WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously asked questions

  1. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  2. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  3. Frequently Asked Questions about Bunion Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A | Print | Share Frequently Asked Questions About Bunion Surgery Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) and ... best for you. 5. How can I avoid surgery? Sometimes observation of the bunion is all that ...

  4. Corporate Governance Frequently Asked Questions

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2016-01-01

    This guidebook is designed to address common questionson corporate governance that are frequently asked byowners and managers of companies in the Middle Eastand North Africa (MENA) region. It familiarizes readerswith the basic concepts of corporate governance,providing a comprehensive overview of the subject matter,using case studies as practical examples of corporategovernance application...

  5. Asking questions: a management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, J E; Price, M

    1995-05-01

    The occupational health nurse manager does not have all the answers. In using a democratic style of leadership with well qualified professionals, the technique of questioning can be invaluable in clarifying the issue, brainstorming solutions, developing a course of action, and monitoring success. The personal rewards to the occupational health nurse manager will include a reputation for being an effective listener, a problem solver, and a valued member of the company's management team.

  6. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification

  7. Frequently Asked Questions: The Higgs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? How does the Higgs mechanism work? What is the difference in physics between strong evidence and a discovery? Why do physicists speak in terms of "sigmas"? Find out here!   Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? Because it could be the answer to the question: how does Nature decide whether or not to assign mass to particles? All the fundamental particles making up matter – the electron, the quarks, etc. – have masses. Moreover, quantum physics requires that forces are also carried by particles. The W and Z particles that carry the weak force responsible for radioactivity must also have masses, whereas the photon, the carrier of the electromagnetic force, has no mass at all. This is the root of the “Higgs problem”: how to give masses to the fundamental particles and break the symmetry between the massive W and Z and the massless photon? Just assigning masses by hand...

  8. Frequently Asked Questions about Radiation Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Radiation Emergencies Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more information on radiation, go to the Radiation Dictionary . Get Inside: Why should I get inside during ...

  9. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  10. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:May 9, ... you? This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  11. Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials? Finding Help Reprints For More Information Share Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions Download PDF Download ... a week. Text “HOME” to 741741. What Is Suicide? Suicide is when people direct violence at themselves ...

  12. Academic Oversight: Asking Questions, Building Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E. B.

    2011-01-01

    The best way for trustees to fully understand and fulfill their responsibility to ensure that their institution is providing quality education and meeting academic goals is by asking appropriate questions. Collaboration among trustees, faculty members, and administrators is essential to framing questions from a strategic perspective. Just the act…

  13. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  14. Teaching Children with Autism to Ask Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Katie E.; Bickel, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism have impairments in communication that make it difficult for them to acquire the ability to ask appropriate wh- questions. This is a very important skill, and one that clinicians often do not know how to target. Search terms were entered into several databases to locate studies published in peer-reviewed journals. The studies…

  15. Learning How to Ask Research Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative research is a demanding endeavor, and for a group of undergraduate students tasked with identifying their own interdisciplinary research problem, the challenges are even greater. "It was scary--we didn't know what to ask the professors, and we couldn't decide on a research question," says Miran Park, a student at the University of…

  16. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  17. Frequently asked questions in hypoxia research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenger RH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roland H Wenger,1,2 Vartan Kurtcuoglu,1,2 Carsten C Scholz,1,2 Hugo H Marti,3 David Hoogewijs1,2,4 1Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Human Physiology (ZIHP, University of Zurich, 2National Center of Competence in Research “Kidney.CH”, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 4Institute of Physiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany Abstract: “What is the O2 concentration in a normoxic cell culture incubator?” This and other frequently asked questions in hypoxia research will be answered in this review. Our intention is to give a simple introduction to the physics of gases that would be helpful for newcomers to the field of hypoxia research. We will provide background knowledge about questions often asked, but without straightforward answers. What is O2 concentration, and what is O2 partial pressure? What is normoxia, and what is hypoxia? How much O2 is experienced by a cell residing in a culture dish in vitro vs in a tissue in vivo? By the way, the O2 concentration in a normoxic incubator is 18.6%, rather than 20.9% or 20%, as commonly stated in research publications. And this is strictly only valid for incubators at sea level. Keywords: gas laws, hypoxia-inducible factor, Krogh tissue cylinder, oxygen diffusion, partial pressure, tissue oxygen levels

  18. Competence-Based Education and Training– about Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article follows the author's previous piece on practical guidelines for the development of comprehensive competence-based education and training (Mulder, 2012). It is about the questions that have been and are still frequently asked in presentations, workshops and classes about the introduction

  19. Five questions to ask about the soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanin Grubin, Milica

    2013-04-01

    I think that anyone who ever gave a lecture would agree that this feels like being on a stage. One has to educate the audience of course, but also keep attention and be interesting to the listeners. Authority is important but there is a certain vulnerability at all times. There is also a fine line on both sides that should not be crossed. However, the most important thing is that the audience remembers the lecture and certain points the lecturer made for at least some time, and even more that someone gets interested enough to ask for more details. This is often done by giving interesting examples and unusual comparison. Teaching a soils course there are five main questions to be addressed, of which first four are often subordinated to the fifth being the most complex. First question is "Is the soil alive?". The answer is yes, and that is what it differentiates from any type of sediment or rock, and it is very vulnerable to environmental change. The second question is "Where does it come from?" Rocks being a main origin of soils are often neglected in soil science and petrography in general, and weathering, as an important process for soil formation, are not given enough explaining. Petrography teaches us about rock characteristics, structure and texture and mineralogy. Understanding petrography would help in understanding the weathering processes which are crucial for soil formation and this must not be ignored. The third question is "Is it old?" Yes, it is - at least for everybody else except geologists. It is important to understand how slow the soil formation process is. The forth question is "Does it move?" Yes, it can move and the faster it moves downhill, it less likes it. Erosion is a very important problem for soil and must be addressed. And finally, the fifth question is "What are the main characteristics of soils?" This is an opportunity to talk about physical, chemical, biological, microbiological issues. As the most elaborate question it allows the

  20. Frequently Asked Questions about Personal Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kept by your health plan, contact the plan’s customer service department. Ask for an "authorization for the ... and healthcare provider have a confidential relationship. However, access to parents may be permitted in ...

  1. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... treatment? Other questions you want to ask: _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  2. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act frequently asked questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    One stop shop for Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) questions. This frequently asked document will assist with Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) related questions.

  3. Children's Question Asking and Curiosity: A Training Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirout, Jamie; Klahr, David

    2011-01-01

    A primary instructional objective of most early science programs is to foster children's scientific curiosity and question-asking skills (Jirout & Klahr, 2011). However, little is known about the relationship between curiosity, question-asking behavior, and general inquiry skills. While curiosity and question asking are invariably mentioned in…

  4. Smart Questions To Ask Your Insurance Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Abby J.

    1997-01-01

    Provides advice on insurance coverage for child care centers. Suggests that before purchasing insurance you inquire about the agent's qualifications, company's financial stability, and corporate ratings; and obtain written answers to questions about specific coverage issues such as volunteers, legal defense costs, special events, and…

  5. Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim

    1984-01-01

    If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)

  6. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... me? Other questions you want to ask: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  7. Question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira A. Baranova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Children’s questions are an indicator of active cognitive perception of reality. Questions but not answers are relevant in revealing a child’s mental life, consciousness and thinking. The lack of question-asking skills can hinder learning, searching and exploration in children. To determine in 7- and 8-year-old school children the common and variable peculiarities of designing a search process for necessary information concerning an unknown object by volitionally formulated questions, as well as the dynamics of the questioning process throughout a school year. The study was based on an experimental methodology, codenamed Guess what there is in the box, and was conducted in four schools in Cheboksary. The sample comprised 158 primary school first-graders who took part in a confirmatory experiment twice, once in September and once in May. The research showed that 96.3% of the questions asked were search questions. Only 30% of the first-graders initiated their searching activities of their own will without having to resort to the given search algorithm, while 70% did not begin asking questions without outside stimulation. The analysis of the dynamics of children’s question-asking behavior exhibited a tendency to decrease in a number of questions asked over the course of the school year. Primary school children need psychological and pedagogical scaffolding aimed at developing a question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity to achieve a possible age potential in development.

  8. Conditions for exercising shareholders' right to ask questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Vuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Law on Business Organizations from 2011 has significantly improved the regulation of shareholders' right to ask questions in Serbia. In contrast to the previous law from 2004, that has completely transferred regulation to companies which is why there was no guarantee for exercising this right, new law contains detailed norms in this respect. They are written under the dominant influence of German law and are completely harmonized with the Shareholders' Rights Directive. All important issues of shareholders' right to ask questions have been regulated mostly with imperative norms (subject of the right, conditions for exercising this right, debtor of this obligation, court protection, etc.. Corporations have a lot of freedom to adjust exercising this right to their needs, but only by giving more rights to shareholders. Limiting the scope of this right is possible only in certain, precisely defined areas. Although the general impression of the new regulation is very positive, there are certain aspects which can be criticized. Some of them can be cured by adequate judicial interpretation, while others cannot be cured without changes to the law. In the area of conditions for exercising this right, the most important deficiency is the fact that the law has not determined when the right to ask questions can be exercised, and that stands in obvious disharmony with the adopted conception to regulate all important aspects of this right. Contrary to conditions, which basically have been properly formulated, other aspects of legislation regarding this shareholders' right contain more profound obscurities that go beyond the scope of this paper.

  9. Asking a Great Question: A Librarian Teaches Questioning Skills to First-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    In a single one-hour session, first-year medical students were taught a framework for differentiating between lower-order questions that lead to knowledge of facts and higher-order questions that lead to integration of concepts and deeper learning, thereby preparing them for problem-based learning (PBL). Students generated lists of questions in response to an assertion prompt and categorized them according to Bloom's Taxonomy. These data were analyzed in addition to data from the course exam, which asked them to formulate a higher-level question in response to a prompt. Categorizing questions according to Bloom's Taxonomy was a more difficult task for students than was formulating higher-order questions. Students reported that the skills that they learned were used in subsequent PBL sessions to formulate higher-order learning objectives that integrated new and previously-learned concepts.

  10. Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH What causes pulmonary hypertension in children? I’ve ... of what I read is about adults with PH. What are the primary differences between PH in ...

  11. Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pan American Health Organization Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S. Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... I’ve been exposed to someone who has measles. What should I do? A: Immediately call your ...

  12. Substance Abuse Treatment for Children and Adolescents: Questions to Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families - Vietnamese Substance Abuse Treatment For Children And Adolescents: Questions To Ask No. 41; Reviewed July 2013 Many children and adolescents use alcohol and other drugs. Some develop serious ...

  13. Men ask more questions than women at a scientific conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsley, Amy; Sutherland, William J; Johnston, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequity in science and academia, especially in senior positions, is a recognised problem. The reasons are poorly understood, but include the persistence of historical gender ratios, discrimination and other factors, including gender-based behavioural differences. We studied participation in a professional context by observing question-asking behaviour at a large international conference with a clear equality code of conduct that prohibited any form of discrimination. Accounting for audience gender ratio, male attendees asked 1.8 questions for each question asked by a female attendee. Amongst only younger researchers, male attendees also asked 1.8 questions per female question, suggesting the pattern cannot be attributed to the temporary problem of demographic inertia. We link our findings to the 'chilly' climate for women in STEM, including wider experiences of discrimination likely encountered by women throughout their education and careers. We call for a broader and coordinated approach to understanding and addressing the barriers to women and other under-represented groups. We encourage the scientific community to recognise the context in which these gender differences occur, and evaluate and develop methods to support full participation from all attendees.

  14. Men ask more questions than women at a scientific conference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hinsley

    Full Text Available Gender inequity in science and academia, especially in senior positions, is a recognised problem. The reasons are poorly understood, but include the persistence of historical gender ratios, discrimination and other factors, including gender-based behavioural differences. We studied participation in a professional context by observing question-asking behaviour at a large international conference with a clear equality code of conduct that prohibited any form of discrimination. Accounting for audience gender ratio, male attendees asked 1.8 questions for each question asked by a female attendee. Amongst only younger researchers, male attendees also asked 1.8 questions per female question, suggesting the pattern cannot be attributed to the temporary problem of demographic inertia. We link our findings to the 'chilly' climate for women in STEM, including wider experiences of discrimination likely encountered by women throughout their education and careers. We call for a broader and coordinated approach to understanding and addressing the barriers to women and other under-represented groups. We encourage the scientific community to recognise the context in which these gender differences occur, and evaluate and develop methods to support full participation from all attendees.

  15. The science and art of asking questions in cognitive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ian Andrew; Morse, Rachel; Howarth, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Questions underpin all aspects of therapeutic assessment and intervention and are a vital component of the clinical process. Over recent years frameworks have started to be applied to obtain a greater understanding of questioning formats and processes. This paper examines the use of questions in cognitive therapy (CT). An overview of the main types of questions identified in the literature is presented. In addition, we examine a range of client and therapist characteristics that may impact on the questioning process. Asking questions in therapy is a complex, yet under-taught, skill. This paper provides a set of frameworks to assist in identifying helpful and unhelpful questioning skills. Thus the article has implications for further training and research.

  16. Investing Wisely in Information Technology: Asking the Right Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn

    1993-01-01

    College administrators are offered a series of questions to ask in evaluating the appropriateness of information technology for their campuses. Issues addressed include defining institutional goals and the role of information technology in them, determining the most effective organization of information resources and technology, and allocation of…

  17. Asking the Right Questions: A Framework for Assessing Counterterrorism Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    hope to em - power policy makers to ask the right questions about countering terrorism and practitioners to answer them. Notes 1. The history of...10576100590950156. 8. Ibid., 308. 9. Michele L. Malvesti, “ Bombing bin Laden: Assessing the Effectiveness of Air Strikes as a Counter-Terrorism Strategy

  18. Men ask more questions than women at a scientific conference

    OpenAIRE

    Hinsley, Amy; Sutherland, William J.; Johnston, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequity in science and academia, especially in senior positions, is a recognised problem. The reasons are poorly understood, but include the persistence of historical gender ratios, discrimination and other factors, including gender-based behavioural differences. We studied participation in a professional context by observing question-asking behaviour at a large international conference with a clear equality code of conduct that prohibited any form of discrimination. Accounting for au...

  19. I Wish I'd Asked That: The Culture of Asking Questions in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleisis, Audra

    2009-01-01

    I will present the results from a qualitative study of the values and norms for thinking about science in academic astronomy, as seen through astronomers’ beliefs about departmental speech events. In-depth interviews were carried out with 12 graduate students and 9 faculty members from a prominent astronomy department at a large, public university. Interviewees were asked about a variety of speaking events in their department. The speaking events chosen were those at which: (1) graduate students could be presenters and/or ask questions, and (2) presenters spoke about science research to an audience of academic peers. This included Coffee Hour, Journal Club, research seminars, Colloquium, and dissertation defense talks. These events are part of the socialization of students into "acting like an astronomer.” Socialization is a process by which novices learn the rules (can and can't do), norms (should and shouldn't do), and values of a culture. The values of astronomy culture are encoded within the rules for participation in these events and the assumptions that audience members make about speakers. When these values contradict each other speakers face the dilemma of choosing between conflicting behaviors. One of the central dilemmas that arose in this study was that of whether or not to ask a question during a talk. Both graduate students and faculty members wanted students to speak up more often. However, students had conflicting worries - of voicing a question and it being a "stupid question” vs. having remained silent if it turned out to have been a "good question.” I will argue that this anxiety is a product of academic culture and not an indicator of individual failure, and discuss a number of factors that influence this situation, such as the perceived goals of each event, and astronomers’ beliefs about intelligence and learning.

  20. Frequently Asked Questions in Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil Yoo; Park, Gee Yong

    2010-05-01

    The FAQs(Frequently Asked Questions) in the Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment(FPSA) are the issues occurred during performing the engineering evaluation based on NFPA-805. In this report, the background and resolutions are reviewed and described for 17 FAQs related to FPSA among 57 FAQs. The current FAQs related to FPSA are the issues concerning to NUREG/CR-6850, and are almost resolved but for the some FAQ, the current resolutions would be changed depending on the results of the future or on-going research. Among FAQs related to FPSA, best estimate approaches are suggested concerning to the conservative method of NUREG/CR-6850. If these best estimate solutions are used in the FPSA of nuclear power plants, realistic evaluation results of fire risk would be obtained

  1. 'Any questions?'--Clinicians' usage of invitations to ask questions (IAQs) in outpatient plastic surgery consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, Katherine; Patrick, Peter L

    2014-12-01

    To explore use of 'Invitations to Ask Questions' (IAQs) by plastic surgeons in outpatient consultations, and consider how type of IAQ impacts on patients' responses to, and recollection of, IAQs. Descriptive study: 63 patients were audio recorded in consultation with 5 plastic surgeons, and completed a brief questionnaire immediately after the consultation. Consultation transcripts were analyzed using inductive qualitative methods of Discourse Analysis and compared with questionnaire findings. A taxonomy of IAQs was developed, including three types of IAQ (Overt, Covert, and Borderline). Overt IAQs were rarely identified, and almost all IAQs occurred in the closing stages of the consultation. However, when an overt IAQ was used, patients always recollected being asked if they had any questions after the consultation. Patients are rarely explicitly offered the opportunity to ask questions. When this does occur, it is often in the closing stages of the consultation. Clinicians should openly encourage patients to ask questions frequently throughout the consultation, and be mindful that subtle differences in construction of these utterances may impact upon interpretation. Clear communication, of message and intention, is essential in clinical encounters to minimize misunderstanding, misinterpretation, or missed opportunities for patients to raise concerns. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Competence-Based Education and Training--About Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article follows the author's previous piece on practical guidelines for the development of comprehensive competence-based education and training (Mulder, 2012). It is about the questions that have been and are still frequently asked in presentations, workshops and classes about the introduction of competence-based education. Here, the author…

  3. Eight questions to ask before writing an article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Tim

    2017-06-02

    Health professionals often have to write articles for publication in academic journals. Many of them find this difficult and suffer from one or more variations of writer's block. A good way of avoiding these setbacks is to prepare thoroughly for the writing project, and this article proposes eight different questions writers can ask before they start. The first is whether they are in a good position to complete the task, and if not whether they should try to negotiate their way out of the project. If they commit to going ahead, writers should work out where they will find the necessary time, and set deadlines for ensuring that they do. They should also decide on their co-authors, because getting them involved early should make the rewriting more straightforward as well as reducing the danger of ghost authors emerging once the work has been done. Writers should put their research away and reflect on the most appropriate message - a simple sentence that sums up the main implication of the paper. Armed with this message, they can identify a suitable journal for publication - and thereafter can use articles in this journal to guide them on matters of substance and style. If the article is published in that target journal authors can consider that they have written a successful paper.

  4. The Role Of Gender In Asking Questions At Cool Stars 18 And 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Douglas, Stephanie; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Booth, Rachel S.; Davenport, James R. A.; Mace, Gregory N.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the gender balance of the 18th and 19th meetings of the Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stellar Systems and the Sun (CS18 and CS19). The percent of female attendees at both meetings (31% at CS18 and 37% at CS19) was higher than the percent of women in the American Astronomical Society (25%) and the International Astronomical Union (18%). The representation of women in Cool Stars as SOC members, invited speakers, and contributed speakers was similar to or exceeded the percent of women attending the meetings. We requested that conference attendees assist in a project to collect data on the gender of astronomers asking questions after talks. Using this data, we found that men were over-represented (and women were under-represented) in the question sessions after each talk. Men asked 79% of the questions at CS18 and 75% of the questions at CS19, but were 69% and 63% of the attendees respectively. Contrary to findings from previous conferences, we did not find that the gender balance of questions was strongly affected by the session chair gender, the speaker gender, or the length of the question period. We also found that female and male speakers were asked a comparable number of questions after each talk. The contrast of these results from previous incarnations of the gender questions survey indicate that more data would be useful in understanding the factors that contribute to the gender balance of question askers. We include a preliminary set of recommendations based on this and other work on related topics, but also advocate for additional research on the demographics of conference participants. Additional data on the intersection of gender with race, seniority, sexual orientation, ability and other marginalized identities is necessary to fully address the role of gender in asking questions at conferences.

  5. asking questions for higher order thinking in visual literacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous factors such as socio-economic back- ground of .... questions should comprise 40% low-order questions (Knowledge), 40% middle-order questions ... The data obtained from the class participants comprise details of a two-step tea-.

  6. Toward Question-Asking Machines: The Logic of Questions and the Inquiry Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth,Kevin H.

    2005-01-01

    For over a century, the study of logic has focused on the algebra of logical statements. This work, first performed by George Boole, has led to the development of modern computers, and was shown by Richard T. Cox to be the foundation of Bayesian inference. Meanwhile the logic of questions has been much neglected. For our computing machines to be truly intelligent, they need to be able to ask relevant questions. In this paper I will show how the Boolean lattice of logical statements gives rise to the free distributive lattice of questions thus defining their algebra. Furthermore, there exists a quantity analogous to probability, called relevance, which quantifies the degree to which one question answers another. I will show that relevance is not only a natural generalization of information theory, but also forms its foundation.

  7. Radiography and scanner: let us ask the right questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    By answering simple questions, this document proposes a brief overview of radiographic and scanner-based examinations. It recalls that these both techniques use X rays, the cumulative dose of which could slightly increase a risk of cancer on a long term. It outlines that the benefits of these examinations are much more important that the related risks. It indicates the received dose (compared to a daily natural irradiation) for different kinds of examination and for different parts of the human body. It outlines the sensitivity of children to X rays, gives some recommendations regarding these examinations (they are not automatic; the doctor must explain why he chooses them, previous examinations and photos must be kept and brought with; the received dose must be specified in the examination report)

  8. asking questions for higher order thinking in visual literacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinking skills in the English visual literacy (VL) learning classroom. .... out that the use of assessment in the classroom as a tool to promote greater learner ..... tions on technical knowledge and critical language awareness were not asked.

  9. Understanding, Treating, and Preventing STDs / Questions to Ask your Health Care Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing STDs / Questions to Ask your Health Care Professional Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... sexual partner Questions to Ask Your Health Care Professional How can I prevent getting an STD? If ...

  10. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... on decibel information. ) Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional What can I do to protect my hearing ...

  11. The kinds of questions asked by novice teachers in learning mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, L.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Usodo, B.

    2018-05-01

    This study describes the kinds of questions asked by novice teachers during mathematics learning process in senior high school. This study used descriptive analysis. The subjects of this study were two novice teachers who teach mathematics in 10th grade. The result showed that the frequently asked questions by novice teachers based on the objective were compliance questions, rethorical questions and sometimes prompting questions and probing questions. The frequently questions asked by novice teacher based on the cognitive process dimension of Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy were questions of remembering, questions of understanding, questions of applying, questions of analyzing and questions of evaluating. The novice teachers asked the routine questions which had same thinking level. The question with the highest level of thinking did not asked by the novice teachers.

  12. The Importance of Asking Questions – in Different Ways! Most ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    student tries to consult as many question banks from as many ... papers. In addition to standard questions, I usually have a question in which I produce a drawing (relevant to ... to pass on to all the teachers is that they should encourage their.

  13. Asking the Right Questions: Teaching about Islam and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafar, Afshan

    2017-01-01

    This article describes an exercise designed to introduce the topic of Islam and Muslims in a Sociology of Globalization course. The activity asks students to complete a sentence regarding Muslim women. Rather than provide any definitive answers regarding Islam or Muslims, the purpose of the exercise is for students to see the reductive nature of…

  14. Mergers and acquisitions. Frequently asked questions and answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S M; Smeltzer, C H; Thomas, C

    2000-03-01

    This article is structured in a question/answer format based on interviews with Dr. Carolyn Hope Smeltzer and Salima Manji Lin of PricewaterhouseCoopers, Chicago, and Chuck Thomas of Hinshaw & Culbertson, Rockford. The questions come from CEO's, healthcare executives, and nurse executives at hospitals that are contemplating mergers or that have both succeeded and failed to merge their institutions. The experts share their knowledge.

  15. Question Asking in the Science Classroom: Teacher Attitudes and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, Haim; Dor-Ziderman, Yair; Yefroimsky, Yana

    2014-02-01

    Despite the wide agreement among educators that classroom learning and teaching processes can gain much from student and teacher questions, their potential is not fully utilized. Adopting the view that reporting both teachers' (of varying age groups) views and actual classroom practices is necessary for obtaining a more complete view of the phenomena at hand, the present study closely examines both cognitive and affective domains of: (a) teachers' views (via interviews) concerning: (1) importance and roles of teacher and student questions, (2) teacher responses, and (3) planning and teacher training; and (b) teachers' actual practices (via classroom observations) concerning: (1) number and (2) level of teacher and student questions, as well as (3) teachers' responses to questions. The data were collected from 3 elementary, 3 middle, and 3 high school science teachers and their respective classroom students. The findings lay out a wide view of classroom questioning and teachers' responses, and relate what actually occurs in classes to teachers' stated views. Some of the study's main conclusions are that a gap exists between how science researchers and teachers view the role of teacher questions: the former highlight the cognitive domain, while the latter emphasize the affective domain.

  16. 11 critical questions to ask when buying a physician practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, William F

    2012-07-01

    Answering probing questions in advance of a practice purchase can help hospital and health system leaders make informed decisions. The questions are intended to stimulate careful consideration before entering into a practice acquisition; no single piece of information or answer should be considered definitive in the final decision-making process. Success depends on having a clear game plan and spending time ensuring that all players-board, management, physician leaders, and the physicians who will be employees--understand and support the plan.

  17. Creating robust vocabulary frequently asked questions and extended examples

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Isabel L

    2008-01-01

    Bringing Words to Life has enlivened the classrooms of hundreds of thousands of teachers. Responding to readers' success stories, practical questions, and requests for extended examples, this ideal volume builds on the groundbreaking work of Bringing Words to Life. The authors present additional tools, tips, and detailed explanations of such questions as which words to teach, when and how to teach them, and how to adapt instruction for English language learners. They provide specific instructional sequences, including assessments, for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12, as well as interactive less

  18. Question Asking in the Science Classroom: Teacher Attitudes and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, Haim; Dor-Ziderman, Yair; Yefroimsky, Yana

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide agreement among educators that classroom learning and teaching processes can gain much from student and teacher questions, their potential is not fully utilized. Adopting the view that reporting both teachers' (of varying age groups) views and actual classroom practices is necessary for obtaining a more complete view of the…

  19. FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions regarding the IDRC Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Questions. 1. If I am selected for a Research Award, do I need a work permit to ... Yes, you are responsible for obtaining a valid work permit and proper visa prior to ... is the deadline for awards starting in January of the following calendar year.

  20. Ask Marilyn in the Mathematics Classroom: Probability Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1986, Marilyn Vos Savant, who is listed in the "Guinness Book of World Records Hall of Fame" for the highest IQ, has had a weekly column that is published in "Parade Magazine." In this column, she answers readers' questions on a wide variety of subjects including mathematics and particularly probability. Many of the mathematically oriented…

  1. Questions Asked by Primary Student Teachers about Observations of a Science Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtee, Maija; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Suomela, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Teacher questioning has a central role in guiding pupils to learn to make scientific observations and inferences. We asked 110 primary student teachers to write down what kind of questions they would ask their pupils about a demonstration. Almost half of the student teachers posed questions that were either inappropriate or presupposed that the…

  2. Questions asked concerning energy savings in lighting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernet, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the question why information on the power consumption of lighting fixtures is not often to be found in articles in lifestyle magazines or in the displays of designer-boutiques. The efficiency of various types of lighting is discussed. In particular, the differences between traditional incandescent bulbs and energy-saving lighting systems are examined from the aesthetical, colour-reproduction and energy-consumption points of view. Further information presented includes details on colour-reproduction indexes and colour temperature. The lighting needs of various types of room are looked at and the influence of the physical form of the lighting fixtures on purchasing decisions is examined

  3. Nutritional assessment in vegetarians and vegans: questions clinicians should ask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Gregory A

    2012-12-01

    Not all who adhere to vegetarian, vegan or other special diets have nutritionally sound eating habits. The clinical consequences of an insufficiently mindful vegetarian or vegan diet include many common symptoms such as anxiety, brain fog, depression, fatigue, insomnia, neuropathies and other neurologic dysfunction. Patients with such symptoms who report having a vegetarian or vegan diet, or a diet that severely restricts meat consumption, require a slightly expanded differential diagnosis. The challenge is to identify which patients require closer attention. This article lists questions to use to quickly assess for potential dietary drivers of clinical symptoms. In many cases, simple nutritional interventions, through diet and/or supplementation, can resolve or minimize problematic symptoms.

  4. Marketing foods to children: are we asking the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene

    2012-06-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic has prompted a range of regulatory initiatives that seek to reduce the impact of food marketing on children. Policy recommendations by government and public health organizations have suggested regulating the promotion of high-sugar, -fat, and/or -salt foods to children, while the food industry has created voluntary nutrition guidelines to channel child-targeted marketing toward only "better-for-you" products. This article argues that the overarching focus on the nutrient profile of foods (nutritionism) is wrong-headed: The slippage in terms from "better-for-you" foods to "healthy dietary choices" is problematic and also makes it difficult for children to identify the healthy choice. Nutritionism further works to sidestep important questions pertaining to the ethics of food marketing, not to mention the way that marketing foods as fun and entertainment works to encourage overeating in children.

  5. Asking Bigger Questions: An Invitation to Further Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bloch-Schulman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the editors and contributors to this special section on SoTL in the Arts and Humanities argue that given the current climate and context, debates within SoTL about appropriate methodology both lead scholars from their disciplines to reject SoTL and also, more importantly, distract us from more significant questions and challenges. If, instead, SoTL would embrace not only its diversity but also its political potential, then we, as a scholarly community, would be in a position to do more than merely improve students’ learning in our own classrooms. We could help to transform higher education. To achieve that, we need a broader conversation and a wider range of studies. We also need to be mindful of and engaged with the political, economic, and ideological forces that are shaping our institutions, our work, and our students’ expectations.

  6. Workplace safety: Let’s ask the right questions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Since 2003, the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization have been organising an annual event on 28 April called “World Day for Safety and Health at Work.” This year, CERN is taking part for the first time with campaigns organised by the Safety Unit of the BE Department and by the HSE Unit.   The HSE Unit and the Safety Unit of the BE Department invite you to find out about everyday health and safety questions by visiting the stands they will be setting up at the entrances to the different restaurants at lunchtime on Thursday, 28 April. "This will be a chance to think about safety not just in the workplace but also at home and in the context of leisure activities,” explains Charles-Edouard Sala, who came up with the idea for CERN's participation in the event. “Safety is, first and foremost, a matter of personal awareness of and sensitivity to risks. That is why we in the Safety Unit had the idea for a campaign with the mo...

  7. Lung Cancer, Questions to Ask Your Health Professional | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Questions to Ask Your Health Professional Past Issues / ... answer questions about cancer at 1-800-4-CANCER. The NCI Lung Cancer Home Page provides up-to-date information ...

  8. Questions Children Ask: Helping Children Adjust When a Parent Has Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Questions Children Ask: Helping Children Adjust When a Parent Has Kidney Failure Print ... future plans. If a parent develops kidney failure, children have questions too. Some children are outspoken and ...

  9. How Are Questions That Students Ask in High Level Mathematics Classes Linked to General Giftedness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Roza; Koichu, Boris; Berman, Avi; Dinur, Sariga

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a part of a larger study, in which we asked "How are learning and teaching of mathematics at high level linked to students' general giftedness?" We consider asking questions, especially student-generated questions, as indicators of quality of instructional interactions. In the part of the study presented in this…

  10. Ask Me a Question: How Teachers Use Inquiry in a Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Teacher use questioning techniques to evaluate students' learning, check class work and homework, review and summarize lessons, and motivate students to pay attention, learn, develop thinking skills, and investigate independently. Teachers often overestimate the value of such questions. Asking thought-provoking questions and waiting for answers…

  11. Las Preguntas Que Hacen los Padres sobre la Escuela (Questions Parents Ask about School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

    This guide presents questions that parents frequently ask about their children's school along with answers to those questions. The questions and answers were prepared based on the results of studies conducted by the Partnership for Family Involvement in Education, the U.S. Department of Education, the GTE Foundation, and by the National Center for…

  12. If You or Someone You Love is Very Ill...Ask Tough Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you or someone you love is very ill... ask tough questions* Ask Your Doctor... 1 Will you talk openly and candidly with me and my family ... make decisions about my care? 7 Will you still be available to me even when I’m ...

  13. Why does asking questions change health behaviours? The mediating role of attitude accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2013-01-01

    Objective The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that measuring behavioural intentions increases performance of the relevant behaviour. This effect has been used to change health behaviours. The present research asks why the QBE occurs and evaluates one possible mediator – attitude accessibility. Design University staff and students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to an intention measurement condition where they reported their intentions to eat healthy foods, or to one of two control conditions. Main outcome measures Participants completed a response latency measure of attitude accessibility, before healthy eating behaviour was assessed unobtrusively using an objective measure of snacking. Results Intention measurement participants exhibited more accessible attitudes towards healthy foods, and were more likely to choose a healthy snack, relative to control participants. Furthermore, attitude accessibility mediated the relationship between intention measurement and behaviour. Conclusion This research demonstrates that increased attitude accessibility may explain the QBE, extending the findings of previous research to the domain of health behaviour. PMID:24245778

  14. Pragmatic Failure and Referential Ambiguity when Attorneys Ask Child Witnesses "Do You Know/Remember" Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Angela D; Stolzenberg, Stacia N; Lyon, Thomas D

    2017-05-01

    "Do you know" and "Do you remember" (DYK/R) questions explicitly ask whether one knows or remembers some information while implicitly asking for that information. This study examined how 104 4- to 9-year-old children testifying in child sexual abuse cases responded to DYK/R wh- and yes/no questions. When asked DYK/R questions containing an implicit wh- question requesting information, children often provided unelaborated "Yes" responses. Attorneys' follow-up questions suggested that children usually misunderstood the pragmatics of the questions. When DYK/R questions contained an implicit yes/no question, unelaborated "Yes" or "No" responses could be responding to the explicit or the implicit questions resulting in referentially ambiguous responses. Children often provided referentially ambiguous responses and attorneys usually failed to disambiguate children's answers. Although pragmatic failure following DYK/R wh- questions decreased with age, the likelihood of referential ambiguity following DYK/R yes/no questions did not. The results highlight the risks of serious miscommunications caused by pragmatic misunderstanding and referential ambiguity when children testify.

  15. In-Service Teacher Education: Asking Questions for Higher Order Thinking in Visual Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Visvaganthie

    2013-01-01

    The kinds of questions teachers ask may thwart or promote learner high-order thinking; teachers themselves must have expertise in questioning skills to promote higher order cognition among learners. Drawing on experiential knowledge of assessment, and as an English-teaching professional development programme (PDP) facilitator, I demonstrate that…

  16. Questions Often Asked about Special Education Services = Preguntas sobre los servicios de educacion especial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This guide, available in both English and Spanish, answers questions often asked by parents about special education services. Questions and answers address the following topics: where to begin if a parent believes a child needs special education services, services available to very young children, the evaluation process, the Individualized…

  17. The effect of different levels of constructive teaching practices on teacher question asking behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Ibrahim

    The purposes of the study were: (1) to examine the effectiveness of the Iowa Chautauqua Professional Development Program (ICPDP) in moving elementary science teachers toward the use of more constructive teaching practices and (2) to investigate the effectiveness of different levels of teaching practices, especially in terms of a sample of teachers achieving "expert" state at the end of program compared with some attaining only with "competent" level. The variables considered were their perceptions of their own classroom practices, stated philosophy of teaching and learning, and their actual classroom practices and question asking behaviors observed via videotape recording. Structured questionnaires, focus group interviews, teacher reflections, and examination of lesson modules were used to collect data from thirty-three K-5 in-service teachers who were involved in a one-year ICPDP. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of data revealed that: (1) Teacher perceptions regarding their teaching and learning, and their actual teaching practices in classroom in terms of constructivist approaches were significantly changed after participation in the ICPDP. (2) Teacher perceptions of their classroom practices and stated philosophies of teaching and learning have a great affect on their actual practices that can be observed. (3) Teacher stated philosophies of teaching and learning significantly influence the quantity and quality of their use of questions in their classrooms. (4) The "expert" teachers accept students' alternative answers and deliberately ask high cognitive level questions that enable students to think critically and to guide them based on what the students are thinking. Alternatively, the "competent" teachers do not follow student responses and used questions which do not help students to understand their current level of understanding nor encourage students to reflect on their own thinking. (5) The role of "expert" teacher is more geared toward challenging

  18. Experimental evaluation of ontology-based HIV/AIDS frequently asked question retrieval system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, Yirsaw; Moeng, Barbara; Mosweunyane, Gontlafetse

    2018-05-01

    This study presents the results of experimental evaluations of an ontology-based frequently asked question retrieval system in the domain of HIV and AIDS. The main purpose of the system is to provide answers to questions on HIV/AIDS using ontology. To evaluate the effectiveness of the frequently asked question retrieval system, we conducted two experiments. The first experiment focused on the evaluation of the quality of the ontology we developed using the OQuaRE evaluation framework which is based on software quality metrics and metrics designed for ontology quality evaluation. The second experiment focused on evaluating the effectiveness of the ontology in retrieving relevant answers. For this we used an open-source information retrieval platform, Terrier, with retrieval models BM25 and PL2. For the measurement of performance, we used the measures mean average precision, mean reciprocal rank, and precision at 5. The results suggest that frequently asked question retrieval with ontology is more effective than frequently asked question retrieval without ontology in the domain of HIV/AIDS.

  19. Teaching individuals with autism spectrum disorder to ask questions: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raulston, T.; Carnett, A.; Lang, R.B.; Tostanoski, A.; Lee, A.; Machalicek, W.A.; Sigafoos, J.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Didden, H.C.M.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    This review involved a systematic search and analysis of studies aimed at teaching individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to ask questions (i.e., teaching mands for information). A systematic search of databases, reference lists, and journals identified 21 studies that met predetermined

  20. What questions do board members in public service organizations ask about executive compensation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bart

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the governance questions that board members in public service organizations ask as they go about fulfilling their responsibilities for the oversight of executive compensation. The research uses 24 of the questions – as proposed by the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants - that directors should ask about executive compensation and investigates both their usage and perceived importance by board members. The study is based on a usable sample of 47 board members from public service organizations who were attending a Canadian director training program. The research finds that, insofar as public service organizations are concerned, not all of the recommended executive compensation governance questions were asked with the same frequency nor were they considered equally important. Additionally, the relationship between a question’s usage frequency and its perceived importance was not perfect. However, there appears to be a significantly positive relationship among the number of executive compensation governance questions asked and selected elements of a board’s governance structure.

  1. 75 FR 59322 - Notice of Availability of Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America & FRA's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Asked Questions can be found on FRA's Web site at http://www.fra.dot.gov/Pages/11.shtml . DATES: Written... electronic site at http://www.regulations.gov . Commenters should follow the instructions below for mailed and hand-delivered comments. (1) Web Site: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for...

  2. Developing Independence in a Capstone Course: Helping Students Ask and Answer Their Own Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Kristin A.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a mathematics capstone course designed to help students grow in mathematical independence. We describe how the course is structured to support this goal and the major assignments: a course wiki, a group expository project, and an individual problem to solve and extend. Students learn to ask and answer their own questions, helping them…

  3. Interventions before consultations to help patients address their information needs by encouraging question asking: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnersley, Paul; Edwards, Adrian; Hood, Kerry; Ryan, Rebecca; Prout, Hayley; Cadbury, Naomi; MacBeth, Fergus; Butow, Phyllis; Butler, Christopher

    2008-07-16

    To assess the effects on patients, clinicians, and the healthcare system of interventions before consultations to help patients or their representatives gather information in consultations by question asking. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Electronic literature searches of seven databases and hand searching of one journal and bibliographies of relevant articles. Review methods Inclusion criteria included randomised controlled trials. Primary outcomes were question asking; patients' anxiety, knowledge, and satisfaction; and length of consultation. 33 randomised trials of variable quality involving 8244 patients were identified. A few studies showed positive effects. Meta-analyses showed small and statistically significantly increases in question asking (standardised mean difference 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 0.36) and patients' satisfaction (0.09, 0.03 to 0.16). Non-statistically significant changes occurred in patients' anxiety before consultations (weighted mean difference -1.56, -7.10 to 3.97), patients' anxiety after consultations (standardised mean difference -0.08, -0.22 to 0.06), patients' knowledge (-0.34, -0.94 to 0.25), and length of consultation (0.10, -0.05 to 0.25). Interventions comprising written materials had similar effects on question asking, consultation length, and patients' satisfaction as those comprising the coaching of patients. Interventions with additional training of clinicians had little further effect than those targeted at patients alone for patients' satisfaction and consultation length. Interventions for patients before consultations produce small benefits for patients. This may be because patients and clinicians have established behaviours in consultations that are difficult to change. Alternatively small increases in question asking may not be sufficient to make notable changes to other outcomes.

  4. Commonly asked questions by critically ill patients relatives in Arabic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayseer Zaytoun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Relatives often lack important information about intensive care unit patients. Research on ways to improve family satisfaction in the ICU has become a crucial point in ICU quality improvement research. Objective: The aim of this study is to develop and analyze a list of commonly asked questions from relatives of patients in the intensive care unit in Arabic countries. This list might help families to determine which questions they want to ask and help them in decision-making process in emergency situations of their critically ill relatives. Methods: This study was a prospective double center study. It took place in the ICUs of two hospitals in Arabic countries: Egypt and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Alexandria University Main Hospital in Egypt and the ICU of King Fahad specialist Hospital in Dammam in Saudi Arabia. Data collection was done by reporting of Questions asked by the relatives of ICU patients during daily interview. The list of questions generated was checked to identify questions that could be eliminated. The remaining questions were categorized into 9 different groups: diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, comfort, patient interaction, family, mortality, post-ICU management and other questions. WE ranked the questions in the preliminary list through ICU staff, patients families and the patient themselves. Results: 115 Health care professional (34 physicians and 81 nurses participated in the data collection, the questions recorded were 2240 questions. It was found that about 1750 questions (78.12% were duplicated or not clear. The remaining 490 questions were classified into different categories. The same 115 Health care professional (34 physicians and 81 nurses who shared in the collection of data also shared in the ranking of the questions. 128 first degree relatives shared in the evaluation of the relevance of questions as well as 62 patients after they have been cured and before their discharge from ICU.A list was created

  5. Gender differences in questions asked in an online preoperative patient education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Maria; Shell, Jasmine E; Thomas, Colleen S; Ortiguera, Cedric J; O'Connor, Mary I

    2012-12-01

    Although osteoarthritis more commonly affects women than men, women are 3 times less likely to undergo hip or knee replacement surgery compared with men. Disparity in the appropriate utilization of surgery between men and women is a complex subject that must take into account the willingness of a patient to proceed with the operation. Adequately addressing patient concerns before surgery may influence such willingness. We examined if a gender difference can be identified in the frequency and types of questions submitted by patients scheduled for total hip or total knee arthroplasty. Patients completed an online interactive preoperative educational program and a database was created containing deidentified information on surgical procedure, sex, year of birth, and any questions that were submitted. Data were also available regarding the total number of patients issued the program, the number of patients who started the program, and the number of patients who completed the program. The results were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test. P values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Among the 2770 women and 1708 men included in the study, 935 (34%) and 462 (27%) asked at least 1 question, respectively. Compared with men, women asked a significantly greater number of questions overall (P < 0.001). Women also asked a significantly greater number of questions in the categories Your Condition (P = 0.031), Your Procedure (P < 0.001), and Risks and Benefits (P < 0.001). Gender differences in concerns and physicians' ability to adequately address these concerns may contribute to disparity in use of hip and knee replacement surgery between men and women. Effective preoperative counseling for women may require additional resources to address their higher level of questions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Trump Administrations March 2017 Defense Budget Proposals: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    The Trump Administration’s March 2017 Defense Budget Proposals: Frequently Asked Questions Pat Towell Specialist in U.S. Defense Policy and...Budget Lynn M. Williams Analyst in U.S. Defense Budget Policy April 3, 2017 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R44806 The Trump ...8 The Trump Administration’s March 2017 Defense Budget Proposals: FAQs Congressional Research Service 1 Introduction On

  7. 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    outstanding research that has had a clear impact on improving policy decisions practice or discourse, either in the public or private sectors .” 6. What...2017 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members 433 | OPA Frequently Asked Questions 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations...OPA), has been conducting surveys of gender issues for the active duty military since 1988. RSSC uses scientific state of the art statistical

  8. 100 commonly asked questions in math class answers that promote mathematical understanding, grades 6-12

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S (Steven); Germain-Williams, Terri L (Lynn); Paris, Elaine S; Lehmann, Ingmar H (Horst)

    2013-01-01

    100 ways to get students hooked on math! That one question got you stumped? Or maybe you have the answer, but it's not all that compelling. Al Posamentier and his coauthors to the rescue with this handy reference containing fun answers to students'100 most frequently asked math questions. Even if you already have the answers, Al's explanations are certain to keep kids hooked. The big benefits? You'll discover high-interest ways to Teach to the Common Core's math content standards Promote inquiry and process in mathematical thinking Build procedural skills and conceptual understanding Encourage

  9. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding

  10. In-service teacher education: asking questions for higher order thinking in visual literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visvaganthie Moodley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinds of questions teachers ask may thwart or promote learner high-order thinking; teachers themselves must have expertise in questioning skills to promote higher order cognition among learners. Drawing on experiential knowledge of assessment, and as an English-teaching professional development programme (PDP facilitator, I demonstrate that within the framework of a carefully structured subject-specific PDP, teachers can be taught how to enhance thinking skills in the English visual literacy (VL learning classroom. Guided by an earlier taxonomy of cognition, and using qualitative methodology, the paper analyses data obtained from: (i observation notes and examination equivalents of 40 teachers from various public schools in Gauteng who were engaged in the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE, English specialization programme; and (ii a case study of three teachers by means of semi-structured interviews, and a study of their lesson plans and worksheets.The paper examines, specifically, teachers' choice of texts and questions asked, for English second-language learners for the teaching of VL. It concludes by suggesting that if teachers themselves are first engaged in the cognitive processes they wish learners to acquire, they are better positioned to promote higher order among their learners.

  11. Management of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease: frequently asked questions and answers (if any).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalena, L; Chiovato, L; Vitti, P

    2016-10-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-replete areas. Although progress has been made in our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, no treatment targeting pathogenic mechanisms of the disease is presently available. Therapies for Graves' hyperthyroidism are largely imperfect because they are bound to either a high rate of relapsing hyperthyroidism (antithyroid drugs) or lifelong hypothyroidism (radioiodine treatment or thyroidectomy). Aim of the present article is to offer a practical guidance to the reader by providing evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions in clinical practice.

  12. Preparing for swine flu: 10 questions that all nurses need to ask themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Susan; Sutherland, Holly; Spooner, Daniel

    Human swine flu is spreading rapidly and it is timely to reflect on how well we as individuals are prepared for a pandemic. Being prepared includes nurses not only being confident they have a mask that fits but also being practised at putting on and removing personal protective equipment safely. It also involves being familiar with the latest guidance from the Department of Health, having an understanding of the processes in their workplace and an appreciation of some of the ethical challenges if numbers of affected patients overwhelm the health system's resources. This article suggests staff ask themselves 10 questions to assess their level of preparedness.

  13. Important questions asked by family members of intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigne, Vincent; Chaize, Marine; Falissard, Bruno; Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; Rusinova, Katerina; Megarbane, Bruno; Bele, Nicolas; Cariou, Alain; Fieux, Fabienne; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maite; Georges, Hugues; Jourdain, Merce; Kouatchet, Achille; Lautrette, Alexandre; Legriel, Stephane; Regnier, Bernard; Renault, Anne; Thirion, Marina; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Toledano, Dany; Chevret, Sylvie; Pochard, Frédéric; Schlemmer, Benoît; Azoulay, Elie

    2011-06-01

    Relatives often lack important information about intensive care unit patients. High-quality information is crucial to help relatives overcome the often considerable situational stress and to acquire the ability to participate in the decision-making process, most notably regarding the appropriate level of care. We aimed to develop a list of questions important for relatives of patients in the intensive care unit. This was a multicenter study. Questions asked by relatives of intensive care unit patients were collected from five different sources (literature, panel of 28 intensive care unit nurses and physicians, 1-wk survey of nurses and 1-wk survey of physicians in 14 intensive care units, and in-depth interviews with 14 families). After a qualitative analysis (framework approach and thematic analysis), questions were rated by 22 relatives and 14 intensive care unit physicians, and the ratings were analyzed using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering. The five sources produced 2,135 questions. Removal of duplicates and redundancies left 443 questions, which were distributed among nine predefined domains using a framework approach ("diagnosis," "treatment," "prognosis," "comfort," "interaction," "communication," "family," "end of life," and "postintensive care unit management"). Thematic analysis in each domain led to the identification of 46 themes, which were reworded as 46 different questions. Ratings by relatives and physicians showed that 21 of these questions were particularly important for relatives of intensive care unit patients. This study increases knowledge about the informational needs of relatives of intensive care unit patients. This list of questions may prove valuable for both relatives and intensive care unit physicians as a tool for improving communication in the intensive care unit.

  14. Using questions sent to an Ask-A-Scientist site to identify children's interests in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Sethi, Ricky J.; Bry, Lynn; Yarden, Anat

    2006-11-01

    Interest is a powerful motivator; nonetheless, science educators often lack the necessary information to make use of the power of student-specific interests in the reform process of science curricula. This study suggests a novel methodology, which might be helpful in identifying such interests - using children's self-generated questions as an indication of their scientific interests. In this research, children's interests were measured by analyzing 1555 science-related questions submitted to an international Ask-A-Scientist Internet site. The analysis indicated that the popularity of certain topics varies with age and gender. Significant differences were found between children's spontaneous (intrinsically motivated) and school-related (extrinsically motivated) interests. Surprisingly, girls contributed most of the questions to the sample; however, the number of American girls dropped upon entering senior high school. We also found significant differences between girls' and boys' interests, with girls generally preferring biological topics. The two genders kept to their stereotypic fields of interest, in both their school-related and spontaneous questions. Children's science interests, as inferred from questions to Web sites, could ultimately inform classroom science teaching. This methodology extends the context in which children's interests can be investigated.

  15. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2' NUREG-0683

  16. Child and caregiver reported problems in using asthma medications and question-asking during paediatric asthma visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Betsy; Carpenter, Delesha M; Beard, Ashley; Gillette, Christopher; Williams, Dennis; Tudor, Gail; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the extent to which lay caregivers and children who reported asthma medication problems asked medication questions during their medical visits. Children with asthma ages 8 through 16 years and their caregivers were recruited at five paediatric practices and their medical visits were audiotape recorded. Children were interviewed after their medical visits and caregivers completed questionnaires. A home visit was conducted 1 month later. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyse the data. Two hundred and ninety six families participated. Among those caregivers who reported asthma medication problems, only 35% had asked at least one medication question during the visit. Among children who reported asthma medication problems, only 11% had asked at least one medication question during their consultation. Caregivers and children who reported a problem with their asthma medications were significantly more likely to have asked medication questions if providers had asked more questions about control medications. Children who reported higher asthma management self-efficacy were significantly more likely to have asked an asthma medication question. Only one in three caregivers and one in 10 children who reported an asthma medication problem asked a question during their medical visits and many still reported these problems 1 month later. Pharmacists should encourage caregivers and children to report problems they may be having using their asthma medications. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Advice and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for Citizen-Science Environmental Health Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzyk, Timothy M; Huang, Hongtai; Williams, Ronald; Kaufman, Amanda; Essoka, Jonathan

    2018-05-11

    Citizen science provides quantitative results to support environmental health assessments (EHAs), but standardized approaches do not currently exist to translate findings into actionable solutions. The emergence of low-cost portable sensor technologies and proliferation of publicly available datasets provides unparalleled access to supporting evidence; yet data collection, analysis, interpretation, visualization, and communication are subjective approaches that must be tailored to a decision-making audience capable of improving environmental health. A decade of collaborative efforts and two citizen science projects contributed to three lessons learned and a set of frequently asked questions (FAQs) that address the complexities of environmental health and interpersonal relations often encountered in citizen science EHAs. Each project followed a structured step-by-step process in order to compare and contrast methods and approaches. These lessons and FAQs provide advice to translate citizen science research into actionable solutions in the context of a diverse range of environmental health issues and local stakeholders.

  18. Pinon and Juniper Field Guide: Asking the Right Questions to Select Appropriate Management Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, R.J.; Miller, R.F.; Roundy, B.A.; Chambers, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Pinon-juniper woodlands are an important vegetation type in the Great Basin. Old-growth and open shrub savanna woodlands have been present over much of the last several hundred years. Strong evidence indicates these woodlands have experienced significant tree infilling and major expansion in their distribution since the late 1800s by encroaching into surrounding landscapes once dominated by shrubs and herbaceous vegetation. Both infilling and expansion affects soil resources, plant community structure and composition, water and nutrient cycles, forage production, wildlife habitat, biodiversity, and fire patterns across the landscape. Another impact is the shift from historic fire regimes to larger and more intense wildfires that are increasingly determining the future of this landscape. This publication helps biologists and land managers consider how to look at expansion of woodlands and determine what questions to ask to develop a management strategy, including prescribed fire or other practices.

  19. Patent first, ask questions later: morality and biotechnology in patent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Margo A

    2003-12-01

    This Article explores the U.S. "patent first, ask questions later" approach to determining what subject matter should receive patent protection. Under this approach, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO or the Agency) issues patents on "anything under the sun made by man," and to the extent a patent's subject matter is sufficiently controversial, Congress acts retrospectively in assessing whether patents should issue on such interventions. This practice has important ramifications for morally controversial biotechnology patents specifically, and for American society generally. For many years a judicially created "moral utility" doctrine served as a type of gatekeeper of patent subject matter eligibility. The doctrine allowed both the USTPO and courts to deny patents on morally controversial subject matter under the fiction that such inventions were not "useful." The gate, however, is currently untended. A combination of the demise of the moral utility doctrine, along with expansive judicial interpretations of the scope of patent-eligible subject matter, has resulted in virtually no basis on which the USTPO or courts can deny patent protection to morally controversial, but otherwise patentable, subject matter. This is so despite position statements by the Agency to the contrary. Biotechnology is an area in which many morally controversial inventions are generated. Congress has been in react-mode following the issuance of a stream of morally controversial biotech patents, including patents on transgenic animals, surgical methods, and methods of cloning humans. With no statutory limits on patent eligibility, and with myriad concerns complicating congressional action following a patent's issuance, it is not Congress, the representative of the people, determining patent eligibility. Instead, it is patent applicants, scientific inventors, who are deciding matters of high public policy through the contents of the applications they file with the USTPO. This Article

  20. On the questions that we can ask visual archives: for public history, communication and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Bruce Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiências anteriores com arquivos e coleções fotográficas datadas de meados do século XX, me levaram a pensar nas imagens que os sujeitos, as instituições e as épocas compartilham em suas falas cotidianas. Elas podem ser acessadas não somente em acervos, também na internet, em exposições, no cinema, na sala de aula e em outros espaços de convivência, vistos de uma plataforma como a História pública. Através das perguntas que lhes fazemos é possível distinguir como elas ficam presentes em nosso cotidiano. É possível reconstituir percursos e perscrutar, no presente, ecos daqueles valores que aparecem visualmente. Com isso, o objetivo deste ensaio é expor fragmentos que fazem parte da cultura visual no Recife. Como plataforma reflexiva, os argumentos identificam e relatam alguns desses fragmentos.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Arquivos e coleções fotográficas, História pública, comunicação, ensino.   ABSTRACT Previous experiences with photographic archives and collections dating from the mid-twentieth century have led me to think about the images that the subjects, the institutions and the epochs shared in their day-to-day discourse. They can be accessed not only in collections, but also on the internet, in exhibitions, in the cinema, in the classroom and in other spaces of coexistence, seen from a platform such as public History. Through the questions that we ask them, it is possible to distinguish how they become present in our daily lives. It is possible to reconstitute paths and examine, in the present, echoes of those values that appear visually. configure the visibility presented. On thinking about images, we carry out montages. The aim of this essay is therefore to expose fragments that are part of the visual culture in Recife. As a reflective platform, the arguments identify and relate some of these fragments.   KEYWORDS: Photographic archives and collections, public History, communication, teaching.     RESUMEN

  1. Interviewing asylum seekers : A vignette study on the questions asked to assess credibility of claims about origin and persecution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuizen, Tanja S.; Horselenberg, Robert; Landström, Sara; Granhag, Pär Anders; van Koppen, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current vignette study is to map the style, type, and themes of questions that are asked when assessing the credibility of asylum seekers' claims. Sixty-five officials from the Swedish Migration Agency (Migrationsverket), were asked to respond to one out of four different vignettes

  2. Pragmatic Failure and Referential Ambiguity when Attorneys Ask Child Witnesses “Do You Know/Remember” Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Angela D.; Stolzenberg, Stacia N.; Lyon, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    “Do you know” and “Do you remember” (DYK/R) questions explicitly ask whether one knows or remembers some information while implicitly asking for that information. This study examined how 104 4- to 9-year-old children testifying in child sexual abuse cases responded to DYK/R wh- and yes/no questions. When asked DYK/R questions containing an implicit wh- question requesting information, children often provided unelaborated “Yes” responses. Attorneys’ follow-up questions suggested that children usually misunderstood the pragmatics of the questions. When DYK/R questions contained an implicit yes/no question, unelaborated “Yes” or “No” responses could be responding to the explicit or the implicit questions resulting in referentially ambiguous responses. Children often provided referentially ambiguous responses and attorneys usually failed to disambiguate children’s answers. Although pragmatic failure following DYK/R wh- questions decreased with age, the likelihood of referential ambiguity following DYK/R yes/no questions did not. The results highlight the risks of serious miscommunications caused by pragmatic misunderstanding and referential ambiguity when children testify. PMID:28652686

  3. Using Clinical Questions Asked by Primary Care Providers Through eConsults to Inform Continuing Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Douglas; Liddy, Clare; Lochnan, Heather A; Hendry, Paul J; Keely, Erin J

    2018-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) offerings should address the educational needs of health care providers. Innovative programs, such as electronic consultations (eConsults), provide unique educational opportunities for practice-based needs assessment. The purpose of this study is to assess whether CPD offerings match the needs of physicians by coding and comparing session content to clinical questions asked through eConsults. This study analyzes questions asked by primary care providers between July 2011 and January 2015 using a service that allows specialists to provide consultation over a secure web-based server. The content of these questions was compared with the CPD courses offered in the area in which these primary care providers are practicing over a similar period (2012-2014). The clinical questions were categorized by the content area. The percentage of questions asked about each content area was calculated for each of the 12 specialties consulted. CPD course offerings were categorized using the same list of content areas. Percentage of minutes dedicated to each content area was calculated for each specialty. The percentage of questions asked and the percentage of CPD course minutes for each content area were compared. There were numerous congruencies and discrepancies between the proportion of questions asked about a given content area and the CPD minutes dedicated to it. Traditional needs assessment may underestimate the need to address topics that are frequently the subject of eConsults. Planners should recognize eConsult questions as a valuable source of practice-associated challenges that can identify professional development needs of physicians.

  4. Analysis of the Questions Asked through Digital and Face-to-Face Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Keita; Arai, Shunsuke; Suga, Reina; Ikeuchi, Atsushi; Yoshikane, Fuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, only a few public libraries provide e-mail reference services. To help public libraries start e-mail reference services, the authors investigated reference questions received by libraries via e-mail and traditional face-to-face services. The authors found that research questions are more frequently observed among e-mail questions and…

  5. Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

  6. 42 CFR 136.412 - What questions must the IHS ask as part of the background investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., exploitation, contact, or prostitution; crimes against persons; or offenses committed against children? If yes... Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.412 What questions must the IHS ask as part of the...: (1) Has the individual been arrested or charged with a crime involving a child? If yes, the...

  7. The Impact of Political Context on the Questions Asked and Answered: The Evolution of Education Research on Racial Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Amy Stuart; Roda, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines how the larger political context and policies enacted at different points in American history have affected the questions education researchers asked and answered. The authors argue that while education researchers are often quick to consider how their research should shape policy, they are less likely to contemplate the…

  8. Finding Good Child Care: The Essential Questions To Ask When Seeking Quality Care for Your Child. CCAC Information Guide 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Action Campaign, New York, NY.

    This Child Care Action Campaign (CCAC) Information Guide focuses on questions for parents to ask when looking for the right childcare program. The guide provides a checklist for parents to use when evaluating potential or currently used childcare programs. By sharing and discussing the checklist with caregivers, parents and caregivers can work…

  9. The Most Frequently Asked Questions on the Education Rights of Children and Youth in Homeless Situations. Updated September 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Barbara; Julianelle, Patricia; Santos, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This document provides answers to frequently asked questions on the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act and the education rights of children and youth in homeless situations, based on the amendments made by the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015, which took effect on October 1, 2016. The answers are general responses based on federal statutes,…

  10. Biotechnologies as a Context for Enhancing Junior High-School Students' Ability to Ask Meaningful Questions about Abstract Biological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsher, G.; Dreyfus, A.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests a new approach to teaching about biochemical cellular processes by stimulating student interest in those biochemical processes that allowed for the outcomes of modern biotechnologies. Discusses the development of students' ability to ask meaningful questions about intra-cellular processes, and the resulting meaningful learning of relevant…

  11. Aspirin and the prevention of venous thromboembolism following total joint arthroplasty: commonly asked questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azboy, I; Barrack, R; Thomas, A M; Haddad, F S; Parvizi, J

    2017-11-01

    The number of arthroplasties being performed increases each year. Patients undergoing an arthroplasty are at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and appropriate prophylaxis has been recommended. However, the optimal protocol and the best agent to minimise VTE under these circumstances are not known. Although many agents may be used, there is a difference in their efficacy and the risk of bleeding. Thus, the selection of a particular agent relies on the balance between the desire to minimise VTE and the attempt to reduce the risk of bleeding, with its undesirable, and occasionally fatal, consequences. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is an agent for VTE prophylaxis following arthroplasty. Many studies have shown its efficacy in minimising VTE under these circumstances. It is inexpensive and well-tolerated, and its use does not require routine blood tests. It is also a 'milder' agent and unlikely to result in haematoma formation, which may increase both the risk of infection and the need for further surgery. Aspirin is also unlikely to result in persistent wound drainage, which has been shown to be associated with the use of agents such as low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and other more aggressive agents. The main objective of this review was to summarise the current evidence relating to the efficacy of aspirin as a VTE prophylaxis following arthroplasty, and to address some of the common questions about its use. There is convincing evidence that, taking all factors into account, aspirin is an effective, inexpensive, and safe form of VTE following arthroplasty in patients without a major risk factor for VTE, such as previous VTE. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1420-30. ©2017 Azboy et al.

  12. Matching Queries to Frequently Asked Questions: Search Functionality for the MRSA Web-Portal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Verhoeven, F.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the long-term EUREGIO MRSA-net project a system was developed which enables health care workers and the general public to quickly find answers to their questions regarding the MRSA pathogen. This paper focuses on how these questions can be answered using Information Retrieval (IR) and

  13. The Investigation of Chemistry Questions Asked in Free Boarding and Scholarship Examination for High School Level in the Context of Algorithmic and Conceptual Question Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül DERMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To conduct of the education programs, the most important resource is considered that textbooks but in national assesment tests, chemistry questions prepared according to chemistry curriculum they may be considered reflections of curriculum. The purpose of this study is to review the 140 chemistry questions “algoritmic or conceptual”, asked in “Free Boarding and Scholarship Examination”for 9,10,11 classes between 1998 and 2015 years. The study is a descriptive study. In data analysis, within the scope of the document analysis, qualitative research method was used. Crosstabs and Kappa statistic was used. The findings of this study revealed that the questions asked in “Free Boarding and Scholarship Examination”are 80% conceptual, 20% algorithmic in total. The distribution of question types according to the years indicates that most of questions are consisted of conceptual question types. By the findings are associated with the relevant literature and national chemistry curriculum, inferences and implications for conceptual chemistry teaching and learning have been made

  14. Managing the Documentation Maze Answers to Questions You Didn't Even Know to Ask

    CERN Document Server

    Gough, Janet

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with a topic of critical importance for compliance with record-keeping regulations in pharmaceutical and medical device industries. It presents more than 750 questions and answers about documentation management, whether electronic or paper-based. It defines, through a Q&A approach, what document management actually is, and why it should be a core discipline in the industry. Questions and responses also address electronic system selection and validation, system security, user accountability, and audit trails, as well as standard operating procedures for supporting document syste

  15. Questions Parents Ask about Schools = Preguntas que hacen los padres sobre las escuelas. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Noting that parents play an important role in the school success of their elementary- and middle-school-aged children, this booklet offers research-based tips to provide both practical guidance and information about a range of education-related topics. Presented in a question-answer format in both English and Spanish versions, the booklet provides…

  16. What Questions Are We Asking in the Contemporary Children's Literature Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Aziz, Fazhuda

    2012-01-01

    This case study of four B.Ed TESL Overseas Link Degree trainee teachers was undertaken with the intention of discovering what goes on in the classroom in terms of the trainee teachers' classroom interactions in relation to their questioning techniques and responses. This is looked at how much of thinking is being encouraged and how much of the…

  17. Improve Your Marketing Results by Asking Peter F. Drucker's "Five Most Important Questions."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossum, Constance; Baum, Geoffrey

    2001-01-01

    This case study demonstrates how the Office of Marketing & Public Relations at Claremont McKenna College used five "Drucker Tool" questions to improve marketing's image on campus and awareness of the college among key constituencies. It concludes with a reevaluation of the initial marketing strategy based on the growing importance of…

  18. Questions Students Ask: Why Not Bend Light with an Electric Field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heuvelen, Alan

    1983-01-01

    In response to a question, "Why not use a magnetic or electric field to deflect light?," reviews the relation between electric charge and electric/magnetic fields. Discusses the Faraday effect, (describing matter as an intermediary in the rotation of the place of polarization) and other apparent interactions of light with electric/magnetic fields.…

  19. Asking the age question in elderly populations: a reverse record check study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. H.; Deeg, D. J.; Schmand, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    In two large-scale surveys among elderly respondents we evaluated the accuracy of answers obtained to three differently formulated age questions. Respondents included 6,149 individuals aged 65-86 living in The Netherlands. Because criterion age data were available from different sources, it was

  20. The role of student’s critical asking question in developing student’s critical thinking skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, T.; Yuanita, L.; Erman, E.

    2018-01-01

    Questioning means thinking, and thinking is manifested in the form of questions. Research that studies the relationship between questioning and students’ critical thinking skills is little, if any. The aim of this study is to examine how student’s questions skill correlates to student’s critical thinking skills in learning of chemistry. The research design used was one group pretest-posttest design. The participants involved were 94 students, all of whom attended their last semesters, Chemistry Education of Tadulako University. A pre-test was administered to check participants’ ability to ask critical questions and critical thinking skills in learning chemistry. Then, the students were taught by using questioning technique. After accomplishing the lesson, a post-test was given to evaluate their progress. Obtained data were analyzed by using Pair-Samples T.Test and correlation methods. The result shows that the level of the questions plays an important role in critical thinking skills is the question levels of predictive, analysis, evaluation and inference.

  1. Big Data and Dysmenorrhea: What Questions Do Women and Men Ask About Menstrual Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen X; Groves, Doyle; Miller, Wendy R; Carpenter, Janet S

    2018-04-30

    Menstrual pain is highly prevalent among women of reproductive age. As the general public increasingly obtains health information online, Big Data from online platforms provide novel sources to understand the public's perspectives and information needs about menstrual pain. The study's purpose was to describe salient queries about dysmenorrhea using Big Data from a question and answer platform. We performed text-mining of 1.9 billion queries from ChaCha, a United States-based question and answer platform. Dysmenorrhea-related queries were identified by using keyword searching. Each relevant query was split into token words (i.e., meaningful words or phrases) and stop words (i.e., not meaningful functional words). Word Adjacency Graph (WAG) modeling was used to detect clusters of queries and visualize the range of dysmenorrhea-related topics. We constructed two WAG models respectively from queries by women of reproductive age and bymen. Salient themes were identified through inspecting clusters of WAG models. We identified two subsets of queries: Subset 1 contained 507,327 queries from women aged 13-50 years. Subset 2 contained 113,888 queries from men aged 13 or above. WAG modeling revealed topic clusters for each subset. Between female and male subsets, topic clusters overlapped on dysmenorrhea symptoms and management. Among female queries, there were distinctive topics on approaching menstrual pain at school and menstrual pain-related conditions; while among male queries, there was a distinctive cluster of queries on menstrual pain from male's perspectives. Big Data mining of the ChaCha ® question and answer service revealed a series of information needs among women and men on menstrual pain. Findings may be useful in structuring the content and informing the delivery platform for educational interventions.

  2. The Majority of Library Clients Still Use Person-to-Person Interaction When Asking Reference Questions. A review of: De Groote, Sandra L. “Questions Asked at the Virtual and Physical Health Sciences Reference Desk: How Do They Compare and What Do They Tell Us?” Medical Reference Services Quarterly 24.2 (Summer 2005: 11-23.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Pamela Lewis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To identify similarities and difference in the questions asked at the virtual and physical refernece desks of a helath scienmces library, in order to better undertand user needs and highlight areas for service improvement. Also to retrospectively analyze reference statistics collected over the previous six years. Design - Use study; retrospective study of reference statistics for the period July 1997 to June 2003; literature review. Setting - Large academic helath sciences library in the United States. Subjects - All questions asked at the reference and information desks, plus questions submitted to the University-wide virtual reference service and answered by a health sciences librarian, over a period of one month. The questions were asked by faculty, staff, students and members of the public. Methods - A literature review was carried out to examine the types of information/reference questions typically asked in health sciences libraries both before and after the mass introduction of remote end-user searching of online resources and the establishment of virtual reference services. Next, the reference statistics collected at the University of Illinois at Chicage (UIC Library of the Health Sciences between July 1997 and June 2003 were examined. For most of this period a digital reference service was offered using a listserv address to which patrons would submit email queries. Beginning in March 2003, a formal virtual reference service (chat and email was provided using commercial software. Finally, data was gathered on questions answered by a health sciences librarians, and clients who asked the question, at either the physical or cirtual reference desk, during the month of November 2003 at the UIC Library of the Health Sciences. Library staff completed an online survey form for each question, and if a client asked more than one question, each question was coded individually. Data included: status of client using the service (faculty

  3. Asking or Telling--Real-time Processing of Prosodically Distinguished Questions and Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Willemijn F L; Bibyk, Sarah A; Gunlogson, Christine; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a targeted language game approach using the visual world, eye-movement paradigm to assess when and how certain intonational contours affect the interpretation of utterances. We created a computer-based card game in which elliptical utterances such as "Got a candy" occurred with a nuclear contour most consistent with a yes-no question (H* H-H%) or a statement (L* L-L%). In Experiment I we explored how such contours are integrated online. In Experiment 2 we studied the expectations listeners have for how intonational contours signal intentions: do these reflect linguistic categories or rapid adaptation to the paradigm? Prosody had an immediate effect on interpretation, as indexed by the pattern and timing of fixations. Moreover, the association between different contours and intentions was quite robust in the absence of clear syntactic cues to sentence type, and was not due to rapid adaptation. Prosody had immediate effects on interpretation even though there was a construction-based bias to interpret "got a" as a question. Taken together, we believe this paradigm will provide further insights into how intonational contours and their phonetic realization interact with other cues to sentence type in online comprehension.

  4. Evidence-informed primary health care workforce policy: are we asking the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarella, Lucio; Buchan, Jim; Brooks, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Australia is facing a primary health care workforce shortage. To inform primary health care (PHC) workforce policy reforms, reflection is required on ways to strengthen the evidence base and its uptake into policy making. In 2008 the Australian Primary Health Care Research Institute funded the Australian Health Workforce Institute to host Professor James Buchan, Queen Margaret University, UK, an expert in health services policy research and health workforce planning. Professor Buchan's visit enabled over forty Australian PHC workforce mid-career and senior researchers and policy stakeholders to be involved in roundtable policy dialogue on issues influencing PHC workforce policy making. Six key thematic questions emerged. (1) What makes PHC workforce planning different? (2) Why does the PHC workforce need to be viewed in a global context? (3) What is the capacity of PHC workforce research? (4) What policy levers exist for PHC workforce planning? (5) What principles can guide PHC workforce planning? (6) What incentives exist to optimise the use of evidence in policy making? The emerging themes need to be discussed within the context of current PHC workforce policy reforms, which are focussed on increasing workforce supply (via education/training programs), changing the skill mix and extending the roles of health workers to meet patient needs. With the Australian government seeking to reform and strengthen the PHC workforce, key questions remain about ways to strengthen the PHC workforce evidence base and its uptake into PHC workforce policy making.

  5. Putting the Pieces Together and Asking the Hard Questions: Transfer Associate Degrees in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Richard L.; Kisker, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    The previous six chapters have focused on particular aspects of the processes involved in implementing transfer associate degrees in various states. In this chapter, the authors synthesize that information by presenting an ideal state-level organizational model for implementing these degrees and describing the various constituencies involved in…

  6. Commonly asked questions: thrombolytic therapy in the management of acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, H Steven; Biller, José

    2013-02-01

    Questions about thrombolytic management arise frequently, often with the intent of ascertaining safety and efficacy in specific situations. Thrombolytic therapy is generally safe, even if a nonruptured intracranial aneurysm is present. The risk of cardiac rupture with tamponade is low, except for the first 7 weeks following myocardial infarction. Over this duration, there is an increased risk of intravenous thrombolytic therapy in specific patient groups. Stroke infrequently occurs during cardiac catheterization. Its infrequent occurrence has limited large treatment trials. Basilar artery occlusion management will be reviewed. Thrombolytic therapy is generally safe in the context of pre-existing cerebral microhemorrhages and cervical artery dissections. Additionally, the role of multimodal penumbral imaging in planning stroke therapy will be reviewed.

  7. Climate change and sustainability. Seven questions CEOs and boards should ask about 'triple bottom line' reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The questions, dealt with in this report are: (1) Who issues sustainability reports? More than 3,000 companies worldwide, including more than two-thirds of the Fortune Global 500; (2) Why report on sustainability if you do not have to? Increasingly, external stakeholders such as institutional investors expect it. Reporting can also bring operational improvements, strengthen compliance, and enhance your corporate reputation; (3) What information should a sustainability report contain? Reports should contain key performance indicators relevant to the reporter's industry. Four principles for deciding what to include are materiality, stakeholder inclusiveness, sustainability context, and completeness; (4) What governance, systems and processes are needed to report on sustainability? Governance requires a high-level mandate and clear reporting lines. Also needed: robust systems and processes that help companies collect, store and analyze sustainability information; (5) Do sustainability reports have to be audited? Not yet. But they are being more closely monitored than ever before. As this trend continues, users of sustainability information will come to expect that the information has been validated by a reliable third party; (6) What are the challenges and risks of reporting? Sustainability reporting presents many challenges, including data consistency, striking a balance between positive and negative information, continually improving performance and keeping reports readable and concise; and finally (7) How can companies get the most value out of sustainability reporting? Sustainability reports should be mandatory reading for all employees, and can be a valuable tool for communicating with external audiences as well. Setting targets in the form of KPIs also forces the organization to meet publicly stated goals, which makes reporting an accountability tool.

  8. What makes Darwinian hydrology "Darwinian"? Asking a different kind of question about landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, C.; Troch, P. A.

    2014-02-01

    There have been repeated calls for a Darwinian approach to hydrologic science, or for a synthesis of Darwinian and Newtonian approaches, to deepen understanding of the hydrologic system in the larger landscape context, and so develop a better basis for predictions now and in an uncertain future. But what exactly makes a Darwinian approach to hydrology "Darwinian"? While there have now been a number of discussions of Darwinian approaches, many referencing Harte (2002), the term is potentially a source of confusion because its connections to Darwin remain allusive rather than explicit. Here we suggest that the Darwinian approach to hydrology follows the example of Charles Darwin by focusing attention on the patterns of variation in populations and seeking hypotheses that explain these patterns in terms of the mechanisms and conditions that determine their historical development. These hypotheses do not simply catalog patterns or predict them statistically - they connect the present structure with processes operating in the past. Nor are they explanations presented without independent evidence or critical analysis - Darwin's hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying present-day variation could be independently tested and validated. With a Darwinian framework in mind, it is easy to see that a great deal of hydrologic research has already been done that contributes to a Darwinian hydrology - whether deliberately or not. We discuss some practical and philosophical issues with this approach to hydrologic science: how are explanatory hypotheses generated? What constitutes a good hypothesis? How are hypotheses tested? "Historical" sciences - including paleohydrology - have long grappled with these questions, as must a Darwinian hydrologic science. We can draw on Darwin's own example for some answers, though there are ongoing debates about the philosophical nature of his methods and reasoning. Darwin used a range of methods of historical reasoning to develop explanatory

  9. Frequently Asked Questions: Hemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  10. Plague: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a vaccine available to prevent plague? What is plague? Plague is an infectious disease that affects rodents, ... United States. How do people become infected with plague? People most commonly acquire plague when they are ...

  11. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    are the potential health risks from transportation of depleted uranium metal or oxide? Other Skip Navigation Depleted UF6 Logo (Go to Home Page) Uranium Quick Fact Energy from Uranium One ton of natural uranium can produce more than 40 million kilowatt-hours of electricity. This is equivalent

  12. IC: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ...

  13. Arthritis: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lift your mood and make you feel more positive. Learn about physical activity for people with arthritis and CDC-recommended physical ... Top of Page 6. How does being overweight affect arthritis? It’s ... physical activity and diet changes can help you lose weight. ...

  14. Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    IDRC response: We are looking for applicants to include 3 references with their submission, whether ... potential projects that would have a good chance of being funded? ... interested in people applying in their personal/individual capacity?”.

  15. Triglycerides : Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sweet rolls and cinnamon toast. High fructose corn-syrup is 55% fructose, and 45% glucose - not 100% fructose. 9. Why are you singling ... on labels include: • Brown sugar • Corn sweetener • Corn ... fructose, glucose, lactose, maltose, sucrose) • High-fructose corn syrup • Fruit ...

  16. Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... driving force behind the large scale outbreaks or epidemics. However, their parents are putting them at greater risk of getting a serious pertussis infection and then possibly spreading it to other family or community members. We ...

  17. Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alejandra

    Which kinds of organisations are eligible for funding? ..... results and assess the success of uptake after the project timeline concludes. Application process ... under the leadership of a different principal investigator are eligible to apply.

  18. Blood Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Find ... Correspondence Regulatory and Public Meetings Stop the Bleed Professional Development Education Annual Meeting International Cord Blood Symposium ...

  19. Finite Element Analysis as a response to frequently asked questions of machine tool mechanical design-engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehl Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The finite element analysis (FEA nowadays is indispensable in the product development of machining centres and production machinery for metal cutting processes. It enables extensive static, dynamic and thermal simulation of digital prototypes of machine tools before production start-up. But until now less reflection has been made about what are the most pressing questions to be answered in this application field, with the intention to align the modelling and simulation methods with substantial requirements. Based on 3D CAD geometry data for a modern machining centre (Deckel-Maho-Gildemeister DMG 635 V eco merely the basic steps of a static analysis are reconstructed by FEA. Particularly the two most frequently asked questions by the design departments of machine tool manufacturers are discussed and highlighted. For this authentic simulation results are used, at which their selection is a consequence of long lasting experience in the industrial application of FEA in the design process chain. Noticing that such machine tools are mechatronic systems applying a considerable number of actuators, sensors and controllers in addition to mechanical structures, the answers to those core questions are required for design enhancement, to save costs and to improve the productivity and the quality of machined workpieces.

  20. Questions You May Want to Ask Your Child's Speech-Language Pathologist = Preguntas que usted le podria hacer al patologo del habla y el lenguaje de su hijo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This accordion style pamphlet, dual sided with English and Spanish text, suggests questions for parents to ask their Speech-Language Pathologist and speech and language therapy services for their children. Sample questions include: How will I participate in my child's therapy sessions? How do you decide how much time my child will spend on speech…

  1. Increasing Opportunities for Question-Asking in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effectiveness of Staff Training in Pivotal Response Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuur, Rianne; Huskens, Bibi; Verhoeven, Ludo; Didden, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in question-asking are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Furthermore, their opportunities to self-initiate questions are often hindered by directive behavior of their conversation partners. This study assessed the effectiveness of staff training in pivotal response treatment (PRT) on staff member-created…

  2. Asking the right questions: Scoping studies in the commissioning of research on the organisation and delivery of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peckham Stephen

    2008-07-01

    commissioners. Scoping studies are an essential element in the portfolio of approaches to research, particularly as a mechanism for helping research commissioners and policy makers to ask the right questions. Their utility will be further enhanced by greater recognition of the individual components, definitions for which are provided.

  3. Five Hundred Questions Kids Ask about Sex and Some of the Answers: Sex Education for Parents, Teachers and Young People Themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Frances

    This book is based on the premise that sexual expression is a way for people to show affection and love for one another. The book is divided into six chapters that cover topics related to sexuality and growing up. The sections in each chapter contain questions that preteens and teenagers typically ask and provide clear, unambiguous, and…

  4. Question-asking organization / A relação pergunta-resposta como preditor do reconto de histórias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta Parente

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify two hypotheses of the text questionability theory (Virbel: 1 the recall is similar to the author's question-asking organization; and 2 the similarity between the recall and the questionability force will be in function of the text consistency. A first experiment compared the recall of 53 subjects with the questionability force of the elementary sentences. Significant correlations and regressions between the two variables were found. A second experiment analyzed the recall of 141 subjects in 2 versions of the story of the first experiment differentiated by the degree of consistency Correlations were found only in the version with higher degree of consistency. The results of the 2 experiments were in accordance with the questionability theory in that, in order to understand and to reconstruct a story, the 'comprehender' follows a hierarchical network, which organizes the unities of meaning based on their questionability force.

  5. Designing Your Community-Based Learning Project: Five Questions To Ask about Your Pedagogical and Participatory Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Marion; Cadge, Wendy; Rivero, Estela; Curran, Sara

    2002-01-01

    Presents a set of five questions to be considered in the preliminary planning of a community-based learning (CBL) project. Discusses each question and outlines advantages and disadvantages of decisions, focusing on competing interests of students, instructors, and partner organizations. (Author/KDR)

  6. The Birth of a Faith School in the Post-Dearing Era: Asking Questions and Consultation, and Getting Things Done

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Howard

    2005-01-01

    The article is an historical account of the establishment of a new voluntary aided secondary school, named Nottingham Emmanuel School. The national and local contexts are established and discussed in practical and theological reflective ways by examining four key questions; (1) will the church take risks in education; (2) can the church deliver in…

  7. What are the questions that patients with early-stage prostate cancer want to ask before decision making?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyda, A.; Gawkowska-Suwinska, M.; Feldman-Stewart, D.; Brennenstuhl, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine what information is most needed by patients with early-stage prostate cancer during the time between diagnosis and treatment decision making. This study is a part of a multicentered international study conducted in Canada, the Netherlands, Italy, Poland, Spain, Turkey and England. The questionnaire was completed by 55 Polish patients, 3 to 24 months after they had completed their treatment. Patients used a 4-pt Likert scale (essential, desired, no opinion, avoid) to rate how important it was to obtain answers to each of the 93 questions, between diagnosis and treatment decision. Participants also indicated the reason for which they wanted each essential and desired question answered: to help them understand their situations, to decide on treatment, to plan their future or other. The patients also indicated who they remember participating in making the decision and who they would like to participate if the decision was to be made today. 23 questions were described as essential by 49% or more of the patients. We observed an immense variability of results. Each question was rated as essential or desired by at least a few patients. Twelve questions were identified as questions which should be avoided by 9 to 20% of participants: Of the 23 questions rated essential by at least 49% of patients, on average 44% wanted the information to help them understand their situations and 23% to help them decide on treatment. Patients had made their decision: with their family and doctor (31%), with their doctor (29%), alone (11%), with their family (9%), no answer - 11%. In 9% of cases the decision had been made without the active participation of the patient. If the patients were to make their decision now, they would have liked to make it with their doctor and family (47%), with their doctor (29%), alone (9%), with their family (4%), no answer- 9%. Eighty percent of patients recalled taking an active role in their treatment decisions and that

  8. Increasing Opportunities for Question-Asking in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effectiveness of Staff Training in Pivotal Response Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuur, Rianne; Huskens, Bibi; Verhoeven, Ludo; Didden, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Deficits in question-asking are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Furthermore, their opportunities to self-initiate questions are often hindered by directive behavior of their conversation partners. This study assessed the effectiveness of staff training in pivotal response treatment (PRT) on staff member-created opportunities and self-initiated questions of school-aged children with ASD. Generalization and maintenance were also assessed. Participants were 14 staff members and children with ASD attending an inpatient treatment facility. Data showed that PRT resulted in significant increases in both staff member-created opportunities and child-initiated questions. Generalization to group situations and collateral changes in children's language, pragmatic, and adaptive skills, and maladaptive behaviors did not occur. Implications for clinical practice and directions for future research are discussed.

  9. New population-based exome data question the pathogenicity of some genetic variants previously associated with Marfan syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ren-Qiang; Jabbari, Javad; Cheng, Xiao-Shu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1:5,000. More than 1000 variants have been previously reported to be associated with MFS. However, the disease-causing effect of these variants may be questionable...

  10. Conflating Capacity & Authority: Why We're Asking the Wrong Question in the Adolescent Decision-Making Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Erica K

    2017-01-01

    Whether adolescents should be allowed to make their own medical decisions has been a topic of discussion in bioethics for at least two decades now. Are adolescents sufficiently capacitated to make their own medical decisions? Is the mature-minor doctrine, an uncommon legal exception to the rule of parental decision-making authority, something we should expand or eliminate? Bioethicists have dealt with the curious liminality of adolescents-their being neither children nor adults-in a variety of ways. However, recently there has been a trend to rely heavily, and often exclusively, on emerging neuroscientific and psychological data to answer these questions. Using data from magnetic resonance imaging and functional MRI studies on the adolescent brain, authors have argued both that the adolescent brain isn't sufficiently mature to broadly confer capacity on this population and that the adolescent brain is sufficiently mature to assume adolescent capacity. Scholars then accept these data as sufficient for concluding that adolescents should or should not have decision-making authority. Two critical mistakes are being made here. The first is the expectation that neuroscience or psychology is or will be able to answer all our questions about capacity. The second, and more concerning, mistake is the conflation of decision-making capacity with decision-making authority. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  11. Ten Frequently Asked Questions About Veterans’ Transitions: Results of a Decade of RAND Work on Veteran Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    no prior civilian work experi- ence and those with injuries or disabilities. As part of their duty to care for the men and women who have served...personal, and cultural fac- tors. Many service members expressed concern that using men - tal health services will negatively affect their military...lesson learned from previous research is how inaccurate many stereotypes about veterans are. For example, the research takes issue with the

  12. A framework for integrating and synthesizing data to ask and answer science questions in the Critical Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) published a science strategy that resulted in an organizational pivot toward more focused attention on societal challenges and our ability to predict changes and study mitigation and resilience. The strategy described a number of global dynamics including climate and resource-related critical zone (CZ) impacts and emphasized the need for data integration as a significant underpinning for all of the science questions raised in the report. Organizational changes that came about as a result of the science strategy sparked a new entity called Core Science Systems, which has set as its mission the creation of a Modular Science Framework designed to seamlessly organize and integrate all data, information, and knowledge from the CZ. A part of this grand challenge is directly within the purview of the USGS mission and our science programs, while the data integration framework itself is part of a much larger global scientific cyberinfrastructure. This talk describes current research and development in pursuit of the USGS Modular Science Framework and how the work is being conducted in the context of the broader earth system sciences. Communities of practice under the banner of the Earth Science Information Partners are fostering working relationships vital to cohesion and interoperability between contributing institutions. The National Science Foundation's EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st Century initiatives are providing some of the necessary building blocks through foundational informatics and data science research. The U.S. Group on Earth Observations is providing leadership and coordination across agencies who operate earth observation systems. The White House Big Data Initiative is providing long term research and development vision to set the stage for sustainable, long term infrastructure across government data agencies. The end result will be a major building block of CZ science.

  13. Do cortical gamma oscillations promote or suppress perception? An under-asked question with an over-assumed answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eSedley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cortical gamma oscillations occur alongside perceptual processes, and in proportion to perceptual salience. They have a number of properties that make them ideal candidates to explain perception, including incorporating synchronised discharges of neural assemblies, and their emergence over a fast timescale consistent with that of perception. These observations have led to widespread assumptions that gamma oscillations’ role is to cause or facilitate conscious perception (i.e. a ‘positive’ role. While the majority of the human literature on gamma oscillations is consistent with this interpretation, many or most of these studies could equally be interpreted as showing a suppressive or inhibitory (i.e. ‘negative’ role. For example, presenting a stimulus and recording a response of increased gamma oscillations would only suggest a role for gamma oscillations in the representation of that stimulus, and would not specify what that role were. For instance, if gamma oscillations were inhibitory, then they would become selectively activated in response to the stimulus they acted to inhibit.In this review, we consider two classes of gamma oscillations: broadband and narrowband, which have very different properties (and likely roles. We first discuss studies on gamma oscillations that are non-discriminatory, with respect to the role of gamma oscillations, followed by studies that specifically support specifically a positive or negative role. These include work on perception in healthy individuals, and in the pathological contexts of phantom perception and epilepsy. Reference is based as much as possible on magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG studies, but we also consider evidence from invasive recordings in humans and other animals. Attempts are made to reconcile findings within a common framework. We conclude with a summary of the pertinent questions that remain unanswered, and suggest how future studies might address

  14. Climate change and sustainability. Seven questions CEOs and boards should ask about 'triple bottom line' reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-01-15

    The questions, dealt with in this report are: (1) Who issues sustainability reports? More than 3,000 companies worldwide, including more than two-thirds of the Fortune Global 500; (2) Why report on sustainability if you do not have to? Increasingly, external stakeholders such as institutional investors expect it. Reporting can also bring operational improvements, strengthen compliance, and enhance your corporate reputation; (3) What information should a sustainability report contain? Reports should contain key performance indicators relevant to the reporter's industry. Four principles for deciding what to include are materiality, stakeholder inclusiveness, sustainability context, and completeness; (4) What governance, systems and processes are needed to report on sustainability? Governance requires a high-level mandate and clear reporting lines. Also needed: robust systems and processes that help companies collect, store and analyze sustainability information; (5) Do sustainability reports have to be audited? Not yet. But they are being more closely monitored than ever before. As this trend continues, users of sustainability information will come to expect that the information has been validated by a reliable third party; (6) What are the challenges and risks of reporting? Sustainability reporting presents many challenges, including data consistency, striking a balance between positive and negative information, continually improving performance and keeping reports readable and concise; and finally (7) How can companies get the most value out of sustainability reporting? Sustainability reports should be mandatory reading for all employees, and can be a valuable tool for communicating with external audiences as well. Setting targets in the form of KPIs also forces the organization to meet publicly stated goals, which makes reporting an accountability tool.

  15. Frequently Asked Questions about Rotavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Achievement John P. Utz Leadership Award Dr. Charles Mérieux Award for Achievement in Vaccinology and Immunology ... There's no reliable way to predict how rotavirus will affect your child. New and expecting parents should ...

  16. Frequently Asked Questions about Chiropractic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketing Patient Fact Sheets Contact the ACA State Licensing Boards Research JMPT Abstracts Latest Issue Evidence in ... Chiropractic Posture Backpack Safety Spinal Health Winter Activities Kids and Sports Exercising Outdoors with Baby Gardening Chronic ...

  17. LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not discriminate on the basis of gender, race, religion, or sexual orientation. Sometimes this information is stated ... a member of Bay Area Lawyers for Individual Freedom (BALIF), the National Center for Lesbian Rights (NCLR), ...

  18. Organ Transplantation: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  19. Still asking the wrong questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    -up of the entrepreneur (Gartner, 1988). Building on this critique I will use the presentation to show, through the use of a historical case, how much we need new conceptualizations in order to highlight the collective development of ideas, which would also open for a discussion about the values guiding entrepreneurship...

  20. Wilson Disease: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Family Foundation and Consumers Union, the publisher of Consumer Reports magazine. A Consumer Guide to Handling Disputes With ... in the free consumer advice section of the Consumer Reports magazine website, http://www.consumerreports.org/. For further ...

  1. Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinicians & Providers Data & Measures Education & Training Health Information Technology ... Sources Available from AHRQ Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Medical Expenditure Panel ...

  2. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the vaccine, what should I do? What is Japanese encephalitis? Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a potentially severe ... cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). Where does Japanese encephalitis occur? JE occurs in Asia and parts ...

  3. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  4. Frequently Asked Questions about Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will be too late for the vaccine to work. The best time to immunize kids is when they're healthy. Can immunizations cause a bad reaction in my child? The most common reactions to vaccines are minor ...

  5. CIFSRF 2015 Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Helen Raij

    Are international organizations eligible for funding? .... plant biotechnology, for use in agriculture, urban and public health settings. .... To test and assess the effectiveness of creative and bold scaling up models, delivery mechanisms.

  6. Frequently Asked Questions - GHRI Calls

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Genevieve Prud'homme

    16 mai 2014 ... politiques et recherche en matière de santé (OPRS). ..... utilisée afin de mettre en oeuvre une intervention ou une stratégie et le restant des fonds .... Est-il permis de recruter un(e) candidat(e) au doctorat et d'utiliser des fonds ...

  7. Frequently Asked Questions - GHRI Calls

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Genevieve Prud'homme

    16 mai 2014 ... ... des pays d'Afrique subsaharienne ciblés par le Plan d'action pour accroître ... Les définitions utilisées pour ces rôles sont celles des Instituts de ..... Une personne ayant rang de directeur au sein du ministère de la Santé ...

  8. [Meningococcal disease: frequently asked questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, José

    2012-12-01

    On account of an increase of serogroup W135 meningococcal disease (M.D.) observed in Santiago, Chile, during last two years the medical community has experienced an avidity to update their knowledge about M.D. treatment and its prevention. In a queries and answers mode, the following topics on M.D. are presented: nasopharyngeal carriage and its importance, immunity and protection against the disease, reasons to choice ceftriaxone as the first line antibiotic in treatment, rationality and indications of chemoprophylaxis, fundamentals and advantages of conjugate vaccines, its indications, schedules, contraindications and decisions making in public health.

  9. Frequently Asked Questions about Pharmacogenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  10. Scabies: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is washed off. Clean clothes should be worn after treatment. In addition to the infested person, treatment also ... can be decontaminated by machine-washing in hot water and drying using the hot ... with scabies. After several treatments, he/she still has symptoms while I am ...

  11. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  12. CARIAA Call - Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    2013-03-28

    Mar 28, 2013 ... Note that the maximum allowable percentage of the indirect costs .... adaptation and natural resource management apply for this consortium? .... d) computer equipment used for the administration or accounting of the Centre.

  13. Carcinoid Tumor: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatic enzyme replacement varies from 1-3 Viokase tablets with each meal and at bedtime, or 1- ... of choice in addition to CT scan and MRI. In appropriate cases, Neotect Scan, FDG PET scan ...

  14. Organ Transplantation: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...

  15. Frequently Asked Questions - GHRI Calls

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Genevieve Prud'homme

    2014-05-16

    May 16, 2014 ... 3) Co-principal application: a relevant local, district, or national level .... Should the research project be set within an existing intervention or strategy? .... are considered to be those that have legal corporate registration in an.

  16. Analyses of more than 60,000 exomes questions the role of numerous genes previously associated with dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nouhravesh, Nina; Ahlberg, Gustav; Ghouse, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hundreds of genetic variants have been described as disease causing in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Some of these associations are now being questioned. We aimed to identify the prevalence of previously DCM associated variants in the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC), in order...... to identify potentially false-positive DCM variants. METHODS: Variants listed as DCM disease-causing variants in the Human Gene Mutation Database were extracted from ExAC. Pathogenicity predictions for these variants were mined from dbNSFP v 2.9 database. RESULTS: Of the 473 DCM variants listed in HGMD, 148...... (31%) were found in ExAC. The expected number of individuals with DCM in ExAC is 25 based on the prevalence in the general population. Yet, 35 variants were found in more than 25 individuals. In 13 genes, we identified all variants previously associated with DCM; four genes contained variants above...

  17. A relação pergunta-resposta como preditor do reconto de histórias Question-asking organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta Parente

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo teve como objetivo verificar duas hipóteses da teoria de questionabilidade textual de Virbel: 1 o reconto é semelhante à organização de pergunta-resposta do autor; e, 2 a semelhança entre o reconto e força de questionabilidade da frase varia em função do grau de consistência do texto. Um primeiro comparou o reconto de 53 participantes com a força de questionabilidade das frases elementares do texto. Os resultados mostraram correlações significativas entre as duas variáveis de estudo. Um segundo experimento analisou o reconto de 141 participantes de 2 versões da história, que variaram quanto ao grau de consistência. Foram encontradas correlações significativas apenas na versão com maior grau de consistência. Os resultados dos 2 experimentos vão ao encontro da teoria de questionabilidade que propõe que para compreender e reconstruir uma história o ouvinte/leitor segue uma rede hierárquica que organiza as unidades significativas tendo por base a força de questionabilidade.This study aimed to verify two hypotheses of the text questionability theory (Virbel: 1 the recall is similar to the author's question-asking organization; and 2 the similarity between the recall and the questionability force will be in function of the text consistency. A first experiment compared the recall of 53 subjects with the questionability force of the elementary sentences. Significant correlations and regressions between the two variables were found. A second experiment analyzed the recall of 141 subjects in 2 versions of the story of the first experiment differentiated by the degree of consistency Correlations were found only in the version with higher degree of consistency. The results of the 2 experiments were in accordance with the questionability theory in that, in order to understand and to reconstruct a story, the 'comprehender' follows a hierarchical network, which organizes the unities of meaning based on their

  18. Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Third review meeting. Questions asked to France and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, referred to as the 'Joint Convention', is the result of international discussions that followed the adoption of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, in 1994. France signed the Joint Convention at the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held on 29 September 1997, the very first day the Joint Convention was opened for signature. She approved it on 22 February 2000 and filed the corresponding instruments with the IAEA on 27 April 2000. The Joint Convention entered into force on 18 June 2001. For many years, France has been taking an active part in the pursuit of international actions to reinforce nuclear safety and considers the Joint Convention to be a key step in that direction. The fields covered by the Joint Convention have long been part of the French approach to nuclear safety. For his third report, France presented a document reflecting the viewpoints of the various stakeholders (regulatory authorities and operators). Thus, for each of the chapters in which the regulatory authority is not the only party to express its point of view, a three-stage structure was adopted: first of all a description by the regulatory authority of the regulations, followed by a presentation by the operators of the steps taken to meet the regulations and finally, an analysis by the regulatory authority of the steps taken by the operators. This third report was distributed in October 2008 to all Contracting Parties who asked 213 questions on the French report. France answered each of them in the present document

  19. What to Ask: Delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join our e-newsletter! Resources What to Ask: Delirium Tools and Tips Under recognition of delirium is a major problem. It is important to ... questions you can ask your healthcare professional about delirium. What is delirium? What are its symptoms? How ...

  20. Analysis of 60 706 Exomes Questions the Role of De Novo Variants Previously Implicated in Cardiac Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christian; Ahlberg, Gustav; Ghouse, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: De novo variants in the exome occur at a rate of 1 per individual per generation, and because of the low reproductive fitness for de novo variants causing severe disease, the likelihood of finding these as standing variations in the general population is low. Therefore, this study...... sought to evaluate the pathogenicity of de novo variants previously associated with cardiac disease based on a large population-representative exome database. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a literature search for previous publications on de novo variants associated with severe arrhythmias...... trio studies (>1000 subjects). Of the monogenic variants, 11% (23/211) were present in ExAC, whereas 26% (802/3050) variants believed to increase susceptibility of disease were identified in ExAC. Monogenic de novo variants in ExAC had a total allele count of 109 and with ≈844 expected cases in Ex...

  1. New population-based exome data are questioning the pathogenicity of previously cardiomyopathy-associated genetic variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Charlotte Hartig; Nielsen, Jonas B; Refsgaard, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases with various etiologies. We focused on three genetically determined cardiomyopathies: hypertrophic (HCM), dilated (DCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Eighty-four genes have so far been associated with these card......Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases with various etiologies. We focused on three genetically determined cardiomyopathies: hypertrophic (HCM), dilated (DCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Eighty-four genes have so far been associated...... with these cardiomyopathies, but the disease-causing effect of reported variants is often dubious. In order to identify possible false-positive variants, we investigated the prevalence of previously reported cardiomyopathy-associated variants in recently published exome data. We searched for reported missense and nonsense...... variants in the NHLBI-Go Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) containing exome data from 6500 individuals. In ESP, we identified 94 variants out of 687 (14%) variants previously associated with HCM, 58 out of 337 (17%) variants associated with DCM, and 38 variants out of 209 (18%) associated with ARVC...

  2. Five questiouns dentists should ask about their money. Question 4: how do the communities (family, practice, profession, culture, neighborhood, etc.) in which I live affect my financial decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Troy E

    2006-11-01

    Communities, and the personal value you place on them, affect all your spending, both business and personal. Once you begin questioning and analyzing how they affect your financial decisions, you will begin making more complete choices - the better-informed, the greater chance of success. Society has attached many financial expectations to dentists - both good and bad. By participating in this part of the Five Questions process, you will be able to separate the business of dentistry from the practice of dentistry and your persona beliefs from the beliefs of your communities'.

  3. Promoting question-asking in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders : effectiveness of a robot intervention compared to a human-trainer intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huskens, Bibi; Verschuur, R.; Gillesen, J.C.C.; Didden, R.; Barakova, E.I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of an applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based intervention conducted by a robot compared to an ABA-based intervention conducted by a human trainer in promoting self-initiated questions in children with autism spectrum

  4. Ask a Periodontist (Frequently Asked Questions about Gum Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May Increase Lung Cancer Risk CDC Estimate: New Mexico, Hawaii Have Highest U.S. Incidence of Advanced Gum ... Finally, periodontists can be integral in the comprehensive planning of your oral care, along ... the costs of implants can often vary from urban to rural areas and will depend on how ...

  5. 'But is it a question worth asking?' A reflective case study describing how public involvement can lead to researchers' ideas being abandoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Jonathan D; Dalgleish, Mary; Freeman, Janet; Jones, Zena; Miles, Marianne; Rodgers, Helen

    2014-06-01

    It is good practice for the public to be involved in developing research ideas into grant applications. Some positive accounts of this process have been published, but little is known about when their reactions are negative and when researchers' ideas are abandoned. To present a case study account of when an academic-led idea for funding was not supported by stroke survivors and carers who were asked to contribute to its development, together with a reflection on the implications of the case from all the stakeholders involved. A reflective case study of a research idea, developed by an academic researcher, on which stakeholders were consulted. University researchers, clinicians, public involvement managers, and stroke survivors and carers from the NIHR's Stroke Research Network. Although the idea met with the approval of health professionals, who were keen to develop it into a funding bid, the stroke survivors and carers did not think the idea worth pursuing. This lack of patient and carer support led to the idea being abandoned. Reflecting on this, those involved in the consultation believed that the savings accrued from abandoning the idea, in terms of ensuring that public money is not wasted, should be seen as an important benefit of public involvement in the research process. Little is known about the role of the public in the abandonment of research ideas. We recommend that further research is undertaken into this important contribution that patients and the public can make to health research. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Making sense of work-based assessment: ask the right questions, in the right way, about the right things, of the right people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Jim; Jolly, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Historically, assessments have often measured the measurable rather than the important. Over the last 30 years, however, we have witnessed a gradual shift of focus in medical education. We now attempt to teach and assess what matters most. In addition, the component parts of a competence must be marshalled together and integrated to deal with real workplace problems. Workplace-based assessment (WBA) is complex, and has relied on a number of recently developed methods and instruments, of which some involve checklists and others use judgements made on rating scales. Given that judgements are subjective, how can we optimise their validity and reliability? This paper gleans psychometric data from a range of evaluations in order to highlight features of judgement-based assessments that are associated with better validity and reliability. It offers some issues for discussion and research around WBA. It refers to literature in a selective way. It does not purport to represent a systematic review, but it does attempt to offer some serious analyses of why some observations occur in studies of WBA and what we need to do about them. Four general principles emerge: the response scale should be aligned to the reality map of the judges; judgements rather than objective observations should be sought; the assessment should focus on competencies that are central to the activity observed, and the assessors who are best-placed to judge performance should be asked to participate. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  7. Comparison of different methods for MP detection: What can we learn from them, and why asking the right question before measurements matters?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elert, Anna M.; Becker, Roland; Duemichen, Erik; Eisentraut, Paul; Falkenhagen, Jana; Sturm, Heinz; Braun, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing trend towards investigating and monitoring the contamination of the environment by microplastics (MP) (plastic pieces < 5 mm) has been observed worldwide. Nonetheless, a reliable methodology that would facilitate and automate the monitoring of MP is still lacking. With the goal of selecting practical and standardized methods, and considering the challenges in microplastics detection, we present here a critical evaluation of two vibrational spectroscopies, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and two extraction methods: thermal extraction desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TED-GC-MS) and liquid extraction with subsequent size exclusion chromatography (SEC) using a soil with known contents of PE, PP, PS and PET as reference material. The obtained results were compared in terms of measurement time, technique handling, detection limits and requirements for sample preparation. The results showed that in designing and selecting the right methodology, the scientific question that determines what needs to be understood is significant, and should be considered carefully prior to analysis. Depending on whether the object of interest is quantification of the MP particles in the sample, or merely a quick estimate of sample contamination with plastics, the appropriate method must be selected. To obtain overall information about MP in environmental samples, the combination of several parallel approaches should be considered. - Highlights: • To establish reliable, harmonized detection methods a combination of several parallel approaches should be considered. • Scientific question, what information need to be known about the sample, should be formulated before selecting any methods. • Raman scattering can be recognized as the method being the most sensitive to the surface of the particle. • TED-GC-MS and SEC allow quantitative and fast assessment of contamination of the studied ecosystem with plastic

  8. Don’t Be Afraid to Ask the Question: A Simple Guide for Veterinary Nurses to Conducting Evidence-Based Research in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Badger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of veterinary nursing over the past fifty years combined with the introduction of the RCVS Register and Code of Conduct means that RVN's are now accountable for their actions and as a result must develop the ability to critically appraise, both their own practice and the protocols of the organisation in which they work, as part of clinical governance. It is therefore important that they develop the tools which enable them to confidently question all aspects of their clinical practice, but especially patient care and welfare, where necessary.This is a podcast of Sue and Andrea's talk at the Veterinary Evidence Today conference, Edinburgh November 1, 2016.

  9. There are some questions you may not ask in a clinic: providing contraception information to young people in Kenya using SMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdat, Heather L; L'Engle, Kelly L; Plourde, Kate F; Magaria, Loice; Olawo, Alice

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the acceptability, information access, and potential behavioral impact of providing contraception information via text message on mobile phones to young people in Kenya. Three methods of data collection were implemented during the 17-month pilot period for the Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH) program in Kenya: automatic logging of all queries to the m4RH system; demographic and behavior change questions sent via short message service protocol (SMS) to everyone who used m4RH during the pilot period; and telephone interviews with a subset of m4RH users. During the pilot period, 4817 unique users accessed m4RH in Kenya. Of these, 82% were 29 years of age and younger, and 36% were male. Condom and natural family-planning information was accessed most frequently, although users queried all methods. One in 5 used the m4RH system to locate nearby clinics. Respondents liked the simple language and confidentiality of receiving health information via mobile phone, and reported increased contraceptive knowledge and use after using m4RH. Providing contraception information via mobile phone is an effective strategy for reaching young people. More research is needed to learn how to link young people to youth-friendly services effectively. © 2013.

  10. Comparison of different methods for MP detection: What can we learn from them, and why asking the right question before measurements matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elert, Anna M; Becker, Roland; Duemichen, Erik; Eisentraut, Paul; Falkenhagen, Jana; Sturm, Heinz; Braun, Ulrike

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, an increasing trend towards investigating and monitoring the contamination of the environment by microplastics (MP) (plastic pieces methods, and considering the challenges in microplastics detection, we present here a critical evaluation of two vibrational spectroscopies, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and two extraction methods: thermal extraction desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TED-GC-MS) and liquid extraction with subsequent size exclusion chromatography (SEC) using a soil with known contents of PE, PP, PS and PET as reference material. The obtained results were compared in terms of measurement time, technique handling, detection limits and requirements for sample preparation. The results showed that in designing and selecting the right methodology, the scientific question that determines what needs to be understood is significant, and should be considered carefully prior to analysis. Depending on whether the object of interest is quantification of the MP particles in the sample, or merely a quick estimate of sample contamination with plastics, the appropriate method must be selected. To obtain overall information about MP in environmental samples, the combination of several parallel approaches should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Encouraging students to ask right questions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    of academics, right from formal teaching and handling research projects ... always thought that an ideal education system is one which strives ... of Applied Physics, Journal of Biomedical Technology, Applied ... students have attended many international and national confer- ... I dream of a vibrant, creative, knowledge-based.

  12. Grants to Institutions: Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    exchange rate between the working currency of the project and the Canadian ... Any addition of new line items to the budget attached to your grant agreement must .... local rules and regulations, IDRC will accept certified copies of the receipts.

  13. Home Care Services: Questions to Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Healthy aging Home care services range from medical care to help with daily household chores. If ... 12, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/home-care-services/art- ...

  14. Frequently Asked Questions on Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and should follow recommended precautions strictly. Health worker Ebola infections in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone How to put on and how to remove personal protective equipment - posters 6. Can Ebola be transmitted sexually? Sexual transmission of the Ebola ...

  15. Channel One: Asking the Wrong Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Hugh

    1994-01-01

    All arguments about the 10 minutes of Channel One programming are side issues, including concerns about the bias or superficiality of new coverage, "infotainment" methods, and learning effectiveness. The main issue is the presence of television advertising (commercial persuasion)--aimed at a captive audience of schoolchildren and…

  16. Frequently Asked Questions (Palliative Care: Conversations Matter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chaplains, and counselors. Support may involve art and music therapists, home health aides, nutritionists, and respite care ... end-of-life-research. A summary of The Science of Compassion: Future Directions in End-of-Life & ...

  17. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... structures that carry genes). As we unlock the secrets of the human genome (the complete set of ... geneticalliance.org] More information from the Genetic Alliance Top of page Last Updated: November 10, 2015 See ...

  18. Women and Diabetes: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4% chance of type 1 diabetes (mother with diabetes who was younger that 25 when the child was born) and 1% chance of type 1 diabetes (mother with diabetes who was older than 25 when the child was born). *Risk doubles if the parent was ...

  19. Frequently Asked Questions about Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and internet sites that offer free and for purchase personal health records, go the The American Health ... team is a high-risk pregnancy specialist with experience managing a Spina Bifida pregnancy. Babies with myelomeningocele, ...

  20. Frequently Asked Questions and Answers on Smallpox

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with smallpox is still infectious until the last scabs fall off. How fast does smallpox spread? The ... Variola virus research Variola virus repository inspections Synthetic Biology Technology for smallpox Post-eradication of smallpox You ...

  1. Frequently Asked Questions (Palliative Care: Conversations Matter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicine at NINR Research Highlights Data Science and Nursing Research Spotlight on End-of-Life and Palliative Care Research Spotlight on Symptom Management Research Spotlight on Pain Research The Science of Compassion: Future Directions in ...

  2. Head Lice: Malathion Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be checked for signs of infestation. Does malathion kill head lice eggs? Yes. The malathion lotion (Ovide*) ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  3. Scabies: Workplace Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person and simple vacuuming of the infested person’s furniture, rugs, and carpeting should prevent any spread. If ... Page last updated: July 19, 2013 Content source: Global Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet ...

  4. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP): Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSP in some cases. Sinemet. This is the brand name for a combination of “levodopa” and “carbidopa.” ... A major goal of CurePSP is to increase awareness of PSP, CBD, MSA and related brain diseases ...

  5. Frequently Asked Questions about Improved Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy school environment is one of the keys to keeping young minds and bodies strong. In fact, a healthy school environment is one of eight core components in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) model “Healthy Youth! Coordinated

  6. Frequently Asked Questions about Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at an approved music therapy degree program, the music therapy student must complete an internship at an approved internship ... needs to play in every session, but rather, music therapy students choose one instrument to be their major instrument ...

  7. Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... influenced by many factors, such as: Age. Sex. Race or ethnicity. Physical condition (e.g. weight, fitness ... which are all skills needed to drive a car safely. 2 The more alcohol consumed, the greater ...

  8. Ask a Question | National Agricultural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Technology Rural Development Visual Arts and Agricultural History Publications Alternative Farming Weeds Research and Technology Bioenergy and Biofuels Biotechnology Production Technology and Resources Sustainable Rural Communities What is Rural? Visual Arts and Agricultural History Abraham Lincoln

  9. Frequently Asked Questions about Surgical Site Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... follow CDC infection prevention guidelines including: Clean their hands and arms up to their elbows with an antiseptic agent ... Resistance Antibiotic Prescribing and Use Blood Safety Dialysis Safety Hand Hygiene HICPAC Injection Safety Infection Control Medication Safety ...

  10. What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Care Surgical Treatment Laparoscopic Surgery Vaccine Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy Clinical Trials Pain Management Nutrition and Exercise Holistic Care Pathology Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms Islet Cell ...

  11. Lymphatic Filariasis: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evaluation and Treatment Care of Patients with Lymphedema, Elephantiasis or Hydrocele Publications Additional Resources Get Email Updates ... and thickening of the skin, which is called elephantiasis. Many of these bacterial infections can be prevented ...

  12. Green Power Partnership Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page provides a brief program overview, including vision and accomplishments.

  13. Frequently Asked Questions about Rare Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  14. Frequently Asked Questions about Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  15. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  16. Questions Parents Ask about Baby Shots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause these serious diseases. Chiropractic remedies, naturopathy, and homeopathy are totally ineffective in preventing vaccine-preventable diseases. ... monitored as long as a vaccine is in use. Most side effects from vaccination are minor, such ...

  17. 7 Questions to Ask Open Source Vendors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    With their budgets under increasing pressure, many campus IT directors are considering open source projects for the first time. On the face of it, the savings can be significant. Commercial emergency-planning software can cost upward of six figures, for example, whereas the open source Kuali Ready might run as little as $15,000 per year when…

  18. Body Lice Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed? How are body lice treated? What are body lice? Body lice are parasitic insects that live ... to freshly laundered clothing and bedding. What do body lice look like? Body lice have three forms: ...

  19. Women Veterans Health Care: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accountability & Whistleblower Protection Transparency Media Room Inside the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival ...

  20. Frequently Asked Questions about Digital Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at www.fda.gov/findmammography . Do private insurance companies, Medicare and Medicaid pay for digital mammography exams, ... Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...

  1. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The Disease What is Malaria? Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease ... cycle of disease and poverty. How People Get Malaria (Transmission) How is malaria transmitted? Usually, people get ...

  2. Frequently asked questions about ATIP | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    How long will it take to get the information I have requested? ... which covers the first five hours of search and preparation for your request. .... CD release packages are provided in a PDF format, which will work on both Mac and PC computers.

  3. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  4. Frequently Asked Questions - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    (statistics)? A: Forecast performance is calculated following a thorough post-storm review of all available cyclone with an estimated intensity between 34 and 63 knots is designated a "Tropical Storm." - Extratropical ETT - Extratropical Transition FT - Final T-Number (Dvorak) IR - Infrared satellite imagery KT

  5. Prader-Willi Syndrome: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... techniques or tube feeding for several months after birth, until muscle control improves. Sometime in the following years, usually before school age, children with PWS develop an intense interest ...

  6. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a decision about testing. Interpret the results of genetic tests and medical data. Provide counseling or refer individuals and families to support services. Serve as patient advocates. Explain possible treatments or preventive ... What is a genetic consultation? [ghr.nlm.nih.gov] Top of page ...

  7. Lyme Disease Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Northeast and upper Midwest, with 14 states accounting for over 96% of cases reported to CDC. ... of Notifiable Diseases . What is a surveillance case definition? Reporting of all nationally notifiable diseases, including Lyme ...

  8. Methods and Strategies: Ask the Right Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracl, Carrie; Harshbarger, Dena

    2017-01-01

    Preparing 21st century learners is the goal of both the "Common Core State Standards" ("CCSS") and the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"). These two sets of standards jointly illuminate the need to teach scientific and literacy skills that will more appropriately prepare elementary students to…

  9. Navigating high-risk surgery: protocol for a multisite, stepped wedge, cluster-randomised trial of a question prompt list intervention to empower older adults to ask questions that inform treatment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lauren J; Rathouz, Paul J; Berlin, Ana; Brasel, Karen J; Mosenthal, Anne C; Finlayson, Emily; Cooper, Zara; Steffens, Nicole M; Jacobson, Nora; Buffington, Anne; Tucholka, Jennifer L; Zhao, Qianqian; Schwarze, Margaret L

    2017-05-29

    Older patients frequently undergo operations that carry high risk for postoperative complications and death. Poor preoperative communication between patients and surgeons can lead to uninformed decisions and result in unexpected outcomes, conflict between surgeons and patients, and treatment inconsistent with patient preferences. This article describes the protocol for a multisite, cluster-randomised trial that uses a stepped wedge design to test a patient-driven question prompt list (QPL) intervention aimed to improve preoperative decision making and inform postoperative expectations. This Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-funded trial will be conducted at five academic medical centres in the USA. Study participants include surgeons who routinely perform vascular or oncological surgery, their patients and families. We aim to enrol 40 surgeons and 480 patients over 24 months. Patients age 65 or older who see a study-enrolled surgeon to discuss a vascular or oncological problem that could be treated with high-risk surgery will be enrolled at their clinic visit. Together with stakeholders, we developed a QPL intervention addressing preoperative communication needs of patients considering major surgery. Guided by the theories of self-determination and relational autonomy, this intervention is designed to increase patient activation. Patients will receive the QPL brochure and a letter from their surgeon encouraging its use. Using audio recordings of the outpatient surgical consultation, patient and family member questionnaires administered at three time points and retrospective chart review, we will compare the effectiveness of the QPL intervention to usual care with respect to the following primary outcomes: patient engagement in decision making, psychological well-being and post-treatment regret for patients and families, and interpersonal and intrapersonal conflict relating to treatment decisions and treatments received. Approvals have been granted by the

  10. Four Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  11. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in ... and more with our Ask a Scientist video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, ...

  12. ASK Magazine; No. 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor); Little, Terry (Editor); Davis, Marty (Editor); Simmons, Jessica (Editor); Margolies, Donald (Editor); Goshorn, Larry (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    THIS ISSUE FEATURES A VISUAL DEPICTION OF THE ACADEMY of Program and Project Leadership (APPL). I imagine a variety of initial reactions to the drawing. One might be, "What is a cartoon doing in a magazine about project management?" Or perhaps, "Wow, nice colors-and fun." Another may be to closely search the image for signs, symbols and meaning. Still another, to read a new level of innovation and creativity into the picture. Undoubtedly, some readers will raise questions about the cost. Of course, any reaction is a sign of engagement. The stronger, the more energized the emotional and cognitive processing, the better. It is a sign of attention and interaction. For I've heard it said, "You only need to worry if they don t care one way or the other." So what is the point of the picture? To stimulate interest, raise questions, promote discussion, and maybe raise a smile.. .That, at least, was my initial reaction when I was introduced to the work of Nancy Hegedus, who helps to create these drawings for Root Learning Inc. At the NASA PM Conference, I was first shown the work Nancy had been doing with the help of Goddard s Knowledge Management Architect, Dr. Ed Rogers. I was immediately drawn into the power of visualization as a tool for more effective learning, communicating, and conveying complex knowledge concepts. We need new tools in today s world, where information and data overwhelms by sheer volume. There are articles, pamphlets, communications, and white papers-all aiming to convince and influence. Reactions to these tend to be either avoidance or mind-numbing, heavy-eyed consent; the message never registers or enters the soul. That s one of the reasons that APPL s Knowledge Sharing Initiative (KSI) has turned to storytelling as a memorable way of transfer- ring knowledge, inspiring imitation of best practices, and spurring reflection. ASK Magazine s recent fourth birthday marks an important milestone in APPL s continuing quest to provide ongoing support to

  13. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video below to get answers to questions like these and more with our Ask a Scientist video ... Is perfect vision real? Click to Watch Are these common eye-related myths true or false? Click ...

  14. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? ... Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. ...

  15. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 496-5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division of Extramural ...

  16. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding ... NEI Office of Communications (301)496-5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos ...

  17. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  18. Reasons for Consulting a Doctor on the Internet: Web Survey of Users of an Ask the Doctor Service

    OpenAIRE

    Umefjord, Göran; Petersson, Göran; Hamberg, Katarina

    2003-01-01

    Background In 1998 the Swedish noncommercial public health service Infomedica opened an Ask the Doctor service on its Internet portal. At no charge, anyone with Internet access can use this service to ask questions about personal health-related and disease-related matters. Objective To study why individuals choose to consult previously-unknown doctors on the Internet. Methods Between November 1, 2001, and January 31, 2002 a Web survey of the 3622 Ask the Doctor service users, 1036 men (29%) a...

  19. Web life: Ask Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Ask Nature is a site devoted to biomimicry, an interdisciplinary field in which practitioners study how animals and plants solve problems, and then use those solutions to develop better human technologies.

  20. ASK Magazine. No. 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor); Post, Todd (Editor); Brady, Jody Lannen (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Welcome to the Academy of Program and Project Leadership (APPL) and ASK Magazine. APPL helps NASA managers and project teams accomplish today's missions and meet tomorrow's challenges by providing performance enhancement services and tools, supporting career development programs, sponsoring knowledge sharing events and publications, and creating opportunities for project management collaboration with universities, professional associations, industry partners and other government agencies. ASK Magazine grew out of APPL's Knowledge Sharing Initiative. The stories that appear in ASK are written by the 'best of the best' project managers, primarily from NASA, but also from other government agencies and industry. These stories contain genuine nuggets of knowledge and wisdom that are transferable across projects. Who better than a project manager to help another project manager address a critical issue on a project? Big projects, smaLl projects-they're ali here in ASK. Stories in this issue include: Earthly Considerations on Mars, Getting Politically Active, Stumping for the Project, Grins & Giggles: The Launch Pad to High Performance, Transfer Wisdom Workshops: Coming to a NASA Center Near You, Project Management: The Television Show, Lessons Learned Again and Again and Again, Implementation Reviews, ASK Talks with Dr. Michael Hecht, and What Is This Fourth Dimension?.

  1. What’s the Harm in Asking about Suicidal Ideation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, R. Michael; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Crum, Paige; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Both researchers and oversight committees share concerns about patient safety in the study-related assessment of suicidality. However, concern about assessing suicidal thoughts can be a barrier to the development of empirical evidence that informs research on how to safely conduct these assessments. A question has been raised if asking about suicidal thoughts can result in iatrogenic increases of such thoughts, especially among at-risk samples. The current study repeatedly tested suicidal ideation at 6-month intervals for up to 2-years. Suicidal ideation was measured with the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire Junior, and administered to adolescents who had previously received inpatient psychiatric care. Change in suicidal ideation was tested using several analytic techniques, each of which pointed to a significant decline in suicidal ideation in the context of repeated assessment. This and previous study outcomes suggest that asking an at-risk population about suicidal ideation is not associated with subsequent increases in suicidal ideation. PMID:22548324

  2. 1968, o ano que ainda faz pensar: intelectuais indagam sobre a irrupção dos jovens na sociedade industrial 1968, the year that still makes you think: intellectuals ask questions about the youth's outburst in the industrial society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia de Amorim Soares

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Tendo como referência os embates de intelectuais franceses efetivados durante duas mesas redondas realizadas em Paris, no fervor dos meses de maio/junho de 1968, a partir da pergunta: Por que os estudantes? o presente artigo busca participar da comemoração do quadragésimo aniversário da irrupção dos jovens na sociedade industrial francesa, com seu questionamento sobre a universidade enquanto forma de reprodução de um sistema opressivo e discriminatório; através da análise dos acontecimentos estudantis, busca realçar o verdadeiro cerne da questão: as conseqüências da sociedade industrial tecnocrata que cada vez mais se desenvolve dominada pelo espírito mercantil. Ao trazer à tona e debater documentos da época e depoimentos dos protagonistas identifica a força do impacto de um Movimento que se colocava na perspectiva radical com o modelo de vida, de trabalho, de produção cultural, criando sua própria maneira de decodificar, negar e renovar as relações ossificadas na escola, na família, na cultura, na ação política e econômica.Having as reference the conflicting arguments of French intellectuals during two round tables in Paris, in the heat of the may/june of 1968 disturbances, while discussing the question: "Why the students?", the present article wishes to participate in the celebration of the fortieth anniversary of the eruption of the youth in the French industrial society and their perception of the university as a means of reproduction of an oppressive and discriminatory system. Through the analysis of these events, the paper tries to bring to light the essence of the question: the consequences of the technocratic industrial society that has increasingly been ruled by a mercantile spirit. By bringing forth and debating documents from the period and testimonies of the protagonists, it identifies the impact of a Movement that was based on a radical perspective according to a model of life, work, and cultural

  3. Awkward Questions: Language Issues in the 2011 Census in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebba, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The 2011 Census in England broke new ground, as a question about language had never previously been asked. After stakeholder consultations and a series of trials, the census authority decided on two questions based on earlier censuses in the USA: one about the respondent's "main language" and another about proficiency in English. This…

  4. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non-humans......In this work the network asks “If I wrote you a love letter would you write back?” Like the love letters which appeared mysteriously on the noticeboards of Manchester University’s Computer Department in the 1950s, thousands of texts circulate as computational processes perform the questions......, that circulates across networks. If I wrote you a love letter would you write back? (and thousands of other questions’ ) (封不回的情書?千言萬語無人回 was commissioned by the Microwave International New Media Festival 2012....

  5. Questioning the Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  6. Simulation in the Service of Design - Asking the Right Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donn, Michael; Selkowitz, Stephen; Bordass, Bill

    2009-03-01

    This paper proposes an approach to the creation of design tools that address the real information needs of designers in the early stages of design of nonresidential buildings. Traditional simplified design tools are typically too limited to be of much use, even in conceptual design. The proposal is to provide access to the power of detailed simulation tools, at a stage in design when little is known about the final building, but at a stage also when the freedom to explore options is greatest. The proposed approach to tool design has been derived from consultation with design analysis teams as part of the COMFEN tool development. The paper explores how tools like COMFEN have been shaped by this consultation and how requests from these teams for real-world relevance might shape such tools in the future, drawing into the simulation process the lessons from Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) of buildings.

  7. FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions IDRC Doctoral Research Awards ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    15) Do the application deadlines remain the same every year? 16) I applied for an .... they may be the best specialists to do so). 11) The ... Yes, but you may only ever apply twice to the IDRA competition and this must be in consecutive years.

  8. Probabilistic Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    General concepts and principles of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), describe how PRA can improve the bases of Agency decisions, and provide illustrations of how PRA has been used in risk estimation and in describing the uncertainty in decision making.

  9. Psycholinguistics of Aphasia Pharmacotherapy: Asking the Right Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Albert, Martin L.; Oveis, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Background Among the obstacles to demonstrating efficacy of pharmacological intervention for aphasia is quantifying patients’ responses to treatment in a statistically valid and reliable manner. In many of the review papers on this topic (e.g., Berthier et al., 2011; de Boissezon, Peran, de Boysson, & Démonet, 2007; Small & Llano, 2009), detailed discussions of various methodological problems are highlighted, with some suggestions on how these shortcomings should be addressed. Given this deep understanding of caveats associated with the experimental design of aphasia pharmacotherapy studies (e.g., Berthier et al., 2011), investigations continue to produce inconsistent results. Aim In this review paper we suggest that inclusion of theory-driven linguistic measures in aphasia pharmacotherapy studies would add an important step toward elucidating precise patterns of improvement in language performance resulting from pharmacotherapeutic intervention. Main Contribution We provide a brief review of the clinical approaches currently used in pharmacotherapy studies of aphasia, which often lack psycholinguistic grounding. We then present ways in which psycholinguistic models can complement this approach, offering a rationale for task selection, and as a result, lead to a better understanding of treatment effects. We then follow with an example of how such an integrative approach can be implemented in studies targeting stress reduction in people with aphasia, via beta-blocking agents, as a means to augment language performance, using the psycholinguistic framework of “linguistic anxiety” outlined in Cahana-Amitay et al, 2011 as our guideline. Conclusion We conclude that the incorporation of psycholinguistic models into aphasia pharmacotherapy studies can increase the resolution with which we can identify functional changes. PMID:24489425

  10. Mapping customer experience : The importance of asking the right questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overkamp, L.; Liefhebber, K.; Lu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    With the rise of user experience (UX) in the last years, traditional customer journey maps have been evolving into experience maps. An experience map visualises the customer’s steps before, during and after using a service (i.e. the customer journey), and when and how the customer interacts with the

  11. Frequently Asked Questions about Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for State Health Departments Evaluating an Infection Control Breach Outbreak Toolkit Containment Strategy What can be done ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  12. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Children: Asking the Right Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R Goldschneider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a painful disorder without a known unifying mechanism. There are little data on which to base evaluation and treatment decisions, and what data are available come from studies involving adults; however, even that literature is relatively sparse. Developing robust research for CRPS in children is essential for the progress toward optimal treatment.

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 604 - Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... service to the customer? A: If a registered charter provider does not provide service to the satisfaction.... You may only provide charter service for “program purposes,” which is defined in this regulation as... third party subsidy. (27) Q: What if a transit agency charges a customer an up front special event fare...

  14. Asking Better Questions: How Presentation Formats Influence Information Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Charley M.; Meder, Björn; Filimon, Flavia; Nelson, Jonathan D.

    2017-01-01

    While the influence of presentation formats have been widely studied in Bayesian reasoning tasks, we present the first systematic investigation of how presentation formats influence information search decisions. Four experiments were conducted across different probabilistic environments, where subjects (N = 2,858) chose between 2 possible search…

  15. Canine and feline obesity: frequently asked questions and their answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becvarova, Iveta

    2011-11-01

    The diagnosis of obesity is simple and warrants intervention because of the association between obesity and increased morbidity. Pet owner commitment, a proper feeding plan, and regular monitoring are the keys to a successful weight loss program. Treatment of obesity involves caloric restriction and/or diet change. Therapeutic weight loss diets differ in fiber, moisture, and digestible carbohydrate contents, and the diet choice should be tailored to the individual patient. Appropriate feeding management is equally important. To protect against the recurrence of obesity, owners should be educated on how to monitor body condition score and adjust the feeding program to maintain proper body condition.

  16. Questions to Ask Your Doctor--Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family member or I still drive, travel, have sex, work out or continue other activities we enjoy? How ... in Children • Arrhythmia Tools & Resources Answers by Heart Fact Sheets Learn and live with our downloadable patient ...

  17. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am I eligible? To be considered for the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), you must meet eligibility criteria related to educational attainment, US citizenship/permanent residency status, and the duration of prior postdoctoral research experience. Refer to the Eligibility Requirements for details. How do I apply? You must apply through our online application process.

  18. Prosthetic Frequently Asked Questions for the New Amputee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for specific medical advice or before making any purchasing decisions involving their care. National Limb Loss Resource ... Events Calendar Search Our Site Donate Memorial/Honor Gift Ways to Give Workplace Giving Program Donate Now ...

  19. Frequently Asked Questions about Cell Phones and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and health? Scientists are continuing to study the possible health effects of cell phone use. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) is currently looking into how cell phones may affect: Some types of tumors (a lump or ... are looking into a possible link between cell phone use and certain types ...

  20. commonly asked questions on the practice of intramedullary nailing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A) IMN is indicated for any shaft fractures- transverse, oblique and ... extensions. Complex fractures around the hip joint may ... ankle joints for indications such as failed arthroplasty, .... In event of delayed or nonunion which is atrophic, bone.

  1. Signs of Bullying: Important Questions for Parents to Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It reaches victims in school and online via social media apps and programs like Instagram, SnapChat, WhatsApp, Burn Note, Whisper, Yik Yak and YouTube. Some apps are anonymous or enable messages to disappear after a period of time. Bullying Signs Kids ...

  2. Frequently Asked Questions about Monitored Natural Attenuation in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    14 NEW CONTAMINANTS FOR THE MNA LINEUP 8. Can I apply MNA to metals, inorganics, and...they were "too simple" and often used "erroneously." Instead, they prescribed that MNA projects include identification of key "footprints" of MNA...solvent sites, loss is "Vapor Flux." 16 NEW CONTAMINANTS IN THE MNA LINEUP FAQ 8. Can I apply MNA to metals, inorganics, and radionuclides? Yes

  3. Asking the Right Questions: A Framework for Assessing Counterterrorism Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    3 This mismatch can and often does result in miscommunications between policymakers, practitioners, and broader audiences (e.g., the media and...that serves the public interest by providing in-depth analysis and result-oriented solutions to help government leaders choose the best course of

  4. MedlinePlus Connect: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topic data in XML format. Using the Web service, software developers can build applications that utilize MedlinePlus health topic information. The service accepts keyword searches as requests and returns relevant ...

  5. Frequently Asked Questions about Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Physiatrist Do What is the Difference Between Physical Therapy and Physiatry What Conditions Do Physiatrists Treat What ... on one area such as pediatrics, sports medicine, geriatric medicine, brain injury, and many ... Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AAPM&R) represents more than ...

  6. Asking the Right Questions: Action Learning and PMT 401

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    program aimed at improving leadership, critical thinking , problem solving and decision­making skills. Participants in this rigorous, in­residence...problem • Skill Development • Urgent and complex problems requiring unique systems thinking • Groups charged with implementing the solution as...most pressing organi­ zational issues: problem solving, organizational learning, team building, leadership development, and professional growth and

  7. Commonly Asked Questions about Children and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of caffeine containing food and drinks (coffee, soda, chocolate) is often helpful in making the headaches, dizziness ... only intravenous and often involved long-term intravenous therapy. Inhaled and oral medications have more recently become ...

  8. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic and Genomic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic and Genomic Science and Research FAQ About Clinical Research FAQ About Genetic Research FAQ About Genetic and Genomic Science See Also: Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms Definitions for the genetic terms used on this page ...

  9. Is the wrong question being asked in infertility research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Barbara; Stern, Judy E; Hornstein, Mark D; Kotelchuck, Milton; Diop, Hafsatou; Cabral, Howard; Declercq, Eugene R

    2016-01-01

    A persistent finding is that assisted reproductive technology (ART) is associated with compromised birth outcomes, including higher risks for prematurity, low birthweight, and congenital malformations, even among singletons. Over the past decade, our research group, the Massachusetts Outcome Study of Assisted Reproductive Technology (MOSART), has evaluated pregnancy and birth outcomes among three groups of women, those women treated with ART, those with indicators of subfertility but without ART treatment, and fertile women. We have also explored the influence of infertility-related diagnoses on outcomes for women and infants. Over the course of our research, we have changed our perspective from an original focus on ART treatment parameters as the primary cause of excess morbidity to one centered instead on the underlying infertility-related diagnoses. This paper summarizes the research findings from our group that support this change in focus for infertility-based research from a primary emphasis on ART treatment to greater attention to the contribution of preexisting pathology underlying the infertility and suggests directions for future analyses.

  10. Frequently Asked Questions about Drug Testing in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders showed that past-year use of illicit drugs other than marijuana is ... use of the prescription stimulant Adderall® in the past year. 1 Read more about the MTF survey results ...

  11. Questions never asked. Positive family outcomes of extremely premature childbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hanne; Pedersen, Birthe D; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore positive aspects of family life after extremely premature childbirth, thereby supplementing current literature on long-term family outcome. DESIGN: Semi-structured, qualitative research interviews were analysed according to the editing strategy described by Miller and Crabtree....... SETTING: Denmark, Europe. PARTICIPANTS: Nine fathers and 11 mothers of 14 children born before 28 completed weeks of gestation at a tertiary centre were interviewed when their children were 7-10 years old. RESULTS: Whereas developmental delay, functional limitations, family burden, and parental distress...

  12. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the media Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations Kathryn.DeMott@nih.gov NEI Office of Communications (301)496-5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions ...

  13. Question-asking in brazilian portuguese reading comprehension textbooks Question-asking in brazilian portuguese reading comprehension textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available “The proper business of school is to teach students to think!” has been the most widespread cliché in education over the last two decades (Squire, 1983; Paris, Lipson & Wixson, 1983; Spires et alli, 1993; Littlewood, 1996; Collins, 1998; Yang, 1998; Shneiderman, 1998. That is the bad news. In fact, despite all the rhetoric surrounding the major role assigned to education, the reality is that it is still struggling in the midst of a fundamental shift. The good news is that the cliché has a good chance to become more and more tangible among educators, materials designers and policy makers, who are starting to realise that in today’s Knowledge Era to think [critically] represents an asset which drastically shifts the traditional paradigms of power. Without a doubt, a learning environment which gives priority to the training of skills aiming at making students become critical thinkers can create and strengthen vantages of independence and autonomy for the students/future citizens belonging to that environment. “The proper business of school is to teach students to think!” has been the most widespread cliché in education over the last two decades (Squire, 1983; Paris, Lipson & Wixson, 1983; Spires et alli, 1993; Littlewood, 1996; Collins, 1998; Yang, 1998; Shneiderman, 1998. That is the bad news. In fact, despite all the rhetoric surrounding the major role assigned to education, the reality is that it is still struggling in the midst of a fundamental shift. The good news is that the cliché has a good chance to become more and more tangible among educators, materials designers and policy makers, who are starting to realise that in today’s Knowledge Era to think [critically] represents an asset which drastically shifts the traditional paradigms of power. Without a doubt, a learning environment which gives priority to the training of skills aiming at making students become critical thinkers can create and strengthen vantages of independence and autonomy for the students/future citizens belonging to that environment.

  14. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  15. Reasons for consulting a doctor on the Internet: Web survey of users of an Ask the Doctor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umefjord, Göran; Petersson, Göran; Hamberg, Katarina

    2003-10-22

    In 1998 the Swedish noncommercial public health service Infomedica opened an Ask the Doctor service on its Internet portal. At no charge, anyone with Internet access can use this service to ask questions about personal health-related and disease-related matters. To study why individuals choose to consult previously-unknown doctors on the Internet. Between November 1, 2001, and January 31, 2002 a Web survey of the 3622 Ask the Doctor service users, 1036 men (29%) and 2586 (71%) women, was conducted. We excluded 186 queries from users. The results are based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of the answers to the question "Why did you choose to ask a question at Infomedica's 'Ask the Doctor' service?" 1223 surveys were completed (response rate 36 %). Of the participants in the survey 322 (26%) were male and 901 (74%) female. As major reasons for choosing to consult previously-unknown doctors on the Internet participants indicated: convenience (52%), anonymity (36%), "doctors too busy" (21%), difficult to find time to visit a doctor (16%), difficulty to get an appointment (13%), feeling uncomfortable when seeing a doctor (9%), and not being able to afford a doctors' visit (3%). Further motives elicited through a qualitative analysis of free-text answers were: seeking a second opinion, discontent with previous doctors and a wish for a primary evaluation of a medical problem, asking embarrassing or sensitive questions, seeking information on behalf of relatives, preferring written communication, and (from responses by expatriates, travelers, and others) living far away from regular health care. We found that that an Internet based Ask the Doctor service is primarily consulted because it is convenient, but it may also be of value for individuals with needs that regular health care services have not been able to meet.

  16. What to Ask when Contracting for Maintenance and Custodial Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothall, Graeme A.

    1989-01-01

    Some school districts have found that maintenance and custodial services can be contracted out with cost-saving results. Contains specific questions to ask potential contractors in order to evaluate contracting for maintenance and custodial services. (MLF)

  17. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau; Rabinowitz, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of domain, age, and previous experience with content on the ways students approach questioning across history and science texts. In 3 experiments, 3rd-, 8th-, and 10th-grade students in large…

  18. A Review of What Instructional Designers Do: Questions Answered and Questions Not Asked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kenny

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this literature review was to determine what evidence there is that instructional designers apply ID Models, as well as to establish what other activities and processes they might use in their professional activities. Only ten articles were located that directly pertained to this topic: seven reporting on empirical research and three case descriptions recounting development experiences. All ten papers pertained to process-based ID models. Results showed that, while instructional designers apparently do make use of process-based ID models, they do not spend the majority of their time working with them nor do they follow them in a rigid fashion. They also engage in a wide variety of other tasks that are not reflected in ID models.

  19. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  20. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  1. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  2. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - adult; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - adult; Seizure - what to ask your doctor ... call to find more information about driving and epilepsy? What should I discuss with my boss at ...

  3. IIIB or not IIIB: a previously unanswered question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Jennifer T; Mishkin, Joseph D; Patel, Parag C; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Markham, David W; Drazner, Mark H

    2012-05-01

    The term New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IIIB has been used increasingly in clinical medicine, including as an inclusion criteria for many clinical trials assessing left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). Indeed, NYHA class IIIB is incorporated in the Food and Drug Administration's approved indication for the Heartmate II. However, on review of the medical literature, we found that there is no consensus definition of NYHA class IIIB. Until the ambiguity is resolved, we suggest that this designation not be used in clinical practice or by investigators leading clinical trials assessing therapies which convey substantial risk to patients and therefore require clarity in describing the enrolled patient population. With ongoing improvements in LVADs, this therapy will increasingly be considered in patients less sick than those who require inotropic support, providing urgency to establish a consensus system of classifying such patients who nevertheless fall within the spectrum of advanced heart failure. Herein we propose a modification of the standard NYHA classification system which can be used to fill this void. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after eachstep. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 15-20

  5. Curiosity Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  6. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  7. Scale Sensitivity and Question Order in the Contingent Valuation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Henrik; Svensson, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect on respondents' willingness to pay to reduce mortality risk by the order of the questions in a stated preference study. Using answers from an experiment conducted on a Swedish sample where respondents' cognitive ability was measured and where they participated in a contingent valuation survey, it was found that scale sensitivity is strongest when respondents are asked about a smaller risk reduction first ('bottom-up' approach). This contradicts some previous evi...

  8. Two-Year-Old Children Differentiate Test Questions from Genuine Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Gerlind; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Children are frequently confronted with so-called "test questions". While genuine questions are requests for missing information, test questions ask for information obviously already known to the questioner. In this study we explored whether two-year-old children respond differentially to one and the same question used as either a genuine question…

  9. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  10. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  11. Community question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Niall; Spence, Cameron

    2015-10-01

    THE BED manager scanned the whiteboard in the busy office of an acute psychiatric ward. 'What about this man, WL?' she asked. 'He's been in for nearly two weeks. Can he go on weekend leave?' The nurse in charge was sceptical, but an urgent admission was imminent, and there was no room. So WL was informed that he was ready for a trial period at home, and his bed was swiftly changed for the new arrival. Such is life in the inner-city psychiatric ward, where demand relentlessly exceeds supply.

  12. What's the Harm in Asking about Suicidal Ideation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, Michael; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Crum, Paige; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Both researchers and oversight committees share concerns about patient safety in the study-related assessment of suicidality. However, concern about assessing suicidal thoughts can be a barrier to the development of empirical evidence that informs research on how to safely conduct these assessments. A question has been raised if asking about…

  13. A Technique Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hakan Türkçapar; A. Emre Sargýn

    2012-01-01

    “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during t...

  14. Sexual Abuse in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: To Ask or Not to Ask – That Is the Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ilnyckyj

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common and costly disorder in Canada. The paucity of medical treatment underscores the importance of examining every element of the management approach. Data exist supporting an increased prevalence of abuse among individuals with IBS. Importantly, the pathophysiology underlying the link between abuse and IBS is increasingly understood. Treatment recommendations by opinion leaders support an abuse inquiry. However, many clinicians view abuse inquiry as an ethical dilemma.

  15. Newborn jaundice - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaundice - what to ask your doctor; What to ask your doctor about newborn jaundice ... What causes jaundice in a newborn child? How common is newborn jaundice? Will the jaundice harm my child? What are the ...

  16. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - child; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - child ... should I discuss with my child's teachers about epilepsy? Will my child need to take medicines during ...

  17. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  18. Angina - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about angina and heart disease; Coronary artery disease - what to ask your doctor ... the signs and symptoms that I am having angina? Will I always have the same symptoms? What ...

  19. Concussion - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about concussion - child; Mild brain injury - what to ask your doctor - child ... What type of symptoms or problems will my child have? Will my child have problems thinking or ...

  20. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  1. Dementia - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about dementia; Alzheimer disease - what to ask your doctor; Cognitive impairment - what to ask your doctor ... Alzheimer's Association. Dementia Care Practice Recommendations ... in a Home Setting. Updated 2009. Alz.org. www.alz.org/national/ ...

  2. Headache - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Migraine - what to ask your doctor; Tension-type headache - what to ask your doctor; Cluster headache - what to ask your doctor ... How can I tell if the headache I am having is dangerous? What are ... headache ? A migraine headache ? A cluster headache ? What medical ...

  3. Inspiring Sustainable Behaviour 19 Ways to Ask for Change

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    What is the answer to inspiring sustainable behaviour? It starts with a question - or nineteen. With this simple and inspiring guide you'll learn how to ask for persistent, pervasive, and near-costless change by uncovering our hidden quirks, judgmental biases, and apparent irrationalities.  The only change you'll need to make is how you ask.Businesses, larger or small, will soon have to cut costs and cut carbon, irrespective of the products they sell, or the services they perform. National government has structural policy and legislative needs, and local government has implementation and docum

  4. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method used in cognitive therapy is guided discovery. There are various methods of guided discovery in cognitive therapy. The form of verbal exchange between the therapist and client which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as “socratic questioning”. In this method the goal is to make the client rediscover, with a series of questions, a piece of knowledge which he could otherwise know but is not presently conscious of. The Socratic Questioning consists of several steps, including: identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly rediscovered information and questioning the old distorted belief, and reaching a new conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are: questions for collecting information, questions revealing meanings, questions revealing beliefs, questions about behaviours during similar past experiences, analytic questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood, it is important to be empathetic and summarize the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues provided for each step. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 47-53

  5. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  6. What Children Learn from Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…

  7. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  8. The Socratic Method and Levels of Questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Karilee

    1980-01-01

    Determines if instruction in the Socratic method would increase higher level questioning during peer teaching experiences in teacher education programs. Raters, using the higher order questioning strategy, evaluated 14 students. A significant increase in higher level questions being asked suggests the Socratic Method may be useful. (Author)

  9. Questions, Curiosity and the Inquiry Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Leo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conceptual relationship between questions, curiosity and learning as inquiry elaborated in the work of Chip Bruce and others as the Inquiry Cycle. The Inquiry Cycle describes learning in terms of a continuous dynamic of ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect. Of these elements "ask" has a privileged…

  10. Cryosurgery in Cancer Treatment: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  11. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series ...

  12. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I ...

  13. What Are Youth Asking about Drugs? A Report of NIDA Drug Facts Chat Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Hoefinger, Heidi; Linn-Walton, Rebecca; Aikins, Ross; Falkin, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    The current study analyzes a sample of questions about drugs asked online by youth who participated in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) "Drug Facts Chat Day." The types of drugs youth asked about were coded into 17 substance categories, and the topics they raised were coded into seven thematic categories. The top five…

  14. The Coding Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Three questions on Lorentz violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Alfredo [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Charles University of Prague - V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Physics ' E. R. Caianiello' , University of Salerno and I.N.F.N. Naples, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno - Via Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    We review the basics of the two most widely used approaches to Lorentz violation - the Standard Model Extension and Noncommutative Field Theory - and discuss in some detail the example of the modified spectrum of the synchrotron radiation. Motivated by touching upon such a fundamental issue as Lorentz symmetry, we ask three questions: What is behind the search for Lorentz violation? Is String Theory a physical theory? Is there an alternative to Supersymmetry?.

  16. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  17. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI for Kids >> Ask a Scientist Video Series ... can see clearly from 25 feet away. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  18. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...

  19. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  20. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’ ... a scientist? Click to Watch What is an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click ...

  1. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI for Kids » Ask a Scientist Video Series ... can see clearly from 25 feet away. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  2. Acute Streptococcal Tonsillitis in a Child. Questions asked by Life (Scientific Answers to the Question Put by the Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Nagornaya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of acute tonsillitis remains relevant in clinical pediatrics. A special role in its etiology belongs to group A β-hemolytic streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes, which is found in every fourth child with acute bacterial tonsillitis. In this article there is presented an analysis of the clinical case of streptococcal tonsillitis in children and the pathogen, epidemiology and prognosis of the disease are described. The authors reviewed the current diagnosis criteria and international treatment approaches. There has been grounded the use of cefuroxime axetil for eradication of Streptococcus pyogenes.

  3. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  4. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  5. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  6. Teacher's Questions in Reading Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliati Rohmah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present paper discusses an English teacher's questions in Reading classes at MAN Malang III. Types of questions, functions of teacher's questions, question levels and the strategies applied by the teacher were put as the research problems. Non-participant observa­tion was applied to collect the data with the researcher as the main in­strument aided by field-notes and a tape recorder. It was found that the distribution of the questions did not allow the students to talk longer and to think more analytically. Meanwhile, the strategies applied by the teacher helped the students to respond to the questions previously unanswered. The teacher is suggested to produce more open and refer­ential question as well as inference and evaluation questions as to give more chances for the students to think aloud more.

  7. A Technique Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after each step

  8. Learning How to Ask: Women and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Lauren H; Bajaj, Anureet K

    2017-03-01

    Women are less likely to reach top-level leadership positions, and more likely to leave academic positions, than men, and are likely to earn less money than men. Women are also less likely to initiate a negotiation-a process that is crucial for professional advancement. This reluctance to ask hinders their advancement and can have long-lasting consequences-both financial and professional. The reasons that women do not ask are multifactorial. In this article, we will explore reasons why women are less likely to negotiate, the barriers they face when they do, and strategies that women can apply to improve their negotiation skills.

  9. Frequently Asked Questions on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS‐CoV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Oman, Philippines, Qatar, Republic of Korea, ... rub can be used); adhering to good food‐safety practices, such as avoiding undercooked meat or food ...

  10. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  11. Patient-Reported Outcome and Quality of Life Instruments Database (PROQOLID: Frequently asked questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrier Laure-Lou

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The exponential development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO measures in clinical research has led to the creation of the Patient-Reported Outcome and Quality of Life Instruments Database (PROQOLID to facilitate the selection process of PRO measures in clinical research. The project was initiated by Mapi Research Trust in Lyon, France. Initially called QOLID (Quality of Life Instruments Database, the project's purpose was to provide all those involved in health care evaluation with a comprehensive and unique source of information on PRO and HRQOL measures available through the Internet. PROQOLID currently describes more than 470 PRO instruments in a structured format. It is available in two levels, non-subscribers and subscribers, at http://www.proqolid.org. The first level is free of charge and contains 14 categories of basic useful information on the instruments (e.g. author, objective, original language, list of existing translations, etc.. The second level provides significantly more information about the instruments. It includes review copies of over 350 original instruments, 120 user manuals and 350 translations. Most are available in PDF format. This level is only accessible to annual subscribers. PROQOLID is updated in close collaboration with the instruments' authors on a regular basis. Fifty or more new instruments are added to the database annually. Today, all of the major pharmaceutical companies, prestigious institutions (such as the FDA, the NIH's National Cancer Institute, the U.S. Veterans Administration, dozens of universities, public institutions and researchers subscribe to PROQOLID on a yearly basis. More than 800 users per day routinely visit the database.

  12. 25 CFR 63.15 - What questions should an employer ask?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD..., volunteer, or employee has been arrested or convicted of a crime involving a child, violence, sexual assault, sexual molestation, sexual exploitation, sexual contact or prostitution, or crimes against persons; (b...

  13. Western Juniper Field Guide: Asking the Right Questions to Select Appropriate Management Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid expansion of western juniper into neighboring plant communities during the past 130 years has been linked to increased soil erosion; reduced forage production; altered wildlife habitat; changes in plant community composition, structure, and biodiversity. Impacts of post-settlement woodland...

  14. Pinon and juniper field guide: Asking the right questions to select appropriate management actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Tausch; R. F. Miller; B. A. Roundy; J. C. Chambers

    2009-01-01

    Pinon-juniper woodlands are an important vegetation type in the Great Basin. Old-growth and open shrub savanna woodlands have been present over much of the last several hundred years. Strong evidence indicates these woodlands have experienced significant tree infilling and major expansion in their distribution since the late 1800s by encroaching into surrounding...

  15. 78 FR 68460 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Frequently Asked Questions About Medical Foods; Second Edition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... interested persons additional time to submit comments. DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments by....gov . Submit written comments to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug... Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, 240-402-1783. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the...

  16. World Hunger: Asking the Right Questions. And! The First Food Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Susan; Christie, Mari Ely

    1983-01-01

    The key to understanding world hunger is to realize the distribution of power between those who control economic circumstances and those who, through no fault of their own, are unable to continue traditional practices that provided food. Educators can help students understand the forces that influence food distribution. (MLF)

  17. Questions for Parents to Ask about School Adaptations. PHP-c91

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A child with a disability who has an Individualized Education Program (IEP) or Section 504 Accommodation Plan may need extra help and support to participate in school. It takes thoughtful planning to choose adaptations, based on a child's disability, to help the child learn or have access to learning. Appropriate accommodations vary with…

  18. U.S. Military Action Against the Islamic State: Answers to Frequently Asked Legal Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-09

    and exclusive power of the President as the sole organ of the federal government in the field of international relations”). U.S. Military Action...with relevant statutory authority,26 there has been little jurisprudence concerning the scope of presidential authority to order the use of force...29 Dames & Moore, 453 U.S. 678-679 ( internal citations omitted). 30 Medellin v. Texas, 552 U.S. 491, 531-532 (2008) ( internal citations omitted

  19. Rethinking Breast Self-Examinations: Are We Asking the Right Questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Conley

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a myriad of studies on the efficacy of BSE, with mixed results. Research also highlights growing health disparities and continuing limited access to technology in underserved communities. Results from a pilot study with rural teens suggest that successful skill mastery and sustained practice can be learned. Perhaps most importantly, BSE offers a technology-free method for self-assessment that can be taught at the community level and provides an opportunity for women to gain a measure of self-control over their bodies and themselves.

  20. The Intelligence Problem of Policymakers in Counterinsurgency: Asking And Answering the Right Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    explosive device ISR intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance J2 joint staff intelligence section NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization OSINT open...commonly referring to the technical means of collection to the exclusion of HUMINT, open source intelligence ( OSINT ), and other information coming...is using to gain popular support or to delegitimize the supported government. The 10th Mountain Division determined OSINT was an important component

  1. Ask the climate question : adapting to climate change impacts in urban regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    As the first responders to the impacts of climate change, local governments play a crucial role in implementing the actions and strategies that will reduce their communities vulnerability to the dangers of a changing climate. This type of action o...

  2. FEDERAL TRUST AND OTHER EARMARKED FUNDS: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Despite their importance in the budget, the relationship between federal trust funds such as the Social Security or Medicare trust funds and other earmarked funds such as the Nuclear Waste Fund...

  3. Why do you ask all those questions? Supporting client profiling in financial service encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Kilic, Mehmet; Dolata, Mateusz; Schwabe, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Client data is key to provide personalized services and products. Therefore, banks go through great efforts to profile their clients during financial advisory service en- counters. Since traditional pen-and-paper profiling does not satisfy the banks’ needs, they strive to digitalize this activity. This paper offers joint profiling as a so- lution: The advisor and the client jointly create a cli- ent’s profile using a shared display. However, test cli- ents provided a mixed response to a first...

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in South East Asia: time to ask the right questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Manish; Chatterjee, Pranab; Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh; Grace, Delia; Lindahl, Johanna; Beeche, Arlyne; Jing, Fang; Chotinan, Suwit

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a major public health concern, around which the international leadership has come together to form strategic partnerships and action plans. The main driving force behind the emergence of AMR is selection pressure created due to consumption of antibiotics. Consumption of antibiotics in human as well as animal sectors are driven by a complex interplay of determinants, many of which are typical to the local settings. Several sensitive and essential realities are tied with antibiotic consumption - food security, livelihoods, poverty alleviation, healthcare access and national economies, to name a few. That makes one-size-fits-all policies, framed with the developed country context in mind, inappropriate for developing countries. Many countries in the South East Asian Region have some policy structures in place to deal with AMR, but most of them lack detailed implementation plans or monitoring structures. In this current debates piece, the authors argue that the principles driving the AMR agenda in the South East Asian countries need to be dealt with using locally relevant policy structures. Strategies, which have successfully reduced the burden of AMR in the developed countries, should be evaluated in the developing country contexts instead of ad hoc implementation. The Global Action Plan on AMR encourages member states to develop locally relevant National Action Plans on AMR. This policy position should be leveraged to develop and deploy locally relevant strategies, which are based on a situation analysis of the local systems, and are likely to meet the needs of the individual member states.

  5. What impedes knowledge sharing in culturally diverse organizations: Asking ethnographic questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Madsen, Mona Toft

    Ideas of linking cultural diversity and knowledge resources have recently gained momentum. However, only little research has empirically addressed the issues of knowledge sharing in diverse organizations. This explorative article is based on an ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish organization...

  6. Measuring Library Vendor Cyber Security: Seven Easy Questions Every Librarian Can Ask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Caro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on an independent cyber security risk management audit for a public library system completed by the authors in early 2015 and based on a research paper by the same group at Clark University in 2014. We stress that while cyber security must include raising public knowledge in regard to cyber security issues and resources, and libraries are indeed the perfect place to disseminate this knowledge, librarians are also in a unique position as the gatekeepers of information services provided to the public and should conduct internal audits to ensure our content partners and IT vendors take cyber security as seriously as the library and its staff. One way to do this is through periodic reviews of existing vendor relationships. To this end, the authors created a simple grading rubric you can adopt or modify to help take this first step towards securing your library data. It is intended to be used by both technical and non-technical staff as a simple measurement of what vendor agreements currently exist and how they rank, while at the same time providing a roadmap for which security features or policy statements the library can or should require moving forward.

  7. The Knowledge Engineer as Student: Metacognitive Bases for Asking Good Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Crombag Associate Director for Life Sciences Buxton Towers University of Leyden AFOSR Baltimore, MD 21204 Education Research Center Bolling AFB...Doerhaavelaan 2 Washington, DC 20332Do. David& Charney 2334 EN Leyden Department of Psychology The NETHERLANDS Defense Technical Carnegie-Mellon University...Wetenschappen Dr. Kathleen McKeown Community College of Rijksuniversiteit Groningen Columbia UniversityAllegheny County Oude Boteringestraat 23 Department of

  8. Quantifying pelagic-benthic coupling in the North Sea: Are we asking the right question?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, K.; Cedhagen, T.

    2002-01-01

    is devoted to obtaining more and better data describing this exchange. Efforts to quantify exchange between the water column and the sediment must continue. However, such studies will not, in themselves, lead to a quantification of pelagic-benthic coupling in the North Sea. We identify here other areas......The coupling between pelagic and benthic processes occurs through the signals sent between the water column and the seabed. Huge methodological challenges are associated with the quantification of the signals being sent between these two domains - especially in a relatively shallow and heavily...... fished region such as the North Sea where deployment of sediment traps or bottom mounted cameras or samplers is difficult. Thus, there are relatively few sites in the North Sea for which good data are available for describing pelagic-benthic (or near shore-offsbore) coupling and considerable effort...

  9. Asthma: Questions to Ask When My Asthma Doesn't Get Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  10. 'Asking the hard questions': Improving midwifery students' confidence with domestic violence screening in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel; Wight, Raechel; Homer, Caroline S E

    2018-01-01

    Domestic violence is a global public health issue. Midwives are ideally placed to screen for, and respond to, disclosure of domestic violence. Qualified midwives and midwifery students report a lack of preparedness and low levels of confidence in working with women who disclose domestic violence. This paper reports the findings from an education intervention designed to increase midwifery students' confidence in working with pregnant women who disclose domestic violence. An authentic practice video and associated interactive workshop was developed to bring the 'woman' into the classroom and to provide role-modelling of exemplary midwifery practice in screening for and responding to disclosure of domestic violence. The findings demonstrated that students' confidence increased in a number of target areas, such as responding appropriately to disclosure and assisting women with access to support. Students' confidence increased in areas where responses needed to be individualised as opposed to being able to be scripted. Students appreciated visual demonstration (video of authentic practice) and having the opportunity to practise responding to disclosures through experiential learning. Given the general lack of confidence reported by both midwives and students of midwifery in this area of practice, this strategy may be useful in supporting midwives, students and other health professionals in increasing confidence in working with women who are experiencing domestic violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The question waiting to be asked: Innate immunity receptors in the perspective of zoological research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, Suppl. 1 (2009), s. 15-28 ISSN 0139-7893. [Central European Meeting on Mouse Epigenetics /1./. Nové Hrady, 14.08.2008-17.08.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA ČR GA206/08/1281; GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : animal immunogenetics * ecological and evolutionary immunology * immunity genes * parasites * wild-living populations * ecoimmunology * immunoecology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2009

  12. Rethinking Safe Schools Approaches for LGBTQ Students: Changing the Questions We Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elizabethe; Smith, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors address the limitations of framing "the problem" of in-school LGBTQ harassment within dominant anti-bullying discourses. They offer a critical sociological framework as an alternative way of understanding the issues of LGBTQ harassment and propose a research agenda in which school culture and gender policing are the…

  13. Screening youth for suicide risk in medical settings: time to ask questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Lisa M; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Pao, Maryland; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2014-09-01

    This paper focuses on the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force's Aspirational Goal 2 (screening for suicide risk) as it pertains specifically to children, adolescents, and young adults. Two assumptions are forwarded: (1) strategies for screening youth for suicide risk need to be tailored developmentally; and (2) we must use instruments that were created and tested specifically for suicide risk detection and developed specifically for youth. Recommendations for shifting the current paradigm include universal suicide screening for youth in medical settings with validated instruments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Expectations of younger patients concerning activities after knee arthroplasty: are we asking the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjes, Suzanne; van Geenen, Rutger C I; Koenraadt, Koen L M; van der Hart, Cor P; Blankevoort, Leendert; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Kuijer, P Paul F M

    2017-02-01

    Indications for total and unicondylar knee arthroplasty (KA) have expanded to younger patients, in which Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) often show ceiling effects. This might be due to higher expectations. Our aims were to explore expectations of younger patients concerning activities in daily life, work and leisure time after KA and to assess to what extent PROMs meet and evaluate these activities of importance. Focus groups were performed among osteoarthritis (OA) patients leisure time after KA. Additionally, 28 activities of daily life, 17 of work and 27 of leisure time were depicted from seven PROMS, which were rated on importance, frequency and bother. A total score, representing motivation for surgery, was also calculated. Data saturation was reached after six focus groups including 37 patients. Younger OA patients expect to perform better on 16 activities after KA, including high-impact leisure time activities. From the PROMs, daily life and work activities were rated high in both importance and motivation for surgery, but for leisure time activities importance varied highly between patients. All seven PROMs score activities of importance, but no single PROM incorporates all activities rated important. Younger patients expect to perform better on many activities of daily life, work and leisure time after KA, and often at demanding levels. To measure outcomes of younger patients, we suggest using PROMs that include work and leisure time activities besides daily life activities, in which preferably scored activities can be individualized.

  15. The energy issue in debate. Energy: answers to questions one does not dare to ask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    This publication first outlines four main issues which should govern the definition of alternate propositions regarding the energy policy: energy is a vital need; access to energy is unequal for the world population; energy resources are being depleted; energy plays an important part in the equilibrium of our environment. Then, after having noticed that transports are responsible for the main part of greenhouse gas emissions, it discusses different energetic scenarios: business as usual (or heading for disaster), to respond to the ecological demand (to choose between nuclear plants and wind farms), a management of demand and of negative growth, a choice between energy markets and energy public services. Some objectives are defined: to reduce as quickly as possible the use of non-renewable energies, to promote energy saving and rational collective and individual choices, a better management of fossil energies while respecting the first objective, the right for an energetic independence based on the use of renewable energies for all countries, and to promote a European policy with technology transfer to and solidarity with developing countries. The article concludes by outlining the main objective (to safeguard the planet) while taking global, economic, geopolitical and ecological issues into account

  16. The Role of Gender in Asking Questions at Cool Stars 18 and 19

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Douglas, Stephanie; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Booth, Rachel S.; Davenport, James R. A.; Mace, Gregory N.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the gender balance of the 18th and 19th meetings of the Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stellar Systems and the Sun (CS18 and CS19). The percent of female attendees at both meetings (31% at CS18 and 37% at CS19) was higher than the percent of women in the American Astronomical Society (25%) and the International Astronomical Union (18%). The representation of women in Cool Stars as SOC members, invited speakers, and contributed speakers was similar to or exceeded the percent of women at...

  17. A New Higher Education Curriculum in Organic Chemistry: What Questions Should Be Asked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, David L.; Morge, Ludovic M.; Méheut, Martine M.

    2014-01-01

    Organic chemistry is often considered to be a difficult subject to teach and to learn, particularly as students prefer to resort to memorization alone rather than reasoning using models from chemical reactivity. Existing studies have led us to suggest principles for redefining the curriculum, ranging from its overall structure to the tasks given…

  18. "How much realism is needed?" - the wrong question in silico imagers have been asking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badano, Aldo

    2017-05-01

    To discuss the use of realism as a first approximation for assessing computational imaging methods. Although in silico methods are increasingly becoming promising surrogates to physical experimentation for various stages of device development, their acceptance remains challenging. Realism is often considered as a first approximation for assessing computational imaging methods. However, realism is subjective and does not always ensure that key features of the methodologies reflect relevant aspects of devices of interest to imaging scientists, regulators, and medical practitioners. Moreover, in some cases (e.g., in computerized image analysis applications where human interpretation is not needed) how realistic in silico images are is irrelevant and perhaps misleading. I emphasize a divergence from this methodology by providing a rationale for evaluating in silico imaging methods and tools in an objective and measurable manner. Improved approaches for in silico imaging will lead to the rapid advancement and acceptance of computational techniques in medical imaging primarily but not limited to the regulatory evaluation of new imaging products. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Five Questions Critical Care Educators Should Ask About Simulation-Based Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquette, Dominique; LeBlanc, Vicki R

    2015-09-01

    Simulation is now commonly used in health care education, and a growing body of evidence supports its positive impact on learning. However, simulation-based medical education (SBME) involves a range of modalities, instructional methods, and presentations associated with different advantages and limitations. This review aims at better understanding the nature of SBME, its theoretic and proven benefits, its delivery, and the challenges posed by SBME. Areas requiring further research and development are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Statistical Analysis of Student Questions in a Cell Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Elena L.; Polacek, Kelly M.; Ingram, Ella L.

    2009-01-01

    Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students…

  1. Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2012-01-01

    , and it applies these approaches to existing question retrieval models, including a state-of-the-art question retrieval model. Experiments conducted on real CQA data demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient and are capable of outperforming a variety of baseline methods significantly......Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function...

  2. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  3. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ... Employee Emergency Information NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. ...

  4. Why physicians and nurses ask (or don’t about partner violence: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beynon Charlene E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a serious public health issue and is associated with significant adverse health outcomes. The current study was undertaken to: 1 explore physicians’ and nurses’ experiences, both professional and personal, when asking about IPV; 2 determine the variations by discipline; and 3 identify implications for practice, workplace policy and curriculum development. Methods Physicians and nurses working in Ontario, Canada were randomly selected from recognized discipline-specific professional directories to complete a 43-item mailed survey about IPV, which included two open-ended questions about barriers and facilitators to asking about IPV. Text from the open-ended questions was transcribed and analyzed using inductive content analysis. In addition, frequencies were calculated for commonly described categories and the Fisher’s Exact Test was performed to determine statistical significance when examining nurse/physician differences. Results Of the 931 respondents who completed the survey, 769 (527 nurses, 238 physicians, four whose discipline was not stated provided written responses to the open-ended questions. Overall, the top barriers to asking about IPV were lack of time, behaviours attributed to women living with abuse, lack of training, language/cultural practices and partner presence. The most frequently reported facilitators were training, community resources and professional tools/protocols/policies. The need for additional training was a concern described by both groups, yet more so by nurses. There were statistically significant differences between nurses and physicians regarding both barriers and facilitators, most likely related to differences in role expectations and work environments. Conclusions This research provides new insights into the complexities of IPV inquiry and the inter-relationships among barriers and facilitators faced by physicians and nurses. The

  5. Why physicians and nurses ask (or don't) about partner violence: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynon, Charlene E; Gutmanis, Iris A; Tutty, Leslie M; Wathen, C Nadine; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2012-06-21

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a serious public health issue and is associated with significant adverse health outcomes. The current study was undertaken to: 1) explore physicians' and nurses' experiences, both professional and personal, when asking about IPV; 2) determine the variations by discipline; and 3) identify implications for practice, workplace policy and curriculum development. Physicians and nurses working in Ontario, Canada were randomly selected from recognized discipline-specific professional directories to complete a 43-item mailed survey about IPV, which included two open-ended questions about barriers and facilitators to asking about IPV. Text from the open-ended questions was transcribed and analyzed using inductive content analysis. In addition, frequencies were calculated for commonly described categories and the Fisher's Exact Test was performed to determine statistical significance when examining nurse/physician differences. Of the 931 respondents who completed the survey, 769 (527 nurses, 238 physicians, four whose discipline was not stated) provided written responses to the open-ended questions. Overall, the top barriers to asking about IPV were lack of time, behaviours attributed to women living with abuse, lack of training, language/cultural practices and partner presence. The most frequently reported facilitators were training, community resources and professional tools/protocols/policies. The need for additional training was a concern described by both groups, yet more so by nurses. There were statistically significant differences between nurses and physicians regarding both barriers and facilitators, most likely related to differences in role expectations and work environments. This research provides new insights into the complexities of IPV inquiry and the inter-relationships among barriers and facilitators faced by physicians and nurses. The experiences of these nurses and physicians suggest that more supports (e

  6. Difficult Questions of Difficult Questions: The Role of The Researcher and Transcription Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Holly

    2018-01-01

    This paper refracts a comparison of three distinct transcription styles through questions of researcher reflexivity. It uses the data from a single question asked by the researcher in multiple interviews for a small empirical project. These data are transcribed in three ways, and the resulting transcripts are discussed in relation to the analysis…

  7. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  8. Qualitative analysis of the diet of a probabilistic sample of schoolchildren from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, using the Previous Day Food Questionnaire Análise qualitativa da dieta de amostra probabilística de escolares de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, com o uso do Questionário Alimentar do Dia Anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Altenburg de Assis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative evaluation of the diet of a probabilistic sample of 7-10 year old schoolchildren (n = 1,232 from Florianópolis (southern Brazil was carried out by analyzing compliance with recommendations from the Brazilian Food Guidelines. The strengths and limitations of the Previous Day Food Questionnaire (PDFQ are also presented. Frequencies of intake were defined as how many times per day the food group was reported on the PDFQ. The percentages of schoolchildren who met the minimum recommendations and who ate foods that were not recommended in the guidelines were compared for boys versus girls, private versus public school and by family income level. Although most of the children complied with the guidelines regarding consumption of meat/fish, dry beans, sweets, and eating three meals and two snacks, only 6.5% of the children met the recommendations for cereals, and 15% for fruit and vegetables. The PDFQ was confirmed as a practical and cost-effective method for the evaluation of compliance with health promotion targets.Avaliação qualitativa da dieta de uma amostra probabilística de escolares de 7-10 anos (n = 1.232 de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, é apresentada por meio de uma análise da concordância com as recomendações do guia alimentar para a população brasileira. Os aspectos positivos e as limitações do Questionário Alimentar do Dia Anterior (QUADA são também discutidos. As freqüências de consumo foram definidas em vezes por dia que os grupos de alimentos foram relatados no QUADA. As porcentagens de escolares que atingiram as recomendações mínimas do guia e que consumiram alimentos não recomendados foram comparadas entre os sexos, tipo de escola (pública versus privada e nível de salário familiar. A maioria das crianças apresentou concordância com o guia para o consumo de carnes/peixes, feijão, doces e realização de três refeições e dois lanches; somente 6,5% atingiram as recomendações dos

  9. ASK Talks with W. Scott Cameron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, W. Scott

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an interview with Scott Cameron who is the Capital Systems Manager for the Food and Beverage Global Business Unit of Procter and Gamble. He has been managing capital projects and mentoring other project managers for the past 20 years at Procter and Gamble within its Beauty Care, Health Care, Food and Beverage, and Fabric and Home Care Businesses. Scott also has been an Academy Sharing Knowledge (ASK) feature writer since Volume One.

  10. Socrates was not a pimp: changing the paradigm of questioning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Amanda; Chen, Frederick M

    2015-01-01

    The slang term "pimping" is widely recognized by learners and educators in the clinical learning environment as the act of more senior members of the medical team publicly asking questions of more junior members. Although questioning as a pedagogical practice has many benefits, pimping, as described in the literature, evokes negative emotions in learners and leads to an environment that is not conducive to adult learning. Medical educators may employ pimping as a pedagogic technique because of beliefs that it is a Socratic teaching method. Although problems with pimping have previously been identified, no alternative techniques for questioning in the clinical environment were suggested. The authors posit that using the term "pimping" to describe questioning in medical education is harmful and unprofessional, and they propose clearly defining pimping as "questioning with the intent to shame or humiliate the learner to maintain the power hierarchy in medical education." Explicitly separating pimping from the larger practice of questioning allows the authors to make three recommendations for improving questioning practices. First, educators should examine the purpose of each question they pose to learners. Second, they should apply historic and modern interpretations of Socratic teaching methods that promote critical thinking skills. Finally, they should consider adult learning theories to make concrete changes to their questioning practices. These changes can result in questioning that is more learner centered, aids in the acquisition of knowledge and skills, performs helpful formative and summative assessments of the learner, and improves community in the clinical learning environment.

  11. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News ... series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ...

  12. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ... optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a ...

  13. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

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    Full Text Available ... Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how ...

  14. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ... an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a ...

  15. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ... an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a ...

  16. Ileostomy - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that collects it. You will need to take care of your stoma and empty the pouch. Below are some questions ... like when it is healthy? How should I care for the stoma every day? How often should I clean it? ...

  17. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

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    Full Text Available ... Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color ... I’m sleeping? Click to Watch What does it mean to be nearsighted or farsighted? Click to ...

  18. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  19. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ... website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  20. THE EVOLUTION OF THE POLITICAL QUESTION DOCTRINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wits-user

    1995-02-22

    Feb 22, 1995 ... implies in my view asking its gates and its walls to be painted with mud; and .... in the failure by some jurists to distinguish between "… questions ... judiciary while retaining power to render final decisions on the meaning of the.

  1. Fuel reprocessing: Citizens' questions and experts' answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    In connection with the intention of DWK to erect a fuel reprocessing plant in the Oberpfalz, citizens have asked a great number of questions which are of interest to the general public. They have been collected, grouped into subject categories and answered by experts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. Rhetorical questions or rhetorical uses of questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špago Džemal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore whether some rhetorical questions contain certain linguistic elements or forms which would differentiate them from answer-eliciting and action-eliciting questions, and thereby hint at their rhetorical nature even outside the context. Namely, despite the fact that the same questions can be rhetorical in one context, and answer-eliciting in another, some of them are more likely to be associated with rhetorical or non-rhetorical use. The analysis is based on extensive data (over 1200 examples of rhetorical questions taken from 30 plays by two British and two American writers, and the results are expected to give an insight into whether we can talk about rhetorical questions or just a rhetorical use of questions.

  3. Nuclear questions; Le nucleaire en questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-02-15

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  4. Annotating Logical Forms for EHR Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the creation of a semantically annotated corpus of questions about patient data in electronic health records (EHRs). The goal is to provide the training data necessary for semantic parsers to automatically convert EHR questions into a structured query. A layered annotation strategy is used which mirrors a typical natural language processing (NLP) pipeline. First, questions are syntactically analyzed to identify multi-part questions. Second, medical concepts are recognized and normalized to a clinical ontology. Finally, logical forms are created using a lambda calculus representation. We use a corpus of 446 questions asking for patient-specific information. From these, 468 specific questions are found containing 259 unique medical concepts and requiring 53 unique predicates to represent the logical forms. We further present detailed characteristics of the corpus, including inter-annotator agreement results, and describe the challenges automatic NLP systems will face on this task.

  5. Because You Asked about Waardenburg Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to provide information about Waardenburg syndrome, an inherited disorder often characterized by varying degrees of hearing loss and changes in skin and hair pigmentation. The pamphlet covers: causes of Waardenburg syndrome. characteristics, types, research being done, ways to help in research…

  6. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations Kathryn.DeMott@nih.gov NEI Office of Communications ... This website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website ...

  7. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | USA.gov ...

  8. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | USA.gov NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ®

  9. Ask a Futurist. Peace [and] Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Earl C.

    A futurist addresses two questions concerning world peace and the implications of using robots. In the section on peace (part 1), recommendations for world peace include: (1) implementing peace education as a mandatory part of education; (2) establishing a Department of Peace in each country to create a societal infrastructure for implementing…

  10. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations Kathryn.DeMott@nih.gov NEI Office of Communications ( ... maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website ...

  11. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed ...

  12. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division ... Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, Social Media Policies and ...

  13. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the media Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations ... website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this ...

  14. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  15. "Ask The Pathologist": An Internet Forum Facilitating Communication Between Cancer Registrars and Pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland-Marmol, Leah B; Muro-Cacho, Carlos A; Washington, Kay; Foulis, Philip R

    2018-05-30

    - Cancer registrars should work closely with pathologists to ensure compliance with reporting standards. Many registrars, however, have little contact with pathologists, resulting in a lack of "real-time" interaction that is essential for their professional activities and development. - To facilitate registrars' case management, as cancer biology becomes more complex, we developed the ATP (Ask the Pathologist) forum as a place to ask pathology-related questions about neoplasms, such as terminology, biology, histologic classification, extent of disease, molecular markers, and prognostic factors. - Questions posted are reviewed by the ATP multidisciplinary oversight committee, which consists of 3 pathologists, 4 cancer registrars, 1 internal medicine physician, the pathology resident member of the College of American Pathologists Cancer Committee, and 2 medical technologists. The oversight committee may answer the question. Alternatively, the committee may forward the question to a content expert pathologist, determine that the question is better suited for another reference Web site, or both. - Since September 2013, when the ATP forum became available, users have posted 284 questions, of which 48 (17%) related to gastrointestinal tumors, 43 (15%) to breast tumors, and 37 (13%) to general pathology. The average turnaround time, from question posted to response, is 11.1 days. - The ATP forum has had a positive impact in the daily activities of cancer registrars. Of 440 registrars surveyed, more than 90% considered that questions were answered satisfactorily, and one-third reported that ATP answers affected how they managed a given case.

  16. Appearance questions can be misleading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel; Markman, Ellen M.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' success on the appearance-reality task is a milestone in theory-of-mind development. On the standard task children see a deceptive object, such as a sponge that looks like a rock, and are asked, "What is this really?" and "What does this look like?" Children below 4 1/2 years of age...... fail saying that the object not only is a sponge but also looks like a sponge. We propose that young children's difficulty stems from ambiguity in the meaning of "looks like." This locution can refer to outward appearance ("Peter looks like Paul") but in fact often refers to likely reality ("That looks...... like Jim"). We propose that "looks like" is taken to refer to likely reality unless the reality is already part of the common ground of the conversation. Because this joint knowledge is unclear to young children on the appearance-reality task, they mistakenly think the appearance question is about...

  17. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  18. Will Veterans Answer Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Mollie A; Blosnich, John R; Dichter, Melissa E; Luscri, Lorry; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2017-09-01

    The Veterans Health Administration does not routinely collect and document sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data, despite existing health disparities among sexual and gender minority Veterans. Because of the legacy of previous Department of Defense (DoD) policies that prohibited disclosure of sexual or gender minority identities among active duty personnel, Veterans may be reluctant to respond to SOGI questions. This population-based study assesses item nonresponse to SOGI questions by Veteran status. This is a secondary analysis of data from a population-based sample of adults in 20 US states that elected to administer a SOGI module in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Prevalence of SOGI refusals and responses of "don't know" were compared for Veterans and non-Veterans. Veterans (n=22,587) and non-Veterans (n=146,475) were surveyed. Nearly all Veteran respondents (≥98%) completed the SOGI questions, with 95.4% identifying as heterosexual, 1.2% as gay or lesbian, 1.2% as bisexual, and 0.59% as transgender. A significantly lower proportion of Veterans than non-Veterans refuse to answer sexual orientation (1.5% vs. 1.9%). There was no difference between Veterans and non-Veterans in responses for gender identity. Veterans are just as likely as non-Veterans to complete SOGI items in survey research. Asking Veterans about SOGI is unlikely to yield significant nonresponse. These data suggest that future research should investigate Veterans' perspectives on being asked about SOGI in research settings and as part of routine clinical care.

  19. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  20. Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis: Ask the Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine is needed for wound management in a person who has not previously received Tdap, the use of Tdap is preferred over Td. We see many 10-year-olds for middle school entry immunization. Is one brand of Tdap preferred for this age group? No. ...

  1. Diarrhea - what to ask your health care provider - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your health care provider about diarrhea - adult; Loose stools - what to ask your health ... medicines, vitamins, herbs, or supplements I take cause diarrhea? Should I stop taking any of them? What ...

  2. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what ... other treatments? What are the risks of the surgery? Is it safe to wait before getting ear ...

  3. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  4. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  5. RESOLVING THE QUESTION OF DOUBT: GEOMETRICAL DEMONSTRATION IN THE MEDITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven BURGESS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The question of what Descartes did and did not doubt in the Meditations has received a significant amount of scholarly attention in recent years. The process of doubt in Meditation I gives one the impression of a rather extreme form of skepticism, while the responses Descartes offers in the Objections and Replies make it clear that there is in fact a whole background of presuppositions that are never doubted, including many that are never even entertained as possible candidates of doubt. This paper resolves the question of this undoubted background of rationality by taking seriously Descartes’ claim that he is carrying out demonstrations modeled after the great geometers. The rational order of geometrical demonstration demands that we first clear away previous demonstrations not proven with the certainty necessary for genuine science. This is accomplished by the method of doubt, which is only applied to the results of possible demonstrations. What cannot be doubted are the very concepts and principles employed in carrying out geometrical demonstration, which enable it to take place. It would be senseless to ask whether we can doubt the essential components of the structure through which questioning, doubting, and demonstration are made possible.

  6. Questioning in Distributed Product Development Teams: Supporting Shared Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    globally distributed NPD activities. Poor shared understanding can ultimately result in delays and rework. One major antecedent of shared understanding development is question asking. This work uses a quasiexperimental study to test the impact of questioning support on different types of distributed teams...

  7. Occurrence of Children's Echoic Responses According to Interlocutory Question Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Warren H.

    Dialogues with 22 echoic 3-year-old children were analyzed according to question type to determine whether some questions are more likely than others to trigger echoic responses. The children were asked to identify and manipulate toy objects such as a car, to identify a group of familiar objects such as a key or scissors, and to respond to…

  8. Some Big Questions about Design in Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    This article asks five questions that lead us to the foundations of design practice in educational technology. Design processes structure time, space, place, activity, role, goal, and resource. For educational technology to advance in its understanding of design practice, it must question whether we have clear conceptions of how abstract…

  9. SPAM: Beware of emails asking for passwords

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN’s Computing Rules (Operational Circular No. 5) require that passwords remain confidential and must never be given to anyone, not even helpdesk or other support personnel. If you think that your password could have been exposed then you must immediately change it. Cybercriminals are making growing use of fake e-mail messages and Web sites to steal account and identity information from users. This technique is called ‘phishing’. The fake emails often look real and try to trick you into giving your password or other personal data. CERN has recently been targeted by a fake email message which requested users to send their username, password and date of birth. This case was promptly blocked by the CERN Mail Service, however future cases may still occur. Users need to be vigilant for any requests for passwords or personal data. Fake emails should be immediately deleted. In case of questions on this topic, you may contact helpdesk@cern.ch. CERN IT Department

  10. Live your questions now

    OpenAIRE

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  11. Refugees' advice to physicians: how to ask about mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Patricia J

    2014-08-01

    About 45.2 million people were displaced from their homes in 2012 due to persecution, political conflict, generalized violence and human rights violations. Refugees who endure violence are at increased risk of developing chronic psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression. The primary care visit may be the first opportunity to detect the devastating psychological effects of trauma. Physicians and refugees have identified communication barriers that inhibit discussions about mental health. In this study, refugees offer advice to physicians about how to assess the mental health effects of trauma. Ethnocultural methodology informed 13 focus groups with 111 refugees from Burma, Bhutan, Somali and Ethiopia. Refugees responded to questions concerning how physicians should ask about mental health in acceptable ways. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic categorization informed by Spradley's Developmental Research Sequence. Refugees recommended that physicians should take the time to make refugees comfortable, initiate direct conversations about mental health, inquire about the historical context of symptoms and provide psychoeducation about mental health and healing. Physicians may require specialized training to learn how to initiate conversations about mental health and provide direct education and appropriate mental health referrals in a brief medical appointment. To assist with making appropriate referrals, physicians may also benefit from education about evidence-based practices for treating symptoms of refugee trauma. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Using Mobile Devices to Facilitate Student Questioning in a Large Undergraduate Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; Burgin, Stephen R.; De Paor, Declan G.; Gregory, Kristen

    2018-01-01

    Asking scientific questions is the first practice of science and engineering listed in the Next Generation Science Standards. However, getting students to ask unsolicited questions in a large class can be difficult. In this qualitative study, undergraduate students sent SMS text messages to the instructor who received them on his mobile phone and…

  13. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  14. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field...

  15. Mothers' and Fathers' Questions to Their Child in Mexican-Descent Families: Moderators of Cognitive Demand during Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; Leaper, Campbell

    1997-01-01

    The cognitive demand in questions directed to Mexican-descent children by their mothers and fathers were analyzed for videotaped play situations involving gender-neutral, masculine-, or feminine-stereotyped toys. Mothers asked proportionately more conceptual questions than did fathers. Mothers' question asking was influenced by child gender,…

  16. Ask an anatomist: Identifying global trends, topics and themes of academic anatomists using twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsland, Madeleine J; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2018-05-06

    Social media (SoMe) is increasingly used in higher education (HE) to access knowledge and enable global communication. The SoMe platform Twitter ® is particularly beneficial in these contexts because it is readily accessible, easily searchable (via hashtags) and global. Given these advantages, the twitter platform @AskAnatomist was created to foster a global weekly tweet chat, where students and academics can ask and address anatomy-related questions. The aim of this study was to identify themes arising in the early stages of the @AskAnatomy Twitter community to gain insights into current needs/key areas for academic anatomists, students, and other followers. A qualitative analysis of tweets including the hashtag #AnatQ, (the associated @AskAnatomist hashtag), was undertaken to achieve this aim. Thematic analysis revealed three core themes arising in the formative stages of the @AskAnatomist Twitter site: (1) anatomical education modalities, (2) specific anatomy content, and (3) research motivations. These themes reveal controversies within the field of anatomical sciences, areas for potential education resource improvement and research, as well as the humor of anatomists. Though the original intent of the @AskAnatomist site was to engage the general public in anatomy content and knowledge, tweet analysis suggests that academic anatomists were the primary active "tweeters". Interestingly, this analysis reveals that the @AskAnatomist site progressed into a web-based community of practice (CoP), suggesting an additional benefit of SoMe communities in the field of anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 11: 270-281. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Facebook’s Ugly Sisters: Anonymity and Abuse on Formspring and Ask.fm

    OpenAIRE

    Binns, Amy

    2013-01-01

    New question and answer websites Ask.fm and Formspring have brought highly specific and personal abuse to a new level amongst young people by providing easy anonymity to users within a circle of offline friendship groups culled from Facebook. Relatively unknown due to their unattractiveness to adults, these sites are growing rapidly and have already been associated with at least eight suicides amongst teenagers. \\ud \\ud Media educators at school level encouraging self-awareness of social medi...

  18. Development of a Simple Tool for Identifying Alcohol Use Disorder in Female Korean Drinkers from Previous Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Ri; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Sung Soo; Yoon, Seok Joon; Suh, Won Yoon; Youn, Kwangmi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a simple tool for identifying alcohol use disorders in female Korean drinkers from previous questionnaires. This research was conducted on 400 women who consumed at least one alcoholic drink during the past month and visited the health promotion center at Chungnam National University Hospital between June 2013 to May 2014. Drinking habits and alcohol use disorders were assessed by structured interviews using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition diagnostic criteria. The subjects were also asked to answer the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), AUDIT-Consumption, CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener), TWEAK (Tolerance, Worried, Eye-opener, Amnesia, Kut down), TACE (Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut down, Eye-opener), and NET (Normal drinker, Eye-opener, Tolerance) questionnaires. The area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) of each question of the questionnaires on alcohol use disorders was assessed. After combining two questions with the largest AUROC, it was compared to other previous questionnaires. Among the 400 subjects, 58 (14.5%) were identified as having an alcohol use disorder. Two questions with the largest AUROC were question no. 7 in AUDIT, "How often during the last year have you had a feeling of guilt or remorse after drinking?" and question no. 5 in AUDIT, "How often during the past year have you failed to do what was normally expected from you because of drinking?" with an AUROC (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.886 (0.850-0.915) and 0.862 (0.824-0.894), respectively. The AUROC (95% CI) of the combination of the two questions was 0.958 (0.934-0.976) with no significant difference as compared to the existing AUDIT with the largest AUROC. The above results suggest that the simple tool consisting of questions no. 5 and no. 7 in AUDIT is useful in identifying alcohol use disorders in Korean female drinkers.

  19. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  20. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  1. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  2. New exome data question the pathogenicity of genetic variants previously associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Javad; Jabbari, Reza; Nielsen, Morten Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a lethal, rare hereditary disease with an estimated prevalence of 1:10 000. The genetic variants that cause CPVT are usually highly penetrant. To date, about 189 variants in 5 genes (RYR2, CASQ2, CALM1, TRND, and KCNJ2) have been...

  3. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  4. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  5. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    ? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic......As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena...... imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  6. A statistical analysis of student questions in a cell biology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Elena L; Polacek, Kelly M; Ingram, Ella L

    2009-01-01

    Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students asked about laboratory activities, 2) whether the types or quality of questions changed over time, and 3) whether the quality of questions or degree of improvement was related to academic performance. We found a majority of questions were about laboratory outcomes or seeking additional descriptive information about organisms or processes to be studied. Few questions earned the highest possible ranking, which required demonstration of extended thought, integration of information, and/or hypotheses and future experiments, although a majority of students asked such a question at least once. We found no correlation between types of student questions or improvement in questions and final grades. Only a small improvement in overall question quality was seen despite considerable practice at writing questions about science. Our results suggest that improving students' ability to generate higher-order questions may require specific pedagogical intervention.

  7. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  8. Quantifying fluctuations in market liquidity: analysis of the bid-ask spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plerou, Vasiliki; Gopikrishnan, Parameswaran; Stanley, H Eugene

    2005-04-01

    Quantifying the statistical features of the bid-ask spread offers the possibility of understanding some aspects of market liquidity. Using quote data for the 116 most frequently traded stocks on the New York Stock Exchange over the two-year period 1994-1995, we analyze the fluctuations of the average bid-ask spread S over a time interval deltat. We find that S is characterized by a distribution that decays as a power law P[S>x] approximately x(-zeta(S) ), with an exponent zeta(S) approximately = 3 for all 116 stocks analyzed. Our analysis of the autocorrelation function of S shows long-range power-law correlations, (S(t)S(t + tau)) approximately tau(-mu(s)), similar to those previously found for the volatility. We next examine the relationship between the bid-ask spread and the volume Q, and find that S approximately ln Q; we find that a similar logarithmic relationship holds between the transaction-level bid-ask spread and the trade size. We then study the relationship between S and other indicators of market liquidity such as the frequency of trades N and the frequency of quote updates U, and find S approximately ln N and S approximately ln U. Lastly, we show that the bid-ask spread and the volatility are also related logarithmically.

  9. What Is the Correct Answer about The Dress' Colors? Investigating the Relation between Optimism, Previous Experience, and Answerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Bodil S A; Allwood, Carl Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Dress photograph, first displayed on the internet in 2015, revealed stunning individual differences in color perception. The aim of this study was to investigate if lay-persons believed that the question about The Dress colors was answerable. Past research has found that optimism is related to judgments of how answerable knowledge questions with controversial answers are (Karlsson et al., 2016). Furthermore, familiarity with a question can create a feeling of knowing the answer (Reder and Ritter, 1992). Building on these findings, 186 participants saw the photo of The Dress and were asked about the correct answer to the question about The Dress' colors (" blue and black," "white and gold," "other, namely…," or "there is no correct answer" ). Choice of the alternative "there is no correct answer" was interpreted as believing the question was not answerable. This answer was chosen more often by optimists and by people who reported they had not seen The Dress before. We also found that among participants who had seen The Dress photo before, 19%, perceived The Dress as "white and gold" but believed that the correct answer was "blue and black ." This, in analogy to previous findings about non-believed memories (Scoboria and Pascal, 2016), shows that people sometimes do not believe the colors they have perceived are correct. Our results suggest that individual differences related to optimism and previous experience may contribute to if the judgment of the individual perception of a photograph is enough to serve as a decision basis for valid conclusions about colors. Further research about color judgments under ambiguous circumstances could benefit from separating individual perceptual experience from beliefs about the correct answer to the color question. Including the option "there is no correct answer " may also be beneficial.

  10. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...

  11. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  12. Do Ask, Do Tell: High Levels of Acceptability by Patients of Routine Collection of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Four Diverse American Community Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean; Singal, Robbie; Grasso, Chris; King, Dana; Mayer, Kenneth; Baker, Kellan; Makadon, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine and The Joint Commission have recommended asking sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) questions in clinical settings and including such data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs). This is increasingly viewed as a critical step toward systematically documenting and addressing health disparities affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. The U.S. government is currently considering whether to include SOGI data collection in the Stage 3 guidelines for the incentive program promoting meaningful use of EHR. However, some have questioned whether acceptable standard measures to collect SOGI data in clinical settings exist. Methods In order to better understand how a diverse group of patients would respond if SOGI questions were asked in primary care settings, 301 randomly selected patients receiving primary care at four health centers across the U.S. were asked SOGI questions and then asked follow-up questions. This sample was mainly heterosexual, racially diverse, and geographically and regionally broad. Results There was a strong consensus among patients surveyed about the importance of asking SOGI questions. Most of the LGBT respondents thought that the questions presented on the survey allowed them to accurately document their SOGI. Most respondents—heterosexual and LGBT—answered the questions, and said that they would answer such questions in the future. While there were some age-related differences, respondents of all ages overwhelmingly expressed support for asking SOGI questions and understood the importance of providers' knowing their patients' SOGI. Conclusions Given current deliberations within national health care regulatory bodies and the government's increased attention to LGBT health disparities, the finding that patients can and will answer SOGI questions has important implications for public policy. This study provides evidence that integrating SOGI data collection into the meaningful

  13. Prima facie questions in quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isham, C. J.

    The long history of the study of quantum gravity has thrown up a complex web of ideas and approaches. The aim of this article is to unravel this web a little by analysing some of the {\\em prima facie\\/} questions that can be asked of almost any approach to quantum gravity and whose answers assist in classifying the different schemes. Particular emphasis is placed on (i) the role of background conceptual and technical structure; (ii) the role of spacetime diffeomorphisms; and (iii) the problem of time.

  14. Ten Questions about Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Fromm, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are many open questions about emergence and self-organization, ranging from a clear ...

  15. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  16. Conceptual question response times in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.

  17. Treatment of Children with Mental Illness: Frequently Asked Questions about the Treatment of Mental Illness in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14. Scientists are discovering that changes in the body leading to mental illness may start much earlier, before any symptoms appear. Through greater understanding of when and how fast specific areas of children's brains develop, we are learning more about the early…

  18. Asking the difficult questions: Building the capacity of community paediatricians to routinely enquire and respond to family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Claire L; Holmes, Hilary; Bragg, Judith; Neeman, Teresa

    2018-03-01

    To enhance the confidence and capacity of community paediatricians and paediatric trainees to identify and respond to family violence, through a series of education sessions and evidence-based recommendations. The action research methodology included a literature search to review the data on family violence education programmes and evidence-based family violence screening tools. Six education sessions were then developed and held for physicians at the Community Paediatric and Child Health Service (CPCHS). An audit was performed on the charts of all new referrals to the CPCHS for a period of 18 months prior to the education sessions and 5 months following the education sessions. A questionnaire was distributed at the first and final education sessions to gauge physician comfort with enquiry into family violence. The documented rate of enquiry into family violence at CPCHS was 24% in the retrospective chart audit. Following the series of education sessions, the documented rate of enquiry increased to 60% (P family violence also increased from 13% of all new patients in the retrospective chart audit to 24% in the prospective arm of the study (P family violence and were comfortable enquiring about family violence. This study demonstrates that clinician education about family violence supports routine enquiry about family violence in community paediatric consultations. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. What Questions Should We ask About the Health Effect of Mars Dust? Lessons from the Lunar Dust Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschmann, R. L.

    2017-06-01

    The toxicology of lunar dust has been studied over the last decade and standards set by NASA for exposure. This summary reviews that data and proposes to reapply the strategy employed there to future research on the health effects of Mars dust.

  20. Why Do You Keep Asking the Same Questions? Tracking the Health of History in England's Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Katharine; Harris, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In 2009 the Historical Association conducted the first of what has become an annual survey of history teachers in England. Its aim was to get beyond bare statistics relating to subject uptake and examination success to examine the reality of history teaching across all kinds of schools and to map the extent of variation in students' and teachers'…

  1. Considering a Private Residential Treatment Program for a Troubled Teen? Questions for Parents and Guardians to Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Trade Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Private residential treatment programs for young people offer a range of services, including drug and alcohol treatment, confidence building, military-style discipline, and psychological counseling for a variety of addiction, behavioral, and emotional problems. Many of these programs are intended to provide a less-restrictive alternative to…

  2. PET measurement of receptor occupancy as a tool to guide dose selection in neuropharmacology: are we asking the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey S; McGuire, Jennifer; Vezina, Heather; Spitsin, Serguei; Douglas, Steven D

    2013-12-01

    Receptor occupancy studies are becoming commonplace for verifying drug mechanism of action and selecting early development candidates. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been applied to pharmacodynamic (PD) studies in several therapeutic areas including neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Prospective use of PET to define dosing requirements has been proposed particularly for central nervous system (CNS)-targeted drugs; however, correlations with clinical outcomes have been mostly anecdotal and not causally established.

  3. Te contaria mi vida: I would tell you my life, if only you would ask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, Ruth Ann; Sayeed, Pilar

    2003-01-01

    Universal screening for domestic violence is recommended in many health care settings. This qualitative study was undertaken to explore the thoughts and feelings of Mexican American women regarding being asked questions about domestic violence by a health care provider. We wanted to further explore what characteristics about a nurse, or other health care provider, would give a woman confianza, the trust necessary to discuss this issue. Seven women, who self identified as abused or formerly abused, were recruited from a pool of Spanish-speaking women receiving services from a rural domestic violence agency in the midwestern United States. The researchers found that, given certain characteristics and actions of the health care provider, women welcome the opportunity to discuss this issue. The implications for practice are these: be sincerely present for the client, ask about her life, listen to her response, and when necessary assist her to connect with appropriate domestic violence community services.

  4. Answers to your questions on high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This booklet contains answers to frequently asked questions about high-level nuclear wastes. Written for the layperson, the document contains basic information on the hazards of radiation, the Nuclear Waste Management Program, the proposed geologic repository, the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility, risk assessment, and public participation in the program

  5. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  6. Questions Arising from the Assessment of EFL Narrative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yong

    2013-01-01

    This article questions how narrative writing is assessed, seeking to understand what we test, what we value, and why. It uses a single anomalous case that arose in the course of my recent PhD thesis to highlight the issues, asking if sufficient attention is being given to the value of emotional content in a piece of writing in comparison to its…

  7. Ten Questions about the Future of Art and Design Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steers, John

    1997-01-01

    Asks ten questions about the future of art, crafts, and design education. Focuses on why art, crafts, and design education should be included in the curriculum; how the curriculum should be defined; and how art educators should respond to conflicting calls for cultural relativism and for cultural nationalism. (DSK)

  8. Socratic Dialogue, the Humanities and the Art of the Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Plato's depiction of Socrates' interrogations in his early dialogues provides an enduring example of the importance of asking questions as an educative method. This article considers the central educational elements of Socratic dialogue and the ways in which these were developed in the 20th century, particularly in "The Socratic Method"…

  9. Competitors' Perceptions of Questions in Individual Events Rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Daniel; Pettus, Ann Burnett

    A study investigated student competitors' opinions of the practice of judges asking questions of competitors at the conclusion of speeches in the individual events competiton at forensic tournaments. Surveys were completed by 52 final round student competitors at a large midwestern university individual events invitational tournament. Results…

  10. Examining Research Questions on Germination from the Perspective of Scientific Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir Kaçan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the participation of 31 pre-service science teachers. Participants were asked to develop various research questions on germination. The study aims to examine research questions on the subject germination from the perspective of scientific creativity. The research questions were examined using the fluency, science…

  11. Emerging Model of Questioning through the Process of Teaching and Learning Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iksan, Zanaton Haji; Daniel, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Verbal questioning is a technique used by teachers in the teaching and learning process. Research in Malaysia related to teachers' questioning in the chemistry teaching and learning process is more focused on the level of the questions asked rather than the content to ensure that students understand. Thus, the research discussed in this paper is…

  12. Self-Questioning and Prose Comprehension: A Sample Case of ESL Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miciano, Remedios Z.

    2002-01-01

    Report on an experiment to discover if self-questioning as a reading strategy would help Filipino ESL students improve comprehension of English prose texts. Concludes that self-questioning as a strategy does not significantly affect comprehension despite the number and types of questions asked. (Contains 4 tables and 25 references.) (WFA)

  13. Sexuality Information Needs of Latino and African American Ninth Graders: A Content Analysis of Anonymous Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    This study used qualitative content analysis to examine anonymous questions about sex and sexuality submitted by Latino and African American adolescents in Los Angeles, California, classrooms. The majority of questions asked about sexuality and sexual behavior, or anatomy and physiology, with fewer questions about pregnancy and pregnancy…

  14. Effects of Regulatory Self-Questioning on Secondary-Level Students' Problem-Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Michael L.; Miller, Greg

    2011-01-01

    A randomized posttest-only control group experimental design was used to determine the effects of regulatory self-questioning on secondary-level career and technical education students' electrical circuit theory test scores. Students who participated in the self-questioning group were asked to answer a list of regulatory questions as they solved…

  15. The question about paleoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartic, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The author is treating questions about development of informatics in ancient Dacia during Y-th Century B.C. - 2-nd Century A.C. He is introducing a new terminology (paleoinformatics) in view of defining the interests of Daces in numbering, the elementary numbers theory and various aspects of numbers representation. A relation between elementary numbers theory and informatisation has been discussed. A particular interest has been given to calculation of the Circle length/Diameter ratio (number Pi), its calculation by Daces.

  16. Question of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Senjanovic, G.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the question of neutrino mass in theories in which neutrinos are four-component Dirac particles. Our analysis is done in the framework of left-right--symmetric theories. The requirement of calculability and natural smallness of neutrino mass leads to the following constraints: (i) left and right charged weak currents must be ''orthogonal'' to each other, and (ii) there should be no W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing at the three level. Finally, we exhibit a model in which, due to the existence of an unbroken symmetry of the total Lagrangian, the electron and muon neutrinos remain massless to all orders in perturbation theory

  17. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  18. Quantum theory from questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Philipp [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wever, Christopher [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to relativity, quantum theory has evaded a commonly accepted apprehension, in part because of the lack of physical statements that fully characterize it. In an attempt to remedy the situation, we summarize a novel reconstruction of the explicit formalism of quantum theory (for arbitrarily many qubits) from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S's state as O's ''catalogue of knowledge'' about S; no ontic assumptions are necessary. From the rules, one can derive, among other things, the state spaces, the unitary group, the von Neumann evolution and show that the binary questions correspond to Pauli operators. The reconstruction also offers new structural insights in the form of novel informational charges and informational complementarity relations which define the state spaces and the unitary group. This reconstruction permits a new perspective on quantum theory.

  19. Parents' Qualitative Perspectives on Child Asking for Fruit and Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alicia; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Nicklas, Theresa A; Baranowski, Tom

    2017-06-05

    Children can influence the foods available at home, but some ways of approaching a parent may be better than others; and the best way may vary by type of parent. This study explored how parents with different parenting styles would best receive their 10 to 14 years old child asking for fruits and vegetables (FV). An online parenting style questionnaire was completed and follow-up qualitative telephone interviews assessed home food rules, child influence on home food availability, parents' preferences for being asked for food, and common barriers and reactions to their child's FV requests. Parents ( n = 73) with a 10 to 14 years old child were grouped into authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or uninvolved parenting style categories based on responses to questionnaires, and interviewed. Almost no differences in responses were detected by parenting style or ethnicity. Parents reported their children had a voice in what foods were purchased and available at home and were receptive to their child's asking for FV. The most important child asking characteristic was politeness, especially among authoritarian parents. Other important factors were asking in person, helping in the grocery store, writing requests on the grocery shopping list, and showing information they saw in the media. The barrier raising the most concern was FV cost, but FV quality and safety outside the home environment were also considerations.

  20. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  1. Interviewing to assess credibility in the Swedish asylum procedure: analyzing question style, type and theme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuizen, T.S.; Horselenberg, R.; Landström, S.; Granhag, P.A.; van Koppen, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current vignette study is to map the style, type, and themes of questions that are asked when assessing the credibility of asylum seekers' claims. Sixty-five officials from the Swedish Migration Agency (Migrationsverket), were asked to respond to one out of four different vignettes

  2. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  3. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  4. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  5. A question of emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    of pharmaceuticals? Seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in May, August and October 1997. Widespread ignorance about the legislation was observed. Pharmacy customers preferred to discuss the role of physicians in 'irrational drug use' to discussing community...... pharmacies. A definite split was observed between urban and rural pharmacy customers; whereas definite changes were reported in the urban setting (lower prices and increased access), the rural population's perception is that it is being left out. Although the study design is not generalisable, it is clear......The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs...

  6. The ASK1 gene regulates B function gene expression in cooperation with UFO and LEAFY in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Yu, Q; Chen, M; Ma, H

    2001-07-01

    The Arabidopsis floral regulatory genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) are required for the B function according to the ABC model for floral organ identity. AP3 and PI expression are positively regulated by the LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) genes. UFO encodes an F-box protein, and we have shown previously that UFO genetically interacts with the ASK1 gene encoding a SKP1 homologue; both the F-box containing protein and SKP1 are subunits of ubiquitin ligases. We show here that the ask1-1 mutation can enhance the floral phenotypes of weak lfy and ap3 mutants; therefore, like UFO, ASK1 also interacts with LFY and AP3 genetically. Furthermore, our results from RNA in situ hybridizations indicate that ASK1 regulates early AP3 and PI expression. These results support the idea that UFO and ASK1 together positively regulate AP3 and PI expression. We propose that the UFO and ASK1 proteins are components of a ubiquitin ligase that mediates the proteolysis of a repressor of AP3 and PI expression. Our genetic studies also indicate that ASK1 and UFO play a role in regulating the number of floral organ primordia, and we discuss possible mechanisms for such a regulation.

  7. Quality of Graduate Department Origin of Faculty and Its Relationship to Undergraduate Course Examination Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, John M.; Nordvall, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    Quality of a faculty member's graduate department origin and its relationship to test construction was examined. Findings indicated a tendency for faculty holding advanced degrees from higher quality graduate departments to ask more synthesis questions. (Author/MLW)

  8. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  9. Socratic Questioning: A Teaching Philosophy for the Student Research Consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Marie Robinson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief Socratic questioning, the act of asking questions in order to prompt critical thinking and reflection, expands the boundaries of librarianship by borrowing from the fields of philosophy, pedagogy, and psychology. When employed during the research consultation, Socratic questioning establishes a cooperative relationship between librarian and student that empowers the student to take agency over the interaction. Engaging learners not only academically but emotionally encourages them to become more deliberate and cognizant as they articulate their research need. This paper demonstrates how reference librarians can adjust interactions with students in order to encourage, empathize, and engage with these learners.

  10. Do women give the same information on binge drinking during pregnancy when asked repeatedly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    in question. As the report of binge drinking was highest in the first of two interviews referring to the same period, as well as women who participated in the first interview in pregnancy week 12 or earlier reported more binge drinking compared to women who participated in the interview later in pregnancy......OBJECTIVE: To study if pregnant women give the same answers to questions on frequency and timing of binge drinking when asked more than once during and after pregnancy. DESIGN: Cohort study.Setting:The Danish National Birth Cohort. SUBJECTS: The study is based on 76 307 pregnant women with repeated...... information on binge drinking during the early part of pregnancy and 8933 pregnant women with information on binge drinking during pregnancy weeks 30-36, obtained while pregnant and 6 months after delivery. RESULTS: More women reported binge drinking, if the interview took place close to the period...

  11. Une question interdite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legendre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Is legal history a left-over or is it waiting for a takeover bid (just like a company in serious trouble which would allow the expression of new analyses and outlines for a better understanding of the contemporary western world? Its propositions of erudition, are they just interesting for small academic circles, or could they open a new pathway for fundamental reflections on the phenomenon of norms in general and the structure of its evolution in the special case of norm-production coming from Roman Christianity? And what is the significance of the idea of »legal tradition«, an idea forged in Western Europe, within the framework of a presumed global westernization without any counter-balance? The essay discusses the illegibility of legal history in today’s culture. Under the well reflected motto »The Forbidden Question« it concludes firmly: To renovate itself, this discipline has to perform its work in a new way, guided by a very precise and distinct vision on theory. The author examines the conditions for this.

  12. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  13. 101 questions about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  14. "Will a Black Hole Eventually Swallow the Earth?" Fifth Graders' Interest in Questions from a Textbook, an Open Educational Resource, and Other Students' Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swirski, Hani; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2015-01-01

    Can questions sent to Open-Educational-Resource (OER) websites such as Ask-An-Expert serve as indicators for students' interest in science? This issue was examined using an online questionnaire which included an equal number of questions about the topics "space" and "nutrition" randomly selected from three different sources: a…

  15. Parents' qualitative perspectives on child asking for fruit and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children can influence the foods available at home, but some ways of approaching a parent may be better than others; and the best way may vary by type of parent. This study explored how parents with different parenting styles would best receive their 10 to 14 year old child asking for fruit and vege...

  16. Unit asking: a method to boost donations and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsee, Christopher K; Zhang, Jiao; Lu, Zoe Y; Xu, Fei

    2013-09-01

    The solicitation of charitable donations costs billions of dollars annually. Here, we introduce a virtually costless method for boosting charitable donations to a group of needy persons: merely asking donors to indicate a hypothetical amount for helping one of the needy persons before asking donors to decide how much to donate for all of the needy persons. We demonstrated, in both real fund-raisers and scenario-based research, that this simple unit-asking method greatly increases donations for the group of needy persons. Different from phenomena such as the foot-in-the-door and identifiable-victim effects, the unit-asking effect arises because donors are initially scope insensitive and subsequently scope consistent. The method applies to both traditional paper-based fund-raisers and increasingly popular Web-based fund-raisers and has implications for domains other than fund-raisers, such as auctions and budget proposals. Our research suggests that a subtle manipulation based on psychological science can generate a substantial effect in real life.

  17. The use of categorization information in language models for question retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Community Question Answering (CQA) has emerged as a popular type of service meeting a wide range of information needs. Such services enable users to ask and answer questions and to access existing question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain very large volumes of valuable user-generated content...... and have become important information resources on the Web. To make the body of knowledge accumulated in CQA archives accessible, effective and efficient question search is required. Question search in a CQA archive aims to retrieve historical questions that are relevant to new questions posed by users...

  18. The use of questions as problem-solving strategies during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H; Mills, Candice M; Souza, André L; Plummer, Leigh E; Yasskin, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the strategic use of questions to solve problems across early childhood. Participants (N=54, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds) engaged in two tasks: a novel problem-solving question task that required asking questions to an informant to determine which card in an array was located in a box and a cognitive flexibility task that required classifying stimuli by multiple dimensions. The results from the question task indicated that there were age differences in the types of questions asked, with 6-year-olds asking more constraint-seeking questions than 4- and 5-year-olds. The number of constraint-seeking questions asked was the only significant predictor of accuracy. Performance on the cognitive flexibility task correlated with both constraint-seeking strategy use and accuracy in the question task. In sum, our results provide evidence that the capacity to use questions to generate relevant information develops before the capacity to apply this information successfully and consistently to solve complex problems. We propose that the process of using questions as strategic tools is an ideal context for examining how children come to gain active and intentional control over problem solving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Questioning minimal deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear deterrence has yet to be adapted to the geo-strategic context of the aftermath of the Cold War. While nuclear weapons continue to play a vital role in the military policy of the five officially recognized nuclear Powers, an unprecedent reduction of their stocks o weapons is taking shape. Hidden behind the idea and the notion of minimum deterrence are a number of ambiguities or misunderstandings. It is easy to conceive of minimum deterrence in relation to previous state of affairs, namely that of the Cold War, which was noteworthy for the arms race. Alternatively, minimum deterrence could be approached solely from the point of view of the number of devices on which it was intended to be based

  20. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  1. Questioning As a Pedagogical Tool for Eliciting Student Generated Questions During the Teaching of Acid-base Equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoade Ejiwale Okanlawon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, teachers simply taught problem-solving by explaining the worked-out examples taken from textbooks and students were expected to listen quietly, copy the solution to the problem, and then work independently at their desks. But a large body of research notes that guiding students to develop a solution pathway with questioning is more effective than simply explaining the sequence of steps to solve the problem. Students involved in question- and-answer sessions are more attentive than those who listen passively to teacher explanations and they are more likely to generate questions. The questions students ask during a lesson perform a number of important functions, including providing the teacher with valuable information about students’ understanding and misunderstanding, fostering self-regulation, inviting classroom discussions and aiding comprehension of contents presented. The skill of posing questions during classroom instruction is often under-valued and under taught in today’s classrooms. To encourage students to ask quality and thought provoking questions related to the contents taught, explicit instruction is required. This paper, therefore, qualitatively reports factors that foster student generated questions during the problem-solving instruction involving acid-base titration problem.

  2. Infant foods: Debatable questions and real answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Belmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ms/her practice, a pediatrician frequently faces ambiguous questions about foods for infants during the first year of life in particular. Not only parents ask pediatricians these questions - the latter naturally arise during work and attempts to pinpoint the problem of adequate nutrition during infancy. These questions are whether complementary foods containing starch cause allergy in an infant; gluten is a detrimental ingredient of infant foods; hydrolysis of cereal polysaccharides is essential; palm oil is dangerous to an infant's health; butter fat as an ingredient infant foods may be harmful to a child. Among other things, butter fat in globules is shown to contain phospholipids, gangliosides, cholesterol, which are essential for a child's development and absent in infant formulas. In this connection, addition of fat globule membranes to foods is promising in terms of the provision of an infant with lipids of full value. There is a need for further in-depth investigations of infant feeding practices, by keeping in mind numerous features of an infant's organism.

  3. New Views on the Woman Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Waltner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marcia Yonemoto. The Problem of Women in Early Modern Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2016. 304 pp. $70 (cloth, e-book. Wang Zheng. Finding Women in the State: A Socialist Feminist Revolution in the People’s Republic of China, 1949–1964. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2017. 400 pp. $85 (cloth; $35 (paper, e-book. "The Problem of Women in Early Modern Japan" and "Finding Women in the State" are in many ways quite different: they cover different geographic areas and different time periods; they use different sources and ask different questions. But it is productive to think about them in tandem, to see what kind of questions they do raise and to think about the ways “the woman question” is posed in these two contexts—early modern Japan and early Maoist China, respectively. Both books are interested in the question of what looking at history through a feminist lens does to our view of that history; both are interested in dismantling a hegemonic narrative that provides a diminished vision of women as historical subjects. And both of them point out ways in which neither the “problem of women” (Yonemoto nor the problem of finding women in the state (Wang has been resolved...

  4. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  5. IMPROVISATION OF SEEKER SATISFACTION IN YAHOO! COMMUNITY QUESTION ANSWERING PORTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Latha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One popular Community question answering (CQA site, Yahoo! Answers, had attracted 120 million users worldwide, and had 400 million answers to questions available. A typical characteristic of such sites is that they allow anyone to post or answer any questions on any subject. Question Answering Community has emerged as popular, and often effective, means of information seeking on the web. By posting questions, for other participants to answer, information seekers can obtain specific answers to their questions. However, CQA is not always effective: in some cases, a user may obtain a perfect answer within minutes, and in others it may require hours and sometimes days until a satisfactory answer is contributed. We investigate the problem of predicting information seeker satisfaction in yahoo collaborative question answering communities, where we attempt to predict whether a question author will be satisfied with the answers submitted by the community participants. Our experimental results, obtained from a large scale evaluation over thousands of real questions and user ratings, demonstrate the feasibility of modeling and predicting asker satisfaction. We complement our results with a thorough investigation of the interactions and information seeking patterns in question answering communities that correlate with information seeker satisfaction. We also explore automatic ranking, creating abstract from retrieved answers, and history updation, which aims to provide users with what they want or need without explicitly ask them for user satisfaction. Our system could be useful for a variety of applications, such as answer selection, user feedback analysis, and ranking.

  6. Trail smelter question

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, M; McCallium, A W

    1937-01-01

    Under conditions existing at Summerland, B.C., trees growing under irrigation are definitely more susceptible to injury by sulfur dioxide than trees growing in natural habitat. In order of susceptibility to injury by sulfur dioxide the species used in these experiments rank as follows: larch, Douglas fir, Engelmann spruce, white pine, yellow pine, cedar, lodgepole pine, silver fir, and white fir. The conclusions drawn from the experiments carried out in 1931 on conifers in regard to seasonal variation in susceptibility were corroborated by the present work, it being shown that trees are very susceptible to injury during the early part of the growing season and very resistant during the fall and early winter. Lareh is extremely sensitive to injury, a fumigation of 0.30 ppM for six hours at an average humidity of 67 per cent causing injury at the end of May. Larch leaves growing on wood produced during the current year are much more susceptible to injury than are leaves produced on wood formed in previous years. Many larches which sustained severe injury to the foliage on wood of the current year made rapid growth subsequent to the fumigation, the injury seeming to have but slight effect upon growth. 10 figures, 17 tables.

  7. Impact of scaffolding and question structure on the gender gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary Dawkins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We address previous hypotheses about possible factors influencing the gender gap in attainment in physics. Specifically, previous studies claim that scaffolding may preferentially benefit female students, and we present some alternative conclusions surrounding this hypothesis. By taking both student attainment level and the degree of question scaffolding into account, we identify questions that exhibit real bias in favor of male students. We find that both multidimensional context and use of diagrams are common elements of such questions.

  8. Impact of scaffolding and question structure on the gender gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Hillary; Hedgeland, Holly; Jordan, Sally

    2017-12-01

    We address previous hypotheses about possible factors influencing the gender gap in attainment in physics. Specifically, previous studies claim that scaffolding may preferentially benefit female students, and we present some alternative conclusions surrounding this hypothesis. By taking both student attainment level and the degree of question scaffolding into account, we identify questions that exhibit real bias in favor of male students. We find that both multidimensional context and use of diagrams are common elements of such questions.

  9. Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group guidance series-paper 2: methods for question formulation, searching, and protocol development for qualitative evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Janet L; Booth, Andrew; Cargo, Margaret; Hannes, Karin; Harden, Angela; Flemming, Kate; Garside, Ruth; Pantoja, Tomas; Thomas, James; Noyes, Jane

    2018-05-01

    This paper updates previous Cochrane guidance on question formulation, searching, and protocol development, reflecting recent developments in methods for conducting qualitative evidence syntheses to inform Cochrane intervention reviews. Examples are used to illustrate how decisions about boundaries for a review are formed via an iterative process of constructing lines of inquiry and mapping the available information to ascertain whether evidence exists to answer questions related to effectiveness, implementation, feasibility, appropriateness, economic evidence, and equity. The process of question formulation allows reviewers to situate the topic in relation to how it informs and explains effectiveness, using the criterion of meaningfulness, appropriateness, feasibility, and implementation. Questions related to complex questions and interventions can be structured by drawing on an increasingly wide range of question frameworks. Logic models and theoretical frameworks are useful tools for conceptually mapping the literature to illustrate the complexity of the phenomenon of interest. Furthermore, protocol development may require iterative question formulation and searching. Consequently, the final protocol may function as a guide rather than a prescriptive route map, particularly in qualitative reviews that ask more exploratory and open-ended questions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Cross-Cultural Study of Gifted Students' Scientific, Societal, and Moral Questions Concerning Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Tirri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the number and nature of gifted female and male students' scientific, societal, and moral questions concerning science. The participants (=658 of this study were 16–19-year-old international students from 55 countries and two continents, Asia and Europe. They applied to participate in the Millennium Youth Camp held in 2011 in Finland. The students came from scientifically and mathematically oriented schools, and they had shown an interest towards science through competitions, school success, and their own research. The students were asked to formulate questions they would like to get answers to during the camp. The nature and number of the students' questions were analyzed with qualitative and quantitative content analysis. The results showed that the boys asked more scientific questions than the girls, and the girls asked more societal questions than the boys. The students asked less questions about morality than scientific or societal questions. The most common questions about morality were related to pollution and fresh air, environmental problems, and water protection. The results point to the need for teachers to teach socioscientific issues and discuss moral questions related to science.

  11. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  12. Protein Supplement Usage Among Male University Students: Comparisons Between Current and Previous Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Youngmo; Choi, Jinkyung

    2018-02-01

    Interest in specialized dietary supplements is leading market growth, and protein supplements are popular for increasing muscle mass among young males. Therefore, this study investigated the attitudes toward and satisfaction with protein supplements to identify detailed consumer behaviors related to the consumption of protein supplements. The study sample includes male university students in their 20s in South Korea. In total, 223 responses were entered for analysis. Questions related to attitudes, satisfaction, and future behavioral intentions were asked using 5-point Likert scales. The responses were divided into two groups, current and previous users, to identify significant differences in terms of attitudes, satisfaction, and future behavioral intentions. A descriptive analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multiple regression were run. The majority of respondents prefer the powdered form of supplements in bulk with a price range between 30,000 won and 60,000 won. Online shopping was preferred, while word of mouth and friends/family were considered credible information sources. The most common side effects experienced were problems with digestion and hives, although more than 78% did not experience side effects. In comparison between current and previous users in terms of attitudes and satisfaction, the following areas showed significances. Regarding attitudes, the importance of brand, preference for products from overseas, the search for nutritional facts, and reading carefully all product information were significant, while regarding satisfaction, price, effectiveness, and ease of consumption were significant. All significances showed that current users had more positive attitudes and greater satisfaction. Overall, consumers' satisfaction regarding ease of consumption influenced future behavioral intentions. The market for protein supplements has been growing, so measuring consumers' attitudes and satisfaction would help attract potential consumers. In

  13. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  14. Structural aspects of protein kinase ASK1 regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obšil, Tomáš; Obšilová, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, 1 Dec (2017), s. 31-36 ISSN 2212-4926 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02739S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ASK1 kinase * apoptosis * thioredoxin * 14-3-3 protein Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology

  15. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  16. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  17. When is a research question not a research question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nancy E; Asano, Miho; Barbic, Skye Pamela

    2013-06-01

    Research is undertaken to answer important questions yet often the question is poorly expressed and lacks information on the population, the exposure or intervention, the comparison, and the outcome. An optimal research question sets out what the investigator wants to know, not what the investigator might do, nor what the results of the study might ultimately contribute. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent to which rehabilitation scientists optimally define their research questions. A cross-sectional survey of the rehabilitation research articles published during 2008. Two raters independently rated each question according to pre-specified criteria; a third rater adjudicated all discrepant ratings. The proportion of the 258 articles with a question formulated as methods or expected contribution and not as what knowledge was being sought was 65%; 30% of questions required reworking. The designs which most often had poorly formulated research questions were randomized trials, cross-sectional and measurement studies. Formulating the research question is not purely a semantic concern. When the question is poorly formulated, the design, analysis, sample size calculations, and presentation of results may not be optimal. The gap between research and clinical practice could be bridged by a clear, complete, and informative research question.

  18. Student questions in urban middle school science communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groome, Meghan

    This dissertation examines student questions within three Communities of Practice (CoP), all urban middle school science environments. The study analyzed student questions from a sociocultural perspective and used ethnographic research techniques to detail how the CoP's shaped questions in the classroom. In the first study, two case study girls attempted to navigate questioning events that required them to negotiation participation. Their access to participation was blocked by participation frameworks that elevated some students as "gatekeepers" while suppressing the participation of others. The next two studies detail the introduction of written questioning opportunities, one into a public middle school classroom and the other into an informal classroom. In both studies, students responded to the interventions differently, most notable the adoption of the opportunity by female students who do not participate orally. Dissertation-wide findings indicate all students were able to ask questions, but varied in level of cognitive complexity, and the diagnostic interventions were able to identify students who were not known to be "target students", students who asked a high number of questions and were considered "interested in science". Some students' roles were as "gatekeepers" to participation of their peers. Two out of three teachers in the studies reported major shifts in their teaching practice due to the focus on questions and the methods used here have been found to be effective in producing educational research as well as supporting high-need classrooms in prior research. In conclusion, these studies indicate that social factors, including participation frameworks, gender dynamics, and the availability of alternative participation methods, play an important role in how students ask science-related questions. It is recommended that researchers continue to examine social factors that reduce student questions and modify their teaching strategies to facilitate

  19. Questions for Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  20. Best practice strategies for effective use of questions as a teaching tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofade, Toyin; Elsner, Jamie; Haines, Stuart T

    2013-09-12

    Questions have long been used as a teaching tool by teachers and preceptors to assess students' knowledge, promote comprehension, and stimulate critical thinking. Well-crafted questions lead to new insights, generate discussion, and promote the comprehensive exploration of subject matter. Poorly constructed questions can stifle learning by creating confusion, intimidating students, and limiting creative thinking. Teachers most often ask lower-order, convergent questions that rely on students' factual recall of prior knowledge rather than asking higher-order, divergent questions that promote deep thinking, requiring students to analyze and evaluate concepts. This review summarizes the taxonomy of questions, provides strategies for formulating effective questions, and explores practical considerations to enhance student engagement and promote critical thinking. These concepts can be applied in the classroom and in experiential learning environments.