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24 listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.

  14. Increased cortico-striatal connectivity during motor practice contributes to the consolidation of motor memory in writer's cramp patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gallea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor representations of movements are created in the sensorimotor network through repeated practice to support successful and effortless performance. Writer's cramp (WC is a disorder acquired through extensive practice of finger movements, and it is likely associated with the abnormal acquisition of sensorimotor representations. We investigated (i the activation and connectivity changes in the brain network supporting the acquisition of sensorimotor representations of finger sequences in patients with WC and (ii the link between these changes and consolidation of motor performance 24 h after the initial practice. Twenty-two patients with WC and 22 age-matched healthy volunteers practiced a complex sequence with the right (pathological hand during functional MRI recording. Speed and accuracy were measured immediately before and after practice (day 1 and 24 h after practice (day 2. The two groups reached equivalent motor performance on day 1 and day 2. During motor practice, patients with WC had (i reduced hippocampal activation and hippocampal–striatal functional connectivity; and (ii overactivation of premotor–striatal areas, whose connectivity correlated with motor performance after consolidation. These results suggest that patients with WC use alternative networks to reach equiperformance in the acquisition of new motor memories.

  15. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Médhi; Deliens, Gaétane; Leproult, Rachel; Bodart, Alice; Nonclercq, Antoine; Ercek, Rudy; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24) listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min) morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min) morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term. PMID:26729175

  16. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Médhi; Deliens, Gaétane; Leproult, Rachel; Bodart, Alice; Nonclercq, Antoine; Ercek, Rudy; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-29

    Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24) listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min) morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min) morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.

  17. Learning and sleep-dependent consolidation of spatial and procedural memories are unaltered in young men under a fixed short sleep schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Sand, Filip; Liethof, Lisanne; Lampola, Lauri; Hassanzadeh, Sara; Axelsson, Emil K; Yeganeh, Adine; Ros, Olof; Broman, Jan-Erik; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2016-05-01

    To investigate if a fixed short sleep schedule impairs one of the main functions of sleep, which is to consolidate newly learned memories. Sixteen young men participated in two experimental conditions, each of which lasted for 3 consecutive days and nights in our laboratory: a short sleep schedule (4.25-h sleep opportunity per night) versus a normal sleep schedule (8.5h per night). In the evening after two experimental nights, participants learned locations of 15 card pairs (spatial memory task) and a procedural finger tapping sequence task. Post-sleep retrieval of both memory tasks was tested the next morning. The short sleep schedule, compared with the normal sleep schedule, considerably altered sleep characteristics, e.g. the proportion of time in slow-wave sleep increased across the three experimental nights. In contrast, neither learning in the evening of day 2, nor subsequent overnight memory consolidation (i.e. concerning the change in memory performance between pre-sleep learning on day 2 and post-sleep retrieval on day 3) differed between the normal and short sleep schedule conditions. Our findings suggest that learning in the evening and subsequent sleep-dependent consolidation of procedural and spatial memories are unaltered in young men living under a fixed short sleep schedule. Future studies are warranted to validate our findings in other groups (e.g. adolescents and older subjects) and after more prolonged chronic sleep loss paradigms. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists, microinjected into cerebellar vermis, on emotional memory consolidation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.L. Gianlorenco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of histamine H1 or H2 receptor antagonists on emotional memory consolidation in mice submitted to the elevated plus maze (EPM. The cerebellar vermis of male mice (Swiss albino was implanted using a cannula guide. Three days after recovery, behavioral tests were performed in the EPM on 2 consecutive days (T1 and T2. Immediately after exposure to the EPM (T1, animals received a microinjection of saline (SAL or the H1 antagonist chlorpheniramine (CPA; 0.016, 0.052, or 0.16 nmol/0.1 µL in Experiment 1, and SAL or the H2 antagonist ranitidine (RA; 0.57, 2.85, or 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL in Experiment 2. Twenty-four hours later, mice were reexposed to the EPM (T2 under the same experimental conditions but they did not receive any injection. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Duncan test. In Experiment 1, mice microinjected with SAL and with CPA entered the open arms less often (%OAE and spent less time in the open arms (%OAT in T2, and there was no difference among groups. The results of Experiment 2 demonstrated that the values of %OAE and %OAT in T2 were lower compared to T1 for the groups that were microinjected with SAL and 2.85 nmol/0.1 µL RA. However, when animals were microinjected with 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA, they did not show a reduction in %OAE and %OAT. These results demonstrate that CPA did not affect behavior at the doses used in this study, while 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA induced impairment of memory consolidation in the EPM.

  19. Effect of histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists, microinjected into cerebellar vermis, on emotional memory consolidation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianlorenço, A.C.L.; Serafim, K.R.; Canto-de-Souza, A.; Mattioli, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of histamine H1 or H2 receptor antagonists on emotional memory consolidation in mice submitted to the elevated plus maze (EPM). The cerebellar vermis of male mice (Swiss albino) was implanted using a cannula guide. Three days after recovery, behavioral tests were performed in the EPM on 2 consecutive days (T1 and T2). Immediately after exposure to the EPM (T1), animals received a microinjection of saline (SAL) or the H1 antagonist chlorpheniramine (CPA; 0.016, 0.052, or 0.16 nmol/0.1 µL) in Experiment 1, and SAL or the H2 antagonist ranitidine (RA; 0.57, 2.85, or 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL) in Experiment 2. Twenty-four hours later, mice were reexposed to the EPM (T2) under the same experimental conditions but they did not receive any injection. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Duncan test. In Experiment 1, mice microinjected with SAL and with CPA entered the open arms less often (%OAE) and spent less time in the open arms (%OAT) in T2, and there was no difference among groups. The results of Experiment 2 demonstrated that the values of %OAE and %OAT in T2 were lower compared to T1 for the groups that were microinjected with SAL and 2.85 nmol/0.1 µL RA. However, when animals were microinjected with 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA, they did not show a reduction in %OAE and %OAT. These results demonstrate that CPA did not affect behavior at the doses used in this study, while 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA induced impairment of memory consolidation in the EPM

  20. Effect of histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists, microinjected into cerebellar vermis, on emotional memory consolidation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianlorenço, A.C.L.; Serafim, K.R. [Laboratório de Neurociências, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociências, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Canto-de-Souza, A. [Laboratório de Psicologia da Aprendizagem, Departamento de Psicologia, Centro de Educação e Ciências Humanas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Psicologia da Aprendizagem, Departamento de Psicologia, Centro de Educação e Ciências Humanas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Neurociências e Comportamento, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Instituto de Neurociências e Comportamento, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Mattioli, R. [Laboratório de Neurociências, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociências, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-17

    This study investigated the effects of histamine H1 or H2 receptor antagonists on emotional memory consolidation in mice submitted to the elevated plus maze (EPM). The cerebellar vermis of male mice (Swiss albino) was implanted using a cannula guide. Three days after recovery, behavioral tests were performed in the EPM on 2 consecutive days (T1 and T2). Immediately after exposure to the EPM (T1), animals received a microinjection of saline (SAL) or the H1 antagonist chlorpheniramine (CPA; 0.016, 0.052, or 0.16 nmol/0.1 µL) in Experiment 1, and SAL or the H2 antagonist ranitidine (RA; 0.57, 2.85, or 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL) in Experiment 2. Twenty-four hours later, mice were reexposed to the EPM (T2) under the same experimental conditions but they did not receive any injection. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Duncan test. In Experiment 1, mice microinjected with SAL and with CPA entered the open arms less often (%OAE) and spent less time in the open arms (%OAT) in T2, and there was no difference among groups. The results of Experiment 2 demonstrated that the values of %OAE and %OAT in T2 were lower compared to T1 for the groups that were microinjected with SAL and 2.85 nmol/0.1 µL RA. However, when animals were microinjected with 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA, they did not show a reduction in %OAE and %OAT. These results demonstrate that CPA did not affect behavior at the doses used in this study, while 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA induced impairment of memory consolidation in the EPM.

  1. Noradrenergic actions in the basolateral complex of the amygdala modulate Arc expression in hippocampal synapses and consolidation of aversive and non-aversive memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Jayme R.; Anderson, Kelly M.; Donowho, Kyle M.; McIntyre, Christa K.

    2014-01-01

    The basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) plays a role in the modulation of emotional memory consolidation through its interactions with other brain regions. In rats, memory enhancing infusions of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist clenbuterol into the BLA immediately after training enhances expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene Arc in the dorsal hippocampus and memory-impairing intra-BLA treatments reduce hippocampal Arc expression. We have proposed that the BLA may modulate memory consolidation through an influence on the local translation of synaptic plasticity proteins, like Arc, in recently active synapses in efferent brain regions. To date, all work related to this hypothesis is based on aversive memory tasks such as inhibitory avoidance (IA). To determine whether BLA modulation of hippocampal Arc protein expression is specific to plasticity associated with inhibitory avoidance memory, or a common mechanism for multiple types of memory, we tested the effect of intra-BLA infusions of clenbuterol on memory and hippocampal synaptic Arc expression following IA or object recognition training. Results indicate that intra-BLA infusions of clenbuterol enhance memory for both tasks; however, Arc expression in hippocampal synaptoneurosomes was significantly elevated only in rats trained on the aversive IA task. These findings suggest that regulation of Arc expression in hippocampal synapses may depend on co-activation of arousal systems. To test this hypothesis, a “high arousal” version of the OR task was used where rats were not habituated to the testing conditions. Posttraining intra-BLA infusions of clenbuterol enhanced consolidation of the high-arousing version of the task and significantly increased Arc protein levels in dorsal hippocampus synaptic fractions. These findings suggest that the BLA modulates multiple forms of memory and affects the synaptic plasticity-associated protein Arc in synapses of the dorsal hippocampus when

  2. Amyloid β Enhances Typical Rodent Behavior While It Impairs Contextual Memory Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Salgado-Puga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with an early hippocampal dysfunction, which is likely induced by an increase in soluble amyloid beta peptide (Aβ. This hippocampal failure contributes to the initial memory deficits observed both in patients and in AD animal models and possibly to the deterioration in activities of daily living (ADL. One typical rodent behavior that has been proposed as a hippocampus-dependent assessment model of ADL in mice and rats is burrowing. Despite the fact that AD transgenic mice show some evidence of reduced burrowing, it has not been yet determined whether or not Aβ can affect this typical rodent behavior and whether this alteration correlates with the well-known Aβ-induced memory impairment. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test whether or not Aβ affects burrowing while inducing hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Surprisingly, our results show that intrahippocampal application of Aβ increases burrowing while inducing memory impairment. We consider that this Aβ-induced increase in burrowing might be associated with a mild anxiety state, which was revealed by increased freezing behavior in the open field, and conclude that Aβ-induced hippocampal dysfunction is reflected in the impairment of ADL and memory, through mechanisms yet to be determined.

  3. Differential Effects of Inactivation of Discrete Regions of Medial Prefrontal Cortex on Memory Consolidation of Moderate and Intense Inhibitory Avoidance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Torres-García

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is involved in memory encoding of aversive events, such as inhibitory avoidance (IA training. Dissociable roles have been described for different mPFC subregions regarding various memory processes, wherein the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, prelimbic cortex (PL, and infralimbic cortex (IL are involved in acquisition, retrieval, and extinction of aversive events, respectively. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that intense training impedes the effects on memory of treatments that typically interfere with memory consolidation. The aim of this work was to determine if there are differential effects on memory induced by reversible inactivation of neural activity of ACC, PL, or IL produced by tetrodotoxin (TTX in rats trained in IA using moderate (1.0 mA and intense (3.0 mA foot-shocks. We found that inactivation of ACC has no effects on memory consolidation, regardless of intensity of training. PL inactivation impairs memory consolidation in the 1.0 mA group, while no effect on consolidation was produced in the 3.0 mA group. In the case of IL, a remarkable amnestic effect in LTM was observed in both training conditions. However, state-dependency can explain the amnestic effect of TTX found in the 3.0 mA IL group. In order to circumvent this effect, TTX was injected into IL immediately after training (thus avoiding state-dependency. The behavioral results are equivalent to those found after PL inactivation. Therefore, these findings provide evidence that PL and IL, but not ACC, mediate LTM of IA only in moderate training.

  4. Characterization of the beta amyloid precursor protein-like gene in the central nervous system of the crab Chasmagnathus. Expression during memory consolidation

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    Fustiñana Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human β-amyloid, the main component in the neuritic plaques found in patients with Alzheimer's disease, is generated by cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein. Beyond the role in pathology, members of this protein family are synaptic proteins and have been associated with synaptogenesis, neuronal plasticity and memory, both in vertebrates and in invertebrates. Consolidation is necessary to convert a short-term labile memory to a long-term and stable form. During consolidation, gene expression and de novo protein synthesis are regulated in order to produce key proteins for the maintenance of plastic changes produced during the acquisition of new information. Results Here we partially cloned and sequenced the beta-amyloid precursor protein like gene homologue in the crab Chasmagnathus (cappl, showing a 37% of identity with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster homologue and 23% with Homo sapiens but with much higher degree of sequence similarity in certain regions. We observed a wide distribution of cappl mRNA in the nervous system as well as in muscle and gills. The protein localized in all tissues analyzed with the exception of muscle. Immunofluorescence revealed localization of cAPPL in associative and sensory brain areas. We studied gene and protein expression during long-term memory consolidation using a well characterized memory model: the context-signal associative memory in this crab species. mRNA levels varied at different time points during long-term memory consolidation and correlated with cAPPL protein levels Conclusions cAPPL mRNA and protein is widely distributed in the central nervous system of the crab and the time course of expression suggests a role of cAPPL during long-term memory formation.

  5. Characterization of the beta amyloid precursor protein-like gene in the central nervous system of the crab Chasmagnathus. Expression during memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustiñana, Maria Sol; Ariel, Pablo; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Romano, Arturo

    2010-09-01

    Human β-amyloid, the main component in the neuritic plaques found in patients with Alzheimer's disease, is generated by cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein. Beyond the role in pathology, members of this protein family are synaptic proteins and have been associated with synaptogenesis, neuronal plasticity and memory, both in vertebrates and in invertebrates. Consolidation is necessary to convert a short-term labile memory to a long-term and stable form. During consolidation, gene expression and de novo protein synthesis are regulated in order to produce key proteins for the maintenance of plastic changes produced during the acquisition of new information. Here we partially cloned and sequenced the beta-amyloid precursor protein like gene homologue in the crab Chasmagnathus (cappl), showing a 37% of identity with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster homologue and 23% with Homo sapiens but with much higher degree of sequence similarity in certain regions. We observed a wide distribution of cappl mRNA in the nervous system as well as in muscle and gills. The protein localized in all tissues analyzed with the exception of muscle. Immunofluorescence revealed localization of cAPPL in associative and sensory brain areas. We studied gene and protein expression during long-term memory consolidation using a well characterized memory model: the context-signal associative memory in this crab species. mRNA levels varied at different time points during long-term memory consolidation and correlated with cAPPL protein levels cAPPL mRNA and protein is widely distributed in the central nervous system of the crab and the time course of expression suggests a role of cAPPL during long-term memory formation.

  6. Effects of phase-locked acoustic stimulation during a nap on EEG spectra and declarative memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ju Lynn; Lo, June C; Chee, Nicholas I Y N; Santostasi, Giovanni; Paller, Ken A; Zee, Phyllis C; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic stimulation synchronized to slow waves (SWs) can enhance these sleep features and facilitate memory consolidation during nocturnal sleep. Here, we investigated whether a similar benefit could be accrued following stimulation during an afternoon nap. We also evaluated the event-related dynamics of associated EEG spectral changes and their correlation with memory performance. Sixteen healthy young adults (mean age: 22 ± 1.4 years; nine males) were studied under two conditions: stimulation (STIM) and no stimulation (SHAM), in counter-balanced order. In the STIM condition, acoustic stimulation was delivered using blocks of five tones, each phase-locked to the SW up-state during a 90-min nap opportunity. In the SHAM condition, these time points were marked, but tones were not presented. Prior to the nap, participants learned 40 semantically related word pairs and immediate recall was tested. A delayed recall test was administered 45 min after awakening. Compared to the SHAM condition, acoustic stimulation increased SW amplitude, theta, and fast spindle activity and attenuated the forgetting of word pairs (p values nap. This can be achieved by stimulation in Stage 2 and SWS without a requirement for high-amplitude slow wave detection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-hemispheric Alternating Current Stimulation During a Nap Disrupts Slow Wave Activity and Associated Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garside, Peter; Arizpe, Joseph; Lau, Chi-Ieong; Goh, Crystal; Walsh, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Slow Wave Activity (SWA), the low frequency (nap however. We applied transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) - which, with a cross-hemispheric electrode montage (F3 and F4 - International 10:20 EEG system), is able to disrupt brain oscillations-to determine if disruption of low frequency oscillation generation during afternoon nap is causally related to disruption in declarative memory consolidation. Eight human subjects each participated in stimulation and sham nap sessions. A verbal paired associate learning (PAL) task measured memory changes. During each nap period, five 5-min stimulation (0.75 Hz cross-hemispheric frontal tACS) or sham intervals were applied with 1-min post-stimulation intervals (PSI's). Spectral EEG power for Slow (0.7-0.8 Hz), Delta (1.0-4.0 Hz), Theta (4.0-8.0 Hz), Alpha (8.0-12.0 Hz), and Spindle-range (12.0-14.0) frequencies was analyzed during the 1-min preceding the onset of stimulation and the 1-min PSI's. As hypothesized, power reduction due to stimulation positively correlated with reduction in word-pair recall post-nap specifically for Slow (P nap. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Neural markers of memory consolidation do not predict temporal estimates of encoded items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damsma, Atser; van der Mijn, Wilmar; van Rijn, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to the paradigms used in most laboratory experiments on interval timing, everyday tasks often involve the continuous tracking of multiple intervals without an explicit starting signal. A potential explanation of this capacity is that time perception and working memory encoding are

  9. Time-resolved neuroimaging of visual short term memory consolidation by post-perceptual attention shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Marcus; Thiemann, Ulf; Freitag, Christine M; Bender, Stephan

    2016-01-15

    Post-perceptual cues can enhance visual short term memory encoding even after the offset of the visual stimulus. However, both the mechanisms by which the sensory stimulus characteristics are buffered as well as the mechanisms by which post-perceptual selective attention enhances short term memory encoding remain unclear. We analyzed late post-perceptual event-related potentials (ERPs) in visual change detection tasks (100ms stimulus duration) by high-resolution ERP analysis to elucidate these mechanisms. The effects of early and late auditory post-cues (300ms or 850ms after visual stimulus onset) as well as the effects of a visual interference stimulus were examined in 27 healthy right-handed adults. Focusing attention with post-perceptual cues at both latencies significantly improved memory performance, i.e. sensory stimulus characteristics were available for up to 850ms after stimulus presentation. Passive watching of the visual stimuli without auditory cue presentation evoked a slow negative wave (N700) over occipito-temporal visual areas. N700 was strongly reduced by a visual interference stimulus which impeded memory maintenance. In contrast, contralateral delay activity (CDA) still developed in this condition after the application of auditory post-cues and was thereby dissociated from N700. CDA and N700 seem to represent two different processes involved in short term memory encoding. While N700 could reflect visual post processing by automatic attention attraction, CDA may reflect the top-down process of searching selectively for the required information through post-perceptual attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Benefits of Targeted Memory Reactivation for Consolidation in Sleep are Contingent on Memory Accuracy and Direct Cue-Memory Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, Scott A; Lindsay, Shane; Sobczak, Justyna M; Paller, Ken A; Gaskell, M Gareth

    2016-05-01

    To investigate how the effects of targeted memory reactivation (TMR) are influenced by memory accuracy prior to sleep and the presence or absence of direct cue-memory associations. 30 participants associated each of 50 pictures with an unrelated word and then with a screen location in two separate tasks. During picture-location training, each picture was also presented with a semantically related sound. The sounds were therefore directly associated with the picture locations but indirectly associated with the words. During a subsequent nap, half of the sounds were replayed in slow wave sleep (SWS). The effect of TMR on memory for the picture locations (direct cue-memory associations) and picture-word pairs (indirect cue-memory associations) was then examined. TMR reduced overall memory decay for recall of picture locations. Further analyses revealed a benefit of TMR for picture locations recalled with a low degree of accuracy prior to sleep, but not those recalled with a high degree of accuracy. The benefit of TMR for low accuracy memories was predicted by time spent in SWS. There was no benefit of TMR for memory of the picture-word pairs, irrespective of memory accuracy prior to sleep. TMR provides the greatest benefit to memories recalled with a low degree of accuracy prior to sleep. The memory benefits of TMR may also be contingent on direct cue-memory associations. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Sleep spindles: a physiological marker of age-related changes in gray matter in brain regions supporting motor skill memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Stuart; Vien, Catherine; Karni, Avi; Benali, Habib; Carrier, Julie; Doyon, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Sleep is necessary for the optimal consolidation of procedural learning, and in particular, for motor sequential skills. Motor sequence learning remains intact with age, but sleep-dependent consolidation is impaired, suggesting that memory deficits for procedural skills are specifically impacted by age-related changes in sleep. Age-related changes in spindles may be responsible for impaired motor sequence learning consolidation, but the morphological basis for this deficit is unknown. Here, we found that gray matter in the hippocampus and cerebellum was positively correlated with both sleep spindles and offline improvements in performance in young participants but not in older participants. These results suggest that age-related changes in gray matter in the hippocampus relate to spindles and may underlie age-related deficits in sleep-related motor sequence memory consolidation. In this way, spindles can serve as a biological marker for structural brain changes and the related memory deficits in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Requirement of NF-kappa B Activation in Different Mice Brain Areas during Long-Term Memory Consolidation in Two Contextual One-Trial Tasks with Opposing Valences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Angeles; Krawczyk, Maria del C.; Blake, Mariano; Romano, Arturo; Boccia, Mariano M.; Freudenthal, Ramiro

    2017-01-01

    NF-kappa B is a transcription factor whose activation has been shown to be necessary for long-term memory consolidation in several species. NF-kappa B is activated and translocates to the nucleus of cells in a specific temporal window during consolidation. Our work focuses on a one trial learning tasks associated to the inhibitory avoidance (IA) setting. Mice were trained either receiving or not a footshock when entering a dark compartment (aversive vs. appetitive learning). Regardless of training condition (appetitive or aversive), latencies to step-through during testing were significantly different to those measured during training. Additionally, these testing latencies were also different from those of a control group that only received a shock unrelated to context. Moreover, nuclear NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity was augmented in the aversive and the appetitive tasks when compared with control and naïve animals. NF-kappa B inhibition by Sulfasalazine injected either in the Hippocampus, Amygdala or Nucleus accumbens immediately after training was able to impair retention in both training versions. Our results suggest that NF-kappa B is a critical molecular step, in different brain areas on memory consolidation. This was the case for both the IA task and also the modified version of the same task where the footshock was omitted during training. This work aims to further investigate how appetitive and aversive memories are consolidated. PMID:28439227

  13. Consolidation time affects performance and neural activity during visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöchel, Christian; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Bittner, Robert; Stäblein, Michael; Heselhaus, Vera; Prvulovic, David; Fusser, Fabian; Karakaya, Tarik; Pantel, Johannes; Maurer, Konrad; Linden, David E J

    2015-01-30

    We tested the effects of variation of stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) on visual working memory (WM) performance across different load levels and the underlying brain activation patterns using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 48 healthy participants. Participants were instructed to memorise arrays of coloured squares and had to perform a match/non-match judgement on a probe stimulus after a jittered delay. We presented visual pattern masks at four SOAs after the offset of the memory array (100 ms, 200 ms, 400 ms, and 800 ms). Memory performance decreased with increased load and shortened SOA. Brain activation data showed significant effects of load (during encoding and retrieval), SOA (retrieval) and an interaction of load by SOA (encoding), mainly in frontal and parietal areas. There was also a direct relationship between successfully stored items and activation in the right inferior parietal lobule and the left middle frontal gyrus. The neurobehavioral results suggest that the frontal regions, together with the inferior parietal lobe, are associated with successful WM performance, especially under the most challenging conditions of high load and short SOAs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 5-HT1A receptor blockade targeting the basolateral amygdala improved stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation and retrieval in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardari, M; Rezayof, A; Zarrindast, M-R

    2015-08-06

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) 5-HT1A receptors in memory formation under stress. We also examined whether the blockade of these receptors is involved in stress-induced state-dependent memory. Adult male Wistar rats received cannula implants that bilaterally targeted the BLA. Long-term memory was examined using the step-through type of passive avoidance task. Behavioral stress was evoked by exposure to an elevated platform (EP) for 10, 20 and 30min. Post-training exposure to acute stress (30min) impaired the memory consolidation. In addition, pre-test exposure to acute stress-(20 and 30min) induced the impairment of memory retrieval. Interestingly, the memory impairment induced by post-training exposure to stress was restored in the animals that received 20- or 30-min pre-test stress exposure, suggesting stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Post-training BLA-targeted injection of a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, (S)-WAY-100135 (2μg/rat), prevented the impairing effect of stress on memory consolidation. Pre-test injection of the same doses of (S)-WAY-100135 that was targeted to the BLA also reversed stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. It should be considered that post-training or pre-test BLA-targeted injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (0.5-2μg/rat) by itself had no effect on the memory formation. Moreover, pre-test injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (2μg/rat) that targeted the BLA inhibited the stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Taken together, our findings suggest that post-training or pre-test exposure to acute stress induced the impairment of memory consolidation, retrieval and state-dependent learning. The BLA 5-HT1A receptors have a critical role in learning and memory under stress. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The time course of systems consolidation of spatial memory from recent to remote retention: A comparison of the Immediate Early Genes Zif268, c-Fos and Arc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Daniel N; Coogan, Andrew N; Commins, Sean

    2016-02-01

    Systems consolidation is a process involving the stabilisation of memory traces in the neocortex over time. The medial prefrontal cortex becomes increasingly important during the retrieval of older memories, however the timescale of its involvement is unclear, and the contribution of other neocortical brain regions to remote memory have received little attention. The Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) Zif268, c-Fos and Arc have been utilised as markers of neural activity during spatial memory retrieval, however the lack of a direct comparison between them hinders the interpretation of results. To address these questions, we examined the expression of Zif268, Arc and c-Fos protein in the medial prefrontal cortex, as well as the hippocampus, and the entorhinal, perirhinal, retrosplenial and parietal cortices of male Wistar rats following a probe trial of the Morris water maze either one day, seven days, 14 days or 30 days after acquisition. Activity of the medial prefrontal cortex during retrieval, as measured by all three IEGs, increased in correspondence with the age of the memory, reaching significance between 14 and 30 days. Similar increases in c-Fos and Arc were observed over the course of consolidation in other neocortical and parahippocampal areas, however this pattern was not observed with Zif268. Activity of the hippocampus remained largely unchanged across retention intervals. These findings suggest that systems consolidation of spatial memory takes at least two weeks, are consistent with an ongoing role for the hippocampus in the retrieval of spatial memory, and suggest that c-Fos and Arc may be a more sensitive measure of neural activity in response to behavioural tasks than Zif268. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Emotion, working memory, and cognitive control in patients with first-onset and previously untreated minor depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Lu, Shengfu; Wang, Gang; Feng, Lei; Fu, Bingbing; Zhong, Ning

    2016-06-01

    To explore working memory and the ability to process different emotional stimuli in patients with first-onset and untreated minor (mild or moderate) depression. Patients with first-onset and previously untreated minor depression, and healthy controls, were enrolled. Using a modified Sternberg working memory paradigm to investigate the combined effects of emotional stimuli with working memory, participants were exposed to experimental stimuli comprising pictures that represented positive, neutral and negative emotions. Working memory ability was measured using reaction time and accuracy, and emotion-processing ability was measured using pupil diameter. Out of 36 participants (18 patients with minor depression and 18 controls), there were no statistically significant between-group differences in response time and accuracy. Positive stimuli evoked changes in pupil diameter that were significantly smaller in patients with minor depression versus controls, but changes in pupil diameter evoked by negative stimuli were not significantly different between the two groups. Healthy subjects showed a stronger emotional response to positive emotional stimuli than patients with first onset and previously untreated minor depression, but there were no differences in response to negative emotions. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in terms of speed of cognitive response, but this may have been due to the relatively small samples sizes assessed. Studies with larger sample populations are required to further investigate these results. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. The effect of psilocin on memory acquisition, retrieval, and consolidation in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rambousek, Lukáš; Páleníček, T.; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, May 16 (2014), s. 180 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MZd(CZ) NT13386; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20613S Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NT13897; Univerzita Karlova(CZ) Prvouk P34; GA MV(CZ) VG20122015080; GA MV(CZ) VG20122015075; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0078 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : serotonin receptors * learning * memory * rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  18. Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…

  19. Role of NPY Y1 receptor on acquisition, consolidation and extinction on contextual fear conditioning: dissociation between anxiety, locomotion and non-emotional memory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Gilliard; de Lima, Thereza Christina Monteiro

    2013-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is the most abundant peptide in the central nervous system (CNS) and is densely localized in the brain regions involved in stress, memory, fear and anxiety. Although previous research supports a role for NPY in the mediation of rodent and human emotional behavior, there is currently a lack of information on the effects of low doses of NPY that could have a potential therapeutic advantage, minimizing side-effects such as cognition impairment or sedation. Herein, we assessed the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of low doses of NPY, and of the Y1-agonist Leu31Pro34-NPY (LP-NPY) on contextual fear conditioning (CFC), as they have no effect on unconditioned anxiety-like, locomotor activity and non-emotional memory. NPY (3 pmol) and LP-NPY (1 pmol) inhibited freezing behavior when administered in the acquisition or consolidation stages, indicating a reduction of fear. When injected in the extinction phase, only NPY inhibited freezing behavior on CFC. Pre-treatment with the Y1-antagonist BIBO3304 before NPY and LP-NPY was able to prevent the inhibition of fear responses induced by both NPY agonists. Taken together, our results demonstrate robust fear-inhibiting effects of i.c.v. injection of NPY on contextual fear conditioning in rats, a response that is mediated, at least in part, by the Y1 receptor. Moreover, these treatments were unable to change locomotor activity or to show an anxiolytic-like effect, as evaluated in an open-field and an elevated plus-maze. This specific fear reduction effect may underlie resilience systems in the CNS and has potential therapeutic relevance in PTSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Corticotropin-releasing factor in the basolateral amygdala enhances memory consolidation via an interaction with the beta-adrenoceptor-cAMP pathway: dependence on glucocorticoid receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; Schelling, Gustav; McGaugh, James L

    2008-06-25

    Extensive evidence indicates that stress hormone effects on the consolidation of emotionally influenced memory involve noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). The present experiments examined whether corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) modulates memory consolidation via an interaction with the beta-adrenoceptor-cAMP system in the BLA. In a first experiment, male Sprague Dawley rats received bilateral infusions of the CRF-binding protein ligand inhibitor CRF(6-33) into the BLA either alone or together with the CRF receptor antagonist alpha-helical CRF(9-41) immediately after inhibitory avoidance training. CRF(6-33) induced dose-dependent enhancement of 48 h retention latencies, which was blocked by coadministration of alpha-helical CRF(9-41), suggesting that CRF(6-33) enhances memory consolidation by displacing CRF from its binding protein, thereby increasing "free" endogenous CRF concentrations. In a second experiment, intra-BLA infusions of atenolol (beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) and Rp-cAMPS (cAMP inhibitor), but not prazosin (alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), blocked CRF(6-33)-induced retention enhancement. In a third experiment, the CRF receptor antagonist alpha-helical CRF(9-41) administered into the BLA immediately after training attenuated the dose-response effects of concurrent intra-BLA infusions of clenbuterol (beta-adrenoceptor agonist). In contrast, alpha-helical CRF(9-41) did not alter retention enhancement induced by posttraining intra-BLA infusions of either cirazoline (alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonist) or 8-br-cAMP (cAMP analog). These findings suggest that CRF facilitates the memory-modulatory effects of noradrenergic stimulation in the BLA via an interaction with the beta-adrenoceptor-cAMP cascade, at a locus between the membrane-bound beta-adrenoceptor and the intracellular cAMP formation site. Moreover, consistent with evidence that glucocorticoids enhance memory consolidation via a similar interaction with the

  1. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  2. Memory and food intake in sheep: Effects of previous exposure to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal behaviour pattern was monitored once every 5 min, over an 8-h period, immediately after first confinement. Frequency of eating, idling, ruminating, or drinking were all found to be significantly greater (P<0.001) for previously exposed lambs. Intakes of OM, N, DOM, and leaf fraction in straw were also significantly ...

  3. Bortezomib Added to Daunorubicin and Cytarabine During Induction Therapy and to Intermediate-Dose Cytarabine for Consolidation in Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia Age 60 to 75 Years: CALGB (Alliance) Study 10502

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Eyal C.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Amrein, Philip C.; Lozanski, Gerard; Wadleigh, Martha; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Powell, Bayard L.; Voorhees, Peter; Wang, Eunice S.; Blum, William; Stone, Richard M.; Marcucci, Guido; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Moser, Barry; Larson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine remission induction frequency when bortezomib was combined with daunorubicin and cytarabine in previously untreated older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and safety of bortezomib in combination with consolidation chemotherapy consisting of intermediate-dose cytarabine (Int-DAC). Patients and Methods Ninety-five adults (age 60 to 75 years; median, 67 years) with previously untreated AML (including therapy-related and previous myelodysplastic syndrome) received bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 with daunorubicin 60 mg/m2 on days 1 through 3 and cytarabine 100 mg/m2 by continuous IV infusion on days 1 through 7. Patients who achieved complete remission (CR) received up to two courses of consolidation chemotherapy with cytarabine 2 gm/m2 on days 1 through 5 with bortezomib. Three cohorts with escalating dose levels of bortezomib were tested (0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 mg/m2). Dose-limiting toxicities were assessed during the first cycle of consolidation. The relationship between cell surface expression of CD74 and clinical outcome was assessed. Results Frequency of CR was 65% (62 of 95), and 4% of patients (four of 95) achieved CR with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp). Eleven patients developed grade 3 sensory neuropathy. Bortezomib plus Int-DAC proved tolerable at the highest dose tested. Lower CD74 expression was associated with CR/CRp (P = .04) but not with disease-free or overall survival. Conclusion The addition of bortezomib to standard 3 + 7 daunorubicin and cytarabine induction chemotherapy for AML resulted in an encouraging remission rate. The maximum tested dose of bortezomib administered in combination with Int-DAC for remission consolidation was 1.3 mg/m2 and proved tolerable. Further testing of this regimen is planned. PMID:23129738

  4. Local injection of d-lys-3-GHRP-6 in the rat amygdala, dentate gyrus or ventral tegmental area impairs memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Siamak; Aslani, Neda

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that the hormone ghrelin affects learning and memory in different experimental models of learning. Though, the effect of antagonism of ghrelin receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a) in various regions of the brain and on different stages of learning has not been examined. In this study the effect of injection of a GHS-R1a selective antagonist (d-Lys-3-GHRP-6) into the basolateral amygdala, dentate gyrus or ventral tegmental area was examined on memory consolidation in the passive avoidance task. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 230-280g were used. Animals underwent stereotaxic surgery and cannulated in their amygdala, dentate gyrus or ventral tegmental area. One week after surgery, the rats received different doses of d-Lys-3-GHRP-6 (0.08, 0.8, and 8nM), immediately after training. The control groups received solvent of the drug. Twenty four hours later in the test day, memory retrieval was assessed. In all groups, post-training injection of d-Lys-3-GHRP-6 decreased step-through latency and increased entries into the dark compartment and time spent in the dark compartment, significantly and in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicate that antagonism of the GHS-R1a in the rat amygdala, dentate gyrus or ventral tegmental area impairs memory consolidation and show that the ghrelin signaling has a widespread influence on cognitive performance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Time for considering the possibility that sleep plays no unique role in motor memory consolidation: Reply to Adi-Japha and Karni (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Timothy C; Pan, Steven C

    2017-04-01

    The hypothesis that sleep makes a unique contribution to motor memory consolidation has been debated in recent years. In the target article (Pan & Rickard, 2015), we reported results of a comprehensive meta-analysis of the explicit motor sequence learning literature in which evidence was evaluated for both enhanced performance after sleep and stabilization after sleep. After accounting for confounding variables, we found no compelling evidence for either empirical phenomenon, and hence no compelling evidence for sleep-specific consolidation. In their comment, Adi-Japha and Karni (2016) critiqued the target article on three primary grounds: (a) our unrealistic (in their view) assumption that, if sleep-specific consolidation occurs, it is mechanistically unitary across all variants of the motor sequence experiments included in the meta-analysis, (b) our inclusion of child groups, which they believe may have resulted in an underestimation of sleep effects among adult groups, and (c) our inclusion of several experiments with atypical experimental designs, which may have introduced unaccounted for heterogeneity. In this reply we address each of those potentially legitimate concerns. We show that the metaregression allowed for tests of multiple candidate variables that could engender separate consolidation mechanisms, yielding no behavioral evidence for it. We also show through reanalysis that the inclusion of child groups had virtually no impact on the parameter estimates among adults, and that the inclusion of experiments with atypical designs did not materially influence parameter estimates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Time for considering constraints on procedural memory consolidation processes: Comment on Pan and Rickard (2015) with specific reference to developmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Karni, Avi

    2016-05-01

    In the acquisition of some motor skills, sleep may be necessary for the completion of procedural memory consolidation processes, as expressed in delayed "offline" performance gains. Pan and Rickard (2015) conducted an original meta-analysis of the literature on performing an explicitly instructed finger movement sequence and tested the role of sleep versus wake in the enhancement of performance over posttraining delay periods. In this comment we propose that a more-biological, process-oriented framework is needed, allowing for more than a yes-no answer to the question addressed, and suggest methodological issues that may affect the target meta-analysis. We argue that different task demands, task conditions, and developmental differences should be considered a priori rather than expected to emerge from pooled data. For example, several recent studies have indicated that there is a qualitative change in the time course of procedural memory consolidation processes at puberty, between the ages of 12 and 17. Before puberty, consolidation processes are reflected in enhancement of task performance over sleep and wake periods alike. In their extensive set of relevant empirical data the authors included a number of developmental studies comparing children with adults (expecting "child status" effects) but did not fully consider developmental changes. We show that the inclusion of the 6 studies of childhood, comprising 13 groups, biases the meta-analysis toward the conclusion that skill enhancement is similar across wake and sleep periods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Immediate recall influences the effects of pre-encoding stress on emotional episodic long-term memory consolidation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-05-01

    The stress-associated activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis influences memory. Several studies have supported the notion that post-learning stress enhances memory consolidation, while pre-retrieval stress impairs retrieval. Findings regarding the effects of pre-encoding stress, in contrast, have been rather inconsistent. In the current two studies, the impact of an immediate retrieval task on these effects was explored. In the first study, 24 healthy young male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control condition before viewing positive, negative, and neutral photographs, which were accompanied by a brief narrative. Immediate as well as delayed (24 h later) free recall was assessed. Stress was expected to enhance emotional long-term memory without affecting immediate recall performance. Stress caused a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations but had no significant effects on immediate or delayed retrieval performance, even though a trend toward poorer memory of the stress group was apparent. Based on these findings, the second experiment tested the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of stress on emotional long-term memory performance might be abolished by an immediate recall test. In the second study (n = 32), the same design was used, except for the omission of the immediate retrieval test. This time stressed participants recalled significantly more negative photographs compared to the control group. The present study indicates that an immediate retrieval attempt of material studied after stress exposure can prevent or even reverse the beneficial effects of pre-encoding stress on emotional long-term memory consolidation.

  8. Rapid Eye Movement and Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Contributions in Memory Consolidation and Resistance to Retroactive Interference for Verbal Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Gaétane; Leproult, Rachel; Neu, Daniel; Peigneux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To test the hypothesis that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep contributes to the consolidation of new memories, whereas non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep contributes to the prevention of retroactive interference. Design: Randomized, crossover study. Setting: Two sessions of either a morning nap or wakefulness. Participants: Twenty-five healthy young adults. Interventions: Declarative learning of word pairs followed by a nap or a wake interval, then learning of interfering word pairs and delayed recall of list A. Measurements and Results: After a restricted night (24:00-06:00), participants learned a list of word pairs (list A). They were then required to either take a nap or stay awake during 45 min, after which they learned a second list of word pairs (list B) and then had to recall list A. Fifty percent of word pairs in list B shared the first word with list A, resulting in interference. Ten subjects exhibited REM sleep whereas 13 subjects exhibited NREM stage 3 (N3) sleep. An interference effect was observed in the nap but not in the wake condition. In post-learning naps, N3 sleep was associated with a reduced interference effect, which was not the case for REM sleep. Moreover, participants exhibiting N3 sleep in the post-learning nap condition also showed a reduced interference effect in the wake condition, suggesting a higher protection ability against interference. Conclusion: Our results partly support the hypothesis that non-rapid eye movement sleep contributes in protecting novel memories against interference. However, rapid eye movement sleep-related consolidation is not evidenced. Citation: Deliens G; Leproult R; Neu D; Peigneux P. Rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep contributions in memory consolidation and resistance to retroactive interference for verbal material. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1875-1883. PMID:24293762

  9. A Role of Protein Degradation in Memory Consolidation after Initial Learning and Extinction Learning in the Honeybee ("Apis mellifera")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsenberg, Johannes; Dombrowski, Vincent; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Protein degradation is known to affect memory formation after extinction learning. We demonstrate here that an inhibitor of protein degradation, MG132, interferes with memory formation after extinction learning in a classical appetitive conditioning paradigm. In addition, we find an enhancement of memory formation when the same inhibitor is…

  10. Consistency of Flashbulb Memories of September 11 over Long Delays: Implications for Consolidation and Wrong Time Slice Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Mirani, Jennifer; Schlagman, Simone; Foley, Kerry; Kornbrot, Diana E.

    2009-01-01

    The consistency of flashbulb memories over long delays provides a test of theories of memory for highly emotional events. This study used September 11, 2001 as the target event, with test-retest delays of 2 and 3 years. The nature and consistency of flashbulb memories were examined as a function of delay between the target event and an initial…

  11. Post-Acquisition Release of Glutamate and Norepinephrine in the Amygdala Is Involved in Taste-Aversion Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Osorio-Gomez, Daniel; Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Amygdala activity mediates the acquisition and consolidation of emotional experiences; we have recently shown that post-acquisition reactivation of this structure is necessary for the long-term storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). However, the specific neurotransmitters involved in such reactivation are not known. The aim of the present…

  12. The method of loci (MoL) and memory consolidation: dreaming is not MoL-like.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore

    2013-12-01

    Certain method of loci (MoL) prerequisites--familiar, coherently ordered locations--should appear during dreaming if the latter is, in fact, elaborative memory encoding as hypothesized by Llewellyn. A review of the literature suggests that dreamed locations are neither familiar nor coherently ordered and thus unsuitable for facilitating memory in this sense. This conclusion converges with other evidence that episodic memory is dependent upon non-rapid eye movement (NREM), rather than REM, sleep.

  13. When Delays Improve Memory: Stabilizing Memory in Children May Require Time

    OpenAIRE

    Darby, Kevin P.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Memory is critical for learning, cognition and cognitive development. Recent work has suggested that preschool-aged children are vulnerable to catastrophic levels of memory interference, in which new learning dramatically attenuates memory for previously acquired knowledge. Work reported here investigates the effects of consolidation on children’s memory by introducing a 48- hours-long delay between learning and testing. In Experiment 1, the delay improved children’s memory and eliminated int...

  14. Dissociable effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors on object recognition memory: acquisition versus consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prickaerts, L.; Sik, A.; Staay, van der F.J.; Vente, de J.; Blokland, A.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale Phosphodiesterase enzyme type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have cognition-enhancing properties. However, it is not known whether these drug classes affect the same memory processes. Objective We investigated the memory-enhancing effects of the PDE5

  15. Roles of hippocampal GABA(A) and muscarinic receptors in consolidation of context memory and context-shock association in contextual fear conditioning: a double dissociation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Dar; Liang, K C

    2012-07-01

    Contextual fear conditioning involves forming a context representation and associating it to a shock, both of which involved the dorsal hippocampus (DH) according to our recent findings. This study tested further whether the two processes may rely on different neurotransmitter systems in the DH. Male Wistar rats with cannula implanted into the DH were subjected to a two-phase training paradigm of contextual fear conditioning to separate context learning from context-shock association in two consecutive days. Immediately after each training phase, different groups of rats received bilateral intra-DH infusion of the GABA(A) agonist muscimol, 5HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT, NMDA antagonist APV or muscarinic antagonist scopolamine at various doses. On the third day, freezing behavior was tested in the conditioning context. Results showed that intra-DH infusion of muscimol impaired conditioned freezing only if it was given after context learning. In contrast, scopolamine impaired conditioned freezing only if it was given after context-shock training. Posttraining infusion of 8-OH-DPAT or APV had no effect on conditioned freezing when the drug was given at either phase. These results showed double dissociation for the hippocampal GABAergic and cholinergic systems in memory consolidation of contextual fear conditioning: forming context memory required deactivation of the GABA(A) receptors, while forming context-shock memory involved activation of the muscarinic receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi; Kato, Shingo; Shibuya, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m 2 , and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade ≥3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade ≥3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  17. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi, E-mail: junsaito@sannet.ne.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi [Division of Respiratory Disease, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shibuya, Kei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  18. Consolidation of Sensorimotor Learning during Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawn, Timothy P.; Fenn, Kimberly M.; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Margoliash, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Consolidation of nondeclarative memory is widely believed to benefit from sleep. However, evidence is mainly limited to tasks involving rote learning of the same stimulus or behavior, and recent findings have questioned the extent of sleep-dependent consolidation. We demonstrate consolidation during sleep for a multimodal sensorimotor skill that…

  19. A specific deficit in spatial memory acquisition in post-traumatic stress disorder and the role of sleep in its consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempesta, D; Mazza, M; Iaria, G; De Gennaro, L; Ferrara, M

    2012-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by the presence of anatomo-functional hippocampal alterations. To date, the ability to orient within the environment, which relies on hippocampal integrity, has never been investigated in PTSD. We hypothesized that the ability to form a cognitive map of the environment would be impaired in PTSD. Moreover, spatial memory consolidation benefits from postlearning sleep. Because PTSD individuals often complain about sleep disturbances, we hypothesized that any sleep effect on memory performance would be hampered in these subjects. Twenty-two subjects, all survivors of the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake, were divided into a PTSD and a control group, based on clinical evaluation. After an acquisition phase, they were tested twice ("test" and "retest") on a virtual navigation task. In addition, participants were administered the Digit Span and Task Switching. Subjective sleep quality and sleep disturbances were also assessed. The two testing sessions were on consecutive mornings, interspersed with a night of sleep. During the acquisition phase, the PTSD group took more than twice as long to form a cognitive map of the environment compared to the control group. However, once this phase was successfully completed, the two groups did not differ at test, but they tendentially differed at postsleep retest. Additional analyses comparing performances between groups on test-retest difference scores confirm that sleep-dependent consolidation may be differentially affected in the two groups. Our findings are strictly confined to the navigation performance, excluding a generalized cognitive deficit. PTSD also reported more subjective sleep disturbances and shorter sleep time than controls, which were correlated to worse performance at retest. The specific deficit in the formation of a cognitive map reported in PTSD may be related to hippocampal dysfunctions as well as to the sleep disturbances experienced by these patients. The

  20. Role of Dopamine Receptors Subtypes, D1-Like and D2-Like, within the Nucleus Accumbens Subregions, Core and Shell, on Memory Consolidation in the One-Trial Inhibitory Avoidance Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrated that dopamine within the nucleus accumbens mediates consolidation of both associative and nonassociative memories. However, the specific contribution of the nucleus accumbens subregions, core and shell, and of D1 and D2 receptors subtypes has not been yet clarified. The aim of this study was, therefore, to directly…

  1. Localization of molecular correlates of memory consolidation to buccal ganglia mechanoafferent neurons after learning that food is inedible in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J

    2012-10-15

    Training paradigms affecting Aplysia withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of memory formation after a training paradigm affecting feeding. Buccal ganglia mechanoafferent neurons expressed increases in mRNA expression for the transcription factor ApC/EBP, and for the growth factor sensorin-A, within the first 2 h after training with an inedible food. No increases in expression were detected in the rest of the buccal ganglia. Increased ApC/EBP expression was not elicited by food and feeding responses not causing long-term memory. Increased ApC/EBP expression was directly related to a measure of the efficacy of training in causing long-term memory, suggesting that ApC/EBP expression is necessary for the expression of aspects of long-term memory. In behaving animals, memory is expressed as a decrease in the likelihood to respond to food, and a decrease in the amplitude of protraction, the first phase of consummatory feeding behaviors. To determine how changes in the properties of mechanoafferents could cause learned changes in feeding behavior, synaptic contacts were mapped from the mechanoafferents to the B31/B32 neurons, which have a key role in initiating consummatory behaviors and also control protractions. Many mechanoafferents monosynaptically and polysynaptically connect with B31/B32. Monosynaptic connections were complex combinations of fast and slow excitation and/or inhibition. Changes in the response of B31/B32 to stimuli sensed by the mechanoafferent could underlie aspects of long-term memory expression.

  2. The Bandwidth of VWM Consolidation Varies With the Stimulus Feature: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Renning; Becker, Mark W; Ye, Chaoxiong; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Taosheng

    2017-11-20

    Our previous work suggests that 2 colors can be consolidated into visual short-term memory (VSTM) in parallel without a loss of memory precision, whereas consolidation of 2 orientations is performed in a strictly serial manner. Those experiments compared VSTM performance for simultaneously and sequentially presented stimuli. However, there is still controversy about whether the bandwidth for consolidation is determined by the type of information. To further investigate this issue, here we measured electroencephalography while participants attempted to consolidate 1, 2 or 4 simultaneously presented colors (Experiment 1) or orientations (Experiment 2) under limited presentation times. We used the contralateral delay activity (CDA) as an electrophysiological marker of the number of items that were consolidated. For colored stimuli, the CDA amplitude increased between set-size 1 and 2 but did not further increase for set size 4. By contrast, for orientation, the CDA amplitude remained at the set size 1 amplitude as set size increased to 2 or 4 items. Furthermore, in a long exposure duration (300 ms) condition that did not limit the consolidation process, the CDA amplitude pattern indicated that VSTM capacity is limited to about 3 colored items and about 2 orientation items in our paradigm. Thus, the CDA effects observed in the short presentation time was not limited by VSTM storage, but rather by consolidation. These results are consistent with our previous behavioral research and suggest that the bandwidth of VSTM consolidation is determined by the stimulus feature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of…

  4. A single standard for memory: the case for reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Karim; Hardt, Oliver

    2009-03-01

    Consolidated memories can re-enter states of transient instability following reactivation, from which they must again stabilize in order to persist, contradicting the previously dominant view that memory and its associated plasticity mechanisms progressively and irreversibly decline with time. We witness exciting times, as neuroscience begins embracing a position, long-held in cognitive psychology, that recognizes memory as a principally dynamic process. In light of remaining controversy, we here establish that the same operational definitions and types of evidence underpin the deduction of both reconsolidation and consolidation, thus validating the extrapolation that post-retrieval memory plasticity reflects processes akin to those that stabilized the memory following acquisition.

  5. Phenomenological Characteristics of Autobiographical Memories: Responsiveness to an Induced Negative Mood State in Those With and Without a Previous History of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Andrew E. P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the relative accessibility of phenomenological characteristics in autobiographical memories of 104 students with and without a previous history of a depression. Participants recalled personal events that were elicited with cue words and then asked to rate these personal events for a number of phenomenological characteristics. The characteristics were typicality, rumination, valence, importance of others, expectancy, desirability, and personal importance. The effe...

  6. Analysis of guest binary mixtures by tert-butylcalix[6]arene using host memory of previously bound guests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safina, Goulnaz D; Ziganshin, Marat A; Gubaidullin, Aidar T; Gorbatchuk, Valery V

    2013-02-28

    A new principle of quantitative and qualitative analysis of binary organic mixtures is offered, which is based on an ability of calixarene receptor for specific polymorphic transitions related to the composition of the analyzed guest mixture. The ability of tert-butylcalix[6]arene to remember selectively some guests bound from headspace both of pure liquids and their binary mixtures is used. The image of guest mixture remains written in metastable polymorphs of host after partial or complete guest elimination from clathrates. The memory was read using differential scanning calorimetry as the enthalpy of exothermic polymorphic transition of host collapse. This enthalpy monotonously changes with the variation of guests' ratio in mixture, unlike the enthalpies of endothermic pseudopolymorphic transitions of guest release. So, the composition of volatile binary mixture can be estimated using only one receptor and only one its parameter even in absence of preferential binding from a binary mixture of guests. This is an example of a genuine molecular recognition.

  7. Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Procedural Motor Memories in Children and Adults: The Pre-Sleep Level of Performance Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Ines; Metzkow-Meszaros, Maila; Knapp, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In striking contrast to adults, in children sleep following training a motor task did not induce the expected (offline) gain in motor skill performance in previous studies. Children normally perform at distinctly lower levels than adults. Moreover, evidence in adults suggests that sleep dependent offline gains in skill essentially depend on the…

  8. Memory-enhancing corticosterone treatment increases amygdala norepinephrine and Arc protein expression in hippocampal synaptic fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McReynolds, Jayme R.; Donowho, Kyle; Abdi, Amin; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno; McIntyre, Christa K.

    Considerable evidence indicates that glucocorticoid hormones enhance the consolidation of memory for emotionally arousing events through interactions with the noradrenergic system of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). We previously reported that intra-BLA administration of a

  9. Agents that affect cAMP levels or protein kinase A activity modulate memory consolidation when injected into rat hippocampus but not amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bevilaqua

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Male Wistar rats were trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance using a 0.4-mA footshock. At various times after training (0, 1.5, 3, 6 and 9 h for the animals implanted into the CA1 region of the hippocampus; 0 and 3 h for those implanted into the amygdala, these animals received microinfusions of SKF38393 (7.5 µg/side, SCH23390 (0.5 µg/side, norepinephrine (0.3 µg/side, timolol (0.3 µg/side, 8-OH-DPAT (2.5 µg/side, NAN-190 (2.5 µg/side, forskolin (0.5 µg/side, KT5720 (0.5 µg/side or 8-Br-cAMP (1.25 µg/side. Rats were tested for retention 24 h after training. When given into the hippocampus 0 h post-training, norepinephrine enhanced memory whereas KT5720 was amnestic. When given 1.5 h after training, all treatments were ineffective. When given 3 or 6 h post-training, 8-Br-cAMP, forskolin, SKF38393, norepinephrine and NAN-190 caused memory facilitation, while KT5720, SCH23390, timolol and 8-OH-DPAT caused retrograde amnesia. Again, at 9 h after training, all treatments were ineffective. When given into the amygdala, norepinephrine caused retrograde facilitation at 0 h after training. The other drugs infused into the amygdala did not cause any significant effect. These data suggest that in the hippocampus, but not in the amygdala, a cAMP/protein kinase A pathway is involved in memory consolidation at 3 and 6 h after training, which is regulated by D1, ß, and 5HT1A receptors. This correlates with data on increased post-training cAMP levels and a dual peak of protein kinase A activity and CREB-P levels (at 0 and 3-6 h in rat hippocampus after training in this task. These results suggest that the hippocampus, but not the amygdala, is involved in long-term storage of step-down inhibitory avoidance in the rat.

  10. Time-dependent effects of rapamycin on consolidation of predator stress-induced hyperarousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifield, Kathleen; Hebert, Mark; Williams, Kimberly; Linehan, Victoria; Whiteman, Jesse D; Mac Callum, Phillip; Blundell, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated that rapamycin, a potent inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, blocks consolidation of shock-induced associative fear memories. Moreover, rapamycin's block of associative fear memories is time-dependent. It is unknown, however, if rapamycin blocks consolidation of predator stress-induced non-associative fear memories. Furthermore, the temporal pattern of mTOR activation following predator stress is unknown. Thus, the goal of the current studies was to determine if rapamycin blocks consolidation of predator stress-induced fear memories and if so, whether rapamycin's effect is time-dependent. Male rats were injected systemically with rapamycin at various time points following predator stress. Predator stress involves an acute, unprotected exposure of a rat to a cat, which causes long-lasting non-associative fear memories manifested as generalized hyperarousal and increased anxiety-like behaviour. We show that rapamycin injected immediately after predator stress blocked consolidation of stress-induced startle. However, rapamycin injected 9, 24 or 48h post predator stress potentiated stress-induced startle. Consistent with shock-induced associative fear memories, we show that mTOR signalling is essential for consolidation of predator stress-induced hyperarousal. However, unlike shock-induced fear memories, a second, persistent, late phase mTOR-dependent process following predator stress actually dampens startle. Consistent with previous findings, our data support the potential role for rapamycin in treatment of stress related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. However, our data suggest timing of rapamycin administration is critical. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Industry consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Coimbra, Diogo

    2017-01-01

    The following case study is intended to describe the evolution of the American cable industry and the corporate actions pursued by its operators and sponsors since 1990’s. Charter Communications and Time Warner Cable, respectively the fourth- and second-largest cable operators, have been chosen to represent the industry trend of horizontal consolidation. On May 23, 2015, both firms agreed to merge forming New Charter, along with parallel Charter’s acquisition of Bright House Networks. Even th...

  12. When Delays Improve Memory: Stabilizing Memory in Children May Require Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Kevin P; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2015-12-01

    Memory is critical for learning, cognition, and cognitive development. Recent work has suggested that preschool-age children are vulnerable to catastrophic levels of memory interference, in which new learning dramatically attenuates memory for previously acquired knowledge. In the work reported here, we investigated the effects of consolidation on children's memory by introducing a 48-hr delay between learning and testing. In Experiment 1, the delay improved children's memory and eliminated interference. Results of Experiment 2 suggest that the benefit of this delay is limited to situations in which children are given enough information to form complex memory structures. These findings have important implications for understanding consolidation processes and memory development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Dry rod consolidation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.L.; Schoonen, D.H.; Feldman, E.M.; Fisher, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is funding a program to consolidate commercial spent fuel for testing in dry storage casks and to develop technology that will be fed into other OCRWM programs, e.g., Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Program (PCDP). The program is being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by the INEL Operating Contractor EG and G Idaho, Inc. Hardware and software have been designed and fabricated for installation in a hot cell adjacent to the Test Area North (TAN) Hot Shop Facility. This equipment is used to perform dry consolidation of commercial spent fuel from the Virginia Power (VP) Cooperative Agreement Spent Fuel Storage Cask (SFSC) Demonstration Program and assemblies that had previously been stored at the Engine Maintenance and Disassembly (EMAD) facility in Nevada. Consolidation is accomplished by individual, horizontal rod pulling. A computerized semiautomatic control system with operator involvement is utilized to conduct consolidation operations. During consolidation operations, data is taken to characterize this technology. Still photo, video tape, and other documentation will be generated to make developed information available to interested parties. Cold checkout of the hardware and software was completed in September of 1986. Following installation in the hot cell, consolidation operations begins in May 1987. Resulting consolidated fuel will be utilized in the VP Cooperative Agreement SFSC Program

  14. Dry rod consolidation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.L.; Schoonen, D.H.; Fisher, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is funding a Program to consolidate commercial spent fuel for testing in dry storage casks and to develop technology that will be fed into other OCRWM Programs, e.g., Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Program. The Program is being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by the Operating Contractor, EGandG Idaho, Inc. Hardware and software have been designed and fabricated for installation in a hot cell adjacent to the Test Area North (TAN) Hot Shop Facility. This equipment will be used to perform dry consolidation of commercial spent fuel from the Virginia Power (VP) Cooperative Agreement Spent Fuel Storage Cask (SPSC) Demonstration Program and assemblies that had previously been stored at the Engine Maintenance and Disassembly (EMAD) facility in Nevada. Consolidation will be accomplished by individual, horizontal rod pulling. A computerized semi-automatic control system with operator involvement will be utilized to conduct consolidation operations. Special features have been incorporated in the design to allow crud collection and measurement of rod pulling forces. During consolidation operations, data will be taken to characterize this technology. Still photo, video tape, and other documentation will be generated to make developed information available to interested parties. Cold checkout of the hardware and software will complete in September of 1986. Following installation in the hot cell, consolidation operations will begin in January 1987. Resulting consolidated fuel will be utilized in the VP Cooperative Agreement SFSC Program

  15. The Benefit of Directed Forgetting Persists After a Daytime Nap: The Role of Spindles and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in the Consolidation of Relevant Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaskovich, Borbála; Szollosi, Ágnes; Gombos, Ferenc; Racsmány, Mihály; Simor, Péter

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of directed forgetting instruction on memory retention after a 2-hour delay involving a daytime nap or an equivalent amount of time spent awake. We examined the associations between sleep-specific oscillations and the retention of relevant and irrelevant study materials. We applied a list-method directed forgetting paradigm manipulating the perceived relevance of previously encoded lists of words. Participants were randomly assigned to either a nap or an awake group, and to a remember or a forget subgroup. The remember and the forget subgroups were both instructed to study two consecutive lists of words, although, the forget subgroup was manipulated to forget the first list and memorize only the second one. Participants were 112 healthy individuals (44 men; Mage = 21.4 years, SD = 2.4). A significant directed forgetting effect emerged after a 2-hour delay both in the awake and sleep conditions; however, the effect was more pronounced within the sleep group. The benefit of directed forgetting, that is, relatively enhanced recall of relevant words in the forget group, was evidenced only in those participants that reached rapid eye movement (REM) phase. Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sigma power was correlated with memory performance for the relevant (second) list, and sleep spindle amplitude was associated with the retention of both lists. These associations, however, were detected only within the forget subgroup. REM duration correlated with recall performance for the relevant (second) list within the forget subgroup, and with recall performance for the first list within the remember subgroup. A directed forgetting effect persists after a 2-hour delay spent awake or asleep. Spindle-related activity and subsequent REM sleep might selectively facilitate the processing of memories that are considered to be relevant for the future. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research

  16. Phenomenological Characteristics of Autobiographical Memories: Responsiveness to an Induced Negative Mood State in Those With and Without a Previous History of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E P

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the relative accessibility of phenomenological characteristics in autobiographical memories of 104 students with and without a previous history of a depression. Participants recalled personal events that were elicited with cue words and then asked to rate these personal events for a number of phenomenological characteristics. The characteristics were typicality, rumination, valence, importance of others, expectancy, desirability, and personal importance. The effects of previous history of depression (without history or with previous history of depression) and self-reported mood (pre- and post-negative mood induction) on autobiographical recall was examined by employing a mixed factor design. Self-reported mood was measured as a manipulation check, before and after Mood Induction Procedure. Typicality, rumination and personal importance showed significant interaction effects in those with a history of depression. Ordinal regression supported the finding that those with a history of depression had a higher chance of typicality and personal importance than those without a history of depression. The results indicate that recall of autobiographical characteristics is in part dependent on induced negative mood state and on previous history of depression. The findings may prompt future research into targeted interventions that reduce individual tendencies for heightened cognitive reactivity in negative mood states for those with a history of depression.

  17. Consolidated financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Blaha, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    This work provides basic information about consolidation and consolidated financial statements. In the beginning there are definisions of the members of the group under discussion and their relationship. Hereafter concepts of consolidation, accounting methods and methods of consolidation are discussed. It also compares approach of different accounting systems to consolidation.

  18. Nocturnal mnemonics: sleep and hippocampal memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletin, Jared M; Walker, Matthew P

    2012-01-01

    As critical as waking brain function is to learning and memory, an established literature now describes an equally important yet complementary role for sleep in information processing. This overview examines the specific contribution of sleep to human hippocampal memory processing; both the detriments caused by a lack of sleep, and conversely, the proactive benefits that develop following the presence of sleep. First, a role for sleep before learning is discussed, preparing the hippocampus for initial memory encoding. Second, a role for sleep after learning is considered, modulating the post-encoding consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory. Third, a model is outlined in which these encoding and consolidation operations are symbiotically accomplished, associated with specific NREM sleep physiological oscillations. As a result, the optimal network outcome is achieved: increasing hippocampal independence and hence overnight consolidation, while restoring next-day sparse hippocampal encoding capacity for renewed learning ability upon awakening. Finally, emerging evidence is considered suggesting that, unlike previous conceptions, sleep does not universally consolidate all information. Instead, and based on explicit as well as saliency cues during initial encoding, sleep executes the discriminatory offline consolidation only of select information. Consequently, sleep promotes the targeted strengthening of some memories while actively forgetting others; a proposal with significant theoretical and clinical ramifications.

  19. Nocturnal Mnemonics: Sleep and Hippocampal Memory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M. Saletin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As critical as waking brain function is to learning and memory, an established literature now describes an equally important yet complementary role for sleep in information processing. This overview examines the specific contribution of sleep to human hippocampal memory processing; both the detriments caused by a lack of sleep, and conversely, the proactive benefits that develop following the presence of sleep. First, a role for sleep before learning is discussed, preparing the hippocampus for initial memory encoding. Second, a role for sleep after learning is considered, modulating the post-encoding consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory. Third, a model is outlined in which these encoding and consolidation operations are symbiotically accomplished, associated with specific NREM sleep physiological oscillations. As a result, the optimal network outcome is achieved, increasing hippocampal independence and hence overnight consolidation, while restoring next-day sparse hippocampal encoding capacity for renewed learning ability upon awakening. Finally, emerging evidence is considered suggesting that, unlike previous conceptions, sleep does not universally consolidate all information equally. Instead, and based on explicit as well as motivational cues during initial encoding, sleep executes the discriminatory offline consolidation only of select information. Consequently, sleep promotes the targeted strengthening of some memories while actively forgetting others; a proposal with significant theoretical and clinical ramifications.

  20. Sleep-dependent consolidation of auditory discrimination learning in adult starlings

    OpenAIRE

    Brawn, Timothy P.; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Margoliash, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Memory consolidation is widely believed to benefit from sleep. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation has been established broadly in humans, appearing in declarative and procedural tasks. Animal studies have indicated a variety of mechanisms that could potentially serve as the neural basis of sleep-dependent consolidation, such as the offline replay of waking neural activity and the modulation of specific sleep parameters or synaptic strength during sleep. Memory consolidation, however, cannot...

  1. New Methods for Understanding Systems Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayler, Kaycie K.; Wiltgen, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard model of systems consolidation (SMC), neocortical circuits are reactivated during the retrieval of declarative memories. This process initially requires the hippocampus. However, with the passage of time, neocortical circuits become strengthened and can eventually retrieve memory without input from the hippocampus.…

  2. Anisomycin Injection in Area CA3 of the Hippocampus Impairs Both Short-Term and Long-Term Memories of Contextual Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaud, Jessica; Ceccom, Johnatan; Carponcy, Julien; Dugué, Laura; Menchon, Gregory; Pech, Stéphane; Halley, Helene; Francés, Bernard; Dahan, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Protein synthesis is involved in the consolidation of short-term memory into long-term memory. Previous electrophysiological data concerning LTP in CA3 suggest that protein synthesis in that region might also be necessary for short-term memory. We tested this hypothesis by locally injecting the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin in hippocampal…

  3. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  4. Effects of previous physical exercise to chronic stress on long-term aversive memory and oxidative stress in amygdala and hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Tiago Marcon; Kolling, Janaína; Siebert, Cassiana; Biasibetti, Helena; Bertó, Carolina Gessinger; Grun, Lucas Kich; Dalmaz, Carla; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia María; Wyse, Angela T S

    2017-02-01

    Since stressful situations are considered risk factors for the development of depression and there are few studies evaluating prevention therapies for this disease, in the present study we evaluated the effect of previous physical exercise in animals subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS), an animal model of depression, on behavior tasks. We also investigated some parameters of oxidative stress and Na + , K + -ATPase activity, immunocontent and gene expression of alpha subunits in amygdala and hippocampus of rats. Young male rats were randomized into four study groups (control, exercised, stressed, exercised+stressed). The animals were subjected to controlled exercise treadmill for 20min,three times a week, for two months prior to submission to the CVS (40days). Results show that CVS impaired performance in inhibitory avoidance at 24h and 7days after training session. CVS induced oxidative stress, increasing reactive species, lipoperoxidation and protein damage, and decreasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The activity of Na + , K + -ATPase was decreased, but the immunocontents and gene expression of catalytic subunits were not altered. The previous physical exercise was able to improve performance in inhibitory avoidance at 24h after training; additionally, exercise prevented oxidative damage, but was unable to reverse completely the changes observed on the enzymatic activities. Our findings suggest that physical exercise during the developmental period may protect against aversive memory impairment and brain oxidative damage caused by chronic stress exposure later in life. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Slow oscillation electrical brain stimulation during waking promotes EEG theta activity and memory encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirov, Roumen; Weiss, Carsten; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2009-01-01

    in a marked and widespread increase in EEG theta (4-8 Hz) activity. During wake, tSOS did not enhance consolidation of memories when applied after learning, but improved encoding of hippocampus-dependent memories when applied during learning. We conclude that the EEG frequency and related memory processes......The application of transcranial slow oscillation stimulation (tSOS; 0.75 Hz) was previously shown to enhance widespread endogenous EEG slow oscillatory activity when applied during a sleep period characterized by emerging endogenous slow oscillatory activity. Processes of memory consolidation...

  6. Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  7. 17ß-Estradiol Regulates Histone Alterations Associated with Memory Consolidation and Increases "Bdnf" Promoter Acetylation in Middle-Aged Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Poole, Rachel L.; Gould, Thomas J.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetylation is essential for hippocampal memory formation in young adult rodents. Although dysfunctional histone acetylation has been associated with age-related memory decline in male rodents, little is known about whether histone acetylation is altered by aging in female rodents. In young female mice, the ability of 17ß-estradiol…

  8. Sleep and motor learning: Is there room for consolidation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Steven C; Rickard, Timothy C

    2015-07-01

    It is widely believed that sleep is critical to the consolidation of learning and memory. In some skill domains, performance has been shown to improve by 20% or more following sleep, suggesting that sleep enhances learning. However, recent work suggests that those performance gains may be driven by several factors that are unrelated to sleep consolidation, inviting a reconsideration of sleep's theoretical role in the consolidation of procedural memories. Here we report the first comprehensive investigation of that possibility for the case of motor sequence learning. Quantitative meta-analyses involving 34 articles, 88 experimental groups and 1,296 subjects confirmed the empirical pattern of a large performance gain following sleep and a significantly smaller gain following wakefulness. However, the results also confirm strong moderating effects of 4 previously hypothesized variables: averaging in the calculation of prepost gain scores, build-up of reactive inhibition over training, time of testing, and training duration, along with 1 supplemental variable, elderly status. With those variables accounted for, there was no evidence that sleep enhances learning. Thus, the literature speaks against, rather than for, the enhancement hypothesis. Overall there was relatively better performance after sleep than after wakefulness, suggesting that sleep may stabilize memory. That effect, however, was not consistent across different experimental designs. We conclude that sleep does not enhance motor learning and that the role of sleep in the stabilization of memory cannot be conclusively determined based on the literature to date. We discuss challenges and opportunities for the field, make recommendations for improved experimental design, and suggest approaches to data analysis that eliminate confounds due to averaging over online learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Experimental Chagas disease in Balb/c mice previously vaccinated with T. rangeli. II. The innate immune response shows immunological memory: reality or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, B; Marini, V

    2015-03-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a real challenge to the host's immune system, because it requires strong humoral and cellular immune response to remove circulating trypomastigote forms, and to prevent the replication of amastigote forms in tissues, involving many regulator and effector components. This protozoan is responsible for Chagas disease, a major public health problem in Latinamerica. We have developed a model of vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli, a parasite closely related to T. cruzi, but nonpathogenic to humans, which reduces the infectiousness in three different species of animals, mice, dogs and guinea pigs, against challenge with T. cruzi. In a previous work, we demonstrated that mice vaccinated with T. rangeli showed important soluble mediators that stimulate phagocytic activity versus only infected groups. The aim of this work was to study the innate immune response in mice vaccinated or not with T. rangeli. Different population cells and some soluble mediators (cytokines) in peritoneal fluid and plasma in mice vaccinated-infected and only infected with T. cruzi were studied. In the first hours of challenge vaccinated mice showed an increase of macrophages, NK, granulocytes, and regulation of IL6, IFNγ, TNFα and IL10, with an increase of IL12, with respect to only infected mice. Furthermore an increase was observed of Li T, Li B responsible for adaptative response. Finally the findings showed that the innate immune response plays an important role in vaccinated mice for the early elimination of the parasites, complementary with the adaptative immune response, suggesting that vaccination with T. rangeli modulates the innate response, which develops some kind of immunological memory, recognizing shared antigens with T. cruzi. These results could contribute to the knowledge of new mechanisms which would have an important role in the immune response to Chagas disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Neural mechanism underlying autobiographical memory modulated by remoteness and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ruiyang; Fu, Yan; Wang, DaHua; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

    2012-03-01

    Autobiographical memory is the ability to recollect past events from one's own life. Both emotional tone and memory remoteness can influence autobiographical memory retrieval along the time axis of one's life. Although numerous studies have been performed to investigate brain regions involved in retrieving processes of autobiographical memory, the effect of emotional tone and memory age on autobiographical memory retrieval remains to be clarified. Moreover, whether the involvement of hippocampus in consolidation of autobiographical events is time dependent or independent has been controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of memory remoteness (factor1: recent and remote) and emotional valence (factor2: positive and negative) on neural correlates underlying autobiographical memory by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. Although all four conditions activated some common regions known as "core" regions in autobiographical memory retrieval, there are some other regions showing significantly different activation for recent versus remote and positive versus negative memories. In particular, we found that bilateral hippocampal regions were activated in the four conditions regardless of memory remoteness and emotional valence. Thus, our study confirmed some findings of previous studies and provided further evidence to support the multi-trace theory which believes that the role of hippocampus involved in autobiographical memory retrieval is time-independent and permanent in memory consolidation.

  11. Activation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Type 2/3 Supports the Involvement of the Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Pathway on Contextual Fear Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumas, Stephanie; Ceccom, Johnatan; Halley, Helene; Frances, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Elucidating the functional properties of the dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, and CA1 areas is critical for understanding the role of the dorsal hippocampus in contextual fear memory processing. In order to specifically disrupt various hippocampal inputs, we used region-specific infusions of DCG-IV, the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, which…

  12. Consolidação da memória e estresse pós-traumático Memory consolidation and posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Quevedo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Vários estudos em humanos e animais têm demonstrado que a formação da memória é facilitada por um sistema modulatório endógeno, mediado pela liberação de hormônios de estresse e pela ativação da amígdala cerebral. Esse sistema é adaptativo em termos evolutivos, permitindo o reforço de memórias importantes para a sobrevivência. Em condições de estresse emocional, esse mesmo sistema pode levar à formação de memórias vívidas e duradouras, características do TEPT. O entendimento dos mecanismos da consolidação da memória pode contribuir para o tratamento do TEPT.Extensive evidence from animal and human studies has shown that memory formation is enhanced by an endogenous modulatory system mediated by stress hormones and activation of the amygdala. This system is an evolutionarily adaptive method of enhancing important memories. Under emotional stress, this system is activated promoting the formation of vivid, long lasting traumatic memories, which are the hallmark of PTSD. The understanding of the mechanisms underlying memory modulation might lead to an improved ability to assess and treat PTSD.

  13. Time dependent involvement of cAMP and cGMP in consolidation of object memory: studies using selective phosphodiesterase type 2, 4 and 5 inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, K.; Prickaerts, J.; Hendrix, M.; Staay, van der F.J.; Sik, A.; Blokland, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the time-dependent memory enhancing properties of three selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-I) vardenafil (PDE5-I), rolipram (PDE4-I) and BAY 60-7550 (PDE2-I) in the object recognition task. In particular, the time-dependent involvement of cAMP and cGMP in

  14. The role of REM theta activity in emotional memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Camilla Hutchison

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available While NREM sleep has been strongly implicated in the reactivation and consolidation of memory traces, the role of REM sleep remains unclear. A growing body of research on humans and animals provide behavioral evidence for a role of REM sleep in the strengthening and modulation of emotional memories. Theta activity – which describes low frequency oscillations in the local field potential within the hippocampus, amygdala and neocortex – is a prominent feature of both wake and REM sleep in humans and rodents. Theta coherence between the hippocampus and amygdala drives large-scale PGO waves, the density of which predicts increases in plasticity-related gene expression. This could potentially facilitate the processing of emotional memory traces within the hippocampus during REM sleep. Further, the timing of hippocampal activity in relation to theta phase is vital in determining subsequent potentiation of neuronal activity. This could allow the emotionally modulated strengthening of novel and the gradual weakening of consolidated hippocampal memory traces observed in both wake and REM sleep. Hippocampal theta activity is also correlated with REM sleep acetylcholine levels – which are thought to reduce hippocampal afferent inputs in the neocortex. The additional low levels of noradrenaline during REM sleep, which facilitate recurrent activation within the neocortex, could allow the integration of novel memory traces previously consolidated during NREM sleep. We therefore propose that REM sleep mediates the prioritized processing of emotional memories within the hippocampus, the integration of previously consolidated memory traces within the neocortex, as well as the disengagement of consolidated neocortical memory traces from the hippocampus.

  15. The hippocampus: A central node in a large-scale brain network for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, J; Samson, S

    2015-03-01

    The medial temporal lobe is a key region in the formation and consolidation of conscious or declarative memories. In this review, we will first consider the role of the hippocampus and its surrounding medial temporal lobe structures in recognition memory from a historical perspective. According to the dual process model of recognition memory, recognition judgments can be based on the recollection of details about previous presented stimuli or on the feeling of familiarity. Studies in humans, primates and rodents suggest that the hippocampus, the parahippocampal cortex and the perirhinal cortex play different roles in recollection and familiarity. Then, we will describe the role of the hippocampus and neocortex in memory consolidation: a process in which novel memories become integrated into long-term memory. After presenting possible mechanisms underlying sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation, we will discuss the phenomenon of accelerated long-term forgetting. This type of memory deficit is often observed in epileptic patients with a hippocampal lesion, and provides a novel opportunity to investigate post-encoding and memory consolidation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Simon J.; Taylor, Charlotte; Cairney, Scott; Lewis, Penelope A.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of sleep for memory consolidation has been firmly established over the past decade. Recent work has extended this by suggesting that sleep is also critical for the integration of disparate fragments of information into a unified schema, and for the abstraction of underlying rules. The question of which aspects of sleep play a…

  17. Does sleep promote false memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsaud, Annabelle; Dehon, Hedwige; Lahl, Olaf; Sterpenich, Virginie; Boly, Mélanie; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Gais, Stephen; Matarazzo, Luca; Peters, Frédéric; Schabus, Manuel; Schmidt, Christina; Tinguely, Gilberte; Vandewalle, Gilles; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word associates, half of the participants were allowed to sleep, whereas the others were totally sleep deprived on the first postencoding night. During a subsequent retest fMRI session taking place 3 days later, participants made recognition memory judgments about the previously studied associates, critical theme words (which had not been previously presented during encoding), and new words unrelated to the studied items. Sleep, relative to sleep deprivation, enhanced accurate and false recollections. No significant difference was observed in brain responses to false or illusory recollection between sleep and sleep deprivation conditions. However, after sleep but not after sleep deprivation (exclusive masking), accurate and illusory recollections were both associated with responses in the hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex. The data suggest that sleep does not selectively enhance illusory memories but rather tends to promote systems-level consolidation in hippocampo-neocortical circuits of memories subsequently associated with both accurate and illusory recollections. We further observed that during encoding, hippocampal responses were selectively larger for items subsequently accurately retrieved than for material leading to illusory memories. The data indicate that the early organization of memory during encoding is a major factor influencing subsequent production of accurate or false memories.

  18. Neonatal administration of goat whey modulates memory and cortical spreading depression in rats previously suckled under different litter sizes: Possible role of sialic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Larissa de Brito; Vitor-de-Lima, Suênia Marcele; Lira Benevides, Regina de Deus; do Egypto Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos; Araújo Guedes, Rubem Carlos

    2018-02-01

    Goat whey, a usually discarded byproduct from goat cheese manufacturing, is a good source of sialic acid (SA), an oligosaccharide that is involved in processes such as memory and brain excitability. Here, we investigated in rats the effect of dried goat whey (DGW) on memory and the brain excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). We also provide evidence for the involvement of SA in this effect. In addition, we tested animals under unfavorable suckling conditions to evaluate whether nutritional deficiency would modulate DGW action. Wistar rats were suckled in litters with 9 and 15 pups (groups L 9 and L 15 , respectively). From postnatal (P) days 7-14, the animals received per gavage 17.45 g of DGW/kg/day, or SA (20 mg/kg/day or 100 mg/kg/day). At P28-30, we tested the animals' memory in the object recognition paradigm. At P35-45 we recorded CSD and analyze its velocity of propagation, amplitude, and duration. In the object recognition test, the L 15 DGW-treated rats performed better than the L 15 -controls. The L 15 rats displayed higher CSD velocities compared with L 9 groups. The DGW and SA groups exhibited higher CSD velocity than the naïve- and saline-treated controls, regardless the lactation status (P shall be further translationally investigated.

  19. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  20. The role of sleep in false memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jessica D; Schacter, Daniel L; Propper, Ruth E; Huang, Li-Wen; Wamsley, Erin J; Tucker, Matthew A; Walker, Matthew P; Stickgold, Robert

    2009-10-01

    Memories are not stored as exact copies of our experiences. As a result, remembering is subject not only to memory failure, but to inaccuracies and distortions as well. Although such distortions are often retained or even enhanced over time, sleep's contribution to the development of false memories is unknown. Here, we report that a night of sleep increases both veridical and false recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, compared to an equivalent period of daytime wakefulness. But while veridical memory deteriorates across both wake and sleep, false memories are preferentially preserved by sleep, actually showing a non-significant improvement. The same selectivity of false over veridical memories was observed in a follow-up nap study. Unlike previous studies implicating deep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) in declarative memory consolidation, here veridical recall correlated with decreased SWS, a finding that was observed in both the overnight and nap studies. These findings lead to two counterintuitive conclusions - that under certain circumstances sleep can promote false memories over veridical ones, and SWS can be associated with impairment rather than facilitation of declarative memory consolidation. While these effects produce memories that are less accurate after sleep, these memories may, in the end, be more useful.

  1. Lung CD4 Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells Mediate Adaptive Immunity Induced by Previous Infection of Mice withBordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Mieszko M; Misiak, Alicja; McManus, Róisín M; Allen, Aideen C; Lynch, Marina A; Mills, Kingston H G

    2017-07-01

    Th1 and Th17 cells have an established role in protective immunity to Bordetella pertussis , but this evidence is based largely on peripheral T cells. There is emerging evidence that local tissue-resident memory T (T RM ) cells that accumulate in tissue following mucosal infection may be crucial for long-term immunity. In this study, we examined the role of respiratory CD4 T RM cells in immunity to B. pertussis Natural immunity to B. pertussis induced by infection is considered long lasting and effective at preventing reinfection. Consistent with this, we found that convalescent mice rapidly cleared the bacteria after reinfection. Furthermore, CD4 T cells with a T RM cell phenotype (CD44 + CD62L - CD69 + or CD44 + CD62L - CD69 + CD103 + ) accumulated in the lungs of mice during infection with B. pertussis and significantly expanded through local proliferation following reinfection. These CD4 T RM cells were B. pertussis specific and secreted IL-17 or IL-17 and IFN-γ. Treatment of mice with FTY720, which prevented migration of T and B cells from lymph nodes to the circulation, significantly exacerbated B. pertussis infection. This was associated with significantly reduced infiltration of central memory T cells and B cells into the lungs. However, the local expansion of T RM cells and the associated rapid clearance of the secondary infection were not affected by treatment with FTY720 before rechallenge. Moreover, adoptive transfer of lung CD4 T RM cells conferred protection in naive mice. Our findings reveal that Ag-specific CD4 T RM cells play a critical role in adaptive immunity against reinfection and memory induced by natural infection with B. pertussis . Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Consolidation of vocabulary is associated with sleep in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lisa M; Weighall, Anna R; Brown, Helen; Gareth Gaskell, M

    2012-09-01

    Although the acquisition of a novel word is apparently rapid, adult research suggests that integration of novel and existing knowledge (measured by engagement in lexical competition) requires sleep-associated consolidation. We present the first investigation of whether a similar time-course dissociation characterizes word learning across development. Consistent with previous research but counter to adults, 7-12-year-olds showed sleep-associated consolidation effects in declarative but not procedural memory. Nevertheless, the relationship between sleep and word learning in children was remarkably similar to the pattern for adults. Following exposure to nonword competitors (e.g. biscal) in the a.m. or p.m., children's ability to recognize and recall the nonwords improved only after sleep (after approximately 12-hrs for the p.m. group and 24-hrs for the a.m. group), with performance stable 1 week later. Novel nonwords only induced lexical competition effects after sleep. These findings suggest that children utilize a dual memory system when acquiring and integrating new vocabulary and highlight sleep as integral to this process. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=youtube_gdata&v=2UNuKCAakOk&gl=GB. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Simultaneous consolidation and creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette

    1997-01-01

    Materials that exhibit creep under constant effective stress typically also show rate dependent behavior. The creep deformations and the rate sensitive behavior is very important when engineering and geological problems with large time scales are considered. When stress induced compaction (consol...... (consolidation) is retarded by slow drainage of excess pore pressure it is expecte