WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously believed study

  1. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  2. Assessing Believability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Karakovskiy, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    We discuss what it means for a non-player character (NPC) to be believable or human-like, and how we can accurately assess believability. We argue that participatory observation, where the human assessing believability takes part in the game, is prone to distortion effects. For many games, a fairer...... (or at least complementary) assessment might be made by an external observer that does not participate in the game, through comparing and ranking the performance of human and non-human agents playing a game. This assessment philosophy was embodied in the Turing Test Track of the recent Mario AI...

  3. Why are Protestants more prosocial than Catholics? : A comparative study among orthodox Dutch believers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elk, M.; Rutjens, B.T.; van Harreveld, F.

    2017-01-01

    The present study sheds light on the contentious relation between religions and prosociality by comparing self-reported altruistic and prosocial behavior among a group of Catholic and Protestant believers. We found that denomination was strongly related to strength of religious beliefs, afterlife

  4. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  5. Supernatural believers attribute more intentions to random movement than skeptics: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekki, Tapani; Lindeman, Marjaana; Raij, Tuukka T

    2014-01-01

    A host of research has attempted to explain why some believe in the supernatural and some do not. One suggested explanation for commonly held supernatural beliefs is that they are a by-product of theory of mind (ToM) processing. However, this does not explain why skeptics with intact ToM processes do not believe. We employed fMRI to investigate activation differences in ToM-related brain circuitries between supernatural believers (N = 12) and skeptics (N = 11) while they watched 2D animations of geometric objects moving intentionally or randomly and rated the intentionality of the animations. The ToM-related circuitries in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were localized by contrasting intention-rating-related and control-rating-related brain activation. Compared with the skeptics, the supernatural believers rated the random movements as more intentional and had stronger activation of the ToM-related circuitries during the animation with random movement. The strength of the ToM-related activation covaried with the intentionality ratings. These findings provide evidence that differences in ToM-related activations are associated with supernatural believers' tendency to interpret random phenomena in mental terms. Thus, differences in ToM processing may contribute to differences between believing and unbelieving.

  6. An Study on the Relationship Between Gender Believes and Family Function of Kourd and Fars Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    صدیقه خانی مجد

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to study comparatively the relationship between gender beliefs and the family function of Kurdish and Fars students. Correlational research method was employed in order to examine the relationship between variables. 200 students from each ethnicity (100 male 100 female and in total 400 students were selected from university of Kermanshah and Shahid beheshti University based on convenience sampling. Respondents completed Bem Sex Roles Inventory (Bem, 1974 and Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Bishop, Baldwin, 1983. Mean of scores for family function subscales and gender roles were computed and compared for independent samples. Also Pearson Correlation Coefficient between family function components and gender beliefs were measured. Findings revealed that there was not any signifycant relationship between gender roles’ beliefs and family function in Fars students. In Kourd students, significant relationship between androgynous belief and problem solving factor was found. Also we obtained significant relationship between the absolutely feminine belief and problem solving, affective involvement, affective responsiveness, behavior control, and family general function. Comparison of the family function of Kurdish with Fars indicated significant differences between groups in affective involvement factor. Based on the obtained findings, it can be concluded that national and cultural elements are effective elements that can impact the relationship between gender believes and family function. It also can be imagined that Kourds and Fars families are different in affective involvement criterion between their members and showing their interests and sentiments to the other members of the family.

  7. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  8. Psychology: Seeing is believing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U.

    2013-04-01

    Or do we see something, because we believe it? Evidence suggests that personal experience is more likely to influence Americans with no strong beliefs about climate change than those with firm beliefs.

  9. Is it just a brick wall or a sign from the universe? An fMRI study of supernatural believers and skeptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm, Annika M; Riekki, Tapani; Raij, Tuukka; Hari, Riitta

    2013-12-01

    We examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging the brain activity of 12 supernatural believers and 11 skeptics who first imagined themselves in critical life situations (e.g. problems in intimate relationships) and then watched emotionally charged pictures of lifeless objects and scenery (e.g. two red cherries bound together). Supernatural believers reported seeing signs of how the situations were going to turn out in the pictures more often than skeptics did. Viewing the pictures activated the same brain regions among all participants (e.g. the left inferior frontal gyrus, IFG). However, the right IFG, previously associated with cognitive inhibition, was activated more strongly in skeptics than in supernatural believers, and its activation was negatively correlated to sign seeing in both participant groups. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on the universal processes that may underlie supernatural beliefs and the role of cognitive inhibition in explaining individual differences in such beliefs.

  10. Primary study authors of significant studies are more likely to believe that a strong association exists in a heterogeneous meta-analysis compared with methodologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Orestis A; Ioannidis, John P A

    2012-07-01

    To assess the interpretation of a highly heterogeneous meta-analysis by authors of primary studies and by methodologists. We surveyed the authors of studies on the association between insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and prostate cancer, and 20 meta-analysis methodologists. Authors and methodologists presented with the respective meta-analysis results were queried about the effect size and potential causality of the association. We evaluated whether author responses correlated with the number of IGF-related articles they had published and their study results included in the meta-analysis. We also compared authors' and methodologists' responses. Authors who had published more IGF-related papers offered more generous effect size estimates for the association (ρ(s)=0.61, P=0.01) and higher likelihood that the odds ratio (OR) was greater than 1.20 (ρ(s)=0.63, P=0.01). Authors who had published themselves studies with statistically significant effects for a positive association were more likely to believe that the true OR is greater than 1.20 compared with methodologists (median likelihood 50% versus 2.5%, P=0.01). Researchers are influenced by their own investment in the field, when interpreting a meta-analysis that includes their own study. Authors who published significant results are more likely to believe that a strong association exists compared with methodologists. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Change We can Believe in? Reviewing Studies on the Conservation Impact of Popular Participation in Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Jens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of methods in 60 empirical studies on forest conservation impact of popular participation in forest management. The review illustrates a high degree of variance in methods among the studies, and shows that a majority of the studies could benefit from a stronger focus on one or more of the following three areas: (i the empirical verification and characterisation of popular participation as it exists on the ground, (ii the indicators of impact and the method used to assess them, and (iii the disentanglement of the effect of popular participation from other developments in the study area that may impact on forest condition. The variation in methods inhibits comparisons and meta-analyses, as well as questions the basis on which policy recommendations on popular participation in forest management are made. Based on the review, we provide recommendations for future evaluations of the conservation impact of popular participation in forest management.

  12. Believing in myself

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    me the advantage of reading books in both the languages. In school. I enjoyed studying English literature, ... K.J.Somaiya College to graduate in Microbiology. The non-fic- tion book popular among students in ... tinue for a Ph.D. degree at the Cancer Research Institute working under the guidance of (Late) Dr Mrs Kumud ...

  13. Preachers Who are Not Believers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Dennett

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are systemic features of contemporary Christianity that create an almost invisible class of non-believing clergy, ensnared in their ministries by a web of obligations, constraints, comforts, and community. Exemplars from five Protestant denominations, Southern Baptist, United Church of Christ, Presbyterian, Methodist and Church of Christ, were found and confidentially interviewed at length about their lives, religious education and indoctrination, aspirations, problems and ways of coping. The in-depth, qualitative interviews formed the basis for profiles of all five, together with general observations about their predicaments and how they got into them. The authors anticipate that the discussion generated on the Web (at On Faith, the Newsweek/Washington Post website on religion, http://newsweek.washingtonpost.com/onfaith//2010/03/disbelief_in_the_pulpit/all.html and on other websites will facilitate a larger study that will enable the insights of this pilot study to be clarified, modified, and expanded.

  14. Preachers who are not believers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Daniel C; Lascola, Linda

    2010-03-27

    There are systemic features of contemporary Christianity that create an almost invisible class of non-believing clergy, ensnared in their ministries by a web of obligations, constraints, comforts, and community. Exemplars from five Protestant denominations, Southern Baptist, United Church of Christ, Presbyterian, Methodist and Church of Christ, were found and confidentially interviewed at length about their lives, religious education and indoctrination, aspirations, problems and ways of coping. The in-depth, qualitative interviews formed the basis for profiles of all five, together with general observations about their predicaments and how they got into them. The authors anticipate that the discussion generated on the Web (at On Faith, the Newsweek/Washington Post website on religion, http://newsweek.washingtonpost.com/onfaith//2010/03/disbelief_in_the_pulpit/all.html) and on other websites will facilitate a larger study that will enable the insights of this pilot study to be clarified, modified, and expanded.

  15. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of a previously submitted... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may... the citation is necessary. (b) Study previously submitted by another person. If the applicant is not...

  16. What do pharmaceutical industry professionals in Europe believe about involving patients and the public in research and development of medicines? A qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Suzanne; Starling, Bella; Mullan-Jensen, Christine; Warner, Kay; Wever, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore European-based pharmaceutical industry professionals’ beliefs about patient and public involvement (PPI) in medicines research and development (R&D). Setting Pharmaceutical companies in the UK, Poland and Spain. Participants 21 pharmaceutical industry professionals, four based in the UK, five with pan-European roles, four based in Spain and eight based in Poland. Method Qualitative interview study (telephone and face-to-face, semistructured interviews). All interviews were audio taped, translated (where appropriate) and transcribed for analysis using the Framework approach. Results 21 pharmaceutical industry professionals participated. Key themes were: beliefs about (1) whether patients and the public should be involved in medicines R&D; (2) the barriers and facilitators to PPI in medicines R&D and (3) how the current relationships between the pharmaceutical industry, patient organisations and patients influence PPI in medicines R&D. Conclusions Although interviewees appeared positive about PPI, many were uncertain about when, how and which patients to involve. Patients and the public's lack of knowledge and interest in medicines R&D, and the pharmaceutical industry's lack of knowledge, interest and receptivity to PPI were believed to be key challenges to increasing PPI. Interviewees also believed that relationships between the pharmaceutical industry, patient organisations, patients and the public needed to change to facilitate PPI in medicines R&D. Existing pharmaceutical industry codes of practice and negative media reporting of the pharmaceutical industry were also seen as negative influences on these relationships. PMID:26743701

  17. The study is believed to be used to treat illnesses Yau ceremony of Phutai. Natal village , Tambon Tao Ngoi, Tao Ngoi District, Sakon Nakhon Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonchom Srisa-ard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to 1 study the beliefs and the cause of the ailments of the ceremony to Yau. Which is from Thailand, Village Natal district, Tao Ngoi District, Sakon Nakhon 2 to study the composition of the ceremony Yao and 3 to study the Yau ceremony. The method resources from data collection divided into two parts, there were 1 documentation research articles, theses, books, textbooks and information from the Internet, and 2 the interview with the people who knew the four ceremonies of You. The study found the phenomenon as follows: 1 Belief in the Yau ceremony, that Yau is believed to cure illness, disease caused by an act of the devil. The treatment with modern medicine can not be cured. Parents or family elders had prior therapy with Yau. The disease which is believed to occur in this manner must be gone because of Yao. Some of which can actually be cured, mean while some extended for several more years. The treatment facilities for patients is that Yao can be come home. And pitched immediate treatment faster than the health center or hospital where the procedure was hospitalized several timeconsuming steps. 2 The components of Yau ceremony, are Yau illnesses, Yau is patient, the Yao spit, and music instruments. 3 The ceremony of Yau has five phases: preparation before starting the ceremony. Next, the invitation to the major deities or spirits. then Yao toss the cause of the illness. the reassure patients to leave the various deities and spirits. leave the body return to and live in their residence.

  18. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  19. Do patients with chronic pain diseases believe in guardian angels: even in a secular society? A cross-sectional study among German patients with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büssing, Arndt; Reiser, Franz; Michalsen, Andreas; Zahn, Anne; Baumann, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    We intended to analyze whether patients with chronic diseases believe in guardian angels (GdA) as a coping resource. In a cross-sectional survey, we analyzed data from 576 German patients with chronic diseases (mean age 51.3 ± 15.4 years). We found that 56 % of the patients often or even regularly believed in GdA, with significantly more women than men believing. Particularly interesting was the fact that 38 % of patients who were identified as neither religious nor spiritual (R-S-) believed in GdAs. This belief may indicate that patients are interested in bridging the gap between the concrete struggle to manage illness and non-rational/transcendent realms.

  20. Citizens Integrity Pledge ######################### I believe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    I believe that corruption has been one of the major obstacles to economic, political and social progress of ... We acknowledge our responsibility to lead by example and the need to put in place safeguards, integrity frameworks ... We commit to good corporate governance based on transparency, accountability and fairness;.

  1. Public sector physiotherapists believe that staff supervision should be broad ranging, individualised, structured, and based on needs and goals: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel A Redpath

    2015-10-01

    implementing effective physiotherapy supervision programs. [Redpath AA, Gill SD, Finlay N, Brennan F, Hakkennes S (2015 Public sector physiotherapists believe that staff supervision should be broad ranging, individualised, structured, and based on needs and goals: a qualitative study. Journal of Physiotherapy 61: 210–216

  2. Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

  3. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (Pcesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  4. Hand hygiene: seeing is believing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante-Jenkins, Cynthia; Belu, Florentina

    2009-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the most important measures to prevent the transmission of infections. The infection prevention and control team at Trillium Health Centre has developed an interactive visual portrayal of the efficacy of alcohol-based hand rub use. Staff participate by having fingertip bacteria colony counts determined prior to and after hand sanitizing. During the process, infection control practitioners are able to provide one-on-one coaching on proper hand sanitizing. Seeing is believing. The visible and often dramatic decreases in the fingertip bacterial colony counts after using the hand rub help convey effectiveness. Staff find this cost-effective educational exercise fun, engaging and convincing.

  5. When they believe in miracles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steve

    2013-09-01

    Brierley et al argue that in cases where it is medically futile to continue providing life-sustaining therapies to children in intensive care, medical professionals should be allowed to withdraw such therapies, even when the parents of these children believe that there is a chance of a miracle cure taking place. In reasoning this way, Brierley et al appear to implicitly assume that miracle cures will never take place, but they do not justify this assumption and it would be very difficult for them to do so. Instead of seeking to override the wishes of parents, who are waiting for a miracle, it is suggested that a better response may be to seek to engage devout parents on their own terms, and encourage them to think about whether or not continuing life-sustaining therapies will make it more likely that a miracle cure will occur.

  6. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  7. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs

  8. Study of functional-performance deficits in athletes with previous ankle sprains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Babaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.

  9. Previous treatment influences fingolimod efficacy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: results from an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Eleonora; Guareschi, Angelica; Vitetta, Francesca; Senesi, Caterina; Curti, Erica; Montepietra, Sara; Simone, Anna Maria; Immovilli, Paolo; Caniatti, Luisa; Tola, Maria Rosaria; Pesci, Ilaria; Montanari, Enrico; Sola, Patrizia; Granella, Franco; Motti, Luisa; Ferraro, Diana

    2014-09-01

    Fingolimod (FTY) is licensed as a disease-modifying treatment in highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FTY in a real-life setting and to explore the possible role of clinical and MRI parameters, including previous treatment type, in predicting its efficacy. Clinical and MRI data was collected on 127 patients assigned to treatment with FTY in six multiple sclerosis centers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, between August 2011 and June 2013. During a mean follow-up period of 10 months (range 1-22), we observed a total of 47 relapses in 39 patients (30.7%); new T2 lesions or gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions were present at follow-up MRI in 32/71 patients (45%). Expanded disability status scale (EDSS) at the end of the follow-up period was not different when compared to the baseline EDSS. Serious adverse events occurred in three patients (2.4%). A higher proportion of patients previously treated with natalizumab showed clinical (41%) or MRI activity (54%). Previous treatment with natalizumab increased the risk of a relapse within 30 days (versus immunomodulatory drugs; OR: 4.3; p = 0.011) and at survival analysis (versus remaining patients; HR: 1.9; p = 0.046). Study limitations include a small population sample, a short observation period with variable timing of follow-up MRI and different baseline characteristics of patients previously treated with natalizumab compared to those treated with immunomodulatory drugs. This study confirms the efficacy of FTY in reducing relapse rate in patients previously treated with immunomodulatory drugs, while it seems to be less effective in patients discontinuing natalizumab. Due to the short duration of follow-up it is not possible to evaluate disability progression; however, no difference was observed between the groups.

  10. What managers believe as important while recruitment in fast food industry within Norway: A case study of Burger King and McDonalds

    OpenAIRE

    Sardar, Rashida; Talat, Muhammad Arslan

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management It is true that recruitment and selection of employees is expensive but less expensive than the cost of hiring a wrong person and it better to ‘‘be economical with truth’’. This paper investigates factors, that managers believe as important while recruitment in fast food industry within Norway. The main objective of this paper is to find out that how restaurant managers recruit and on what basis they select from potential candid...

  11. Previous infection and the risk of ischaemic stroke in Italy: the IN2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, D; Vidale, S; Aguglia, U; Bassi, P; Cavallini, A; Galati, F; Guidetti, D; Marcello, N; Micieli, G; Pracucci, G; Rasura, M; Siniscalchi, A; Sterzi, R; Toni, D; Inzitari, D

    2015-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in new risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Acute and chronic infections could contribute to different aetiological mechanisms of atherosclerosis that lead to cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that previous infections and Chlamydia pneumoniae in particular increase the risk of ischaemic stroke in the population. This was a prospective case-control study involving 11 Italian stroke units. Controls were age- and sex-matched with cases, represented by patients admitted to hospital for acute ischaemic stroke. For each participant classical vascular risk factors and previous inflammatory and infectious events up to 1 month before were registered. Blood samples were collected to analyse inflammatory markers and titres of antibodies against C. pneumoniae. A total of 1002 participants were included (mean age 69 years) with 749 ischaemic stroke patients. Infections occurred within 1 month previously in 12% of the entire sample with a higher prevalence in the case group (14.4% vs. 3.9%). At multivariate analysis of the seropositivity of IgA antibodies against C. pneumoniae increased the risk of stroke significantly (relative risk 2.121; 95% confidence interval 1.255-3.584) and an early previous infection (up to 7 days before the event) contributed to a rise in probability of acute cerebral ischaemia (relative risk 3.692; 95% confidence interval 1.134-6.875). Early previous infections and persistent chronic infection of C. pneumoniae could contribute to increase the risk of ischaemic stroke significantly, in the elderly especially. © 2014 EAN.

  12. HIV-related neuropsychological impairment in patients with previous substance use: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    García-Torres, Amalia; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza (UNIR); Piñón-Blanco, Adolfo; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can result in cognitive disorders that significantly interfere with the daily activities of HIV patients. These disorders may be worse when there is a history of psychoactive substance use. Our objective is to assess the neuropsychological profile in a group of HIV patients with previous drug use compared to a group of HIV-negative patients with a history of drug use. The study included a total of 28 Spanish adult subjects, of which 14 were HIV-infected and ...

  13. Data from studies of previous radioactive waste disposal in Massachusetts Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, W.R.; Mardis, H.M.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies conducted in Massachusetts Bay during 1981 and 1982. Included are data from: (1) a side scan sonar survey of disposal areas in the Bay that was carried out by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for EPA; (2) Collections of sediment and biota by NOAA for radiochemical analysis by EPA; (3) collections of marketplace seafood samples by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for radioanalysis by both FDA and EPA; and (4) a radiological monitoring survey of LLW disposal areas by EPA to determine whether there should be any concern for public health resulting from previous LLW disposals in the Bay

  14. Cystic echinococcosis in Jordan: A review of causative species, previous studies, serological and radiological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijjawi, Nawal S; Al-Radaideh, Ali M; Rababah, Eman M; Al-Qaoud, Khaled M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E

    2018-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE)/hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease which occur in human and herbivore animals as a result of infection with the larval stage of the taeniid cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.). In human, CE is a serious public health concern in many parts of the world including Jordan. The present review will cover CE causative agent: E. granulosus species/genotypes; life cycle of E. granulosus parasite, all published previous studies on CE in Jordan (humans, intermediate hosts, definitive host) as well as its diagnostic methods in human. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Toward robotic socially believable behaving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a collection of research studies on the modeling of emotions in complex autonomous systems. Several experts in the field are reporting their efforts and reviewing the literature in order to shed lights on how the processes of coding and decoding emotional states took place in humans, which are the physiological, physical, and psychological variables involved, invent new mathematical models and algorithms to describe them, and motivate these investigations in the light of observable societal changes and needs, such as the aging population and the cost of health care services. The consequences are the implementation of emotionally and socially believable machines, acting as helpers into domestic spheres, where emotions drive behaviors and actions. The contents of the book are highly multidisciplinary since the modeling of emotions in robotic socially believable systems requires a holistic perspective on topics coming from different research domains such as computer science, engineering, sociology...

  16. Does the previous diagnosis of arterial hypertension affect one's daily life? Pro-Saude Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo Filho, Gilberto Senechal de; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    In addition to damaging several target organs, arterial hypertension may negatively impact patients' activities of daily living. Biological and behavioral mechanisms underlying such limitations have yet to be clarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether having been previously told of a hypertension diagnosis is associated with the frequency and duration of temporary limitations in activities of daily living, and whether these relationships differ by gender, age, or socioeconomic position. We analyzed sectional data from 2,666 participants (56% women; 55% with high school or lower schooling) at the baseline phase (1999 - 2001) of a longitudinal investigation of university employees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study), asking participants whether they had ever been diagnosed with hypertension by a health professional, if they had been unable to perform any activities of daily living due to a health problem in the previous 2 weeks, and for how many days that had occurred. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted for the overall study population and for age, gender, educational level, and per capita household income strata. Associations between hypertension diagnosis and temporary limitations were not observed in the overall study population and in gender, education and income strata. However, there were higher odds of temporary limitations among participants aged 55 years old or more with hypertension diagnosis (adjusted OR = 9.5; 95%CI 1.5 - 58.6), regardless of blood pressure levels and use of antihypertensive medication. Elderly people may keep an attitude of higher vigilance regarding conditions or events potentially worsening their health status.

  17. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50...... at follow-up (2 had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 13 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 12 had impaired glucose tolerance). Compared with the control subjects, women with previous GDM had relatively impaired insulin secretion (decreased insulinogenic index and delayed peak insulin...... for subsequent development of overt diabetes (logistic regression analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Women who develop GDM have a relative insulin secretion deficiency, the severity of which is predictive for later development of diabetes. Furthermore, our data indicate that their relatively reduced beta-cell function may...

  18. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulí, Anna; Morillas, Juan D; Rigau, Joaquim; Latorre, Mercedes; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Peña, Elena; Riestra, Sabino; Payá, Artemio; Jover, Rodrigo; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Villanueva, Cristina M; Moreno, Victor; Piqué, Josep M; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Andreu, Montserrat; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Muñoz, Jenifer; Gonzalo, Victoria; Bessa, Xavier; González, Dolors; Clofent, Joan; Cubiella, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  19. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  20. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  1. Do you believe in phantoms?

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2015-01-01

    “Phantoms” are tools that simulate a therapy’s response by mimicking the conditions of the human body. They are required in hadron therapy in order to optimise and verify the therapy before performing it on the patient. The better the phantom, the more accurate the treatment plan and the more effective the therapy. In the framework of the EU-funded project ENTERVISION*, a team of CERN researchers has designed an innovative piece of equipment able to evaluate radiobiology-related parameters in a very accurate way.   The ENTERVISION phantom being tested at HIT. A key challenge in hadron therapy – i.e. the medical use of hadrons to treat cancer – is to evaluate the biological effect of the delivered radiation. This can be achieved by using accurate dosimetry techniques to study the biological response in terms of the dose deposited and other physical parameters of the beam, such as the Linear Energy Transfer (LET). The job of the “phan...

  2. Process tomography: Seeing is believing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrey, G.; Parkinson, G.

    1995-01-01

    As the chemical process industries try new ways to optimize their processes, they are taking a closer look at tomography. Already well established in medical diagnostics, the technique has found some CPI applications but has long been considered too expensive and impractical for routine use. Promising to change this perception are recent developments in tomographic sensors, image processing algorithms, as well as data processing. Of particular interest to the CPI is tomography's ability t provide real-time cross sectional images of conditions inside process equipment, allowing operators to see what's going on in such opaque regions as packed catalyst beds, multiphase solutions, powder mixers, and fluidized beds. The images contain a wealth of data that can be used to: design equipment, verify simulation models and calculations derived via computational fluid dynamics, monitor fluid flow and environmental conditions, and image velocity profiles. One interesting application is as a way of inspecting radioactive waste drums to decide where they should be sent for permanent storage. Another use being studied is the monitoring of air sparging of contaminated areas

  3. Biosystematic studies on Dactylis L. l. Review of the previous studies. 1.2. Cytology, genetics, experimental studies, and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mizianty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents a review of the previous studies on Dactylis L., dealing with cytology,genetics, experimental studies and evolution. Following cytotypes of Dactylis are distributed mostly in Central Europe: 16 diploids, 7 tetraploids and also 2 hexaploids in North Africa. Some aneuploids and accessory chromosomes were also found in this genus. Data dealing with karyotypes of some taxa, and geographical distribution of cytotypes are also listed. Selected problems concerning crossing within diploids as well as tetraploids and also between diploids and teraploids were presented. Some opinions regarding the evolution in the genus Dactylis were also demonstrated. In all these hypotheses the following diploids are considered to be the oldest: D. smithii Link subsp. smithii, D. g. subsp. aschersoniana (Greabn. Thell. and D. g. subsp. himalayensis Dom.

  4. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Fifteen to Twenty Seconds of Eye Movements Have No Effect on Believability of Positive Personal Verbal Statements : Results From a Working Memory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijssen, S.J.M.A.; van den Hout, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    According to working memory theory, a task that taxes working memory during simultaneous focus on a memory will tend to reduce memory vividness and emotional intensity. Results have been found for both negative and positive memories. Some studies have shown the necessity of modality-specific tasks,

  6. Public sector physiotherapists believe that staff supervision should be broad ranging, individualised, structured, and based on needs and goals: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Annabel A; Gill, Stephen D; Finlay, Nancy; Brennan, Fiona; Hakkennes, Sharon

    2015-10-01

    What do physiotherapists consider to be the structure and content of an effective clinical supervision program for public sector staff? Qualitative study using emergent-systematic focus group design. 46 physiotherapists and six physiotherapy assistants from a large, regional, Australian health service participated in one of seven focus groups. Data were represented by three major categories: the content of supervision; the structure of supervision; and participants' roles and attributes. The content of supervision should encompass all issues affecting workplace experience and performance; supervision should be individualised and needs based. For the structure of supervision, a variety of methods and formats should be available, including: scheduled and unscheduled supervision (unscheduled supervision addresses needs as they arise but its usefulness can be restricted by supervisor availability); the environment should be organised to facilitate supervision; supervision should be integrated into existing practices; and supervision should be adequately prioritised and resourced to enable sustainability. In relation to participants' roles and attributes, respondents recommended: clearly defined supervisor and supervisee roles, responsibilities, skills and attributes are required to facilitate a constructive relationship on which successful supervision depends; the supervisee should take primary responsibility for leading and organising their supervision; the supervisor provides support and accountability and assists with goal setting and attainment; and successful supervision requires considerable knowledge and skills from the supervisee and supervisor (supervision education and training might be necessary). The physiotherapists' perspectives that were identified in this study are important to consider when assessing current clinical supervision models, as well as when designing and implementing effective physiotherapy supervision programs. Crown Copyright © 2015

  7. What do young people with rheumatic disease believe to be important to research about their condition? A UK-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Suzanne; Thomson, Wendy; Cresswell, Katharine; Starling, Bella; McDonagh, Janet E

    2017-07-03

    The involvement of people of all ages including young people in research is now widely advocated but prioritisation of research topics is still driven largely by professional agendas. Evidence from adult literature has reported a mismatch between a researcher and patient generated list of research topics. There have been no studies to date exploring the priorities of young people with long term conditions other than in SLE. The study aimed to explore the research priorities of young people across the UK with respect to rheumatic conditions. Focus groups were undertaken with young people aged 11-24 years with rheumatic conditions recruited across the UK via members of the Barbara Ansell National Network for Adolescent Rheumatology BANNAR and relevant national charities. Data was analysed using a Framework approach. Participants discussed their beliefs about what should be researched in: Basic Science; Clinical Medicine; Health Services, Psychosocial, and Public Health. They were then invited to prioritize these areas in terms of how much funding they should receive. Thirteen focus groups were held involving 63 participants (18 males: 45 females, mean age 16 years, range 10 to 24) in all four nations of the UK. Young people's research priorities were influenced by whether they felt research would achieve benefits for all or just some patients and long or short term goals. Another influence was whether participants felt that research areas were already well funded. Across all groups, Basic Science was a key priority and participants felt that psychosocial research should be prioritized more. Health Services Research was a lower priority, as the majority of participants were happy with their care. Clinical medicine was not a high priority as young people were happy with their medication or uncomfortable with trying new ones. Finally, for nearly all groups, Public Health was a low priority. Differences were also observed between the two age groups and across the

  8. Believe it or not: A case study of the role beliefs play in three middle school teachers' use of computers in teaching science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Carmia Suzannah

    In the past twenty years, teacher beliefs have been found to have a strong influence on the way teachers teach in many disciplines, but only recently is research being done in relation to teaching with computers. As computers become more ubiquitous in schools, it is more important than ever to determine how computers are being used in classrooms, how they could better support student learning, and the reasons why they may not be used in ways advocated by research. In this study, I used a conceptual model of the beliefs that have been shown to influence teaching behavior, an in-depth interview technique (Munby Repertory Grid Technique---RGT) to uncover beliefs, and an exemplary case study methodology to highlight the relationship between the beliefs and teaching with computer behaviors of three middle school teachers. The cases were exemplary in that many of the barriers research has shown to hinder teachers' ability to integrate computers in their teaching were minimized. The teachers all taught at the same technology magnet school and had strong administrative and technological support, professional development in the use of computers, and permanent access to student laptop computers equipped with wireless Internet. To get a complete picture of the teachers' belief systems, I used the Munby RGT with each teacher to explore their teaching with computer beliefs, their science teaching beliefs, and their general teaching beliefs. I then collected data on their teaching with computer behavior through classroom observations, lesson plan report forms, teaching behavior logs, and written reflections, among others. I found that the teachers' beliefs did influence their teaching with computer behavior. For example, although all teachers expressed beliefs that could support student-centered and inquiry-based teaching with computers, some of their beliefs, such as teacher-centered behavioral management beliefs, were more dominant and may have kept the teachers from reaching

  9. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  10. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. Methods: One hundred forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis. PMID:27975009

  11. Late preterm birth and previous cesarean section: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen Iii, Abdool S; Bassil, Kate; Sprague, Ann; Urquia, Marcelo; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2018-02-21

    Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. We use population-based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers. PCS was the primary exposure, LPB (34-36 weeks) was the primary outcome, and an unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was the potential mediator. Associations were quantified using propensity weighted multivariable Poisson regression, and mediating associations were explored using the Baron-Kenny approach. The cohort included 481,531 births, 21,893 (4.5%) were LPB, and 119,983 (24.9%) were predated by at least one PCS. Among mothers with at least one PCS, 6307 (5.26%) were LPB. There was increased risk of LPB among women with at least one PCS (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 1.20 (95%CI [1.16, 1.23]). Unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was identified as a strong mediator to this relationship (mediation ratio = 97%). PCS was associated with higher risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. This may be due to an increased risk of subsequent unplanned or emergency preterm cesarean sections. Efforts to minimize index cesarean sections may reduce the risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies.

  12. Knowing, believing, living in Africa: A practical theology perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowing, believing, living in Africa: A practical theology perspective of the past, present and future. ... Local communities were previously 'public people' living and worshipping in transformative hermeneutical communities. This scenario has changed and local communities are steadily being driven into private spaces.

  13. Believeability and Plausibility Functions over Infinite Sets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kramosil, Ivan

    1995-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (1995), s. 173-198 ISSN 0308-1079 Keywords : uncertainty processing * believeability function * plausibility function * probability measure * Dempster-Shafer theory Impact factor: 0.268, year: 1995

  14. Radon diffusion coefficients for soils. Previous studies and their application to uranium-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo; Gunji, Yasuyoshi; Iida, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Radon diffusion in soils has been studied over the years by many researchers. The application of such studies to the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon from uranium-bearing wastes disposed in a shallow land site is very important. The present paper surveyed closely relevant studies and elucidated the inherent nature of radon diffusion in terms of the definition of radon diffusion coefficients. Then, basic features of measurement methods for determining radon diffusion coefficients in soils were explained. Furthermore, theoretical aspects of radon diffusion in soils were discussed in terms of microscopic radon diffusion in soils and large-scale radon diffusion through cover soil defects for uranium mill tailings. Finally, in order to apply the radon diffusion studies to uranium-bearing waste disposal in shallow land sites, new challenges were presented: elucidation of radon diffusion in uranium-bearing wastes and cover-soil cracks, and demonstration of the validity of applying only radon diffusion in the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon, which would come through Japanese cover soils for uranium-bearing waste disposal. (author)

  15. A time marker instrument for kinematics movement studies: a development of previous versions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a time marker to study movements in kinematics. It contributes to elaborate a version of time marker which low cost and more efficient in comparison with the marker presented in another work as well as the earlier commercial version.

  16. Segmental hair analysis after a single dose of zolpidem: comparison with a previous study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaopei; Xiang, Ping; Zhang, Jingshuo; Shi, Yan; Shen, Baohua; Shen, Min

    2013-01-01

    Hair is a useful aid and sometimes even the only matrix in the analytical strategy in drug-facilitated crime (DFC) investigations. In this novel study, segmental hair analysis was performed after a single 10 mg dose of zolpidem was given to 20 Chinese volunteers. Hair was collected 1 month after administration and was analyzed using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Zolpidem concentrations were found to be in the range of 135.0-554.6 pg/mg in the proximal 0-2 cm segments. These results were markedly different from those reported by Villain et al., who used volunteers administered equal doses of zolpidem. The analytical method used, as well as the volunteers' hair color, inter-individual variations such as metabolic capacity, hair growth rate, drug incorporation rates, physical state of the hair, age, gender, body weight, etc. and diffusion from sweat or other secretions are all factors that should be considered when interpreting the DFC results.

  17. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf, Ali; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10 3 MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO 2 eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10 −6 t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10 −6 t SO 2 eq respectively

  18. Effect of Acupressure, Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Women With Pregnancy-Related Anxiety and Previous Depression: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Shunji; Tobe, Chiharu

    2017-01-01

    Background In this preliminary study, we examined the effect of acupressure, acupuncture and moxibustion (oriental treatments) to prevent of the relapse/deterioration of perinatal depression in women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression. Methods and results Between 2014 and 2016, there were 48 women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression who had delivery at ? 22 weeks? gestation in our institute. Of these, oriental treatments were performed in eight and two w...

  19. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do not ca...

  20. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of delivery after a previous Cesarean section in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, George O; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Onah, Hyacinth E; Egwuatu, Vincent E; Ezugwu, Frank O

    2014-01-01

    Obstetricians in developing countries appear generally reluctant to conduct vaginal delivery in women with a previous Cesarean because of lack of adequate facilities for optimal fetomaternal monitoring. To describe delivery outcomes among women with one previous Cesarean section at a tertiary hospital in Southeast Nigeria. This was a prospective observational study to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes of attempted vaginal birth after Cesarean sections (VBAC) following one previous Cesarean section. Analysis was done with SPSS statistical software version 17.0 for Windows using descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Two thousand six hundred and ten women delivered in the center during the study period, of whom 395 had one previous Cesarean section. A total of 370 women with one previous Cesarean section had nonrecurrent indications, of whom 355 consenting pregnant women with one previous Cesarean section were studied. A majority of the women (320/355, 90.1%) preferred to have vaginal delivery despite the one previous Cesarean section. However, only approximately 54% (190/355) were found suitable for trial of VBAC, out of whom 50% (95/190 had successful VBAC. Ninety-five women (50.0%) had failed attempt at VBAC and were delivered by emergency Cesarean section while 35 women (9.8%) had emergency Cesarean section for other obstetric indications (apart from failed VBAC). There was no case of uterine rupture or neonatal and maternal deaths recorded in any group. Apgar scores of less than 7 in the first minute were significantly more frequent amongst women who had vaginal delivery when compared to those who had elective repeat Cesarean section (P=0.03). Most women who had one previous Cesarean delivery chose to undergo trial of VBAC, although only about half were considered suitable for VBAC. The maternal and fetal outcomes of trial of VBAC in selected women with one previous Cesarean delivery for non-recurrent indications were good

  1. Treatment of osteochondral defects of the talus with a metal resurfacing inlay implant after failed previous surgery: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, C. J. A.; van Eekeren, I. C. M.; Reilingh, M. L.; Sierevelt, I. N.; van Dijk, C. N.

    2013-01-01

    We have evaluated the clinical effectiveness of a metal resurfacing inlay implant for osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome after failed previous surgical treatment. We prospectively studied 20 consecutive patients with a mean age of 38 years (20 to 60), for a mean of three years (2 to 5)

  2. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  3. Someone Has Led This Child To Believe

    OpenAIRE

    Louise, Regina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTSOMEONE HAS LED THIS CHILD TO BELIEVE is a true story and continuation of the best-selling memoir Somebody’s Someone. After 12 year-old Regina Louise, tired of being beaten, battles and escapes an illegal guardian; she jumps from a two-story window and runs to a local police station where she is taken into custody, locked in a holding cell, and delivered to the Edgar Children’s Shelter, in Martinez California. Regina is closed off about her parents, her past…until she meets Jeanne Ke...

  4. Winnicott and the capacity to believe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, B

    1997-06-01

    Like Freud's, Winnicott's writing displays an enormous interest in words, in their histories as well as their current usage. The author discusses his use of two words, 'capacity' and 'belief' combined in the phrase 'capacity to believe'. What Winnicott has to say about this capacity sheds light on the nature of both religious and cultural experience generally. The paper's argument has two strands that are woven together throughout. The first is Winnicott's concern for words and how a knowledge of their roots can enrich their current meaning. The second is his concern for the nature of belief, the 'capacity to believe', and his conviction that in exploring this capacity psychoanalysis might have something to teach religion. These concerns are interrelated in a number of ways in Winnicott's writing and are ultimately connected with his notion of a 'cultural field', a place to grow, where 'inventiveness', even verbal inventiveness, is 'just one more example ... of the interplay between separateness and union', that is the separateness of individual language users but also their union through the language they share.

  5. Changes in association between previous therapeutic abortion and preterm birth in Scotland, 1980 to 2008: a historical cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Oliver-Williams

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that therapeutic termination of pregnancy (abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent preterm birth. However, the literature is inconsistent, and methods of abortion have changed dramatically over the last 30 years. We hypothesized that the association between previous abortion and the risk of preterm first birth changed in Scotland between 1 January 1980 and 31 December 2008.We studied linked Scottish national databases of births and perinatal deaths. We analysed the risk of preterm birth in relation to the number of previous abortions in 732,719 first births (≥24 wk, adjusting for maternal characteristics. The risk (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] of preterm birth was modelled using logistic regression, and associations were expressed for a one-unit increase in the number of previous abortions. Previous abortion was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (1.12 [1.09-1.16]. When analysed by year of delivery, the association was strongest in 1980-1983 (1.32 [1.21-1.43], progressively declined between 1984 and 1999, and was no longer apparent in 2000-2003 (0.98 [0.91-1.05] or 2004-2008 (1.02 [0.95-1.09]. A statistical test for interaction between previous abortion and year was highly statistically significant (p<0.001. Analysis of data for abortions among nulliparous women in Scotland 1992-2008 demonstrated that the proportion that were surgical without use of cervical pre-treatment decreased from 31% to 0.4%, and that the proportion of medical abortions increased from 18% to 68%.Previous abortion was a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Scotland in the 1980s and 1990s, but the association progressively weakened and disappeared altogether by 2000. These changes were paralleled by increasing use of medical abortion and cervical pre-treatment prior to surgical abortion. Although it is plausible that the two trends were related, we could not test this directly as the data on

  6. Previous early antenatal service utilization improves timely booking: cross-sectional study at university of Gondar hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayneh, Tadesse; Adefris, Mulat; Andargie, Gashaw

    2014-01-01

    Early booking of antenatal care (ANC) is regarded as a cornerstone of maternal and neonatal health care. However, existing evidence from developing countries indicate that lots of pregnant woman begin ANC booking lately. Objective. It was aimed to assess timing of ANC booking and associated factors among pregnant women attending ANC clinic at University of Gondar Hospital, 2013. An institution based cross-sectional study design was used to collect data with a face-to-face interview technique. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify associated factors for early ANC visit using SPSS version 20. From total women (N = 369) interviewed, 47.4% were timely booked. Mothers with younger age (AOR = 3.83, 95% CI: 1.89, 10.53), formal education (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03, -7.61), previous early ANC visit (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 2.23, 9.86), and perceived ANC visit per pregnancy of four and greater were significantly associated with early ANC visit. Although late booking is a problem in this study, previous early utilization of ANC visit favors current timely booking. This indicates that the importance of early booking was appropriately addressed from previous visits. Counseling of timely booking during ANC visit should be strengthened. Moreover, empowering through education is also recommended.

  7. Effect of Acupressure, Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Women With Pregnancy-Related Anxiety and Previous Depression: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji; Tobe, Chiharu

    2017-06-01

    In this preliminary study, we examined the effect of acupressure, acupuncture and moxibustion (oriental treatments) to prevent of the relapse/deterioration of perinatal depression in women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression. Between 2014 and 2016, there were 48 women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression who had delivery at ≥ 22 weeks' gestation in our institute. Of these, oriental treatments were performed in eight and two women (totally 10, 21%) during pregnancy and postpartum, respectively. One of the 10 (10%) who received oriental treatments admitted depressive symptoms during pregnancy or postpartum, while 18 of the rest 38 who did not receive oriental treatments admitted depressive symptoms (47%, P = 0.065). The oriental treatments may be useful for pregnant women who need perinatal mental health care.

  8. [Cervical ripening after previous cesarean section with Foley catheter: A prospective study of 41 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamourdedieu, C; Gnisci, A; Marcelli, M; Heckenroth, H; Gamerre, M; Agostini, A

    2015-05-01

    Effectiveness of cervical ripening with Foley catheter for patients requiring labor induction with a previous cesarean section and unfavorable cervical conditions. Prospective unicentric study conducted between 1 April 2011 and 31 October 2013 on 41 patients with medical indication for labor induction with a Bishop's scorecesarean section. Outcomes evaluated were mode of delivery, Bishop's score variations and maternal or neonatal complications. Cervical ripening was performed in 39 patients and 17 (43.5%) were delivered vaginally. A total of 24/39 (61.5%) patients were put into work and 10/39 (25.6%) came into work immediately after removal of the Foley catheter. The average score improvement Bishop was 2.7±0.6 points. No maternal or fetal complication was reported. Foley catheter is an interesting procedure in patients with previous cesarean section and unfavorable cervical conditions requiring labor induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. What Greek Secondary School Students Believe about Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liarakou, Georgia; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what Greek secondary school students (grades 8 and 11) believe about the greenhouse effect and climate change. A total of 626 students completed a closed-form questionnaire consisting of statements regarding the causes, impacts and solutions for this global environmental issue. The possible influence of…

  10. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  11. Outcomes of induction of labour in women with previous caesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study using a population database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Stock

    Full Text Available There is evidence that induction of labour (IOL around term reduces perinatal mortality and caesarean delivery rates when compared to expectant management of pregnancy (allowing the pregnancy to continue to await spontaneous labour or definitive indication for delivery. However, it is not clear whether IOL in women with a previous caesarean section confers the same benefits. The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of IOL at 39-41 weeks in women with one previous caesarean delivery and to compare outcomes of IOL or planned caesarean delivery to those of expectant management.We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton births greater than 39 weeks gestation, in women with one previous caesarean delivery, in Scotland, UK 1981-2007 (n = 46,176. Outcomes included mode of delivery, perinatal mortality, neonatal unit admission, postpartum hemorrhage and uterine rupture. 40.1% (2,969/7,401 of women who underwent IOL 39-41 weeks were ultimately delivered by caesarean. When compared to expectant management IOL was associated with lower odds of caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] after IOL at 39 weeks of 0.81 [95% CI 0.71-0.91]. There was no significant effect on the odds of perinatal mortality but greater odds of neonatal unit admission (AOR after IOL at 39 weeks of 1.29 [95% CI 1.08-1.55]. In contrast, when compared with expectant management, elective repeat caesarean delivery was associated with lower perinatal mortality (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.23 [95% CI 0.07-0.75] and, depending on gestation, the same or lower neonatal unit admission (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.98 [0.90-1.07] at 40 weeks of 1.08 [0.94-1.23] and at 41 weeks of 0.77 [0.60-1.00].A more liberal policy of IOL in women with previous caesarean delivery may reduce repeat caesarean delivery, but increases the risks of neonatal complications.

  12. Birth outcome in women with previously treated breast cancer--a population-based cohort study from Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Dalberg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on birth outcome and offspring health after the appearance of breast cancer are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse birth outcomes in women previously treated for invasive breast cancer compared with the general population of mothers.Of all 2,870,932 singleton births registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry during 1973-2002, 331 first births following breast cancer surgery--with a mean time to pregnancy of 37 mo (range 7-163--were identified using linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Logistic regression analysis was used. The estimates were adjusted for maternal age, parity, and year of delivery. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to estimate infant health and mortality, delivery complications, the risk of preterm birth, and the rates of instrumental delivery and cesarean section. The large majority of births from women previously treated for breast cancer had no adverse events. However, births by women exposed to breast cancer were associated with an increased risk of delivery complications (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9, cesarean section (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7, very preterm birth (<32 wk (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.0, and low birth weight (<1500 g (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8. A tendency towards an increased risk of malformations among the infants was seen especially in the later time period (1988-2002 (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7.It is reassuring that births overall were without adverse events, but our findings indicate that pregnancies in previously treated breast cancer patients should possibly be regarded as higher risk pregnancies, with consequences for their surveillance and management.

  13. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS ORAL APPLICATION OF DIPHTHERIA ANTIGENIC PREPARATIONS ON RABBIT ALLERGIC REACTION FORMING AFTER SKIN TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babych YeM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s studied an influence of previous oral application of diphtheria antigenic preparations on allergic inflammation forming after skin test. It’s used destroyed by ultrasonic microbe cells C.diphtheriae var. gravis tox+ massachusets, free from destroyed cells by the use of centrifugation supernatant and refined concentrated diphteria toxoid. Experimental rabbits are fed to 3,5 ml of one of antigenic preparations (the total protein dose is 33,6 mg, control ones are fed to saline. In a week all animals were injected intracutaneously 0,2 ml each of corresponding antigenic preparation. The findings testify to decreasing manifestation tendency of rabbit skin reactions on antigenic preparations.

  14. Studies on the immune response of previously infected lambs to vaccination with the radiation attenuated Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The immune response of lambs infected with the lungworm, Dictyocaulus filaria to vaccination with the radiation attenuated D.filaria vaccine was studied under experimental conditions. Healthy, un-infected lambs, 4-6 months of age were randomly distributed into three groups. Group one lambs were previously exposed to single or trickle infections of D.filaria before being vaccinated, group two lambs were vaccinated only whereas the group three lambs received neither infection nor were vaccinated. All the lambs were subsequently challanged with normal infective D.filaria larvae. The results of the experiment indicate that the vaccine confers very little or practically no immunity in lambs already exposed to the infection. The significance of these findings in the use of the vaccine for the control of lungworm disease in sheep under field conditions is discussed. (author)

  15. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  16. Treatment satisfaction with paliperidone extended-release tablets: open-label study in schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang FD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fu De Yang,1 Juan Li,1 Yun Long Tan,1 Wei Ye Liang,1 Rongzhen Zhang,1 Ning Wang,1 Wei Feng,1 Shangli Cai,2 Jian Min Zhuo,2 Li Li Zhang2 1Beijing Hui-Long-Guan Hospital, 2Department of Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Ltd, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in treatment satisfaction after switching to paliperidone extended-release (ER in Chinese schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with their previous antipsychotic treatment.Methods: In this 8-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, prospective study, 1,693 patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication were enrolled and switched to paliperidone ER tablets (3–12 mg/d based on clinical judgment. The primary efficacy end point was change in Medication Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ score from baseline to week 8. The secondary end points included percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4, as well as changes in Clinical Global Improvement-Severity (CGI-S and Personal and Social Performance (PSP scores.Results: MSQ scores increased significantly from baseline (mean [standard deviation {SD}]: 2.48 [0.55] to week 8 (5.47 [0.89], P<0.0001; primary end point, full analysis set. The percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4 was 95.9% at week 8, indicating that most of the patients were satisfied with their treatment. Significant (P<0.0001 improvements from baseline to week 8 were noted in CGI-S score (2.37 [1.20] and PSP score (25.5 [15.0]. A total of 174 (10.28% patients experienced adverse events (AEs. The most common (>10 patients events were extrapyramidal disorder (n=84, 4.96%, poor quality sleep (n=18, 1.06% and akathisia (n=13, 0.77%. The majority of AEs were mild to moderate in severity. No deaths occurred.Conclusion: Treatment satisfaction improved after switching to paliperidone ER from the previous antipsychotic in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Keywords: atypical antipsychotics, open label

  17. Evaluation of questionnaire-based information on previous physical work loads. Stockholm MUSIC 1 Study Group. Musculoskeletal Intervention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgén, M; Winkel, J; Alfredsson, L; Kilbom, A

    1999-06-01

    The principal aim of the present study was to evaluate questionnaire-based information on past physical work loads (6-year recall). Effects of memory difficulties on reproducibility were evaluated for 82 subjects by comparing previously reported results on current work loads (test-retest procedure) with the same items recalled 6 years later. Validity was assessed by comparing self-reports in 1995, regarding work loads in 1989, with worksite measurements performed in 1989. Six-year reproducibility, calculated as weighted kappa coefficients (k(w)), varied between 0.36 and 0.86, with the highest values for proportion of the workday spent sitting and for perceived general exertion and the lowest values for trunk and neck flexion. The six-year reproducibility results were similar to previously reported test-retest results for these items; this finding indicates that memory difficulties was a minor problem. The validity of the questionnaire responses, expressed as rank correlations (r(s)) between the questionnaire responses and workplace measurements, varied between -0.16 and 0.78. The highest values were obtained for the items sitting and repetitive work, and the lowest and "unacceptable" values were for head rotation and neck flexion. Misclassification of exposure did not appear to be differential with regard to musculoskeletal symptom status, as judged by the calculated risk estimates. The validity of some of these self-administered questionnaire items appears sufficient for a crude assessment of physical work loads in the past in epidemiologic studies of the general population with predominantly low levels of exposure.

  18. A comprehensive study of oculocutaneous albinism type 1 reveals three previously unidentified alleles on the TYR gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ying; Wei, Ai-Hua; He, Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Lian, Shi; Zhu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a congenital genetic disorder characterized by defects in melanin production. OCA type 1 (OCA1) is the most serious and common type of OCA. This study characterized mutations associated with OCA1 in a series of Chinese patients. We recruited 41 unrelated patients with OCA and 100 healthy subjects from the Chinese Han population. Genomic DNA was extracted from their blood samples. Mutational analysis of tyrosinase (TYR) genes was conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing, specifically to test the 100 control subjects and exclude the possibility of polymorphism. Mutational analysis and bioinformatics study were performed in TYR mutations. Among the 24 (58.5%) patients with OCA1, 21 different TYR mutations were identified, including three previously unidentified alleles (PUAs): one frameshift mutation (c.216delA) and two missense mutations (A241T and N364K). The proband mutation A241T carries three possible mutations in complex OCA. The findings of this study expand current knowledge and data of mutations associated with OCA1 in China and allow us to estimate or explore the mutation spectrum and relative frequencies of the TYR gene in the Chinese population.

  19. Barriers to postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Forough; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Mehrdad, Neda; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Postpartum glycemic screening is recommended in women with recent GDM. But this screening rate is low and the reasons are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Iranian women with recent GDM on barriers of postpartum screening for diabetes. This qualitative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interview was used for data collection. 22 women with recent GDM were interviewed. These women gave birth in Tehran hospitals at a minimum of 6 months before interview. The missed screening defined as not attending to laboratory for Fasting Blood Sugar and/or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, 6 week to 6 month after their child birthing. The data was analyzed by content analysis method. Themes and sub-themes that illustrated the barriers to postpartum diabetes screening were: inadequate education (about developing diabetes in the future, implementation of the screening, and glucometer validity in diagnosis of diabetes), perceiving the screening as difficult (feeling comfortable with the glucometer, poor laboratory conditions, issues related to the baby/babies, and financial problems), improper attitudes toward the screening (unwilling to get diagnosed, not giving priority to oneself, having false beliefs) and procrastination (gap to intention and action, self-deception and self-regulation failure). Women with recent GDM reported several barriers for postpartum diabetes screening. This study help to develop the evidence-based interventions for improving this screening rate.

  20. Value and reliability of findings from previous epidemiologic studies in the assessment of radiation-related cancer risks. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Martignoni, K.

    1990-01-01

    The theories put forward here are predominantly based on pooled data from previous studies in a number of cohorts made up by mostly non-average individuals. These studies were carried out by various researchers and differed in procedures and aims. Factors of major importance to the validity and reliability of the conclusions drawn from this study are pointed out. In one chapter some light is thrown on factors known to bear a relation to the incidence of radiation-induced cancer of the breast, even though at present this can only very vaguely be described on a quantitative basis. These factors include fractionated dose regimens, pregnancies and parturitions, menarche, menopause, synergisms as well as secondary cancer of the breast. The available body of evidence suggests that exposure of each of 1 million women to a dose of 10 mGy (rad) can be linked with approx. 3 additional cases of mammary cancer reported on an average per year after the latency period. The fact that there is some statistical scatter around this value is chiefly attributable to age-related causes at the beginning of exposure. Differences in ethnic and cultural characteristics between the populations investigated appeared to be less important here. (orig./MG) [de

  1. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOTLER, MOSHE; DILBAZ, NESRIN; ROSA, FERNANDA; PATERAKIS, PERIKLIS; MILANOVA, VIHRA; SMULEVICH, ANATOLY B.; LAHAYE, MARJOLEIN

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Methods: Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Results: Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0±12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8±5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Conclusion: Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine. PMID:26813484

  2. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Moshe; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Rosa, Fernanda; Paterakis, Periklis; Milanova, Vihra; Smulevich, Anatoly B; Lahaye, Marjolein; Schreiner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥ 20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤ 5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0 ± 12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥ 20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8 ± 5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥ 7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine.

  3. Creating non-believed memories for recent autobiographical events

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, A; Nash, RA; Fincham, G; Mazzoni, G

    2012-01-01

    A recent study showed that many people spontaneously report vivid memories of events that they do not believe to have occurred [1]. In the present experiment we tested for the first time whether, after powerful false memories have been created, debriefing might leave behind nonbelieved memories for the fake events. In Session 1 participants imitated simple actions, and in Session 2 they saw doctored video-recordings containing clips that falsely suggested they had performed additional (fake) ...

  4. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  5. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold David McIntyre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n=13 versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n=15. Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD were: Age  33±4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI 30.0±9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range}, increased by 60 (0–540 mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580 mins/week in the UC group (P=0.234. Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.

  6. Using a pregnancy decision support program for women choosing birth after a previous caesarean in Japan: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigoe, Ikuyo; Shorten, Allison

    2018-02-01

    Opportunities for women and providers to use decision aids and share decisions about birth after caesarean in practice are currently limited in Japan. This is despite known benefits of decision aids to support value-sensitive healthcare decisions. To explore Japanese women's decision making experiences using a decision aid program for birth choices after caesarean. A mixed methods study was conducted among 33 consenting pregnant women with previous caesarean in five obstetrics institutions located in the western part of Japan. Outcome measures included change in level of decisional conflict, change in knowledge, and preference for birth method. Semi-structured interviews examined women's decision making experiences, and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The participants in the program experienced a statistically significant improvement in knowledge and reduction in decisional conflict about birth after caesarean. Four themes were identified in the qualitative data related to decision making: change in women's knowledge about birth choices, clarifying women's birth preference, feelings about shared decision making, and contrasting feelings after receiving information. This study confirmed potential benefits of using the decision aid program. However, uncertainty about mode of birth continued for some women immediately prior to the birth. This finding emphasized the need to identify additional ways to support women emotionally throughout the process of decision making about birth after caesarean. It was feasible to adapt the decision aid for use in clinical practice. Future research is necessary to examine its effectiveness when implemented in Japanese clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Discovery of previously undetected intellectual disability by psychological assessment: a study of consecutively referred child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, David L; Stokes, John; Buccolo, Martin L; Pappalardo, Stephen; Harvey, Philip D

    2014-07-01

    Intellectual disability is associated with an increased risk of behavioral disturbances and also complicates their treatment. Despite increases in the sophistication of medical detection of early risk for intellectual disability, there is remarkably little data about the detection of intellectual disability in cases referred for psychiatric treatment. In this study, we used a 10-year sample of 23,629 consecutive child and adolescent admissions (ages between 6 and 17) to inpatient psychiatric treatment. Eleven percent (n=2621) of these cases were referred for psychological assessment and were examined with a general measure of intellectual functioning (i.e., WISC-IV). Of these cases, 16% had Full Scale IQs below 70. Of the cases whose therapists then referred them for formal assessment of their adaptive functioning (i.e., ABAS-II) 81% were found to have composite scores below 70 as well. Only one of the cases whose Full Scale IQ was less than 70 had a referral diagnosis of intellectual disability. Cases with previously undetected intellectual disability were found to be significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder and less likely to have a diagnosis of mood disorder than cases with IQs over 70. Disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses did not differ as a function of intellectual performance. These data suggest a high rate of undetected intellectual disability in cases with a psychiatric condition serious enough to require hospitalization and this raises the possibility that many such cases may be misdiagnosed, the basis of their problems may be misconceptualized, and they may be receiving treatments that do not take into account their intellectual level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Believing and perceiving: authorship belief modulates sensory attenuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Desantis

    Full Text Available Sensory attenuation refers to the observation that self-generated stimuli are attenuated, both in terms of their phenomenology and their cortical response compared to the same stimuli when generated externally. Accordingly, it has been assumed that sensory attenuation might help individuals to determine whether a sensory event was caused by themselves or not. In the present study, we investigated whether this dependency is reciprocal, namely whether sensory attenuation is modulated by prior beliefs of authorship. Participants had to judge the loudness of auditory effects that they believed were either self-generated or triggered by another person. However, in reality, the sounds were always triggered by the participants' actions. Participants perceived the tones' loudness attenuated when they believed that the sounds were self-generated compared to when they believed that they were generated by another person. Sensory attenuation is considered to contribute to the emergence of people's belief of authorship. Our results suggest that sensory attenuation is also a consequence of prior belief about the causal link between an action and a sensory change in the environment.

  9. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorder...

  10. Feeling Is Believing: Inspiration Encourages Belief in God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Lee, Chan Jean

    2018-04-01

    Even without direct evidence of God's existence, about half of the world's population believes in God. Although previous research has found that people arrive at such beliefs intuitively instead of analytically, relatively little research has aimed to understand what experiences encourage or legitimate theistic belief systems. Using cross-cultural correlational and experimental methods, we investigated whether the experience of inspiration encourages a belief in God. Participants who dispositionally experience more inspiration, were randomly assigned to relive or have an inspirational experience, or reported such experiences to be more inspirational all showed stronger belief in God. These effects were specific to inspiration (instead of adjacent affective experiences) and a belief in God (instead of other empirically unverifiable claims). Being inspired by someone or something (but not inspired to do something) offers a spiritually transcendent experience that elevates belief in God, in part because it makes people feel connected to something beyond themselves.

  11. Believe Me, You are (not) that Bad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Jimenez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of incentive schemes incorporating status classes on workers’ performance. I focus on performance comparisons between similarly skilled workers that belong to different status classes. A theoretical framework predicts that, under certain conditions, low ability workers

  12. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  13. Knowing about Racial Stereotypes versus Believing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McKinney de Royston, Maxine; O'Connor, Kathleen; Wischnia, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Despite post-racial rhetoric, stereotypes remain salient for American youth. We surveyed 150 elementary and middle schoolers in Northern California and conducted case studies of 12 students. Findings showed that (a) students hold school-related stereotypes that get stronger in middle school, (b) African American and Latino students experience…

  14. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-03-02

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorders were assessed using logistic regressions. Obesity was significantly associated with known atopic disorders (adjusted OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.22)). The association of obesity with newly diagnosed atopic cases was not as strong as that with known cases, and was not statistically significant (adjusted OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.72)). The similar pattern was observed in different allergic diseases, gender and age stratifications. The association between overweight and atopic diseases were not significant. Obesity is strongly associated with previously diagnosed atopic cases but not so with newly diagnosed atopic cases in Chinese adults. It is likely that people with atopic disorders have a higher risk of developing obesity. Our findings are important for the management of atopic disorders and chronic disease prevention among atopic disease patients.

  15. Radioimmunotherapy with Y-90-epratuzumab in patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma. A fractionated dose-escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, O.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Tennvall, J.; Hindorf, C.; Olsson, T.; Strand, S.E.; Stenberg, L.; Wingardh, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Fractionated RIT may improve outcome by decreasing heterogeneity in absorbed dose and by increasing therapeutic window. The humanised anti-CD22 antibody, Epratuzumab, (Immunomedics, Inc., Morris Plains, NJ) can be given repeatedly with minimal risk of neutralising Ab (HAHA), making fractionated treatment with 90 Y-labelled epratuzumab possible. Materials and Methods: Patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma received increasing number (2-4) of weekly infusions of 90 Y-epratuzumab. Patients received either 185 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group A), or, if they had a history of high-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell rescue, 92.5 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group B). The first infusion included 150 MBq of 111 Indium for scintigraphic verification of tumour targeting and dosimetry. 1.5 mg/kg epratuzumab was administered with each infusion. The treatment could be repeated once after 3 m. Results: Of 23 patients, 16 in group A and 6 in group B were evaluable for response. The RR in group A was 62% objective response (OR) and 25% CR/CRu. One patient in group B showed OR. OR was seen in aggressive and indolent lymphoma. Response was also long-lasting and event-free survival of patients showing CR/CRu was 14 to 25+ months. In group A all seven patient, receiving three infusions, showed less than grade 3 platelet and neutrophil toxicity, except for two patients suffering grade 3 neutropenia. Of five patients with 4 weekly infusions there were two patients with dose-limiting haematological toxicity (DLT), both recently treated with high dose cytosar before RIT. With criteria used the maximal tolerated dose was three infusions 185 MBq/m 2 . In group B no patient suffered DLT and one patient exhibited OR. Seven patients were retreated after 3 months with minor toxicity, but improvement in OR in two cases. No patient has developed HAHA. CD22 expression on tumour cells, as assessed by flow cytometry, is available in 18 of 22 patients. In group A, seven of eight patients with

  16. Only one previous owner .

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snieckus, Darius

    1999-01-01

    In the light of the large number of offshore platforms earmarked for decommissioning in the next 30 years, a case for re-use is advanced. Henk Vreeswijk of the Netherlands believes that governments should encourage re-use; it makes sense from both an economical and an environmental perspective. Indeed, in the Netherlands, platforms are now being produced with re-use in mind. Elf has recently taken the unprecedented step of advertising a used platform and a subsea installation on the internet. (UK)

  17. When dreaming is believing: the (motivated) interpretation of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K; Norton, Michael I

    2009-02-01

    This research investigated laypeople's interpretation of their dreams. Participants from both Eastern and Western cultures believed that dreams contain hidden truths (Study 1) and considered dreams to provide more meaningful information about the world than similar waking thoughts (Studies 2 and 3). The meaningfulness attributed to specific dreams, however, was moderated by the extent to which the content of those dreams accorded with participants' preexisting beliefs--from the theories they endorsed to attitudes toward acquaintances, relationships with friends, and faith in God (Studies 3-6). Finally, dream content influenced judgment: Participants reported greater affection for a friend after considering a dream in which a friend protected rather than betrayed them (Study 5) and were equally reluctant to fly after dreaming or learning of a plane crash (Studies 2 and 3). Together, these results suggest that people engage in motivated interpretation of their dreams and that these interpretations impact their everyday lives.

  18. Creating non-believed memories for recent autobiographical events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Clark

    Full Text Available A recent study showed that many people spontaneously report vivid memories of events that they do not believe to have occurred [1]. In the present experiment we tested for the first time whether, after powerful false memories have been created, debriefing might leave behind nonbelieved memories for the fake events. In Session 1 participants imitated simple actions, and in Session 2 they saw doctored video-recordings containing clips that falsely suggested they had performed additional (fake actions. As in earlier studies, this procedure created powerful false memories. In Session 3, participants were debriefed and told that specific actions in the video were not truly performed. Beliefs and memories for all critical actions were tested before and after the debriefing. Results showed that debriefing undermined participants' beliefs in fake actions, but left behind residual memory-like content. These results indicate that debriefing can leave behind vivid false memories which are no longer believed, and thus we demonstrate for the first time that the memory of an event can be experimentally dissociated from the belief in the event's occurrence. These results also confirm that belief in and memory for an event can be independently-occurring constructs.

  19. Creating Non-Believed Memories for Recent Autobiographical Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew; Nash, Robert A.; Fincham, Gabrielle; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2012-01-01

    A recent study showed that many people spontaneously report vivid memories of events that they do not believe to have occurred [1]. In the present experiment we tested for the first time whether, after powerful false memories have been created, debriefing might leave behind nonbelieved memories for the fake events. In Session 1 participants imitated simple actions, and in Session 2 they saw doctored video-recordings containing clips that falsely suggested they had performed additional (fake) actions. As in earlier studies, this procedure created powerful false memories. In Session 3, participants were debriefed and told that specific actions in the video were not truly performed. Beliefs and memories for all critical actions were tested before and after the debriefing. Results showed that debriefing undermined participants' beliefs in fake actions, but left behind residual memory-like content. These results indicate that debriefing can leave behind vivid false memories which are no longer believed, and thus we demonstrate for the first time that the memory of an event can be experimentally dissociated from the belief in the event's occurrence. These results also confirm that belief in and memory for an event can be independently-occurring constructs. PMID:22427927

  20. 'I believe that the staff have reduced their closeness to patients': an exploratory study on the impact of HIV/AIDS on staff in four rural hospitals in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namaganda Grace

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staff shortages could harm the provision and quality of health care in Uganda, so staff retention and motivation are crucial. Understanding the impact of HIV/AIDS on staff contributes to designing appropriate retention and motivation strategies. This research aimed 'to identify the influence of HIV/AIDS on staff working in general hospitals at district level in rural areas and to explore support required and offered to deal with HIV/AIDS in the workplace'. Its results were to inform strategies to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on hospital staff. Methods A cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative components was implemented during two weeks in September 2005. Data were collected in two government and two faith-based private not-for-profit hospitals purposively selected in rural districts in Uganda's Central Region. Researchers interviewed 237 people using a structured questionnaire and held four focus group discussions and 44 in-depth interviews. Results HIV/AIDS places both physical and, to some extent, emotional demands on health workers. Eighty-six per cent of respondents reported an increased workload, with 48 per cent regularly working overtime, while 83 per cent feared infection at work, and 36 per cent reported suffering an injury in the previous year. HIV-positive staff remained in hiding, and most staff did not want to get tested as they feared stigmatization. Organizational responses were implemented haphazardly and were limited to providing protective materials and the HIV/AIDS-related services offered to patients. Although most staff felt motivated to work, not being motivated was associated with a lack of daily supervision, a lack of awareness on the availability of HIV/AIDS counselling, using antiretrovirals and working overtime. The specific hospital context influenced staff perceptions and experiences. Conclusion HIV/AIDS is a crucially important contextual factor, impacting on working conditions

  1. Evaluation of a rapid dipstick (Crystal VC for the diagnosis of cholera in Zanzibar and a comparison with previous studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Ley

    Full Text Available The gold standard for the diagnosis of cholera is stool culture, but this requires laboratory facilities and takes at least 24 hours. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT that can be used by minimally trained staff at treatment centers could potentially improve the reporting and management of cholera outbreaks.We evaluated the Crystal VC™ RDT under field conditions in Zanzibar in 2009. Patients presenting to treatment centers with watery diarrhea provided a stool sample for rapid diagnostic testing. Results were compared to stool culture performed in a reference laboratory. We assessed the overall performance of the RDT and evaluated whether previous intake of antibiotics, intravenous fluids, location of testing, and skill level of the technician affected the RDT results.We included stool samples from 624 patients. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivity of the RDT was 93.1% (95%CI: 88.7 to 96.2%, specificity was 49.2% (95%CI: 44.3 to 54.1%, the positive predictive value was 47.0% (95%CI: 42.1 to 52.0% and the negative predictive value was 93.6% (95%CI: 89.6 to 96.5%. The overall false positivity rate was 50.8% (213/419; fieldworkers frequently misread very faint test lines as positive.The observed sensitivity of the Crystal VC RDT evaluated was similar compared to earlier versions, while specificity was poorer. The current version of the RDT could potentially be used as a screening tool in the field. Because of the high proportion of false positive results when field workers test stool specimens, positive results will need to be confirmed with stool culture.

  2. An observational study of patient versus parental perceptions of health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with a chronic pain condition: who should the clinician believe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetter Thomas R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous pediatric studies have observed a cross-informant variance in patient self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL versus parent proxy-reported HRQoL. This study assessed in older children and adolescents with a variety of chronic pain conditions: 1 the consistency and agreement between pediatric patients’ self-report and their parents’ proxy-report of their child’s HRQoL; 2 whether this patient-parent agreement is dependent on additional demographic and clinical factors; and 3 the relationship between pediatric patient HRQoL and parental reported HRQoL. Methods The 99 enrolled patients (mean age 13.2 years, 71% female, 81% Caucasian and an accompanying parent completed the PedsQLTM 4.0 and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-36v2 at the time of their initial appointment in a pediatric chronic pain medicine clinic. Patients’ and parents’ total, physical, and psychosocial HRQoL scores were analyzed via an intra-class correlation coefficient, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Bland-Altman plot. A multivariable linear regression model was used to evaluate the association between clinical and demographic variables and the difference in patient and proxy scores for the Total Scale Score on the PedsQL™. Results With the exception of the psychosocial health domain, there were no statistically significant differences between pediatric patients’ self-report and their parents’ proxy-report of their child’s HRQoL. However, clinically significant patient-parent variation in pediatric HRQoL was observed. Differences in patient-parent proxy PedsQL™ Total Scale Score Scores were not significantly associated with patient age, gender, race, intensity and duration of patient’s pain, household income, parental marital status, and the parent’s own HRQoL on the SF-36v2. No significant relationship existed among patients’ self-reported HRQoL (Peds

  3. Believability and Importance as Determinants of Rumor among Deaf College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Susan; Gibbins, Spencer

    1995-01-01

    The believability and importance of rumors were studied with three samples of college students (n=93) who were deaf. The study analyzed the effects of how frequently the student transmitted rumors and the amount of information students had about a rumor on anxiety level, extroversion orientation, and ratings of believability and importance. (SW)

  4. Processes through which adolescents believe romantic relationships influence friendship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer J

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how romantic relationships influence adolescents' friendships. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify behaviors through which adolescents believe romantic relationships influence friendship quality. Intimate exchange, co-rumination, encouragement, and conflict resolution were identified as processes through which romantic relationships influence friendship quality. Associations between these variables and friendship quality were investigated with 340 adolescents. Adolescents believed these processes occurred frequently within friendship. Gender differences suggest girls may be more sensitive to the influence of romantic partners on their friendships than are boys. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that greater intimacy, encouragement, compromise, and less co-rumination were associated with more positive beliefs about friendship quality when one friend has a girlfriend or boyfriend. Greater co-rumination and less encouragement were predictive of negative friendship quality. Thus, these processes may represent avenues through which romantic relationships positively and negatively influence friendship quality. Findings highlight the need to understand friendships as part of a complex social network that includes romantic ties.

  5. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  6. Studies in iodine metabolism: 33 year summary, 1948-1979 (as previously submitted) with appendix, 1979-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middlesworth, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research into iodine metabolism from 1948 to 1982 are summarized. Study areas included the monitoring of iodine 131 from fallout in the thyroid glands of cattle and humans, the biological functions and metabolism of thyroid hormones, and methods to reduce the retention of radioiodine in the thyroid

  7. Fever-Induced Brugada Syndrome Is More Common Than Previously Suspected: A Cross-Sectional Study from an Endemic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanawong, Pattara; Vutthikraivit, Wasawat; Charoensri, Attawit; Jongraksak, Tanawat; Prombandankul, Awapa; Kanjanahattakij, Napatt; Rungaramsin, Sakda; Wisaratapong, Treechada; Ngarmukos, Tachapong

    2016-03-01

    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is defined as presenting of type-1 Brugada pattern (BrP). BrS can also be induced by fever. This study demonstrated a highest prevalence of fever-induced BrS ever reported. During May 2014, febrile (oral temperature ≥ 38 °C) and nonfebrile patients underwent standard and high leads (V1 and V2 at 2nd intercostal space) electrocardiogram. Risk factor and cardiac symptoms were recorded. Patients with a persistent of type-1 BrP after fever had subsided were excluded. The prevalence of BrS, type-2 BrP and early repolarization pattern (ERP) were demonstrated. A total of 401 patients, 152 febrile, and 249 nonfebrile, were evaluated. BrS was identified in six febrile patients (five males and one female) and two males in nonfebrile patients. The study demonstrated higher prevalence of BrS in febrile group compared to nonfebrile group (4.0% vs 0.8%, respectively, P = 0.037). Among fever-induced BrS patients, three patients (50.0%) experienced cardiac symptoms before and at the time of presentation and two patients (33.3%) had history of first-degree relative sudden death. No ventricular arrhythmia was observed. All of type-1 BrP disappeared after fever had subsided. We found no difference in prevalence of type-2 BrP in febrile and nonfebrile group (2.0% vs 2.8%, respectively, P > 0.05) as well as ERP (3.3% vs 6.4%, respectively, P > 0.05). Our study showed a highest prevalence of fever induced BrS ever reported. A larger study of prevalence, risk stratification, genetic test and management of fever-induced BrS should be done, especially in an endemic area. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Venlafaxine extended release versus conventional antidepressants in the remission of depressive disorders after previous antidepressant failure: ARGOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldomero, E Baca; Ubago, J Giner; Cercós, C Leal; Ruiloba, J Vallejo; Calvo, C García; López, R Prieto

    2005-01-01

    Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may be used as an alternative treatment for depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. This randomized, open-label, multicenter study compared the effectiveness of the SNRI venlafaxine extended release (VXR) with that of conventional antidepressants (CA) in patients who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric specialty care setting for treatment after failure to tolerate or respond to at least 4 weeks of treatment with a CA in a primary care setting. Patients with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) score > or =17 were randomly assigned to treatment with an alternative CA or VXR. Remission was defined as a score < or =7 on the HAM-D17. Efficacy analyses were carried out on 3,097 patients from the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (1,632 VXR; 1,465 CA). The antidepressants prescribed most frequently in the CA group were paroxetine (21.3%), citalopram (20.1%), sertraline (19.1%), fluoxetine (17.0%), and mirtazapine (7.9%). After 24 weeks of treatment, the VXR group demonstrated a significantly higher remission rate than did the CA group (59.3% VXR; 51.5% CA; P<.0001; odds ratio: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.19-1.58; P<.01). Despite the limitations of the open design, the results of this study suggest that venlafaxine extended release may be more effective than the conventional antidepressants used in this study when treating depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant.

  9. CHRONOVAC VOYAGEUR: A study of the immune response to yellow fever vaccine among infants previously immunized against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Catherine; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Tondeur, Laura; Poirier, Béatrice; Seffer, Valérie; Desprès, Philippe; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2017-10-27

    For administration of multiple live attenuated vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends either simultaneous immunization or period of at least 28days between vaccines, due to a possible reduction in the immune response to either vaccine. The main objective of this study was to compare the immune response to measles (alone or combined with mumps and rubella) and yellow fever vaccines among infants aged 6-24months living in a yellow fever non-endemic country who had receivedmeasles and yellow fever vaccines before travelling to a yellow fever endemic area. A retrospective, multicenter case-control study was carried out in 7 travel clinics in the Paris area from February 1st 2011 to march 31, 2015. Cases were defined as infants immunized with the yellow fever vaccine and with the measles vaccine, either alone or in combination with mumps and rubella vaccine, with a period of 1-27days between each immunization. For each case, two controls were matched based on sex and age: a first control group (control 1) was defined as infants having received the measles vaccine and the yellow fever vaccine simultaneously; a second control group (control 2) was defined as infants who had a period of more than 27days between receiving the measles vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of infants with protective immunity against yellow fever, measured by the titer of neutralizing antibodies in a venous blood sample. One hundred and thirty-one infants were included in the study (62 cases, 50 infants in control 1 and 19 infants in control 2). Of these, 127 (96%) were shown to have a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies. All 4 infants without a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies were part of control group 1. The measles vaccine, alone or combined with mumps and rubella vaccines, appears to have no influence on humoral immune response to the yellow fever vaccine when administered between 1 and 27

  10. Can you believe what you read in the papers?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The number of reports of clinical trials grows by hundreds every week. However, this does not mean that people making decisions about healthcare are finding it easier to obtain reliable knowledge for these decisions. Some of the information is unreliable. Systematic reviews are helping to resolve this by bringing together the research on a topic, appraising and summarising it. But the quality of these reviews depends greatly on the quality of the studies, and this usually means the quality of their reports. If there are fundamental flaws within a study, such as the use of inappropriate \\'randomisation\\' techniques in the context of reviews of the effects of interventions, the reviewers will not be able to fix these. Worse still, if they are not aware of underlying flaws, they might make incorrect judgements about the quality of the research in their review. A study by Wu and colleagues of \\'randomised trials\\' from China provides a reminder of the cautious approach needed by users of scientific articles. They contacted the authors of more than 2000 research articles, which purported to be reports of randomised trials; and concluded that ten of every 11 studies claiming to be a randomised trial probably did not use random allocation. Better education of researchers, peer reviewers and editors about what is, and is not, a properly randomised trial is needed; along with better reporting of the details for how participants were allocated to the different interventions. Systematic reviewers must be cautious in making assumptions about the conduct of trials based on simple phrases about the trial methodology, rather than a full description of the methods actually used. It\\'s not that you can\\'t believe anything that you read in the papers, just that you cannot believe everything.

  11. Self-shielding effects in burnup of Gd used as burnable absorber. Previous studies on its experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Maximo J.; Sbaffoni, Maria M.

    2003-01-01

    Continuing with the domestic 'Burnable Absorbers Research Plan' studies were done to estimate self-shielding effects during Gd 2 O 3 burnup as burnable absorber included in fuel pins of a CAREM geometry. In this way, its burnup was calculated without and with self-shielding. For the second case, were obtained values depending on internal pin radius and the effective one for the homogenized pin. For Gd 157, the burnup corresponding to the first case resulted 52.6 % and of 1.23 % for the effective one. That shows the magnitude of the effects under study. Considering that is necessary to perform one experimental verification, also are presented calculational results for the case to irradiate a pellet containing UO 2 (natural) and 8 wt % of Gd 2 O 3 , as a function of cooling time, that include: measurable isotopes concentrations, expected activities, and photon spectra for conditions able to be compared with bidimensional calculations with self-shielding. The irradiation time was supposed 30 dpp using RA-3 reactor at 10 MW. (author)

  12. A genome-wide association study confirms previously reported loci for type 2 diabetes in Han Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association study (GWAS has identified more than 30 loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D in Caucasians. However, genomic understanding of T2D in Asians, especially Han Chinese, is still limited. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A two-stage GWAS was performed in Han Chinese from Mainland China. The discovery stage included 793 T2D cases and 806 healthy controls genotyped using Illumina Human 660- and 610-Quad BeadChips; and the replication stage included two independent case-control populations (a total of 4445 T2D cases and 4458 controls genotyped using TaqMan assay. We validated the associations of KCNQ1 (rs163182, p = 2.085×10(-17, OR 1.28 and C2CD4A/B (rs1370176, p = 3.677×10(-4, OR 1.124; rs1436953, p = 7.753×10(-6, OR 1.141; rs7172432, p = 4.001×10(-5, OR 1.134 in Han Chinese. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our study represents the first GWAS of T2D with both discovery and replication sample sets recruited from Han Chinese men and women residing in Mainland China. We confirmed the associations of KCNQ1 and C2CD4A/B with T2D, with the latter for the first time being examined in Han Chinese. Arguably, eight more independent loci were replicated in our GWAS.

  13. Comparative study of a novel application of automated HR HPV assay and stability in a previously untested Preservative media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Mike E; McBride, Simon E; Gomez, Maria P

    2017-12-01

    The suitability and stability of cervical cells in Novaprep media (NHQ) for certain HPV assays is unknown. We evaluated the accuracy of an automated HPV assay (Abbott RealTime HR HPV) for cervical cells prepared in NHQ and NHQ with a pre-treatment to mimic a worst case clinical use, compared to the assay manufacturers media; repeatability and reproducibility of HPV results and the stability of detectable HPV in NHQ over time compared to CE marked liquid based cytology preservatives. Cell lines were used to simulate patient samples. Cells stored in NHQ produced accurate, repeatable and reproducible results. Stability in NHQ was comparable to the best performing LBC, with at least 7 months' stability at 18-25°C, 2-8°C, -20°C and -80°C; and at least 3 months' stability at 40°C. Similar results were obtained for pre-treated NHQ except only 3.5 months' stability at 18-25°C. Cell line samples in all media and concentrations tested were detected appropriately by the assay. Based on this first stage validation analytical study, cervical cells stored in NHQ are suitable for the Realtime HPV assay. There should be no reservations for inclusion of NHQ in any further validation and clinical performance evaluation of this assay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Knowledge of stroke risk factors among primary care patients with previous stroke or TIA: a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strender Lars-Erik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivers of stroke or transient ischaemic attacks (TIA are at risk of new vascular events. Our objective was to study primary health care patients with stroke/TIA regarding their knowledge about risk factors for having a new event of stroke/TIA, possible associations between patient characteristics and patients' knowledge about risk factors, and patients' knowledge about their preventive treatment for stroke/TIA. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 240 patients with stroke/TIA diagnoses, and 182 patients (76% responded. We asked 13 questions about diseases/conditions and lifestyle factors known to be risk factors and four questions regarding other diseases/conditions ("distractors". The patients were also asked whether they considered each disease/condition to be one of their own. Additional questions concerned the patients' social and functional status and their drug use. The t-test was used for continuous variables, chi-square test for categorical variables, and a regression model with variables influencing patient knowledge was created. Results Hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were identified as risk factors by nearly 90% of patients, and atrial fibrillation and diabetes by less than 50%. Few patients considered the distractors as stroke/TIA risk factors (3-6%. Patients with a family history of cardiovascular disease, and patients diagnosed with carotid stenosis, atrial fibrillation or diabetes, knew these were stroke/TIA risk factors to a greater extent than patients without these conditions. Atrial fibrillation or a family history of cardiovascular disease was associated with better knowledge about risk factors, and higher age, cerebral haemorrhage and living alone with poorer knowledge. Only 56% of those taking anticoagulant drugs considered this as intended for prevention, while 48% of those taking platelet aggregation inhibitors thought this was for prevention. Conclusions Knowledge about hypertension

  15. Believing there is no free will corrupts intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protzko, John; Ouimette, Brett; Schooler, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Regardless of whether free will exists, believing that it does affects one's behavior. When an individual's belief in free will is challenged, one can become more likely to act in an uncooperative manner. The mechanism behind the relationship between one's belief in free will and behavior is still debated. The current study uses an economic contribution game under varying time constraints to elucidate whether reducing belief in free will allows one to justify negative behavior or if the effects occur at a more intuitive level of processing. Here we show that although people are intuitively cooperative, challenging their belief in free will corrupts this behavior, leading to impulsive selfishness. If given time to think, however, people are able to override the initial inclination toward self-interest induced by discouraging a belief in free will. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. "What I believe is true": Belief-confirming reasoning bias in social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroling, M.S.; Glashouwer, K.A.; Lange, W.G.; Allart-van Dam, E.; Jong, P.J. de

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Research shows that people tend to consider believable conclusions as valid and unbelievable conclusions as invalid (belief bias). When applied to anxiogenic beliefs, this belief bias could well hinder the correction of dysfunctional convictions. Previous work has shown

  17. "What I believe is true": Belief-confirming reasoning bias in social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroling, M.S.; Glashouwer, K.A.; Lange, W.G.; Allart-van Dam, E.; Jong, P.J. de

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Research shows that people tend to consider believable conclusions as valid and unbelievable conclusions as invalid (belief bias). When applied to anxiogenic beliefs, this belief bias could well hinder the correction of dysfunctional convictions. Previous work has shown

  18. Effect of Self-Believe of Students on Educational Progress of Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Jahani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In educational system of Iran, the students entered to high school after passing elementary school and junior high school by selecting their interested field of study. Among them, the students with weak performance in mathematics continue their studies in the field of human sciences, the students with average performance in mathematics continue their studies in the field of experimental sciences and student with high performance in mathematics continue their studies in the field of mathematics. It seems that there may be a hypothesis telling students with weak performance in mathematics have low self-believe. Therefore, their performance in mathematics may be improved by promoting their self-believe. The purpose of the present research is analysis the factor of self-believe on progress and performance in mathematics. The sample of this study contains 85 girl students of third grade of high school in Karaj City. The method of this research is correlation and the tools of this research include: self-believe test prepared by the researcher for measurement and test of mathematics as index for performance of students in mathematics in three fields of human sciences, experimental sciences and mathematics. The data gained with Pearson correlation coefficient statistical method shows that there is a direct meaningful relationship between self-believe and performance of students in mathematics. Moreover, it is shown that there is a different meaningfulness between the students of experimental sciences and human sciences from viewpoint of self-believe and according to the mean of self-believe it can be concluded that the students in the field of experimental sciences have the most self-believe. Therefore, it seems that the teachers and instructors can promote and establish efficient strategies for promotion of self-believe among students in school and educational institutes and this needs more studies and researches in this regard.

  19. Assessing the Believability of Standardized Patients Trained to Portray Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michael I.; Struijk, Jennie; Herron, Lindsay; Mach, Helen; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the believability of standardized patients portraying individuals with communication disorders as part of a larger study in which standardized patients help train medical and allied health students about communication disorders. Method Two women portrayed persons with aphasia, and 2 men depicted persons with dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease. Two stakeholder groups rated believability. Speech-language pathologists rated believability of videos online. Persons with aphasia rated aphasia videos during in-person sessions with the researchers. Results Targeted believability was 80 or higher (0–100 scale; 0 = not at all believable, 100 = very believable). For speech-language pathologist raters, average ratings met the target for the portrayals of the aphasia characteristics of word-finding problems, agrammaticism, nonverbal communication, and overall portrayal but not for auditory comprehension problems. Targets for the portrayals were met for the dysarthria characteristics of reduced speech movements, reduced loudness, reduced intonation, flat affect, and overall portrayal but not for speech rate. Ratings for different standardized patients portraying the same case were not significantly different from each other on most characteristics. Ratings from persons with aphasia were highly variable. Conclusion Standardized patients who do not have communication disorders can portray disorder characteristics in a believable manner. PMID:28595263

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel W; McCann, Kenneth

    2012-08-29

    Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  1. Do Beginning Psychology of Aging Students Believe 10 Common Myths of Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Paul E.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a study which investigated whether college students enrolled in introductory psychology of aging courses believe 10 common myths about aging. Results showed that students did not subscribe to the myths. (AM)

  2. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  3. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  4. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher le...

  5. What does a "superstitious" person believe? Impressions of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudski, Jeffrey

    2003-10-01

    The questions in surveys in which superstitious belief is examined are based on the researcher or researchers' definitions of superstition and not on participants' definitions. In the present study, 170 undergraduates filled out 2 surveys. In the 1st survey, they were asked to rate 28 possible beliefs of a fictitious person described as "superstitious." In the 2nd survey, they were asked to rate their own level of belief for the same items. An analysis revealed several different factors describing different types of beliefs held by the fictitious person. Ratings for the fictitious person were greatest for socially transmitted beliefs (e.g., black cats, rabbits' feet) or idiosyncratic rituals related to luck and chance, followed by belief in the paranormal (e.g., ghosts), spiritualism (e.g., reincarnation), or psi (e.g., telepathy). Religious beliefs were rated as not being descriptive of the fictitious superstitious person. However, an analysis of the participants' own beliefs revealed that those with higher levels of religious belief also tended to be superstitious and believed in the paranormal.

  6. You can't not believe everything you read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D T; Tafarodi, R W; Malone, P S

    1993-08-01

    Can people comprehend assertions without believing them? Descartes (1644/1984) suggested that people can and should, whereas Spinoza (1677/1982) suggested that people should but cannot. Three experiments support the hypothesis that comprehension includes an initial belief in the information comprehended. Ss were exposed to false information about a criminal defendant (Experiments 1 and 2) or a college student (Experiment 3). Some Ss were exposed to this information while under load (Experiments 1 and 2) or time pressure (Experiment 3). Ss made judgments about the target (sentencing decisions or liking judgments). Both load and time pressure caused Ss to believe the false information and to use it in making consequential decisions about the target. In Spinozan terms, both manipulations prevented Ss from "unbelieving" the false information they automatically believed during comprehension.

  7. A cross-sectional study of tuberculosis drug resistance among previously treated patients in a tertiary hospital in Accra, Ghana: public health implications of standardized regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Audrey; Kwara, Awewura; Kudzawu, Samuel; Omari, Michael; Otu, Jacob; Gehre, Florian; de Jong, Bouke; Antonio, Martin

    2018-04-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance is a major challenge to the use of standardized regimens for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, especially among previously treated patients. We aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of drug resistance among previously treated patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. This was a cross-sectional survey of mycobacterial isolates from previously treated patients referred to the Chest Clinic Laboratory between October 2010 and October 2013. The Bactec MGIT 960 system for mycobactrerial culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) was used for sputum culture of AFB smear-positive patients with relapse, treatment failure, failure of smear conversion, or default. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics, and frequency and patterns of drug resistance. A total of 112 isolates were studied out of 155 from previously treated patients. Twenty contaminated (12.9%) and 23 non-viable isolates (14.8%) were excluded. Of the 112 studied isolates, 53 (47.3%) were pan-sensitive to all first-line drugs tested Any resistance (mono and poly resistance) to isoniazid was found in 44 isolates (39.3%) and any resistance to streptomycin in 43 (38.4%). Thirty-one (27.7%) were MDR-TB. Eleven (35.5%) out of 31 MDR-TB isolates were pre-XDR. MDR-TB isolates were more likely than non-MDR isolates to have streptomycin and ethambutol resistance. The main findings of this study were the high prevalence of MDR-TB and streptomycin resistance among previously treated TB patients, as well as a high prevalence of pre-XDR-TB among the MDR-TB patients, which suggest that first-line and second-line DST is essential to aid the design of effective regimens for these groups of patients in Ghana.

  8. Persecution of believers as a systemic feature of the Soviet regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soskovets Lyubov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the anti-religious policy of the Soviet Union adopted in relation to believers and religious organizations. The reasons for the persecution of religion, churches and believers, such as the conceptual framework of Marxist ideology, desire for total power, and creation of an ideocratic state are analyzed. The main stages of the anti-religious campaign led by the Bolshevik government are determined. Major anti-religious practices, such as legal restriction of all forms of religious life, discrimination against the clergy and believers, atheist education and anti-religious propaganda work are studied. It may be concluded that persecution of believers is a systemic feature of a totalitarian regime.

  9. School Reform We Can't Believe In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Stan

    2010-01-01

    While running for president, Barack Obama called No Child Left Behind (NCLB) "one of the emptiest slogans in the history of American politics." By the time he gets a new version of the law through Congress, his own campaign theme--"change you can believe in"--may be a contender for the same title. In fact, if the healthcare…

  10. Does Doxastic Responsibility Entail the Ability to Believe Otherwise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, H.D.

    2013-01-01

    Whether responsibility for actions and omissions requires the ability to do otherwise is an important issue in contemporary philosophy. However, a closely related but distinct issue, namely whether doxastic responsibility requires the ability to believe otherwise, has been largely neglected. This

  11. Is seeing believing? Perceptions of wildfire risk over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Champ; Hannah Brenkert-Smith

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing challenges to understanding how hazard exposure and disaster experiences influence perceived risk lead us to ask: Is seeing believing? We approach risk perception by attending to two components of overall risk perception: perceived probability of an event occurring and perceived consequences if an event occurs. Using a two-period longitudinal data set...

  12. Do just world believers process unfair authoritative decisions differently?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, M.; Buunk, B.P.; van de Vliert, E.

    This experiment examined whether the frequently observed interactive effect of outcome favorability or fairness and procedural desirability or fairness on perceptions of and reactions to decisions of authorities might be the consequence of people's need to believe in a just world. One hundred and

  13. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Meulemans, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.

    2007-01-01

    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour

  14. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.; Meulemans, M.; van Bremen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour

  15. The impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health: a retrospective study up to 7-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Assenza, Bartolomeo; D'Isidoro, Orlando; Profili, Fabia; Polimeni, Antonella; Vozza, Iole

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health in medium to long-term maintained patients. A retrospective evaluation of partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a regular supportive therapy was performed. Inclusion criteria were: medium to long-term periodontal and implant maintenance (at least 5 years), a minimum of 2 implants placed in each patient, absence of systemic diseases that may affect osseointegration. 30 implants in 15 patients were included in the study. Subjects were divided in smokers or non-smokers and between patients previously affected by periodontal disease and periodontally healthy. Peri-implant and periodontal parameters were assessed (PD,BoP, mPI). Microbiological samples were collected around implant and an adjacent tooth. Real- Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed. In all the three groups no differences in bacterial counts between dental and implant sites were observed. Non smoker, healthy patients: healthy clinical parameters, significant counts of spirochetes in isolated patients. Non smokers with previous periodontal disease: occasional positive BoP values, significant high counts of pathogenic bacteria. Smokers with previous periodontal disease: clinical signs of inflammation including deep pockets and slight bone resorption, significant counts of pathogenic bacteria. Over a follow-up of 5 to 7 years, it is possible to state that the absence of smoking habit and previous periodontal disease positively influences the peri-implant microbiological and clinical conditions in partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a strict regular supportive therapy.

  16. Mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with different insulin secretagogues compared with metformin in type 2 diabetes, with or without a previous myocardial infarction: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Vaag, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Aims The impact of insulin secretagogues (ISs) on long-term major clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We examined mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with all available ISs compared with metformin in a nationwide study. Methods and results All Danish residents >20 years......, initiating single-agent ISs or metformin between 1997 and 2006 were followed for up to 9 years (median 3.3 years) by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and the composite of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cardiovascular mortality...... associated with individual ISs were investigated in patients with or without previous MI by multivariable Cox proportional-hazard analyses including propensity analyses. A total of 107 806 subjects were included, of whom 9607 had previous MI. Compared with metformin, glimepiride (hazard ratios and 95...

  17. Risk for high depressive symptoms in diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes: 5-year follow-up results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Icks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. METHODS: We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD 59.1 (7.6 years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULT: Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2-10.9, 4.1 (1.8-8.0, and 6.5 (5.6-7.4, respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74-2.03 in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59-1.68 after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35-1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30-1.30. CONCLUSION: We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  18. Comparison of time until elective intestinal resection regarding previous anti-tumor necrosis factor exposure: a Brazilian study on patients with Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gustavo Kotze

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF agents seems to reduce surgical rates and delay surgical procedures in prospective trials and population-based studies in the management of Crohn's disease (CD. This study aimed to identify whether preoperative anti-TNF agents influence the time from diagnosis to surgery. Methods: An observational retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with CD submitted to intestinal resections due to complications or medical therapy failure in a period of 7 years. The patients were allocated into 2 groups according to their previous exposure to anti-TNF agents in the preoperative period. Epidemiological aspects regarding age at diagnosis, smoking, perianal disease, and preoperative conventional therapy were considered. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to outline possible differences between the groups regarding the time to surgery. Results: A total of 123 patients were included (71 and 52 with and without previous exposure to biologics, respectively. The overall time to surgery was 108±6.9 months (maximum, 276 months. The survival estimation revealed no difference in the mean time to intestinal resection between the groups (99.78±10.62 months in the patients without and 114.01±9.07 months in those with previous anti-TNF use (log-rank P=0.35. There was no significant difference in the time to surgery regarding perianal CD (P=0.49, smoking (P=0.63, preoperative azathioprine (P=0.073 and steroid use (P=0.58. Conclusions: The time from diagnosis to surgery was not influenced by the preoperative use of anti-TNF therapy in this cohort of patients.

  19. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrard François

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding, as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI, as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds. Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders, breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2 was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI  Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study.

  20. Accuracy of preoperative real-time dynamic transvaginal ultrasound sliding sign in prediction of pelvic adhesions in women with previous abdominopelvic surgery: prospective, multicenter, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayachi, A; Bouchahda, R; Derouich, S; Mkaouer, L; Kehila, M; Abouda, H; Channoufi, B; Bouyahia, M; Braham, M; Zhioua, F; Bouchahda, H; Mourali, M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the role of the transvaginal sonographic (TVS) sliding sign in predicting pelvic adhesions in women with previous abdominopelvic surgery. This was a multicenter, prospective, interventional, double-blind study of patients with a history of abdominopelvic surgery who were undergoing laparoscopy or laparotomy during the 6-month period from March to August 2016 in one of three academic obstetrics and gynecology departments. Prior to surgery, patients were examined by TVS to assess the vesicouterine pouch, uterus, ovaries and pouch of Douglas, using the TVS pelvic sliding sign. Ultrasound findings and medical and surgical data were recorded. We assessed the accuracy of the preoperative TVS sliding sign in the prediction of pelvic adhesions overall and in each compartment separately. During the study period, complete TVS sliding sign and laparoscopic or laparotomic data were available for 107 women. Their mean age was 44.0 (95% CI, 41.6-46.4; range, 20-79) years. Their mean parity was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.7-2.3; range, 0-9) and the mean number of previous abdominal surgical procedures per patient was 1.3 (95% CI, 1.2-1.5; range, 1-4). Adhesions were noted in 27/107 (25.2%) patients. The TVS sliding sign had a sensitivity of 96.3% and specificity of 92.6% in predicting pelvic adhesions. There was a significant relationship between adhesions in each compartment and the TVS sliding sign (P sign is an effective means to detect preoperatively pelvic adhesions in patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery. Use of such a non-invasive and well-tolerated technique could help in the planning of laparoscopy or laparotomy and counseling of these patients. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The contribution of previous lameness events and body condition score to the occurrence of lameness in dairy herds: A study of 2 herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Green, L E; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Huxley, J N

    2018-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that low body condition and previous occurrence of lameness increase the risk of future lameness in dairy cows. To date the population attributable fraction (PAF), which provides an estimate of the contribution that a risk factor makes toward the total number of disease events in a population, has not been explored for lameness using longitudinal data with repeated measures. Estimation of PAF helps to identify control measures that could lead to the largest improvements on-farm. The aim of this study was to use longitudinal data to evaluate the proportion of lameness that could be avoided in 2 separate herds (2 populations) through (1) reduced recurrence of previous lameness events, (2) and moving body condition score (BCS) into more optimal ranges. Data were obtained from 2 UK dairy herds: herd A, a 200-cow herd with 8 yr of data from a total of 724 cows where lameness events were based on weekly locomotion scores (LS; 1 to 5 scale), and herd B, a 600-cow herd with data recorded over 44 mo from a total of 1,040 cows where treatment of clinical cases was used to identify lameness events. The PAF for categories of BCS were estimated using a closed equation appropriate for multiple exposure categories. Simulation models were used to explore theoretical scenarios to reflect changes in BCS and recurrence of previous lameness events in each herd. For herd A, 21.5% of the total risk periods (cow-weeks) contained a lameness event (LS 3, 4, or 5), 96% of which were repeat events and 19% were recorded with BCS events were based on 2 consecutive weeks of LS 4 or 5, 4% of risk periods were recorded as lame, of which 89.5% were repeat events. For herd B, 16.3% of the total risk periods (consecutive 30 d) contained a lameness event (72.6% were repeat events) and 20% were recorded with BCS ≤2 (0 to 120 d previously). The median PAF for all previous lameness was between 79 and 83% in the 2 herds. Between 9 and 21% of lameness events could be attributed

  2. A pilot study of a metronomic chemotherapy regimen with weekly low-dose docetaxel for previously treated non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoi T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Yokoi, Takeshi Tamaki, Toshiki Shimizu, Shosaku NomuraFirst Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi City, Osaka, JapanBackground: Low-dose metronomic (LDM chemotherapy is a novel approach that involves frequent administration of a low dose of chemotherapeutic agent without a long interval.Purpose: The aim of this clinical pilot study was to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of LDM chemotherapy with weekly low-dose docetaxel for previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.Patients and methods: The enrolled patients received 15 mg/m2 of docetaxel intravenously on a weekly basis without any interval.Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in the study; 20 were men, and seven were women. The median age was 62 years (range: 32–75. Eleven patients were stage IIIB, and 16 were stage IV. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 or 1. There was no severe hematological adverse effect; importantly, there was no neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. The objective response rate was 7.4% and the disease control rate was 51.9%. The median survival time was 16.4 months (95% CI: 5.7–36.4.Conclusion: Our preliminary results indicate that our metronomic regimen was well tolerated and active in patients with previously treated NSCLC. Thus, further investigation of this LDM regimen is warranted.Keywords: optimal biological dose, metronomic chemotherapy, docetaxel

  3. Outcome of secondary high-grade glioma in children previously treated for a malignant condition: A study of the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carret, Anne-Sophie; Tabori, Uri; Crooks, Bruce; Hukin, Juliette; Odame, Isaac; Johnston, Donna L.; Keene, Daniel L.; Freeman, Carolyn; Bouffet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reports of secondary high-grade glioma (HGG) in survivors of childhood cancer are scarce. The aim of this study was to review the pattern of diagnosis, the treatment, and outcome of secondary pediatric HGG. Patients and methods: We performed a multi-center retrospective study among the 17 paediatric institutions participating in the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium (CPBTC). Results: We report on 18 patients (14 males, 4 females) treated in childhood for a primary cancer, who subsequently developed a HGG as a second malignancy. All patients had previously received radiation therapy +/- chemotherapy for either acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 9) or solid tumour (n = 9). All HGG occurred within the previous radiation fields. At the last follow-up, 17 patients have died and the median survival time is 9.75 months. Conclusion: Although aggressive treatment seems to provide sustained remissions in some patients, the optimal management is still to be defined. Further documentation of such cases is necessary in order to better understand the pathogenesis, the natural history and the prevention of these tumours

  4. Does using testicular sperm retrieval rather than ejaculated spermatozoa improve reproductive outcomes in couples with previous ART failure and poor ovarian response? A case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, A R; Younes, G; Tannus, S; Son, W Y; Chan, P; Buckett, W

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether testicular-retrieved spermatozoa improve reproductive outcomes compared to fresh ejaculate in women with poor ovarian response and a history of previous ART failure. The study was performed as a retrospective case-control study at a university-based reproductive center in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Eighteen poor-responder patients were matched 3 : 1 with 54 controls. Poor responders were defined as those with ≤3 oocytes retrieved at oocyte pickup. Cases were identified as poor responders, and only those with previous IVF failure(s) as an indication for testicular-retrieved spermatozoa were included. Controls were age and cycle attempt number matched. All patients were included only once. From January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2015, all patients and controls underwent an IVF cycle using ICSI with either testicular spermatozoa or ejaculated spermatozoa, respectively. Outcomes included live birth rate, pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate, oocyte number, and embryo transfer (ET) day. The results showed live birth rates, pregnancy rates, and miscarriage rates were similar. There were fewer day 2 ETs (8.5% vs. 48.6%, p = 0.01) and more day 5 blastocyst transfers (25.0% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.05) in the testicular sperm retrieval group compared to controls and thus an overall suggestion of better embryo quality in the testicular sperm group. Overall, however, the use of testicular sperm retrieval appears to add little. Women with poor ovarian response typically have a poor prognosis with respect to live birth rates, and this is further supported in this study. The suggestion of better embryo quality in the testicular-retrieved sperm group would need to be further assessed in a larger multicentered study. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  5. Vitamin D deficiency in medical patients at a central hospital in Malawi: a comparison with TB patients from a previous study.

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    Yamikani Mastala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD in adult medical, non-tuberculous (non-TB patients. To investigate associations with VDD. To compare the results with a similar study in TB patients at the same hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample. SETTING: Central hospital in Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-TB patients (n = 157, inpatients and outpatients. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the prevalence of VDD. Potentially causal associations sought included nutritional status, in/outpatient status, HIV status, anti-retroviral therapy (ART and, by comparison with a previous study, a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D (≤75 nmol/L occurred in 47.8% (75/157 of patients, 16.6% (26/157 of whom had VDD (≤50 nmol/L. None had severe VDD (≤25 nmol/L. VDD was found in 22.8% (23/101 of in-patients and 5.4% (3/56 of out-patients. In univariable analysis in-patient status, ART use and low dietary vitamin D were significant predictors of VDD. VDD was less prevalent than in previously studied TB patients in the same hospital (68/161 = 42%. In multivariate analysis of the combined data set from both studies, having TB (OR 3.61, 95%CI 2.02-6.43 and being an in-patient (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.46-5.01 were significant independent predictors of VDD. CONCLUSIONS: About half of adult medical patients without TB have suboptimal vitamin D status, which is more common in in-patients. VDD is much more common in TB patients than non-TB patients, even when other variables are controlled for, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with TB.

  6. Reduced live-birth rates after IVF/ICSI in women with previous unilateral oophorectomy: results of a multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Tekla; Holte, Jan; Olofsson, Jan I; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Gudmundsson, Johannes; Nedstrand, Elizabeth; Lood, Mikael; Berglund, Lars; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny

    2018-02-01

    Is there a reduced live-birth rate (LBR) after IVF/ICSI treatment in women with a previous unilateral oophorectomy (UO)? A significantly reduced LBR after IVF/ICSI was found in women with previous UO when compared with women with intact ovaries in this large multicentre cohort, both crudely and after adjustment for age, BMI, fertility centre and calendar period and regardless of whether the analysis was based on transfer of embryos in the fresh cycle only or on cumulative results including transfers using frozen-thawed embryos. Similar pregnancy rates after IVF/ICSI have been previously reported in case-control studies and small cohort studies of women with previous UO versus women without ovarian surgery. In all previous studies multiple embryos were transferred. No study has previously evaluated LBR in a large cohort of women with a history of UO. This research was a multicentre cohort study, including five reproductive medicine centres in Sweden: Carl von Linné Clinic (A), Karolinska University Hospital (B), Uppsala University Hospital (C), Linköping University Hospital (D) and Örebro University Hospital (E). The women underwent IVF/ICSI between January 1999 and November 2015. Single embryo transfer (SET) was performed in approximately 70% of all treatments, without any significant difference between UO exposed women versus controls (68% versus 71%), respectively (P = 0.32), and a maximum of two embryos were transferred in the remaining cases. The dataset included all consecutive treatments and fresh and frozen-thawed cycles. The exposed cohort included 154 women with UO who underwent 301 IVF/ICSI cycles and the unexposed control cohort consisted of 22 693 women who underwent 41 545 IVF/ICSI cycles. Overall, at the five centres (A-E), the exposed cohort underwent 151, 34, 35, 41 and 40 treatments, respectively, and they were compared with controls of the same centre (18 484, 8371, 5575, 4670 and 4445, respectively). The primary outcome was LBR, which was

  7. Everolimus Plus Exemestane in Advanced Breast Cancer: Safety Results of the BALLET Study on Patients Previously Treated Without and with Chemotherapy in the Metastatic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generali, Daniele; Montemurro, Filippo; Bordonaro, Roberto; Mafodda, Antonino; Romito, Sante; Michelotti, Andrea; Piovano, Pierluigi; Ionta, Maria Teresa; Bighin, Claudia; Sartori, Donata; Frassoldati, Antonio; Cazzaniga, Marina Elena; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Testore, Franco; Vici, Patrizia; Barone, Carlo Antonio; Schirone, Alessio; Piacentini, Federico; Nolè, Franco; Molino, Annamaria; Latini, Luciano; Simoncini, Edda Lucia; Roila, Fausto; Cognetti, Francesco; Nuzzo, Francesco; Foglietta, Jennifer; Minisini, Alessandro Marco; Goffredo, Francesca; Portera, Giuseppe; Ascione, Gilda; Mariani, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The BALLET study was an open-label, multicenter, expanded access study designed to allow treatment with everolimus plus exemestane in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer progressed following prior endocrine therapy. A post hoc analysis to evaluate if previous chemotherapy in the metastatic setting affects the safety profile of the combination regimen of everolimus and exemestane was conducted on the Italian subset, as it represented the major part of the patients enrolled (54%). One thousand one hundred and fifty-one Italian patients were included in the present post hoc analysis, which focused on two sets of patients: patients who never received chemotherapy in the metastatic setting (36.1%) and patients who received at least one chemotherapy treatment in the metastatic setting (63.9%). One thousand one hundred and sixteen patients (97.0%) prematurely discontinued the study drug, and the main reasons reported were disease progression (39.1%), local reimbursement of everolimus (31.1%), and adverse events (AEs) (16.1%). The median duration of study treatment exposure was 139.5 days for exemestane and 135.0 days for everolimus. At least one AE was experienced by 92.5% of patients. The incidence of everolimus-related AEs was higher (83.9%) when compared with those that occurred with exemestane (29.1%), and the most commonly reported everolimus-related AE was stomatitis (51.3%). However, no significant difference in terms of safety related to the combination occurred between patients without and with chemotherapy in the metastatic setting. Real-life data of the Italian patients BALLET-related cohort were an adequate setting to state that previous chemotherapy did not affect the safety profile of the combination regimen of everolimus and exemestane. With the advent of new targeted agents for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, multiple lines of therapy may be possible, and components of the combined regimens can overlap from

  8. Higher frequency of hamstring injuries in elite track and field athletes who had a previous injury to the ankle - a 17 years observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Bikos, Georgios; Meke, Maria; Vasileios, Korakakis; Valle, Xavier; Lohrer, Heinz; Maffulli, Nicola; Padhiar, Nat

    2018-01-01

    Inversion injury to the ankle and hamstring injuries are common problems in most sports. It is not known whether these injuries constitute a predisposing factor or a precursor of injury or re-injury of these anatomical locations. Therefore, we wished to test the hypothesis that a previous inversion ankle injury exerted a significant effect on the chance of an athlete suffering from a subsequent ipsilateral hamstring injury and vice versa. In an observational cohort study over 17 years (1998-2015), 367 elite track and field athletes, were grouped according to their first traumatic isolated ankle or hamstring injury. Fifty athletes experienced both injuries. The Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests ( p  < 0.05) were performed to test possible associations of ankle and hamstring injury with age, gender, athletics discipline, grade, and type of antecedent injury. Athletes with a preceding ankle injury had a statistically significantly higher chance of experiencing a subsequent hamstring injury compared with athletes who had experienced a hamstring injury as their first traumatic event (x 2  = 4.245, p  = 0.039). The proportion of both ankle and hamstring injury events was not statistically different between female (18%) and male (11%) athletes. Age and grade of injury did not influence the proportion of ankle and/or hamstring injury events. There is a statistically significantly higher frequency of hamstring injuries in elite track and field athletes having experienced a previous ankle ligament injury.

  9. Teachers’ beliefs – believing in teaching incarcerated persons (English version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Schumacher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article gives insight into a German as a foreign language course in a prison in the German speaking part of Switzerland. From the perspective of the teacher, the author reflects on beliefs and assumptions regarding professional issues which are carried into this specific learning setting and challenges these by contrasting them with anecdotal accounts. She advocates the view that rather than try and do away with beliefs teachers should believe in incarcerated person’s capability to learn and achieve.

  10. BETWEEN KNOWING AND BELIEVING: SALVAGING ILLUSION'S RIGHTFUL PLACE IN PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Illusion has historically received insufficient psychoanalytic attention, even though it plays an indispensable and adaptive role that helps protect individuals from becoming traumatized by the most psychically noxious aspects of reality. Trauma is mitigated by an individual's knowing about the existence of such realities yet simultaneously believing them non-existent, with neither position granted exclusivity. Psychoanalytic theory is surprisingly predicated on the employment of illusions that picture an individual capable of controlling the potentially traumatic actions of others, just so long as the individual effectively manages his own intrapsychic processes (wishes, fantasies, impulses, etc.). The role of illusion in everyday life is highlighted. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  11. A longitudinal study of relationships between previous academic achievement, emotional intelligence and personality traits with psychological health of medical students during stressful periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Esa, Ab Rahman; Mat Pa, Mohamad Najib; Mey, See Ching; Aziz, Rosniza Abdul; Abdul Rahim, Ahmad Fuad

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that emotional intelligence, previous academic achievement (i.e. cumulative grade point average (GPA)) and personality are associated with success in various occupational settings. This study evaluated the relationships of these variables with psychological health of first year medical students during stressful periods. A 1-year prospective study was done with students accepted into the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Information on emotional intelligence, GPA and personality traits were obtained prior to admission. The validated Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory and Universiti Sains Malaysia Personality Inventory were used to measure emotional intelligence and personality traits, respectively. Stress, anxiety and depression were measured by the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale during the end-of-course (time 1) and final (time 2) examinations. At the less stressful period (time 1), stress level was associated with agreeableness and the final GPA, anxiety level was associated with emotional control and emotional conscientiousness and depression level was associated with the final GPA and extraversion. At the more stressful period (time 2), neuroticism associated with stress level, anxiety level was associated with neuroticism and emotional expression, and depression level was associated with neuroticism. This study found that neuroticism was the strongest associated factor of psychological health of medical students during their most stressful testing period. Various personality traits, emotional intelligence and previous academic performance were associated factors of psychological health during a less stressful period. These data suggest that early identification of medical students who are vulnerable to the stressful environment of medical schools might help them maintain psychological well-being during medical training.

  12. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERINATAL OUTCOME IN WOMEN WITH RECURRENT PREECLAMPSIA TO WOMEN WITH PRE-ECLAMPSIA WHO WERE NORMOTENSIVE DURING THEIR PREVIOUS PREGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Guhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Pre-eclampsia is a systemic syndrome that occurs in 3-5% of the pregnant women and is the leading cause of maternal/neonatal morbidity and mortality. We designed a study to compare perinatal outcome in women with recurrent preeclampsia to women with women with pre-eclampsia who were normotensive during their previous pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Government Medical College, Kozhikode for a period of 1 year from March 2013 to February 2014. We conducted this study in multiparous women who developed pre-eclampsia in index pregnancy (n=110. Among these, women who had pre-eclampsia in previous pregnancies (n=55 were compared to those who remained normotensive during their prior pregnancies (n=55. Maternal and foetal variables were compared. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed to examine the impact of pre-eclampsia on foetal outcome, preterm delivery, IUGR, still births adjusted for confounding variables. RESULTS No statistical significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in terms of age, gravida, parity. Women who experienced recurrent pre-eclampsia were at elevated risk for early onset of pre-eclampsia, deranged laboratory investigations (Hepatic and Renal parameters, Coagulation Profile, higher chances of maternal complications, foetal mortality and morbidity (Statistically significant P <0.05. Foetal loss was higher in women with recurrent pre-eclampsia (14.5% than in women with pre-eclampsia who had normotensive pregnancy history (1.8%. CONCLUSION Women with recurrent pre-eclampsia had a higher rate of perinatal loss compared to women with pre-eclampsia who were normotensive in their prior pregnancies.

  13. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias in a previously unscreened population--a pooled analysis from three studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Mittal, Srabani; Bhaumik, Suchismita; Mandal, Shyam Sunder; Samaddar, Anusree; Ray, Chinmayi; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Biswas, Jaydip; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2013-04-01

    Population prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) is an important indicator to judge the disease burden in the community, to monitor the performance of cervical cancer screening program and to assess the impact of HPV vaccination program. India being a country without any cervical cancer screening program has no published data on the population prevalence of CIN and only a few large community-based studies to report the high-risk HPV prevalence. The objective of our study was to study HPV and CIN prevalence in a previously unscreened population. We pooled together the results of three research studies originally designed to assess the performance of visual inspection after acetic acid application and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC 2). Nearly 60% of the screened women had colposcopy irrespective of their screening test results. The diagnosis and grading of cervical neoplasias were based on histology. The age standardized prevalence of HPV by HC 2 test was 6.0%. Age-adjusted prevalence of CIN1 and CIN2 was 2.3% and 0.5%, respectively. The age-adjusted prevalence of CIN3 was 0.4% and that of invasive cancer was 0.2%. The prevalence of high-risk HPV was relatively low in the population we studied, which is reflected in the low prevalence of high-grade CIN. The prevalence of CIN3 remained constant across age groups due to absence of screening. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  14. Russian Old Believers: genetic consequences of their persecution and exile, as shown by mitochondrial DNA evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Samara; Dulik, Matthew C; Gokcumen, Omer; Zhadanov, Sergey; Osipova, Ludmila; Cocca, Maggie; Mehta, Nishi; Gubina, Marina; Posukh, Olga; Schurr, Theodore G

    2008-06-01

    In 1653, the Patriarch Nikon modified liturgical practices to bring the Russian Orthodox Church in line with those of the Eastern (Greek) Orthodox Church, from which it had split 200 years earlier. The Old Believers (staroveri) rejected these changes and continued to worship using the earlier practices. These actions resulted in their persecution by the Russian Orthodox Church, which forced them into exile across Siberia. Given their history, we investigate whether populations of Old Believers have diverged genetically from other Slavic populations as a result of their isolation. We also examine whether the three Old Believer populations analyzed in this study are part of a single gene pool (founder population) or are instead derived from heterogeneous sources. As part of this analysis, we survey the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of 189 Russian Old Believer individuals from three populations in Siberia and 201 ethnic Russians from different parts of Siberia for phylogenetically informative mutations in the coding and noncoding regions. Our results indicate that the Old Believers have not significantly diverged genetically from other Slavic populations over the 200-300 years of their isolation in Siberia. However, they do show some unique patterns of mtDNA variation relative to other Slavic groups, such as a high frequency of subhaplogroup U4, a surprisingly low frequency of haplogroup H, and low frequencies of the rare East Eurasian subhaplogroup D5.

  15. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl

    2008-01-01

    and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC......INTRODUCTION: Treatment with a topoisomerase I inhibitor in combination with a platinum results in superior or equal survival compared with etoposide-based treatment in extensive disease small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Five-day topotecan is inconvenient and therefore shorter schedules of topotecan......, adequate organ functions and performance status less than 3 were eligible. Topotecan (2.0 mg/m, intravenously) was administered on days 1 to 3 with cisplatin (50 mg/m, intravenously) on day 3 every 3 weeks for a total of six cycles. RESULTS: Forty-three patients received 219 cycles of chemotherapy. Median...

  16. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  17. Women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous caesarean section in Taiwan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Wen; Hutchinson, Alison M; Nagle, Cate; Bucknall, Tracey K

    2018-01-17

    Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is an alternative option for women who have had a previous caesarean section (CS); however, uptake is limited because of concern about the risks of uterine rupture. The aim of this study was to explore women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous CS. A qualitative approach was used. The research comprised three stages. Stage I consisted of naturalistic observation at 33-34 weeks' gestation. Stage II involved interviews with pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation. Stage III consisted of interviews with the same women who were interviewed postnatally, 1 month after birth. The research was conducted in a private medical centre in northern Taiwan. Using a purposive sampling, 21 women and 9 obstetricians were recruited. Data collection involved in-depth interviews, observation and field notes. Constant comparative analysis was employed for data analysis. Ensuring the safety of mother and baby was the focus of women's decisions. Women's decisions-making influences included previous birth experience, concern about the risks of vaginal birth, evaluation of mode of birth, current pregnancy situation, information resources and health insurance. In communicating with obstetricians, some women complied with obstetricians' recommendations for repeat caesarean section (RCS) without being informed of alternatives. Others used four step decision-making processes that included searching for information, listening to obstetricians' professional judgement, evaluating alternatives, and making a decision regarding mode of birth. After birth, women reflected on their decisions in three aspects: reflection on birth choices; reflection on factors influencing decisions; and reflection on outcomes of decisions. The health and wellbeing of mother and baby were the major concerns for women. In response to the decision-making influences, women's interactions with obstetricians regarding birth choices

  18. Effect of treatment of a previous ectopic pregnancy on in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Yan, Lei; Liu, Wen; Xu, Xinxin; Li, Miao; Ding, Lingling; Ma, Jinlong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of previous ectopic pregnancies (EP) and different EP treatment methods on in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. University-based reproductive medicine center. Women undergoing 51,268 fresh cycles of IVF-ICSI. In women who had had an EP before the IVF treatment and women who were diagnosed with fallopian disease without an EP (control group), division into three treatment subgroups: subgroup 1, conservative treatment; subgroup 2, salpingostomy; and subgroup 3 salpingectomy. Estimates of IVF-ICSI outcome and ovarian function based on number of antral follicles and rates of implantation, EP, clinical pregnancy, and delivery. For the experimental group and the control group, there were no statistically significant differences in the rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, or delivery. However, the risk of recurrent EP was statistically significantly higher in the experimental group compared with the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in IVF-ICSI outcomes between the three treatment subgroups in terms of the basic antral follicle number or the dominant antral follicle numbers (>1.0 cm) after surgical treatment of EP. Our results suggest that women with a prior history of EP have a higher recurrence risk of EP after IVF in comparison with women with no history of EP. Previous EP has no effect on the main IVF-ICSI outcomes. For the treatment of EP, salpingostomy and salpingectomy do not statistically significantly affect ovarian function. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Two consecutive phase II studies of oxaliplatin (L-OHP) for treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma who were resistant to previous treatment with fluoropyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machover, D; Diaz-Rubio, E; de Gramont, A; Schilf, A; Gastiaburu, J J; Brienza, S; Itzhaki, M; Metzger, G; N'Daw, D; Vignoud, J; Abad, A; Francois, E; Gamelin, E; Marty, M; Sastre, J; Seitz, J F; Ychou, M

    1996-01-01

    Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a platinum complex that possesses activity against human and murine cells in vitro and in vivo, including colorectal carcinoma-derived cell lines, and cells that have been selected for resistance to cisplatin. We report two consecutive phase II trials of L-OHP for treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. Fifty-eight patients were entered in study I, and 51 patients in study II. All of the patients had tumor progression when they were treated, prior to their enrollment, with a fluoropyrimidine-containing regimen. In both trials treatment consisted of L-OHP, 130 mg/m2, by i.v. infusion for two hours; the treatment was repeated every 21 days. Response to therapy: Study I: Fifty-five patients were assessed for response. The response rate was 11% (95% CI, 0.03-0.19). Study II: All 51 patients were assessed for response. The response rate was 10% (95% CI, 0.017-0.18). The overall response rate for the 106 evaluated patients was 10% (95% CI, 0.046-0.16). Times to disease progression in responders were 4, 4, 4.5+, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 6+, 9, and 13 months. The dose-limiting toxic effect was sensory peripheral neuropathy. The incidence of severe peripheral neuropathy grades was: Study I: grade 3, 23% of patients, and grade 4, 8% of patients. Severe neuropathy had a favorable course in all of the patients who had long-term neurologic follow-up. Diarrhea and myeloid impairment were minor. L-OHP produced modest, but definite antitumor activity in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma who were previously resistant to chemotherapy including fluoropyrimidines. Toxicity is within acceptable limits of tolerance at the dose and schedule of oxaliplatin used in this trial.

  20. 'I don't know if I should believe him': Knowledge and believability in interviews with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Clara

    2014-06-01

    Social psychologists interested in social interaction have, in recent years, addressed the ways that people negotiate 'who is entitled to know what' across a variety of conversational settings. Using recordings of interviews conducted as a part of a Swedish national evaluation of interventions for abused children, the current article examines how children navigate knowledge and its moral implications. The analysis focuses on a particular question ('What do you believe [the perpetrator] thinks about what he has done'), which draws on the psychological concept of mentalization: the cognitive ability to picture others' mental states based on their behaviour. The findings suggest that the concept of mentalization fails to account for the moral properties of knowing someone's thoughts: The perpetrator, most often the child's father, must be believable - recognized as both credible and knowable - for the children to claim access to his thoughts. The interviewees used contrastive constructions in claims of (no) access to their fathers' thoughts as they simultaneously contested idiomatic knowledge that undermined their claims. The article contributes to recent developments in discursive social psychology concerning how subjectivity, in particular, epistemic stance, is managed in institutional interaction, and continues the discursive psychological project of respecifying concepts such as mentalization. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Are Some of the Cigar Warnings Mandated in the U.S. More Believable Than Others?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L. Jarman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Text warnings are mandated on cigars sold in the United States (U.S., however little published research has examined effectiveness of cigar warnings. This is the first study examining the believability of cigar warnings among adults in the U.S. Methods: Adults in the U.S. (n = 5014 were randomized in a phone survey to receive one of three cigar-specific mandated warning messages (“Cigar smoking can cause cancers of the mouth and throat, even if you do not inhale”, “Cigar smoking can cause lung cancer and heart disease”, and “Cigars are not a safe alternative to cigarettes” with one of four warning sources (no source, Surgeon General, CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, FDA (Food and Drug Administration. Results: Most adults found the cigar warnings very believable (66.9%. Weighted logistic regression results indicate that the message “Cigar smoking can cause lung cancer and heart disease” was associated with higher odds of being very believable (AOR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.55, 2.70 and the message “Cigars are not a safe alternative to cigarettes” was associated with lower odds of being very believable (AOR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.92 compared to the message “Cigar smoking can cause cancers of the mouth and throat, even if you do not inhale”. Warning source had no impact on believability. Conclusions: We tested three of the currently mandated cigar warnings in the U.S. and found significant differences in believability between them. Further research on cigar warnings may improve communication to the public on cigar health risks, ultimately preventing uptake of cigars and promoting cessation among cigar users.

  2. The priming effect of previous natural pandemic H1N1 infection on the immunogenicity to subsequent 2010-2011 influenza vaccination in children: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Kyeong; Eun, Byung Wook; Kim, Nam Hee; Lim, Jung Sub; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho

    2016-08-22

    The effect of previous natural pandemic H1N1 (H1N1 pdm09) influenza infection on the immunogenicity to subsequent inactivated influenza vaccination in children has not been well studied. We aimed to evaluate the effect of H1N1 pdm09 natural infection and vaccination on the immunogenicity to subsequent 2010-2011 seasonal inactivated influenza vaccination in children. From October 2010 to May 2011, we conducted an open-label, multi-center study in children aged 6 months -18 years in Korea. We measured antibody titers with a hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months after vaccination with trivalent split or subunit vaccines containing H1N1 pdm, A/H3N2, and B. The subjects were classified into 4 groups depending on the presence of laboratory-confirmed H1N1 pdm09 infection and/or vaccination in the 2009-2010 season; Group I: vaccination (-)/infection(-), Group II: vaccination (-)/infection(+), Group III: vaccination (+)/infection(-), Group IV: vaccination (+)/infection(+). Among the subjects in group I, 47 subjects who had a baseline titer >1:10 were considered to have an asymptomatic infection. They were included into the final group II (n = 80). We defined the new group II as the infection-primed (IP) group and group III as the vaccine-primed (VP) group. Seroconversion rate (57.5 % vs 35.9 %, p = 0.001), seroprotection rate at 6 months after vaccination (70.8 % vs 61.8 %, p = 0.032), and GMT at 1 month after vaccination (129.9 vs 66.5, p = 0.002) were significantly higher in the IP group than in the VP group. In the 9-18 year-old group, seroconversion rate and immunogenicity at 1 and 6 months were significantly higher in the IP group than in the VP group. However in the 1-7 year-old age group, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Previous H1N1 pdm09 infection appears to have positive effects on immunogenicity of subsequent inactivated influenza vaccines against H1N1 pdm09 in older

  3. A prospective flexible-dose study of paliperidone palmitate in nonacute but symptomatic patients with schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with oral antipsychotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Andreas; Bergmans, Paul; Cherubin, Pierre; Keim, Sofia; Rancans, Elmars; Bez, Yasin; Parellada, Eduard; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Vidailhet, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of flexible doses of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP) in the subset of nonacute but symptomatic adult patients with schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with oral antipsychotic agents in the PALMFlexS (Paliperidone Palmitate Flexible Dosing in Schizophrenia) study. This was an interventional, single-arm, international, multicenter, unblinded, 6-month study performed in patients with schizophrenia. Patients were categorized according to reasons for switching. In patients switching because of lack of efficacy or for other reasons, primary efficacy outcomes were the proportion achieving treatment response (defined as ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] total score from baseline to last-observation-carried-forward end point) and maintained efficacy (defined as noninferiority in the change in PANSS total score at end point versus baseline [Schuirmann's test]), respectively. A total of 593 patients (intention-to-treat population) were enrolled: 63.1% were male; their mean (SD) age was 38.4 (11.8) years; and 78.6% had paranoid schizophrenia. The main reasons for transition to PP were patient's wish (n = 259 [43.7%]), lack of efficacy (n = 144 [24.3%]), lack of compliance (n = 138 [23.3%]), and lack of tolerability (n = 52 [8.8%]) with the previous oral antipsychotic medication. The recommended PP initiation regimen (150 milligram equivalents [mg eq] day 1 and 100 mg eq day 8) was administered in 93.9% of patients. Mean PANSS total score decreased from 71.5 (14.6) at baseline to 59.7 (18.1) at end point (mean change, -11.7 [15.9]; 95% CI, -13.0 to -10.5; P < 0.0001). Sixty-four percent of patients showed an improvement of ≥20% in PANSS total score, and the percentage of patients rated mildly ill or less in Clinical Global Impression-Severity increased from 31.8% to 63.2%. Mean personal and social performance total score (SD) increased

  4. Safety and tolerability of frovatriptan in the acute treatment of migraine and prevention of menstrual migraine: Results of a new analysis of data from five previously published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, E Anne; Pawsey, Stephen P; Campbell, John C; Hu, Xiaojun

    2010-04-01

    Triptans are a recommended first-line treatment for moderate to severe migraine. Using clinical trial data, we evaluated the safety and tolerability of frovatriptan as acute treatment (AT) and as short-term preventive (STP) therapy for menstrual migraine (MM). Data from 2 Phase III AT trials (AT1: randomized, placebo controlled, 1 attack; AT2: 12-months, noncomparative, open label) and 3 Phase IIIb STP trials in MM (MMP1 and MMP2: randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, 3 perimenstrual periods; MMP3: open label, noncomparative, 12 perimenstrual periods) were analyzed. In AT1, patients treated each attack with frovatriptan 2.5 mg, sumatriptan 100 mg, or placebo. In AT2, they used frovatriptan 2.5 mg. In MMP1 and MMP2, women administered frovatriptan 2.5 mg for 6 days during the perimenstrual period, taking a loading dose of 2 or 4 tablets on day 1, followed by once-daily or BID frovatriptan 2.5 mg, respectively; in MMP3, they used BID frovatriptan 2.5 mg. In AT1, which was previously published in part, group differences in adverse events (AEs) were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, and response rates were compared using logistic regression. Post hoc analyses of sustained pain-free status with no AEs (SNAE) and sustained pain response with no AEs (SPRNAE) were performed using a 2-sample test for equality of proportions without continuity correction. For AT2 and the STP studies, data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results of individual safety analyses for the STP studies were previously reported; the present report includes new results from a pooled analysis of MMP1 and MMP2 and a new analysis of MMP3 in which AEs were coded using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities version 8.0. AT1 included 1206 patients in the safety group; AT2 included 496. In the STP studies, safety data were collected for 1487 women. In AT1 and AT2, 85.6% and 88.3%, respectively, of enrolled patients were women. Overall, AEs were generally mild to moderate (AT

  5. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-01-01

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  6. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A real life study of Helicobacter pylori eradication with bismuth quadruple therapy in naïve and previously treated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas José Gómez-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a quadruple regimen (BMTO of the "3-in-1 capsule" (containing bismuth subcitrate potassium, metronidazole and tetracycline plus omeprazole in naïve and previously treated patients diagnosed with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in the clinical setting in Seville (Spain. Methods: This is a prospective study carried out on consecutive patients with a confirmed H. pylori infection and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. After providing their informed consent, the patients were treated for ten days with a 3-in-1 capsule containing bismuth subcitrate potassium (140 mg, metronidazole (125 mg and tetracycline (125 mg: Pylera®, three capsules four times daily, plus omeprazole (20 or 40 mg twice daily. Eradication of infection was determined by a negative urea breath test at least 28 days after the end of treatment. Results: A total of 58 consecutive patients were enrolled into this study, two of whom withdrew early due to vomiting on days three and five, respectively. In this cohort, 17 patients (29.3% had a prior history of medication to treat H. pylori. In the intent-to-treat population, eradication was achieved in 97.6% (40/41 and 82.4% (14/17 of cases in patients treated with BMTO as a first-line or rescue therapy, respectively. At least one adverse event was reported by 28 (48% patients, mostly mild effects (86%. Conclusion: A ten day treatment with BMTO is an effective and safe strategy to combat confirmed H. pylori infection in patients.

  9. A phase II study of VP-16-ifosfamide-cisplatin combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, In Sook; Park, Young Suk; Kwon, Sung Hee [Hallym Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine] [and others

    2000-12-01

    At present the addition of thoracic irradiation to combination chemotherapy is a standard treatment for limited staged small cell ling cancer. However, there is still controversy about the optimum timing of chest irradiation. We conducted a phase II study of etoposide (VP-16)-ifosfamide-cisplatin (VIP) combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for the patients with previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer in order to assess if the treatment modality could improve the response rate and the toxicity. Forty-four patients with limited small cell lung cancer were treated with etoposide-ifosfamide-cisplatin and concurrent thoracic irradiation. Combination chemotherapy consisted of etoposide 100 mg/m{sup 2} (on day 1-3), ifosfamide 1000 mg/m{sup 2} (on days 1 and 2) and cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} (on day 1). Concurrent thoracic irradiation consisted of a total of 4000 cGy over 4 weeks starting on the first day of the first chemotherapy. All patients who showed a complete response were given prophylactic cranial irradiation for 2.5 weeks. Forty-four of the 49 patients who entered the study from May 1994 to August 1998 were evaluable. The median age was 59 years and 40 patients had a performance status of 0 or 1. The median survival time was 22.5 months. Twenty-eight patients (62%) showed a complete response and 16 (38%) a partial response. Twenty-four patients (54%) developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia; there was a 9% RTOG score 3 or 4 esophagitis. VIP combination chemotherapy and early concurrent thoracic irradiation for patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer revealed excellent antitumor response with tolerable toxicity. (author)

  10. Phase I/II study of gefitinib (Iressa(®)) and vorinostat (IVORI) in previously treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Youn; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Geon Kook; Yun, Tak; Lee, Young Joo; Hwang, Kum Hui; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Heung Tae

    2015-03-01

    Vorinostat has been shown to overcome resistance to gefitinib. We performed a phase I/II study combining gefitinib with vorinostat in previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was used to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Three dose levels were tested: 250 mg/day gefitinib on days 1-28 and 200, 300 or 400 mg/day vorinostat on days 1-7, and 15-21 out of every 28 days. The primary endpoint was median progression-free survival (PFS). Fifty-two patients were enrolled and treated (43 in phase II). The median age was 59 years, 28 patients were male, 44 had adenocarcinoma, 29 had never smoked, and 36 had undergone one prior treatment. Twenty-two patients exhibited sensitive EGFR mutations. Planned dose escalation was completed without reaching the MTD. The RP2D was 250 mg gefitinib and 400 mg vorinostat. In 43 assessable patients in phase II, the median PFS was 3.2 months; the overall survival (OS) was 19.0 months. There were 16 partial responses and six cases of stable disease. In EGFR-mutant NSCLC, response rate was 77 %, median PFS was 9.1 months, and median OS was 24.1 months. The most common adverse events were anorexia and diarrhea. Treatment with 250 mg gefitinib daily with biweekly 400 mg/day vorinostat was feasible and well tolerated. In an unselected patient population, this combination dose did not improve PFS. However, this combination showed a potential for improving efficacy of gefitinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC (NCT01027676).

  11. Effect of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease previously untreated or treated with memantine or nootropic agents in Germany: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Tatjana; Ibach, Bernd; Schoenknecht, Peter; Kamleiter, Martin; Silver, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Johannes; Mielke, Ruediger

    2005-05-01

    This open-label, prospective, observational, Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) study assessed the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients who had been switched from therapies currently used in Germany to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as memantine and nootropics, due to insufficient efficacy or poor tolerability. A treatment-naive population was included as a comparator. Patients with AD were treated with donepezil and observed for a period of approximately 3 months. A cognitive assessment was made using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the investigators who answered the question 'How did therapy with donepezil influence the QoL of the patient and/or his family over the observation period?' and was graded using three ratings: improved/unchanged/worsened. Adverse events (AEs) were also monitored. A total of 913 patients entered the study (mean +/- SD MMSE score 18.03 +/- 5.34). Efficacy assessments were analyzed for three groups: an overall group of patients who had received any form of prior AD drug therapy (N+ group; n = 709); a subgroup of patients from the N+ group who had received prior memantine therapy only (M+ group; n = 111) and patients who were drug treatment naive (N- group; n = 204). In the evaluable population donepezil improved MMSE scores by 2.21 +/- 3.47 points on average, with similar improvements observed in all three groups. QoL was judged to be improved in at least 70% of patients, again with similar results obtained for all three groups. Donepezil was well tolerated, with 85 of 913 (9.3%) patients reporting AEs. The most common AEs were those typically seen with cholinergic therapies (i.e., diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea). In this observational PMS study, donepezil was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients who were being insufficiently treated with memantine or nootropic therapy. The magnitude of response was similar to that observed in patients who were previously

  12. Phase I study of cisplatin, hyperthermia, and lapatinib in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a previously irradiated area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.V. Meerten (Esther Van); M. Franckena (Martine); E.A.C. Wiemer (Erik); L.V. Doorn (Lena Van); J. Kraan (Jaco); A.M. Westermann (Anneke); S. Sleijfer (Stefan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Patients with recurrent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated area might benefit from cisplatin combined with hyperthermia. Lapatinib inhibits the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2. Overexpression of EGFR and

  13. Phase I study of cisplatin, hyperthermia, and lapatinib in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a previously irradiated area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerten, Esther; Franckena, Martine; Wiemer, Erik; van Doorn, Lena; Kraan, Jaco; Westermann, Anneke; Sleijfer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Patients with recurrent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated area might benefit from cisplatin combined with hyperthermia. Lapatinib inhibits the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2. Overexpression of EGFR and HER2 is frequently seen in

  14. Clinical evaluation of recombinant factor VIII preparation (Kogenate) in previously treated patients with hemophilia A: descriptive meta-analysis of post-marketing study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, A; Fukutake, K; Takamatsu, J; Shirahata, A

    2006-08-01

    The safety and efficacy of Kogenate, a recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) preparation for the treatment of bleeding episodes, were studied in a 123-patient meta-analysis population of previously treated patients (PTPs), including 15 enrolled in the registration Phase III trial (PTP-I group), 93 from the post-marketing special investigation (PTP-II group), and 15 from short-term special investigations in surgery or tooth extraction (SI group). These patients (82 severe, 31 moderate, 9 mild, and 1 unknown), aged 11 months to 72 years, were enrolled in 28 centers in Japan. Blood samples taken at the baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after the introduction of Kogenate were evaluated for FVIII inhibitor antibodies, antibodies formed against trace proteins derived from the rFVIII production process, and for general changes in laboratory test results. Mean exposure to Kogenate was 1103 days in PTP-I, 86 days in PTP-II, 27 days in patients in surgery, and 2 days in patients with tooth extraction. Assessment of FVIII inhibitor activity was conducted in 115 of the 123 patients by means of the Bethesda assay. Twelve patients were found to have a low titer of FVIII inhibitor (0.5-3.0 BU/mL) prior to any administration of Kogenate, and 103 were inhibitor-negative at the baseline. Among this latter group, 3 patients (2.9%) tested inhibitor-positive, with titers ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 BU/mL, with 4 patients below 1.0 BU/mL. One patient in the 11 PTPs investigated (PTP-I) developed antibodies against baby hamster kidney protein and mouse immunoglobulin G, but these findings were transient and asymptomatic. Hemostasis was achieved (markedly effective or effective) in 3666 of the 3855 bleeding episodes (95.1%) observed in 108 patients. Only 1 infusion was necessary in 3790 (98.3%) of these episodes. These data indicate that Kogenate is safe and very effective for the treatment of bleeding in PTPs with hemophilia A.

  15. "What I believe is true": Belief-confirming reasoning bias in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroling, Maartje S; Glashouwer, Klaske A; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Allart-van Dam, Esther; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Research shows that people tend to consider believable conclusions as valid and unbelievable conclusions as invalid (belief bias). When applied to anxiogenic beliefs, this belief bias could well hinder the correction of dysfunctional convictions. Previous work has shown that high socially anxious students indeed display such fear-confirming, belief biased, reasoning. A critical next question is whether these findings translate to a clinical population of people with social anxiety disorder (SAD). We test whether (i) patients with SAD show belief bias with regard to SAD-relevant themes, (ii) this belief bias is specific for SAD patients or can also be found in panic disorder (PD) patients, (iii) differential belief bias effects in SAD are restricted to social anxiety concerns or are also evident in the context of reasoning with neutral themes. 45 SAD patients, 24 PD patients, and 45 non-symptomatic controls (NSCs) completed a syllogistic belief bias task with SAD-relevant and neutral content. SAD patients displayed belief bias for social anxiety related materials, while the PD group and the NSC group did not. Yet, the difference between SAD and PD was not significant. All groups showed similar belief bias effects for neutral content. Content of the belief bias task was not tailored to idiosyncratic beliefs. The study lacked power to detect medium or small differences. SAD patients showed concern-congruent belief biased interference effects when judging the logical validity of social anxiety relevant syllogisms. Such concern-relevant belief bias may contribute to the persistence of anxiogenic beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of epilepsy and selected antiepileptic drugs on risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death in patients with or without previous stroke: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J. B.; Abildstrom, S. Z.; Erdal, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Patients with epilepsy have increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death associated with epilepsy and examined if this risk was modified by treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Methods A cohort consisting of the Danish...... population was followed from January 1997 to December 2006. The risk of MI, stroke, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death associated with epilepsy was estimated by multivariable Cox proportional hazard models stratified for occurrence of previous stroke. AED use was determined at baseline, and risks...... associated with exposure to individual AEDs were examined in patients with epilepsy. Results In patients without previous stroke, AED-treated epilepsy was associated with an increased risk of MI (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; 95%CI, 1.00-1.19), stroke (HR, 2.22; 95%CI, 2.09-2.36), cardiovascular death (HR, 1...

  17. A pilot study of the combination of cyclosporin A and interferon alfacon-1 for the treatment of hepatitis C in previous nonresponder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Scott J; Morrissey, Mary J; Wiley, Thelma E; Layden, Thomas J; Jensen, Donald M

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of interferon and cyclosporine for the treatment of hepatitis C in previous nonresponder patients. Preliminary data indicated that adding the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A to interferon might improve response rates in patients with hepatitis C. Ten previous virologic nonresponders with genotype 1 infection were included. Treatment consisted of interferon alfacon-1, 15 microg/d, and cyclosporine, 100 mg twice daily, for 4 weeks. The dose of interferon alfacon-1 was then decreased to 15 microg three times weekly, and cyclosporine was reduced to 50 mg twice daily. Therapy was continued for 48 weeks unless viremia persisted at week 24. Three of 10 subjects had an on-treatment virologic response, although one had a breakthrough with recurrent viremia during treatment and two relapsed after therapy was completed. On treatment responders had significantly higher trough cyclosporine levels at week 4 compared with nonresponders (P = 0.025). Serum creatinine levels remained stable, and no patient developed diabetes. Triglyceride levels increased during treatment. Cyclosporine was dose reduced in two patients for hypertension. Selected patients with hepatitis C tolerated therapy, including cyclosporine without severe or irreversible toxicity. Despite an association between higher cyclosporine levels and on-treatment response, the combination of cyclosporine and interferon was ineffective in producing a sustained response in previous nonresponder patients.

  18. Comparison of Irrational Believes between Mothers of Severe or Profound Mentally Handicapped Children with Healthy Children Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Hivadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of present research was the comparison of mothers irrational believes with severe or profound mentally handicapped child and mothers with normal child from 6 to14 years old in Tehran city. Materials & Methods: This study was an analytical, cross – sectional and comparative (case – control research. From mothers with severe or profound mentally handicapped child who had refered to Tehran welfare services centers, 80 mothers were selected by regular randomized sampling from two rehabilitation centers and 80 mothers with normal child were selected for peering with the group of testimonial from schools areas of east, west, south, north and center of Tehran, through multi - stage cluster sampling in for variables of: age of mothers, educational levels, the location of living and the number of children. They answered to questionnaire of irrational believes of jons (IBT. Analysis of data was done by descriptive and infringing statistics methods (Independent T test, U Mann Whitney, Chi-square and fisher. Results: The findings showed that: there are significantly differences in total irrational believes and irrational believes of blame proneness, frustration reactive, anxious over concern, problem avoiding and dependency, perfectionism between two groups of mothers (P<0/05. There was no significant difference in irrational believes between mothers who had mental handicap daughter and mothers who had mental handicap son (P=0/314. There was no significantly difference between two groups of mothers in four believes of demand for approval (P=0/737, high-self expectation (P=0/126, emotional irresponsibility (P=0/727, helplessness for change (p=0/283. Conclusion: Irrational believes and many its sub scales. In mothers of severe or profound mental handicap children were more than mothers with normal child. But believes of demand for approval, high self expectation, emotional irresponsibility, helplessness for change in mothers with

  19. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Saura Pedro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC. Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination, 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction, and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052.

  20. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anasagasti-Angulo, Lorenzo; Garcia-Vega, Yanelda; Barcelona-Perez, Silvia; Lopez-Saura, Pedro; Bello-Rivero, Iraldo

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions) are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN) may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC) or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC). Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old) patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination), 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction), and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052

  1. Timing of dose relative to sexual intercourse attempt in previous sildenafil citrate users treated with tadalafil: a geographical comparison from a single arm, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio; Glina, Sidney; Abdo, Carmita H N; Hernandez-Serrano, Ruben; Rampazzo, Claudia; Sotomayor, Mariano; West, Teena M; Gallagher, Gabrielle L; Lenero, Enrique

    2009-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that sildenafil citrate users alter dosing-sexual attempt behavior when switched to tadalafil. The impact of geography and culture on sexual behavior with phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor treatment has not been fully investigated. To describe and compare the changes in dosing-sexual attempt behavior with sildenafil citrate vs. tadalafil treatment across four distinct geographies: Asia, Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Central Eastern Europe/Middle East (CEE/ME), and Latin America (LA). Data from a single-arm, open-label clinical trial conducted in 21 countries from November 2002 to May 2004 were used in this analysis. Men with erectile dysfunction and a history of > or =6-week prior sildenafil citrate use continued sildenafil citrate treatment for 4 weeks then switched to tadalafil for 8 weeks. Dosing instructions were provided. Timing of dose and sexual intercourse was assessed through patient diaries for the final 4 weeks of each treatment period. A total of 2,760 men were enrolled: Asia 15.8%; ANZ 29.4%; CEE/ME 19.7%; LA 35.1%. The median time from dosing to intercourse was significantly increased during tadalafil treatment across all geographical regions; however, the magnitude of increase differed significantly by geography (P geography. However, the extent to which sexual behavior alters is not uniform across geographical regions, suggesting that dosing instructions and duration of drug effectiveness, in combination with personal and cultural preferences, may determine sexual behavior with PDE5 inhibitor use.

  2. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  3. Recommendations for Conducting Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Analyses for Students with Disabilities Based on Previous DIF Studies. Research Report. ETS RR-11-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzick, Heather; Stone, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to help ensure that strategies for differential item functioning (DIF) detection for students with disabilities are appropriate and lead to meaningful results. We surveyed existing DIF studies for students with disabilities and describe them in terms of study design, statistical approach, sample characteristics, and…

  4. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia A.; Dias, João M. D.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Dias, Rosângela C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning. PMID:26083603

  5. Long-term clinical and economic outcomes in previously untreated paediatric patients with severe haemophilia A: A nationwide real-world study with 700 person-years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepsäläinen, K; Riikonen, P; Lassila, R; Arola, M; Huttunen, P; Lähteenmäki, P; Möttönen, M; Selander, T; Martikainen, J

    2018-03-01

    For previously untreated patients (PUPs) with severe haemophilia A in Finland for the past 2 decades, the standard practice has been to start early primary prophylaxis. We evaluated the long-term clinical outcomes and costs of treatment with high-dose prophylaxis in PUPs from birth to adolescence, including immune tolerance induction (ITI). From the medical records of all PUPs born between June 1994 and May 2013 in Finland, we retrospectively extracted data on clinical outcomes and healthcare use. Using linear mixed models, we analysed longitudinal clinical outcome data. To analyse skewed cost data, including zero costs, we applied hurdle regression. All 62 patients received early regular prophylaxis; totally, they have had treatment for nearly 700 patient-years. The median age of starting home treatment was 1.1 years. The mean (SD) annual treatment costs (€ per kg) were 4391€ (3852). For ages 1-3, ITI comprised over half of the costs; in other groups, prophylactic FVIII treatment dominated. With these high costs, however, clinical outcomes were desirable; median (IQR) ABR was low at 0.19 (0.07-0.46) and so was AJBR at 0.06 (0-0.24). Thirteen (21%) patients developed a clinically significant inhibitor, 10 (16%) with a high titre. All ITIs were successful. The mean costs for ITI were 383 448€ (259 085). The expected ITI payback period was 1.81 (95% CI 0.62-12.12) years. Early high-dose prophylaxis leads to excellent long-term clinical outcomes, and early childhood ITI therapy seems to turn cost-neutral generally already in 2 years. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  7. Who believes in the storybook image of the scientist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, C.L S; Hartgerink, C.H.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Do lay people and scientists themselves recognize that scientists are human and therefore prone to human fallibilities such as error, bias, and even dishonesty? In a series of three experimental studies and one correlational study (total N = 3,278) we found that the 'storybook image of the

  8. Who Believes in the Storybook Image of the Scientist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Hartgerink, Chris H J; van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2017-01-01

    Do lay people and scientists themselves recognize that scientists are human and therefore prone to human fallibilities such as error, bias, and even dishonesty? In a series of three experimental studies and one correlational study (total N = 3,278) we found that the “storybook image of the

  9. From "The Depleted Self" to "The Will to Believe": Excavating the Hermeneutics of Donald Capps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Yolanda

    2018-04-01

    The concept of "reframing" lies at the heart of the pastoral psychology of Donald Capps. In previous articles I have argued that the process of reframing follows a circular hermeneutics. An excavation of Capps' hermeneutics reveals foundations in the fields of philosophy and psychology. This article focuses on the legacy of Johann Gottfried von Herder, Friedrich Schleiermacher, William James and Paul Ricoeur. It explores the differences and commonalities between William James and Friedrich Schleiermacher's understanding of religious experience as well as Paul Ricoeur's understanding of narrativity and traces these strains to Capps' pastoral psychology. As illustration of his pastoral approach to healing and wholeness the problem of "the depleted self," so prevalent in "our narcissistic age," encounters the healing narrative of Jesus that appeals to "the will to believe."

  10. A Comparative Study of the Previously Graduated Dentists' Knowledge versus those Recently Graduated as to Proper Prescription of Interaoral Radiography and Panoramic Views

    OpenAIRE

    Bardal R.; Rahimi R.; Ahmadi Motamayel F.

    2011-01-01

    Statement of Problems: The first step to decrease the patients' exposure to unnecessary radiography radiation is the proper prescription of radiography. . Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of general dental practitioners as to proper prescription of intraoral radiography and panoramic views. Materials and Method: In this study, a questionnaire on the dentists' knowledge about the proper prescription of dental radiography was used. A total of eighty one general d...

  11. The change in motivating factors influencing commencement, adherence and retention to a supervised resistance training programme in previously sedentary post-menopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Janet Erica; Christie, Candice Jo-Anne

    2015-03-12

    Understanding motivators for exercise participation in post-menopausal women may impact retention to exercise programmes and inform intervention trial designs. The purpose of this investigation was to assess self-reported motivational factors influencing adherence and retention to a 24-week progressive resistance training programme. Post-menopausal females (n = 34) were passively recruited to undertake a 24-week progressive resistance training protocol, in small-group sessions, on three non-consecutive days of the week. Attendance was recorded by the researcher. Qualitative reports were sourced from the sample for four phases of the study: pre-study (prior to week 1), recruitment (week 1), during study (weeks 2 - 24), and post-intervention (beyond week 24). Responses were categorised according to ten descriptors: specific health index improvement, education, flexibility of time, social contact, conscience (loyalty to the researcher), wellness, weight management, organisation parameters (pertaining to the study programme) and enjoyment of the exercises. Of the initial sample, 76.5% (n = 26) met the specified ≥80% attendance criterion. The primary findings were that motivation to volunteer for the study was driven by a perceived need for a structured exercise programme (50% of respondents). A commitment to the researcher was the primary motivator for continued adherence to the study for 50% of participants. Social contact with other participants was cited by 60% of the sample as the primary reason for adherence for the full duration of 24 weeks. A desire to maintain the "wellness" derived from the programme was cited by 60% as a reason for continuing an exercise routine post-study. This study identified that routine and supervision initially attract women to exercise programmes, while social cohesion of the group setting contributes to retention over time. Understanding the changing nature of motivating factors may contribute to better overall adherence

  12. The possibility of previous epidemiological data to serve as baseline for future national oral health surveys--a study in Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Truin, G.J.; Can, N.; Khanh, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent epidemiological data (1985-2000) on dental caries and periodontal diseases in Vietnam in an attempt to obtain a 'baseline' for future national oral health surveys. METHODS: Studies on periodontal diseases and caries were included when CPITN

  13. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack

    2011-01-01

    Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  14. Do Accounting Students Believe in Self-Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    In education, formal assessment focuses on summative assessment with the objective of allocating grades, limiting learning by students. Formative assessment, in the form of self-assessment, has been proposed as beneficial to student learning in various fields. This study explores the perceptions of accounting students of the self-assessment…

  15. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  16. Effect of benzalkonium chloride?free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Joao F.; Hubatsch, Douglas A.; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005?% were transitioned to recei...

  17. Seeing Is Believing: on the Visibility of Late Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Maslov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Representing Capital: A Reading of Volume One opens with the claim that “It should not be surprising that Marx remains as inexhaustible as capital itself, and that with every adaptation or mutation of the latter his texts and his thought resonate in new ways and with fresh accents … rich with new meanings” (Jameson 1. Together with Valences of the Dialectic (2009, this is Fredric Jameson's latest chapter in a life-long project of actualization and affirmation of different categories of Marx’s dialectic, from alienation to commodity fetishism, all thoroughly criticized and somewhat abandoned after the (poststructuralist turn of Marxism in the late 1960s and early 1970s. By positing the category of representation in the center of his reading of Capital, Jameson is moving against the current of those appropriations of Marx that amidst the unprecedented global financial crisis of 2008, aimed to find their foothold in the supposed objectivity of the economy – projecting onto the economy the authenticity and the absoluteness of the Lacanian real. Having in mind his previous work, this is not something undertaken without a sense of self-responsibility, taking the form of admission when he writes that “the problem of representation today eats away at all the established disciplines like a virus, particularly destabilizing the dimension of language, reference and expression …, as well as that of thought” (Jameson 4. Rejecting the “false” debates around the (nonpolitical nature of Marx’s magnum opus, Jameson claims that it is a figural work since by using different forms of value, space, time, and mediation, it ends up constructing a kind of ‘proto-narrative’ representation of capitalism as totality. Famous images scattered throughout Capital – capital as ‘vampire’ and other forms of recurring monstrosities, dancing tables or the play for recognition between the linen and the coat – are a way to grasp the specific form of

  18. Click Bait: You Won’t Believe What Happens Next!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this chapter is to investigate Click Bait, one of the strategies most commonly used by online news journalists aiming to make their headlines more attractive to readers. The chapter begins by studying Social Networks and the power they give marketers in spreading information. Next, a historical context to Click Bait is presented through its origins as Yellow Journalism, a 19th century journalism trend focused on hyperbolizing news headlines in order to increase sales. Finally, Click Bait is studied as the online application of techniques like Yellow Journalism. This section analyzes semantics and some of the most popular headline construction formulas. Literature on this matter concluded that the use of certain headline construction formulas yields significant increase in click-through rates. These increases could be beneficial to the publishing organization as they increase advertising impressions, but could also be detrimental, as these hyperbolic headlines may make readers feel manipulated.

  19. ''True believers'' or numerical terrorism at the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, Walter; Arminger, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    For decades, there has been a heated debate about whether or not nuclear power plants contribute to childhood cancer in their respective neighbourhoods, with statisticians testifying on both sides. The present paper points to some flaws in the pro-arguments, taking a recent study prepared for the political party ''Buendnis 90 / Gruene'' as a specimen. Typical mistakes include an understatement of the size of tests of significance, disregard of important covariates and extreme reliance on very few selected data points.

  20. A multicenter phase I/II study of obatoclax mesylate administered as a 3- or 24-hour infusion in older patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Schimmer

    Full Text Available An open-label phase I/II study of single-agent obatoclax determined a maximum tolerated dose (MTD and schedule, safety, and efficacy in older patients (≥ 70 yr with untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML.Phase I evaluated the safety of obatoclax infused for 3 hours on 3 consecutive days (3 h × 3 d in 2-week cycles. Initial obatoclax dose was 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 3. Obatoclax was increased to 45 mg/day (3 h × 3 d if ≤ 1 patient had a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT and decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d if DLT occurred in ≥ 2 patients. In the phase II study, 12 patients were randomized to receive obatoclax at the dose identified during phase I (3 h × 3 d or 60 mg/day administered by continuous infusion over 24 hours for 3 days (24 h × 3 d to determine the morphologic complete response rate.In phase I, two of three patients receiving obatoclax 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d experienced grade 3 neurologic DLTs (confusion, ataxia, and somnolence. Obatoclax was decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d. In phase II, no clinically relevant safety differences were observed between the 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 7 and 60 mg/day (24 h × 3 d; n = 5 arms. Neurologic and psychiatric adverse events were most common and were generally transient and reversible. Complete response was not achieved in any patient.Obatoclax 20 mg/day was the MTD (3 h × 3 d in older patients with AML. In the schedules tested, single-agent obatoclax was not associated with an objective response. Evaluation in additional subgroups or in combination with other chemotherapy modalities may be considered for future study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00684918.

  1. A multicenter phase I/II study of obatoclax mesylate administered as a 3- or 24-hour infusion in older patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Aaron D; Raza, Azra; Carter, Thomas H; Claxton, David; Erba, Harry; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Tallman, Martin S; Goard, Carolyn; Borthakur, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    An open-label phase I/II study of single-agent obatoclax determined a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and schedule, safety, and efficacy in older patients (≥ 70 yr) with untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Phase I evaluated the safety of obatoclax infused for 3 hours on 3 consecutive days (3 h × 3 d) in 2-week cycles. Initial obatoclax dose was 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 3). Obatoclax was increased to 45 mg/day (3 h × 3 d) if ≤ 1 patient had a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d) if DLT occurred in ≥ 2 patients. In the phase II study, 12 patients were randomized to receive obatoclax at the dose identified during phase I (3 h × 3 d) or 60 mg/day administered by continuous infusion over 24 hours for 3 days (24 h × 3 d) to determine the morphologic complete response rate. In phase I, two of three patients receiving obatoclax 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d) experienced grade 3 neurologic DLTs (confusion, ataxia, and somnolence). Obatoclax was decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d). In phase II, no clinically relevant safety differences were observed between the 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 7) and 60 mg/day (24 h × 3 d; n = 5) arms. Neurologic and psychiatric adverse events were most common and were generally transient and reversible. Complete response was not achieved in any patient. Obatoclax 20 mg/day was the MTD (3 h × 3 d) in older patients with AML. In the schedules tested, single-agent obatoclax was not associated with an objective response. Evaluation in additional subgroups or in combination with other chemotherapy modalities may be considered for future study. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00684918.

  2. Effect of benzalkonium chloride-free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Joao F; Hubatsch, Douglas A; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-11-12

    Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005 % were transitioned to receive once-daily BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % containing polyquaternium-1 (Travatan® preserved with POLYQUAD® [PQ], Alcon Laboratories, Inc; Fort Worth, TX) for 12 weeks. Mean change in IOP from baseline (primary efficacy endpoint) and the percentage of patients who achieved a target IOP of ≤18 mmHg were evaluated at all on-therapy visits. Ocular hyperemia, patient preference, and self-projected adherence were assessed at week 12. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study. All enrolled patients were included in the analysis (n = 191); the majority of patients (90.6 %, n = 173/191) completed the study. Mean (SD) patient age was 67.5 (11.3) years, and mean baseline IOP was 14.8 mmHg. Mean IOP was reduced by 0.94 mmHg at week 6 and by 1.09 mmHg at week 12 (P glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost. BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % is a viable alternative for patients who require switching their IOP-lowering medications because of tolerability issues. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01510145.

  3. Tendon Length, Calf Muscle Atrophy, and Strength Deficit After Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: Long-Term Follow-up of Patients in a Previous Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Juuso; Lantto, Iikka; Piilonen, Juuso; Flinkkilä, Tapio; Ohtonen, Pasi; Siira, Pertti; Laine, Vesa; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Pajala, Ari; Leppilahti, Juhana

    2017-09-20

    In this prospective study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess long-term Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and muscle fatty degeneration after surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture. From 1998 to 2001, 60 patients at our center underwent surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture followed by early functional postoperative rehabilitation. Fifty-five patients were reexamined after a minimum duration of follow-up of 13 years (mean, 14 years), and 52 of them were included in the present study. Outcome measures included Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and fatty degeneration measured with MRI of both the affected and the uninjured leg. The isokinetic plantar flexion strength of both calves was measured and was correlated with the structural findings. The Achilles tendon was, on average, 12 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.6 to 15.6 mm; p muscles were 63 cm (13%; p muscle atrophy. Increased Achilles tendon length is associated with smaller calf muscle volumes and persistent plantar flexion strength deficits after surgical repair of Achilles tendon rupture. Strength deficits and muscle volume deficits are partly compensated for by FHL hypertrophy, but 11% to 13% deficits in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle volumes and 12% to 18% deficits in plantar flexion strength persist even after long-term follow-up. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. Outcomes following detection of low level plasma HIV RNA in HIV-infected patients previously virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Annabelle M; Cheng, Allen C; Watson, Kerrie; Lewin, Sharon R; Hoy, Jennifer F

    2017-06-01

    Progressively sensitive assays for plasma HIV RNA have led to increased detection of plasma HIV RNA between 20 and 200 copies/ml, known as low level viremia (LLV) when recurrent or persistent, in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of this study was to determine outcomes following initial detection of LLV in an Australian cohort. A retrospective study using the HIV Service Database (Alfred Hospital) included all patients on ART who recorded plasma HIV RNA 20-200 copies/mL following prior virological suppression (viral load (VL) HIV RNA 200 copies/mL. Factors associated with LLV included co-morbid type 2 diabetes, shorter prior virological suppression and lower nadir CD4 cell count. Clinician management of VL 20-200 copies/mL was generally conservative, with infrequent requests for genotypic analysis (3.3% cases) or change in ART (<1% cases). LLV following virological suppression is common, and occurred as an isolated viral blip in half the patients. Those patients with persistent or recurrent LLV had higher rates of type 2 diabetes, shorter prior virological suppression and lower nadir CD4 cell count.

  5. Energy storage, to make the wager to believe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane; Guilhem, Jean; De Santis, Audrey; Kim, Caroline; Petitot, Pauline; Mary, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    After having evoked some examples and studies (an assessment of the costs of energy storage, an industrial perspective for sodium-ion batteries, the development of an energy recovery system for road transport), a first article discusses the importance of a right definition of energy storage, of its functions and development framework (how to store, where to store, at which price, in which context). A second article evokes the installation of Forsee Power (a leader in battery assembly) in France. A third article discusses how to couple renewable energies and local energy storage. While evoking the example of the LMP battery by Bollore, a fourth article outline the common benefits of high capacity batteries used in electric vehicles as well as in domestic applications or renewable energy supply schemes. The fifth article proposes an overview of researches for the improvement of energy storage solutions (study of battery ageing, use of super-capacitors, thermal storage in industry, a hybrid storage of renewable energy in overseas districts, use of nano-silicon to improve anodes, improvement of oxygen supply in fuel cells, development of very porous silicon layers for anodes). The sixth article discusses the development of a process by Babcok and the Cnim Group for a massive storage of energy by thermal accumulation for electric or thermal energy producers. The seventh and last article notices that the IRENA (International renewable energy Agency) outlined the role of energy storage for the development of rural areas and of islands which are disconnected from the grid

  6. Continued Dispensing: what medications do patients believe should be available?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Hasn Abukres

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Continued Dispensing (CD is a new medication supply method for certain medications in Australia. It aims to prevent treatment interruption as a result of patients’ inability to obtain a new valid prescription. The only currently eligible patients for this service are statin and/or oral contraceptives users who have been using these medications for 6 months or more, have not utilized the CD method during the last 12 months, and cannot obtain an immediate appointment with the prescriber in order to get a new prescription. This study aimed to investigate patients’ attitudes towards potential extension and expansion of this medication supply method.Methods. A randomly selected 301 users of these medications from all Australian States were recruited using Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI.Result. The response rate was 79%. The majority of the participants (73.3% did not agree with current restriction on CD utilization frequency. They also supported, to varying degrees, inclusion of all the proposed medications (support ranged from 44.2–78.4%. In this regard, participants who suffered from a specific disease did not differ significantly from those without the disease except in case of patients with depression (p = 0.001.Conclusions. Participants of this study strongly supported both CD extension and expansion. A future critical review of the current version of CD is highly recommended in order to enhance CD capability to achieve its goals.

  7. Sentinel node biopsy in colorectal cancer: Must we believe it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scabini, Stefano

    2010-01-27

    Lymph node metastasis predicts survival and recurrence in colon cancer (CC), so decisions regarding adjuvant therapy are largely based on nodal status. Chemotherapy is not a routine treatment for node-negative CC because its toxicity and expense exceed its limited benefit in patients without evidence of nodal involvement. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure is a selective sampling technique that can be used to ultrastage regional nodes. The real problem of SLN biopsy in CC is the procedure sensitivity rate. In future, studies concerning SLNs will have to consider issues such as the role of laparoscopy in colorectal resection (which cause technical difficulties in identification of SLNs) and the risk of overstaging of illness as well as the need to exclude T4 CC and, probably, rectal cancer from the studies. Is this the future of correct staging of colorectal cancer? Lymphadenectomy is at the present an integral part of colorectal surgery and surgeons must perform it correctly to improve their results. Nevertheless, for the future another "staging system" is necessary in colorectal cancer which takes into account biologic aspects of the tumor to identify patients with aggresive illness in order to treat them with more effective and less toxic therapies.

  8. Responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccines in participants previously vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccine: a randomized, observer-blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Van der Most, Robbert; Li, Ping; Vaughn, David W

    2014-11-01

    Prior receipt of a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) can affect hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses to pandemic influenza vaccines. We investigated the effect of TIV priming on humoral responses to AS03-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines, the role of AS03 on cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, and vaccine safety. Healthy adults (aged 19-40 years) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive TIV or saline followed 4 months later by 2 doses, 3 weeks apart, of adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine and followed up to study end (day 507). Pre- and postvaccination responses of HI and neutralizing antibody, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells, memory B cells, and plasmablasts were assessed. Ninety-nine of the 133 participants enrolled completed the study. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. In TIV-primed participants, A(H1N1)pdm09-specific antibody and CD4(+) T-cell and memory B-cell responses to the pandemic vaccine tended to be diminished. Vaccine adjuvantation led to increased responses of vaccine-homologous and -heterologous HI and neutralizing antibodies and CD4(+) T cells, homologous memory B cells, and plasmablasts. In healthy adults, prior TIV administration decreased humoral and CMI responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Adjuvantation of A(H1N1)pdm09 antigen helped to overcome immune interference between the influenza vaccines. No safety concerns were observed. Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT00707967. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza Vaccines in Participants Previously Vaccinated With Seasonal Influenza Vaccine: A Randomized, Observer-Blind, Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Van der Most, Robbert; Li, Ping; Vaughn, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Prior receipt of a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) can affect hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses to pandemic influenza vaccines. We investigated the effect of TIV priming on humoral responses to AS03-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines, the role of AS03 on cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, and vaccine safety. Methods. Healthy adults (aged 19–40 years) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive TIV or saline followed 4 months later by 2 doses, 3 weeks apart, of adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine and followed up to study end (day 507). Pre- and postvaccination responses of HI and neutralizing antibody, CD4+/CD8+ T cells, memory B cells, and plasmablasts were assessed. Results. Ninety-nine of the 133 participants enrolled completed the study. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. In TIV-primed participants, A(H1N1)pdm09-specific antibody and CD4+ T-cell and memory B-cell responses to the pandemic vaccine tended to be diminished. Vaccine adjuvantation led to increased responses of vaccine-homologous and -heterologous HI and neutralizing antibodies and CD4+ T cells, homologous memory B cells, and plasmablasts. Conclusions. In healthy adults, prior TIV administration decreased humoral and CMI responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Adjuvantation of A(H1N1)pdm09 antigen helped to overcome immune interference between the influenza vaccines. No safety concerns were observed. Registration. Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT00707967. PMID:24864125

  10. Seeing is believing: good graphic design principles for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Susan P; Bancken, Fabrice; Crowe, Brenda; Soukup, Mat; Botsis, Taxiarchis; Forshee, Richard

    2015-09-30

    Have you noticed when you browse a book, journal, study report, or product label how your eye is drawn to figures more than to words and tables? Statistical graphs are powerful ways to transparently and succinctly communicate the key points of medical research. Furthermore, the graphic design itself adds to the clarity of the messages in the data. The goal of this paper is to provide a mechanism for selecting the appropriate graph to thoughtfully construct quality deliverables using good graphic design principles. Examples are motivated by the efforts of a Safety Graphics Working Group that consisted of scientists from the pharmaceutical industry, Food and Drug Administration, and academic institutions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [Coming-out, support from family of origin and relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born in a previous heterosexual relationship: an exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyncke, Johanna D; Julien, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Lesbian couples differ from heterosexual couples in that they must develop their relationship within an environment that is generally unsympathetic to homosexuality, a fact that could accentuate the importance of family support. Furthermore, the disclosure of their sexual orientation by lesbian couples could also affect the support given by family members. The present study examines the effect of coming-out and family support on the relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born within a heterosexual context. It was expected that family support would mediate the relationship between coming-out and relationship adjustment. Fifty-five lesbian mothers currently in a relationship answered questions about their perception of family support, on their coming-out behaviour and their relationship adjustment. Results revealed a positive relationship between coming-out and family support, and between family support and relationship adjustment, however no association was found between coming-out and relationship adjustment. The mediation model was therefore not confirmed. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of these results.

  12. When seeking influences believing and promotes posttraumatic adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J; Donlon, Katharine; Anderson, Scott R; Hughes, Michael; Jones, Russell T

    2015-01-01

    Theory and evidence link social support processes and self-efficacy appraisals in the promotion of adaptation following traumatic events. Dynamic causal processes, however, have not been examined longitudinally or in the context of mass-violence. This study tested whether quantity of social support seeking indirectly reduced distress severity among student survivors of mass university shootings. Hypotheses specified that the indirect effects of social support seeking on distress severity would occur through positively influencing perceived social support and self-efficacy, and that these effects would emerge and become stronger as posttraumatic stress symptom severity increased. Path analysis via Mplus 7.2 was used to test the hypothesized moderated-serial-mediation model (conditional indirect effects). The sample (N=1191) consisted of students enrolled at Virginia Tech during the 16 April 2007 shootings. Data were collected via online surveys at two time points, 3-4 months and 1-year post-shootings. Hypotheses were supported, showing that the indirect effects of social support seeking on distress reduction occurred through perceived social support, which in turn influenced self-efficacy. These effects emerged and grew in strength as PTS severity increased. Clinical implications, including the need to consider contextual determinants of posttraumatic recovery, are discussed.

  13. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Damien C; Miralbell, Raymond; Wang, Hui; Cozzi, Luca; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Khan, Haleem G; Ratib, Osman; Rouzaud, Michel; Vees, Hansjoerg; Zaidi, Habib

    2009-01-01

    A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA) and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT) radiation therapy (RT) for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined on 18 F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (D Max ) of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, D Max was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal D Median was < 17 Gy. Results were analyzed using Dose-Volume Histogram and conformity index (CI 90 ) parameters. Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV) was improved with RA (V 95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%), when compared to IMRT (V 95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%). The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V 95% 88.9 ± 10.5%) and better for the PTV (V 95% 85.6 ± 5.0%). The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy) were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3%) and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%), when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%). CI 90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm 3 *10 5 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk

  14. Review of previous geophysical and geological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levchenko, O.V.; Neprochnov, Y.P.; Rao, D.G.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. Belonging, believing, bonding, and behaving: the relationship between religion and business ownership at the country level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendoorn, Brigitte; Rietveld, Cornelius A; van Stel, André

    2016-01-01

    This cross-country study adopts a competing theories approach in which both a value perspective and a social capital perspective are used to understand the relation between religion and a country's business ownership rate. We distinguish among four dimensions of religion: belonging to a religious denomination, believing certain religious propositions, bonding to religious practices, and behaving in a religious manner. An empirical analysis of data from 30 OECD countries with multiple data points per country covering the period 1984-2010 suggests a positive relationship between religion and business ownership based on those dimensions that reflect the internal aspects of religiosity (i.e., believing and behaving). We do not observe a significant association for those dimensions that reflect more external aspects of religion (i.e., belonging and bonding). These results suggest that the social capital perspective prevails the value perspective, at least when internal aspects of religiosity are concerned. More generally, our study demonstrates the importance of distinguishing between different dimensions of religion when investigating the link between religion and entrepreneurship.

  16. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  17. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

  18. Treatment rationale and study design for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study evaluating onartuzumab (MetMAb) in combination with bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX-6 in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, Johanna C; Ervin, Thomas J; Gallinson, David; Singh, Jaswinder; Wallace, James A; Saleh, Mansoor N; Vallone, Marcy; Phan, See-Chun; Hack, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    Dysregulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET pathway is associated with poor prognosis, more aggressive biological characteristics of the tumor, and shortened survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Onartuzumab (MetMAb) is a recombinant humanized monovalent monoclonal antibody directed against MET. We present the treatment rationale and protocol for an ongoing randomized multicenter placebo-controlled phase II study designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MetMAb combined with bevacizumab and mFOLFOX-6 (5-fluoruracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin). Eligible patients with previously untreated mCRC are randomized 1:1 to either mFOLFOX-6 combined with bevacizumab and placebo followed by 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin plus bevacizumab and placebo or mFOLFOX6, bevacizumab plus MetMAb followed by 5 FU/LV, bevacizumab, and MetMAb. The primary end point of this study is progression-free survival (PFS) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Secondary end points include overall survival (OS), objective response rate, and safety. Subanalyses will be performed to evaluate the effect of MET receptor expression on study primary and secondary end points. Correlative studies will be performed on tissue- and blood-derived biomarkers related to both HGF/MET signaling and other associated pathway markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  20. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  1. The Orthodox Believer in the USSR. The 1940–1980th (on Materials of the Penza Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa A. Koroleva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In article social and demographic parameters of orthodox believers of the Penza region (age, sex, social and labor employment, etc. are characterized; types and level of religious ceremonialism in the region are analyzed; methods of distribution of religious beliefs the main thing from which was the believer's family reveal; methods of realization of the Soviet state religious policy at the regional level through local authorized Council for affairs of Russian Orthodox Church (later - Council for affairs of religions and state and party authorities are described; the changes in confessional practice of local orthodox religious associations and believers connected, first of all, with some changes in an internal social and economic situation in the USSR come to light (for example, distribution of ideas about human rights; features of financial activity of the Penza orthodox religious communities and actually orthodox believers are considered; dynamics and specifics of submission of petitions and complaints by orthodox believers in various instances in the 1940-1980th is studied; specifications are brought in a plot about Paraskevinsky church in Kuznetsk of the Penza region; new tendencies in the contingent of believers and activity of Orthodox Christians religious the organizations in the second half of the 1980th determined by «рerestroika» processes in the country are defined; it is proved that objective process of a sekulyarization of society in general, outlooks of the Soviet people in particular, made impact on consciousness of followers of an orthodox cult, including in the Penza region, in respect of decrease in the general level and quality of religiousness with what also Penza attendants of an orthodox cult agreed.

  2. What Influences Believing Child Sexual Abuse Disclosures? The Roles of Depicted Memory Persistence, Participant Gender, Trauma History, and Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarni Cromer, Lisa; Freyd, Jennifer J.

    2007-01-01

    This vignette study investigated factors that influence believing child sexual abuse disclosures. College student participants (N = 318) in a university human subject pool completed measures about their own trauma history and responded to questions about sexist attitudes. Participants then read vignettes in which an adult disclosed a history of…

  3. The predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on low back pain among newly qualified health care workers with and without previous low back pain: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Albertsen, Karen; Borg, Vilhelm

    2009-01-01

    and maintenance of LBP. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between physical work load and LBP, (2) the predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the development of LBP, and (3) the moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical...... work load and LBP among cases with and without previous LBP....

  4. Believing Selves and Cognitive Dissonance: Connecting Individual and Society via “Belief”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco B. Bae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available “Belief” as an analytical tool and critical category of investigation for the study of religion has been a resurging topic of interest. This article discusses the problems of language and practice in the discussion of “belief” and proceeds to map a few of the emergent frameworks, proposed within the past decade, for investigating “belief”. The issue of inconsistency, however, continues to remain a perennial issue that has not been adequately explained. This article argues for the utility and value of the “believing selves” framework, in conjunction with revisionist theories of cognitive dissonance, to advance the claim that beliefs are representations, as well as functions, of cultural history which bind individual and society.

  5. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  6. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  7. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  8. Listening and Believing: An Examination of Young People's Perceptions of Why They Are Not Believed by Professionals When They Report Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    This article explores commonly held perceptions by young people as to why they are sometimes not believed by practitioners when reporting potential or actual instances of abuse or neglect. Using original data gained from telephone, individual and group interviews with over a hundred young people a "typology of disbelief" was constructed and is…

  9. Birth after caesarean study – planned vaginal birth or planned elective repeat caesarean for women at term with a single previous caesarean birth: protocol for a patient preference study and randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslam Ross R

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For women who have a caesarean section in their preceding pregnancy, two care policies for birth are considered standard: planned vaginal birth and planned elective repeat caesarean. Currently available information about the benefits and harms of both forms of care are derived from retrospective and prospective cohort studies. There have been no randomised trials, and recognising the deficiencies in the literature, there have been calls for methodologically rigorous studies to assess maternal and infant health outcomes associated with both care policies. The aims of our study are to assess in women with a previous caesarean birth, who are eligible in the subsequent pregnancy for a vaginal birth, whether a policy of planned vaginal birth after caesarean compared with a policy of planned repeat caesarean affects the risk of serious complications for the woman and her infant. Methods/Design Design: Multicentred patient preference study and a randomised clinical trial. Inclusion Criteria: Women with a single prior caesarean presenting in their next pregnancy with a single, live fetus in cephalic presentation, who have reached 37 weeks gestation, and who do not have a contraindication to a planned VBAC. Trial Entry & Randomisation: Eligible women will be given an information sheet during pregnancy, and will be recruited to the study from 37 weeks gestation after an obstetrician has confirmed eligibility for a planned vaginal birth. Written informed consent will be obtained. Women who consent to the patient preference study will be allocated their preference for either planned VBAC or planned, elective repeat caesarean. Women who consent to the randomised trial will be randomly allocated to either the planned vaginal birth after caesarean or planned elective repeat caesarean group. Treatment Groups: Women in the planned vaginal birth group will await spontaneous onset of labour whilst appropriate. Women in the elective repeat

  10. I am right, you are wrong: how biased assimilation increases the perceived gap between believers and skeptics of violent video game effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Despite hundreds of studies, there is continuing debate about the extent to which violent video games increase aggression. Believers argue that playing violent video games increases aggression, but this stance is disputed by skeptics. The present study addressed believers' and skeptics' responses to summaries of scientific studies that do or do not present evidence for increased aggression after violent video game play. Participants (N = 662) indicated whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Afterwards, they evaluated two opposing summaries of fictitious studies on the effects of violent video play. They also reported whether their initial belief had changed after reading the two summaries and indicated again whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Results showed that believers evaluated the study showing an effect more favorably than a study showing no effect, whereas the opposite was observed for skeptics. Moreover, both believers and skeptics reported to become more convinced of their initial view. In contrast, for actual attitude change, a depolarization effect was found. These results suggest that biased assimilation of new information leads believers and skeptics to become more rather than less certain of their views. Hence, even when confronted with mixed and inconclusive evidence, the perceived gap between both sides of the argument increases.

  11. I am right, you are wrong: how biased assimilation increases the perceived gap between believers and skeptics of violent video game effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Greitemeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite hundreds of studies, there is continuing debate about the extent to which violent video games increase aggression. Believers argue that playing violent video games increases aggression, but this stance is disputed by skeptics. The present study addressed believers' and skeptics' responses to summaries of scientific studies that do or do not present evidence for increased aggression after violent video game play. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants (N = 662 indicated whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Afterwards, they evaluated two opposing summaries of fictitious studies on the effects of violent video play. They also reported whether their initial belief had changed after reading the two summaries and indicated again whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Results showed that believers evaluated the study showing an effect more favorably than a study showing no effect, whereas the opposite was observed for skeptics. Moreover, both believers and skeptics reported to become more convinced of their initial view. In contrast, for actual attitude change, a depolarization effect was found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that biased assimilation of new information leads believers and skeptics to become more rather than less certain of their views. Hence, even when confronted with mixed and inconclusive evidence, the perceived gap between both sides of the argument increases.

  12. I Am Right, You Are Wrong: How Biased Assimilation Increases the Perceived Gap between Believers and Skeptics of Violent Video Game Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite hundreds of studies, there is continuing debate about the extent to which violent video games increase aggression. Believers argue that playing violent video games increases aggression, but this stance is disputed by skeptics. The present study addressed believers' and skeptics' responses to summaries of scientific studies that do or do not present evidence for increased aggression after violent video game play. Methods/Principal Findings Participants (N = 662) indicated whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Afterwards, they evaluated two opposing summaries of fictitious studies on the effects of violent video play. They also reported whether their initial belief had changed after reading the two summaries and indicated again whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Results showed that believers evaluated the study showing an effect more favorably than a study showing no effect, whereas the opposite was observed for skeptics. Moreover, both believers and skeptics reported to become more convinced of their initial view. In contrast, for actual attitude change, a depolarization effect was found. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that biased assimilation of new information leads believers and skeptics to become more rather than less certain of their views. Hence, even when confronted with mixed and inconclusive evidence, the perceived gap between both sides of the argument increases. PMID:24722467

  13. Treatment Rationale and Design for J-AXEL: A Randomized Phase 3 Study Comparing Nab-Paclitaxel With Docetaxel in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneshima, Yasuto; Morita, Satoshi; Ando, Masahiko; Miura, Satoru; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Abe, Tetsuya; Kato, Terufumi; Kondo, Masashi; Hosomi, Yukio; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kishimoto, Junji; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Okamoto, Isamu

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab) paclitaxel is a promising new therapeutic agent for all histologic types of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We recently performed a phase 2 study of weekly nab-paclitaxel in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC, finding promising activity and acceptable toxicity for this regimen. We have now designed a randomized phase 3 intergroup study (J-AXEL, UMIN000017487) to examine the clinical benefit and safety of nab-paclitaxel compared to docetaxel in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC. Patients are randomized to receive either docetaxel (60 mg/m 2 on day 1 every 3 weeks, control arm) or nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m 2 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 3 weeks, experimental arm), with each drug being administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The study will evaluate the noninferiority of nab-paclitaxel relative to docetaxel for the primary end point of overall survival. If the primary objective is achieved, this study will provide evidence for a new alternative treatment option for patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Polish Revolt of 1863 in Destinies of Old Believers of the Northwest Territory of Russian Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Юрьевич Бендин

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of a legal status of Old Believers of Russian empire in the middle of 19th century. The comparative analysis of the Russian legislation allows the author to draw a conclusion on religious intolerance of the state and «prevailing» Orthodox Church to the old belief population of empire. The special attention is paid to the position of Old Believers of Northwest Territory who during the Polish revolt in 1863 acted on the side of Russia. The reaction of the territory administration to attempts of Old Believers to expand border of religious freedom is considered in the article.

  15. The climate controversy demands substantive discussion. 'Climatic change sceptics' opposite 'greenhouse effect believers'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoenes, D.; Labohm, H.

    2006-01-01

    With the aim to inform policymakers an overview is given of the arguments that are used by climatic change sceptics and greenhouse effect believers, and on which arguments do they agree or disagree [nl

  16. It's Time to Stop Believing Scientists about Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is not, contrary to what many creationists will tell you, a belief system. Neither is it a matter of faith. We should stop asking if people "believe" in evolution and talk about acceptance instead.

  17. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi; Kato, Shingo; Shibuya, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m 2 , and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade ≥3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade ≥3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  18. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi, E-mail: junsaito@sannet.ne.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi [Division of Respiratory Disease, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shibuya, Kei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  19. Changing beliefs about past public events with believable and unbelievable doctored photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Robert A

    2018-04-01

    Doctored photographs can shape what people believe and remember about prominent public events, perhaps due to their apparent credibility. In three studies, subjects completed surveys about the 2012 London Olympic torch relay (Experiment 1) or the 2011 Royal Wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton (Experiments 2-3). Some were shown a genuine photo of the event; others saw a doctored photo that depicted protesters and unrest. A third group of subjects saw a doctored photo whose inauthenticity had been made explicit, either by adding a written disclaimer (Experiment 1) or by making the digital manipulation deliberately poor (Experiments 2-3). In all three studies, doctored photos had small effects on a subset of subjects' beliefs about the events. Of central interest though, comparable effects also emerged when the photos were overtly inauthentic. These findings suggest that cognitive mechanisms other than credibility - such as familiarity misattribution and mental imagery - can rapidly influence beliefs about past events even when the low credibility of a source is overt.

  20. Patient preference with respect to QoL and reduction in opioid-induced constipation (OIC) after treatment with prolonged-release (PR) oxycodone/naloxone compared with previous analgesic therapy [PREFER study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, V C P C; Vanelderen, P J L; Koopmans-Klein, G; van Megen, Y J B; Van Zundert, J; Huygen, F J P M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patient preference in terms of quality of life (QoL), analgesia and bowel function for patients with moderate to severe chronic non-malignant pain, when treated with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR compared with the previous WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesic treatment . This was a 3-week open-label phase 3b study conducted in Belgium and the Netherlands, after 3 weeks patients could enter an extension phase. Patient preference with respect to QoL for oxycodone PR/naloxone PR treatment compared with previous WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesics was assessed. A patient was considered a responder with respect to QoL if this assessment was 'better' or 'much better' compared with previous WHO-step I or II analgesics at any time point. Response rate with respect to QoL was 59.2% (95% CI: 51.7-66.8%) for the Full Analysis (FA)-population, for the Per Protocol-population response rate was 71.7% (95% CI: 63.1-80.3%). Explorative analysis showed that response rate with respect to QoL was highest in constipated patients pretreated with WHO-step II analgesics (73.8%). Mean ± SD pain score in the FA-population at start was 74.7 ± 16.6 decreasing to 53.9 ± 24.3 after a median (range) treatment period of 173.5 (31-771) days. For constipated subjects the significant reduction in constipation [improvement of the Bowel Function Index (BFI)], was -24.8 points (95% CI: -17.1 to -32.5). BFI for non-constipated subjects remained well below 28.8. Adverse events with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR treatment were well-known opioid-related adverse events. This study shows that the studied patients previously treated with WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesics prefer treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR with respect to QoL. Moreover, the study shows that treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR significantly reduces OIC in constipated patients and that non-constipated patients do not develop OIC during treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR.

  1. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  2. Studies of the Ala/Val98 polymorphism of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha gene and the relationship to beta-cell function during an OGTT in glucose-tolerant women with and without previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, J; Damm, P; Ek, J

    2004-01-01

    In pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) an increased demand for insulin is not met due to beta-cell dysfunction. An Ala/Val polymorphism at codon 98 of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha) gene has been associated with decreased serum insulin and C......-peptide responses during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in glucose-tolerant subjects. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of the polymorphism on the serum insulin and C-peptide responses to an OGTT in glucose-tolerant women with and without previous GDM and to investigate...

  3. Who Believes in the Giant Skeleton Myth? An Examination of Individual Difference Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined individual difference correlates of belief in a narrative about the discovery of giant skeletal remains that contravenes mainstream scientific explanations. A total of 364 participants from Central Europe completed a survey that asked them to rate their agreement with a short excerpt describing the giant skeleton myth. Participants also completed measures of the Big Five personality factors, New Age orientation, anti-scientific attitudes, superstitious beliefs, and religiosity. Results showed that women, as compared with men, and respondents with lower educational qualifications were significantly more likely to believe in the giant skeleton myth, although effect sizes were small. Correlational analysis showed that stronger belief in the giant skeleton myth was significantly associated with greater anti-scientific attitudes, stronger New Age orientation, greater religiosity, stronger superstitious beliefs, lower Openness to Experience scores, and higher Neuroticism scores. However, a multiple regression showed that the only significant predictors of belief in myth were Openness, New Age orientation, and anti-scientific attitudes. These results are discussed in relation to the potential negative consequences of belief in myths.

  4. How were lipofilling cannulae designed and are they as safe as we believe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memet Yazar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most practitioners in plastic surgery believe that blunt tipped cannulae are safer. Interestingly, there is no study about their safety, and the problem is exactly this. As the use of blunt tipped cannulae is somehow difficult, some surgeons try other extreme alternatives, such as sharp and cutting tipped injection needles. But, they can cause complications such as vessel damage. According to these hypotheses, we tried to design a cannula which would ease the application of lipofilling and which would minimise the trauma. Contrary to the injection needle, the tips of the cannula would be blunter, and trauma would be diminished. Objectives: After designing such a cannula, we compared it with the most frequently used Coleman type cannulae with regard to ease in utilisation, and safety. We also tried to evaluate the potential for trauma, of the regularly used cannulae. Materials and Methods : In the first part, the penetration capacity of all cannulae was measured and compared, and in the second part, the tissue damage was evaluated in an experimental model. Results: According to the statistical and histological findings, the pointed-tip cannulae, blunted to a certain degree, can be applied easily through the tissues. The surgeon works more comfortably and we have noted that these cannulae cause less tissue damage.

  5. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingsheng Hu

    Full Text Available Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125 mg tablet, three times per day. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety.From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9-6.6 m and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1-7.9 m, respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127, diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127 and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127.In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02486354.

  6. Does local endometrial injury in the nontransfer cycle improve the IVF-ET outcome in the subsequent cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF? A randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Narvekar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of repeated implantation failure despite transfer of good-quality embryos still remains a dilemma for ART specialists. Scrapping of endometrium in the nontransfer cycle has been shown to improve the pregnancy rate in the subsequent IVF/ET cycle in recent studies. Aim: The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT was to determine whether endometrial injury caused by Pipelle sampling in the nontransfer cycle could improve the probability of pregnancy in the subsequent IVF cycle in patients who had previous failed IVF outcome. Setting: Tertiary assisted conception center. Design: Randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: 100 eligible patients with previous failed IVF despite transfer of good-quality embryos were randomly allocated to the intervention group and control groups. In the intervention group, Pipelle endometrial sampling was done twice: One in the follicular phase and again in the luteal phase in the cycle preceding the embryo transfer cycle. Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The secondary outcome measures were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: The live birth rate was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to control group (22.4% and 9.8% P = 0.04. The clinical pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 32.7%, while that in the control group was 13.7%, which was also statistically significant ( P = 0.01. The implantation rate was significantly higher in the intervention group as compared to controls (13.07% vs 7.1% P = 0.04. Conclusions: Endometrial injury in nontransfer cycle improves the live birth rate,clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in the subsequent IVF-ET cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF cycles.

  7. Do People Who Believe in God Report More Meaning in Their Lives? The Existential Effects of Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranney, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    I conduct the first large-N study explicitly exploring the association between belief in God and sense of purpose in life. This relationship, while often discussed informally, has received little empirical attention. Here I use the General Social Survey to investigate how form of and confidence in belief in God is related to sense of purpose in life, as measured by a Likert item level of agreement with the statement "In my opinion, life does not serve any purpose." Using logistic regression analysis, I find that those who indicate that they are confident in God's existence report a higher sense of purpose compared to nonbelievers, believers in a higher power, and those who believe but occasionally doubt.

  8. Effect of a supplementation with myo-inositol plus melatonin on oocyte quality in women who failed to conceive in previous in vitro fertilization cycles for poor oocyte quality: a prospective, longitudinal, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unfer, Vittorio; Raffone, Emanuela; Rizzo, Piero; Buffo, Silvia

    2011-11-01

    Several factors can affect oocyte quality and therefore pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Recently, a number of studies have shown that the presence of several compounds in the follicular fluid positively correlates with oocyte quality and maturation (i.e., myo-inositol and melatonin). In the present study, we aim to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes after the administration of myo-inositol combined with melatonin in women who failed to conceive in previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles due to poor oocyte quality. Forty-six women were treated with 4 g/day myo-inositol and 3 mg/day melatonin (inofolic® and inofolic® Plus, Lo.Lipharma, Rome) for 3 months and then underwent a new IVF cycle. After treatment, the number of mature oocytes, the fertilization rate, the number of both, total and top-quality embryos transferred were statistically higher compared to the previous IVF cycle, while there was no difference in the number of retrieved oocyte. After treatment, a total of 13 pregnancies occurred, 9 of them were confirmed echographically; four evolved in spontaneous abortion. The treatment with myo-inositol and melatonin improves ovarian stimulation protocols and pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with poor oocyte quality.

  9. Tirapazamine plus cisplatin versus cisplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: A report of the international CATAPULT I study group. Cisplatin and Tirapazamine in Subjects with Advanced Previously Untreated Non-Small-Cell Lung Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Pawel, J; von Roemeling, R; Gatzemeier, U; Boyer, M; Elisson, L O; Clark, P; Talbot, D; Rey, A; Butler, T W; Hirsh, V; Olver, I; Bergman, B; Ayoub, J; Richardson, G; Dunlop, D; Arcenas, A; Vescio, R; Viallet, J; Treat, J

    2000-03-01

    A phase III trial, Cisplatin and Tirapazamine in Subjects with Advanced Previously Untreated Non-Small-Cell Lung Tumors (CATAPULT I), was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of tirapazamine plus cisplatin for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with previously untreated NSCLC were randomized to receive either tirapazamine (390 mg/m(2) infused over 2 hours) followed 1 hour later by cisplatin (75 mg/m(2) over 1 hour) or 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin alone, every 3 weeks for a maximum of eight cycles. A total of 446 patients with NSCLC (17% with stage IIIB disease and pleural effusions; 83% with stage IV disease) were entered onto the study. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was >/= 60 for all patients (for 10%, KPS = 60; for 90%, KPS = 70 to 100). Sixty patients (14%) had clinically stable brain metastases. The median survival was significantly longer (34.6 v 27. 7 weeks; P =.0078) and the response rate was significantly greater (27.5% v 13.7%; P CATAPULT I study shows that tirapazamine enhances the activity of cisplatin in patients with advanced NSCLC and confirms that hypoxia is an exploitable therapeutic target in human malignancies.

  10. A double-blind cross-over controlled study to evaluate the effect of human biosynthetic growth hormone on ovarian stimulation in previous poor responders to in-vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S M; Huang, Z H; Morris, I D; Matson, P L; Buck, P; Lieberman, B A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of exogenous human biosynthetic growth hormone (HGH; 12 IU/day; Norditropin, Novo-Nordisk) on the response to ovarian stimulation using a buserelin/human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) regimen was assessed in women who had previously shown a 'poor response' in spite of increasing doses of HMG. Forty patients were recruited into a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study. The serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on day 2-5 of a menstrual cycle (HGH compared to the placebo cycle resulted in increased serum concentrations of fasting insulin on the 8th (median 3.9 versus 5.8 mU/l; P HGH. After 8 days of co-treatment with HGH the number of cohort follicles (14-16.9 mm) was significantly increased, but this change was not sustained on the day of HCG administration. No statistical difference in the serum oestradiol on the 8th day of HMG or day of HCG, length of the follicular phase, total dose of HMG used, or the number of oocytes collected was seen between the placebo or HGH cycles. This study demonstrates that HGH does not improve the ovarian response to ovulation induction in previous poor responders.

  11. Bortezomib Added to Daunorubicin and Cytarabine During Induction Therapy and to Intermediate-Dose Cytarabine for Consolidation in Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia Age 60 to 75 Years: CALGB (Alliance) Study 10502

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Eyal C.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Amrein, Philip C.; Lozanski, Gerard; Wadleigh, Martha; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Powell, Bayard L.; Voorhees, Peter; Wang, Eunice S.; Blum, William; Stone, Richard M.; Marcucci, Guido; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Moser, Barry; Larson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine remission induction frequency when bortezomib was combined with daunorubicin and cytarabine in previously untreated older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and safety of bortezomib in combination with consolidation chemotherapy consisting of intermediate-dose cytarabine (Int-DAC). Patients and Methods Ninety-five adults (age 60 to 75 years; median, 67 years) with previously untreated AML (including therapy-related and previous myelodysplastic syndrome) received bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 with daunorubicin 60 mg/m2 on days 1 through 3 and cytarabine 100 mg/m2 by continuous IV infusion on days 1 through 7. Patients who achieved complete remission (CR) received up to two courses of consolidation chemotherapy with cytarabine 2 gm/m2 on days 1 through 5 with bortezomib. Three cohorts with escalating dose levels of bortezomib were tested (0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 mg/m2). Dose-limiting toxicities were assessed during the first cycle of consolidation. The relationship between cell surface expression of CD74 and clinical outcome was assessed. Results Frequency of CR was 65% (62 of 95), and 4% of patients (four of 95) achieved CR with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp). Eleven patients developed grade 3 sensory neuropathy. Bortezomib plus Int-DAC proved tolerable at the highest dose tested. Lower CD74 expression was associated with CR/CRp (P = .04) but not with disease-free or overall survival. Conclusion The addition of bortezomib to standard 3 + 7 daunorubicin and cytarabine induction chemotherapy for AML resulted in an encouraging remission rate. The maximum tested dose of bortezomib administered in combination with Int-DAC for remission consolidation was 1.3 mg/m2 and proved tolerable. Further testing of this regimen is planned. PMID:23129738

  12. Como novos conhecimentos podem ser construídos a partir dos conhecimentos prévios: um estudo de caso How new knowledge can be constructed from previous knowledge: a case study

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    Francimar Martins Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata sobre o estudo de caso de como uma professora utiliza os conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes durante a abordagem de um novo conceito científico. Para tanto, foram realizadas filmagens de aulas de ciências durante a execução de uma sequência didática, a fim de investigar de que maneira os conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes eram tratados em sala de aula ao longo da abordagem do tema. A partir dos resultados encontrados, percebemos nas aulas observadas como a professora lidava com os conhecimentos dos estudantes. Identificamos que houve ocasiões em que ela os considerou e outras em que os desconsiderou. Apesar de ações antagônicas, tanto o fato de considerar quanto de desconsiderar parecem ter em comum a busca de manutenção de foco sob os conceitos, entendidos pela professora, como sendo os que devem ser objeto de atenção dos alunos.This article deals with a case study about how a teacher uses previous knowledge of students to approach a new concept. To this end, sciences classes were filmed during the execution of a didactic sequence, in order to investigate how previous knowledge of the students was treated in the classroom along the approach of the theme. From these results, we saw how the teacher dealt with previous knowledge of their students. We identified that there were occasions when she considered them and others in which she disregarded them. Although they are antagonistic actions, both the facts, to consider or to dismiss, have in common the search for keeping the focus on the concepts, defined by the teacher as those that should be the object of attention for the students.

  13. Long- term effects of previous experience determine nutrient discrimination abilities in birds

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    Spitzer Kathrin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foraging behaviour is an essential ecological process linking different trophic levels. A central assumption of foraging theory is that food selection maximises the fitness of the consumer. It remains unknown, however, whether animals use innate or learned behaviour to discriminate food rewards. While many studies demonstrated that previous experience is a strong determinant of complex food choices such as diet mixing, the response to simple nutritional stimuli, such as sugar concentrations, is often believed to be innate. Results Here we show that previous experience determines the ability to track changes in sugar composition in same-aged individuals of a short-lived migratory songbird, the garden warbler (Sylvia borin. Although birds received identical foods for seven months prior to the experiment, wild-caught birds achieved higher sugar intake rates than hand-raised birds when confronted with alternative, differently coloured, novel food types. Hand-raised and wild birds did not differ in their initial colour selection or overall food intake, but wild birds were quicker to adjust food choice to varying sugar intake. Conclusion Over a period of at least seven months, broader previous experience translates into a higher plasticity of food choice leading to higher nutrient intake. Our results thus highlight the need to address previous long-term experience in foraging experiments. Furthermore, they show that hand-raised animals are often poor surrogates for testing the foraging behaviour of wild animals.

  14. Project BELIEVE. Final Report. (A National Workplace Literacy Project with Bakery Europa and Straub Clinic & Hospital).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Lawrence F. H.

    Bakery Europa and the Straub Clinic in Hawaii participated in Project BELIEVE, a 3-year (1995-98) workplace literacy project conducted in partnership with the University of Hawaii's College of Education. Instruction focused on the literacy, communication, interpersonal, and problem-solving skills needed to succeed in the baking and health care…

  15. Old Believers in Tuva at the beginning of the 20th century and under People’s Republic of Tuva

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    Margarita P. Tatarinseva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the specifics of culture and everyday life of the Old Believers’ (staroobryadtsy community in Tuva at the beginning of the 20th century, as well as under the People’s Republic of Tuva (1921-1944. Our study was based on research in the general history and culture of Old Belief in Russian and Siberia, as well as on the documents from the research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies.   Old Believers who settled in Tuva (Uryankhaisky Krai in late 19th – early 20th century accounted for about a third of all Russian settlers. For the first two decades, their situation in the region was relatively favorable. For them, Tuva was a faraway region that suited well their isolationist lifestyle. It was the Promised Land, the Belovodye which ‘Antichrist’s henchmen’ (Russian government officials could not reach. In the natural abundance of Tuva they saw a country where every hard-working Christian could become master of his own household. Although settling in the new land with its often adverse conditions for farming could prove difficult, Old Believers managed to adapt to the new climate and build good relations with the local powers which rarely intervened into their lives. Alongside with farming and cattle breeding, Old Believers were involved in hunting, fishing, crafts and trade. Their situation, however, worsened when the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT in the 1930s accelerated the Socialist reforms and implemented an anti-religious policy. Those Old Believers who refused to change their lifestyle due to religious considerations (i.e., evaded military conscription, etc., as well as clergy and monks, were given prison sentences that they had to serve outside Tuva. Old Believers protested against censuses, introduction of mandatory passports, universal education (at schools where atheism was an official policy, etc. Many families tried to find ’salvation’ by fleeing deep

  16. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

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    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  17. 31 CFR 501.806 - Procedures for unblocking funds believed to have been blocked due to mistaken identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... believed to have been blocked due to mistaken identity. 501.806 Section 501.806 Money and Finance: Treasury... funds believed to have been blocked due to mistaken identity. When a transaction results in the blocking... party to the transaction believes the funds have been blocked due to mistaken identity, that party may...

  18. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. The ways of transmission of religious knowledge in the communities of old believers in south Vjatka

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    E. VORONTSOVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the role of the family and the community in translation of religious knowledge. We focused on the local tradition of different groups of old believers in Vjatka region. We demonstrate the high vitality of Old Believer’s communities in the transformation of the world. From our point of view, a huge role here plays samples and ways of transfer of religious knowledge. We conventionally divide Old Believer’s community into three circles: core, inner circle, periphery. We highlight the following key factors: the role of an example of the believers for relatives, participation and environment in commemoration of dead, helping of the core of community for neophytes in learning religious knowledge.

  20. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

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    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  1. Freed by trust, to believe together: Pursuing global ecumenism with Küng and Tracy

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    Jakub Urbaniak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Focus and scope Publication ethics Journal metrics Frequent asked questions Supporting agencies Contact us Reading tools Print this article Indexing metadata Review policy Email this article Email the author Post a Comment Translate content Powered by Translate Related items Show all ✔ Open access ✔ Global visibility ✔ Rapid publication ✔ Quality peer review ✔ Author retains copyright ✔ Personalised service ✔ Submit online Home About Author Reviewer Reader Support Archives Search Home > Vol 70, No 1 (2014 > Urbaniak Original Research Bookmark and Share Freed by trust, to believe together: Pursuing global ecumenism with Küng and Tracy Jakub Urbaniak HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies; Vol 70, No 1 (2014, 9 pages. doi: 10.4102/hts.v70i1.2047 Submitted: 16 August 2013 Published: 11 April 2014 Abstract In the past decades it has emerged more clearly than before that Christian religion, which has so often contributed to human oppression, has rich theological resources that can be used to restore and perfect human freedom. These resources have been reflected upon not only by liberation theologians, but also within the ecumenically oriented theology of religions which targets what Hans Küng calls global responsibility based on global ethics. World religions have an essential role to play in rendering that global humanity more humane and free. The only way to accomplish this task leads through ongoing dialogue, directed both ad intra and ad extra, in the pursuit of a ‘global ecumenism’ which the present suggests and the future demands. For those liberating and unitive resources inherent in religious theory and praxis to be activated, fundamental trust in the reality of the world and of one’s own self appears indispensable. By deepening the theological insights of Hans Küng and David Tracy, the article seeks to explore the mutual correlation between such fundamental trust in reality and religious faith in God, interpreted

  2. Would Tarzan believe in God? Conditions for the emergence of religious belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Konika; Bloom, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Would someone raised without exposure to religious views nonetheless come to believe in the existence of God, an afterlife, and the intentional creation of humans and other animals? Many scholars would answer yes, proposing that universal cognitive biases generate religious ideas anew within each individual mind. Drawing on evidence from developmental psychology, we argue here that the answer is no: children lack spontaneous theistic views and the emergence of religion is crucially dependent on culture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. This house believes the NHS should be privatised — 1st southwest medical debate

    OpenAIRE

    Naguleswaran, K.; Tribedi, T.; Fenn, J.; Patel, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    The inaugural southwest medical debate, between Exeter and Plymouth medical schools and respective health services, was held on the 3rd December 2014. Plymouth proposed the motion “This house believes the NHS should be privatised?” In an increasingly political climate, the National Health Service (NHS) has become a constant topic for discussion in the media. On this occasion, all those debating were involved in the medical profession with roles encompassing clinical medicine, education, ethic...

  4. Family physicians believe the placebo effect is therapeutic but often use real drugs as placebos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermen, Rachel; Hickner, John; Brody, Howard; Hasham, Irma

    2010-10-01

    Few national data exist on physicians' use of and beliefs about placebos in routine health care. We mailed a 22-question, confidential survey about placebo use and beliefs to a random sample of 1,000 members of the American Academy of Family Physicians. A total of 412 of 970 (43%) eligible physicians responded, and 56% of respondents said they had used a placebo in clinical practice. Forty percent of respondents had used an antibiotic as a placebo, and 11% had used inert substances. The most common reason for prescribing placebos was "after unjustified demand for medication." Eighty-five percent of respondents believed placebos can have both psychological and physical benefits. The majority (61%) recommended a placebo over offering no treatment, while 8% said clinical placebo use should be categorically prohibited. Nearly all respondents believed a number of routine clinical practices promote the placebo effect. Many US family physicians use placebos and generally believe the placebo effect has both psychological and physical benefits. Physicians recognize the broader application of the placebo effect but they commonly use active medication as placebos. The responses to this survey raise important questions about the appropriate use of placebos and the therapeutic value of the placebo effect in clinical practice.

  5. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  6. A Phase II Study of the c-Met Inhibitor Tivantinib in Combination with FOLFOX for the Treatment of Patients with Previously Untreated Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Distal Esophagus, Gastroesophageal Junction, or Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Shubham; Patel, Manish; Kurkjian, Carla; Hemphill, Brian; Flores, Maria; Thompson, Dana; Bendell, Johanna

    2017-08-09

    This phase I/II study was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose of tivantinib in combination with standard dose FOLFOX for the treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this combination for patients with previously untreated metastatic adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus, gastroesophageal (GE) junction, or stomach. Patients with advanced solid tumors for which FOLFOX would be appropriate chemotherapy received escalating doses of tivantinib BID (days 1-14) in a standard 3 + 3 design in phase I. In phase II, patients with advanced GE cancer received standard FOLFOX day 1 and tivantinib (360 mg PO BID) days 1-14 of each 2-week cycle. Restaging occurred every four cycles. The primary phase II endpoint was response rate (RR). Forty-nine patients were enrolled (15 on phase I and 34 on phase II). The expansion dose was established as tivantinib 360 mg BID in combination with FOLFOX. Thirty-two phase II patients were treated for a median of eight cycles (range, 1-38), with an overall RR of 38%. Treatment-related toxicities included neutropenia, fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, and peripheral neuropathy. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.1 hmonths with a median time to progression of 7.0 months. Median overall survival was 9.6 months. Two patients remain on study at the time of this analysis. The combination treatment of tivantinib plus FOLFOX in patients with advanced GE cancer showed a response and PFS in the range of historical controls for first-line FOLFOX therapy. However, two patients had extended time on study treatment (36 and 45 cycles) at the time of data cutoff.

  7. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. Methods/design The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government’s Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. Discussion It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new

  8. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Fauquet, Jordi; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Pàmias, Montserrat; Puntí, Joaquim; Querol, Mireia; Trepat, Esther

    2013-10-12

    The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government's Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new contributions in this transition from efficacy

  9. THE LIS STUDY (LYUBERTSY STUDY ON MORTALITY RATE IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. EVALUATION OF DRUG THERAPY. PART 2. INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS DRUG TREATMENT ON LONG-TERM LIFE PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate drug therapy received by patients who had survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the framework of the AMI register (the “LIS” study and estimate this therapy influence on long-term outcomes of the disease. Material and methods. The total of 961 patients of 1133 enrolled in the “LIS” study , were discharged from hospital. 191 patients had died during follow-up. 632 patients (who had survived and consented to visit out-patient clinic underwent repeated examination (median of follow-up 1.6 [1.0; 2.4] years. Data about treatment before and during AMI were received from patient’s charts; data about treatment after AMI were obtained from out-patient medical records. Results. Before reference AMI only a small number of the patients received the main drug groups (antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, at that ACE inhibitors were prescribed more often than the others. Use of β-blockers and ACE inhibitors before reference AMI significantly improved long-term life prognosis [relative risk (RR 0.70 and 0.66, respectively]. Rate of the main drug groups prescribed in hospital was rather high with the exception of thrombolytics (less than 10%. Thrombolytics, β-blockers and antiplatelet agents prescribed in hospital significantly improved long-term life prognosis of patients (RR 0.42, 0.65 and 0.58 respectively. At the second visit (according to data of out-patient medical records rate of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and statins prescription exceeded 60%. Conclusion. Very low prevalence of adequate drug therapy preceding AMI determines high mortality rate among survived acute stage of myocardial infarction patients in long-term period.

  10. THE LIS STUDY (LYUBERTSY STUDY ON MORTALITY RATE IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. EVALUATION OF DRUG THERAPY. PART 2. INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS DRUG TREATMENT ON LONG-TERM LIFE PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate drug therapy received by patients who had survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the framework of the AMI register (the “LIS” study and estimate this therapy influence on long-term outcomes of the disease. Material and methods. The total of 961 patients of 1133 enrolled in the “LIS” study , were discharged from hospital. 191 patients had died during follow-up. 632 patients (who had survived and consented to visit out-patient clinic underwent repeated examination (median of follow-up 1.6 [1.0; 2.4] years. Data about treatment before and during AMI were received from patient’s charts; data about treatment after AMI were obtained from out-patient medical records. Results. Before reference AMI only a small number of the patients received the main drug groups (antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, at that ACE inhibitors were prescribed more often than the others. Use of β-blockers and ACE inhibitors before reference AMI significantly improved long-term life prognosis [relative risk (RR 0.70 and 0.66, respectively]. Rate of the main drug groups prescribed in hospital was rather high with the exception of thrombolytics (less than 10%. Thrombolytics, β-blockers and antiplatelet agents prescribed in hospital significantly improved long-term life prognosis of patients (RR 0.42, 0.65 and 0.58 respectively. At the second visit (according to data of out-patient medical records rate of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and statins prescription exceeded 60%. Conclusion. Very low prevalence of adequate drug therapy preceding AMI determines high mortality rate among survived acute stage of myocardial infarction patients in long-term period.

  11. From “Mr. Guthrie is profoundly mistaken ...” to “Our data do not seem to confirm the results of a previous study on...”: A diachronic study of polemicity in academic writing (1810-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Salager-Meyer

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the quantitative and qualitative diachronic evolution of critical (Cr with respect to non-critical (NCr references in English medical discourse over a 185 year-period.Materials and Methods: We analyzed a corpus of 90 medical articles drawn from 34 different journals published between 1810 and 1995. Cr and NCr references were recorded in each paper and their frequency of occurrence was computed per 20 year-period. Results were analyzed by means of Chi-square tests.Results: Our quantitative results indicate that in the corpus as a whole NCr significantly outweigh Cr references. When diachronically analyzed, our quantitative data revealed that the corpus analyzed could be divided into 2 blocks: Block A (1810-1929 and Block B (1930-1995, the cutting point being the 1930’s when NCr references started exhibiting a dramatic ascent. Our findings further showed that, proportionally speaking, Cr references were significantly more frequent in Block A than in Block B, but that NCr references significantly outnumbered Cr ones in Block B. Our quantitative data also indicated that the NCr/Cr reference ratio remained rather constant for the first 120 years studied, but that it changed radically from the 1930’s. Finally, our qualitative findings revealed that 19th and early 20th century Cr references were formulated in a much more direct, involved, personal and author-responsible manner than their mid- and late 20th century counterparts, the rhetorical features of the latter being a pronounced hedginess and the shifting of the disagreeement responsibility from a human agent (who became a detached and apparently neutral actor to an inanimate “talking fact/finding” which is then given a prominent thematic position.Conclusions: We conclude that 19th and early 20th century medical papers adopted a critical stand more frequently than mid- and late 20th century medical discourse did, and that the

  12. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  13. Myocardial adaption to HI(RT in previously untrained men with a randomized, longitudinal cardiac MR imaging study (Physical adaptions in Untrained on Strength and Heart trial, PUSH-trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Scharf

    Full Text Available Although musculoskeletal effects in resistance training are well described, little is known about structural and functional cardiac adaption in formerly untrained subjects. We prospectively evaluated whether short term high intensity (resistance training (HI(RT induces detectable morphologic cardiac changes in previously untrained men in a randomized controlled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study.80 untrained middle-aged men were randomly assigned to a HI(RT-group (n = 40; 43.5±5.9 years or an inactive control group (n = 40; 42.0±6.3 years. HI(RT comprised 22 weeks of training focusing on a single-set to failure protocol in 2-3 sessions/week, each with 10-13 exercises addressing main muscle groups. Repetitions were decreased from 8-10 to 3-5 during study period. Before and after HI(RT all subjects underwent physiologic examination and cardiac MRI (cine imaging, tagging.Indexed left (LV and right ventricular (RV volume (LV: 76.8±15.6 to 78.7±14.8 ml/m2; RV: 77.0±15.5 to 78.7±15.1 ml/m2 and mass (LV: 55.5±9.7 to 57.0±8.8 g/m2; RV: 14.6±3.0 to 15.0±2.9 g/m2 significantly increased with HI(RT (all p<0.001. Mean LV and RV remodeling indices of HI(RT-group did not alter with training (0.73g/mL and 0.19g/mL, respectively [p = 0.96 and p = 0.87], indicating balanced cardiac adaption. Indexed LV (48.4±11.1 to 50.8±11.0 ml/m2 and RV (48.5±11.0 to 50.6±10.7 ml/m2 stroke volume significantly increased with HI(RT (p<0.001. Myocardial strain and strain rates did not change following resistance exercise. Left atrial volume at end systole slightly increased after HI(RT (36.2±7.9 to 37.0±8.4 ml/m2, p = 0.411, the ratio to end-diastolic LV volume at baseline and post-training was unchanged (0.47 vs. 0.47, p = 0.79.22 weeks of HI(RT lead to measurable, physiological changes in cardiac atrial and ventricular morphologic characteristics and function in previously untrained men.The PUSH-trial is registered at the US National Institutes of Health

  14. How much should we believe correlations between Arctic cyclones and sea ice extent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. L. Rae

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the robustness of correlations between characteristics of Arctic summer cyclones and September Arctic sea ice extent. A cyclone identification and tracking algorithm is run for output from 100-year coupled climate model simulations at two resolutions and for 30 years of reanalysis data, using two different tracking variables (mean sea-level pressure, MSLP; and 850 hPa vorticity for identification of the cyclones. The influence of the tracking variable, the spatial resolution of the model, and spatial and temporal sampling on the correlations is then explored. We conclude that the correlations obtained depend on all of these factors and that care should be taken when interpreting the results of such analyses. Previous studies of this type have used around 30 years of reanalysis and observational data, analysed with a single tracking variable. Our results therefore cast some doubt on the conclusions drawn in those studies.

  15. How much should we believe correlations between Arctic cyclones and sea ice extent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Jamie G. L.; Todd, Alexander D.; Blockley, Edward W.; Ridley, Jeff K.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the robustness of correlations between characteristics of Arctic summer cyclones and September Arctic sea ice extent. A cyclone identification and tracking algorithm is run for output from 100-year coupled climate model simulations at two resolutions and for 30 years of reanalysis data, using two different tracking variables (mean sea-level pressure, MSLP; and 850 hPa vorticity) for identification of the cyclones. The influence of the tracking variable, the spatial resolution of the model, and spatial and temporal sampling on the correlations is then explored. We conclude that the correlations obtained depend on all of these factors and that care should be taken when interpreting the results of such analyses. Previous studies of this type have used around 30 years of reanalysis and observational data, analysed with a single tracking variable. Our results therefore cast some doubt on the conclusions drawn in those studies.

  16. Lung Transplantation From Donors After Previous Cardiac Surgery: Ideal Graft in Marginal Donor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palleschi, A; Mendogni, P; Tosi, D; Montoli, M; Carrinola, R; Mariolo, A V; Briganti, F; Nosotti, M

    2017-05-01

    Lung transplantation is a limited by donor pool shortage. Despite the efforts to extend the graft acceptability with recurrent donor criteria reformulations, previous cardiothoracic surgery is still considered a contraindication. A donor who underwent cardiac surgery could potentially provide an ideal lung but high intraoperative risks and intrinsic technical challenges are expected during the graft harvesting. The purpose of this study is to present our dedicated protocol and four clinical cases of successful lung procurements from donors who had a previous major cardiac surgery. One donor had ascending aortic root (AAR) substitution, another had mitral valve substitution, and two had coronary artery bypass surgery. The others' eligibility criteria for organ allocation, such as ABO compatibility, PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio, absence of aspiration, or sepsis were respected. In one of the cases with previous coronary bypass grafting, the donor had a veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Consequently, the grafts required an ex vivo lung perfusion evaluation. We report the technical details of procurement and postoperative courses of recipients. All procurements were uneventful, without lung damage or waste of abdominal organs related to catastrophic intraoperative events. All recipients had a successful clinical outcome. We believe that successful transplantation is achievable even in a complicated setting, such as cases involving donors with previous cardiac surgery frequently are. Facing lung donor shortage, we strongly support any effort to avoid the loss of possible acceptable lungs. In particular, previous major cardiac surgery does not strictly imply a poor quality of lungs as well as unsustainable graft procurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Daydream Believer: Rumination, Self-Reflection and the Temporal Focus of Mind Wandering Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimpton, Daisy; McGann, Deborah; Riby, Leigh M

    2017-11-01

    Current research into mind-wandering is beginning to acknowledge that this process is one of heterogeneity. Following on from previous findings highlighting the role of self-focus during mind wandering, the present study aimed to examine individual differences in rumination and self-reflection and the impact such styles of self-focus may have on mind-wandering experiences. Thirty-three participants were required to complete the Sustained Attention Response Task (SART), aimed at inducing mind-wandering episodes, whilst also probing the content of thought in terms of temporal focus. Self-report questionnaires were also administered after the SART to measure dispositional differences in style and beliefs regarding mind-wandering and assessments of individual differences in rumination and self-reflection. Those individuals with reflective self-focus showed a strong positive association with positive and constructive thoughts. Critically, ruminative self-focus was positively associated with a tendency for the mind to wander towards anguished fantasies, failures and aggression, but it was also positively associated with positive and constructive thoughts. Furthermore, while dispositional differences in self-focus showed no relationship with the temporal perspective of thoughts when probed during a cognitive task, performance on the task itself was related to whether participants were thinking about the past, present or future during that activity. Such findings are discussed in line with previous research, and provide a further step towards accounting for the heterogeneous nature of mind-wandering.

  18. When the Patient Believes That the Organs Are Destroyed: Manifestation of Cotard's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Leonardo; Filho, Luiz Evandro de Lima; Machado, Liliane

    2016-01-01

    Cotard's Syndrome (CS) is a rare clinical event described for the first time in 1880 by the neurologist and psychiatrist Jules Cotard and characterized by negation delusions (or nihilists). Immortality and hypochondriac delusions are also typical. Nowadays, it is known that CS can be associated with many neuropsychiatric conditions. In this article, we describe the case of a patient that believed not having more organs and having the body deformed and whose CS was associated with a bigger depressive disorder. Although the electroconvulsive therapy is the most described treatment modality in the literature, the reported case had therapeutic success with association of imipramine and risperidone.

  19. What Do People Believe About Memory? Implications for the Science and Pseudoscience of Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Evans, James; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2015-12-01

    We examine the evidence concerning what people believe about memory. We focus on beliefs regarding the permanence of memory and whether memory can be repressed and accurately recovered. We consider beliefs about memory among the undergraduate and general population, mental health professionals, judges, jurors, and law enforcement officers to provide a broad canvass that extends to the forensic arena, as well as to psychiatry, psychology, and allied disciplines. We discuss the implications of these beliefs for the education of the general public and mental health professionals regarding the science and pseudoscience of memory and the use of suggestive procedures in psychotherapy.

  20. This house believes the NHS should be privatised - 1st southwest medical debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguleswaran, K; Tribedi, T; Fenn, J; Patel, S B

    2015-09-22

    The inaugural southwest medical debate, between Exeter and Plymouth medical schools and respective health services, was held on the 3rd December 2014. Plymouth proposed the motion "This house believes the NHS should be privatised?" In an increasingly political climate, the National Health Service (NHS) has become a constant topic for discussion in the media. On this occasion, all those debating were involved in the medical profession with roles encompassing clinical medicine, education, ethics, economics and policy. By allowing those with knowledge of the NHS to speak, we hoped to spark novel discussions based on evidence and experience.

  1. Dare to believe, dare to create: Christianity and contemporary Brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses primarily discuss the relationship of the Christian camp with the so called modern culture in Brazil over the past century, describing the process that goes here called Christianity “reaction” to a Christianity “transformation “ since some of the most significant writers of contemporary Brazilian Catholic Christian inspiration in their respective historical contexts. Among other aspects involved in the relationship between Christianity and modernity, especially discusses the possibility and legitimacy of articulating the perennial newness of Christian revelation with a libertarian aesthetic design, combining boldness and daring to believe created.

  2. When the Patient Believes That the Organs Are Destroyed: Manifestation of Cotard’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotard’s Syndrome (CS is a rare clinical event described for the first time in 1880 by the neurologist and psychiatrist Jules Cotard and characterized by negation delusions (or nihilists. Immortality and hypochondriac delusions are also typical. Nowadays, it is known that CS can be associated with many neuropsychiatric conditions. In this article, we describe the case of a patient that believed not having more organs and having the body deformed and whose CS was associated with a bigger depressive disorder. Although the electroconvulsive therapy is the most described treatment modality in the literature, the reported case had therapeutic success with association of imipramine and risperidone.

  3. Debate: Subgroup analyses in clinical trials: fun to look at - but don't believe them!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleight Peter

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analysis of subgroup results in a clinical trial is surprisingly unreliable, even in a large trial. This is the result of a combination of reduced statistical power, increased variance and the play of chance. Reliance on such analyses is likely to be more erroneous, and hence harmful, than application of the overall proportional (or relative result in the whole trial to the estimate of absolute risk in that subgroup. Plausible explanations can usually be found for effects that are, in reality, simply due to the play of chance. When clinicians believe such subgroup analyses, there is a real danger of harm to the individual patient.

  4. Hegel’s Master-Slave Dialectic and The Relationship between God and Believer

    OpenAIRE

    Şekerci, Mehmet Fatih

    2017-01-01

    In his Phenomenology, Hegel characterizes self-conscious- ness as desire and gives an account of master-slave relationship as an example of how consciousness is brought to the level of self-cons ciousness as a result of the interaction of two consciousnesses. In this paper, I will firstly try to explain masterslave dialectic, and then to analyze whether it can be useful to understand the relations between God and believer / man. Second, if this dialectic turns out to be useless in such an end...

  5. Why Do We Believe the Speed of Light is an Invariant of Nature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Felix T.

    2014-03-01

    We believe it, obviously, because we believe in relativity, and Einstein based his treatment of relativity on what he named ``The Principle of Constancy of the Velocity of Light.'' From Einstein's own writings between 1905 and about 1912 we know that in defining what this meant he was concerned especially about two issues: One was to deny the notion that the transmission of light required a privileged ``ether'' frame; the other was that the velocity of a light signal measured by an observer is independent of the velocity of the source that emitted the signal with respect to the observer. In relativity Einstein's two Principles made a handy brief basis from which he could deduce the requirement of covariance under the transformations of the Lorentz group. These transformations had been developed earlier by Lorentz to conform with the results of experiments, without requiring constancy of c. The Lorentz group only requires that c be an upper bound greater than all observed particle or signal velocities. The assumption of its invariance over cosmological time seems justified mostly by its convenience as a teaching and mnemonic oversimplification.

  6. Beliefs about causation of schizophrenia: do Indian families believe in supernatural causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, T N; Thara, R

    2001-03-01

    Beliefs about the causation of schizophrenia could influence the attitudes patients' families adopt towards the patient and may also influence their help-seeking behaviour. Indian families have been typically described as often believing in causes like supernatural forces and therefore seeking help from magico-religious healers. In the changing mental health scenario in India, this impression needs verification. Key relatives living with 254 chronic schizophrenia patients were interviewed and asked to name the causes they believed were behind the illness. A list of possible causes was provided for the families to select from, and relatives were also encouraged to mention other possible causes, not featured in the list. The possible causes identified and the factors related to attributions made were analysed. A supernatural cause was named by only 12% of the families and as the only cause by 5%. Psychosocial stress was most commonly cited cause, followed by personality defect and heredity. A small number of families (14%) could not name any cause and 39% named more than one cause. Patient gender and education, duration of illness and the key relative's education and the nature of relationship were related to the type of causal attributions made. Families living with patients suffering chronic schizophrenia receiving treatment in urban India rarely subscribe to the idea of supernatural causation of the illness. The causal attributions made by them are fairly rational and understandable, given the relative lack of exposure to proper information about the illness.

  7. Randomized Phase II Study of R-CHOP With or Without Bortezomib in Previously Untreated Patients With Non-Germinal Center B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, John P; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Reeves, James A; Tulpule, Anil; Flinn, Ian W; Kolevska, Tatjana; Robles, Robert; Flowers, Christopher R; Collins, Robert; DiBella, Nicholas J; Papish, Steven W; Venugopal, Parameswaran; Horodner, Andrew; Tabatabai, Amir; Hajdenberg, Julio; Park, Jaehong; Neuwirth, Rachel; Mulligan, George; Suryanarayan, Kaveri; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; de Vos, Sven

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of the addition of bortezomib to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) on outcomes in previously untreated patients with non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods After real-time determination of non-GCB DLBCL using the Hans immunohistochemistry algorithm, 206 patients were randomly assigned (1:1; stratified by International Prognostic Index [IPI] score) to six 21-day cycles of standard R-CHOP alone or R-CHOP plus bortezomib 1.3 mg/m 2 intravenously on days 1 and 4 (VR-CHOP). The primary end point, progression-free survival (PFS), was evaluated in 183 patients with centrally confirmed non-GCB DLBCL who received one or more doses of study drug (91 R-CHOP, 92 VR-CHOP). Results After a median follow-up of 34 months, with 25% (R-CHOP) and 18% (VR-CHOP) of patients having had PFS events, the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS was 0.73 (90% CI, 0.43 to 1.24) with VR-CHOP ( P = .611). Two-year PFS rates were 77.6% with R-CHOP and 82.0% with VR-CHOP; they were 65.1% versus 72.4% in patients with high-intermediate/high IPI (HR, 0.67; 90% CI, 0.34 to 1.29), and 90.0% versus 88.9% (HR, 0.85; 90% CI, 0.35 to 2.10) in patients with low/low-intermediate IPI. Overall response rate with R-CHOP and VR-CHOP was 98% and 96%, respectively. The overall survival HR was 0.75 (90% CI, 0.38 to 1.45); 2-year survival rates were 88.4% and 93.0%, respectively. In the safety population (100 R-CHOP and 101 VR-CHOP patients), grade ≥ 3 adverse events included neutropenia (53% v 49%), thrombocytopenia (13% v 29%), anemia (7% v 15%), leukopenia (26% v 25%), and neuropathy (1% v 5%). Conclusion Outcomes for newly diagnosed, prospectively enrolled patients with non-GCB DLBCL were more favorable than expected with R-CHOP and were not significantly improved by adding bortezomib.

  8. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  9. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  10. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  11. There’s more to the multimedia effect than meets the eye: is seeing pictures believing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ögren, Magnus; Nyström, Marcus; Jarodzka, Halszka

    2016-01-01

    Textbooks in applied mathematics often use graphs to explain the meaning of formulae, even though their benefit is still not fully explored. To test processes underlying this assumed multimedia effect we collected performance scores, eye movements, and think-aloud protocols from students solving....... Students looked proportionally less at the text and the problem statement when a graph was present. Moreover, they experienced more mental effort with the graph, as indicated by more silent pauses in thinking aloud. Hence, students actively processed the graphs. This, however, was not sufficient. Further...... between graph and problem statement, and thus to integrate their information. In conclusion, graphs influence where students look and what they process, and may even mislead them into believing accompanying information. Thus, teachers and textbook designers should be very critical on when to use graphs...

  12. Believing in God the Father: Interpreting a phrase from the Apostle’s Creed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Sarot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In our days, the creedal phrase ‘I believe in God the Father almighty’ is interpreted primarilyalong Trinitarian lines: It is applied to God as the Father of Jesus Christ. Here I argue that ithas a dual background: in Jesus’ prayer practice, in which He consistently addressed God as‘Father’, and in the Hellenistic habit of referring to the Creator as ‘Father’. I discuss Jesus’ useof the term ‘Father’ against its Old Testament background, and argue that it primarily pointsto the intimacy of Jesus’ relationship with His father. Against the Hellenistic background,however, the metaphor ‘Father’ means ‘he who brings forth effortlessly’. Finally, I discusssome gender issues connected with the use of the term ‘Father’ for God.

  13. Seeing is believing: the effect of brain images on judgments of scientific reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, David P; Castel, Alan D

    2008-04-01

    Brain images are believed to have a particularly persuasive influence on the public perception of research on cognition. Three experiments are reported showing that presenting brain images with articles summarizing cognitive neuroscience research resulted in higher ratings of scientific reasoning for arguments made in those articles, as compared to articles accompanied by bar graphs, a topographical map of brain activation, or no image. These data lend support to the notion that part of the fascination, and the credibility, of brain imaging research lies in the persuasive power of the actual brain images themselves. We argue that brain images are influential because they provide a physical basis for abstract cognitive processes, appealing to people's affinity for reductionistic explanations of cognitive phenomena.

  14. Repeat Targeted Prostate Biopsy under Guidance of Multiparametric MRI-Correlated Real-Time Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for Patients with Previous Negative Biopsy and Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Dong Ryul; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Noh, Songmi; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Kiwook; Rha, Koon-Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively determine whether multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) - contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) correlated, imaging-guided target biopsy (TB) method could improve the detection of prostate cancer in re-biopsy setting of patients with prior negative biopsy. Methods From 2012 to 2014, a total of 42 Korean men with a negative result from previous systematic biopsy (SB) and elevated prostate-specific antigen underwent 3T mpMRI and real-time CEUS guided TB. Target lesions were det...

  15. Influence of the physico-chemical process as previous treatment to the electrocoagulation. Study with leachate of a landfill; Influencia del proceso fisicoquimico como tratamiento previo a la electrocoagulacion. Estudio con lixiviados de un relleno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado Martinez, I. D.; Reyes Avila, D.

    2007-07-01

    This article has as purpose to show the influence of the method physico-chemical as previous process to the novel technique of electrocoagulation, presenting as a new alternative to depurate wastewaters. to obtain it, was done tests measuring the very parameters to leachates so much affluent as effluent from treatment plant of the Sanitary Landfill La Esmeralda, situated near to the Manizales city(Colombia), and so much before as later to apply this electrochemical technology, looking for this way to compare the obtained removals. (Author)

  16. The Role of Make-Believe Play in the Development of Executive Function: Status of Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Laura E.; Meyers, Adena B.

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss the association between make-believe play and the development of executive-function (EF) skills in young children. Some forty years ago, Lev S. Vygotsky first proposed that make-believe fosters the development of symbolic thought and self-regulation. Since then, a small body of research has produced evidence of an association…

  17. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  18. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  19. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  20. On sociological criteria of religiousness: How many (Orthodox believers are there today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Mirko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this text the author first tries to provide an answer on the number of religious people today in two post-communist and Orthodox countries, and then on the number of Orthodox believers in them. Therefore he analyzes numerous data from empirical evidence using a large number of indicators discussed in the text. The author first analyzes them as indicators of representative dimension of religiousness, then as indicators of beliefs in dogmatic core of Christianity, indicators of current church ritual practice and finally, as indicators of a traditional attitude towards religion and church. With these analyses the author tries to find the criterion or criteria which best express the religiousness of people in a particular area. The analysis identifies three approaches in Russian sociological and religious literature. The first one is defined as a classic, positivistic approach, the second one as post-classic or phenomenological, and the third one as synthetic. Then the author discusses the term attachment to religion and church and its indicators, as well as the indices which are sociologically more suitable for the research of the religious and church complex. In the end the author gives a few methodological instructions for a sociological and empirical research of religiousness.

  1. 'Belonging before believing': Some missiological implications of membership and belonging in a Christian community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Weyers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the final stages of the modern period the power of hegemonic ideologies is coming to an end as people identify less with grand ideologies and more with subcultures related to technology and social and economic networks of different kinds. The post-Christendom phase has begun and is radically challenging Christendom notions of membership and ministry. We have to assume that in a post-Christendom society, the familiarity with Christian concepts will fade as the decline of Christendom has meant that Christian discourse has been losing its status as a lingua franca. It is therefore important that the church will anticipate longer journeys towards faith and not move on to disciple new converts too quickly. Post-Christendom evangelisation will consequently take longer, start further back and move more slowly. For these reasons the authors propose that the question of standards for membership be reconsidered where churches are planted in postmodern contexts. They propose that the old order of �believing before belonging� be replaced by �belonging before believing�.

  2. Is painting by elephants in zoos as enriching as we are led to believe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan English

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the activity of painting and performance of stereotyped and other stress-related behaviour was investigated in four captive Asian elephants at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. The activity involved the elephant being instructed to paint on a canvas by its keeper in front of an audience. Painting by elephants in zoos is commonly believed to be a form of enrichment, but this assumption had not been based on any systematic research. If an activity is enriching we would expect stress-related behaviour to be reduced but we found no evidence of the elephants anticipating the painting activity and no effect on the performance of stereotyped or other stress-related behaviour either before or after the painting session. This indicates that the activity does not fulfil one of the main aims of enrichment. However, if an elephant was not selected to paint on a given day this was associated with higher levels of non-interactive behaviour, a possible indicator of stress. Behavioural observations associated with ear, eye and trunk positions during the painting session showed that the elephant’s attentiveness to the painting activity or to the keeper giving instruction varied between individuals. Apart from positive reinforcement from the keeper, the results indicated that elephants gain little enrichment from the activity of painting. Hence, the benefits of this activity appear to be limited to the aesthetic appeal of these paintings to the people viewing them.

  3. Confronting, Representing, and Believing Counterintuitive Concepts: Navigating the Natural and the Supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan D; Harris, Paul L

    2014-03-01

    Recent research shows that even preschoolers are skeptical; they frequently reject claims from other people when the claims conflict with their own perceptions and concepts. Yet, despite their skepticism, both children and adults come to believe in a variety of phenomena that defy their first-hand perceptions and intuitive conceptions of the world. In this review, we explore how children and adults acquire such concepts. We describe how a similar developmental process underlies mental representation of both the natural and the supernatural world, and we detail this process for two prominent supernatural counterintuitive ideas-God and the afterlife. In doing so, we highlight the fact that conceptual development does not always move in the direction of greater empirical truth, as described within naturalistic domains. We consider factors that likely help overcome skepticism and, in doing so, promote belief in counterintuitive phenomena. These factors include qualities of the learners, aspects of the context, qualities of the informants, and qualities of the information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Study protocol of a phase II clinical trial (KSCC1501A) examining oxaliplatin + S-1 for treatment of HER2-negative advanced/recurrent gastric cancer previously untreated with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Hiroshi; Emi, Yasunori; Oki, Eiji; Tokunaga, Shoji; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Akagi, Yoshito; Baba, Hideo; Baba, Eishi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-01-08

    Oxaliplatin + S-1 is a recognized treatment regimen in Japan, but there are no Japanese clinical data on an oxaliplatin dose of 130 mg/m 2 . The current research involves a single-arm, prospective, phase II clinical trial to examine the efficacy and safety of oxaliplatin + S-1 with an oxaliplatin dose of 130 mg/m 2 to treat HER2-negative advanced/recurrent gastric cancer previously untreated with chemotherapy in Japan. The primary endpoint of this trial will be the response rate, and the secondary endpoints will be the safety profile of oxaliplatin + S-1, progression-free survival, the response rate in subjects under the age of 75, overall survival, time to treatment failure, duration of treatment, time to failure of strategy, and dose intensity. The threshold response rate is 45% and the expected response rate is 60%. Assuming that a one-tailed score test will be performed with an α of 0.05, 68 patients are needed to ensure a statistical power of 80%. Planned enrollment is 70 subjects and the total duration of this trial is expected to be 3 years. Since replacing cisplatin with oxaliplatin should provide the same level of therapeutic efficacy while limiting adverse events and simplifying treatment, oxaliplatin + S-1 may be increasingly used to treat gastric cancer in Japan. Verifying the efficacy and safety of oxaliplatin + S-1 with an oxaliplatin dose of 130 mg is an important task that the current trial has set out to achieve. The protocol was registered at the website of the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN), Japan (protocol ID UMIN000017550) on May 29, 2015. The details are available at the following web address: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ .

  5. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Héctor; Betriu, Amadeo; Heras, Magda; Alonso, Joaquín J; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J; López-Sendón, José L; Macaya, Carlos; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    To compare primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and fibrinolysis in very old patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom head-to-head comparisons between both strategies are scarce. Patients ≥75 years old with STEMI <6 h were randomized to pPCI or fibrinolysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, re-infarction, or disabling stroke at 30 days. The trial was prematurely stopped due to slow recruitment after enrolling 266 patients (134 allocated to pPCI and 132 to fibrinolysis). Both groups were well balanced in baseline characteristics. Mean age was 81 years. The primary endpoint was reached in 25 patients in the pPCI group (18.9%) and 34 (25.4%) in the fibrinolysis arm [odds ratio (OR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-1.23; P = 0.21]. Similarly, non-significant reductions were found in death (13.6 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.43), re-infarction (5.3 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.35), or disabling stroke (0.8 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.18). Recurrent ischaemia was less common in pPCI-treated patients (0.8 vs. 9.7%, P< 0.001). No differences were found in major bleeds. A pooled analysis with the two previous reperfusion trials performed in older patients showed an advantage of pPCI over fibrinolysis in reducing death, re-infarction, or stroke at 30 days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.45-0.91). Primary PCI seems to be the best reperfusion therapy for STEMI even for the oldest patients. Early contemporary fibrinolytic therapy may be a safe alternative to pPCI in the elderly when this is not available.

  6. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States. [Maps, tables of field data and analytical data for sections of North and South Carolina and Georgia, previously reported sites of uranium mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, V.

    1976-03-01

    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area. (JGB)

  7. Believing shapes seeing: The impact of diversity beliefs on the construal of group composition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, A.C.; Greer, L. L.; Jehn, K. A.; Koning, L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that diversity effects depend on how group members perceive their group's composition. However, what determines how diversity is perceived is unclear. We argue that the way in which group members construe their group's diversity is shaped by group members' beliefs

  8. Believing that certain foods are addictive is associated with support for obesity-related public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa; Musicus, Aviva; Soo, Jackie; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Gollust, Sarah E; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that certain foods may be addictive. Although evidence that nicotine is addictive generated support for anti-tobacco policies, little research has examined whether beliefs about the addictiveness of food are associated with support for policies to address overconsumption of nutritionally poor foods. U.S. adults (n=999) recruited from an online marketplace in February 2015 completed a survey. Using logistic regression, we examined the relationship between beliefs about the addictiveness of certain foods and support for twelve obesity-related policies while controlling for demographics, health status, political affiliation and ideology, beliefs about obesity, and attitudes towards food companies. We examined whether the association between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies was consistent across other products and behaviors viewed as addictive (i.e., tobacco, alcohol, drugs, compulsive behaviors). In multivariable models, there was a significant association (OR; 95% CI) between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies for compulsive behaviors (1.48; 1.26-1.74), certain foods (1.32; 1.14-1.53), drugs (1.23; 1.05-1.45), and alcohol (1.21; 1.08-1.36) but not for tobacco (1.11; 0.90-1.37). For foods, the association between beliefs about addictiveness and obesity-related policy support was the strongest between such beliefs and support for labels warning that certain foods may be addictive, industry reductions in salt and sugar, energy drink bans, and sugary drink portion size limits. Overall, believing that products/behaviors are addictive was associated with support for policies intended to curb their use. If certain foods are found to be addictive, framing them as such may increase obesity-related policy support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Believing is seeing: how people's beliefs influence goals, emotions and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Pim W; Bok, Harold G J

    2013-11-01

    Health care professionals work and learn in complex environments. Some are able to continue learning from their practice and the challenges it presents, whereas others refrain from investing more effort when faced with setbacks. This paper discusses a social cognitive model of motivation that helps to explain the different kinds of behaviour that emerge when individuals are confronted with challenges. Self-theories (people's theories on what competence is and means for the self) play a major role in establishing the goals people set for themselves, the emotions they experience and the meanings they attach to situations. These self-views are often not explicitly articulated and are therefore called 'implicit' ('self-') theories. Social cognitive research suggests there are two distinct ways of thinking about one's personal attributes: entity theorists view a trait as a fixed, concrete internal entity, whereas incremental theorists instead believe a trait to be something malleable that can be developed or cultivated through effort. Holding an entity theory leads one to set performance goals and to harbour concerns about performing well and making a good impression. Holding an incremental theory tends to lead one to set learning goals, and to focus less on performance and more on spending time and effort in determining which strategies work. The current literature on self-theories is used to explore the relevance of these theories in medical education in three contexts: (i) it is argued that, in order to support lifelong learning, both individual and organisational efforts fit best with an incremental outlook on professional development; (ii) if it is to move forward in the domain of feedback-seeking behaviour, medical education might benefit from a better understanding of the interactions among self-theories, feedback behaviour, and the pervading role of organisational culture, and (iii) the impact of self-theories on assessors' evaluations of performance. © 2013

  10. Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schulze

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT. Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research selfefficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.

  11. SEEING IS BELIEVING, AND BELIEVING IS SEEING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrow, B. L.

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience disciplines are filled with visual displays of data. From the first cave drawings to remote imaging of our Planet, visual displays of information have been used to understand and interpret our discipline. As practitioners of the art, visuals comprise the core around which we write scholarly articles, teach our students and make every day decisions. The effectiveness of visual communication, however, varies greatly. For many visual displays, a significant amount of prior knowledge is needed to understand and interpret various representations. If this is missing, key components of communication fail. One common example is the use of animations to explain high density and typically complex data. Do animations effectively convey information, simply "wow an audience" or do they confuse the subject by using unfamiliar forms and representations? Prior knowledge impacts the information derived from visuals and when communicating with non-experts this factor is exacerbated. For example, in an advanced geology course fractures in a rock are viewed by petroleum engineers as conduits for fluid migration while geoscience students 'see' the minerals lining the fracture. In contrast, a lay audience might view these images as abstract art. Without specific and direct accompanying verbal or written communication such an image is viewed radically differently by disparate audiences. Experts and non-experts do not 'see' equivalent images. Each visual must be carefully constructed with it's communication task in mind. To enhance learning and communication at all levels by visual displays of data requires that we teach visual literacy as a portion of our curricula. As we move from one form of visual representation to another, our mental images are expanded as is our ability to see and interpret new visual forms thus promoting life-long learning. Visual literacy is key to communication in our visually rich discipline. What do you see?

  12. Believable statements of uncertainty and believable science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, two landmark papers appeared that should have cured the problem of ambiguous uncertainty statements in published data. Eisenhart's paper in Science called for statistically meaningful numbers, and Currie's Analytical Chemistry paper revealed the wide range in common definitions of detection limit. Confusion and worse can result when uncertainties are misinterpreted or ignored. The recent stories of cold fusion, variable radioactive decay, and piezonuclear reactions provide cautionary examples in which prior probability has been neglected. We show examples from our laboratory and others to illustrate the fact that uncertainty depends on both statistical and scientific judgment. (author)

  13. Executive Function in Previously Institutionalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Emily C; Harlé, Katia M; Noble, Kimberly G; McCall, Robert B

    2016-06-01

    In studies of children adopted from institutions, being raised in an institution has been associated consistently with an increased risk of persistent cognitive, academic, and social-emotional problems. These findings raise questions about the neurocognitive mechanisms that contribute to these negative outcomes. Theory and models based on studies of animals indicate that development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and executive function (EF) may be particularly susceptible to environmental influences during early childhood. In this article, we review recent studies of postinstitutionalized children that examined EF components such as inhibitory control, working memory, shifting, and planning. We then describe emerging research on the structure and function of the PFC. Converging evidence suggests both EF difficulties and alterations in development of the PFC following early institutionalization. We conclude by discussing possible explanations for these findings and implications for prevention and intervention, and by offering suggestions for ongoing research.

  14. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  15. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The positive effect of education on oral hygiene practices is highlighted in this study. However there is still need for proper health enlightenment in this population with regards to use of the available oral health care facilities. Keywords: Oral hygiene, Pregnancy, Nigeria. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine.

  16. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  17. Docking and Molecular Dynamics Calculations of Some Previously Studied and newly Designed Ligands to Catalytic Core Domain of HIV-1 Integrase and an Investigation to Effects of Conformational Changes of Protein on Docking Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ercan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, AIDS still remains as a worldwide pandemic and continues to cause many death which arise from HIV-1 virus. For nearly 35 years, drugs that target various steps of virus life cycle have been developed. HIV-1 integrase is the one of these steps which is essential for virus life cycle. Computer aided drug design is being used in many drug design studies as also used in development of the first HIV-1 integrase inhibitor Raltegravir. In this study 3 ligands which are used as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors and 4 newly designed ligands were docked to catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase. Each of ligands docked to three different conformations of protein. Prepared complexes (21 item were carried out by 50 ns MD simulations and results were analyzed. Finally, the binding free energies of ligands were calculated. Hereunder, it was determined that designed ligands L01 and L03 gave favorable results. The questions about the ligands which have low docking scores in a conformation of protein could give better scores in another conformation of protein and if the MD simulations carry the different oriented and different localized ligands in same position at the end of simulation were answered.

  18. Believing in "us": exploring leaders' capacity to enhance team confidence and performance by building a sense of shared social identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Steffens, Niklas K; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Boen, Filip

    2015-03-01

    The present study examined the impact of athlete leaders' perceived confidence on their teammates' confidence and performance. Male basketball players (N = 102) participated in groups of 4. To manipulate leaders' team confidence, the appointed athlete leader of each newly formed basketball team (a confederate) expressed either high or low team confidence. The results revealed an effect of team confidence contagion such that team members had greater team confidence when the leader expressed high (rather than low) confidence in the team's success. Second, the present study sought to explain the mechanisms through which this contagion occurs. In line with the social identity approach to leadership, structural equation modeling demonstrated that this effect was partially mediated by team members' increased team identification. Third, findings indicated that when leaders expressed high team confidence, team members' performance increased during the test, but when leaders expressed low confidence, team members' performance decreased. Athlete leaders thus have the capacity to shape team members' confidence--and hence their performance--in both positive and negative ways. In particular, by showing that they believe in "our team," leaders are able not only to make "us" a psychological reality, but also to transform "us" into an effective operational unit. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Janus kinase-2 inhibitor fedratinib in patients with myelofibrosis previously treated with ruxolitinib (JAKARTA-2): a single-arm, open-label, non-randomised, phase 2, multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Claire N; Schaap, Nicolaas; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Tiu, Ramon V; Zachee, Pierre; Jourdan, Eric; Winton, Elliott; Silver, Richard T; Schouten, Harry C; Passamonti, Francesco; Zweegman, Sonja; Talpaz, Moshe; Lager, Joanne; Shun, Zhenming; Mesa, Ruben A

    2017-07-01

    Myelofibrosis is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterised by splenomegaly, cytopenias, bone marrow fibrosis, and debilitating symptoms including fatigue, weight loss, and bone pain. Mutations in Janus kinase-2 (JAK2) occur in approximately 50% of patients. The only approved JAK2 inhibitor for myelofibrosis is the dual JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib. 58-71% of patients treated with ruxolitinib in clinical trials so far have not achieved the primary endpoint of 35% or more reduction in spleen volume from baseline assessed by MRI or CT. Furthermore, more than 50% of patients discontinue ruxolitinib treatment after 3-5 years. On the basis of this unmet need, we investigated the efficacy and safety of fedratinib, a JAK2-selective inhibitor, in patients with ruxolitinib-resistant or ruxolitinib-intolerant myelofibrosis. This single-arm, open-label, non-randomised, phase 2, multicentre study, done at 31 sites in nine countries, enrolled adult patients with a current diagnosis of intermediate or high-risk primary myelofibrosis, post-polycythaemia vera myelofibrosis, or post-essential thrombocythaemia myelofibrosis, found to be ruxolitinib resistant or intolerant after at least 14 days of treatment. Other main inclusion criteria were palpable splenomegaly (≥5 cm below the left costal margin), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, and life expectancy of 6 months or less. Patients received oral fedratinib at a starting dose of 400 mg once per day, for six consecutive 28-day cycles. The primary endpoint was spleen response (defined as the proportion of patients with a ≥35% reduction in spleen volume as determined by blinded CT and MRI at a central imaging laboratory). We did the primary analysis in the per-protocol population only (patients treated with fedratinib, for whom a baseline and at least one post-baseline spleen volume measurement was available) and the safety analysis in all patients receiving at least one dose of

  20. A phase II study of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel plus carboplatin as the first-line therapy in elderly patients with previously untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Yusuke; Hosomi, Yukio; Takahashi, Satoshi; Nakahara, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Kageaki; Nagamata, Makoto; Takagi, Yusuke; Mikura, Shinichiro

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this clinical trial was to explore the efficacy and tolerability of first-line chemotherapy with nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel), a novel agent that uses a drug delivery system, plus carboplatin, in elderly Japanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this phase II, single-arm, open-label, single-institutional study, we aimed to enroll 37 elderly patients, aged more than 70 years, with advanced NSCLC of performance status 0 or 1. The patients received each cycle of first-line therapy consisting of 100 mg/m(2) nab-paclitaxel intravenously administered on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 21-day cycle, plus carboplatin area under curve 6 on day 1 of each 21-day cycle, for up to six cycles. The primary end point was determining the objective response rate, and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. The study was interrupted early because of two treatment-related deaths and 1 life-threatening severe adverse event; therefore, only 10 patients (median age, 77 years; range 71-82 years) were enrolled. The primary end point of the objective response was 50 % for the 10 patients analyzed. Progression-free survival was 4.48 months [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.36-6.44], and overall survival was 7.89 months (95 % CI 0.36-26.88). Common treatment-related adverse events higher than grade 2 included decreased neutrophil counts, anemia, decreased albumin, anorexia, and peripheral neuropathy. Regarding severe adverse events, two patients had febrile neutropenia and lung infection. Two patients died, and one patient had febrile neutropenia with intubation during the first cycle. The Data and Safety Monitoring Committee therefore recommended interruption of patient enrollment. Nab-paclitaxel plus carboplatin, without dose reduction, is indicated to be toxic and intolerable as first-line chemotherapy in elderly Japanese patients with advanced NSCLC. Care must be taken when

  1. Local recurrence risk after previous salvage mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, M; Iwase, T; Okumura, Y; Yoshida, A; Masuda, N; Nakatsukasa, K; Shien, T; Tanaka, S; Komoike, Y; Taguchi, T; Arima, N; Nishimura, R; Inaji, H; Ishitobi, M

    2016-07-01

    Breast-conserving surgery is a standard treatment for early breast cancer. For ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving surgery, salvage mastectomy is the current standard surgical procedure. However, it is not rare for patients with IBTR who have received salvage mastectomy to develop local recurrence. In this study, we examined the risk factors of local recurrence after salvage mastectomy for IBTR. A total of 118 consecutive patients who had histologically confirmed IBTR without distant metastases and underwent salvage mastectomy without irradiation for IBTR between 1989 and 2008 were included from eight institutions in Japan. The risk factors of local recurrence were assessed. The median follow-up period from salvage mastectomy for IBTR was 4.6 years. Patients with pN2 or higher on diagnosis of the primary tumor showed significantly poorer local recurrence-free survival than those with pN0 or pN1 at primary tumor (p mastectomy for IBTR. Further research and validation studies are needed. (UMIN-CTR number UMIN000008136). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Twelve-week efficacy and safety study of mometasone furoate/formoterol 200/10 microg and 400/10 microg combination treatments in patients with persistent asthma previously receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, Steven F; Corren, Jonathan; Murphy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    improvement in lung function throughout 12 weeks. Both MF/F doses were superior to MF in improving asthma control and reducing nocturnal awakenings due to asthma requiring short-acting beta(2)-agonist use. All treatments were well tolerated. Asthma patients who were poorly controlled on high-dose ICS...... with asthma uncontrolled on high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). In a 12-week, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients (>or=12 years of age) were randomized to MF/F 200/10 microg, MF/F 400/10 microg, or MF 400 microg, b.i.d. after a 2- to 3-week open-label run in with MF 400...... recorded. Seven hundred twenty-eight patients were randomized. Significant improvement from baseline to week 12 occurred for mean change in FEV(1) AUC(0-12h) with MF/F 400/10 microg (4.19 L x hour) versus MF 400 microg (2.04 L x hour; p

  3. A multicenter, open-label, randomized phase II controlled study of rh-endostatin (Endostar) in combination with chemotherapy in previously untreated extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shun; Li, Lu; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Li; Wu, Gang; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Cheng; Guo, Shuliang; Zhang, Yiping; Song, Xiangqun; Yu, Yongfeng; Zhou, Caicun; Li, Wei; Liao, Meilin; Li, Baolan; Xu, Liyan; Chen, Ping; Hu, Chunhong; Hu, Chengping

    2015-01-01

    Based on promising efficacy in a single-arm study, a randomized phase II trial was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of adding rh-endostatin (Endostar) to first-line standard etoposide and carboplatin (EC) chemotherapy for treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. One hundred forty Chinese patients with pathologically confirmed, extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer were randomly assigned to EC alone or rh-endostatin + EC for 4-6 cycles, followed by single-agent rh-endostatin until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints included overall survival, Objective response rate (ORR), and quality of life. Median PFS was 6.4 months with rh-endostatin + EC (n = 69) and 5.9 months with EC (n = 69) (hazard ratio 0.8 [95% confidence interval 0.6-1.1]). PFS was significantly higher with rh-endostatin + EC than with EC (hazard ratio 0.4 [0.2-0.9; p = 0.020]) in female. Median overall survival was similar in both groups (12.1 versus 12.4 months, respectively [p = 0.82]). ORR was higher in the rh-endostatin + EC group (75.4%) than in the EC group (66.7%) (p = 0.348). The efficacy of rh-endostatin + EC relative to that of EC was reflected by greater improvements in patient-assessed quality of life scores after 4 and 6 weeks of treatment. There was no difference between each regimen in the incidence of nonhematological or Grade III-IV hematological toxicities. Addition of rh-endostatin to EC for the treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer had an acceptable toxicity profile, but did not improve overall survival, PFS, and ORR.

  4. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in Previously Shunted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brichtova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%. There were two serious complications (4.7%—one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.

  5. Indiscriminate behaviors in previously institutionalized young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S; Smyke, Anna T; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2014-03-01

    This study included 54-month-old children with a history of institutional care. Our goal was to: (1) examine differences in indiscriminate social behaviors in children with a history of institutional care compared with home-reared children; (2) test whether foster care reduces indiscriminate social behaviors in a randomized controlled trial; and (3) examine early predictors of indiscriminate behaviors. Participants were 58 children with a history of institutional care and 31 never-institutionalized control (NIG) subjects enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutional care, assessed from toddlerhood to 54 months. Indiscriminate social behaviors were measured naturalistically by using the Stranger at the Door procedure. In the Stranger at the Door procedure, children with a history of institutional care left with a stranger at higher rates than NIG subjects (33% vs. 3.5%; P Children in the care as usual group left more than NIG subjects (41.9% vs. 3.6%; P ≤ .001). The differences between the foster care group (24.1%) and the care as usual group and between foster care group and NIG were not significant. In a logistic regression, early disorganized attachment behaviors, baseline developmental quotient, and caregiving quality after randomization contributed to variance at 54 months. In the same analysis using only children with a history of institutional care, only disorganized attachment contributed significantly to 54-month indiscriminate social behaviors (Exp[B] = 1.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.1-2.5]). Observed socially indiscriminate behaviors at 54 months were associated with prolonged exposure to institutional care. Young children raised in conditions of deprivation who fail to develop organized attachments as toddlers are at increased risk for subsequent indiscriminate behaviors.

  6. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  7. Do you believe in magic? The Potency of the Fantasy Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the popularity of the fantasy genre in the recent decades. In so doing, it seeks to provide a definition of the genre, claiming that fantasy literature is fiction that offers the reader a world estranged from their own, separated by nova that are supernatural or otherwise consistent with the marvelous, and which has as its dominant tone a sense of wonder. It does this through a discussion of previous definitions of fantasy, the fantastic, science fiction and supernatural horror. Furthermore, through a consideration of texts by Tolkien, and an exploration of contemporary novels (Kazuo Ishiguro’s The Buried Giant; Terry Brooks The Sword of Shannara trilogy and other franchises (Star Wars, it demonstrates how the generic boundaries should be read outside of the traditional limitations, and how these texts, coupled with contemporary technology, offer a freer range to imagination and make fantasy a potent critical force

  8. The cost of believing emotions are uncontrollable: Youths' beliefs about emotion predict emotion regulation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q; Lwi, Sandy J; Gentzler, Amy L; Hankin, Benjamin; Mauss, Iris B

    2018-04-05

    As humans, we have a unique capacity to reflect on our experiences, including emotions. Over time, we develop beliefs about the nature of emotions, and these beliefs are consequential, guiding how we respond to emotions and how we feel as a consequence. One fundamental belief concerns the controllability of emotions: Believing emotions are uncontrollable (entity beliefs) should reduce the likelihood of trying to control emotional experiences using effective regulation strategies like reappraisal; this, in turn, could negatively affect core indices of psychological health, including depressive symptoms. This model holds particular relevance during youth, when emotion-related beliefs first develop and stabilize and when maladaptive beliefs could contribute to emerging risk for depression. In the present investigation, a pilot diary study (N = 223, aged 21-60) demonstrated that entity beliefs were associated with using reappraisal less in everyday life, even when controlling for possible confounds (i.e., self-efficacy, pessimism, stress exposure, stress reactivity). Then, two studies examined whether entity beliefs and associated impairments in reappraisal may set youths on a maladaptive trajectory: In a cross-sectional study (N = 136, aged 14-18), youths with stronger entity beliefs experienced greater depressive symptoms, and this link was mediated by lower reappraisal. This pattern was replicated and extended in a longitudinal study (N = 227, aged 10-18), wherein youth- and parent-reported depressive symptoms were assessed 18 months after assessing beliefs. These results suggest that entity beliefs about emotion constitute a risk factor for depression that acts via reappraisal, adding to the growing literature on emotion beliefs and their consequences for self-regulation and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  10. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  11. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  12. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  13. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  14. Insights into problems obtaining care believed necessary as measured by the Medicaid Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey (CAHPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venus, Patricia J; Rector, Thomas S; Shah, Mona M

    2003-12-01

    The Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey (CAHPS) is widely used to evaluate health plans; however there are few reports of Medicaid health plan efforts to improve performance as measured by CAHPS. Data from CAHPS were analyzed to help plan administrators determine how they might address member reports of problems obtaining care they or their doctor believed necessary. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data obtained from adults and children enrolled in 3 Medicaid health plans. Cross-tabulations of CAHPS responses and follow-up questions asking enrollees to describe the problems they had obtaining care believed necessary. Problems obtaining care believed necessary were among the most frequently reported problems (13%-17% of adults, 9% of children). Problems obtaining a satisfactory personal doctor; receiving help when calling a physician's office; securing routine, urgent, and specialist care appointments as soon as desired; receiving referrals to specialists; obtaining behavioral health services and prescription medications; and problems with doctor communication were related to problems obtaining care believed necessary. Enrollees' descriptions of the problems corroborated observed relationships between CAHPS responses, and revealed dissatisfaction with doctors' care and lack of coverage for various services as additional contributors. Analyses of relationships between enrollee-reported problems obtaining care believed necessary and their responses to other CAHPS items and follow-up questions identified a number of plausible causes of this problem. Given the multifaceted nature of problems with obtaining care believed necessary, a plan of action that might substantially improve this predicament was not apparent. Additional information about how health plan operations influence CAHPS results and the effect of health plan interventions on CAHPS measurements are needed to facilitate use of these data for quality improvement.

  15. Knowing, believing, living in Africa: A practical theology perspective of the past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon E. Dames

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The new democratic era in South Africa brought Western cultural influences forcefully into public and private living domains. This dichotomy deformed African cultures in many ways (Bujo & Muya. Local communities were previously ‘public people’ living and worshipping in transformative hermeneutical communities. This scenario has changed and local communities are steadily being driven into private spaces. The task of practical theology is to question what the undergirding epistemology and beliefs for this shift are and to reinterpret it in the light of the gospel. The impact of Western culture on African traditional villages is telling in so far as traditional African values and practices are being lost at the expense of Western ideology, technology, media, et cetera (Bujo & Muya. We argue that the former dominant monodisciplinary approach of practical theology contributed to a growing private individualist worldview. Practical theology has since developed into an interdisciplinary approach. This newfound reciprocity in the social sciences led to constructive change in church and society (Dingemans. Practical theology in Africa has to deal with an individualised, pluralistic world and tendencies of discontinuity, uncertainty, violence and destruction. In South Africa, practical theology is called upon to redress the dichotomies and defaults of Western and African cultures, respectively.

  16. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  17. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  18. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Word problems and make-believe: Using frame analysis and ethnomethodology to explore aspects of the culture of schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benincasa Luciana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper applies Goffman’s frame analysis and ethnomethodology to student performance on mathematical word problems. In educational research, frame analysis has usually been limited to primary frames. Instead, in this paper I focus on the kind of secondary frame that Goffman calls ‘utilitarian make-believe’. The data consist of a fragment of verbal interaction between a teacher and a 12-year-old pupil during an oral mathematics exam. By evoking the idea of ‘as-ifness’, word problems introduce pupils to a make-believe world. The text consists only of ‘filler words’ because what really matters are the figures. Word problems and possibly other aspects of schooling can be interpreted in terms of a utilitarian make-believe key. Readiness to adopt this make-believe frame when required may be the difference between school success and failure. I argue that maths achievement takes more than just ‘being good with numbers’. It is a joint enterprise of people interacting within a culturally-shaped setting, organized so as to make some phenomena stand out rather than others. Finally, I argue that ‘word problems and possibly other ‘school genres’ could be added to the list of utilitarian make-believe frames provided by Goffman.

  20. Multilingualism, Perceived Positive Language Interaction (PPLI), and Learner Beliefs: What Do Turkish Students Believe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.; Aslan, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the interface between learner beliefs and multilingualism in the under-researched English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context of Turkey. The study investigates the underlying constructs of a modified Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) completed by 168 EFL learners in Turkey using an exploratory factor analysis…

  1. Believe, and you will achieve: changes over time in self-efficacy, engagement, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouweneel, Else; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Le Blanc, Pascale M

    2013-07-01

    In order to answer the question whether changes in students' self-efficacy levels co-vary with similar changes in engagement and performance, a field study and an experimental study were conducted among university students. In order to do this, we adopted a subgroup approach. We created "natural" (Study 1) and manipulated (Study 2) subgroups based upon their change in self-efficacy over time and examined whether these subgroups showed similar changes over time in engagement and performance. The results of both studies are partly in line with Social Cognitive Theory, in that they confirm that changes in self-efficacy may have a significant impact on students' changes in cognition and motivation (i.e. engagement), as well as behavior (i.e. performance). More specifically, our results show that students' increases/decreases in self-efficacy were related to corresponding increases/decreases in their study engagement and task performance over time. Examining the consequences of changes in students' self-efficacy levels seems promising, both for research and practice. © 2013 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  2. What Is Cheating? Student and Faculty Perception of What They Believe Is Academically Dishonest Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, George; Sottile, James; Liang, Jia Grace

    2014-01-01

    The study of ethics and moral development of college students is an important issue. Knowing and understanding the ethical behavior of college students can lead to changing and increasing appropriate behavior among graduate and undergraduate students. Such changes in ethical behavior and moral development during the college experience can…

  3. Barriers to Providing the Sexuality Education That Teachers Believe Students Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Sieving, Renee E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sexuality education teachers' perspectives are important to gain a full understanding of the issues surrounding teaching this subject. This study uses a statewide sample of public school teachers to examine what sexuality education content is taught, what barriers teachers face, and which barriers are associated with teaching specific…

  4. Don't Believe the Hype: Hip-Hop Literacies and English Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Current scholarship suggests that many youths identify with hip-hop, especially youths of color. Study of this artistic form has been suggested as a means of helping youths acquire and become fluent in literacy practices. This article explores how the use of a hip-hop literacies curriculum addressed the literacy skills of urban ninth-grade English…

  5. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  6. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  7. Believing in Expertise: How Authors' Credentials and Language Use Influence the Credibility of Online Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thon, Franziska M; Jucks, Regina

    2017-07-01

    Today, many people use the Internet to seek health advice. This study examines how an author's expertise is established and how this affects the credibility of his or her online health information. In a 2 (authors' credentials: medical vs. nonmedical) × 2 (authors' language use: technical vs. every day) within-subjects design, 127 study participants, or "seekers," judged authors' expertise, benevolence, and integrity as well as the credibility of their medical statements. In addition, we assessed seekers' awareness of their own knowledge and behavior. Results revealed that users consciously rewarded authors' credentials and subconsciously punished technical language. Seekers were keenly aware of authors' credentials and perceived authors with medical credentials to have a higher level of expertise and their information to be more credible. Technical language use negatively affected authors' integrity and the credibility of their health information, despite seekers being unaware of it. Practical implications for health communication and implications for future research are outlined.

  8. Negotiations of believing and belonging among Iraqi and Egyptian Christians in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen

    This presentation explores negotiations of belonging among Christian immigrants of Iraqi and Egyptian background in Denmark. Based on transnational and diaspora studies, experiences and practices of belonging are explored as multi-directional and situational springing from everyday encounters...... and personal life trajectory, political events in both the region of origin and in the receiving country (Denmark), as well as opportunity structures empowering Middle Eastern Christians as collective and individual actors....

  9. Polyculturalism and Sexist Attitudes: Believing Cultures are Dynamic Relates to Lower Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Levy, Sheri R; Militano, Maria

    2014-12-01

    In cultural contexts in which sexist beliefs are considered traditional, shifts toward gender equality represent an example of cultural change. Polyculturalism is defined as the belief that cultures change constantly through different racial and ethnic groups' interactions, influences, and exchanges with each other and, therefore, are dynamic and socially constructed rather than static. Thus, polyculturalism may involve openness to cultural change and, thereby, would be expected to be associated with lower sexist attitudes. Four studies (both cross-sectional and longitudinal) with undergraduate and community samples in the Northeastern United States tested whether endorsement of polyculturalism is inversely associated with sexism, above and beyond potentially confounding belief systems. Across studies, for both women and men, endorsement of polyculturalism was associated with lower sexist attitudes for two classes of sexism measures: (a) attitudes toward the rights and roles of women and (b) ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Associations remained significant while controlling for potentially confounding variables (colorblindness, conservatism, egalitarianism, gender and ethnic identity, gender and race essentialism, multiculturalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation). Greater openness to criticizing one's culture mediated polyculturalism's association with attitudes toward the rights and roles of women but not with ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Studying polyculturalism may provide unique insights into sexism, and more work is needed to understand the mechanisms involved.

  10. Polyculturalism and Sexist Attitudes: Believing Cultures are Dynamic Relates to Lower Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Levy, Sheri R.; Militano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In cultural contexts in which sexist beliefs are considered traditional, shifts toward gender equality represent an example of cultural change. Polyculturalism is defined as the belief that cultures change constantly through different racial and ethnic groups’ interactions, influences, and exchanges with each other and, therefore, are dynamic and socially constructed rather than static. Thus, polyculturalism may involve openness to cultural change and, thereby, would be expected to be associated with lower sexist attitudes. Four studies (both cross-sectional and longitudinal) with undergraduate and community samples in the Northeastern United States tested whether endorsement of polyculturalism is inversely associated with sexism, above and beyond potentially confounding belief systems. Across studies, for both women and men, endorsement of polyculturalism was associated with lower sexist attitudes for two classes of sexism measures: (a) attitudes toward the rights and roles of women and (b) ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Associations remained significant while controlling for potentially confounding variables (colorblindness, conservatism, egalitarianism, gender and ethnic identity, gender and race essentialism, multiculturalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation). Greater openness to criticizing one’s culture mediated polyculturalism’s association with attitudes toward the rights and roles of women but not with ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Studying polyculturalism may provide unique insights into sexism, and more work is needed to understand the mechanisms involved. PMID:25530662

  11. Why Do You Believe in God? Relationships between Religious Belief, Analytic Thinking, Mentalizing and Moral Concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ian Jack

    Full Text Available Prior work has established that analytic thinking is associated with disbelief in God, whereas religious and spiritual beliefs have been positively linked to social and emotional cognition. However, social and emotional cognition can be subdivided into a number of distinct dimensions, and some work suggests that analytic thinking is in tension with some aspects of social-emotional cognition. This leaves open two questions. First, is belief linked to social and emotional cognition in general, or a specific dimension in particular? Second, does the negative relationship between belief and analytic thinking still hold after relationships with social and emotional cognition are taken into account? We report eight hypothesis-driven studies which examine these questions. These studies are guided by a theoretical model which focuses on the distinct social and emotional processing deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (mentalizing and psychopathy (moral concern. To our knowledge no other study has investigated both of these dimensions of social and emotion cognition alongside analytic thinking. We find that religious belief is robustly positively associated with moral concern (4 measures, and that at least part of the negative association between belief and analytic thinking (2 measures can be explained by a negative correlation between moral concern and analytic thinking. Using nine different measures of mentalizing, we found no evidence of a relationship between mentalizing and religious or spiritual belief. These findings challenge the theoretical view that religious and spiritual beliefs are linked to the perception of agency, and suggest that gender differences in religious belief can be explained by differences in moral concern. These findings are consistent with the opposing domains hypothesis, according to which brain areas associated with moral concern and analytic thinking are in tension.

  12. Why Do You Believe in God? Relationships between Religious Belief, Analytic Thinking, Mentalizing and Moral Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Anthony Ian; Friedman, Jared Parker; Boyatzis, Richard Eleftherios; Taylor, Scott Nolan

    2016-01-01

    Prior work has established that analytic thinking is associated with disbelief in God, whereas religious and spiritual beliefs have been positively linked to social and emotional cognition. However, social and emotional cognition can be subdivided into a number of distinct dimensions, and some work suggests that analytic thinking is in tension with some aspects of social-emotional cognition. This leaves open two questions. First, is belief linked to social and emotional cognition in general, or a specific dimension in particular? Second, does the negative relationship between belief and analytic thinking still hold after relationships with social and emotional cognition are taken into account? We report eight hypothesis-driven studies which examine these questions. These studies are guided by a theoretical model which focuses on the distinct social and emotional processing deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (mentalizing) and psychopathy (moral concern). To our knowledge no other study has investigated both of these dimensions of social and emotion cognition alongside analytic thinking. We find that religious belief is robustly positively associated with moral concern (4 measures), and that at least part of the negative association between belief and analytic thinking (2 measures) can be explained by a negative correlation between moral concern and analytic thinking. Using nine different measures of mentalizing, we found no evidence of a relationship between mentalizing and religious or spiritual belief. These findings challenge the theoretical view that religious and spiritual beliefs are linked to the perception of agency, and suggest that gender differences in religious belief can be explained by differences in moral concern. These findings are consistent with the opposing domains hypothesis, according to which brain areas associated with moral concern and analytic thinking are in tension.

  13. Why Do You Believe in God? Relationships between Religious Belief, Analytic Thinking, Mentalizing and Moral Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Anthony Ian; Friedman, Jared Parker; Boyatzis, Richard Eleftherios; Taylor, Scott Nolan

    2016-01-01

    Prior work has established that analytic thinking is associated with disbelief in God, whereas religious and spiritual beliefs have been positively linked to social and emotional cognition. However, social and emotional cognition can be subdivided into a number of distinct dimensions, and some work suggests that analytic thinking is in tension with some aspects of social-emotional cognition. This leaves open two questions. First, is belief linked to social and emotional cognition in general, or a specific dimension in particular? Second, does the negative relationship between belief and analytic thinking still hold after relationships with social and emotional cognition are taken into account? We report eight hypothesis-driven studies which examine these questions. These studies are guided by a theoretical model which focuses on the distinct social and emotional processing deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (mentalizing) and psychopathy (moral concern). To our knowledge no other study has investigated both of these dimensions of social and emotion cognition alongside analytic thinking. We find that religious belief is robustly positively associated with moral concern (4 measures), and that at least part of the negative association between belief and analytic thinking (2 measures) can be explained by a negative correlation between moral concern and analytic thinking. Using nine different measures of mentalizing, we found no evidence of a relationship between mentalizing and religious or spiritual belief. These findings challenge the theoretical view that religious and spiritual beliefs are linked to the perception of agency, and suggest that gender differences in religious belief can be explained by differences in moral concern. These findings are consistent with the opposing domains hypothesis, according to which brain areas associated with moral concern and analytic thinking are in tension. PMID:27008093

  14. For They Need to Believe Themselves White: An intertextual analysis of Orson Welles's ‘Othello’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Jung

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to reassess Orson Welles's Othello (1951 in light of his earliest and little examines short, The Hearts of Age (1934. Refining textual analysis with the tools of whiteness studies and a focus on how American media history is reflected in the film, the article demonstrates that Welles's Othello makes a strong (and often misunderstood or ignored critical intervention of progressive racial politics, a politics which is, moreover, already located in Shakespeare's original source text.

  15. Seeing is believing, PLGA microsphere degradation revealed in PLGA microsphere/PVA hydrogel composites

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Bing; Sun, Xuanhao; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Burgess, Diane J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the polymer degradation and drug release mechanism from PLGA microspheres embedded in a PVA hydrogel. Two types of microspheres were prepared with different molecular weight PLGA polymers (approximately 25 and 7 kDa) to achieve different drug release profiles, with a 9-day lag phase and without a lag phase, respectively. The kinetics of water uptake into the microspheres coincided with the drug release profiles for both formulations. For the 25 kDa micr...

  16. Illness Perception in Primary Cutaneous T-cell Lymphomas: What Patients Believe About Their Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Johanna; Kammerstätter, Martina; Erhart, Friedrich; Mairhofer-Muri, Daniela; Trautinger, Franz

    2016-03-01

    There is currently no information available on illness perception in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). The aim of this study was therefore to gather initial information on disease understanding and interpretation in patients with CTCL. Consecutive patients from a hospital-based primary cutaneous lymphoma ward completed the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) on 2 consecutive visits. A total of 24 patients with different variants of CTCL were included in the study. Patients experienced their condition as being long-lasting, but not fundamentally affecting their lives. Patients had poor belief in personal control, but strong belief in treatment control. They did not show a good understanding of their disease, and had a moderately negative emotional response to their illness. In conclusion, the IPQ-R provides a feasible and reproducible tool for measurement and better understanding of illness perception in patients with CTCL. Knowledge of patients' attitudes towards their disease should enable optimization of the patient-physician relationship and patient care.

  17. MRI for appendicitis in pregnancy: is seeing believing? clinical outcomes in cases of appendix nonvisualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Katib, Sayf; Sokhandon, Farnoosh; Farah, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes in cases of appendix nonvisualization with MRI in pregnant patients with suspected appendicitis and the implications of appendix nonvisualization for excluding appendicitis. Fifty-eight pregnant patients with suspected appendicitis evaluated with MRI at three centers from a single institution were retrospectively reviewed by three radiologists with varying levels of abdominal imaging experience. All scans were performed on a 1.5-Tesla Siemens unit. Cases were evaluated for diagnostic quality, visualization of the appendix, presence of appendicitis, and alternate diagnoses. Clinical outcomes were gathered from the electronic medical record. Of the 58 patients who underwent MRI for suspected appendicitis, 50 cases were considered adequate diagnostic quality by all three radiologists. The rate of appendix visualization among the three radiologists ranged from 60 to 76% (p = 0.44). The appendix was nonvisualized by at least one of the three radiologists in 25 cases (50%). Of these, none had a final diagnosis of appendicitis including one patient who underwent appendectomy. MRI suggested an alternate diagnosis in 6 (24%) patients with appendix nonvisualization. For the three reviewers, the agreement level on whether or not the appendix was visualized on the MRI had a Light's kappa value of 0.526, indicating a "moderate" level of agreement (p value appendicitis confers a significant reduction in the risk of appendicitis compared to all comers as long as the study is adequate diagnostic quality and there are no secondary signs of appendicitis present.

  18. Gamifying education: what is known, what is believed and what remains uncertain: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Dichev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gamification of education is a developing approach for increasing learners’ motivation and engagement by incorporating game design elements in educational environments. With the growing popularity of gamification and yet mixed success of its application in educational contexts, the current review is aiming to shed a more realistic light on the research in this field by focusing on empirical evidence rather than on potentialities, beliefs or preferences. Accordingly, it critically examines the advancement in gamifying education. The discussion is structured around the used gamification mechanisms, the gamified subjects, the type of gamified learning activities, and the study goals, with an emphasis on the reliability and validity of the reported outcomes. To improve our understanding and offer a more realistic picture of the progress of gamification in education, consistent with the presented evidence, we examine both the outcomes reported in the papers and how they have been obtained. While the gamification in education is still a growing phenomenon, the review reveals that (i insufficient evidence exists to support the long-term benefits of gamification in educational contexts; (ii the practice of gamifying learning has outpaced researchers’ understanding of its mechanisms and methods; (iii the knowledge of how to gamify an activity in accordance with the specifics of the educational context is still limited. The review highlights the need for systematically designed studies and rigorously tested approaches confirming the educational benefits of gamification, if gamified learning is to become a recognized instructional approach.

  19. (What) do you believe?: Therapist spiritual/religious/non-religious self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaldi, Danielle; Trub, Leora

    2018-05-01

    Spiritual/religious/non-religious (S/R/N) identity development is often neglected in psychotherapy training and represents an area where psychotherapists feel they lack competence. Such feelings can become even more pronounced when it comes to S/R/N self-disclosure. This study explores the decisions therapists make regarding self-disclosure, which impacts the psychotherapy process. This grounded theory study explores psychotherapists' S/R/N self-disclosure based on qualitative interviews with 21 psychotherapists representing varied theoretical orientations and spiritual, religious, atheist, and agnostic backgrounds. Findings reveal that while some self-disclosure happens on an explicit level, more often psychotherapists find implicit ways to share S/R/N aspects of the self for purposes of enhancing the therapeutic alliance and to convey openness. Psychotherapists also attempt to avoid the topic altogether, either to protect the therapeutic relationship or because of unresolved S/R/N identity in the therapist. Developing skills related to S/R/N self-disclosure represents an important aspect of multicultural competence, which can impact clients' feelings of safety and comfort discussing their own S/R/N identity. This capacity is strongly influenced by the therapist's self-awareness regarding S/R/N identity. Suggestions for engaging S/R/N identity and disclosure in supervisory experiences and academic preparation are discussed.

  20. Them that believe: a postmodern exploration of the contemporary Christian serpent-handlers of Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph W. Hood

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The call for a new paradigm is loud and clear and consistent with postmodern methods. They are no gold standard to be applied to all investigations; no master narrative to be defended. Interdisciplinary, as the author tries to demonstrate, can mean not only cooperation among disciplines, but also the use of a variety of often discipline favoured methods by a single investigator or a team of investigators whose location within a particular ‘discipline’ is both historically contingent and likely dated in terms of its usefulness. Likewise, the use of multilevel considerations means that the diversity of methods and approaches at various levels of abstraction are necessary to begin any study of religious phenomena in their immense complexity. This study of serpent handlers focuses upon archival research; hermeneutical explorations of textual criticism of the Bible; ethnography linked to videotapes; phenomenological interviews analyzed in terms of a hermeneutical method that reveals the meaningfulness of handling serpents, being anointed, and the experience of near death from serpent bites. The author is committed to exploring the meaning of serpent handling from personal and cultural perspectives, and also takes into account psychological theories to link the symbolic and sign value of serpents that further does justice to the power of the serpent to elicit genuine religious experiences and to serve as an apologetic for a tradition that has been maligned and misunderstood by lay persons and scholars alike.

  1. Educators who believe: understanding the enthusiasm of teachers who use digital games in the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Stieler-Hunt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used qualitative methods to explore why some educators embrace the use of digital game-play (DGP in the classroom. The results indicated that these teachers had a very strong belief that DGP could be beneficial for learning which stemmed from experiencing their own form of subjective success with using DGP in the classroom, availing themselves of information and advocacy about using DGP in the classroom and personal experiences with DGP either through their own DGP or through watching their own children play games. They also shared positive attitudes towards information and communication technologies generally and had initially been invited to use DGP in the classroom by someone in authority. Their use of DGP was also something that they felt made them different to other teachers. Applying these findings to Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations theory predicted that the diffusion rate of using DGP in the classroom will continue to be slow. Finally, this study indicates that teachers need to experience their own form of subjective ‘success’ in order to find DGP valuable and this subjective ‘success’ often goes beyond test score performance.

  2. Many faces of dogmatism: Prejudice as a way of protecting certainty against value violators among dogmatic believers and atheists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossowska, Małgorzata; Czernatowicz-Kukuczka, Aneta; Sekerdej, Maciej

    2017-02-01

    In this article, we suggest that dogmatic beliefs, manifested as strong beliefs that there is no God (i.e., dogmatic atheism) as well as strong beliefs in God (i.e., religious orthodoxy), can serve as a cognitive response to uncertainty. Moreover, we claim that people who dogmatically do not believe in religion and those who dogmatically believe in religion are equally prone to intolerance and prejudice towards groups that violate their important values. That is because prejudice towards these groups may be an efficient strategy to protect the certainty that strong beliefs provide. We tested these assumptions in two studies. In Study 1 and Study 2, we demonstrated that dogmatic beliefs mediate the relationship between intolerance to uncertainty and both, religious orthodoxy and dogmatic atheism. In addition, in Study 2 we showed that both the religiously orthodox and dogmatic atheists become prejudiced towards groups that violate their values and that these effects are especially strong under experimentally induced uncertainty. In this study, we focused on atheists and homosexuals as groups that pose a threat to Christian's religious worldviews, and Catholics and pro-life supporters as groups that pose a threat to the values of atheists. The results are discussed in relation to past research on dogmatism and religion, as well as with reference to what this means for the study of prejudice. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  3. I Want to Believe: A Short Psychobiography of Mary Baker Eddy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Taylor Wilson

    2016-01-01

    The 18th and 19th centuries were beset with new religious movements in the United States: Shakers, Latter Day Saints, Millerites, and Seventh Day Adventists to name a few. One group, Christian Science, held radically different views than their counterparts and their origins lay in the most unlikely of places, a perpetually ill and poor woman from New Hampshire. Much has been said about Mary Baker Eddy: some say that she was a prophet, others that she was a fraud. Herein no such judgments are made. This study seeks to look into the life of Mary Baker Eddy from a psychological lens in the hopes that insight can be gained into the founding of the First Church of Jesus Christ Scientist and perhaps to allay the binary of Mrs. Eddy as either prophet or fanatic.

  4. Do teachers believe they are competent to promote healthy ICT use among their students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamanski, R; Ciccarelli, M

    2012-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT), including computers, are becoming commonplace tools for learning by school children in Australia and around the world. Teachers are responsible for integrating ICT into the school learning environment; however, they may not recognize how and when ICT use may compromise their students' physical health. Children's exposure to physical harm through the unhealthy use of ICT may have liability implications for the education sector. To determine (i) whether teachers consider it their responsibility to promote healthy ICT use among their students; (ii) teachers' self-perceived competence to do so; and (iii) what teachers perceive are the barriers and enablers to promoting healthy ICT use among their students. An online survey was developed for the study. All Catholic Education school principals in Western Australia (n=157) were sent an email link to the survey for distribution to teachers at their respective schools. Over the three week survey period, 95 teachers completed the survey. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data and summarize participants' responses. Fifty-five percent of teachers agreed they were concerned about their students' physical health when using ICT. Only 19% of teachers reported they frequently or always provided their students with information on how to use computers in their class in a way, so as to promote physical health. Teachers identified barriers to promoting healthy computing use among students including; insufficient time (47%), non-adjustable furniture (46%), and insufficient knowledge (41%). Male teachers reported more confidence in their ability to promote healthy ICT use among students than female teachers. Just over half of the teachers in this study were concerned for the physical health of their students when using ICT in the classroom. Respondents identified barriers that limit their ability to promote healthy practices to their students. Designing and

  5. New ways of believing or belonging: is religion giving way to spirituality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, Tony; Bruce, Steve

    2006-09-01

    In this article, the presence of alternative spirituality and practices within the general culture and their relationship to institutional religion are examined using national survey data collected as part of the 2001 Scottish Social Attitudes Survey. Alternative practices are found to divide into two groups of interests: concerns with personal well-being and interest in divination. Better-educated women are much more likely to engage with holistic practices associated with well-being; a minority of younger, less well-educated women are more likely to have found horoscopes, astrology, fortune-telling and tarot 'important in their lives'. Churchgoers find divination antithetical to religion while the use and salience of a range of holistic practices is as acceptable among churchgoers as it is among non-attenders and the secular (once allowance has been made for the connections between putatively alternative practices, gender, age and education). This underscores a focus on personal well-being rather than alternative spirituality in the consumption of holistic products and practices within the general culture. The study findings are used to assess claims for a spiritual revolution in modern Britain.

  6. Seeing is (Not) Believing: How Viewing Pornography Shapes the Religious Lives of Young Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Samuel L; Hayward, George M

    2017-06-01

    Pornography has become increasingly accessible in the United States, and particularly for younger Americans. While some research considers how pornography use affects the sexual and psychological health of adolescents and emerging adults, sociologists have given little attention to how viewing pornography may shape young Americans' connection to key social and cultural institutions, like religion. This article examines whether viewing pornography may actually have a secularizing effect, reducing young Americans' personal religiosity over time. To test for this, we use data from three waves of the National Study of Youth and Religion. Fixed-effects regression models show that more frequent pornography viewing diminishes religious service attendance, importance of religious faith, prayer frequency, and perceived closeness to God, while increasing religious doubts. These effects hold regardless of gender. The effects of viewing pornography on importance of faith, closeness to God, and religious doubts are stronger for teenagers compared to emerging adults. In light of the rapidly growing availability and acceptance of pornography for young Americans, our findings suggest that scholars must consider how increasingly pervasive pornography consumption may shape both the religious lives of young adults and also the future landscape of American religion more broadly.

  7. Is seeing believing? Expectant parents’ outlooks on coparenting and later coparenting solidarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, James P.; Rotman, Tamir

    2007-01-01

    This study examined short- and longer-term sequelae of parents’ prenatal expectations of their future family process, and traced subsequent stability in coparenting solidarity from infancy through the toddler years. 110 couples expecting a first child participated in prenatal assessments of coparenting expectations and differences, and in 3 month post-partum evaluations. 45 couples completed subsequent assessments at 12 and 30 months. At each time point multi-method evaluations of coparental adjustment were obtained. Men’s and women’s expectancies during the pregnancy and the degree of difference between their self-reported beliefs about parenting predicted post-baby coparental adjustment, with latent class analyses suggesting aftereffects of prenatal expectancies up through 30 months for some couples. Coparental solidarity was also stable from 3 to 12 and from 12 to 30 months. Data indicate that the lens parents bring to bear on their emerging family system is not immaterial, and that early-emerging coparenting dynamics portend longer term coparenting adjustment. PMID:17292781

  8. Green fluorescent protein (GFP): is seeing believing and is that enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Susan A; Pettit, Marie W; Dyer, Paul D R; Coakley Youngs, Emma; Gorringe-Pattrick, Monique A M; El-Daher, Samer; Richardson, Simon

    Intracellular compartmentalisation is a significant barrier to the successful nucleocytosolic delivery of biologics. The endocytic system has been shown to be responsible for compartmentalisation, providing an entry point, and trigger(s) for the activation of drug delivery systems. Consequently, many of the technologies used to understand endocytosis have found utility within the field of drug delivery. The use of fluorescent proteins as markers denoting compartmentalisation within the endocytic system has become commonplace. Several of the limitations associated with the use of green fluorescent protein (GFP) within the context of drug delivery have been explored here by asking a series of related questions: (1) Are molecules that regulate fusion to a specific compartment (i.e. Rab- or SNARE-GFP fusions) a good choice of marker for that compartment? (2) How reliable was GFP-marker overexpression when used to define a given endocytic compartment? (3) Can glutathione-s-transferase (GST) fused in frame with GFP (GST-GFP) act as a fluid phase endocytic probe? (4) Was GFP fluorescence a robust indicator of (GFP) protein integrity? This study concluded that there are many appropriate and useful applications for GFP; however, thought and an understanding of the biological and physicochemical character of these markers are required for the generation of meaningful data.

  9. Perceptions of Peer Sexual Behavior: Do Adolescents Believe in a Sexual Double Standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael; Cardenas, Susan; Donnelly, Joseph; J Kittleson, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to (1) examine attitudes of adolescents toward peer models having sex or choosing abstinence, and (2) determine whether a "double standard" in perception existed concerning adolescent abstinence and sexual behavior. Adolescents (N = 173) completed questionnaires that included 1 of 6 randomly assigned vignettes that described male and female peer models 3 ways: (1) no information about model's sexual behavior, (2) model in love but choosing abstinence, and (3) model in love and having sex. Participants read the vignette to which they had been assigned and responded to statements about the peer model. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance. Results did not show evidence of a sexual double standard among male participants, but did show some evidence of a sexual double standard among female participants. Additionally, both male and female participants evaluated more harshly peer models that were having sex than peer models that chose abstinence. Findings provide insight concerning the lack of a sexual double standard among male participants, the existence, to some degree, of a sexual double standard among female participants, and demonstrate the existence of a social cost to both young men and young women for choosing to have sex. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  10. «Do you (really believe in evil?». Psycho, televisione seriality and its viewer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Giori

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available L’influenza esercitata da Hitchcock sul cinema è un dato tanto notorio quanto sottovalutato dagli studi. Ancora di più lo è la sua influenza sulla televisione. Questo saggio utilizza un esempio significativo – quello che coinvolge il film Psycho (Psyco, 1960 – per mettere in luce alcuni mutamenti radicali subiti dalla gestione  dell’intertestualità nel contesto dell’evoluzione subita dalla serialità televisiva negli ultimi trent’anni. Sensibilmente diverse appaiono infatti le modalità di tale gestione da parte della serialità cosiddetta classica e di quella più recente, variamente definita come ‘nuova’ o ‘di qualità’. Cambia altresì la selezione operata sul complesso materiale offerto dal modello, il quale deve la sua fortuna a intuizioni relative a questioni complesse da affrontare per la serialità classica, come l’intreccio tra morte, instabilità mentale e sessualità eteroclita, o come il carattere performativo del gender. Si metterà infine in luce come a mutare, al fondo, sia la concezione dello spettatore e delle sue prassi di visione, che risultano essere molto diverse tra le due forme di serialità e che incidono in modo radicale sulla loro scrittura e sulla loro concezione formale e strutturale.

  11. Day-and-Night Closed-Loop Glucose Control in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Under Free-Living Conditions: Results of a Single-Arm 1-Month Experience Compared With a Previously Reported Feasibility Study of Evening and Night at Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renard, Eric; Farret, Anne; Kropff, Jort; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Messori, Mirko; Place, Jerome; Visentin, Roberto; Calore, Roberta; Toffanin, Chiara; Di Palma, Federico; Lanzola, Giordano; Magni, Paolo; Boscari, Federico; Galasso, Silvia; Avogaro, Angelo; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kovatchev, Boris; del Favero, Simone; Cobelli, Claudio; Magni, Lalo; DeVries, J. Hans

    2016-01-01

    After testing of a wearable artificial pancreas (AP) during evening and night (E/N-AP) under free-living conditions in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), we investigated AP during day and night (D/N-AP) for 1 month. Twenty adult patients with T1D who completed a previous randomized crossover study

  12. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  13. Seeing is believing, PLGA microsphere degradation revealed in PLGA microsphere/PVA hydrogel composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bing; Sun, Xuanhao; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Burgess, Diane J

    2016-04-28

    The aim of this study was to understand the polymer degradation and drug release mechanism from PLGA microspheres embedded in a PVA hydrogel. Two types of microspheres were prepared with different molecular weight PLGA polymers (approximately 25 and 7 kDa) to achieve different drug release profiles, with a 9-day lag phase and without a lag phase, respectively. The kinetics of water uptake into the microspheres coincided with the drug release profiles for both formulations. For the 25 kDa microspheres, minimal water uptake was observed in the early part of the lag phase followed by substantial water uptake at the later stages and in the drug release phase. For the 7 kDa microspheres, water uptake occurred simultaneously with drug release. Water uptake was approximately 2-3 times that of the initial microsphere weight for both formulations. The internal structure of the PLGA microspheres was evaluated using low temperature scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). Burst drug release occurred followed by pore forming from the exterior to the core of both microspheres. A well-defined hydrogel/microsphere interface was observed. For the 25 kDa microspheres, internal pore formation and swelling occurred before the second drug release phase. The surface layer of the microspheres remained intact whereas swelling, and degradation of the core continued throughout the drug release period. In addition, microsphere swelling reduced glucose transport through the coatings in PBS media and this was considered to be a as a consequence of the increased thickness of the coatings. The combination of the swelling and microdialysis results provides a fresh understanding on the competing processes affecting molecular transport of bioanalytes (i.e. glucose) through these composite coatings during prolonged exposure in PBS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sociocultural and structural perpetuators of domestic violence in pregnancy: A qualitative look at what South Indian women believe needs to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Sahana; Frey, Sarah; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Manhart, Lisa E; Kaysen, Debra; Andu, Eaden; Rao, Deepa

    2018-02-01

    In India, reported rates of domestic violence rise as high as 31%. Abuse against pregnant women in India is associated with depressive and PTSD symptoms, and poor birth outcomes, yet no evidence-based interventions have been tested on this population. In this cross-sectional qualitative study, we sought perspective on South Indian women's concerns about abuse during pregnancy and what they believed would help. Participants cited economic dependence on husbands and sociocultural structures as factors perpetuating domestic violence. Women also described resilience factors that can protect against abuse. Our participants highlighted a requisite for interventions within health and social systems.

  15. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  16. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  17. Beyond believers and deniers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Jørgensen, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The politics of climate change is not concerned solely with rival scientific claims about global warming but also with how best to govern the climate. Despite this, categories in climate politics remain caught up in the concepts of the ‘science wars’, rarely progressing far beyond the denier/beli......-dimensional grid. The degree to which climate change is considered a ‘wicked’ problem on the one hand, and individualist or collectivist ways of understanding political agency on the other, provide a map of climate political positions beyond ‘believers’ vs ‘deniers’....

  18. Nobelium non-believers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Brett F.; Burdette, Shawn C.

    2014-07-01

    Alfred Nobel's eponymous element, nobelium, was 'first' discovered either in the 1950s or 1960s, in the USSR, Sweden or the USA. Brett F. Thornton and Shawn C. Burdette delve into the ensuing decades of internecine strife over the discovery of element 102.

  19. Believing in myself

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    The postdoctoral training was a turning point. Stefan was ... My training in mycobacterial immunology turned out to be an asset and ... health management. I developed my own group and decided to work on understanding the role of a unique subset of lympho- cytes, gamma delta T cells in tumor immunity. It was a challenge.

  20. Believing in seeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Materials-based imaging agents are attractive candidates for a diverse range of imaging modalities and combined imaging-therapy applications, but economic implications and practical concerns remain obstacles to their clinical translation.

  1. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt After Previous Recanalization of a Chronically Thrombosed Portal Vein via a Transmesenteric Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Jun; Kadoya, Masumi; Gabata, Tosifumi; Takashima, Tsutomu; Urabe, Takeshi; Unoura, Masasi; Kobayashi, Kenichi

    1996-01-01

    We report a cirrhotic patient with complete occlusion of the portal vein with marked cavernous transformation due to chronic thrombosis in whom a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was successfully created after direct minilaparotomy mesenteric vein catheterization, lysis and aspiration of the thrombus, and stenting in the portal vein. The methods used, we believe, provide a new technique for performing TIPS in chronically thrombosed portal veins in which previously no effective surgical therapeutic options were available

  2. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  3. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P

    1996-06-01

    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  4. PREVENÇÃO DO SUICÍDIO EM ADOLESCENTES: PROGRAMA DE INTERVENÇÃO BELIEVE

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Daniel Neto Façanha; Maria Pedro Queiroz de Azevedo Erse; Rosa Maria Pereira Simões; Lúcia Amélia; José Carlos Santos

    2010-01-01

    La prevención de los comportamientos acerca del suicidio entre los adolescentes constituye actualmente una de las prioridades de intervención, contemplada en el Plan Nacional de Salud Mental. En el ámbito de este plan se defiende también la necesidad de desarrollo de respuestas y programas ligados a los Cuidados de Salud Primarios. En este sentido, ha sido delineado e implementado el Programa de Intervención intitulado BELIEVE, con objetivo de evaluar la autoestima y capacidad de resolución d...

  5. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  6. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  7. Rethinking biblical hermeneutics for mobilizing Christian believers to proclaim the Good News in a post-secular age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Merwe, Dirk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The continuous changing of thezeitgeist,from modernism through postmodernism to metamodernism (post-secularism, contributes to the continuous changes in our societies, which undoubtedly lead to changes in the area of religion, in particular the Christian religion. This has resulted in a dichotomy on the one hand we have religious diversity and decay, and on the other hand church growth and an increasing interest in Christian spirituality, depending on which part of the world is focussed. In order to address these changes from a Christian perspective, biblical hermeneutics has to be amended to make the Christiankerugmain a post-secular age more relevant, and to make Christian living in a post-secular age viable. In order to proclaim the gospel in a post-secular age, Christian believers will have tobuild friendships, while thegospelshould be reformulated and redefined in aremix idiom.To succeed in addressing the spiritual needs of Christians and to mobilise them to proclaim the gospel, the church will have to pay much more attention to Christianspiritualityand theembodimentof the kingdom of God (and the divine self in the lives of believers and in the world.

  8. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  9. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  11. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  12. "I honestly believe god keeps me healthy so i can take care of my child": parental use of faith related to treatment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossoehme, Daniel H; Cotton, Sian; Ragsdale, Judy; Quittner, Alexandra L; McPhail, Gary; Seid, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of studies address parental faith and its relationship to their children's health. Using cystic fibrosis as a disease exemplar in which religion/spirituality have been shown to play a role and parental health behaviors (adherence to their child's daily recommended home treatments) are important, this study explored whether parents with different levels of adherence would describe use of faith differently. Twenty-five interviews were completed and analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Some parents described no relationship between faith and treatment adherence. However, of those who did, higher-adherence parents believed God empowered them to care for their child and they used prayer to change themselves, while lower-adherence parents described trusting God to care for their child and used prayer to change God. Clinical implications for chaplains' differential engagement with parents are presented.

  13. “I Honestly Believe God Keeps me Healthy so I Can Take Care of My Child”: Parental Use of Faith Related to Treatment Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossoehme, Daniel H.; Cotton, Sian; Ragsdale, Judy; Quittner, Alexandra L.; McPhail, Gary; Seid, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of studies address parental faith and its relationship to their children’s health. Using cystic fibrosis as a disease exemplar in which religion/spirituality have been shown to play a role and parental health behaviors (adherence to their child’s daily recommended home treatments) are important, this study explored whether parents with different levels of adherence would describe use of faith differently. Twenty-five interviews were completed and analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Some parents described no relationship between faith and treatment adherence. However, of those who did, higher-adherence parents believed God empowered them to care for their child and they used prayer to change themselves, while lower-adherence parents described trusting God to care for their child and used prayer to change God. Clinical implications for chaplains’ differential engagement with parents are presented. PMID:23593948

  14. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  15. Don't Believe the Gripe! Increasing Course Structure in a Large Non-majors Neuroscience Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Anastasia; Nicholas, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Active teaching is increasingly accepted as a better option for higher education STEM courses than traditional lecture-based instruction. However, concerns remain regarding student preferences and the impact of increased course structure on teaching evaluations. Undergraduates in a non-majors neuropharmacology course were enrolled in an enriched blended course format, providing online case-based learning opportunities in a large lecture hall setting. Students working in small assigned groups solved weekly case studies developed to teach basic neuropharmacology concepts. All case study assignments were peer reviewed and content was further reinforced with a weekly online quiz. A comparison of scores on equivalent midterm and final exam questions revealed that students enrolled in the High-Structure course scored better than students from the previous year that took a more traditional Low-Structure lecture-based course. Student performance increased significantly for exam questions that required Bloom's level understanding. When surveyed, students in the High-Structure course reported some regret for the lack of traditional lecture and revealed some disapproval towards the extra work required for active teaching and peer review. Yet, we saw no change in quantitative instructor evaluation between sections, challenging the idea that student resistance towards increased work lowers course evaluation scores. Future instructors using active learning strategies may benefit from revealing to students the value of increased course structure on performance outcomes compared with traditional lecture courses.

  16. Don’t Believe the Gripe! Increasing Course Structure in a Large Non-majors Neuroscience Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Anastasia; Nicholas, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Active teaching is increasingly accepted as a better option for higher education STEM courses than traditional lecture-based instruction. However, concerns remain regarding student preferences and the impact of increased course structure on teaching evaluations. Undergraduates in a non-majors neuropharmacology course were enrolled in an enriched blended course format, providing online case-based learning opportunities in a large lecture hall setting. Students working in small assigned groups solved weekly case studies developed to teach basic neuropharmacology concepts. All case study assignments were peer reviewed and content was further reinforced with a weekly online quiz. A comparison of scores on equivalent midterm and final exam questions revealed that students enrolled in the High-Structure course scored better than students from the previous year that took a more traditional Low-Structure lecture-based course. Student performance increased significantly for exam questions that required Bloom’s level understanding. When surveyed, students in the High-Structure course reported some regret for the lack of traditional lecture and revealed some disapproval towards the extra work required for active teaching and peer review. Yet, we saw no change in quantitative instructor evaluation between sections, challenging the idea that student resistance towards increased work lowers course evaluation scores. Future instructors using active learning strategies may benefit from revealing to students the value of increased course structure on performance outcomes compared with traditional lecture courses. PMID:28690434

  17. We believe in your conspiracy if we distrust you: the role of intergroup distrust in structuring the effect of Islamic identification, competitive victimhood, and group incompatibility on belief in a conspiracy theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashuri, A.; Zaduqisti, Esti

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how distrust towards an out-group believed to be an actor of a conspiracy theory moderates the role of Islamic identification, group incompatibility and competitive victimhood in explaining belief in said conspiracy. The contextual background we used to verify this idea is the

  18. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  19. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  20. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  1. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  2. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  3. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  4. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  5. Tubal anastomosis after previous sterilization: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seeters, Jacoba A H; Chua, Su Jen; Mol, Ben W J; Koks, Carolien A M

    2017-05-01

    Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success. Two search strategies were employed. Firstly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies presenting fertility outcomes of sterilization reversal up to July 2016. Data on the following outcomes were collected: pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, cost of the procedure and operative time. Eligible study designs included prospective or retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and case series. No age restriction was applied. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from tubal infertility from any other reason (e.g. infection, endometriosis and adhesions from previous surgery) and studies including sterilization reversal procedures were then evaluated: female age, BMI and duration and method of sterilization. Secondly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies that compared reversal of sterilization to IVF and evaluated them for pregnancy outcomes and cost effectiveness. We included 37 studies that investigated a total of 10 689 women. No randomized controlled trials were found. Most studies were retrospective cohort studies of a moderate quality. The pooled pregnancy rate after sterilization reversal was 42-69%, with heterogeneity seen from the different methods utilized. The reported ectopic pregnancy rate was 4-8%. The only prognostic factor affecting the

  6. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  7. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  8. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  9. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  10. Estudios previos cursados y género de los maestros de primaria en formación: efectos sobre la resolución de problemas / Pre-service primary teachers' gender and studies previously undertaken: effects on problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Caballer Alonso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo analiza la influencia del género y los estudios previos cursados en la resolución de problemas. Se utilizó un diseño experimental con dos variables independientes (género y estudios previos y una variable dependiente (puntuación en los problemas. Se administró un cuadernillo con dos problemas de diferente estructura a 66 estudiantes de tercer curso del Grado de Maestro en Educacion Primaria de la misma Facultad (Facultad de Magisterio de la Universidad de Valencia, España. Los resultados de los análisis de varianza simple muestran que: a los estudiantes de sexo masculino resuelven el problema difícil con más éxito que las estudiantes, b los estudiantes que han cursado bachillerato no resuelven los problemas significativamente mejor que los que no lo han cursado y, c los estudiantes que siguieron un itinerario en 4º de la ESO con Física y Química resuelven significativamente mejor los problemas que los restantes. Abstract: This study analyses the influence of gender and studies previously undertaken on problem-solving. An experimental design was used with two independent variables (gender and studies previously undertaken and one dependent variable (scores in the problems. A booklet containing two word problems that differ from each other in structure was administered to 66 third-year pre-service primary teachers from the same Faculty (Faculty of Teacher Training, University of Valencia, Spain. The results of the analyses of variance simple showed that: a men undergraduate students solve the difficult problem more successfully than women undergraduate students, b students who had completed post-compulsory secondary education do not solve the problems significantly better than the others, and c students who had studied physics and chemistry in the tenth grade at high school solve the problems significantly better than the others.

  11. THE IMAGE OF THE CROSS IN THE HOMILIES OF TRYPHON PETROV, THE OLD BELIEVERS WRITER OF THE 18TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Dmitrievna Grishkevich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the peculiar properties of the style of writing of Tryphon Petrov, the Old Believer writer of the Vyg literary school. The analysis is based on two homilies which are dedicated to the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. The article examines the structure of the homilies, their genre features, meanings and interpretations of the image ofthe cross as well as the form and sources of the texts. The work containscomments on the infl uence of Baroque esthetics and rhetoric on the author’s style of writing. The analysis of the fi rst text is focused on its structure which is inscribed in the symbol of the cross. Listening to the preacher hearers go through the space-time coordinates determined by the cross. The most important in the second homily are the canticles which are a part of the text. They create rhythm and convert the homily into reminiscence of a hymn. The narration of both texts is based on amplifi cation. Th e article resumes the thought that Tryphon Petrov assimilated new trends of his time but he also was continuer of the tradition of patristic eloquence.

  12. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  13. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  14. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  15. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  16. Effect of fasting on 24-h blood pressure values of individuals with no previous history of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Ayse; Demirci, Hakan; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Aydin, Ufuk; Ucar, Hakan; Yildiz, Gursel; Yaman, Ozen

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to analyze the difference in 24-h blood pressure values during Ramadan of fasting and nonfasting individuals with no previous history of hypertension. This study was planned as a multicenter research study in the cities of Izmit, Zonguldak, Sivas, and Adana. The percentage changes in the blood pressure of the patients were calculated from their blood pressure measurements at 0 h while they were resting. A Food Frequency Questionnaire was filled out by all participants. Forty patients were included in the fasting group and 55 patients were included in the nonfasting group in the study. There was a difference between the two groups in percent changes of systolic measurements performed at the 4th (5% difference and P=0.020), 13th (6% difference and P=0.015), 14th (10% difference and P=0.017), 18th (9% difference and P=0.027), 19th (9% difference and P=0.020), and 20th (6% difference and P=0.014) hours with respect to the baseline measurement at the 0 h. There was a difference between the fasting and nonfasting groups in the Fasting Food Questionnaire results. Meat consumption was significantly higher in the fasting group. A systolic blood pressure increase in fasting patients was observed in measurements at 18:00, 19:00, and 20:00 h. We believe that an increase of more than 10% in blood pressure at the time of iftar is an important result of our study in terms of the meal preferences of the individuals under risk.

  17. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoyan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  18. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  19. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  20. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  1. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  2. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  3. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  4. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  5. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  6. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  7. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  8. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  9. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  10. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  11. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  12. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  13. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  14. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  15. The preparation and its believable effect of pentavalent ruenium-188 dimercaptosuccinic acid in a patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jingyi; Zhang Yingjing; Wan Danjing; Shao Peng; Wang Xincun; Jiang Changying

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) forms a complex with pentavalent rhenium-188, known as 188 Re(V)-DMSA. This radiopharmaceutical has been shown to localize in a number of tumour types, most notably medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and in bone metastases and other bone lesions. We have previously shown that 186 Re(V)-DMSA could be strongly uptaked by the lesion of MTC similar to that observed in the images of 99m Tc(V)-DMSA and had potential therapeutic value in these patients. Compared with 186Re, the 188Re has the advantages of its ready availability from a generator. Thus the aim of this study was to establish a method of reliable preparation of 188 Re(V)-DMSA and to evaluate its potential as a targeted radiotherapy agent to patient with MTC. Material and Method: The complex was prepared by reducing 188 Re in the presence of DMSA with stannous chloride at the condition of pH 1.5. The reaction was taken to completion by heating the complex in a boiling water bath for 30 minutes. Excess stannous chloride was required and the presence of hydrochloric acid didn't reduce the yield of labelling. A large dose of ascorbic acid was used to minimize autoradiolysis. The products were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatograms (HPLC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) using a mobile phase consisting of n-butanol: acetic: water = 3:2:3 by volume. The TLC chromatograms were also visualized and quantified by gamma camera imaging. With the agreement, a patient who had a liver metastatic lesion from MTC but no symptoms (patient I) and another who had bone metastatic MTC and severe symptoms (patient II) were recruited . Both volunteers confirmed by a prior 99m Tc(V)-DMSA scan received a dose of 74 MBq of 188 Re(V)-DMSA and imaged at 3 hours with a GE Millennium VG ECT/CT. Results: The preparation had a good results with a labeling rate more than 95% and a stability in vitro more than 24 hours. The complex was a clear yellow solution which can be adjusted to p

  16. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  17. The Effect of Single Versus Repeated Previous Strategy Use on Individuals' Subsequent Strategy Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viki Schillemans

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that participants' strategy choices can be influenced by the previously-used strategy. This'perseveration effect' has been demonstrated both after a repeated use of the previous strategy (e.g., Schillemans, Luwel, Bulté, Onghena, & Verschaffel, 2009, but also after a single use of the previous strategy (Lemaire & Lecacheur, 2010. In the present study, we tested whether this perseveration effect would be stronger after a repeated than after a single previous strategy application. We were able to replicate the perseveration effect but we did not find evidence for an influence of the number of previous strategy applications on the strength of this effect. An additional cluster analysis revealed that only about one third of the participants was susceptible for the perseveration effect. The theoretical, methodological, and educational implications of these results are discussed.

  18. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  19. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D

    1989-05-01

    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  20. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  1. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Florens N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, Nico A.; Delhaas, Tammo; Helbing, Wim A.; Lam, Jan; Sobotka-Plojhar, Marta A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, Narayanswani

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  2. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, F.N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, N.A.; Delhaas, T.; Helbing, W.A.; Lam, J.; Sobotka-Plojhar, M.A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  3. Does the patients′ educational level and previous counseling affect their medication knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik M Alkatheri

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The education level of the patient and previous counseling are positively linked to medication knowledge. Knowledge of the medications′ side effects proved to be the most difficult task for the participants in this study, requiring the highest level of education, and was improved by previous counseling.

  4. Nitrogen rate and previous crop effects on some agronomic traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a previous crop x N rate interaction for seed yield during both years while significant previous crop x N rate interactions were determined for 1000 seed weight and seed weight of each ear in 2005. This study suggested that N rates and corn cultivars might result significant differences on tasseling period, ear silk ...

  5. ATLANTIC DIP: simplifying the follow-up of women with previous gestational diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noctor, E

    2013-11-01

    Previous gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with a significant lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we assessed the performance of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) measurements against that of 75 g oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) for the follow-up screening of women with previous GDM.

  6. História prévia de realização de teste de Papanicolaou e câncer do colo do útero: estudo caso-controle na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caso-controle hospitalar foi realizado de 2007 a 2010 para estimar a associação de história prévia de colpocitologia e câncer do colo do útero na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A amostra consistiu de 152 casos histologicamente confirmados e 169 controles selecionados no mesmo hospital dos casos. A análise foi feita de acordo com um modelo em três níveis hierárquicos; considerando as variáveis sociodemográficas (nível distal, sexual/reprodutivas e de estilo de vida (nível intermediário e a história prévia de colpocitologia (nível proximal. Odds ratios (OR e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95% foram calculados pela regressão logística não condicional. Ter história prévia de três ou mais colpocitologias conferiu uma proteção de 84% (OR = 0,16; IC95%: 0,074; 0,384 após ajuste pelas variáveis selecionadas. Os resultados acentuam a importância do exame preventivo ginecológico no risco desse câncer e fortalecem a necessidade de aumentar a aderência às normas do programa brasileiro, bem como de identificar e capturar mulheres relutantes para o rastreamento da doença.This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010 aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal, sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate, and previous Pap smear (proximal. Odds ratios (OR and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384 after adjusting for selected variables. The

  7. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  8. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....

  9. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  10. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2016-07-26

    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a

  11. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M

    2017-04-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  13. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  14. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  15. Triggering of the lesser toes at a previously undescribed distal pulley system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M G; Masear, V R

    1998-02-01

    We have treated five patients with metatarsalgia and triggering of the lesser toes. This paper describes a mechanism of triggering that involves a previously undescribed flexor pulley system in the toes that is very similar to the pulley system in the fingers. The specific anatomy of the toe flexor pulleys is described based upon the dissections of 50 fresh-frozen cadaver toes. These pulleys were composed of transverse to obliquely oriented fibrous bands within the flexor sheaths from the metatarsal heads to the distal phalanges. We found a system of pulleys in the lesser toes and the great toe, analogous to that found in the hand. Trigger toe is a rare entity and is only briefly described in the literature. We believe it is more common than is now recognized and may be an important underdiagnosed cause of metatarsalgia. The diagnosis is made when active plantarflexion causes the toes to catch in flexion and the patient is then unable to extend them. Nonsurgical therapy consisting of steroid injection, NSAIDs, or changing footwear may be effective, otherwise surgical release of the A1 pulley may be required.

  16. Reproductive outcomes after previous cesarean scar pregnancy: Follow up of 189 women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Wang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Even though our result did not necessarily represent the true recurrence rate, our study provided some evidence about the likelihood of fertility and recurrence risk for future pregnancies after previous CSP.

  17. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is more difficult after a previous endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Jan Siert Kayitsinga; Gouma, Dirk Joan; Heisterkamp, Joos; Tromp, Ellen; van Ramshorst, Bert; Boerma, Djamila

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) followed by a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is generally accepted as the treatment of choice for patients with choledochocystolithiasis who are eligible for surgery. Previous studies have shown that LC after ES is

  18. Seeing is believing: Direct imaging of charge flow along pili proteins reveals new mechanism for bacterial electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvankar, Nikhil; Yalcin, Sibel Ebru; Adhikari, Ramesh; Tuominen, Mark; Lovley, Derek

    2015-03-01

    Visualization of charge flow on the nanoscale in proteins is crucial for a fundamental understanding of several life processes. Here, we report direct visualization of charge propagation along native pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens at nanometer resolution using electrostatic force microscopy. Surprisingly, charges injected at a single point into individual, untreated pili, still attached to cells, propagate over the entire filament. The charges propagate despite a lack of cytochromes on the pili, in contrast to the dominant biochemical model that proteins are electronically insulating and must incorporate redox-active cofactors in order to achieve electron transport functionality. The mobile charge density in pili is comparable to synthetic organic conductors, increasing with proton doping, and with temperature-dependence consistent with previously discovered metallic-like transport mechanism. Conductive pili enable syntrophic bacteria to share energy by directly exchanging electrons among each other. Measurements along individual pilus using nanoelectrodes showed ohmic behavior strongly dependent on the amino acid composition of pili. Electron transfer rate measurement revealed that the pili conductivity is the decisive factor in controlling the bacterial respiration rate. Funded by Office of Naval Research, DOE Genomic Sciences, NSF-NSEC CHM (CMMI-1025020) and Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  19. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  20. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W

    1991-04-01

    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.

  1. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  3. Effect of previous abdominal surgery on outcomes following laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Junji; Tanaka, Keitaro; Kondo, Keisaku; Asai, Keiko; Kayano, Hajime; Masubuchi, Shinsuke; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2013-03-01

    The impact of previous abdominal surgeries on the need for conversion to open surgery and on short-term outcomes during/after laparoscopic colectomy was retrospectively investigated. This retrospective cohort study was conducted from December 1996 through December 2009. This study was conducted at Osaka Medical College Hospital. A total of 1701 consecutive patients who had undergone laparoscopic resection of the colon and rectum were classified as not having previous abdominal surgery (n = 1121) or as having previous abdominal surgery (n = 580). Short-term outcomes were recorded, and risk factors for conversion to open surgery were analyzed. There were no significant differences in operative time, blood loss, number of lymph nodes removed, or conversion rate between the groups. The rate of inadvertent enterotomy was significantly higher in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group (0.9% versus 0.1%; p = 0.03), and the postoperative recovery time was significantly longer in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group. Ileus was more frequent in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group (3.8% versus 2.1%; p = 0.04). Significant risk factors for conversion to open surgery were T stage ≥3 (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.89-3.75), median incision (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 1.23-9.41), upper median incision (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.29-5.42), lower median incision (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.09-3.12), and transverse colectomy (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.29-2.41). The incidence of successfully completed laparoscopic colectomy after previous abdominal surgery remains high, and the short-term outcomes are acceptable.

  4. 24 CFR 103.10 - What can I do if I believe someone is discriminating against me in the sale, rental, finance, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What can I do if I believe someone is discriminating against me in the sale, rental, finance, or advertisement of housing? 103.10... discriminating against me in the sale, rental, finance, or advertisement of housing? You can notify HUD if you...

  5. Ideas Exchange: Do You Believe that Physical Education Teachers and Coaches Should Have to Pass a Physical Fitness Assessment as Part of Their Licensure or Certification Requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Russell L.; Magnotta, John; Lauer, Larry; Wetzel, Richard D.; Nguyen, Nhu; Morrison, Jaime; Kamla, Jim; Barnd, Sue; Whittingham, Michele; Dentino, Kathy; Lorenzi, David G.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents opinions/ideas of professionals when asked this question, "Do You Believe that Physical Education Teachers and Coaches Should Have to Pass a Physical Fitness Assessment as Part of Their Licensure or Certification Requirements?" The professionals share the pros and cons of having physical education teachers and coaches pass a…

  6. Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung im Medizinstudium: Querschnittstudie zu Präferenzen, Haltungen und Vorkenntnissen von Studierenden [Prevention and health promotion in undergraduate medical education: Preferences, attitudes and previous knowledge of medical students - a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: The interdisciplinary topic "prevention and health promotion" (Q10 was introduced into the medical training in Germany by the new medical licensing regulations in 2004. For the conception of an effective curriculum, it is helpful to know student preferences concerning teaching-formats, attitudes and self-estimated previous knowledge. Little is known concerning student perception of “prevention and health promotion” in Germany. Thus, this explorative cross-sectional study aims to provide a first step for closing this gap.Methods: Medical students (n=220 in the fifth academic year were asked to fill in a standardized questionnaire prior to the Q10 curriculum. Questions focused on preferences for teaching and testing formats and self-estimated previous knowledge as well as on rating the importance of prevention topics and health risks. The questions were multiple choice, five-point Likert scales and open-ended questions. Results: A total of 94 students filled questionnaires (42% response rate. Prevention and health promotion was rated as “important” or “very important” for their “own medical professionalism” by 68% of students. Ratings showed preferences for self-directed teaching and learning strategies, including case-based learning, and 78% wished for predominantly oral examinations. The self-estimated knowledge about prevention and health promotion is rated as “rather poor”. The most favored training aim was “decision making within the physician-patient-relationship”. Regarding medical health consultation, students frequently estimate “lifestyle factors” and “psychological disease” as being "very important". Conclusion: Students’ self-estimated poor previous knowledge of prevention and health promotion creates special challenges for curriculum development. High ratings of relevance assigned to prevention-related topics point to a motivational potential which should be utilized through

  7. Previous prelabor or intrapartum cesarean delivery and risk of placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Katheryne L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Albert, Paul S; Grantz, Katherine L

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between previous cesarean delivery and subsequent placenta previa while distinguishing cesarean delivery before the onset of labor from intrapartum cesarean delivery. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 20 Utah hospitals (2002-2010) with restriction to the first 2 singleton deliveries of nulliparous women at study entry (n=26,987). First pregnancy delivery mode was classified as (1) vaginal (reference), (2) cesarean delivery before labor onset (prelabor), or (3) cesarean delivery after labor onset (intrapartum). Risk of second delivery previa was estimated by previous delivery mode with the use of logistic regression and was adjusted for maternal age, insurance, smoking, comorbidities, previous pregnancy loss, and history of previa. Most first deliveries were vaginal (82%; n=22,142), followed by intrapartum cesarean delivery (14.6%; n=3931), or prelabor cesarean delivery (3.4%; n=914). Incidence of second delivery previa was 0.29% (n=78) and differed by previous delivery mode: vaginal, 0.24%; prelabor cesarean delivery, 0.98%; intrapartum cesarean delivery, 0.38% (Pdelivery, previous prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with an increased risk of second delivery previa (adjusted odds ratio, 2.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.56). There was no significant association between previous intrapartum cesarean delivery and previa (adjusted odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-2.19). Previous prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with a >2-fold significantly increased risk of previa in the second delivery, although the approximately 20% increased risk of previa that was associated with previous intrapartum cesarean delivery was not significant. Although rare, the increased risk of placenta previa after previous prelabor cesarean delivery may be important when considering nonmedically indicated prelabor cesarean delivery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  9. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.

    2004-01-01

    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  10. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  11. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  12. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  13. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  14. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  15. Uso do propranolol de ação prolongada em 40 pacientes com tremor essencial e virgens de tratamento: um ensaio clínico não controlado Clinical response to long action propranolol in 40 patients diagnosed with essential tremor with no previous treatment: an open, non-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Troiano

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O tremor essencial (TE é o distúrbio do movimento mais frequente. Entre os tratamentos de primeira escolha está o uso de beta-bloqueadores. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar os resultados do uso de propranolol de ação prolongada (PAP em 40 pacientes com TE e virgens de tratamentos anteriores. MÉTODO: 40 pacientes com TE foram submetidos a um protocolo de avaliação pré-estabelecido em que constavam escalas de classificação para o tremor e escalas de avaliação da severidade do tremor. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliação inicial e após 1 mês de tratamento. RESULTADOS: com relação ao tipo de tremor, 36 pacientes (90% do total tinham o tipo 2; os tipos 3 e 4 ocorreram em dois pacientes cada (10% do total. Houve história familiar de tremor em 25 casos (62,5%. A média de idade dos pacientes foi 43,1 anos e a média de idade de início dos sintomas foi 27,4 anos. Dos 40 indivíduos avaliados, 33 ou 82,5% apresentaram algum grau de melhora com PAP; em 52,5 % a melhora foi considerada ótima ou boa. CONCLUSÃO: o PAP mostrou ser uma medicação adequada para o tratamento do TE nesta amostra de 40 pacientes avaliados.Essential tremor (ET is the most common movement disorder and betablockers are still consideres the first line of treatment. The aim of our study is to report the clinical response to long action propranolol (LAP of 40 patients diagnosed with essential tremor with no previous treatment. METHOD: 40 patients with ET were evaluated with rating scales for severity of tremor and clinical classification of ET. All patients were evaluated at least twice, at enlrollment and one month after starting treatment. RESULTS: thirty-six patients (90% had type 2 ET and types 3 and 4 ocurred in two patients each (10%. Familiar history was positive in 25 patients (62.5%. Mean age at first evaluation was 43.1 years and mean age at onset was 27.4 years. Of all patients, 33 (82.5% had some degree of benefit and in 52,5 % this

  16. Nigerian Veterinary Journal :A retrospective study was conducted to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    state of advanced autolysis. This is an indication of the low importance attached to post-mortem examinations for animals. Previous study also showed similar poor and declining acceptance of autopsy in human cadaverin Ibadan due to aesthetic, religious and local cultural believes and practices (Oluwasola,etal, 2009).

  17. Predictive factors for the development of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Kühl, C.; Bertelsen, Aksel

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of diabetes in women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify predictive factors for development of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Two to 11 years post partum, glucose tolerance was investigated in 241...... women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and 57 women without previous gestational diabetes mellitus (control group). RESULTS: Diabetes developed in 42 (17.4%) women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (3.7% insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 13.7% non......-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Diabetes did not develop in any of the controls. Predictive factors for diabetes development were fasting glucose level at diagnosis (high glucose, high risk), preterm delivery, and an oral glucose tolerance test result that showed diabetes 2 months post partum. In a subgroup...

  18. Immediacy Bias in Emotion Perception: Current Emotions Seem More Intense than Previous Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional…

  19. Serratia liquefaciens Infection of a Previously Excluded Popliteal Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coelho

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs are rare in the general population, but they account for nearly 70% of peripheral arterial aneurysms. There are several possible surgical approaches including exclusion of the aneurysm and bypass grafting, or endoaneurysmorrhaphy and interposition of a prosthetic conduit. The outcomes following the first approach are favorable, but persistent blood flow in the aneurysm sac has been documented in up to one third of patients in the early post-operative setting. Complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms include aneurysm enlargement, local compression symptoms, and sac rupture. Notably infection of a previously excluded and bypassed PAA is rare. This is the third reported case of PAA infection after exclusion and bypass grafting and the first due to Serratia liquefaciens. Methods: Relevant medical data were collected from the hospital database. Results: This case report describes a 54 year old male patient, diagnosed with acute limb ischaemia due to a thrombosed PAA, submitted to emergency surgery with exclusion and venous bypass. A below the knee amputation was necessary 3 months later. Patient follow-up was lost until 7 years following surgical repair, when he was diagnosed with aneurysm sac infection with skin fistulisation. He had recently been diagnosed with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis Child–Pugh Class B. The patient was successfully treated by aneurysm resection, soft tissue debridement and systemic antibiotics. Conclusion: PAA infection is a rare complication after exclusion and bypass procedures but should be considered in any patient with evidence of local or systemic infection. When a PAA infection is diagnosed, aneurysmectomy, local debridement, and intravenous antibiotic therapy are recommended. The “gold standard” method of PAA repair remains controversial. PAA excision or endoaneurysmorrhaphy avoids complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms, but is associated with

  20. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  1. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Inducing disbelief in free will alters brain correlates of preconscious motor preparation: the brain minds whether we believe in free will or not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoni, Davide; Kühn, Simone; Sartori, Giuseppe; Brass, Marcel

    2011-05-01

    The feeling of being in control of one's own actions is a strong subjective experience. However, discoveries in psychology and neuroscience challenge the validity of this experience and suggest that free will is just an illusion. This raises a question: What would happen if people started to disbelieve in free will? Previous research has shown that low control beliefs affect performance and motivation. Recently, it has been shown that undermining free-will beliefs influences social behavior. In the study reported here, we investigated whether undermining beliefs in free will affects brain correlates of voluntary motor preparation. Our results showed that the readiness potential was reduced in individuals induced to disbelieve in free will. This effect was evident more than 1 s before participants consciously decided to move, a finding that suggests that the manipulation influenced intentional actions at preconscious stages. Our findings indicate that abstract belief systems might have a much more fundamental effect than previously thought.

  3. Believe you can and you will : The belief in high self-control decreases interest in attractive alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamburg, M.E.; Pronk, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present research, we examined the effects of self-control beliefs on relationship protective behavior. We hypothesized that providing participants with feedback on their level of self-control would help them shield their relationship from attractive alternatives. Study 1 showed that

  4. Health believes and perceived need of mental health care for anxiety and depression – the patient’s perspective explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.A.; Verhaak, P.; Bensing, J.; Veer, K. van der

    Patients' illness representations and beliefs about treatment for depression and anxiety, as well as their perceived needs, are important for treatment. A systematic review was conducted of 71 studies describing the beliefs or perceived needs of patients and nonpatients. Patients give

  5. The Effects of Sex, Structure, and Social Interaction on Preschoolers' Make-Believe in a Naturalistic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Mark

    This study examined the effects of sex, structure, and social interaction on 18 white middle class children, nine boys and nine girls, attending a daycare center. The children were observed over a 6-week period during a 2 1/2-hour free-play time. Results showed that both sexes equally apportion all types of free-play time behavior, show the same…

  6. Pre-Service Teachers Critically Evaluate Scientific Information on the World-Wide Web: What Makes Information Believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iding, Marie; Klemm, E. Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses the need for teachers to critically evaluate the credibility, validity, and cognitive load associated with scientific information on Web sites, in order to effectively teach students to evaluate scientific information on the World Wide Web. A line of prior research investigating high school and university students'…

  7. Believe you can and you will: The belief in high self-control decreases interest in attractive alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamburg, M.E.; Pronk, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we examined the effects of self-control beliefs on relationship protective behavior. We hypothesized that providing participants with feedback on their level of self-control would help them shield their relationship from attractive alternatives. Study 1 showed that

  8. Circuits and pathways of understanding: "I can't believe we're actually figuring out some stuff"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughs-McDonnell, Fiona Jane

    2000-12-01

    Piaget's studies of young children and adolescents are evidence that people construct their own understanding and that action and reflection is at the heart of developing understanding. Yet, most physics teaching is didactic in nature and physics students are rarely free to develop their own understanding of formal curriculum topics. Consequently, interpretive descriptions of how physics students can develop subject matter understanding both in response to their interactions with the objects that make up a subject matter and their active reflection on those interactions are scarce. In this thesis, using a series of classroom vignettes, I reconstruct some of how two groups of high school physics students came to understand the curriculum topic electrical circuits through their exploration of batteries, bulbs, and wires and their active reflections on those explorations. The data sources that inform the classroom vignettes include the transcribed audiotapes of classroom dialogue, student journals and activity sheets, and the fieldnotes that I made during each class session. The study took place in the classroom of Kris Newton, whose teaching of physics is informed by her experiences with teaching-research, a methodology developed by Eleanor Duckworth. Duckworth's experiences with Jean Piaget and Barbel Inhelder in Geneva, Switzerland and her experiences developing curriculum with the Elementary Science Study were both formative for her in developing the notion of teaching-research. The classroom is located in an ethnically diverse urban high school with a student body of approximately 2,000. I conducted the study during the spring of 1997 and 1998. At the time of the study all but two of the students were in their junior year of high school.

  9. The association between previous single first trimester abortion and pregnancy outcome in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiersch, Liran; Ashwal, Eran; Aviram, Amir; Rayman, Shlomi; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv

    2016-01-01

    To determine the association between single previous abortion and pregnancy outcome in nulliparous women. A retrospective cohort study of all nulliparous women who delivered in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital (2009-2014). Pregnancy outcome of women with single previous first trimester abortion (study group) was compared to those of primigravida (control group). Of the 44 371 deliveries during the study period, 14 498 (32.6%) were of nulliparous women, of them 1501 (10.3%) had single previous abortion (abortion was independently associated with induction of labor (OR = 1.31, 95%C.I 1.04-1.63, p = 0.01), cesarean section (OR = 1.38, 95%C.I 1.18-1.60, p abortion no difference in pregnancy outcome was observed between those with previous induced termination of pregnancy and spontaneous abortion, except for increased risk for retained placenta in those with previous spontaneous abortion. Single early previous abortion in nulliparous women was associated with higher rate of induction of labor, cesarean section and retained placenta compared to primigravida women.

  10. A Continuation Study Using Sunitinib Malate For Patients Leaving Treatment On A Previous Sunitinib Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-07

    Metastatic Breast Cancer [F]; Advanced Breast Cancer; Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer; Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Advanced/Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Advanced Gastric Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Pancreatic Islet Cell Carcinoma; Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor

  11. Change You Can Believe In: Changes in Goal Setting During Emerging and Young Adulthood Predict Later Adult Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick L; Jackson, Joshua J; Roberts, Brent W; Lapsley, Daniel K; Brandenberger, Jay W

    2011-03-01

    A widely held assumption is that changes in one's goals and motives for life during emerging and young adulthood have lasting influences on well-being into adulthood. However, this claim has yet to receive rigorous empirical testing. The current study examined the effects of prosocial and occupational goal change during college on adult well-being in a 17-year study of goal setting ( N = 416). Using a latent growth model across three time points, both level and growth in goal setting predicted later well-being. Moreover, goal changes both during college and in young adulthood uniquely predicted adult well-being, controlling for goal levels entering college. These findings suggest that what matters for attaining adult well-being is both how you enter adulthood and how you change in response to it.

  12. Loneliness and Suicidal Risk in Young Adults: Does Believing in a Changeable Future Help Minimize Suicidal Risk Among the Lonely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C; Wan, Liangqiu; Li, Pengzi; Guo, Yuncheng; He, Jiaying; Gu, Yu; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Zhan; Sun, Yingrui; Batterbee, Casey N-H; Chang, Olivia D; Lucas, Abigael G; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2017-07-04

    This study examined loneliness and future orientation as predictors of suicidal risk, namely, depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, in a sample of 228 college students (54 males and 174 females). Results of regression analyses indicated that loneliness was a significant predictor of both indices of suicidal risk. The inclusion of future orientation was found to significantly augment the prediction model of both depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, even after accounting for loneliness. Noteworthy, beyond loneliness and future orientation, the Loneliness × Future Orientation interaction term was found to further augment both prediction models of suicidal risk. Consistent with the notion that future orientation is an important buffer of suicidal risk, among lonely students, those with high future orientation, compared to low future orientation, were found to report significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. Some implications of the present findings for studying both risk and protective factors associated with suicidal risk in young adults are discussed.

  13. Do People Who Believe in God Report More Meaning in Their Lives? The Existential Effects of Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Cranney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    I conduct the first large-N study explicitly exploring the association between belief in God and sense of purpose in life. This relationship, while often discussed informally, has received little empirical attention. Here I use the General Social Survey to investigate how form of and confidence in belief in God is related to sense of purpose in life, as measured by a Likert item level of agreement with the statement “In my opinion, life does not serve any purpose.” Using logistic regression a...

  14. ON THE «PROPFECIES» OF HELLEN WHITE AS MODELS OF LITERARY «VISIONS» AND FUNDAMENTAL BELIEVES OF ADVENTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Yakovlevich Laluev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to analyze the prophecies of Ellen White about the future, as examples of literary vision and the basic tenets of Adventism. In this sense, her two books «Experiences and visions» and «Spiritual Gifts» representing the genre of «literary visions», dating back to V. Leglend and Dante are especially representative. It is here that the doctrinal concepts of contemporary Adventism were formed.The methodological base of the research served as: the historical formation of Religious Studies, Ontopsychology, Culture Studies.The interdisciplinary approach allowed the philosophical and cognitive analysis of prophetic texts of Ellen White to rise to the level of scientific and identify it in a prophetic vision, the samples of literary and artistic creation. Summarizing, it is concluded that a great help in the development of this exclusive material had been influenced by spiritual experiences of Christian mystics: Saint Ephrem, V. Leglenda, I. Floris, Dante J. Boehme, E. Swedenborg, and so on. This is an incomplete number of authors, who can be attributed to the genre of literary visions.

  15. Seeing Is Believing: Evaluating a Point-of-Care Ultrasound Curriculum for 1st-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bret P; Hojsak, Joanne; Dei Rossi, Elizabeth; Karani, Reena; Narula, Jagat

    2017-01-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound has been a novel addition to undergraduate medical education at a few medical schools. The impact is not fully understood, and few rigorous assessments of educational outcomes exist. This study assessed the impact of a point-of-care ultrasound curriculum on image acquisition, interpretation, and student and faculty perceptions of the course. All 142 first-year medical students completed a curriculum on ultrasound physics and instrumentation, cardiac, thoracic, and abdominal imaging. A flipped classroom model of preclass tutorials and tests augmenting live, hands-on scanning sessions was incorporated into the physical examination course. Students and faculty completed surveys on impressions of the curriculum, and all students under-went competency assessments with standardized patients. The curriculum was a mandatory part of the physical examination course and was taught by experienced clinician-sonographers as well as faculty who do not routinely perform sonography in their clinical practice. Students and faculty agreed that the physical examination course was the right time to introduce ultrasound (87% and 80%). Students demonstrated proper use of the ultrasound machine functions (M score = 91.55), and cardiac, thoracic, and abdominal system assessments (M score = 80.35, 79.58, and 71.57, respectively). Students and faculty valued the curriculum, and students demonstrated basic competency in performance and interpretation of ultrasound. Further study is needed to determine how to best incorporate this emerging technology into a robust learning experience for medical students.

  16. 24-hour antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with previous definite stent thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Morten; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Lisette O

    2014-01-01

    : Platelet inhibition declined significantly during the 24-hour dosing interval in aspirin-treated patients with previous definite ST or stable coronary artery disease and in healthy individuals. Increased levels of immature platelets and thrombopoietin were observed in patients with previous definite ST....... through 24 h in patients with previous definite ST. Furthermore, we explored whether increased levels of immature platelets and thrombopoietin are associated with a particularly rapid recovery of platelet function. METHODS: This case-control study included 50 patients with previous definite ST matched...... with 100 patients with stable coronary artery disease and 50 healthy volunteers. All participants were on aspirin 75 mg/day mono antiplatelet therapy. Platelet aggregation was measured 1 and 24 h after aspirin intake using platelet aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyzer). Cyclooxygenase-1 activity, platelet...

  17. What you get is what you believe: eighteen-month-olds demonstrate belief understanding in an unexpected-identity task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttelmann, Frances; Suhrke, Janina; Buttelmann, David

    2015-03-01

    Based on recent findings of implicit studies, researchers have claimed that even infants can understand others' false beliefs. However, it is unclear whether infants are able to understand others' belief about an object's identity when this object can be represented in different ways. In a novel interactive unexpected-identity task derived from the appearance-reality paradigm, 18-month-olds helped an adult to achieve her goal based on the adult's belief about an object's identity. To do so, they needed to understand how this adult represented this object--according to its appearance or its real identity--and to generalize these representations to a category of objects. The results suggest that infants' false-belief understanding is as sophisticated as that of preschool children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. "I wouldn't really believe statistics" - Challenges with influenza vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Neisha; Duckett, Kathryn; Yung, Chee Fu; Thoon, Koh Cheng; Sidharta, Sucitro; Venkatachalam, Indumathi; Chow, Angela; Yoong, Joanne

    2018-04-05

    Influenza vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers (HCWs) is a worldwide problem, but relatively little research has focussed on Asia, including Singapore. Despite widespread access and recommendations from public health authorities, influenza vaccine uptake remains suboptimal among HCWs. Our qualitative study used focus group discussions to identify and explain factors limiting influenza vaccine acceptance among HCWs in Singapore. A total of 73 doctors, nurses, allied health and ancillary staff across three public hospitals were included. Challenges identified include a fear of contracting influenza from vaccination exacerbated by negative anecdotes regarding vaccine safety and efficacy, distrust of published efficacy data, uncertainty regarding relevance of existing data for Singapore, reluctance to introduce chemicals or overmedicate, pain from injection, low risk attributed to influenza and limited awareness of influenza transmission with a preference for alternatives in patient protection. Differences in attitudes were observed across vocational groups. Lack of overt promotion by hospital leadership in some institutions, perceived vaccine hesitancy among doctors, access, and work culture that implicitly encourages working through illness were further barriers. Our findings highlight a combination of misperceptions about influenza vaccination and cognitive biases at the individual level, and challenges at the institutional level limiting uptake. Findings indicate an urgent need to provide targeted education and communication. Rather than providing more data, we recommend a widely-disseminated, locally-compiled synthesis addressing specific concerns of hesitant HCWs. Tailoring interventions to specific vocational groups should be considered. Institutional norms and culture may have a powerful influence in setting default behaviours: more effort is needed in improving influenza vaccine promotion and priority at some institutions, integrating vaccine

  19. Heroin Addicts Reporting Previous Heroin Overdoses Also Report Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradvik, Louise; Frank, Arne; Hulenvik, Per; Medvedeo, Alvaro; Berglund, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Nonfatal heroin overdoses and suicide attempts are both common among heroin addicts, but there is limited knowledge about the association between them. The sample in the present study consisted of 149 regular heroin users in Malmo, Sweden. Out of these 98 had taken an unintentional heroin overdose at some time and 51 had made at least one attempt…

  20. Perceived parental rejection mediates the effects of previous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study found that perceived maternal rejection partially mediated the association between abuse and internalising behaviours in the male cohort, whereas perceived father's rejection partially mediated this association in the female cohort. However, mental illness had no moderating effect on these relationships.