WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously acquired knowledge

  1. Perceptions and knowledge about the acquired immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using an anonymous questionnaire to obtain baseline data on sexual behaviour and knowledge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among students in university residences, the following information was obtained: Knowledge of AIDS was found to be high, although misconceptions regarding transmission ...

  2. Knowledge and Previous Contraceptive Use by Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fear of side effects was the commonest reason for non-use of contraception. Conclusion: Pregnant teenagers are quite knowledgeable about contraceptive method but are poor users. Family life education, including contraception should be provided for teenagers and incorporated into the curricula of schools and colleges.

  3. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  4. Perceptions and knowledge about the acquired immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... The acquired immunodeficiency sydrome (AIDS) is becoming a major health care priority and a threat to all South Africans. Since the diagnosis of the first case of AIDS in South Africa in March 19821 over 430 cases have been reported to 21 June. 1990 (information courtesy the AIDS Advisory Group). At.

  5. A methodology for acquiring qualitative knowledge for probabilistic graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model developm......We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model...

  6. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  7. Mentoring - The knowledge acquired for future ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Zupančič

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mentoring is a tool which enables the transfer of knowledge: it is receiving more and more attention in work environments. Mentoring offers new knowledge and competences, new job opportunities to job seekers on the one hand, and reduces labour market imbalances in the demand and supply of professions on the other. Mentoring includes various forms of activities, connects younger and older employees, those experienced and the first job seekers. In the times of economic crisis, mentoring can enable a smoother transition of youth from education/training into the labour market, and might contribute to lower unemployment rates for young people. By respecting the responsibilities of all partners involved, Slovenia could develop its own system of knowledge transfer on the basis of the experiences of the successful countries which have already implemented mentoring schemes. This could help Slovenia broaden its existing stock of knowledge and experiences and improve its performance in the labour market.

  8. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  9. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  10. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  11. Acquiring, encoding, and re-using clinical knowledge in PRODIGY

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    Richard Hall

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The development, implementation and maintenance of computer-executable clinical guidelines encompass a series of complex processes. As they are often performed by more than one organisation, this introduces further complexity. Within the PRODIGY project we attempt to control as many aspects of the process as possible, in order to increase the likelihood of achieving success. To illustrate the complexity of the process and many of the inherent problems and solutions, this paper describes the evolution of the PRODIGY knowledge base, describing the steps from acquiring knowledge, through encoding, to the execution of guidelines, and 'closing the loop' by discussing an approach to knowledge re-use. We will also consider some of the wider implications of our work and propose directions for future research and development activities.

  12. Nuclear Physics in High School: what are the previous knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, F. de O.

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear physics is a branch of physics that about a century occupies an important space in the theoretical, experimental and scientific fields. Currently, its relevance in application is concentrated in several areas such as energy production, diagnostic processes and medical treatment and nuclear bombs, high destructive power. Whereas, according to legal regulations, the teaching of physics must make the student competent in the understanding of the world and assuming the perspective of Paulo Freire (2011) that education is not done on the subject, but together with him, in dialogue with his point of departure, his prior knowledge, we established the general objective of raising students prior knowledge of the third year of high School at Nair Ferreira Neves school, in São Sebastião-SP, about nuclear physics. We concluded that the school has not fulfilled its role in relation to nuclear physics, because students have information from other means of information and these knowledge are stereotyped and mistaken, damaging the world's reading and exercising full citizenship.

  13. TIPS Placement in Swine, Guided by Electromagnetic Real-Time Needle Tip Localization Displayed on Previously Acquired 3-D CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Stephen B.; Magee, Carolyn; Acker, David E.; Venbrux, Anthony C.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of guiding a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure with an electromagnetic real-time needle tip position sensor coupled to previously acquired 3-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: An electromagnetic position sensor was placed at the tip of a Colapinto needle. The real-time position and orientation of the needle tip was then displayed on previously acquired 3-D CT images which were registered with the five swine. Portal vein puncture was then attempted in all animals. Results: The computer calculated accuracy of the position sensor was on average 3 mm. Four of five portal vein punctures were successful. In the successes, only one or two attempts were necessary and success was achieved in minutes. Conclusion: A real-time position sensor attached to the tip of a Colapinto needle and coupled to previously acquired 3-D CT images may potentially aid in entering the portal vein during the TIPS procedure

  14. Associative learning, acquired equivalence, and flexible generalization of knowledge in mild Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bódi, Nikoletta; Csibri, Eva; Myers, Catherine E; Gluck, Mark A; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2009-06-01

    Acquired equivalence is a phenomenon in which prior training to treat 2 stimuli as equivalent increases generalization between them. Previous studies demonstrated that the hippocampal complex might play an important role in acquired equivalence associative learning. In this study, we tested the possibility that acquired equivalence learning is a sensitive marker of mild Alzheimer disease (AD). In the associative learning test, antecedent stimuli were cartoon faces and consequent stimuli were different colored cartoon fishes. Each cartoon character had some pet fish and the task was to learn these face-fish associations using feedback provided after each decision. In the transfer phase, knowledge about face-fish pairs had to be generalized to new associations. AD patients exhibited mild impairments in the training phase, whereas they were profoundly impaired on the acquired equivalence test. Associative knowledge could not be transferred to a more flexible retrieval condition. These results suggest that acquired equivalence learning is specifically impaired in early AD, which may indicate the pathology of the hippocampal complex.

  15. A knowledge creation info-structure to acquire and crystallize the tacit knowledge of health-care experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza; Cheah, Yu-N; Curran, Janet

    2005-06-01

    Tacit knowledge of health-care experts is an important source of experiential know-how, yet due to various operational and technical reasons, such health-care knowledge is not entirely harnessed and put into professional practice. Emerging knowledge-management (KM) solutions suggest strategies to acquire the seemingly intractable and nonarticulated tacit knowledge of health-care experts. This paper presents a KM methodology, together with its computational implementation, to 1) acquire the tacit knowledge possessed by health-care experts; 2) represent the acquired tacit health-care knowledge in a computational formalism--i.e., clinical scenarios--that allows the reuse of stored knowledge to acquire tacit knowledge; and 3) crystallize the acquired tacit knowledge so that it is validated for health-care decision-support and medical education systems.

  16. Categorical phonotactic knowledge filters second language input, but probabilistic phonotactic knowledge can still be acquired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Tomas O; Kager, René W J

    2015-09-01

    Probabilistic phonotactic knowledge facilitates perception, but categorical phonotactic illegality can cause misperceptions, especially of non-native phoneme combinations. If misperceptions induced by first language (L1) knowledge filter second language input, access to second language (L2) probabilistic phonotactics is potentially blocked for L2 acquisition. The facilitatory effects of L2 probabilistic phonotactics and categorical filtering effects of L1 phonotactics were compared and contrasted in a series of cross-modal priming experiments. Dutch native listeners and L1 Spanish and Japanese learners of Dutch had to perform a lexical decision task on Dutch words that started with /sC/ clusters that were of different degrees of probabilistic wellformedness in Dutch but illegal in Spanish and Japanese. Versions of target words with Spanish illegality resolving epenthesis in the clusters primed the Spanish group, showing an L1 filter; a similar effect was not found for the Japanese group. In addition, words with wellformed /sC/ clusters were recognised faster, showing a positive effect on processing of probabilistic wellformedness. However, Spanish learners with higher proficiency were facilitated to a greater extent by wellformed but epenthesised clusters, showing that although probabilistic learning occurs in spite of the L1 filter, the acquired probabilistic knowledge is still affected by L1 categorical knowledge. Categorical phonotactic and probabilistic knowledge are of a different nature and interact in acquisition.

  17. Does the patients′ educational level and previous counseling affect their medication knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik M Alkatheri

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The education level of the patient and previous counseling are positively linked to medication knowledge. Knowledge of the medications′ side effects proved to be the most difficult task for the participants in this study, requiring the highest level of education, and was improved by previous counseling.

  18. HOW ROMANIAN FINANCIAL AND INTERNAL AUDITORS ACQUIRE ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS KNOWLEDGE AND COMPETENCES?

    OpenAIRE

    Cardos Vasile - Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Research theme - in this article we investigate how Romanian financial and internal auditors acquire accounting information systems knowledge and competences and how they use this knowledge to improve their activity in order to fulfill their mission as required by the professional standards. Objectives - our main purpose is to establish through what type of courses Romanian financial and internal auditors acquiring accounting information systems knowledge and competences and how useful these ...

  19. Acquiring Knowledge over the Economist’s Lifetime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper the reading behaviour of economists is examined to see whether particular types of knowledge - basic and applied - imply different investment patterns. As it turns out, the reading intensity of advanced theoretical and empirical literature declines with three to four

  20. Acquiring Common Sense Spatial Knowledge through Implicit Spatial Templates

    OpenAIRE

    Collell, Guillem; Van Gool, Luc; Moens, Marie-Francine

    2017-01-01

    Spatial understanding is a fundamental problem with wide-reaching real-world applications. The representation of spatial knowledge is often modeled with spatial templates, i.e., regions of acceptability of two objects under an explicit spatial relationship (e.g., "on", "below", etc.). In contrast with prior work that restricts spatial templates to explicit spatial prepositions (e.g., "glass on table"), here we extend this concept to implicit spatial language, i.e., those relationships (genera...

  1. Community-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa-pneumonia in a previously healthy man occupationally exposed to metalworking fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is well known and frequently found in hospitals and nursing care facilities, many cases are also reported outside these boundaries. In general, this pathogen infects debilitated patients either by comorbidities or by any form of immunodeficiency. In cases of respiratory infection, tobacco abuse seems to play an important role as a risk factor. In previously healthy patients, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP with P. aeruginosa as the etiological agent is extremely rare, and unlike the cases involving immunocompromised or hospitalized patients, the outcome is severe, and is fatal in up to 61.1% of cases. Aerosolized contaminated water or solutions are closely linked to the development of respiratory tract infection. In this setting, metalworking fluids used in factories may be implicated in CAP involving previously healthy people. The authors report the case of a middle-aged man who worked in a metalworking factory and presented a right upper lobar pneumonia with a rapid fatal outcome. P. aeruginosa was cultured from blood and tracheal aspirates. The autopsy findings confirmed a hemorrhagic necrotizing pneumonia with bacteria-invading vasculitis and thrombosis. A culture of the metalworking fluid of the factory was also positive for P. aeruginosa. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that both strains (blood culture and metalworking fluid were genetically indistinguishable. The authors highlight the occupational risk for the development of this P. aeruginosa-infection in healthy people.

  2. HOW ROMANIAN FINANCIAL AND INTERNAL AUDITORS ACQUIRE ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS KNOWLEDGE AND COMPETENCES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardos Vasile - Daniel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Research theme in this article we investigate how Romanian financial and internal auditors acquire accounting information systems knowledge and competences and how they use this knowledge to improve their activity in order to fulfill their mission as required by the professional standards. Objectives our main purpose is to establish through what type of courses Romanian financial and internal auditors acquiring accounting information systems knowledge and competences and how useful these courses are perceived by the auditors. Prior work audit professional organizations prescribed that auditors must acquire, maintain and develop their knowledge and competences. Information technology and information systems are considered to be a main knowledge component of professional development programs. The scientific literature indicates that auditors have to enhance their information systems knowledge in order to cope with the increasing complexity of the client's entities accounting information systems. We consider that our article embraces Curtis et al. (2009 call for research on how auditors obtain information systems knowledge. Methodology an electronic questionnaire was created and sent to Romanian financial and internal auditors, which were required to indicate the number of accounting information systems course they attended and how the knowledge gained improved their activity. Results We concluded that financial auditors acquire accounting information systems knowledge mainly by attending the courses organized by the Chamber of Financial Auditors of Romanian, while internal auditors by attending the course organized by the companies they are working with. Implications - The results of this study might be used by Romanian professional audit organizations in reconsidering their priorities regarding the accounting information systems knowledge and competence needs of their constituents. Originality/Contribution Our study is the first one to

  3. Clinicians' ability, motivation, and opportunity to acquire and transfer knowledge: An age-driven perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profili, Silvia; Sammarra, Alessia; Dandi, Roberto; Mascia, Daniele

    2017-11-08

    Many countries are seeing a dramatic increase in the average age of their clinicians. The literature often highlights the challenges of high replacement costs and the need for strategies to retain older personnel. Less discussed are the potential pitfalls of knowledge acquisition and transfer that accompany this aging issue. We propose a conceptual framework for understanding how clinicians' age interact with ability, motivation, and opportunity to predict clinical knowledge transfer and acquisition in health care organizations. This study integrates life-span development perspectives with the ability-motivation-opportunity framework to develop a number of testable propositions on the interaction between age and clinicians' ability, motivation, and opportunity to acquire and transfer clinical knowledge. We posit that the interaction between ability (the knowledge and skills to acquire knowledge), motivation (the willingness to acquire and transfer knowledge), and opportunity (resources required for acquiring and transferring knowledge) is a determinant of successful knowledge management. We also suggest that clinicians' age-and more specifically, the cognitive and motivational changes that accompany aging-moderates these relationships. This study contributes to existing research by offering a set of testable propositions for future research. These propositions will hopefully encourage empirical research into this important topic and lead to guidelines for reducing the risks of organizational knowledge loss due to aging. We suggest several ways that health care organizations can tailor managerial practices in order to help capitalize on the knowledge-based resources held by their younger and older clinicians. Such initiatives may affect employees' ability (e.g., by providing specific training programs), motivation (e.g., by expanding subjective perceptions of future time at work), and opportunities (e.g., by providing mentoring, reverse mentoring, and coaching

  4. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  5. Acquiring Knowledge Within and Across Firm Boundaries: Evidence from Clinical Development

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Azoulay

    2003-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that information is acquired more easily within than across firm boundaries. I explore why this is observed in the setting of clinical development. Since the mid-1980s, pharmaceutical firms have partly contracted out the operational aspects of clinical trials to Contract Research Organizations (CROs). Using detailed project-level data for 53 firms, I document that even after controlling for a number of alternative explanations, knowledge-intensive projects are m...

  6. Integrating data to acquire new knowledge: Three modes of integration in plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses what it means and what it takes to integrate data in order to acquire new knowledge about biological entities and processes. Maureen O'Malley and Orkun Soyer have pointed to the scientific work involved in data integration as important and distinct from the work required by other forms of integration, such as methodological and explanatory integration, which have been more successful in captivating the attention of philosophers of science. Here I explore what data integration involves in more detail and with a focus on the role of data-sharing tools, like online databases, in facilitating this process; and I point to the philosophical implications of focusing on data as a unit of analysis. I then analyse three cases of data integration in the field of plant science, each of which highlights a different mode of integration: (1) inter-level integration, which involves data documenting different features of the same species, aims to acquire an interdisciplinary understanding of organisms as complex wholes and is exemplified by research on Arabidopsis thaliana; (2) cross-species integration, which involves data acquired on different species, aims to understand plant biology in all its different manifestations and is exemplified by research on Miscanthus giganteus; and (3) translational integration, which involves data acquired from sources within as well as outside academia, aims at the provision of interventions to improve human health (e.g. by sustaining the environment in which humans thrive) and is exemplified by research on Phytophtora ramorum. Recognising the differences between these efforts sheds light on the dynamics and diverse outcomes of data dissemination and integrative research; and the relations between the social and institutional roles of science, the development of data-sharing infrastructures and the production of scientific knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Novel Method for Acquiring Engineering-Oriented Operational Empirical Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The operational knowledge of skilled technicians gained from years of experience is invaluable for an enterprise. Possession of such knowledge will facilitate an enterprise sharing technician’s know-how and training of new employees effectively. However, until now there is rare efficient quantitative method to obtain this kind of tacit knowledge. In this paper we propose a concept of engineering-oriented operational empirical knowledge (OEK to describe this kind of knowledge and design a framework to acquire OEK from skilled technician’s operations. The framework integrates motion analysis, motion elicitation, and intent analysis. The modular arrangement of predetermined time standards (MODAPTS is used to divide the technician’s operational process into basic motion elements; and the variable precision rough set (VPRS algorithm is used to extract the technician’s OEK content, which combined with the technician’s intent elicited via interview; the completed OEK is obtained. At the end of our study, an engineering case is used to validate the feasibility of the proposed method, which shows that satisfactory results have been reached for the study.

  8. Predicting United States Medical Licensure Examination Step 2 clinical knowledge scores from previous academic indicators

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    Monteiro KA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kristina A Monteiro, Paul George, Richard Dollase, Luba Dumenco Office of Medical Education, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: The use of multiple academic indicators to identify students at risk of experiencing difficulty completing licensure requirements provides an opportunity to increase support services prior to high-stakes licensure examinations, including the United States Medical Licensure Examination (USMLE Step 2 clinical knowledge (CK. Step 2 CK is becoming increasingly important in decision-making by residency directors because of increasing undergraduate medical enrollment and limited available residency vacancies. We created and validated a regression equation to predict students’ Step 2 CK scores from previous academic indicators to identify students at risk, with sufficient time to intervene with additional support services as necessary. Data from three cohorts of students (N=218 with preclinical mean course exam score, National Board of Medical Examination subject examinations, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK between 2011 and 2013 were used in analyses. The authors created models capable of predicting Step 2 CK scores from academic indicators to identify at-risk students. In model 1, preclinical mean course exam score and Step 1 score accounted for 56% of the variance in Step 2 CK score. The second series of models included mean preclinical course exam score, Step 1 score, and scores on three NBME subject exams, and accounted for 67%–69% of the variance in Step 2 CK score. The authors validated the findings on the most recent cohort of graduating students (N=89 and predicted Step 2 CK score within a mean of four points (SD=8. The authors suggest using the first model as a needs assessment to gauge the level of future support required after completion of preclinical course requirements, and rescreening after three of six clerkships to identify students who might benefit from

  9. Meaning-making of female genital cutting: children's perception and acquired knowledge of the ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jon-Håkon; Lien, Inger-Lise

    2013-01-01

    How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Women in Norway, mostly with Somali or Gambian backgrounds, were asked about their experiences of circumcision. Two different strategies were used to prepare girls for circumcision, ie, one involving giving some information and the other keeping the ritual a secret. Findings indicate that these two approaches affected the girls' meaning-making differently, but both strategies seemed to lead to the same educational outcome. The learning process is carefully monitored and regulated but is brought to a halt, stopping short of critical reflexive thinking. The knowledge tends to be deeply internalized, embodied, and morally embraced. The meaning-making process is discussed by analyzing the use of metaphors and narratives. Given that the educational outcome is characterized by limited knowledge without critical reflection, behavior change programs to end female genital cutting should identify and implement educational stimuli that are likely to promote critical reflexive thinking.

  10. Knowledge and behavioural factors associated with gender gap in acquiring HIV among youth in Uganda

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    Shraboni Patra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The increasing prevalence of HIV in Uganda during the last decade (7.5% in 2004-05 to 8.3% in 2011 among women and 5.0% in 2004-05 to 6.1% among men in 2011 of 15 to 49 years clearly shows that women are disproportionately affected by HIV epidemic. Hence, we assessed the prevalence of HIV and focused on differences in risky sexual behaviour and knowledge of HIV among Ugandan youth. Design and Methods. Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey 2011 data was used. The total samples of men and women (15 to 24 years, interviewed and tested for HIV, were 3450 and 4504 respectively. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour was based on 1941 men and 3127 women who had ever had sex and were tested for HIV. Pearson’s Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results. Findings showed that young women were almost two times more vulnerable than young men in acquiring HIV (OR=1.762, P<0.001. Women who had first sex under age 15 (7.3%, had more than 2 sexual partners (9.2% and did not use condom during last sex (6.4% were more HIV-positive. Higher risk was found among women (6.3% than men (2.2%. Significantly (P<0.01 less percentage (81.3% of women as compared to men (83.8% perceived that the probability of HIV transmission may be reduced by correct and consistent use of the condom during sex. Conclusions. Hence, there is an urgent need for effective strategies and programmes to raise awareness on sexual health and risky behaviour, particularly targeting the youth, which will reduce the gender gap in risky sexual behaviour and new transmission of HIV in Uganda.

  11. [Validation of knowledge acquired from experience: opportunity or threat for nurses working in operating theatres?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvat-Bouëdec, Cécile

    2005-06-01

    The law n 2002-73, dated 17 January 2002, of social modernisation, as it is called, reformed continuing professional training in France. It established a new system of professional certification, the validation of the knowledge acquired from experience (VAE in French). Since 2003, the Health Ministry has been studying a project to set up the VAE for health professions, among which, in particular, the profession of the state registered nurse working in operating theatres (IBODES in French). A state diploma sanctions the training enabling to practise this profession. In the future, the VAE will open a new access way to this diploma. Does this evolution constitute a threat for the profession, and a risk or an opportunity for individual people? The aim of this thesis is to characterise the impacts of the VAE on the IBODE profession and its current system of training. Two sociological and educational approaches are comforted by a field survey. A historical background of the IBODE profession develops the evolution of the caring practices, and presents the evolution of the training systems. A sociological approach enables to analyse the vocational focus of the IBODE on looking at functionalist theories. Therefore, the study enables to think that the VAE will have no consequences on the vocational focus of the IBODE. The VAE is then the object of an educational approach within the context of continuing professional training. The topics on which it could apply and the resistances it causes are studied. Some examples are taken within other Ministries. This study shows that the VAE involves an adaptation of training centres. The VAE constitutes a genuine opportunity for the IBODE profession. However, to manage its setting up in a delicate human context, the field professionals should be involved as early as possible in the reflection initiated by the Ministry.

  12. Episodic Specificity in Acquiring Thematic Knowledge of Novel Words from Descriptive Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meichao; Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined whether thematic relations of the novel words could be acquired via descriptive episodes, and if yes, whether it could be generalized to thematically related words in a different scenario. In Experiment 1, a lexical decision task was used where the novel words served as primes for target words in four conditions: (1) corresponding concepts of the novel words, (2) thematically related words in the same episodes as that in learning condition, (3) thematically related words in different episodes, or (4) unrelated words served as targets. Event related potentials elicited by the targets revealed that compared to the unrelated words, the corresponding concepts and thematically related words in the same episodes elicited smaller N400s with a frontal-central distribution, whereas the thematically related words in different episodes elicited an enhanced late positive component. Experiment 2 further showed a priming effect of the corresponding concepts on the thematically related words in the same episodes as well as in a different episode, indicating that the absence of a priming effect of the learned novel words on the thematically related words in different episode could not be attributed to inappropriate selection of thematically related words in the two conditions. These results indicate that only the corresponding concepts and the thematically related words in the learning episodes were successfully primed, whereas the thematic association between the novel words and the thematically related words in different scenarios could only be recognized in a late processing stage. Our findings suggest that thematic knowledge of novel words is organized via separate scenarios, which are represented in a clustered manner in the semantic network.

  13. Assessment of Knowledge and Competences in Agricultural Engineering Acquired by the Senior Secondary School Students for Farm Mechanisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndem, Joseph; Ogba, Ernest; Egbe, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the agricultural engineering knowledge and competencies acquired by the senior secondary students for farm mechanization in technical colleges in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the study. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The population of the…

  14. Purulent pericarditis secondary to community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in previously healthy children. A sign of the times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutmer, Jeffrey E; Yates, Andrew R; Bannerman, Tammy L; Marcon, Mario J; Karsies, Todd J

    2013-06-01

    Purulent pericarditis secondary to community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a potentially lethal infection that has yet to be described in the pediatric population. Only four cases of purulent pericarditis secondary to CA-MRSA have been described in the English literature, all of whom were adults. We report on the first two pediatric cases of purulent pericarditis secondary to CA-MRSA to increase awareness of this potentially fatal condition. Clinical data were obtained from an 8-year-old male patient and a 7-month-old female patient, both previously healthy, who presented to our hospital for treatment of severe shock and multiorgan failure. Literature review was performed using MEDLINE and Cochrane databases. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to confirm the organism type. Our previously healthy patients presented with refractory shock and were found to have purulent pericarditis with tamponade secondary to CA-MRSA. Both patients required emergent pericardiocentesis and surgical pericardial debridement. Isolates from both patients were found to be MRSA USA type 300, a common type of CA-MRSA that has become the most frequent cause of skin and soft tissue infections in the United States. Purulent pericarditis survival hinges upon early empiric antibiotic therapy targeting resistant Staphylococcus, rapid diagnostic efforts, and expeditious pericardial drainage when diagnosed. An aggressive multidisciplinary approach provided for complete recovery in both cases, and both children were discharged with normal cardiac function. These two cases emphasize the need for consideration of CA-MRSA presenting with purulent pericarditis as an etiology for refractory shock.

  15. Locating previously unknown patterns in data-mining results: a dual data- and knowledge-mining method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knaus William A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data mining can be utilized to automate analysis of substantial amounts of data produced in many organizations. However, data mining produces large numbers of rules and patterns, many of which are not useful. Existing methods for pruning uninteresting patterns have only begun to automate the knowledge acquisition step (which is required for subjective measures of interestingness, hence leaving a serious bottleneck. In this paper we propose a method for automatically acquiring knowledge to shorten the pattern list by locating the novel and interesting ones. Methods The dual-mining method is based on automatically comparing the strength of patterns mined from a database with the strength of equivalent patterns mined from a relevant knowledgebase. When these two estimates of pattern strength do not match, a high "surprise score" is assigned to the pattern, identifying the pattern as potentially interesting. The surprise score captures the degree of novelty or interestingness of the mined pattern. In addition, we show how to compute p values for each surprise score, thus filtering out noise and attaching statistical significance. Results We have implemented the dual-mining method using scripts written in Perl and R. We applied the method to a large patient database and a biomedical literature citation knowledgebase. The system estimated association scores for 50,000 patterns, composed of disease entities and lab results, by querying the database and the knowledgebase. It then computed the surprise scores by comparing the pairs of association scores. Finally, the system estimated statistical significance of the scores. Conclusion The dual-mining method eliminates more than 90% of patterns with strong associations, thus identifying them as uninteresting. We found that the pruning of patterns using the surprise score matched the biomedical evidence in the 100 cases that were examined by hand. The method automates the acquisition of

  16. The Effect of Previous Co-Worker Experience on the Survival of Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of previous co-worker experience on the survival of knowledge intensive start-ups. For the empirical analysis I use the Danish Integrated Database of Labor Market Research (IDA). This longitudinal employer-employee database allows me to identify co-worker...... experience among all members of the firm. In addition, I will make a distinction between ordinary start-ups and entrepreneurial spin-offs. The results show that previous co-worker experience has a positive effect on new firm survival. This effect appears to be valid predominantly for ordinary start-ups than...

  17. Combining expert knowledge and knowledge automatically acquired from electronic data sources for continued ontology evaluation and improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Claire L; Weng, Chunhua

    2015-10-01

    A common bottleneck during ontology evaluation is knowledge acquisition from domain experts for gold standard creation. This paper contributes a novel semi-automated method for evaluating the concept coverage and accuracy of biomedical ontologies by complementing expert knowledge with knowledge automatically extracted from clinical practice guidelines and electronic health records, which minimizes reliance on expensive domain expertise for gold standards generation. We developed a bacterial clinical infectious diseases ontology (BCIDO) to assist clinical infectious disease treatment decision support. Using a semi-automated method we integrated diverse knowledge sources, including publically available infectious disease guidelines from international repositories, electronic health records, and expert-generated infectious disease case scenarios, to generate a compendium of infectious disease knowledge and use it to evaluate the accuracy and coverage of BCIDO. BCIDO has three classes (i.e., infectious disease, antibiotic, bacteria) containing 593 distinct concepts and 2345 distinct concept relationships. Our semi-automated method generated an ID knowledge compendium consisting of 637 concepts and 1554 concept relationships. Overall, BCIDO covered 79% (504/637) of the concepts and 89% (1378/1554) of the concept relationships in the ID compendium. BCIDO coverage of ID compendium concepts was 92% (121/131) for antibiotic, 80% (205/257) for infectious disease, and 72% (178/249) for bacteria. The low coverage of bacterial concepts in BCIDO was due to a difference in concept granularity between BCIDO and infectious disease guidelines. Guidelines and expert generated scenarios were the richest source of ID concepts and relationships while patient records provided relatively fewer concepts and relationships. Our semi-automated method was cost-effective for generating a useful knowledge compendium with minimal reliance on domain experts. This method can be useful for continued

  18. Reproductive aspects and knowledge of family planning among women with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ivana Cristina Vieira de; Cunha, Maria da Conceição Dos Santos Oliveira; Cunha, Gilmara Holanda da; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2017-05-25

    To analyze the reproductive aspects and knowledge of family planning among women with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Cross-sectional and descriptive study carried out from January to December, 2015, in the outpatient care of infectious disease unit in a hospital located in Fortaleza, Ceará. Data were collected through a form applied by interview in a private setting. 102 women participated in the study. Most were aware that they were serologically positive with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during prenatal care (96.1%) and did not intend to have more children (63.7%). Women who were less than 39 years of age, had a higher educational level, and a shorter time of antiretroviral therapy had better chances of having children (p≤0.05). Having a steady partner increased the chance of desiring to have children, while tubal ligation was higher among women that did not receive counseling on family planning. Knowledge of family planning was limited because of lack of assistance provided by health professionals. Analisar aspectos reprodutivos e conhecimento sobre planejamento familiar de mulheres com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (Aids). Estudo transversal, descritivo, realizado de janeiro a dezembro de 2015, no ambulatório de infectologia de um hospital em Fortaleza, Ceará. Os dados foram coletados por meio de formulário, aplicado por entrevista em ambiente privativo. Participaram do estudo 102 mulheres. A maioria delas teve conhecimento da sorologia positiva para vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) durante o pré-natal (96,1%), e estas não pretendiam mais ter filhos (63,7%). Mulheres com idade menor que 39 anos, maior escolaridade e menor tempo de terapia antirretroviral tiveram maiores chances de ter filhos (p≤0,05). Mulheres com idade menor que 39 anos e maior escolaridade tiveram maiores chances de ter informações corretas sobre ter filhos na vigência do HIV (p≤0,05). Ter parceiro fixo aumentou a chance de desejar ter

  19. DENTAL PATIENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS ABOUT TRANSMISSION WAYS OF ACQuIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Cabbar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the patients’ attitude, knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS. And secondary aim was to assess the need for further education about HIV/AIDS. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire of 39 items was used to evaluate the patients’ knowledge. 301 patients were included (mean age 37.12 ±7.85 years, 41.5% male, 58.5% female in the study. Results were calculated by Students t-test, Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test. Results: Most of the patients had accurate knowledge about transmission ways, however transmission through breastfeeding (31.6%, public restrooms (44.9%, and insects and mosquitos bite (47.2% were less recognized. Saliva (32.2%, urine (36.9%, tears (58.5%, sweat (54.5%, breast milk (30.6%, feces (36.9% and cerebrospinal fluid (7.3% were less recognized body fluids. Generally university and postgraduate educated patients had more accurate knowledge than other groups. 63.1% of patients thought that they need further education about HIV/AI DS. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the knowledge level about HIV/AIDS was almost agreeable. However, the patients had deficiencies with respect to their knowl-edge. Therefore the authors of this study believe that there must be education programs related to HIV/AIDS.

  20. Nigerian Pre-service Science Teachers' Self-Perceptions of Acquired Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills after Teaching Practice Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Okanlawon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to investigate the teaching competencies acquired and those not acquired by science teachers-in-training after exposure to teaching practice. The investigator used a fifty-six item questionnaire, labeled as Perception of the Acquired Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills Scale (PAPS, to elicit information from two hundred and ten pre-service science teachers in south-west geopolitical zone of Nigeria. A panel of five science educators determined the content validity of the questionnaire. The sample of science education undergraduates were drawn from three randomly selected universities using stratified random sampling technique. The pre-service teachers were required to rate their performance level on each teaching competence on a five-point Likert scale ranging from - high performance level - to - no performance level - with - average performance level - as the pivotal point of the scale. Following that, the mean of each competence item were computed. Any competence statement that had a mean rating of less than 3.00 was considered to be of low performance cadre, since the mean value of the scale was 3.00. The findings of the study indicate that most of the teaching competencies that teachers-in-training have not acquired fall under theme 1 (planning instruction, theme 2(implementing instruction, theme 3 (evaluating instruction, and theme 7 (integrating technology and media in the classroom. The study also revealed that pre-service science teachers demonstrated proficiency in reinforcing learning, managing classroom, building professional links with colleagues and understanding learners' development. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that the principle of collaborative approaches for teacher learning should be incorporated into the teacher training program and that regular follow-up workshops aiming at developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK of pre-service science teachers should be

  1. ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring family of surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, possesses an architecture previously unseen in this protein family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Johnson, Steven; Kraiczy, Peter; Lea, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring surface protein family from B. burgdorferi, has been solved, providing insights into the strategies of complement evasion by this zoonotic bacterium and suggesting a common architecture for other members of this protein family. Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete responsible for Lyme disease, the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. The bacterium utilizes a set of proteins, termed complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), to aid evasion of the human complement system by recruiting and presenting complement regulator factor H on its surface in a manner that mimics host cells. Presented here is the atomic resolution structure of a member of this protein family, ErpC. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of recruitment of factor H and other factor H-related proteins by acting as a molecular mimic of host glycosaminoglycans. It also describes the architecture of other CRASP proteins belonging to the OspE/F-related paralogous protein family and suggests that they have evolved to bind specific complement proteins, aiding survival of the bacterium in different hosts

  2. Assessing the Previous Economic Knowledge of Beginning Students in Germany: Implications for Teaching Economics in Basic Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Carstensen, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Study-related prior knowledge plays a decisive role in business and economics degree courses. Prior knowledge has a significant influence on knowledge acquisition in higher education, and teachers need information on it to plan their introductory courses accordingly. Very few studies have been conducted of first-year students' prior economic…

  3. OVERVIEW OF THE OBSTACLES AND FACILITATORS OF LEARNING AND ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN STRATEGIC ALLIANCES – AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klindzic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the issue of knowledge transfer between organizations in partnerships as well as the role of the knowledge exchange in building successful cooperation. Given its many positive effects on the business performance, such as creativity, innovativeness and flexibility needed in modern business environment, it was of the utmost importance to investigate different factors that either contribute or constrain learning in alliances. After the theoretical background on the aforementioned topic was given, an empirical research and its main conclusions were described in the paper. A study of the alliances in Croatian context revealed that organizational characteristics exhibit the most pronounced influence on the knowledge transfer success which was especially highlighted in domestic alliances. The level of integration, the primary area of cooperation and the previous experience in forming alliances between partners did not change the extent to which different factors influenced knowledge transfer.

  4. Saclay Reactor: acquired knowledge by two years experience in heat transfer using compressed gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvon, J.

    1955-01-01

    Describes the conception and functioning of a new reactor (EL-2) using compressed gas as primary coolant. The aim of the use of compressed gas as primary coolant is to reduce the quantity of heavy water used in the functioning of the reactor. Description of the reactor vessel (dimensions, materials, reflector and protection). Description of the cells and the circulation of the gas within the cells. A complete explanation of the control and regulating of the reaction by the ionization chamber is given. Heavy water is used as modulator: it describes the heavy water system and its recombination system. The fuel slugs are cooled by compressed gas: its system is described as well as the blower and the heat exchanger system. Water is supplied by a cooling tower which means the reactor power is dependant of the atmospheric conditions. Particular attention has been given to the tightness of the different systems used. The relation between neutron flow and the thermal output is discussed: the thermal output can be calculated by measuring the gas flow and its heating or by measuring the neutron flow within the reactor, both methods gives closed results. Reactivity study: determination of the different factors which induce a variation of reactivity. Heat transfer: discussion on the use of different heat transfer systems, determination of the required chemical and physical properties of the primary coolant as well as the discussion of the nuclear and thermal requirements for the choice of it. A comparison between the use of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas shows an advantage in using nitrogen with the existing knowledge. Reflexion on the relevance of this work and the future perspectives of the use of compressed gas as primary coolant. (M.P.)

  5. Knowledge and perceptions about community-acquired staphylococcal infections among health care workers in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Brandyn S; Tice, Alan D; Hurwitz, Eric L; Katz, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    Since the early 1990s, national rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have increased dramatically.1,2 Initially identified in health care settings, community-acquired MRSA is now a major public health concern. With Hawai'i's expanding S. aureus and MRSA epidemic closely approximating the national trend in inpatient and outpatient settings,7,8 a high level of knowledge and awareness among health care workers is essential to successfully control this evolving epidemic. Health care and related workers were surveyed to assess their knowledge and perceptions about staphylococcal and MRSA infections. Knowledge was estimated by demonstrated ability to correctly identify risk factors including diabetes and obesity, as well as to demonstrate awareness of a growing staphylococcal and MRSA epidemic.9,10 Perceptions were estimated by level of concern of antibiotic resistance as well as of the severity of the staphylococcal and MRSA epidemic. Variations in knowledge and perception concerning basic principles associated with S. aureus infections as well as characteristics of the evolving S. aureus and MRSA epidemic were observed among various occupations (advance clinical practitioners, nurses, public health professionals, athletic trainers, and non-medical workers) as well as work locations (hospital, community, and non-clinical community). Overall, health care and related workers in community settings demonstrated disparities in knowledge regarding S. aureus and MRSA infections. They were also more likely to misperceive this growing threat. These findings provide support for focused educational interventions targeting community health care and related workers to improve awareness of staphylococcal infections in order to successfully address and combat this evolving epidemic.

  6. Meaning-making of female genital cutting: children’s perception and acquired knowledge of the ritual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jon-Håkon; Lien, Inger-Lise

    2013-01-01

    How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Women in Norway, mostly with Somali or Gambian backgrounds, were asked about their experiences of circumcision. Two different strategies were used to prepare girls for circumcision, ie, one involving giving some information and the other keeping the ritual a secret. Findings indicate that these two approaches affected the girls’ meaning-making differently, but both strategies seemed to lead to the same educational outcome. The learning process is carefully monitored and regulated but is brought to a halt, stopping short of critical reflexive thinking. The knowledge tends to be deeply internalized, embodied, and morally embraced. The meaning-making process is discussed by analyzing the use of metaphors and narratives. Given that the educational outcome is characterized by limited knowledge without critical reflection, behavior change programs to end female genital cutting should identify and implement educational stimuli that are likely to promote critical reflexive thinking. PMID:23637562

  7. Meaning-making of female genital cutting: children’s perception and acquired knowledge of the ritual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz JH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Jon-Håkon Schultz, Inger-Lise Lien Norwegian Center for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Oslo, Norway Abstract: How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Women in Norway, mostly with Somali or Gambian backgrounds, were asked about their experiences of circumcision. Two different strategies were used to prepare girls for circumcision, ie, one involving giving some information and the other keeping the ritual a secret. Findings indicate that these two approaches affected the girls' meaning-making differently, but both strategies seemed to lead to the same educational outcome. The learning process is carefully monitored and regulated but is brought to a halt, stopping short of critical reflexive thinking. The knowledge tends to be deeply internalized, embodied, and morally embraced. The meaning-making process is discussed by analyzing the use of metaphors and narratives. Given that the educational outcome is characterized by limited knowledge without critical reflection, behavior change programs to end female genital cutting should identify and implement educational stimuli that are likely to promote critical reflexive thinking. Keywords: female genital cutting, metaphors, health education, immigrants

  8. Role playing games: a methodology to acquire knowledge for integrated wastewater infrastructures management in a river basin scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, P; Aulinas, M; Turon, C; Comas, J; Poch, M

    2009-01-01

    Current management of sanitation infrastructures (sewer systems, wastewater treatment plant, receiving water, bypasses, deposits, etc) is not fulfilling the objectives of up to date legislation, to achieve a good ecological and chemical status of water bodies through integrated management. These made it necessary to develop new methodologies that help decision makers to improve the management in order to achieve that status. Decision Support Systems (DSS) based on Multi-Agent System (MAS) paradigm are promising tools to improve the integrated management. When all the different agents involved interact, new important knowledge emerges. This knowledge can be used to build better DSS and improve wastewater infrastructures management achieving the objectives planned by legislation. The paper describes a methodology to acquire this knowledge through a Role Playing Game (RPG). First of all there is an introduction about the wastewater problems, a definition of RPG, and the relation between RPG and MAS. Then it is explained how the RPG was built with two examples of game sessions and results. The paper finishes with a discussion about the uses of this methodology and future work.

  9. Improvement of Self-regulated Learning in Mathematics through a Hypermedia Application: Differences based on Academic Performance and Previous Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueli, Marisol; Rodríguez, Celestino; Areces, Débora; García, Trinidad; González-Castro, Paloma

    2017-12-04

    Self-regulation on behalf of the student is crucial in learning Mathematics through hypermedia applications and is an even greater challenge in these IT environments. Two aims are formulated. First, to analyze the effectiveness of a hypermedia tool in improving perceived knowledge of self-regulatory strategies and the perceived usage of the planning, executing and assessment strategy on behalf of students with low, medium and high levels of academic performance. Second, to analyze the effectiveness of the hypermedia tool in improving perceived usage of the strategy for planning, monitoring and evaluating on behalf of students with a perceived knowledge (low, medium and high). Participants were 624 students (aged 10-13), classified into a treatment group (TG; 391) and a comparative group (CG; 233). They completed a questionnaire on perceived knowledge (Perceived Knowledge of Self-Regulatory Strategies) and another one on perceived usage of the strategy for planning, performing and evaluating (Inventory of Self-regulatory Learning Processes). Univariate covariance analyses (ANCOVAs) and Student-t tests were used. ANCOVA results were not statistically significant. However, the linear contrast indicated a significant improvement in perceived knowledge of strategies among the TG with low, medium and high academic performance (p ≤ .001). Results are discussed in the light of past and future research.

  10. Acquiring Geographic Knowledge in International Politics - 10.5102/uri.v8i2.1293

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Miguel da Vinha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a number of works relating geographic mental maps to international politics. Notwithstanding the various efforts to clarify and explain the conceptual framework underlying the geographic mental map research agenda, much theoretical bewilderment still persists. The concept of the geographic mental map has diverged considerably in definition and numerous methodological approaches have been undertaken. Consequently, no scholarly consensus has yet been reached. “Mental map” is still used as a catch-all term with only very vague notions as to its conceptual underpinnings. Several fundamental issues still need to be addressed. First and foremost, geographic mental maps are in need of a serious effort of conceptualization in order to be properly applied to the study of international politics. In particular, the question of how foreign policy decision-maker’s geographic mental maps are formed has to date eluded a satisfactory response. With this in mind, this article shall consider some of the many ways individuals can acquire geographic knowledge from their political environment. For this purpose we draw from the vast theoretical and empirical literature that has emerged primarily from the fields of environmental psychology and behavioral geography. Despite the inherent limitations of adapting this knowledge to the field of foreign policy analysis, this literature is highly suggestive given that it serves as an important source of insight and hypotheses for those concerned with the understanding of foreign policy-maker’s geographic constructs.

  11. Knowledge of stroke risk factors among primary care patients with previous stroke or TIA: a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strender Lars-Erik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivers of stroke or transient ischaemic attacks (TIA are at risk of new vascular events. Our objective was to study primary health care patients with stroke/TIA regarding their knowledge about risk factors for having a new event of stroke/TIA, possible associations between patient characteristics and patients' knowledge about risk factors, and patients' knowledge about their preventive treatment for stroke/TIA. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 240 patients with stroke/TIA diagnoses, and 182 patients (76% responded. We asked 13 questions about diseases/conditions and lifestyle factors known to be risk factors and four questions regarding other diseases/conditions ("distractors". The patients were also asked whether they considered each disease/condition to be one of their own. Additional questions concerned the patients' social and functional status and their drug use. The t-test was used for continuous variables, chi-square test for categorical variables, and a regression model with variables influencing patient knowledge was created. Results Hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were identified as risk factors by nearly 90% of patients, and atrial fibrillation and diabetes by less than 50%. Few patients considered the distractors as stroke/TIA risk factors (3-6%. Patients with a family history of cardiovascular disease, and patients diagnosed with carotid stenosis, atrial fibrillation or diabetes, knew these were stroke/TIA risk factors to a greater extent than patients without these conditions. Atrial fibrillation or a family history of cardiovascular disease was associated with better knowledge about risk factors, and higher age, cerebral haemorrhage and living alone with poorer knowledge. Only 56% of those taking anticoagulant drugs considered this as intended for prevention, while 48% of those taking platelet aggregation inhibitors thought this was for prevention. Conclusions Knowledge about hypertension

  12. Gender, Previous Knowledge, Personality Traits and Subject-Specific Motivation as Predictors of Students' Math Grade in Upper-Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peklaj, Cirila; Podlesek, Anja; Pecjak, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between gender, previous knowledge, different personality traits, subject-specific motivational dimensions and students' math grade in secondary school. A total of 386 first-year students (142 boys and 244 girls) from secondary schools in Slovenia (mean age was 15.7 years) participated in the…

  13. Knowledge, attitude, and behavioral practices pertaining to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among secondary school adolescents in makurdi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Agbecha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents knowledge with their safe practices pertaining to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has a critical impact on the prevention of contracting and spreading HIV. Reports have shown that adolescents in the general setting engage in activities that enhance the spread of the virus. Aim: The study assessed school adolescent's HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS knowledge, with its impact on their behaviors and attitudes regarding the infection. Materials and Methods: Two hundred randomly selected adolescent students from 10 different schools in the city metropolis were involved in the cross-sectional study. Primary data were collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire on students HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, and safe practices preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS. Results: The study observed that majority of the students had good knowledge about HIV/AIDS, had good attitude toward PLWHA, and engaged in safe practices that prevent the spread of HIV. The sources of HIV/AIDS information were hospital, school, home, electronic, and print media. The study also found that HIV/AIDS knowledge instilled good attitudes and behavioral practices in the students. Conclusion: The study shows that school sex education, as well as health promotion campaigns through media platforms, could impact positively on the knowledge, attitude, and behavioral practices of adolescents in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS.

  14. In Good Company : When Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Acquire Multiplex Knowledge from Key Commercial Partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojica, Ana Maria; Estrada Vaquero, Isabel; del Mar Fuentes-Fuentes, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the specific conditions under which key strategic alliances of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with commercial partners can become multiplex in knowledge exchange. Using survey data from a sample of 150 Spanish SMEs in the information and communication technology (ICT)

  15. Knowledge and attitude of Indian clinical dental students towards the dental treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Marya, Charu Mohan; Sharma, Nilima; Mohanty, Vikrant; Marwah, Mohita; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-12-01

    Oral health care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing area of concern. Information on HIV- and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing an appropriate dental curriculum on HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of Indian clinical dental students towards the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS and perceived sources of information regarding HIV-related issues. Data were collected from clinical dental students (third year, fourth year and internship) from three dental institutions in Delhi National Capital Region (NCR). The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude towards treatment of patients with HIV and the perceived source of information related to HIV. The willingness to treat HIV-positive patients among dental students was 67.0%, and 74.20% were confident of treating a patient with HIV/AIDS. The potential problems in rendering treatment to these patients were effect on the attitude of other patients (49.90%) and staff fears (52.50%). The correct knowledge regarding the infection-control practice (barrier technique) was found among only 15.50% of respondents. The respondents had sufficient knowledge regarding the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. There was no correlation between the knowledge and attitude score, demonstrating a gap between knowledge and attitude among dental students regarding treatment of HIV-infected patients. Appropriate knowledge has to be delivered through the dental education curriculum, which can instil confidence in students about their ability to manage HIV-positive patients. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  16. Acquiring Knowledge in Learning Concepts from Electrical Circuits: The Use of Multiple Representations in Technology-Based Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljalil Métioui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The constructivists approach on the conception of relative software of modelling to training and teaching of the concepts of current and voltage requires appraisal of several disciplinary fields in order to provide to the learners a training adapted to their representations. Thus, this approach requires the researchers to have adequate knowledge or skills in data processing, didactics and science content. In this regard, several researches underline that the acquisition of basic concepts that span a field of a given knowledge, must take into account the student and the scientific representations. The present research appears in this perspective, and aims to present the interactive computer environments that take into account the students (secondary and college and scientific representations related to simple electric circuits. These computer environments will help the students to analyze the functions of the electric circuits adequately.

  17. [Knowledge about herpes simplex virus type 2 and human papillomavirus, and risk perception to acquire infections among college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Ortiz, Antonia; Arriaga-Demeza, Carlos Rodolfo; Conde-González, Carlos Jesús; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the most frequent sexually transmitted infections (STI) among college students 18-24 years old. Educational interventions for STI prevention can help to decrease viral STI prevalence among students. to know the change in knowledge, perception of risk and sexual behavior among 182 students of the Autonomous University of the State of Morelos. a community intervention trial (before-after) was carried out, using brochures for prevention of HSV-2 and HPV, including information about these STI, with emphasis on the risk factors identified in students of the same university. we found a change in the perception of STI risk during the intervention (56.5 before vs. 67.7% after intervention), possibly the brochures assisted students to learn more about their own risk behaviors. Likewise, there was an increase in knowledge in both HPV and HSV-2. it is necessary to increase the sample size in future interventions to assess further the change in knowledge, sexual behaviors and the prevalence of infections.

  18. The use of questionnaires for acquiring information on public perception of natural hazards and risk mitigation - a review of current knowledge and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D. K.

    2009-07-01

    Questionnaires are popular and fundamental tools for acquiring information on public knowledge and perception of natural hazards. Questionnaires can provide valuable information to emergency management agencies for developing risk management procedures. Although many natural hazards researchers describe results generated from questionnaires, few explain the techniques used for their development and implementation. Methodological detail should include, as a minimum, response format (open/closed questions), mode of delivery, sampling technique, response rate and access to the questionnaire to allow reproduction of or comparison with similar studies. This article reviews current knowledge and practice for developing and implementing questionnaires. Key features include questionnaire design, delivery mode, sampling techniques and data analysis. In order to illustrate these aspects, a case study examines methods chosen for the development and implementation of questionnaires used to obtain information on knowledge and perception of volcanic hazards in a tourist region in southern Iceland. Face-to-face interviews highlighted certain issues with respect to question structure and sequence. Recommendations are made to overcome these problems before the questionnaires are applied in future research projects. In conclusion, basic steps that should be disclosed in the literature are provided as a checklist to ensure that reliable, replicable and valid results are produced from questionnaire based hazard knowledge and risk perception research.

  19. Como novos conhecimentos podem ser construídos a partir dos conhecimentos prévios: um estudo de caso How new knowledge can be constructed from previous knowledge: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francimar Martins Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata sobre o estudo de caso de como uma professora utiliza os conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes durante a abordagem de um novo conceito científico. Para tanto, foram realizadas filmagens de aulas de ciências durante a execução de uma sequência didática, a fim de investigar de que maneira os conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes eram tratados em sala de aula ao longo da abordagem do tema. A partir dos resultados encontrados, percebemos nas aulas observadas como a professora lidava com os conhecimentos dos estudantes. Identificamos que houve ocasiões em que ela os considerou e outras em que os desconsiderou. Apesar de ações antagônicas, tanto o fato de considerar quanto de desconsiderar parecem ter em comum a busca de manutenção de foco sob os conceitos, entendidos pela professora, como sendo os que devem ser objeto de atenção dos alunos.This article deals with a case study about how a teacher uses previous knowledge of students to approach a new concept. To this end, sciences classes were filmed during the execution of a didactic sequence, in order to investigate how previous knowledge of the students was treated in the classroom along the approach of the theme. From these results, we saw how the teacher dealt with previous knowledge of their students. We identified that there were occasions when she considered them and others in which she disregarded them. Although they are antagonistic actions, both the facts, to consider or to dismiss, have in common the search for keeping the focus on the concepts, defined by the teacher as those that should be the object of attention for the students.

  20. Learning from Simple Ebooks, Online Cases or Classroom Teaching When Acquiring Complex Knowledge. A Randomized Controlled Trial in Respiratory Physiology and Pulmonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims E-learning is developing fast because of the rapid increased use of smartphones, tablets and portable computers. We might not think of it as e-learning, but today many new e-books are in fact very complex electronic teaching platforms. It is generally accepted that e-learning is as effective as classroom teaching methods, but little is known about its value in relaying contents of different levels of complexity to students. We set out to investigate e-learning effects on simple recall and complex problem-solving compared to classroom teaching. Methods 63 nurses specializing in anesthesiology were evenly randomized into three groups. They were given internet-based knowledge tests before and after attending a teaching module about respiratory physiology and pulmonology. The three groups was either an e-learning group with eBook teaching material, an e-learning group with case-based teaching or a group with face-to-face case-based classroom teaching. After the module the students were required to answer a post-test. Time spent and the number of logged into the system was also measured. Results For simple recall, all methods were equally effective. For problem-solving, the eCase group achieved a comparable knowledge level to classroom teaching, while textbook learning was inferior to both (p<0.01). The textbook group also spent the least amount of time on acquiring knowledge (33 minutes, p<0.001), while the eCase group spent significantly more time on the subject (53 minutes, p<0.001) and logged into the system significantly more (2.8 vs 1.6, p<0.001). Conclusions E-learning based cases are an effective tool for teaching complex knowledge and problem-solving ability, but future studies using higher-level e-learning are encouraged.Simple recall skills, however, do not require any particular learning method. PMID:24039917

  1. Reliability, validity, and composition of a subset of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge questionnaire in a sample of homeless and impoverished adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, B; Nyamathi, A; Gelberg, L

    1997-08-01

    Measures of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge that have good psychometric properties are needed to evaluate the impact of educational interventions, particularly among impoverished populations. Few measures that satisfy these requirements are available. The authors describe the psychometric characteristics and composition of a subset of 21 AIDS knowledge items from the questionnaire used by the National Center for Health Statistics. The study was conducted with a convenience sample of women and their significant others or close friends in nine homeless shelters and 11 residential drug recovery programs in the skid row area of Los Angeles from 1991 to 1993. Trained nurses and outreach workers collected data from 486 predominately African-American adults before delivery of well-established, culturally sensitive AIDS educational intervention. A subset of 334 participants were re-interviewed 6 months later. A total scale score was calculated from a one-factor solution, and two subscale scores were formed based on a two-factor solution. One subscale was composed of primarily cognitive items, whereas the second subscale contained mainly transmission-related items. The internal consistency reliability of the overall scale was 0.89; the two subscales had alphas of 0.80 and 0.92. The measures have face validity, and support for convergent validity was found. Further, even though AIDS knowledge in the sample was relatively high, all three measures showed marked improvement in the subsample of respondents who were re-interviewed after receiving AIDS-related educational information. These measures show promise for assessing AIDS knowledge and the efficacy of AIDS education programs in vulnerable populations. The findings reported here, however, are preliminary. Test-retest reliability needs to be examined, and additional studies are needed with samples that are more culturally diverse and include socially isolated individuals.

  2. Representing and Acquiring Geographic Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    by analogy with Piaget’s theory of the developement of spatial representations in children [ Piaget 671, that individuals progress from topological...challenges to Al theories . John Black introduced me to cognitive psychology. Bob Abelson taught me more cognitive psychology, and, in particular, pointed out...between Implementation and Theory ......... ... .. .. .. .. ... 18 8.3 The Vision Simulator. .. .. ... .... ... .... .... .... ... 18 8.4 Motion

  3. Learning-By-Being-Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    In this paper we study post-acquisition integration in terms of R&D team reorganization—i.e., the creation of new teams with both inventors of the acquiring and acquired firms—and assess its impact on knowledge transfer in the period that follows the acquisition. Drawing on social identity and self......-categorization theories, we argue that R&D team reorganization increases the acquired inventors’ use of the prior stock of technological knowledge of the acquiring firm after the acquisition. Furthermore, this effect is enhanced if acquired inventors have higher innovation ability relative to their acquiring peers...

  4. Knowledge, attitude, and perception of disease among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome: A study from a tertiary care center in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Chauahn, Pushpinder S; Mehta, Karainder S; Rawat, Ritu; Shiny, T N

    2016-01-01

    Although modification of behavioral practices among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected patients is important in decreasing HIV disease transmission, the knowledge, attitude, and perception studies about HIV infection rarely include persons living with HIV/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS). To assess knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of persons living with HIV/AIDS for the disease and other epidemiological aspects. One-hundred and fifty consecutive persons living with HIV/AIDS were enrolled for this questionnaire-based cross-sectional, descriptive study. These 150 patients comprised 93 men and 57 women, aged between 14 and 78 (mean 37.13) years. The majority, 112 (74.67%) patients were between 20 and 50 years of age and 116 (77.3%) patients were either illiterate or high-school dropouts. Drivers, laborers, and self-employed comprised 69 (74.2%) patients among affected males. Only 129 (86%) respondents had heard about HIV/AIDS and knew about its heterosexual transmission. Ninety-eight (65.3%) respondents were aware of disease transmission from infected blood or needle pricks. Interestingly, 106 (70.7%) respondents were aware of the importance of using condom in preventing disease transmission. Television/radio was the most common sources of information for 135 (90%) patients. Nearly, 69% respondents disfavored disclosing their disease to friends/colleagues fearing stigmatization. Information, education, and communication activities are imperative to educate persons living with HIV/AIDS about life-long nature of the disease, modes of its transmission, and significance of preventive measures to bridge the gaps in their knowledge. While improvement in individual economic status, education, and health services remains highly desirable, mass media can play a pivotal role in creating awareness among masses.

  5. A Comparative Study of the Previously Graduated Dentists' Knowledge versus those Recently Graduated as to Proper Prescription of Interaoral Radiography and Panoramic Views

    OpenAIRE

    Bardal R.; Rahimi R.; Ahmadi Motamayel F.

    2011-01-01

    Statement of Problems: The first step to decrease the patients' exposure to unnecessary radiography radiation is the proper prescription of radiography. . Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of general dental practitioners as to proper prescription of intraoral radiography and panoramic views. Materials and Method: In this study, a questionnaire on the dentists' knowledge about the proper prescription of dental radiography was used. A total of eighty one general d...

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections among health care providers in Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a global problem of extraordinary dimensions and has so far resulted in nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) are considered to play a pivotal role in the provision of preventive and curative services to individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. Pakistan, which was previously categorised as having a low-prevalence, high-risk HIV epidemic, is now facing a concentrated HIV epidemic among its most at-risk populations such as injecting drug users. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and reported practices relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs among private and public sector health care providers providing clinical services in areas where women sell sex. This was an exploratory quantitative study, where a structured questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews with 200 HCPs from the public and private sectors. Knowledge about AIDS and correct diagnosis of STIs were defined as according to the national guidelines of NACP. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed to test associations between predictors and level of knowledge of STIs in each group separately. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to indicate predicting factors for correct management of STIs. Forty-five percent of the HCPs had correct knowledge about the transmission and prevention of HIV, whereas 21% had seen a patient with advanced HIV infection, only two HCPs had been trained to manage such cases and 82% were not aware of syndromic management of STIs. Only 10% could cite the 'correct treatment' of gonorrhoea, syphilis and vaginal discharge. The odds of having the 'correct knowledge' of diagnosing gonorrhoea and syphilis were 2.1 (CI 95%, 1.2-3.8) if the HCP was a female medical doctor working in public sector. Further intensive training is needed to improve the ability of relevant HCPs to correctly diagnose and effectively treat patients

  7. Learning from simple ebooks, online cases or classroom teaching when acquiring complex knowledge. A randomized controlled trial in respiratory physiology and pulmonology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Skjødt Worm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: E-learning is developing fast because of the rapid increased use of smartphones, tablets and portable computers. We might not think of it as e-learning, but today many new e-books are in fact very complex electronic teaching platforms. It is generally accepted that e-learning is as effective as classroom teaching methods, but little is known about its value in relaying contents of different levels of complexity to students. We set out to investigate e-learning effects on simple recall and complex problem-solving compared to classroom teaching. METHODS: 63 nurses specializing in anesthesiology were evenly randomized into three groups. They were given internet-based knowledge tests before and after attending a teaching module about respiratory physiology and pulmonology. The three groups was either an e-learning group with eBook teaching material, an e-learning group with case-based teaching or a group with face-to-face case-based classroom teaching. After the module the students were required to answer a post-test. Time spent and the number of logged into the system was also measured. RESULTS: For simple recall, all methods were equally effective. For problem-solving, the eCase group achieved a comparable knowledge level to classroom teaching, while textbook learning was inferior to both (p<0.01. The textbook group also spent the least amount of time on acquiring knowledge (33 minutes, p<0.001, while the eCase group spent significantly more time on the subject (53 minutes, p<0.001 and logged into the system significantly more (2.8 vs 1.6, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: E-learning based cases are an effective tool for teaching complex knowledge and problem-solving ability, but future studies using higher-level e-learning are encouraged.Simple recall skills, however, do not require any particular learning method.

  8. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    Based on the readings of articles related to Astronomy Education published in Brazil, it was noticed a lack of research on previous knowledge of students about the physical characteristics of stars, a fact that motivated us to develop this study. Previous knowledge of 125 students (approximated 15 years old) constituted the study sample; data was collected through written questionnaires (Appendix A) for analysis. From the content analysis of these responses it was possible to achieve some inferences as, for example, many students have some difficult to develop an explanatory model on the functioning of a star; there are few who say that the stars have a certain length of existence; some students have said that stars have tips; few recognize that a star is formed by a mass of gas; some previous knowledge come from purely visual aspects; furthermore, some students do not have the habit of observing nature in detail. We see this research as a reference in which science teachers can recognize the importance of previous knowledge for practice teaching and acquire resources for planning their lessons. De la lectura de artículos relacionados con la Educación en Astronomía publicados en el Brasil, se encuentra una falta de investigaciones acerca del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes sobre las características físicas de las estrellas, hecho que nos motivó a desarrollar este estudio. Los datos analizados se obtuvieron al aplicar un cuestionario a 125 estudiantes de secundaria, para posteriormente realizar un análisis de contenido, tal cuestionario se presenta en el Anexo A. Al realizar el análisis de contenido de las respuestas obtenidas, fue posible hacer algunas inferencias, como por ejemplo; muchos estudiantes tienen dificultades para desarrollar un modelo explicativo acerca del funcionamiento de una estrella; pocos estudiantes dicen que las estrellas tienen un cierto tiempo de vida; algunos estudiantes imaginan que las estrellas tienen puntas; pocos

  9. Learning-by-Being-Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo Gaetano; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    of new teams with both inventors of the acquiring and acquired firms-and assess the impact of this integration action in the period that immediately follows the acquisition. Drawing on social identity and self-categorization theories, we argue that R&D team reorganization increases the acquired inventors......’ use of the prior stock of technological knowledge of the acquiring firm after the acquisition. Furthermore, this effect is enhanced if the focal acquired inventor has high relative innovation ability but is weakened for acquired inventors with high ingroup collaborative strength. We construct a sample...

  10. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  11. Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  12. Emotion Processes in Knowledge Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, Gregory J.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a number of insights have been gained into the cognitive processes that explain how individuals overcome misconceptions and revise their previously acquired incorrect knowledge. The current study complements this line of research by investigating the moment-by-moment emotion processes that occur during knowledge revision using a…

  13. Myelofibrosis and acquired hemophilia A: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Marie; Comio, Emilie; Gay, Valerie; Baroudi, Noureddine; Meyer, Pascal; Chuniaud-Louche, Christine; Hacini, Maya; Pica, Gian Matteo

    2016-05-07

    Myelofibrosis and acquired hemophilia A is a rare association. To the best of our knowledge only one case of myelofibrosis and acquired hemophilia A has been previously described. A 66-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with myelofibrosis evolving in acute myeloid leukemia was referred to us for postoperative bleeding. Hemostatic studies showed prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, decreased factor VIII coagulation, and a high factor VIII inhibitor titer; these findings led to a diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A for which he was treated with methylprednisolone and recombinant activated factor VII on admission. Due to a lack of response he was subsequently treated with rituximab combined with activated prothrombin complex concentrates. Furthermore, he received azacytidine to treat the underlying hematological malignancies. Immunosuppressive rituximab therapy resolved acquired hemophilia A with marked efficacy. Rapid and accurate diagnosis, effective hemostatic therapy, and timely treatment for underlying disease are important in the management of acquired hemophilia A secondary to hematological malignancy.

  14. Knowledge cycle and strategic knowledge within company

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Nicolescu

    2007-01-01

    In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed an...

  15. Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pramod

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypertirichosis lanuginose developed rapidly in a patient with no detectable malignancy. Soft, fine, downy hair growth was noticed on the face, ears, limbs and trunk. Bilaterally symmetrical vitiliginous macules were present on the ear and preauricular region. This case is reported because of its rarity, absence of any detectable malignancy and development of vitiligo, which to our knowledge has not been reported earlier.

  16. Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik, Ashlesha; Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected ...

  17. The influence of experiential, inherited and external knowledge on the internationalization of venture capital firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. De Prijcker (Sofie); S. Manigart (Sophie); D.M. Wright (Mike); W. de Maeseneire (Wouter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the effect of different types of international knowledge accumulation on the internationalization of venture capital firms, as a particular type of professional service firms. We distinguish between experiential knowledge acquired through previous activities,

  18. Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesha Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV+ adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV+ and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV+ and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV+ adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p4 sexual partners (p=0.037. Significantly more PHIV+ males reported receptive anal intercourse (p80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV+ adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV+ youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents.

  19. Acquiring Science and Social Studies Knowledge in Kindergarten through Fourth Grade: Conceptualization, Design, Implementation, and Efficacy Testing of Content-Area Literacy Instruction (CALI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Dombek, Jennifer; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Spencer, Mercedes; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Coffinger, Sean; Zargar, Elham; Wood, Taffeta; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    With national focus on reading and math achievement, science and social studies have received less instructional time. Yet, accumulating evidence suggests that content knowledge is an important predictor of proficient reading. Starting with a design study, we developed content-area literacy instruction (CALI) as an individualized (or personalized)…

  20. Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Ashlesha; Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV(+)) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV(+) and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV(+) and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV(+) adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p 4) sexual partners (p = 0.037). Significantly more PHIV(+) males reported receptive anal intercourse (p adolescents in both groups were unaware that sexual abstinence can prevent HIV transmission and >80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV(+) adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV(+) youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents.

  1. Acquiring Science and Social Studies Knowledge in Kindergarten Through Fourth Grade: Conceptualization, Design, Implementation, and Efficacy Testing of Content-Area Literacy Instruction (CALI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombek, Jennifer; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Spencer, Mercedes; Tighe, Elizabeth L; Coffinger, Sean; Zargar, Elham; Wood, Taffeta; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-04-01

    With national focus on reading and math achievement, science and social studies have received less instructional time. Yet, accumulating evidence suggests that content knowledge is an important predictor of proficient reading. Starting with a design study, we developed Content Area Literacy Instruction (CALI), as an individualized (or personalized) instructional program for kindergarteners through fourth graders to build science and social studies knowledge. We developed CALI to be implemented in general education classrooms, over multiple iterations (n=230 students), using principles of design-based implementation research. The aims were to develop CALI as a usable and feasible instructional program that would, potentially, improve science and social studies knowledge, and could be implemented during the literacy block without negatively affecting students' reading gains (i.e., no opportunity cost). We then evaluated the efficacy of CALI in a randomized controlled field trial with 418 students in kindergarten through fourth grade. Results reveal that CALI demonstrates promise as a useable and feasible instructional individualized general education program, and is efficacious in improving social studies ( d =2.2) and science ( d =2.1) knowledge, with some evidence of improving oral and reading comprehension skills ( d =.125).

  2. Acquired ichthyosis with hoffman's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyanarayana B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged man presented with features of acquired ichthyosis with Hoffman's syndrome. Laboratory tests support hypothyodism. Myoedema and hypertrophy of muscles were present. Patient was previously treated for Pellagra.

  3. Acquired ichthyosis with hoffman's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyanarayana B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged man presented with features of acquired ichthyosis with Hoffman's syndrome. Laboratory tests support hypothyodism. Myoedema and hypertrophy of muscles were present. Patient was previously treated for Pellagra.

  4. Acquired amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Camilla N; Golden, Hannah L; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in the cognitive neuroscience of music suggest that a further review of the topic of amusia is timely. In this chapter, we first consider previous taxonomies of amusia and propose a fresh framework for understanding the amusias, essentially as disorders of cognitive information processing. We critically review current cognitive and neuroanatomic findings in the published literature on amusia. We assess the extent to which the clinical and neuropsychologic evidence in amusia can be reconciled; both with the information-processing framework we propose, and with the picture of the brain organization of music and language processing emerging from cognitive neuroscience and functional neuroimaging studies. The balance of evidence suggests that the amusias can be understood as disorders of musical object cognition targeting separable levels of an information-processing hierarchy and underpinned by specific brain network dysfunction. The neuroanatomic associations of the amusias show substantial overlap with brain networks that process speech; however, this convergence leaves scope for separable brain mechanisms based on altered connectivity and dynamics across culprit networks. The study of the amusias contributes to an increasingly complex picture of the musical brain that transcends any simple dichotomy between music and speech or other complex sounds. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

  6. EXPANSION of diabetes education in a United States-Mexico border community (Expanding Services for Patients to Acquire New Skills, Set Goals, and Improve Overall Knowledge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Melissa; Sias, Jeri; Navarrete, Jacquelyn P; Aboud, Sam; Valenzuela, Enrique

    To describe the process used by a pharmacy team at a community health center to coordinate and expand diabetes education services (English and Spanish) for a predominantly Hispanic, Spanish-speaking population. The project was implemented at 2 clinics in a federally qualified community health center system based in a low-income southwest U.S.-Mexico border community. This project enhanced accessibility to diabetes education to improve knowledge, skills, and goal setting through existing pharmacy services at the primary clinic and 1 rural satellite clinic. The success of the project was evaluated quantitatively. Metrics used to evaluate enhancement of existing practices included enrollment and completion rates, number of sessions, and diabetes leadership meetings. Over the 5-month project period assessed, 7 interdisciplinary professionals were certified as Diabetes Empowerment Education Program educators. Four sessions were conducted at both clinics. A total of 31 participants completed the diabetes classes. An educational attainment of 8th grade or less was reported in 91% of the rural participants compared with 50% of the urban participants. Ten interdisciplinary leadership meetings centered on recruitment, progress toward goals, and action items to ensure quality of classes. A nurse practitioner and pharmacist piloted a shared-visit model with 5 patients during a 45-minute time period. Successful diabetes education services occurred by implementing an evidence-based curriculum, identifying provider champions, increasing patient enrollment through provider referrals, and generating reports. Patient accountability was facilitated by setting patient-centered goals for knowledge and skills. Last, support groups provided ongoing support once patients graduated from a structured diabetes program. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  8. Conhecimento, atitude e prática sobre métodos anticoncepcionais entre adolescentes gestantes Knowledge, attitudes, and practices on previous use of contraceptive methods among pregnant teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Alves Vieira Belo

    2004-08-01

    describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to previous contraceptive methods used among pregnant teenagers as well as to outline some sociodemographic characteristics and sexual practices. METHODS: An observational study associated to the KAP (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey was carried out in 156 pregnant teenagers aged 19 years or more. A structured questionnaire was applied before their first prenatal visit from October 1999 to August 2000. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed using Pearson's and Yates' chi-square test and logistic regression. RESULTS: The adolescents had an average age of 16.1 years and most were in their first pregnancy (78.8%. Average age of menarche was 12.2 years and their first sexual intercourse was at the age of 14.5 years. Condoms (99.4% and oral contraceptives (98% were the most common contraceptive methods known. Of all, 67.3% were not using any contraceptive method before getting pregnant. The main reason reported for not using any contraceptive method was wanting to get pregnant (24.5%. The older ones who reported having religious beliefs and had a higher socioeconomic status had better knowledge on contraceptive methods. Teenagers who had had previous pregnancies reported more often use of contraceptive methods before getting pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: The pregnant teenagers showed to have adequate knowledge of contraceptive methods and agreed to use them throughout their teenage years. Religion, age group, and socioeconomic status were directly related to their knowledge on contraceptive methods, and multiple pregnancies brought more awareness on that. Of all, 54% had used any contraceptive on first sexual intercourse but their use decreased over time and shortly after their first intercourse the studied teenagers got pregnant.

  9. Acquiring Structural Knowledge from Semantically Structured Hypertext.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.; Wang, Sherwood

    Hypertext researchers and designers contend that the hypertext information structures may reflect the semantic structures of human memory. Further, they believe that mapping the semantic structure of an expert onto hypertext information structure and explicitly illustrating that structure in the hypertext will result in improved comprehension…

  10. Acquired generalised neuromyotonia, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and alopecia areata in a patient with myasthenia gravis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S S

    2012-02-03

    We describe a patient with the diagnoses of acquired neuromyotonia, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and alopecia areata, occurring many years after a thymectomy for myasthenia gravis associated with a thymoma. We review the current literature on autoimmune conditions associated with myasthenia gravis and thymectomy. To our knowledge, this combination of multiple autoimmune conditions has not been reported previously.

  11. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  12. COGMIR: A computer model for knowledge integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.X.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation explores some aspects of knowledge integration, namely, accumulation of scientific knowledge and performing analogical reasoning on the acquired knowledge. Knowledge to be integrated is conveyed by paragraph-like pieces referred to as documents. By incorporating some results from cognitive science, the Deutsch-Kraft model of information retrieval is extended to a model for knowledge engineering, which integrates acquired knowledge and performs intelligent retrieval. The resulting computer model is termed COGMIR, which stands for a COGnitive Model for Intelligent Retrieval. A scheme, named query invoked memory reorganization, is used in COGMIR for knowledge integration. Unlike some other schemes which realize knowledge integration through subjective understanding by representing new knowledge in terms of existing knowledge, the proposed scheme suggests at storage time only recording the possible connection of knowledge acquired from different documents. The actual binding of the knowledge acquired from different documents is deferred to query time. There is only one way to store knowledge and numerous ways to utilize the knowledge. Each document can be represented as a whole as well as its meaning. In addition, since facts are constructed from the documents, document retrieval and fact retrieval are treated in a unified way. When the requested knowledge is not available, query invoked memory reorganization can generate suggestion based on available knowledge through analogical reasoning. This is done by revising the algorithms developed for document retrieval and fact retrieval, and by incorporating Gentner's structure mapping theory. Analogical reasoning is treated as a natural extension of intelligent retrieval, so that two previously separate research areas are combined. A case study is provided. All the components are implemented as list structures similar to relational data-bases.

  13. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    Objective: To explore how home economics was taught in Denmark before the recent Danish school reform, which also revised the objectives and content of home economics, naming it Food Knowledge (Madkundskab) Methods: Participant observation was done in home economic lessons in two case schools...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  14. Acquired Inventors’ Productivity after Horizontal Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    Effective integration of the R&D functions of the acquired and acquiring firms is essential for knowledge recombination after acquisition. However, prior research suggests that the post-acquisition integration process often damages the inventive labor force. We argue that an examination of the mu...

  15. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000146.htm Hospital-acquired pneumonia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs ...

  16. The Influence of Curricula Content on English Sociology Students' Transformations: The Case of Feminist Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Andrea; Ashwin, Paul; McLean, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Previous research identifies the importance of feminist knowledge for improving gender equity, economic prosperity and social justice for all. However, there are difficulties in embedding feminist knowledge in higher education curricula. Across England, undergraduate sociology is a key site for acquiring feminist knowledge. In a study of four…

  17. Knowledge Centric Warfare: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-25

    around them while building on knowledge previously acquired. Immanuel Kant, Jean Piaget , and Lev Vygotsky are among important contributors to the... Jean Lave first introduced the term Communities of Practice (CoP) more than 15 years ago.41 In a later work, Wenger, et al., define CoP as “groups of...Development Piaget Cognition develops in four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, and formal Private Multiple Intelligences Theory Gardner

  18. Uncovering tacit knowledge: a pilot study to broaden the concept of knowledge in knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita R; Bickford, Julia J; Edwards, Nancy; Dobbins, Maureen J; Meyer, Mechthild

    2011-08-18

    All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews), legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation

  19. Problems in knowledge management: a case study of a knowledge intensive company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zolingen, S.J.; Streumer, Jan; Stooker, M.M.; Stooker, M.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge management has become an important tool in staying ahead in the competition between companies. In this article five different phases of the knowledge management process are distinguished: acquiring knowledge, codifying knowledge, disseminating knowledge, developing knowledge and applying

  20. Designing Proficiency Tests to Accredit Previous Knowledge in American and British Literature in a Bilingual Education Program (Diseño de exámenes de suficiencia para acreditar el conocimiento previo en literatura americana y británica en un programa de educación bilingüe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Chica, César Julio; D'Costa Martínez, Catalina; Franco Jácome, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    This article aims at identifying the kind of American and British literature tests that can be designed to allow students who enter a bilingual education program at a private university in Colombia to have their previous knowledge in these two subjects accredited through a proficiency test. Students' needs, opinions, beliefs, existing commercial…

  1. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  2. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for PKD Race, Ethnicity, & Kidney Disease Renal Artery Stenosis Renal Tubular Acidosis Simple Kidney Cysts ... kidneys to develop multiple cysts. Acquired cystic kidney disease occurs in children and adults who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) — ...

  3. Acquired Neurologic Mutism

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1997-01-01

    The behavioral features of four children with acquired neurologic mutism are reported from the Department of Neurology, University Hospital Rotterdam-Dijkzigt, Rotterdam; and Department of Medical Psychology, Ziekenhuis Walcheren, Vlissingen, The Netherlands.

  4. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  5. Computed tomography findings of community-acquired Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Jeung Sook; Park, Seong Yeon; Oh, Jin Young; Kwon, Jae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is a rare, but globally emerging gram-negative multiple-drug-resistant organism usually found in a nosocomial setting in immunocompromised patients. To our best knowledge, computed tomography (CT) features of community-acquired S. maltophilia pneumonia have not been previously reported in an immunocompetent patient. Herein, we presented the CT findings of a previous healthy 56-year-old male with S. maltophilia pneumonia

  6. Computed tomography findings of community-acquired Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Jeung Sook; Park, Seong Yeon; Oh, Jin Young; Kwon, Jae Hyun [Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is a rare, but globally emerging gram-negative multiple-drug-resistant organism usually found in a nosocomial setting in immunocompromised patients. To our best knowledge, computed tomography (CT) features of community-acquired S. maltophilia pneumonia have not been previously reported in an immunocompetent patient. Herein, we presented the CT findings of a previous healthy 56-year-old male with S. maltophilia pneumonia.

  7. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  8. Acquired Duodenal Obstruction in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hung Chien

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic intramural hematoma of the duodenum is a rare cause of acquired duodenal obstruction in children, and a high degree of suspicion is therefore required to make an early and accurate diagnosis. We report a 6-year-old boy whose epigastrium was impacted by the handlebar of his bicycle during a traffic accident. The boy then experienced epigastralgia. Six days later, progressive bilious vomiting suggestive of gastrointestinal obstruction was noted. Imaging studies revealed a large hematoma extending from the fourth portion of the duodenum to the jejunum. Conservative methods of treatment failed to manage his condition. He underwent laparoscopic surgery to evacuate the hematoma. We also report a case of duodenal obstruction in a previously healthy 2-year-old girl who presented for the first time with acute symptoms of proximal intestinal obstruction. Contrast examinations showed apparent barium retention over the stomach and proximal duodenum. She underwent surgery due to persistent obstruction, and a mushroom-like foreign body was detected embedded in the orifice of the windsock duodenal web. After duodenoduodenostomy and removal of the bezoar, she had a smooth recovery and tolerated feeding well. We conclude that blunt abdominal trauma and incomplete duodenal obstruction, such as that caused by duodenal web, should be considered as possible causes of acquired proximal gastrointestinal obstruction in previously healthy children, despite their rarity.

  9. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  10. "Ready to Acquire"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yetton, Philip; Henningsson, Stefan; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of Danisco (a global food ingredients company) as it followed a growth-by-acquisition business strategy, focusing on how a new CIO built the IT resources to ensure the IT organization was "ready to acquire." We illustrate how these IT capabilities expedited...

  11. Beliefs and perceptions about Acquired Immunodeficieny Syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has assumed a disease of epidemic dimension both in Nigeria's rural and urban communities. Different people have varying knowledge and beliefs about this disease. This study was designed to assess the beliefs and perceptions of the people of Ihugh community in that ...

  12. Learning to Acquire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Trelleborg. The analyses yield five propositions that explain the building of knowledge for acquisition IS integration by the mechanisms of routine refinement, superstitious learning, expertise building, sub-activity refinement and related expertise building. Together, the five propositions form a knowledge...

  13. Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kantola, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

  14. Accessing Remote Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    awareness (what remote knowledge is needed?) and source awareness (where does this knowledge reside?) the article explores the relative merits and inherent limitations of pipelines, listening posts, crowdsourcing and trade fairs to acquire knowledge and solutions from geographically and relationally remote...

  15. Community-acquired necrotizing pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus producing Panton–Valentine leukocidin in a Chinese teenager: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report from Mainland China of necrotizing pneumonia due to PVL-positive CA-MRSA among those aged older than 1 year. CA-MRSA necrotizing pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe community-acquired pneumonia, particularly in previously healthy individuals.

  16. Tacit Knowledge: Revisiting the Epistemology of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The concept of tacit knowledge encompasses all of the intricacy of the different experiences that people acquire over time, and which they utilize and bring to bear in carrying out tasks effectively, reacting to unforeseen circumstances, or innovating. The intuitive nature of tacit knowledge, its particular context, and the difficulty of…

  17. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Sucar Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of diseases or skin disorders genetically transmitted and it is characterized by the appearance of bullae, ulcers and skin wounds. It usually appears at birth or in the first months of life. This is a case of a 72-year-old female patient who comes to the dermatology department with skin lesions of 6 months of evolution. A skin biopsy was performed, taking a sample for direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa of unknown etiology was diagnosed. Treatment was started with low-dose colchicine to increase it later, according to the patient’s tolerance and disease progression.

  18. The acquired hyperostosis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihlmann, W.; Hering, L.; Bargon, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Sterno-costo-clavicular hyperostosis (SCCH) is the most common manifestation of a syndrome, consisting of increased bone metabolism, mostly new bone formation and heterotopic ossification of fibrous tissue, which we have characterised as the acquired hyperostosis syndrome. In part I we discuss the terminology, radiological appearances, scintigraphy, clinical and laboratory findings, bacteriology, histology, nosology, complications, treatment and differential diagnosis of SCCH. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is regarded as a phaenotype of SCCH, depending on the age. CRMO occurs in children, adolescents and young adults, SCCH predominantly in middleaged and elderly adults. (orig.) [de

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome: A survey on the knowledge, attitude, and practice among medical professionals at a tertiary health-care institution in Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Doda

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Poor knowledge about HIV infection, particularly among the young medical students and paramedics, is evidence of the lacunae in the teaching system, which must be kept in mind while formulating teaching programs. As suggested by the respondents, Information Education Communication activities should be improvised making use of print, electronic, and social media along with interactive awareness sessions, regular continuing medical educations, and seminars to ensure good quality of safe modern medical care.

  20. The evaluation of disphagic syndrome, in patients with previously acquired brain damages

    OpenAIRE

    BARTULI, F. N.; LUCIANI, F.; MARINO, S.; BRAMANTI, E.; CECCHETTI, F.; ARCURI, C.

    2010-01-01

    Recently clinical studies have proved without doubts that in patients affect by neurological diseases, like stroke, parkinsonism syndromes and others neurodegenerative pathologies, there is a very elevated incidence of swallowing disorders even severe. The disease can show up in a full blown way, with clinical evident signs like suffocation or frequent and sudden cough, at the moment in which the patient tries to feed or to drink; or it can appear in a less clear way, through an unable protec...

  1. The evaluation of disphagic syndrome, in patients with previously acquired brain damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartuli, F N; Luciani, F; Marino, S; Bramanti, E; Cecchetti, F; Arcuri, C

    2010-04-01

    Recently clinical studies have proved without doubts that in patients affect by neurological diseases, like stroke, parkinsonism syndromes and others neurodegenerative pathologies, there is a very elevated incidence of swallowing disorders even severe. The disease can show up in a full blown way, with clinical evident signs like suffocation or frequent and sudden cough, at the moment in which the patient tries to feed or to drink; or it can appear in a less clear way, through an unable protection of the low airway and with possible pathologies ab ingestis. The first signals are represented by frequent resulting of cough reflex at nutrition or hydratation. Important is to assess the validity of this reflection, monitoring the amount of food reflux in the mouth after swallowing, which then could be perceived like foreign body and be aspired. The main diagnostic tests are the pHmetry in 24h, ultrasound, esophagography, videofluoroscopy, endoscopic examination and scintigraphy. Through the FEES (Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing) we can then identify the time of swallowing deficit. Early diagnosis of Dysphagia Syndrome is important to improve living condition and survival of patients.

  2. 12 CFR 225.140 - Disposition of property acquired in satisfaction of debts previously contracted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... relation to the overall financial position of the company, and the company has made good faith efforts to... (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.140 Disposition of...

  3. Acquired Inventors’ Productivity after Horizontal Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    of the multifaceted nature of the integration process further enhances our understanding of which conditions will be more or less detrimental for corporate inventors. We focus on R&D teams which are the immediate organizational context in which inventors operate and drawing on insights from learning theory...... and evolutionary economics we posit and find that the reorganization of R&D teams after acquisition harms acquired inventors? innovative performance. Though, the implementation of other integration decisions can mitigate or aggravate this negative effect.......Effective integration of the R&D functions of the acquired and acquiring firms is essential for knowledge recombination after acquisition. However, prior research suggests that the post-acquisition integration process often damages the inventive labor force. We argue that an examination...

  4. Evaluation of Spectrodirectional Alfalfa Canopy Data Acquired During Daisex'99

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strub, G.; Schaepman, M.E.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Itten, K.I.

    2003-01-01

    Field goniometer measurements are a tool to generate a priori bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) knowledge for correction and validation of directional reflectance data acquired by air- and spaceborne sensors. This study analyzes the diurnal hemispherical.-directional reflectance

  5. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiere, H A; Niederman, M S

    1998-11-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups, especially the elderly, which is a patient population that continues to grow. Recently the spectrum and clinical picture of pneumonia has been changing as a reflection of this aging population; this requires a reassessment of and a new approach to the patient with pneumonia. Currently, pneumonia patients are classified as having either community-acquired or hospital-acquired infection rather than typical versus atypical. Patients who have CAP are categorized by age, presence of a coexisting medical illness, and the severity of the pneumonia. The rationale behind categorizing patients is to stratify them in terms of mortality risk to help determine the location of therapy (e.g., outpatient, inpatient, intensive care unit) and focus the choice of initial antimicrobial therapy. Once the decision to hospitalize a patient with pneumonia is made, the next step is to decide on an appropriate diagnostic evaluation and antibiotic therapy. Both decisions have evolved over the last several years since the publication of the American Thoracic Society's CAP guidelines. The current approach to the diagnostic work-up of pneumonia stresses a limited role of diagnostic tests and procedures. The antimicrobial regimen has now evolved into one that is empiric in nature and based on the age of the patient, the presence of coexisting medical disease, and the overall severity of the pneumonia. This process is a dynamic once because bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics can further complicate the course of pneumonia therapy, but the impact of resistance on outcome is less clear. Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin is a prime example of this growing problem, and adjustment to pneumonia therapy may be required. A difficult but not uncommon problem in pneumonia patients is slow recovery and delayed resolution of radiographic infiltrates. Factors that impact

  6. Pediatric acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodack, Marie I

    2010-10-01

    Although pediatric patients are sometimes included in studies about visual problems in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), few studies deal solely with children. Unlike studies dealing with adult patients, in which mechanisms of brain injury are divided into cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), studies on pediatric patients deal almost exclusively with traumatic brain injury, specifically caused by accidents. Here we report on the vision problems of 4 pediatric patients, ages 3 to 18 years, who were examined in the ophthalmology/optometry clinic at a children's hospital. All patients had an internally caused brain injury and after the initial insult manifested problems in at least one of the following areas: acuity, binocularity, motility (tracking or saccades), accommodation, visual fields, and visual perceptual skills. Pediatric patients can suffer from a variety of oculo-visual problems after the onset of head injury. These patients may or may not be symptomatic and can benefit from optometric intervention. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intercontrole acquiring by Framatome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Framatome group, as the worldwide leader in nuclear power plant construction, has reinforced his competences in nuclear services thanks to the acquiring of the Intercontrole company, specialized in non-destructive testing in nuclear and industrial environments. After a presentation of the functioning principle and of the safety aspects of a PWR reactor, this press dossier presents in a first part the role of nuclear services and in particular of non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants (in-service inspection, regulatory aspects, testing processes). This part is illustrated with some examples of inspection performed on some components of the primary coolant loop (steam generators, reactor vessel, pressurizer, pipes, primary pumps). A second part presents the technical centres and units of Framatome in charge of performing non-destructive inspections, while a third part describes the industrial policy and strategy of the group in this domain (market of nuclear park maintenance in France, in the USA and worldwide, creation of the 'inspection and control' centre of Framatome). A last part presents the activities of the Intercontrole company and of its daughter companies with some examples of actions realized in the nuclear and natural gas domains. (J.S.)

  8. Acquiring specific interpreting competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zidar Forte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In postgraduate interpreter training, the main objective of the course is to help trainees develop various competences, from linguistic, textual and cultural competence, to professional and specific interpreting competence. For simultaneous interpreting (SI, the main focus is on mastering the SI technique and strategies as well as on developing and strengthening communicative skills, which is discussed and illustrated with examples in the present paper. First, a brief overview is given of all the necessary competences of a professional interpreter with greater emphasis on specific interpreting competence for SI. In the second part of the paper, various approaches are described in terms of acquiring specific skills and strategies, specifically through a range of exercises. Besides interpreting entire speeches, practical courses should also consist of targeted exercises, which help trainees develop suitable coping strategies and mechanisms (later on almost automatisms, while at the same time "force" them to reflect on their individual learning process and interpreting performance. This provides a solid base on which trained interpreters can progress and develop their skills also after joining the professional sphere.

  9. Knowledge Acquisition Using Linguistic-Based Knowledge Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1998-01-01

    Most knowledge-based system developmentefforts include acquiring knowledge from one or more sources. difficulties associated with this knowledge acquisition task are readily acknowledged by most researchers. While a variety of knowledge acquisition methods have been reported, little has been done to organize those different methods and to suggest how to apply them...

  10. Can first-year medical students acquire quality improvement knowledge prior to substantial clinical exposure? A mixed-methods evaluation of a pre-clerkship curriculum that uses education as the context for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Allison; Nidumolu, Aditya; Stanhope, Alexandra; Koh, Justin; Greenway, Matthew; Grierson, Lawrence

    2018-03-19

    Quality Improvement (QI) training for health professionals is essential to strengthen health systems. However, QI training during medical school is constrained by students' lack of contextual understanding of the health system and an already saturated medical curriculum. The Program for Improvement in Medical Education (PRIME), an extracurricular offered at the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicineat McMaster University (Hamilton, Canada), addresses these obstacles by having first-year medical students engage in QI by identifying opportunities for improvement within their own education. A sequential explanatory mixed-methods approach, which combines insights derived from quantitative instruments and qualitative interview methods, was used to examine the impact of PRIME on first-year medical students and the use of QI in the context of education. The study reveals that participation in PRIME increases both knowledge of, and comfort with, fundamental QI concepts, even when applied to clinical scenarios. Participants felt that education provided a meaningful context to learn QI at this stage of their training, and were motivated to participate in future QI projects to drive real-world improvements in the health system. Early exposure to QI principles that uses medical education as the context may be an effective intervention to foster QI competencies at an early stage and ultimately promote engagement in clinical QI. Moreover, PRIME also provides a mechanism to drive improvements in medical education. Future research is warranted to better understand the impact of education as a context for later engagement in clinical QI applications as well as the potential for QI methods to be translated directly into education. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Learning through Business Games: Acquiring Competences within Virtual Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortmuller, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The didactic function of business games is often seen only in the development of sociocommunicative competences and general problem-solving strategies. An equally important aspect of business games lies in the acquirement of technical and problem-oriented knowledge, which is the focus of this article. Moreover, this knowledge dimension is further…

  12. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR VIRTUAL GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTS KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. You

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available VGE geographic knowledge refers to the abstract and repeatable geo-information which is related to the geo-science problem, geographical phenomena and geographical laws supported by VGE. That includes expert experiences, evolution rule, simulation processes and prediction results in VGE. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for VGE knowledge engineering in order to effectively manage and use geographic knowledge in VGE. Our approach relies on previous well established theories on knowledge engineering and VGE. The main contribution of this report is following: (1 The concepts of VGE knowledge and VGE knowledge engineering which are defined clearly; (2 features about VGE knowledge different with common knowledge; (3 geographic knowledge evolution process that help users rapidly acquire knowledge in VGE; and (4 a conceptual framework for VGE knowledge engineering providing the supporting methodologies system for building an intelligent VGE. This conceptual framework systematically describes the related VGE knowledge theories and key technologies. That will promote the rapid transformation from geodata to geographic knowledge, and furtherly reduce the gap between the data explosion and knowledge absence.

  13. The case of Geely acquiring Volvo Car : A study on low brand equity acquiring high brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xiaoshu; Shi, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Much previous research has studied high brand equity acquiring high brand equity or high brand equity acquiring low brand equity. However, very little research has been conducted to understand how that low brand equity acquiring high brand equity changes the low brand equity especially in China. This paper is on the case of Geely Group acquiring Volvo Car which was a typical acquisition of a high brand equity company by a low brand equity company. The aim of the paper is to verify whether thi...

  14. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Koedel, Uwe; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Wijdicks, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma

  15. Maternally acquired runt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A E; Billingham, R E

    1973-01-19

    Without altering the structural integrity of the placenta by irradiation or drugs, we have shown that it is possible to immunize females both adoptively and actively against the paternally inherited transplantation antigens of their fetuses. Such immunization causes a high incidence of runt disease among the litters. Although the putative chimeric status of the affected offspring has yet to be confirmed, the results of our experiments support the thesis that runt disease is caused by the activities of "unwanted" immigrant lymphocytes from the maternal circulation. Our results suggest that immunologically activated cells are more likely to cross the placenta than normal cells and that this greater mobility may not be related to the immunologic specificity of the activated cells. Two factors may have contributed to the apparent failure of numerous previous attempts to demonstrate the capacity of transplantation immunity to affect the well-being of a fetus or, more correctly, its placenta, in the way that might be expected of a homograft. (i) Investigators were preoccupied with obtaining a classic type of rejection, in utero, analogous to the rejection of an orthotopic skin homograft. The birth of consistently healthy-looking litters, interpreted as a failure of the experiment, convinced the investigators of the efficacy of nature's solution of the homograft problem and there was no reason for them to suspect its possible limitations. Observation of the litters for several weeks might have uncovered the phenomenon of maternally induced runt disease. (ii) Most investigators resorted to hyperimmunization of the mothers. This would have facilitated the synthesis of protective isoantibodies capable of interfering with the expression of the potentially harmful cellular immune response (6). Ever since the abnormalities of runt disease were first described they have repeatedly been compared to those observed in patients with certain lymphomas (17). Various theories have been

  16. [Tacit Knowledge: Characteristics in nursing practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fuillerat, Natalia; Solano-Ruiz, M Carmen; Amezcua, Manuel

    2018-01-20

    Tacit knowledge can be defined as knowledge which is used intuitively and unconsciously, which is acquired through one's experience, characterized by being personal and contextual. Some terms such as 'intuition', 'know how' and 'implicit knowledge' have been used to describe tacit knowledge. Different disciplines in the fields of management or health have studied tacit knowledge, identifying it as a powerful tool to create knowledge and clinical decision-making. The aim of this review is to analyse the definition and characteristics that make up tacit knowledge and determine the role it plays in the nursing discipline. An integrative review was undertaken of the literature published up to November 2016 in the databases CUIDEN, SciELO, PubMed, Cochrane and CINAHL. The synthesis and interpretation of the data was performed by two researchers through content analysis. From a total of 819 articles located, 35 articles on tacit knowledge and nursing were chosen. There is no consensus on the name and description of results in tacit knowledge. The main characteristics of tacit knowledge have a personal and social character, which is used from an organised mental structure, called mindline. This structure relates to the use of tacit knowledge on clinical decision-making. Previous studies on tacit knowledge and nursing provide the nursing community with perspectives without going into depth. The production of a framework is suggested, as it would clarify implied concepts and its role on the management of nursing knowledge. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. The Knowledge Retrieval Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    knowledge accessed from the corporate memory. We suggest thatmultinational companies (MNCs) solve knowledge retrieval problems by implementingvirtual communities of practice - intranet-based collaborative forums. Codification andpersonalization strategies have previously been emphasized as an either...

  18. Beyond Information Searching and Browsing: Acquiring Knowledge from Digital Library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, L.; Jeusfeld, M.A.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.

    Digital libraries (DLs) are a resource for answering complex questions. Up to now, such systems mainly support keyword-based searching and browsing. The mapping from a research question to keywords and the assessment whether an article is relevant for a research question is completely with the user.

  19. Communicative Language Teaching enable students to acquire communicative competence

    OpenAIRE

    J.R.Nirmala; E.sugantha Ezhil Mary

    2011-01-01

    English is the language of international affairs, cultures and economic systems. It is a language of wider communication. The main aim of the learners is to acquire the target language but it can be acquired easily only if the language is made use of in our daily affairs. In order to achieve that target communicative language teaching, it focuses on the language competency of the target language .Knowledge of the structure of the language is equally important in order to learn the language.

  20. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  1. Knowledge management in production enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bitkowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact that companies are constantly subjected to changes creates challenges connected with constant learning and acquiring knowledge. Companies are forced to act in accordance with the generative strategy. Besides realizing the traditional tasks of production or service, companies need to acquire and process knowledge and apply it in practice. The consequence of these changes is the transformation of contemporary enterprises into knowledge-based organizations, with managers increasingly recognizing the role and importance of the concept of knowledge management in creating enterprises competitiveness. The main aim of the article is identification of knowledge management in production enterprises.

  2. The Knowledge Retrieval Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    AbstractPrevious discussions of knowledge transfer within multinational corporations tended tofocus on the process as an isolated phenomenon and on the factors that impede the process.Less attention has been given to how the individual knowledge worker retrieves or identifies,and then decodes...... knowledge accessed from the corporate memory. We suggest thatmultinational companies (MNCs) solve knowledge retrieval problems by implementingvirtual communities of practice - intranet-based collaborative forums. Codification andpersonalization strategies have previously been emphasized as an either...

  3. Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung im Medizinstudium: Querschnittstudie zu Präferenzen, Haltungen und Vorkenntnissen von Studierenden [Prevention and health promotion in undergraduate medical education: Preferences, attitudes and previous knowledge of medical students - a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: The interdisciplinary topic "prevention and health promotion" (Q10 was introduced into the medical training in Germany by the new medical licensing regulations in 2004. For the conception of an effective curriculum, it is helpful to know student preferences concerning teaching-formats, attitudes and self-estimated previous knowledge. Little is known concerning student perception of “prevention and health promotion” in Germany. Thus, this explorative cross-sectional study aims to provide a first step for closing this gap.Methods: Medical students (n=220 in the fifth academic year were asked to fill in a standardized questionnaire prior to the Q10 curriculum. Questions focused on preferences for teaching and testing formats and self-estimated previous knowledge as well as on rating the importance of prevention topics and health risks. The questions were multiple choice, five-point Likert scales and open-ended questions. Results: A total of 94 students filled questionnaires (42% response rate. Prevention and health promotion was rated as “important” or “very important” for their “own medical professionalism” by 68% of students. Ratings showed preferences for self-directed teaching and learning strategies, including case-based learning, and 78% wished for predominantly oral examinations. The self-estimated knowledge about prevention and health promotion is rated as “rather poor”. The most favored training aim was “decision making within the physician-patient-relationship”. Regarding medical health consultation, students frequently estimate “lifestyle factors” and “psychological disease” as being "very important". Conclusion: Students’ self-estimated poor previous knowledge of prevention and health promotion creates special challenges for curriculum development. High ratings of relevance assigned to prevention-related topics point to a motivational potential which should be utilized through

  4. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation...

  5. Knowledge Testing and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša E. Jelenc

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper Jelenc presents the pro­ ject entitled Knowledge Testing and Evaluation (hereafter: NTE. She believes in the importance of the project: many adults want to formally prove and evaluate their knowledge acquired outside formal educational institutions. Jelenc suggests that NTE should be carried out in multiple phases. Initially, standards for measuring knowledge and skills, and evaluation methods should be developed. The actual knowledge would be evaluated in the form of exhaustive interviews conducted by specially trained counsellors. Jelenc specifically defines the process of realisation and particular phases of NTE.

  6. Children's knowledge of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2011-03-01

    Children everywhere are fascinated by the sky, stars and Sun. Emerging evidence from cultures throughout the world suggests that even young children can acquire knowledge of the Earth and its place in the Universe.

  7. Acquired Credit Unions: Drivers of Takeover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raymond Sant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study acquired credit unions and analyze their financial performance up to six years prior to merger, on a quarterly basis. The primary focus is on balance sheet (asset liability management and profitability variables (return on assets. We find that acquired credit unions during the period 2008 (third quarter to 2014 (first quarter experienced negative return on assets for several quarters prior to their takeover. This was the result of a declining loan portfolio and increasing charge offs. In spite of decreasing lending activity, such credit unions continued to increase their deposits, i.e., adding to their cost base. Due to declining loans, their net interest margin as a proportion of deposits was also in decline. We argue that this is an indicator of poor management ability. Furthermore, our analysis finds that operating expenses were increasing over time, something that has been documented in previous literature also for smaller credit unions and is attributable to lack of economies of scale. The average asset size of the acquired credit unions in our sample is about $22 million just before acquisition. We attribute our findings to poor business strategy followed by such credit unions. We also conclude that signs of trouble are evident up to two years before merger on average and regulatory policy may have to become more proactive to manage the consolidation challenge faced by the credit union industry in general.

  8. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  9. The Acquirement of Technical Nursing Skills by New Graduates : The Process of Acquirement of Skills Considering Graduates' Voluntarity

    OpenAIRE

    稲垣, 美紀; 土居, 洋子; 西上, あゆみ; Inagaki, Miki; Doi, Yoko; Nishigami, Ayumi

    2003-01-01

    The first research have performed the technical nursing skills (29 skills) by new graduates (30 students) . The purpose of this study was to continue to clarify the acquirement of technical nursing skills, which new graduates learned in clinical nursing skills seminars add to the previous 29 skills, their attitude toward seminars and practical trainings, how their attitude effected the acquirement of technical nursing skills and the new graduates' demands of the seminar and practical training...

  10. Relação clínica entre hábitos de sucção, má oclusão, aleitamento e grau de informação prévia das mães Clinical relationship among suction oral habits, malocclusion, infant feeding and mother's previous knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Feu Rosa Kroeff de Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo avaliou a relação clínica entre a forma de aleitamento da criança, orientação prévia das mães sobre amamentação natural, instalação de hábitos de sucção não-nutritivos e a presença de más oclusões. METODOLOGIA: foram examinadas 79 crianças (39 com hábitos de sucção e 40 sem hábitos de sucção, de ambos os gêneros, entre 2 e 5 anos, com a dentadura decídua completa e sem perda de tecido dentário interproximal, selecionadas de maneira randomizada, que participavam do Projeto de Bebês da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Apenas um examinador (Kappa intra-examinador: 0,96 avaliou as características faciais e oclusais das crianças, no sentido ântero-posterior, transversal e vertical. As mães foram instruídas a responderem um questionário sobre o desenvolvimento da criança e o grau de orientação prévia que receberam sobre amamentação natural, hábitos, más oclusões e respiração bucal. Foram empregados os testes estatísticos qui-quadrado, teste exato de Fischer, t de Student e Odds Ratio. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram que: 1 existe uma relação estatisticamente significante entre o prolongamento do aleitamento materno e a redução da instalação de hábitos de sucção (pAIM: the proposal of this study was to associate infant feeding methods, mother’s previous knowledge about breast-feeding, installation of oral habits and presence of malocclusions. METHODS: 79 children (39 with suction habits and 40 without habits, both genres, from ages between 2 and 5 years old, with complete health deciduous dentition were randomizedly selected from the ones attended at Baby’s Clinic, in Federal University of Espírito Santo. Only one examiner (Kappa intra-examiner= 0.96 evaluated facial characteristics and the occlusion at transversal, antero-posterior and vertical relation. Each mother was oriented to answer a questionnaire concerning child’s development and the degree of

  11. Acquired tracheo-oesophageal fistula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah C

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquired tracheo-oesophageal fistula is rare. The most common causes are tuberculosis and malignancy. Here we report a patient who had come with dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia with paratracheal lymphnodes on X-ray chest and was diagnosed to have a tracheo-bronchial fistula on barium studies. Transtumoral intubation by pull-through method was carried out.

  12. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    twin pairs. Furthermore, the presence of mosaic structural variants was explored. We identified four mosaic acquired uniparental disomy events on chromosome 4q and 14q in the follow-up samples from four individuals, and our study thereby supports the increasing prevalence of somatic mosaic variants...

  13. Rethinking responsibility in offenders with acquired paedophilia: punishment or treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Focquaert, Farah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the current neurobiological literature on the aetiology of developmental and acquired paedophilia and examines what the consequences could be in terms of responsibility and treatment for the latter. Addressing the question of responsibility and punishment of offenders with acquired paedophilia from a neurobiological perspective is controversial. Consequently it is essential to avoid hasty conclusions based strictly on neurobiological abnormality justifications. This study establishes a distinction between developmental and acquired paedophilia. The article investigates whether offenders who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should be held fully responsible, particularly in cases where the offender's conduct appears to result from volitionally controlled behaviour that is seemingly incompatible with a neurological cause. Moreover, the article explores how responsibility can be compromised when offenders with acquired paedophilia have (partially) preserved moral knowledge despite their sexual disorder. The article then examines the option of offering mandatory treatment as an alternative to imprisonment for offenders with acquired paedophilia. Furthermore, the article addresses the ethical issues related to offering any form of quasi-coercive treatment as a condition of release. This study concludes that decisions to fully or partially excuse an individual who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should take all relevant information into account, both neurobiological and other environmental evidence, and should proceed on a careful case by case analysis before sentencing or offering treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis acquired in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraldi, S; Francia, C; Persico, M C; La Vela, V

    2009-12-01

    The authors describe a case of cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis in a 23-year-old Italian woman who contracted the infestation during a tour in Jamaica. The infestation was located on the back and was characterized clinically by a single inflammatory nodule. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis acquired in Jamaica.

  15. Perioperative course in patients with hereditary or acquired angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBeth, Lisa S; Volcheck, Gerald W; Sprung, Juraj; Weingarten, Toby N

    2016-11-01

    Two types of bradykinin-mediated angioedema, hereditary angioedema (HAE) and acquired angioedema (AAE), result from deficiency or dysfunction of C1 esterase inhibitor, leading to an overproduction of bradykinin, which can lead to vascular permeability and life-threatening angioedema of the airway. The objective of this study was to review perioperative outcomes in a series of patients with HAE and AAE and to review current knowledge about anesthetic complications in patients with HAE or AAE. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for perioperative complications in patients with HAE or AAE who underwent general anesthesia from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2014, at our institution. Twenty-four patients (13 with HAE, 10 with AAE, and 1 with unspecified angioedema) underwent 38 instances of general anesthesia with airway manipulation. All except 4 received prophylactic therapy. One patient, a 67-year-old woman who was pretreated with stanozolol and fresh frozen plasma required reintubation after postoperative airway edema developed. Life-threatening episodes of angioedema of the airway occur infrequently, but they can occur in patients who received pretreatment and in patients who have previously undergone anesthesia uneventfully. Anesthesiologists must be ready to emergently manage a difficult airway and must be familiar with recommendations provided in consensus guidelines for the treatment of HAE and AAE patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sjögren's syndrome and acquired splenic atrophy with septic shock: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Natacha; Silva, Rui; Rodrigues, Joana; Torres-Costa, José

    2014-01-06

    The most frequent causes of adult-onset recurrent infections are human immunodeficiency virus infection, malignancy, and autoimmune diseases, while acquired non-surgical hyposplenism is rare. Although acquired asplenia/hyposplenism have been described in association with celiac disease and, less frequently, with autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome, the manifestations in this context are usually only detectable in the laboratory setting, with Howell-Jolly bodies or thrombocytosis. To the best of our knowledge, no previous case of pneumococcal septic shock in a patient with acquired hyposplenism and co-morbid Sjögren's syndrome has been reported. We report a case of a 45-year-old Caucasian woman who developed pneumococcal pneumonia at age 42 years, pneumococcal meningitis at age 44 years and septic shock with Streptococcus agalactiae bacteremia at age 45 years and was subsequently diagnosed with radiological splenic atrophy and functional asplenia, as well as primary Sjögren's syndrome. After appropriate immunizations, the patient has been free from clinically important infections. Hyposplenism should be suspected in patients with adult-onset infections caused by encapsulated bacteria, especially if autoantibodies are present. Early diagnosis can help prevent potentially life-threatening infections. Possible associations between splenic atrophy and Sjögren's syndrome are discussed.

  17. Sjögren’s syndrome and acquired splenic atrophy with septic shock: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The most frequent causes of adult-onset recurrent infections are human immunodeficiency virus infection, malignancy, and autoimmune diseases, while acquired non-surgical hyposplenism is rare. Although acquired asplenia/hyposplenism have been described in association with celiac disease and, less frequently, with autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren’s syndrome, the manifestations in this context are usually only detectable in the laboratory setting, with Howell-Jolly bodies or thrombocytosis. To the best of our knowledge, no previous case of pneumococcal septic shock in a patient with acquired hyposplenism and co-morbid Sjögren’s syndrome has been reported. Case presentation We report a case of a 45-year-old Caucasian woman who developed pneumococcal pneumonia at age 42 years, pneumococcal meningitis at age 44 years and septic shock with Streptococcus agalactiae bacteremia at age 45 years and was subsequently diagnosed with radiological splenic atrophy and functional asplenia, as well as primary Sjögren’s syndrome. After appropriate immunizations, the patient has been free from clinically important infections. Conclusion Hyposplenism should be suspected in patients with adult-onset infections caused by encapsulated bacteria, especially if autoantibodies are present. Early diagnosis can help prevent potentially life-threatening infections. Possible associations between splenic atrophy and Sjögren’s syndrome are discussed. PMID:24393211

  18. Highways of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Katja Strøm; Højmark, Jeppe; Nielsen, Christian

    , such as student-industry cooperation or collaboration projects between researchers and businesses. This research shows that to secure real value adding through knowledge transfer in university - in-dustry collaboration projects, it is important that the involved parties view each other as equal part......The objective of this paper is to discuss mechanisms, enablers and barriers for knowledge transfer in university - industry collaboration projects. The underlying question is how to acquire the right kind of knowledge to stay innovative and competitive in today’s fast changing society. The study...

  19. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  20. The tourism knowledge system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tribe, John; Liburd, Janne J.

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual study addresses the significant need for every mature field of knowledge to understand itself. It builds upon previous studies of the epistemology and ontology of tourism by critiquing, synthesising, discarding, re-ordering and adding material. Its contribution is an original...... reconceptualisation of the structure, systems, processes and outcomes that define the field of tourism. These are explained by the creation of a model and detailed analysis that examines knowledge space, the knowledge force-field, knowledge networks, four key domains in knowledge creation and their interrelationships....... Finally the model is used to examine some of the key challenges and consequences that the knowledge system reveals for tourism and its research....

  1. Universal acquired melanosis (Carbon baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 3-year-old girl born with fair complexion which became darker. The color change was insidious in onset at the age of 5 months, asymptomatic and progressive involving the entire body surface. Histopathology revealed increased pigmentation of the epidermal basal layer. Universal acquired melanosis is a rare form of hypermelanosis which was synonymously referred to as "Carbon baby". This is a rare presentation with only one earlier case report.

  2. Musicality: instinct or acquired skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Gary F

    2012-10-01

    Is the human tendency toward musicality better thought of as the product of a specific, evolved instinct or an acquired skill? Developmental and evolutionary arguments are considered, along with issues of domain-specificity. The article also considers the question of why humans might be consistently and intensely drawn to music if musicality is not in fact the product of a specifically evolved instinct. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  4. Community-Acquired Serratia Marcescens Spinal Epidural Abscess in a Patient Without Risk Factors: Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Parkins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens has rarely been reported as an agent of invasive disease in patients presenting from the community. Furthermore, S marcescens is frequently opportunistic, affecting individuals with serious medical comorbidities including immune suppression and diabetes. A case of a community-acquired S marcescens spontaneous lumbar epidural abscess presenting as cauda equina syndrome is reported in a previously well 36-year-old man with no identifiable risk factors. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of invasive S marcescens causing disease in a patient with no medical comorbidities.

  5. Urban Knowledge and Urban Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Thor; Atkinson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    As we have seen in contemporary societies, particularly in relation to the ‘knowledge-based society and economy’, the role and position of knowledge has acquired increasingly strong and positive connotations; this is an indication that reflection and careful preparation is important before action...

  6. Emergency contraception: knowledge and use among Danish women requesting termination of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perslev, A; Rørbye, C; Boesen, H C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe knowledge about and use of emergency contraception (EC) among Danish women requesting termination of pregnancy. The study included 1514 women (response rate 83.7%) referred during the period August 2000 to May 2001. Sufficient knowledge of EC was defined...... as knowledge about both the correct time limit and where to acquire the EC. We found adequate knowledge in 44.7%. These women were typically younger, better educated and more often singles, nulliparae, and users of contraception. No relation was found to the type of contraception used or to previous...... terminations of pregnancies. EC was used in the actual pregnancy by 6.6% and 24.1% had used it previously. Actual or formers users were characterized in the same way. The general knowledge about EC has not improved significantly during the last few years and there is still need for information about...

  7. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating...

  8. When Unbiased Probabilistic Learning Is Not Enough: Acquiring a Parametric System of Metrical Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Lisa S.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric systems have been proposed as models of how humans represent knowledge about language, motivated in part as a way to explain children's rapid acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Given this, it seems reasonable to examine if children with knowledge of parameters could in fact acquire the adult system from the data available to them.…

  9. Complement's participation in acquired immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2002-01-01

    in which antigen is seen, be it alone or in association with natural or induced antibodies and/or C3-complement fragments. The aim of this review is to describe the present status of our understanding of complement's participation in acquired immunity and the regulation of autoimmune responses........ It is now clear that complement serves as a regulator of several B cell functions, including specific antibody production, antigen uptake, processing and presentation, and shaping of the B cell repertoire. Of key importance, in this respect, is the role played by the B cell-signaling triad consisting...

  10. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Demographic and clinical data in acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoebl, P.; Marco, P.; Baudo, F.; Collins, P.; Huth-Kühne, A.; Nemes, L.; Pellegrini, F.; Tengborn, L.; Lévesque, H.; Aspoeck, Gerold; Heistinger, Max; Knöbl, Paul; Makipernaa, Anne; André, Hélène; Aouba, Achille; Bellucci, Sylvia; Beurrier, Philippe; Borg, Jeanne Yvonne; Darnige, Luc; Devignes, Jean; d'Oiron, Roseline; Gautier, Philippe; Gay, Valérie; Girault, Stéphane; Gruel, Yves; Guerin, Viviane; Hézard, Nathalie; Khellaf, Mehdi; Koenig, Martial; Lévesque, Hervé; Lifermann, François; Marlu, Raphael; Peynet, Jocelyne; Quéméneur, Thomas; Rothschild, Chantal; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Sigaud, Marianne; Trouillier, Sébastien; Voisin, Sophie; Giebl, Andreas; Holstein, Katharina; Huth-Kühne, Angela; Loreth, Ralph M.; Steigerwald, Udo; Tiede, Andreas; Theodossiades, George; Nemes, László; Radvanyi, Gaspar; Schlammadinger, Agota; Barillari, Giovanni; Pasca, Samantha; Baudo, Francesco; Caimi, Teresa; Contino, Laura; Di Minno, Giovanni; Cerbone, Anna Maria; Di Minno, Dario; D'incà, Marco; Falanga, Anna; Maggioni, Anna; Lerede, Teresa; Franchini, Massimo; Gaidano, Gianluca; de Paoli, Lorenzo; Gamba, Gabriella; Ghirardi, Raffaele; Girotto, Mauro; Tasca, Delios; Grandone, Elvira; Tiscia, Giovanni; Imberti, Davide; Iorio, Alfonso; Landolfi, Raffaele; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Novarese, Linda; Mariani, Guglielmo; Lapecorella, Mario; Marietta, Marco; Pedrazzi, Paola; Mazzucconi, Maria Gabriella; Santoro, Cristina; Morfini, Massimo; Linari, Silvia; Moratelli, Stefano; Paolini, Rossella; Piseddu, Gavino; Poggio, Renzo; Pogliani, Enrico; Carpenedo, Monica; Remiddi, Chiara; Santagostino, Elena; Santoro, Rita; Papaleo, Giuseppina; Schinco, Piercarla; Borchiellini, Alessandra; Scortechini, Anna Rita; Siragusa, Sergio; Sottilotta, Gianluca; Squizzato, Alessandro; Sartori, Roberto; Tagariello, Giuseppe; Tagliaferri, Anna Rita; Di Perna, Caterina; Rivolta, Gianna Franca; Testa, Sophie; Paoletti, Oriana; Toschi, Vincenzo; Zanon, Ezio; Brandolini, Barbara; Hamulyák, Karly; Kamphuisen, Pieter; Laros-van Gorkom, Britta; Leebeek, Frank W. G.; Marten, Nijziel; Novakova, Irena; Schutgens, Roger; van der Linden, P. W. G.; van Esser, Joost; van der Meer, J.; Ypma, Paula; Campos, Manuel; Aguilar, Carlos; Altisent, Carmen; Bermejo, Nuria; del Campo, Raquel; Ferreiro Argüelles, María; González Boullosa, Rosario; Gutiérrez Pimentel, María José; Jiménez-Yuste, Victor; Jose-Felix, Lucia; Pascual, Marco; Mingot, Maria Eva; Perez Garrido, Rosario; Perez Gonzale, Noelia z; Prieto Garcia, Manuel; Rodriguez-Huerta, Ana María; Sedano, Carmen; Tolosa Munoz, Alexandra; Baghaei, Fariba; Tengborn, Lilian; Boehlen, Françoise; Korte, Wolfgang; Chowdary, Pratima; Collins, Peter; Evans, Gillian; Pavord, Suzanne; Rangarajan, Savita; Wilde, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII and characterized by spontaneous hemorrhage in patients with no previous family or personal history of bleeding. Although data on several AHA cohorts have been collected,

  12. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge...... within an organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of both approaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit and knowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for the knowledge management practices in a given organization....

  13. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  14. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness in the burn population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubitt, Jonathan J; Davies, Menna; Lye, George; Evans, Janine; Combellack, Tom; Dickson, William; Nguyen, Dai Q

    2016-05-01

    Intensive care unit-acquired weakness is an evolving problem in the burn population. As patients are surviving injuries that previously would have been fatal, the focus of treatment is shifting from survival to long-term outcome. The rehabilitation of burn patients can be challenging; however, a certain subgroup of patients have worse outcomes than others. These patients may suffer from intensive care unit-acquired weakness, and their treatment, physiotherapy and expectations need to be adjusted accordingly. This study investigates the condition of intensive care unit-acquired weakness in our burn centre. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all the admissions to our burn centre between 2008 and 2012 and identified 22 patients who suffered from intensive care unit-acquired weakness. These patients were significantly younger with significantly larger burns than those without intensive care unit-acquired weakness. The known risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired weakness are commonplace in the burn population. The recovery of these patients is significantly affected by their weakness. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sarcoptes scabiei: Specific immune response to sarcoptic mange in the Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica depends on previous exposure and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasa, Mathieu; Rambozzi, Luisa; Rossi, Luca; Meneguz, Pier G; Serrano, Emmanuel; Granados, José-Enrique; González, Francisco J; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Gonzalez, Georges; Joachim, Jean; Pérez, Jesús M

    2010-03-01

    Host acquired immunity is a critical factor that conditions the survival of parasites. Nevertheless, there is a shortage of data concerning inter-individual immunological inequalities in wild mammals. Sarcoptic mange is a widespread parasitosis that severely affects mammals such as the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Despite some work on the subject, the immune response to sarcoptic mange infestation is still a complex and poorly understood phenomenon. To improve knowledge of the host-Sarcoptes immunological interaction, 18 Iberian ibexes were experimentally infested. IgG levels were assessed using ELISA to test for potential factors determining the specific immune response to infestation. Previous exposure and sex appeared to affect the IgG response to infestation and our results suggest a sex-biased immunomodulation. We discuss the immunological pattern of host-Sarcoptes interactions and also suggest further lines of work that may improve the understanding of immunological interactions of host-Sarcoptes systems. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation......, were used more intensively. Further, the degree of stickiness was significantly lower in the case of prior trust-based relations....

  17. Nivel de conocimiento sobre el Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida en un grupo de adultos mayores Knowledge about the Acquired Inmunodeficiency Syndrome among a group of elderly people Nível de Conhecimento de um grupo de idosos em relação à Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREITAS MEDEIROS HILDA MARIA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo se centró en verificar el nivel de conocimiento de un grupo de adultos mayores con respecto al Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (VIH/SIDA, para ello se utilizó el método de investigación cuantitativa-exploratoria. Los datos se recolectaron entre marzo y junio de 2008 a través de un cuestionario semiestructurado compuesto por preguntas abiertas y cerradas, aplicado a 23 adultos mayores, miembros del Grupo de la Tercera Edad Mexe Coração del municipio de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. El rango etario de los participantes varió desde 58 a 96 años. El análisis de los datos revela la existencia de vacíos en el conocimiento de los adultos mayores sobre el concepto VIH/SIDA, grupos de riesgo, formas de transmisión, vulnerabilidad y otros factores que contribuyen al aumento de esta enfermedad durante este rango etario.This study aimed to verify the level of knowledge of agroup of elderly in relation to Acquired Inmunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS. The method used was an exploratory quantitative research. Data were collected in 2008 between March and June, through a semistructured questionnaire with open and closed questions, applied in 23 elderly, members of the Group of Elderly Mexe Coração in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The ages of participants ranged from 58 to 96 years. Data analysis revealed the existence of gaps in knowledge of the elderly about the concept of HIV/AIDS, risk groups, ways of transmission and vulnerability and other factors that contribute to the rise of the disease in this age group.Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o nível de conhecimento de um grupo de idosos em relação ao Síndromeda Imunodeficiência Adquirida (HIV/AIDS. O método utilizado foi uma pesquisa quantitativo-exploratória. Os dados foram coletados entre março e junho de 2008 por meio de um questionário semi-estruturado com questões abertas e fechadas, aplicado a 23 idosos, integrantes do Grupo de Terceira

  18. Nível de Conhecimento de um grupo de idosos em relação à Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida Nivel de conocimiento sobre el Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida en un grupo de adultos mayores Knowledge about the Acquired Inmunodeficiency Syndrome among a group of elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHA H TEIXEIRA DE SOUZA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o nível de conhecimento de um grupo de idosos em relação ao Síndromeda Imunodeficiência Adquirida (HIV/AIDS. O método utilizado foi uma pesquisa quantitativo-exploratória. Os dados foram coletados entre março e junho de 2008 por meio de um question ário semi-estruturado com questões abertas e fechadas, aplicado a 23 idosos, integrantes do Grupo de Terceira Idade Mexe Coração do município de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. A faixa et ária dos participantes variou de 58 a 96 anos. A an álise dos dados revela a existência de lacunas no conhecimento dos idosos em relação conceito de HIV/AIDS, grupos de risco, formas de transmissão, vulnerabilidade e outros fatores que contribuem para a ascensão da doença nesta faixa et ária.El objetivo de este trabajo se centró en verificar el nivel de conocimiento de un grupo de adultos mayores con respecto al Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (VIH/SIDA, para ello se utilizó el método de investigación cuantitativa-exploratoria. Los datos se recolectaron entre marzo y junio de 2008 a través de un cuestionario semiestructurado compuesto por preguntas abiertas y cerradas, aplicado a 23 adultos mayores, miembros del Grupo de la Tercera Edad Mexe Coração del municipio de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. El rango etario de los participantes varió desde 58 a 96 años. El an álisis de los datos revela la existencia de vacíos en el conocimiento de los adultos mayores sobre el concepto VIH/SIDA, grupos de riesgo, formas de transmisión, vulnerabilidad y otros factores que contribuyen al aumento de esta enfermedad durante este rango etario.This study aimed to verify the level of knowledge of agroup of elderly in relation to Acquired Inmunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS. The method used was an exploratory quantitative research. Data were collected in 2008 between March and June, through a semistructured questionnaire with open and closed questions, applied in 23

  19. Pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severiche, Diego

    1998-01-01

    This is the first published case report en Colombia about pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia. This uncommon pathogen is from the epidemiological standpoint a very important one and medical community should be aware to look after it in those patients where no other etiological pathogen is recovered. A brief summary about epidemiology is showed, emphasizing those regions where it can be found. Likewise, comments about the differential diagnosis are important since it should be considered in those patients where tuberculosis is suspected. This is particularly representative for countries with high tuberculosis rates. Furthermore, a microbiological review is shown, emphasizing on isolation techniques, descriptions about therapeutics and other regarding treatment issues according international standards. Finally; a description about the clinical picture, laboratory findings, treatment and evolution of the case reported are shown for discussion

  20. Acquired Functional Asplenia in Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard W.; McDaniel, Willie R.; Armstrong, Earl M.; Young, Roscoe C.; Higginbotham-Ford, Edith A.

    1985-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a recently identified cause of functional asplenia that can be diagnosed by radionuclide imaging. A 31-year-old woman with a five-year history of histologically compatible sarcoidosis was found to have nonvisualization of the spleen on technetium 99m sulfur colloid (radiopharmaceutical) liver-spleen scan. This scintigraphic finding was accompanied by poikilocytosis and Howell-Jolly bodies in the peripheral blood smear. A subsequent gallium 67 citrate scan reflected an abnormal increase in concentration of activity in the spleen, suggesting an active inflammatory process. Based upon this constellation of findings, it was concluded that acquired functional asplenia is the result of reticuloendothelial cell replacement via infiltration of the spleen by epithelioid cell granulomas of active sarcoidosis. This case also illustrates the reversibility of functional asplenia of sarcoidosis following adrenocorticosteroid therapy. Functional asplenia in sarcoidosis is now found to have a recognizable radionuclide imaging pattern. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:3908697

  1. And the Winner is - Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    New entrants to a market tend to be superior to incumbents in originating radical innovations. We provide a new explanation for this phenomenon, based on markets for technology. It applies in industries where successful entrepreneurial firms, or their technologies, are acquired by incumbents...... that then commercialize the innovation. To this end we analyze an innovation game between one incumbent and a large number of entrants. In the first stage, firms compete to develop innovations of high quality. They do so by choosing, at equal cost, the success probability of their R&D approach, where a lower probability...... the incumbent performs the least radical project. Entrants pick pairwise different projects; the bigger the number of entrants, the more radical the most radical project. Generally, entrants tend to choose more radical R&D approaches and generate the highest value innovation in case of success. We illustrate...

  2. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  3. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  4. Previous experiences shape adaptive mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W.; Bleay, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Existing models of mate choice assume that individuals have perfect knowledge of their own ability to attract a mate and can adjust their preferences accordingly. However, real animals will typically be uncertain of their own attractiveness. A potentially useful source of information on this is the

  5. Knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tayfun Gülle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The book includes detailed information concerning knowledge and knowledge management with current resources in seven chapters uder the titles of “organizational effects of knowlegde management, knowledge management systems, new knowledge discovery: data mining, computer as an information sharing platform, technologies as knowledge management: artificial intelligence and knowledge based systems, future of knowlegde management”. Concepts of knowledge and knowledge management becomes phenomenon for all disciplinaries so global companies, other companies, state sector, epistemologists, experts of innovation and governance, information professionals etc may find informative to it. The book also includes three prefaces which are well-informed and so all of them is summarized in the text.

  6. development of ontological knowledge representation: learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    This group of authors describes use of ontologies for knowledge organization in a given domain. In the context of computer science, ontologies have been applied in the field of artificial intelligence in order to facilitate knowledge sharing and reuse of acquired knowledge (15). Soon, ontologies have gained great popularity.

  7. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... making, which I call ‘sound knowledge’. Sound knowledge is an approach to knowledge that takes the reflexive considerations of actors in policymaking processes as well as in research about what knowledge is into account. Seeing knowledge as sound makes connections between different ideas, concepts...... and ideologies explicit. Furthermore, in relation to an anthropology of knowledge, sound knowledge also offers a reconsideration of the way anthropologists study knowledge, as it specifies that studying knowledge for anthropologists means studying what people consider as knowledge, in what circumstances...

  8. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  9. Physician knowledge of nuclear medicine radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Paul; Liu, Hongjie; Wilson, John D

    2013-01-01

    Because physician knowledge of patient exposure to ionizing radiation from computed tomography (CT) procedures previously has been recognized as poor, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine whether physician or physician trainee knowledge of patient exposure to radiation from nuclear medicine procedures is similarly insufficient. Online databases and printed literature were systematically searched to acquire peer-reviewed published research studies involving assessment of physician or physician trainee knowledge of patient radiation exposure levels incurred during nuclear medicine and CT procedures. An a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria for study selection was used as a review protocol aimed at extracting information pertaining to participants, collection methods, comparisons within studies, outcomes, and study design. Fourteen studies from 8 countries were accepted into the review and revealed similar insufficiencies in physician knowledge of nuclear medicine and CT patient radiation exposures. Radiation exposure estimates for both modalities similarly featured a strong tendency toward physician underestimation. Discussion Comparisons were made and ratios established between physican estimates of patient radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures and estimates of CT procedures. A theoretical median of correct physician exposure estimates was used to examine factors affecting lower and higher estimates. The tendency for ordering physicians to underestimate patient radiation exposures from nuclear medicine and CT procedures could lead to their overuse and contribute to increasing the public's exposure to ionizing radiation.

  10. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costerus, Joost M; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Bijlsma, Merijn W; van de Beek, Diederik

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and is associated with a high disease burden. We reviewed recent progress in the management of patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis. The worldwide burden of disease of bacterial meningitis remains high, despite the decreasing incidence following introduction of routine vaccination campaigns. Delay in diagnosis and treatment remain major concerns in the management of acute bacterial meningitis. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases guidelines strive for a door-to-antibiotic-time less than 1 h. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as an important diagnostic tool to identify the causative organism. Point-of-care tests using fast multiplex PCR have been developed, but additional value has not been proven. Although anecdotal observations advocate pressure-based management, a randomized controlled trial will need to be performed first to determine efficacy and safety of such an aggressive treatment approach. Adjunctive dexamethasone remains the only adjunctive therapy with proven efficacy. The incidence of bacterial meningitis has been decreasing after the implementation of effective vaccines. Treatment should be administered as soon as possible and time to treatment should not exceed 1 h.

  11. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it must...

  12. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  13. Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual…

  14. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If...

  15. Effects of Prior Knowledge on Memory: Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Yee Lee; Brod, Garvin

    2016-01-01

    The encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of events and facts form the basis for acquiring new skills and knowledge. Prior knowledge can enhance those memory processes considerably and thus foster knowledge acquisition. But prior knowledge can also hinder knowledge acquisition, in particular when the to-be-learned information is inconsistent with…

  16. Knowledge Management Issues in Academic Libraries in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge Management Issues in Academic Libraries in Imo State, Nigeria. ... Information Technologist (The) ... It discussed these issues - types of knowledge and knowledge management practices; the technologies and mechanisms of acquiring; creating; sharing, transferring etc knowledge in the present day knowledge ...

  17. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated.

  18. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TOOLS FOR THE EUROPEAN KNOWLEDGE BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona – Diana Leon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly more literature mention that in the current competitive environment, knowledge have become the main source of the competitive advantages, while recent researches regarding economic growth and development have defined knowledge as being the most critical resource of the emerging countries.Therefore, the organizations interest for knowledge has increased, the latter being defined as knowledge management process in order to meet existing needs, to identify and exploit existing and/or acquired knowledge and developing new opportunities.In other words, knowledge management facilitates productive information usage, intelligence growth, storing intellectual capital, strategic planning, flexible acquisition, collection of best practices, increasing the likelihood of being successful as well as a more productive collaboration within the company.In order to benefit from all these advantages, it is required the usage of specific tools including models and systems to stimulate the creation, dissemination and use of knowledge held by each employee and the organization as a whole.

  19. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co......-creation strategies. Confronted with the results, the group completely altered their approach to knowledge sharing and let it become knowledge co-creation. The conclusions are, that knowledge is and can only be a diverse and differentiated concept, and that groups are able to embrace this complexity. Thus rather than...

  20. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  1. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  2. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  3. Semi-automated entry of clinical temporal-abstraction knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Y; Chen, H; Stites, D P; Basso, L V; Kaizer, H; Wilson, D M; Musen, M A

    1999-01-01

    The authors discuss the usability of an automated tool that supports entry, by clinical experts, of the knowledge necessary for forming high-level concepts and patterns from raw time-oriented clinical data. Based on their previous work on the RESUME system for forming high-level concepts from raw time-oriented clinical data, the authors designed a graphical knowledge acquisition (KA) tool that acquires the knowledge required by RESUME. This tool was designed using Protégé, a general framework and set of tools for the construction of knowledge-based systems. The usability of the KA tool was evaluated by three expert physicians and three knowledge engineers in three domains-the monitoring of children's growth, the care of patients with diabetes, and protocol-based care in oncology and in experimental therapy for AIDS. The study evaluated the usability of the KA tool for the entry of previously elicited knowledge. The authors recorded the time required to understand the methodology and the KA tool and to enter the knowledge; they examined the subjects' qualitative comments; and they compared the output abstractions with benchmark abstractions computed from the same data and a version of the same knowledge entered manually by RESUME experts. Understanding RESUME required 6 to 20 hours (median, 15 to 20 hours); learning to use the KA tool required 2 to 6 hours (median, 3 to 4 hours). Entry times for physicians varied by domain-2 to 20 hours for growth monitoring (median, 3 hours), 6 and 12 hours for diabetes care, and 5 to 60 hours for protocol-based care (median, 10 hours). An increase in speed of up to 25 times (median, 3 times) was demonstrated for all participants when the KA process was repeated. On their first attempt at using the tool to enter the knowledge, the knowledge engineers recorded entry times similar to those of the expert physicians' second attempt at entering the same knowledge. In all cases RESUME, using knowledge entered by means of the KA tool

  4. Non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and previous undetermined acute cerebellar injury: a mysterious clinical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide group of neurological diseases secondary to dysfunctions of cerebellum or its associated pathways, rarely coursing with acute-onset acquired etiologies and chronic non-progressive presentation. We evaluated patients with acquired non-progressive cerebellar ataxia that presented previous acute or subacute onset. Clinical and neuroimaging characterization of adult patients with acquired non-progressive ataxia were performed. Five patients were identified with the phenotype of acquired non-progressive ataxia. Most patients presented with a juvenile to adult-onset acute to subacute appendicular and truncal cerebellar ataxia with mild to moderate cerebellar or olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Establishing the etiology of the acute triggering events of such ataxias is complex. Non-progressive ataxia in adults must be distinguished from hereditary ataxias.

  5. Non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and previous undetermined acute cerebellar injury: a mysterious clinical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide group of neurological diseases secondary to dysfunctions of cerebellum or its associated pathways, rarely coursing with acute-onset acquired etiologies and chronic non-progressive presentation. We evaluated patients with acquired non-progressive cerebellar ataxia that presented previous acute or subacute onset. Clinical and neuroimaging characterization of adult patients with acquired non-progressive ataxia were performed. Five patients were identified with the phenotype of acquired non-progressive ataxia. Most patients presented with a juvenile to adult-onset acute to subacute appendicular and truncal cerebellar ataxia with mild to moderate cerebellar or olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Establishing the etiology of the acute triggering events of such ataxias is complex. Non-progressive ataxia in adults must be distinguished from hereditary ataxias.

  6. Thermodynamic cost of acquiring information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micadei, Kaonan; Serra, Roberto M; Céleri, Lucas C

    2013-12-01

    Connections between information theory and thermodynamics have proven to be very useful to establish bounding limits for physical processes. Ideas such as Landauer's erasure principle and information-assisted work extraction have greatly contributed not only to broadening our understanding about the fundamental limits imposed by nature, but also paving the way for practical implementations of information-processing devices. The intricate information-thermodynamics relation also entails a fundamental limit on parameter estimation, establishing a thermodynamic cost for information acquisition. We show that the amount of information that can be encoded in a physical system by means of a unitary process is limited by the dissipated work during the implementation of the process. This includes a thermodynamic tradeoff for information acquisition. Likewise, the information acquisition process is ultimately limited by the second law of thermodynamics. This tradeoff for information acquisition may find applications in several areas of knowledge.

  7. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  8. Biomarkers in Community-Acquired Pneumonia Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskresenska Natalja

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on pneumonia (P patients with features of oxidative stress (OS. Identifying features of OS in patients with P is of interest not only for diagnosis, but also for monitoring of treatment efficiency. We recruited 73 patients with community-acquired P (CAP, previously healthy adults, both males and females with mean age of 68.0 ± 15.2, hospitalised, and 61 healthy control patients matched for age. For quantitative evaluation of lipid peroxidation in CAP patients, the levels of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products like malondialdehyde (MDA and 4- hydroxynon-2-enal (HNE were quantified. Furthermore, concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH and several antioxidant enzymes and selenium in plasma were determined. In CAP patients, decreased levels of GSH and plasma selenium were observed. Plasma levels of MDA, and HNE did significantly differ between patient and control groups. We also noted reduced activity of antioxidant enzymes, namely, glutation peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Low antioxidant enzymes activity was associated with a more severe CAP pattern. Both GSH and antioxidant enzymes may serve as markers for inflammation-related OS in CAP patients, and measurement of these biomarkers may be a valid indentifier for its management.

  9. Hyperthyroidism caused by acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-J; Zhou, J-J; Yuan, X-L; Li, C-Y; Sheng, H; Su, B; Sheng, C-J; Qu, S; Li, H

    2014-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an immune deficiency disease. The etiology of hyperthyroidism, which can also be immune-related, is usually divided into six classical categories, including hypophyseal, hypothalamic, thyroid, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of highly active antimicrobial therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hyperthyroidism caused directly by AIDS has not been previously reported. A 29-year-old man who complained of dyspnea and asthenia for 1 month, recurrent fever for more than 20 days, and breathlessness for 1 week was admitted to our hospital. The thyroid function test showed that the level of free thyroxine (FT4) was higher than normal and that the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was below normal. He was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Additional investigations revealed a low serum albumin level and chest infection, along with diffuse lung fibrosis. Within 1 month, he experienced significant weight loss, no hand tremors, intolerance of heat, and perspiration proneness. We recommended an HIV examination; subsequently, AIDS was diagnosed based on the laboratory parameters. This is the first reported case of hyperthyroidism caused by AIDS. AIDS may cause hyperthyroidism by immunization regulation with complex, atypical, and easily ignored symptoms. Although hyperthyroidism is rare in patients with AIDS, clinicians should be aware of this potential interaction and should carefully monitor thyroid function in HIV-positive patients.

  10. An unusual cause of community-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie Mittal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of fatal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP due to Acinetobacter baumannii, which is rarely reported in the northeastern United States. Previously reported cases originate from tropical and subtropical climates, and infection tends to have an aggressive course with a poor outcome. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy is crucial; however, the associated systemic inflammatory response may overwhelm host defenses, especially in patients with certain co-morbidities.

  11. Social identity management strategies used by workers with acquired hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Mary Beth; Southall, Kenneth; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge about social identity-management by persons with hearing loss. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding from the perspective of the participants, the ways in which workers with acquired hearing loss manage their identity in the workplace. Twelve persons with acquired hearing loss, who were gainfully employed in a variety of settings and occupations in three Canadian cities, participated in audio-recorded semi-structured interviews. A secondary qualitative analysis was conducted on transcripts of interviews collected in a previous study on factors that influence disclosure of hearing loss in the workplace. A qualitative descriptive research paradigm was adopted and content analyses were used to extract pertinent information from verbatim transcripts. Participants described a range of identity-management strategies enacted in the workplace. Five recurrent themes emerged as important considerations in the Art of Identity Management in the workplace: 1. Managing the situation, 2. Having a buddy system, 3. Feeling comfortable, 4. Using personal resources, 5. It gets easier with time. Social identity-management is a complex process. Although persons with acquired hearing loss experience different challenges from other persons with invisible stigmas, similarities in the range of social identity-management strategies employed were evident in our findings. In addition, the social cognitive learning model of disclosure appears to be relevant to the experiences of our participants. The implications of the findings emphasize the importance of all stakeholders working collaboratively to address the issues of the growing population of workers with hearing loss.

  12. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...... and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....

  13. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  14. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  15. Creativity, knowledge and school achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Maksić Slavica B.; Đurišić-Bojanović Mirosava

    2004-01-01

    In the process of education the knowledge is acquired which is a necessary base for creativity. The problem of relations between creativity and knowledge in school context is posed as a problem of relations between creativity and academic performance due to the influence it has on personal and professional development of an individual. The paper presents the results of survey on relations between creativity, academic performance and academic preferences. Creativity was measured by the test fo...

  16. The Mental Health Benefits of Acquiring a Home in Older Age: A Fixed-Effects Analysis of Older US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, Emilie; Dowd, Jennifer B; Avendano, Mauricio

    2018-03-01

    Homeownership is consistently associated with better mental health, but whether becoming a homeowner in later in life has positive psychological benefits has not, to our knowledge, been examined. We assessed whether acquiring a home after age 50 years was associated with depression in a representative sample of older US adults. We used individual fixed-effects models based on data from 20,524 respondents aged ≥50 years from the Health and Retirement Study, who were interviewed biennially during 1993-2010. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 8-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Controlling for confounders, becoming a homeowner in later life predicted a decline in depressive symptoms in the same year (β = -0.0768, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.152, -0.007). The association remained significant after 2 years (β = -0.0556, 95% CI: -0.134, -0.001) but weakened afterward. Buying a home for reasons associated with positive characteristics of the new house or neighborhood drove this association (β = -0.426, 95% CI: -0.786, -0.066), while acquiring a home for reasons associated with characteristics of the previous home or neighborhood, the desire to be closer to relatives, downsizing, or upsizing did not predict mental health improvements. Findings suggest that there are small but significant benefits for mental health associated with acquiring a home in older age.

  17. How sense-of-direction and learning intentionality relate to spatial knowledge acquisition in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burte, Heather; Montello, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    People's impression of their own "sense-of-direction" (SOD) is related to their ability to effectively find their way through environments, such as neighborhoods and cities, but is also related to the speed and accuracy with which they learn new environments. In the current literature, it is unclear whether the cognitive skills underlying SOD require intentional cognitive effort to produce accurate knowledge of a new environment. The cognitive skills underlying SOD could exert their influence automatically-without conscious intention-or they might need to be intentionally and effortfully applied. Determining the intentionality of acquiring environmental spatial knowledge would shed light on whether individuals with a poor SOD can be trained to use the skill set of an individual with good SOD, thereby improving their wayfinding and spatial learning. Therefore, this research investigates the accuracy of spatial knowledge acquisition during a walk through a previously unfamiliar neighborhood by individuals with differing levels of self-assessed SOD, as a function of whether their spatial learning was intentional or incidental. After walking a route through the neighborhood, participants completed landmark, route, and survey knowledge tasks. SOD was related to the accuracy of acquired spatial knowledge, as has been found previously. However, learning intentionality did not affect spatial knowledge acquisition, neither as a main effect nor in interaction with SOD. This research reveals that while the accuracy of spatial knowledge acquired via direct travel through an environment is validly measured by self-reported SOD, the spatial skills behind a good SOD appear to operate with or without intentional application.

  18. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  19. Acquired haemophilia: Epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingot-Castellano, Maria Eva; Núñez, Ramiro; Rodríguez-Martorell, Francisco Javier

    2017-04-07

    The development of circulating autoantibodies able to inhibit some coagulation proteins induces severe or even life-threatening bleeding. This disorder is called acquired haemophilia. This is a rare disease, although its impact may be underestimated because of the lack of records, the lack of knowledge by many specialists, the complexity of the laboratory diagnosis and, finally, because of the fulminant clinical presentation that often precludes diagnosis. Several studies established that mortality ranges between 9 and 33%. Not only haematologists but all physicians should be trained to follow the right steps to diagnose these patients as soon as possible in order to reduce such mortality rates. This review approaches the basic concepts dealing with the diagnosis and management of these patients and intends to assist physicians in identifying patients under suspicion of acquired haemophilia to correctly manage them and refer them to the appropriate Haemostasis Unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. And the Winner is – Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a ‘prize’ in a contest. We identify an equilibrium in which the incumbent chooses...

  1. Language knowledge and event knowledge in language use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Jon A; Amato, Michael S; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines how semantic knowledge is used in language comprehension and in making judgments about events in the world. We contrast knowledge gleaned from prior language experience ("language knowledge") and knowledge coming from prior experience with the world ("world knowledge"). In two corpus analyses, we show that previous research linking verb aspect and event representations have confounded language and world knowledge. Then, using carefully chosen stimuli that remove this confound, we performed four experiments that manipulated the degree to which language knowledge or world knowledge should be salient and relevant to performing a task, finding in each case that participants use the type of knowledge most appropriate to the task. These results provide evidence for a highly context-sensitive and interactionist perspective on how semantic knowledge is represented and used during language processing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  3. Protecting knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira

    2018-01-01

    Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....

  4. Training Pseudoword Reading in Acquired Dyslexia: A Phonological Complexity Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ellyn A.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Previous studies have shown that reading can be improved in these individuals by training letter-sound correspondence, practicing phonological skills, or using combined approaches. However, generalization to untrained items is typically limited. Aims We investigated whether principles of phonological complexity can be applied to training letter-sound correspondence reading in acquired phonological dyslexia to improve generalization to untrained words. Based on previous work in other linguistic domains, we hypothesized that training phonologically “more complex” material (i.e., consonant clusters with small sonority differences) would result in generalization to phonologically “less complex” material (i.e., consonant clusters with larger sonority differences), but this generalization pattern would not be demonstrated when training the “less complex” material. Methods & Procedures We used a single-participant, multiple baseline design across participants and behaviors to examine phonological complexity as a training variable in five individuals. Based on participants' error data from a previous experiment, a “more complex” onset and a “less complex” onset were selected for training for each participant. Training order assignment was pseudo-randomized and counterbalanced across participants. Three participants were trained in the “more complex” condition and two in the “less complex” condition while tracking oral reading accuracy of both onsets. Outcomes & Results As predicted, participants trained in the “more complex” condition demonstrated improved pseudoword reading of the trained cluster and generalization to pseudowords with the untrained, “simple” onset, but not vice versa. Conclusions These findings suggest phonological complexity can be used to improve

  5. Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  6. Manufacturing Outsourcing A Knowledge Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; O'Sullivan, David

    2012-01-01

    All companies which reach a critical size are faced with outsourcing decisions that can increase the value of their products and services primarily through lower costs, greater reliability and improved efficiency. Successful outsourcing decisions have an important knowledge dimension, where the outsourcing professionals need to be supported by historical and contextual knowledge regarding their own products performance but also the performance of suppliers. Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension explains in detail how a manager can acquire, create, transfer and use knowledge that optimizes their outsourcing decisions and improves the changes of marketplace success.              Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension gives examples of the key decisions that needs to be taken by managers regarding effective outsourcing. Decisions are divided around the structural and infrastructural aspects of outsourcing and the key knowledge that needs to be managed to support good de...

  7. Management of Acquired Atresia of the External Auditory Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajin, Münir Demir; Yılmaz, Taner; Günaydın, Rıza Önder; Kuşçu, Oğuz; Sözen, Tevfik; Jafarov, Shamkal

    2015-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate surgical techniques and their relationship to postoperative success rate and hearing outcomes in acquired atresia of the external auditory canal. In this article, 24 patients with acquired atresia of the external auditory canal were retrospectively evaluated regarding their canal status, hearing, and postoperative success. Acquired stenosis occurs more commonly in males with a male: female ratio of 2-3:1; it seems to be a disorder affecting young adults. Previous ear surgery (13 patients, 54.2%) and external ear trauma (11 patients, 45.8%) were the main etiological factors of acquired ear canal stenosis. Mastoidectomy (12/13) and traffic accidents (8/11) comprise the majority of these etiological factors. Endaural incision is performed in 79.2% and postauricular incision for 20.8% of cases during the operation. As types of surgical approach, transcanal (70.8%), transmastoid (20.8%), and combined (8.4%) approaches are chosen. The atretic plate is generally located at the bony-cartilaginous junction (37.5%) and in the cartilaginous canal (33.3%); the bony canal is involved in a few cases only. Preserved healthy canal skin, split- or full-thickness skin grafts, or pre- or postauricular skin flaps are used to line the ear canal, but preserved healthy canal skin is preferred. The results of surgery are generally satisfactory, and complications are few if surgical principles are followed.

  8. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  9. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  10. The role of tacit knowledge in the work context of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, B; Büssing, A; Ewert, T

    2001-06-01

    Previous research on the role of tacit knowledge is ambiguous. Some studies show the superiority of expertise, while other studies found experts would not be better than laymen. This paper aims at clarifying the contribution of tacit knowledge to expertise in the domain of nursing. Two important concepts for dealing with critical situations are outlined - tacit knowledge and experience-guided working. The framework of tacit knowledge and experience-guided working can contribute to an explanation of the ambiguous results. Tacit knowledge is acquired implicitly in the course of working and is therefore not subject to reflection. For this reason it can contain erroneous or problematic contents. A method for the explication of tacit knowledge was developed and a laboratory study with 16 experienced nurses conducted. In the laboratory study the nurses had to deal with a critical nursing situation that was developed in co-operation with nursing experts. The explicit knowledge of the nurses was tested before the laboratory study. No systematic differences in explicit knowledge could be observed, i.e. differences in performance could not be attributed to this knowledge mode. Results from multidimensional scaling procedures illustrate differences in the tacit knowledge of nurses who successfully accomplished the critical situation and those who did not. The findings are in line with the assumption that experience-guided working is of the utmost importance for dealing with critical situations. Consequences of these results for nursing and person-related services in general are discussed and the aim of future research is outlined.

  11. Verizon acquired Vodafone: Analysis of market reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pal Netra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent big tickets in telecom industry include Microsoft acquiring part of Nokia for US$ 7.2 billion, Verizon buying 45% stake in Vodafone for US$130 billion, Google acquiring Motorola for 12.5 billion, and Lenovo acquiring Motorola mobility from Google for US$ 3 billion. These buyouts are analyzed and commented by experts of the industry. This research paper is an attempt to analyze and collate their views with respect to Verizon and Vodafone deal. The analysis includes reasons for buyout, size of the deal, general comments in the media, what is in the deal for Verizon and Vodafone, impact on the eco-system, etc.

  12. Knowledge Exchange Between Universities and SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Sarai; Lykke, Marianne

    Exchanging knowledge between university and industry is generally known to be problematic. In this paper we address the situation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in order to understand their use of knowledge: in particular scientific knowledge. The paper will present data from....... The paper presents new understandings related to industry’s ways of perceiving, accessing and imple- menting scientific knowledge; these include insights into the primary ways in which SMEs appropriate new knowledge; the barriers to acquiring new knowledge; how SMEs understand the university setting...

  13. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...

  14. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  15. Evidence of Big-Five personality changes following acquired brain injury from a prospective longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Anne; Schmukle, Stefan C; Exner, Cornelia

    2016-03-01

    Many studies using different assessment methods have reported personality changes after acquired brain injury (ABI). However, to our knowledge, no prospective study has yet been conducted to examine whether previous cross-sectional and retrospective results can be replicated in a longitudinal prospective design. Further, because clinical control groups were only rarely used, it remains debatable if the personality changes found are unique to patients with ABI or if they also affect patients with other disabilities. This study examined personality change in 114 participants with different kinds of ABI, 1321 matched controls (general control, GC), and 746 matched participants with restrictive impairments other than brain injury (clinical control, CC) in a prospective longitudinal design using data from the panel survey Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA). Participants with ABI showed significantly larger declines in Extraversion and Conscientiousness compared with the GC group. When the ABI participants were compared with the CC group, only the difference in Conscientiousness remained significant. Our prospective data corroborate evidence from previous cross-sectional studies that patients with ABI experience larger declines in Extraversion and Conscientiousness than the general population. Whereas the effect on Conscientiousness was unique to patients with ABI, the decline in Extraversion was also observed in participants with other impairments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Knowledge Needed by Modern Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Krajnc

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In the industrial era the ways of acquiring knowledge were adopted to the existent circumstances. By educating and acquiring certain profession a person was equipped enough for the life­time, since society did not undergo such profound changes as it is the case today. Typical of the time we are living in are radical changes in life itself as well as in the possibilities of survival. Economic, political and cultural changes are usually sudden and extensive. This makes it extremely difficult to foresee the knowledge needed in the future. Actual needs can only be articulated in actual situ­ations. Nowadays, knowledge has become very fluid. Many new spheres of knowledge come into existence, a lot of once acquired knowledge becomes oboslete. To properly educate today means not to ennu­merate the bodies of knowledge one should pos­sess but to change the way of education and to introduce new basic methods for educations. A lot has been written by various specialists on new educational paradigms, new basic pattems have been found, according to which education would suit the present state of socio-economic relationships. Education offered in the time of industrial civilization does not meet the needs of the information society with its completely new relationships and processes. In the first place, new paradigms comprise non-formal education, privacy of education, invi­sible teacher and invisible (virtual learning, access to knowledge for everybody (knowledge and education are not owned any more and are not subject to political power, development of char­acter features as long-lasting results of education, permanent education or life-long education. Within the framework of these new relationships certain knowledge can be offered when and where it is needed. Institutions Jose their relevance and are supplemented by personal relations and net­works. There is another paradigm of great impor­tance, namely the globalization of education as opposed to

  17. Awareness and knowledge on modern biotechnology | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to a theory on decision making, people only form attitudes about technologies when they have acquired relevant information. The purpose of this paper is to study the awareness and knowledge level of the Malaysia public in the Klang Valley region and to compare their awareness and knowledge level across stakeholder ...

  18. Diagnosing constraints in knowledge of SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.P.; Keizer, J.A.; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) have problems with both formulating and acquiring new knowledge and skills. A method is proposed to identify the knowledge and skills an SME requires to exploit its market opportunities. The method provides a quick but effective strategic analysis to

  19. Informal Knowledge Institutions and Market Innovation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the influence of informal knowledge institutions on new market innovation in a developing economy. A framework is built in which small firms develop new market innovations through the utilization of knowledge acquired from informal (e.g. personal contact, network of friends, families etc.) institutions.

  20. How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…

  1. Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In October 2014, CMS began reducing Medicare payments for subsection (d) hospitals that rank in the worst performing quartile with respect to hospital-acquired...

  2. Acquiring New Competencies Through Continuing Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , specify core competencies to be acquired by all practicing librarians, that the Nigerian Library Association must take the issue of library continuing education seriously to enable librarians to retain their jobs and global job mobility and that ...

  3. Enhancing Medicares Hospital Acquired Conditions Policy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The current Medicare policy of non-payment to hospitals for Hospital Acquired Conditions (HAC) seeks to avoid payment for preventable complications identified within...

  4. Acquired pure red cell aplasia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata R Dafale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA is a rare occurrence in children.This is a case of an eight year old girl child who developed acquired PRCA secondary to long term intake of sodium Valproate. This case is reported to review the causes of PRCA in children and to reconsider the use of drugs of longer duration in children and adults.

  5. Detection and serotyping of pneumococci in community acquired pneumonia patients without culture using blood and urine samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elberse, Karin; van Mens, Suzan; Cremers, Amelieke J; Meijvis, Sabine C A; Vlaminckx, Bart; de Jonge, Marien I; Meis, Jacques F; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; van de Pol, Ingrid; Schouls, Leo M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients with antibiotics before laboratory-confirmed diagnosis leads to loss of knowledge on the causative bacterial pathogen. Therefore, an increasing number of pneumococcal infections is identified using non-culture based techniques.

  6. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    , assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words......: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, learning box....

  7. Method to acquire regions of fruit, branch and leaf from image of red apple in orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jidong; Xu, Liming

    2017-07-01

    This work proposed a method to acquire regions of fruit, branch and leaf from red apple image in orchard. To acquire fruit image, R-G image was extracted from the RGB image for corrosive working, hole filling, subregion removal, expansive working and opening operation in order. Finally, fruit image was acquired by threshold segmentation. To acquire leaf image, fruit image was subtracted from RGB image before extracting 2G-R-B image. Then, leaf image was acquired by subregion removal and threshold segmentation. To acquire branch image, dynamic threshold segmentation was conducted in the R-G image. Then, the segmented image was added to fruit image to acquire adding fruit image which was subtracted from RGB image with leaf image. Finally, branch image was acquired by opening operation, subregion removal and threshold segmentation after extracting the R-G image from the subtracting image. Compared with previous methods, more complete image of fruit, leaf and branch can be acquired from red apple image with this method.

  8. Knowledge brokering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish...... HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. Research limitations/implications – By not engaging...... in strong tie collaborations a knowledge brokering organization can reduce the risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. The risks and opportunities of knowledge spill-over furthermore rely on the nature of the technology involved and to what extent technological boundaries are crossed. Practical implications...

  9. Importance of Knowledge Management in Human Resource Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, Sanda

    2014-01-01

    Human resource management and knowledge management: • In human resource management - important to identify crucial knowledge base on which competitiveness of company depends → according this ensure appropriate development of human resources. • Era of so-called knowledge economy - only individual and organizational knowledge could give competitive advantage. • From operational perspective, knowledge management - systematic processes by which an organization identifies, creates, captures, acquires, shares and increase knowledge

  10. Conserving Local Knowledge in Traditional Healing through Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lah Salasiah Che

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Local knowledge (LK basically refers to the knowledge that people in a given community have developed over time, and continues to develop, through practices and based on experiences. Local beliefs pertaining to ilmu, a central concept in Malay culture that refers to knowledge, is essential among the traditional healers. The vast repository of knowledge and its relevance to locality and local situation makes the conservation of LK a necessity.However, due to the dominance of modern knowledge, diminished inter-generational knowledge transfer has led to LK being threatened with extinction. The fact that LK is practiced by only a few these days could be due to lack of knowledge transfer to the younger generations from the traditional healers who are knowledgeable in the communities. The common transfer mode of local knowledge, usually via words of mouth, may not be sustainable because the LK could vanish when knowledgeable elders die before it is transferred or during resettlements of individuals or communities. The need to conserve LK through knowledge transfer is also pertinent for the continued sustenance of their culture by recognizing, protecting and enforcing the rights of local communities to have continued access to biological resources as well as by protecting their LK, acquired over thousand of years of experimentation and experience, about the uses of these biological resources in traditional healing. Therefore, it is important to have a governance framework to effectively protect this LK of the local communities for the continued sustenance of their culture. This conceptual paper attempts to highlight the significance of conserving LK in traditional healing via effective knowledge transfer method, which should thereafter be translated into a working governance framework that protects the knowledge as well as the holders of such knowledge.

  11. Predictors of Successful Learning in Multilingual Older Adults Acquiring a Majority Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike K. Blumenfeld

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding language learning in later life can elucidate how linguistic experiences and age-specific cognitive skills can be leveraged for language acquisition, providing insight into how lifelong experiences configure our learning capacity. In this study, we examined to what extent acquisition and maintenance of a non-native language (English is scaffolded by cognitive skills and previous linguistic experiences in older adults; and to what extent these cognitive/linguistic factors predict older learners’ success in acquiring novel functional language. We recruited 53 participants who were native speakers of Mandarin, Spanish, Tagalog, and Somali, had continued to learn English as adults, and were currently exposed to majority-English contexts. To identify contributors to participants’ English skills, we administered a language history and self-reported proficiency interview, brief cognitive testing, and verbal fluency tasks in L1 and English. We found that digit span and orientation measures were cognitive predictors of English proficiency, while similarity of known languages to English, L1 skills, and English language exposure were linguistic predictors of English skills. To examine participants’ ability to maintain language knowledge and to learn new functional English, we also conducted a preliminary longitudinal service-based study in a subset of 19 participants using our Specific-Purpose English Communication System for Seniors (SPECSS curriculum. In this subset of SPECSS learners, we identified digit span and orientation, but not age, as cognitive predictors of short-term language maintenance. Further, better novel English learning as a result of our curriculum was observed in learners whose other known languages were less similar to English. Findings inform best practices in developing language curricula for older adults, and help generate new hypotheses on preparedness for language learning across the adult lifespan with a

  12. Cognition and Knowledge Sharing in Post-acquisition Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaura, Manya; Michailova, Snejina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of cognition on knowledge sharing between members of the acquiring and acquired organisations in the post-acquisition integration process. It specifically analyses differentiation between in-groups and out-groups, the perception...... of organisational identity and interaction among members of the acquired and acquiring organisations and how these three factors affect knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: The authors develop theoretical propositions and conduct an explorative pilot study on the basis of original interview data...... conducted with ten respondents in four Indian IT companies that have acquired firms abroad. Findings: The authors find evidence for supporting the negative effect of in- and out-groups differentiation and the positive effect of interpersonal interaction on knowledge sharing among employees of the acquired...

  13. Knowledge sharing in knowledge communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, B. van den; Elving, W.; Meeuwsen, J.M.; Dumoulin, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter of the book ‘Communities and Technologies’ (M. Huysman et al. (eds.), Kluwer 2003) the contribution of ICT to knowledge sharing in communities of practice is investigated. A theoretical model is built that identifies the possible influence of ICT on the extent to which knowledge is

  14. Knowledge Blogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able...... to change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically offer, give rise to a set of new implications as regards the mediation of expert knowledge to the target...

  15. Conventionalized knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis...... identified linguistic and social conventions for handing over clinical knowledge; in particular, differences were identified between non-interactional and interactional handovers. The interactional handovers were relatively more substantial but did also bring forth obvious signs of uncertainty regarding...... exact clinical situations. Handing over caused a silencing of the least powerful nurses' voices, generated uncertainty, and promoted knowledge about the patients' clinical situation that was not necessarily precise or up-to-date....

  16. Transfer of knowledge in international cooperation: the Farmanguinhos - SMM case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Samuel Araujo Gomes da; Duarte, Roberto Gonzalez; Castro, José Márcio de

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the influence of four mechanisms of knowledge transfer (training, technical visits, expatriation, and standard operating procedures) on the different dimensions (potential and realized) of absorptive capacity in international technical cooperation. We examine the case of implementation of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos. Data have been collected using semi-structured interviews (applied to 21 professionals of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos, Farmanguinhos, FIOCRUZ, and Itamaraty) and official documents. The data of the interviews have been submitted to content analysis, using the software NVivo. Training and technical visits directly influenced the acquisition and, partly, the assimilation of knowledge. Expatriation contributed with the transformation of this knowledge from the development and refinement of operational routines. Finally, the definition of standard operating procedures allowed the Mozambican technicians to be the actors of the transformation of the knowledge previously acquired and assimilated and, at the same time, it laid the foundations for a future exploration of the knowledge. Training and technical visits mainly influence the potential absorptive capacity, while expatriation and standard operating procedures most directly affect the realized absorptive capacity.

  17. Knowledge transfer objects and innovation performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadirad, Solmaz; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2016-01-01

    Local knowledge of globally distributed subsidiaries may be a valuable source of innovation for headquarters. However, acquiring local knowledge of subsidiaries and transforming it into innovation performance remains a challenge for many multinational companies. In this paper, based on analysis...... of eleven multinational companies present in Danish industry, we characterize different approaches to the use of knowledge transfer objects (static vs. dynamic), and discuss the respective effect on innovation performance. A conceptual framework is proposed to classify such different approaches on the basis...

  18. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...

  19. Placing knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.

    Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world......; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by this tension between universality and particularity in academic knowledge production, this paper presents...... preliminary findings from a project that study internationalisation of higher education as an agent in the interrelated processes of place-making and knowledge-making. The project is based on three case-studies. In this paper, focus is on PhD students’ change of research environment. This is used as a case...

  20. Knowledge Fascism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight......Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight...

  1. Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald Nielsen, Bo; Nicolajsen, Katrine

    For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model.......For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model....

  2. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  3. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  4. In vivo mechanisms of acquired thymic tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, W; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Sayegh, M H

    1997-01-01

    expansion of transferred CD4+ TCR transgenic cells in tolerant mice in vivo. There was an increase in clonotype-positive T cells in the thymus after immunization, confirming that activated T cells circulate through the thymus. Furthermore, thymectomy after intrathymic injection abrogates the effect...... of acquired thymic tolerance and restores antigen-dependent clonal expansion in vivo. We conclude that intrathymic injection of antigen induces Th1 cell unresponsiveness and prevents the peripheral expansion of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells in vivo. This is the first demonstration that in acquired thymic...

  5. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...

  6. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  7. Learning processes across knowledge domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    with the aim of creating a new combined practice. Design/methodology/approach - A case study was carried out as a "natural experiment" in an engineering consultancy, where emerging initiatives to integrate the newly acquired competencies into the existing practice were explored. A theoretical framework......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the problematics of learning across knowledge boundaries in organizational settings. The paper specifically explores learning processes that emerge, when a new knowledge domain is introduced into an existing organizational practice...

  8. 17 CFR 210.8-04 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Article 8 Financial Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-04 Financial statements of... financial statements of the business acquired or to be acquired and the smaller reporting company's most...) of this section and the pro forma financial information required by § 210.8-05, the determination of...

  9. Tacit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alexander Muir

    2017-04-01

    Information that is not made explicit is nonetheless embedded in most of our standard procedures. In its simplest form, embedded information may take the form of prior knowledge held by the researcher and presumed to be agreed to by consumers of the research product. More interesting are the settings in which the prior information is held unconsciously by both researcher and reader, or when the very form of an "effective procedure" incorporates its creator's (unspoken) understanding of a problem. While it may not be productive to exhaustively detail the embedded or tacit knowledge that manifests itself in creative scientific work, at least at the beginning, we may want to routinize methods for extracting and documenting the ways of thinking that make "experts" expert. We should not back away from both expecting and respecting the tacit knowledge the pervades our work and the work of others.

  10. Knowledge brokering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years a number of studies have explored different inter-organizational search strategies in relation to knowledge brokering and innovation performance. So far there has been very limited research that involves a crossing of both organizational and technological boundaries that also......-organizational search strategy that spans technological boundaries and involves the formation and search among weak ties. The findings show how knowledge brokering is influenced by the make-up of the technology involved, the technological distance between the two parties and why weak ties are less likely to collaborate...... on such an opportunity, than a strong tie would be. Furthermore, a number of organizational enablers for this open inter-organizational search and knowledge brokering strategy are identified. The main arguments point to the role of a general technological competence and the R&D department being the networking department....

  11. Nuclear Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanamitsu, K.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge is a strategic asset in every business. It should be actively managed by creating, acquiring, sharing, transferring and retaining among workers. Leaders and managers have to understand the significance of knowledge management (KM), recognise the risks of knowledge loss and gaps, and its impact on their working environment. Nuclear industry appears to be behind other industries in KM. This is firstly attributed to the nature of business which deals with sensitive data on nuclear materials and prioritises safety and security over information sharing. Second, it faces strong competition over the operational life-cycle, which discourages to exchange know-how and experiences. Third, nuclear industry is highly technology-oriented with homogeneous form, which misleads people to believe that KM has been already in place. Those factors could be barriers to establish nuclear KM culture on the basis of corporate core value and safety culture. Practical example of KM in business includes codification of particular skills into knowledge repository such as manual, handbook and database, and implicit knowledge transfer from experts to successors through apprenticeship and mentoring programmes. The examples suggest that KM applications closely link to information technology (IT) and human resource development (HRD) strategies, which results in effective integration of all available resources: people, process, and technology. Globalization and diversity is another dimension where KM can contribute to the solution. Global companies have to achieve a common goal beyond cultural, racial and gender differences. KM helps reduce the gaps, identify the core competence, and increase flexibility in workplace. Working women have been developing their professional career while adapting to situational changes in their lives. It might be easier for them to understand the importance of KM and develop KM practices in the organizations. KM will help nuclear industry to respond to the

  12. Moving beyond Physical Education Subject Knowledge to Develop Knowledgeable Teachers of the Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Susan

    2007-01-01

    All knowledge is socially constructed, including physical education teachers' knowledge of their subject. It is acquired from other people either formally and deliberately (e.g. by being taught) or informally and casually (e.g. by interacting with physical education teachers or playing in a sports team). The social aspects of learning appear to be…

  13. Practical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas....... Furthermore, and still with reference to truth, utility, and goodness, it is claimed that unification of skills and Bildung should include the ability to deal with complexity. A second-order complexity challenges the search for adequacy between; a) the complexity of knowledge-creation; and b) the complexity...

  14. Interviewing Children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Anne-Marie; Linden, Mark; Alderdice, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Research into the lives of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often neglects to incorporate children as participants, preferring to obtain the opinions of the adult carer (e.g. McKinlay et al., 2002). There has been a concerted attempt to move away from this position by those working in children's research with current etiquette…

  15. Acquired dysfibrinogenemia secondary to multiple myeloma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotlín, R.; Sobotková, A.; Riedel, Tomáš; Salaj, P.; Suttnar, J.; Reicheltová, Z.; Májek, P.; Khaznadar, T.; Dyr, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 2 (2008), s. 75-81 ISSN 0001-5792 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : acquired dysfibrinogenemia * amorphous clot * fibrinogen Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.191, year: 2008

  16. Neutrophil Segmentation Index Anomaly in Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neutrophil lobe count was conducted on the blood films of 262 patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Virus (AIDS) and 204 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antibody-negative apparently healthy controls. The count for each group was evaluated for neutrophil segmentation index by standard method.

  17. Beliefs and perceptions about Acquired Immunodeficieny Syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This should include town cry, health talk at their worship centres and local gatherings. The electronic and print media are not the best based on their peculiarities. Keywords: Beliefs; Perceptions; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 40-48 ...

  18. How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauginie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

  19. Some Characteristics of Patients with Community Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a dearth of studies relating the information from the history of patients with community-acquired pneumonia to the mortality of the disease. The relationship between age, sex, occupation, marital status, smoking history, alcohol use, concomitant COPD / bronchial asthma, source of referral and the mortality of patients ...

  20. Radiological pulmonary manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, Edson; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Ossa, Alfonso Jaramillo

    1999-01-01

    In this article are reviewed the principal radiologic manifestations of inflammatory and tumoral diseases the compromise the lungs of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In the group of inflammatory diseases the radiologic aspects of pneumocystosis, cytomegalovirus disease, cryptococcosis, tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonias are emphasized. In the neoplasic diseases' group the aspects of lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma are specially presented. (author)

  1. Immunomodulation in community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelts, H.H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with considerable morbidity and mortality, despite effective antibiotic treatment. In this thesis, we showed that the major causative microorganisms in CAP trigger distinct inflammatory response profiles in the host. While an inflammatory

  2. The use of social media by adults with acquired conditions who use AAC: current gaps and considerations in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Helen L

    2017-03-01

    The global growth and development of social media has had a positive impact on many individuals who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), who use it to communicate and connect with others. Research evidence into the use of social media by adults with acquired conditions who use AAC is limited. These individuals are a heterogeneous population, who can present with a range of linguistic, cognitive and physical needs, some of which progress rapidly, making accessing social media a challenge. These issues warrant research focusing on developing interventions to support the use of social media and the impact of these interventions. For individuals with acquired conditions who have previously used social media and for those who are new to the experience, social media can offer a vital connection to friends, family and health professionals. This paper examines current gaps in knowledge in this area in the field of AAC and proposes potential methodologies for future research. These include combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies (e.g., analysis of online interactions and observational data) that would be useful tools for data collection in an under-researched field.

  3. Permanencia del conocimiento adquirido en los dos primeros años de la Licenciatura de Médico Cirujano.: ¿Persiste al evaluarlo en el cuarto año? Retention of knowledge acquired in the first two years of Medical School.: Does it persist when tested it in the fourth year students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eugenia Ponce de León-Castañeda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los alumnos generalmente profundizan en el conocimiento de acuerdo al tipo de preguntas con que son evaluados: si evalúan memoria se favorece un aprendizaje mecánico y repetitivo que permanece poco tiempo en la memoria; si son de comprensión o aplicación favorecerán aprendizajes significativos. Materiales y métodos. Estudio analítico, observacional transversal. Por jueces se seleccionaron preguntas obtenidas de exámenes de anatomía, psicología, fisiología y cirugía de los tres niveles de conocimiento. El mismo examen se aplicó al azar a 13 grupos de segundo año y a 13 grupos de cuarto. La calificación y el análisis se realizaron de manera electrónica. Se aplicó la U de Mann-Whitney para identificar diferencias y percentiles con rango intercuartílico para la dispersión. Resultados. Se contestaron 310 exámenes de segundo año y 247 de cuarto. La fiabilidad del examen fue de 0,9009 y 0,9102, respectivamente. Se identificaron diferencias significativas (p = 0,000 en el examen global y en las respuestas de cirugía y psicología, considerando aciertos y nivel de conocimiento (memoria y comprensión. No se encontraron diferencias en anatomía (p = 0,527 y fisiología (p = 0,203. La mediana de aciertos fue de 39 y 43, respectivamente. La dispersión de reactivos en el análisis global y por asignatura mantuvo un rango intercuartílico de 3-4. Conclusiones. Al ser evaluado, el alumno con conocimientos memorísticos pierde interés al no encontrar la aplicación y la integración del conocimiento básicos en la clínica.Introduction. Students generally go deep into the knowledge according to the type of questions they are evaluated with, if they only will support mechanical and repetitive learning that remains just a short time in the memory, if they understand and apply their learning then these supports significant learning. Materials and methods. Analytical observational study by the method of judges there were

  4. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2016-07-26

    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a

  5. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    cited in the review may have important clinical applications, because they outline the range of problems and possible solutions in the performance of the HTx in recipients previously operated on open heart. This knowledge can facilitate the decision making process with regard to the opportunities and risks of the implementation of HTx. Given the uniqueness of each of the recipient and the donor, it is required to make a personalized approach to the question of the possible risks and to the preventive measures to reduce those risks in any given clinical situation. 

  6. Oxidative metabolism of neutrophils in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demidchik Lyudmila Andreevna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, available views show our limited knowledge of the peculiarities of the functional status of neutrophils and their metabolism in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. The studying of changes of metabolic status of neutrophils can broaden our views about pneumonia pathogenesis and define datum points of therapeutic effect.

  7. Opportunity structures for adult educators to acquire (pedagogical) qualifications in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    of adult educators. In spite of a range of opportunities to acquire basic and specialized pedagogical qualifications in teaching adults, the depth of qualified knowledge and skills provided vary substantially. The author's main argument is that it is thus not yet possible to speak of tailored-made pathways...

  8. Effective return-to-work interventions after acquired brain injury: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker-Cools, Birgit H. P. M.; Daams, Joost G.; Wind, Haije; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2016-01-01

    To gather knowledge about effective return-to-work (RTW) interventions for patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). A database search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library using keywords and Medical Subject Headings. Studies were included if they met inclusion

  9. Acquired incisor malocclusion in an adult rabbit buck. A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A diagnosis of acquired incisor malocclusion was made based on the history, physical examination of the rabbit and postmortem examination of the skull. To the best of our knowledge, this appears to be the first reported case of this condition in Nigeria. It is suggested that the condition may be more common among rabbits ...

  10. Shunt malfunction causing acute neurological deterioration in 2 patients with previously asymptomatic Chiari malformation Type I. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Robert; Kalhorn, Stephen; Pacione, Donato; Weiner, Howard; Wisoff, Jeffrey; Harter, David

    2009-08-01

    Patients with symptomatic Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) typically exhibit a chronic, slowly progressive disease course with evolution of symptoms. However, some authors have reported acute neurological deterioration in the setting of CM-I and acquired Chiari malformations. Although brainstem dysfunction has been documented in patients with CM-II and hydrocephalus or shunt malfunction, to the authors' knowledge only 1 report describing ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt malfunction causing neurological deterioration in a patient with CM-I exists. The authors report on their experience with the treatment of previously asymptomatic CM-I in 2 children who experienced quite different manifestations of acute neurological deterioration secondary to VP shunt malfunction. Presumably, VP shunt malfunction created a positive rostral pressure gradient across a stenotic foramen magnum, resulting in tetraparesis from foramen magnum syndrome in 1 patient and acute ataxia and cranial nerve deficits from syringobulbia in the other. Although urgent shunt revisions yielded partial recovery of neurological function in both patients, marked improvement occurred only after posterior fossa decompression.

  11. [Brain injury knowledge in family members of neurosurgical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Main, Blanca; Castaño-León, Ana M; Munarriz, Pablo M; Gómez, Pedro A; Rios-Lago, Marcos; Lagares, Alfonso

    Several studies have shown misconceptions about brain injury in different populations. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and perceptions about brain injury of family members of neurosurgical patients in our hospital. The participants (n=81) were relatives of patients admitted to the neurosurgery department between February and August 2016. They voluntarily completed a 19-item true-false format survey about brain injury based on a translation of other questionnaires used in previous studies from other countries (USA, Canada, UK, Ireland and New Zealand). Also, some sociodemographic data were collected (age, sex, education level and the patient's pathology). Data analysis was developed through graphical modelling with a regularisation parameter plotted on a network representing the association of the items of the questionnaire from the response pattern of participants. Data analysis showed two conceptual areas with a high rate of wrong answers: behaviour and management of patients, and expectations about acquired brain injury recovery. The results obtained in this study would enable us to objectify misconceptions about acquired brain injury in patients' relatives attended in the neurosurgery department. This lack of knowledge could be a great obstacle in patients' recovery process. Therefore, we suggest placing the emphasis on the provision of information on brain injury to patients' families, especially with regard to its symptoms and course of development. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Health expert's tacit knowledge acquisition and representation using specialised healthcare scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Y N; Abidi, S S

    2000-01-01

    The abundance and transient nature to healthcare knowledge has rendered it difficult to acquire with traditional knowledge acquisition methods. In this paper, we propose a Knowledge Management approach, through the use of scenarios, as a mean to acquire and represent tacit healthcare knowledge. This proposition is based on the premise that tacit knowledge is best manifested in atypical situations. We also provide an overview of the representational scheme and novel acquisition mechanism of scenarios.

  13. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...

  14. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...... referred to as ‘silent knowledge’....

  15. Connecting Knowledge for Text Construction through the Use of Graphic Organizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Camila Reyes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed how basic level students comprehend short descriptive texts and rewrite their texts through the use of graphic organizers (GOs. The research was built upon the qualitative research paradigm with the inclusion of descriptive and introspective approaches.The study was carried out at a prestigious private school in Bogotá, Colombia, with basic English level II sixth graders. Data was gathered through focus groups, GOs, and students’ documents. The results of the study demonstrated that students made connections with previous knowledge acquired at school as part of the curriculum or at home as part of their daily experiences. Participants organized the information in principal and supporting ideas in order to comprehend and rewrite their texts. According to the results, the study found that learners have previous ideas or knowledge that let them complement, organize, or re-direct a given topic.

  16. Models, methods and software for distributed knowledge acquisition for the automated construction of integrated expert systems knowledge bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejneko, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Based on an analysis of existing models, methods and means of acquiring knowledge, a base method of automated knowledge acquisition has been chosen. On the base of this method, a new approach to integrate information acquired from knowledge sources of different typologies has been proposed, and the concept of a distributed knowledge acquisition with the aim of computerized formation of the most complete and consistent models of problem areas has been introduced. An original algorithm for distributed knowledge acquisition from databases, based on the construction of binary decision trees has been developed [ru

  17. Evaluation, Use, and Refinement of Knowledge Representations through Acquisition Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Generative approaches to language have long recognized the natural link between theories of knowledge representation and theories of knowledge acquisition. The basic idea is that the knowledge representations provided by Universal Grammar enable children to acquire language as reliably as they do because these representations highlight the…

  18. Applying the knowledge creation model to the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    acquired mainly through the socialising and externalising skills and experiences of employees for the benefit of ... shared among employees who might be interested in increasing their knowledge and learning new skills. ... reduces the entropy of total knowledge by structuring and integrating new created knowledge into the.

  19. Research and application of knowledge resources network for product innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Li, Wen-qiang; Li, Yan; Na, Hui-zhen; Shi, Qian

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users' enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method.

  20. Research and Application of Knowledge Resources Network for Product Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users’ enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method.

  1. Knowledge as an Asset and Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2014-01-01

    The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.

  2. Sanctioning Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brentjes, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss stories about rulers and princes of three dynasties - Abbasid, Norman and Timurid – and their narrative representation as prime knowers of the mathematical sciences, geography and history. I argue that they constitute one set of positive forms of sanctioning or contesting knowledge in those societies by prescribing hierarchies of knowledge forms and hierarchies of people and institutions that decide about the veracity of knowledge. I suggest that these stories share their origin and meaning in an environment of legitimizing propaganda for the various rulers and princes. I also claim that the value and position of scientific knowledge in these stories differ, starting from what apparently were personal interests of a ruler and leading to its integration into what was considered necessary for the education of a prince and the cultured behaviour of a ruler. Hence, these stories about knowledge and rulers present images of knowledge that delineate the status of scholars in those three societies and thus define possibilities and set boundaries for learning and practicing scholarly fields.En este artículo se estudian historias sobre gobernantes y príncipes de tres dinastías - ‛abbāsí, normanda y timurí – y su representación narrativa como conocedores de las ciencias matemáticas, la geografía y la historia. Se argumenta que constituyen un conjunto de formas positivas de aprobar o impugnar el conocimiento en esas sociedades, prescribiendo jerarquías de formas de conocimiento y jerarquías de gentes e instituciones que deciden acerca de la veracidad del conocimiento. Se sugiere que esas historias comparten su origen y significado en un contexto de propaganda legitimadora para varios gobernantes y príncipes. También se afirma que el valor y la posición del conocimiento científico en esas historias difieren, empezando por lo que en apariencia eran los intereses personales de un gobernante hasta su integraci

  3. Mechanisms of polymyxin resistance: acquired and intrinsic resistance in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Olumuyiwa Olaitan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polymyxins are polycationic antimicrobial peptides that are currently the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative bacterial infections. The reintroduction of polymyxins for antimicrobial therapy has been followed by an increase in reports of resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. Some bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, develop resistance to polymyxins in a process referred to as acquired resistance, whereas other bacteria, such as Proteus spp., Serratia spp. and Burkholderia spp., are naturally resistant to these drugs. Reports of polymyxin resistance in clinical isolates have recently increased, including acquired and intrinsically resistant pathogens. This increase is considered a serious issue, prompting concern due to the low number of currently available effective antibiotics. This review summarizes current knowledge concerning the different strategies bacteria employ to resist the activities of polymyxins.Gram-negative bacteria employ several strategies to protect themselves from polymyxin antibiotics (polymyxin B and colistin, including a variety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS modifications, such as modifications of lipid A with phosphoethanolamine and 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, in addition to the use of efflux pumps, the formation of capsules and overexpression of the outer membrane protein OprH, which are all effectively regulated at the molecular level. The increased understanding of these mechanisms is extremely vital and timely to facilitate studies of antimicrobial peptides and find new potential drugs targeting clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria.

  4. Cancer resistance as an acquired and inheritable trait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Janne; Hau, Jann; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To induce cancer resistance in wild-type mice and detect if the resistance could be inherited to the progeny of the induced resistant mice. Furthermore to investigate the spectrum and immunology of this inherited cancer resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resistance to with live S180 cancer c...... of the resistance is unknown but may involve epigenetic mechanisms. Other examples of inheritability of acquired phenotypic changes exist but, to our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of acquired, inherited cancer resistance.......AIM: To induce cancer resistance in wild-type mice and detect if the resistance could be inherited to the progeny of the induced resistant mice. Furthermore to investigate the spectrum and immunology of this inherited cancer resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resistance to with live S180 cancer...... cells in BALB/c mice was induced by immunization with inactivated S180 cancer cells. The immunization was performed by either frozen/thawed or irradiated cancer cells or cell-free ascitic fluid (CFAF). RESULTS: In all instances the induced resistance was demonstrated to be inheritable. The phenotype...

  5. Is it Difficult to Acquire Subjacency and the ECP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-yin Doris Chen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine English- and Japanese-speaking adult learners’ acquisition of Subjacency and the Empty Category Principle (ECP (Chomsky 1981, 1986 in Chinese. The participants were forty intermediate foreign students of the Mandarin Training Center of Nation Taiwan Normal University: half were native English speakers and half Japanese. In addition, there were twenty native controls. Two tasks (i.e., a preference task and an ordering task were designed on the basis of the following properties concerning Subjacency and the ECP: wh-island constraints, complex NP constraints, sentential subject constraints, that-trace effects and subject/object asymmetries, and superiority L2 learners carried their L1 knowledge to acquire Subjacency and the ECP, suggesting the L1 influence is not significant. Furthermore, it was found that the Japanese speakers did not perform significantly better than the English speakers. This shows that Universal Grammar is still available, since our participants have reset their L1 parameters to proper L2 values. In addition, among these features our participants did less well on non-superiority, and the native controls rejected island violations more strongly than either group of L2 participants. Finally, Subjacency and the ECP were found equally easy for our participants to acquire.

  6. Acquired brain injury: combining social psychological and neuropsychological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R Stephen; Fortune, Donal G; Gallagher, Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical paper reviews an emerging literature which attempts to bring together an important area of social psychology and neuropsychology. The paper presents a rationale for the integration of the social identity and clinical neuropsychological approaches in the study of acquired brain injury (ABI). The paper begins by reviewing the social and neuropsychological perspectives of ABI. Subsequently, theoretical and empirical studies that demonstrate the social influences on neuropsychology and the inherently social nature of mind are considered. Neuropsychological understandings of social identities and their potential relationships to the variability in ABIs are also discussed. The values of these understandings to ABI rehabilitation are then examined. The paper concludes by suggesting an agenda for future research that integrates the social identity and neuropsychological paradigms so that psychology might grow in its store of applicable knowledge to enhance support and rehabilitation for those with ABI.

  7. Transfer of Juggling Skills Acquired in a Virtual Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Alex Patrick; Kragegaard, Christian Skriver; Kjæhr, Emil Bering

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether motoric skills acquired within a virtual training environment can be successfully transferred to the real world by comparing a virtual environment with a traditional learning environment. Specifically, a system for learning juggling with virtual balls was designed...... with a focus on approximating natural interaction. We propose a method of evaluating the acquisition and transfer of motoric skills through a virtual environment, which is compared to a traditional learning environment. Each environment was evaluated using various criteria ranging from improvement in skills...... to observations of performance. The findings suggest that a transfer of motoric skills and knowledge takes place for users of the virtual system with only little difference between the environments. They also suggest that a virtual environment can create a less frustrating learning experience....

  8. The 'patient journey' of adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, V K C; Stephens, D

    2012-05-01

    A previous study examined the 'patient journey' of adults with gradual-onset acquired hearing impairment. This study examined the same for adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment, and assessed differences. Data were collected from 16 audiologists, using the Ida Institute template, and from four adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment, through semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and presented using a process mapping model. A patient journey template for sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment was developed based on the professionals' and patients' perspectives. The main difference between these two groups' perspectives was seen in the self-evaluation phase: some stages within this phase were recognised by the patients but not by the professionals. The main difference between the current and the previous study was the absence of a pre-awareness phase in the journey described by patients with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment, compared with that described by patients with gradual-onset acquired hearing impairment. Patient journey templates could be useful counselling tools for ear and hearing healthcare specialists. However, such templates should be used only as a baseline; it is important to take a detailed case history to understand each patient's unique experience, including the psychosocial impact of hearing impairment.

  9. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  10. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  11. Acquired preferences for piquant foods by chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, P; Kennel, K

    1983-06-01

    Humans frequently develop likings for innately unpalatable substances, while this occurs very rarely in non-humans. In this study, we establish a preference for crackers seasoned with chili pepper in two domesticated chimpanzees. Chimps were offered a series of increasingly piquant crackers by their caretaker, and gradually came to prefer these crackers to unseasoned crackers. The preferences were stable over months, and generalized to a different piquant cracker. Available evidence suggests that these are acquired likes rather than preferences maintained because of positive consequences that follow ingestion. We note that all existing instances of acquired likings for innately aversive foods in animals (including some informal results from dogs presented in this paper) involve animals with a close personal relationship with humans, suggesting an important role for social-affective factors in the reversal of innate aversions.

  12. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  13. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo, E-mail: andreafariasm@gmail.com [Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira de Pernambuco (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-15

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  14. Postpartum Acquired Hemophilia. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Cabezas Poblet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Periparturient hemorrhages are the leading cause of extremely serious maternal morbidity and maternal death in Cuba and the world. Acquired Hemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder characterized by the presence of antibodies against circulating factor VIII (FVIII. We present the case of a 36 years old pregnant woman with term pregnancy and vaginal delivery that suffers from hemorrhagic manifestations in the immediate postpartum secondary to raffia hematoma, requiring blood transfusion. Then she presents a bruise in the right upper limb secondary to stroke that requires surgical repair. The postpartum torpid evolution characterized by sustained bleeding raffia and the surgically treated arm, makes us suspect of the presence of a blood disorder. We observed a decrease in the FVIII factor, which involves the diagnosis of acquired hemophilia and requires treatment with recombinant VIIa factor (FVIIar concentrate and cyclophosphamide. Posterior evolution was favorable. The patient was discharged without sequelae.

  15. Phylogenetically Acquired Representations and Evolutionary Algorithms.

    OpenAIRE

    Wozniak , Adrianna

    2006-01-01

    First, we explain why Genetic Algorithms (GAs), inspired by the Modern Synthesis, do not accurately model biological evolution, being rather an artificial version of artificial, rather than natural selection. Being focused on optimisation, we propose two improvements of GAs, with the aim to successfully generate adapted, desired behaviour. The first one concerns phylogenetic grounding of meaning, a way to avoid the Symbol Grounding Problem. We give a definition of Phylogenetically Acquired Re...

  16. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Brian L.; Rice, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options. PMID:23076243

  17. Acquired flat foot deformity: postoperative imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmick, Simon; Chhabra, Avneesh; Grujic, Leslie; Linklater, James M

    2012-07-01

    Flat foot (pes planus) is a progressive and disabling pathology that is treated initially with conservative measures and often followed by a variety of surgeries. This article briefly reviews the pathology in acquired flat foot deformity, the classification of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, discusses surgical techniques for the management of adult flat foot deformity, and reviews potential complications and their relevant imaging appearances. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Knowledge Discovery in Data in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelka J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making processes, including the ones related to ill-structured problems, are of considerable significance in the area of construction projects. Computer-aided inference under such conditions requires the employment of specific methods and tools (non-algorithmic ones, the best recognized and successfully used in practice represented by expert systems. The knowledge indispensable for such systems to perform inference is most frequently acquired directly from experts (through a dialogue: a domain expert - a knowledge engineer and from various source documents. Little is known, however, about the possibility of automating knowledge acquisition in this area and as a result, in practice it is scarcely ever used. It has to be noted that in numerous areas of management more and more attention is paid to the issue of acquiring knowledge from available data. What is known and successfully employed in the practice of aiding the decision-making is the different methods and tools. The paper attempts to select methods for knowledge discovery in data and presents possible ways of representing the acquired knowledge as well as sample tools (including programming ones, allowing for the use of this knowledge in the area under consideration.

  19. Overcoming Knowledge Gaps in Postmerger Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alaranta, Maria Eliisa; Martela, Eero

    2012-01-01

    best facilitate overcoming the gaps in experiential knowledge in these dynamic hybrid organizational situations. We study a case of integration of software-maintenance processes after a megamerger. In the first phase of the integration, the company combined best features of existing knowledge systems......Over 50% of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) fail, mainly because of integration problems. In such integrations, much of the experiential (learning-by-doing) knowledge critical for running the business becomes redundant or is lost. However, we know virtually nothing about what type of mechanisms...... of change, integrating information systems, leadership, joint collaboration, acquiring knowledge externally, and relocating personnel....

  20. Orchidopexy in late childhood often associated with previously normal testicular position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Evelyn; Zijp, Gerda; Froeling, Frank; de Wilde, Jeroen; van der Voort, Laszla; Hack, Wilfried

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine retrospectively, the prevalence of acquired undescended testis (UDT) in boys who underwent late orchidopexies, that is, performed after the age of 2 years. We included all patients who were 2 years or older when they underwent orchidopexy (ORP) for UDT at the Juliana Children's Hospital during 1996 to 2009. Previous testis position from birth until the date of ORP was obtained from youth health care records. We identified 660 boys who underwent ORP after the age of 2 years for undescended testis. For 421 of these 660 boys, the previous testicular position could be retrieved from the health records. In 143 of these 421 boys (34%), the operated testis had never been scrotal (congenital UDT), whereas in the other 278 boys (66%), a previous scrotal position had been documented twice or more (acquired UDT). Our results show that two-thirds of the boys that underwent ORP after the age of 2 had previously normal descended testes. This finding may offer an additional explanation for the discrepancy between the incidence of congenital UDT and the high rate of ORP in mid and late childhood. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Prognostic value of severity indicators of nursing-home-acquired pneumonia versus community-acquired pneumonia in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugajin M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motoi Ugajin, Kenichi Yamaki, Natsuko Hirasawa, Takanori Kobayashi, Takeo Yagi Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ichinomiya-Nishi Hospital, Ichinomiya City, Japan Background: The credibility of prognostic indicators in nursing-home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP is not clear. We previously reported a simple prognostic indicator in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP: blood urea nitrogen to serum albumin (B/A ratio. This retrospective study investigated the prognostic value of severity indicators in NHAP versus CAP in elderly patients. Methods: Patients aged ≥65 years and hospitalized because of NHAP or CAP within the previous 3 years were enrolled. Demographics, coexisting illnesses, laboratory and microbiological findings, and severity scores (confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age ≥65 [CURB-65] scale; age, dehydration, respiratory failure, orientation disturbance, and pressure [A-DROP] scale; and pneumonia severity index [PSI] were retrieved from medical records. The primary outcome was mortality within 28 days of admission. Results: In total, 138 NHAP and 307 CAP patients were enrolled. Mortality was higher in NHAP (18.1% than in CAP (4.6% (P<0.001. Patients with NHAP were older and had lower functional status and a higher rate of do-not-resuscitate orders, heart failure, and cerebrovascular diseases. The NHAP patients more frequently had typical bacterial pathogens. Using the receiver-operating characteristics curve for predicting mortality, the area under the curve in NHAP was 0.70 for the A-DROP scale, 0.69 for the CURB-65 scale, 0.67 for the PSI class, and 0.65 for the B/A ratio. The area under the curve in CAP was 0.73 for the A-DROP scale, 0.76 for the CURB-65 scale, 0.81 for the PSI class, and 0.83 for the B/A ratio. Conclusion: Patient mortality was greater in NHAP than in CAP. Patient characteristics, coexisting illnesses, and detected pathogens differed greatly between NHAP and CAP. The existing severity indicators

  2. Children Develop Initial Orthographic Knowledge during Storybook Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Brimo, Danielle; Wilson-Fowler, Elizabeth B.; Vorstius, Christian; Radach, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether young children acquire orthographic knowledge during structured adult-led storybook reading even though minimal viewing time is devoted to print. Sixty-two kindergarten children were read 12 storybook "chapters" while their eye movements were tracked. Results indicated that the children quickly acquired initial mental…

  3. Distribution of Peripheral PrPSc in Sheep with Naturally Acquired Scrapie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, María Carmen; Monzón, Marta; Marín, Belén; Badiola, Juan José; Monleón, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of prion protein (PrPSc) in the central nervous system is the hallmark of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, in some of these diseases such as scrapie or chronic wasting disease, the PrPSc can also accumulate in other tissues, particularly in the lymphoreticular system. In recent years, PrPSc in organs other than nervous and lymphoid have been described, suggesting that distribution of this protein in affected individuals may be much larger than previously thought. In the present study, 11 non-nervous/non-lymphoid organs from 16 naturally scrapie infected sheep in advanced stages of the disease were examined for the presence of PrPSc. Fourteen infected sheep were of the ARQ/ARQ PRNP genotype and 2 of the VRQ/VRQ, where the letters A, R, Q, and V represent the codes for amino-acids alanine, arginine, glutamine and valine, respectively. Adrenal gland, pancreas, heart, skin, urinary bladder and mammary gland were positive for PrPSc by immunohistochemistry and IDEXX HerdChek scrapie/BSE Antigen EIA Test in at least one animal. Lung, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle exhibited PrPSc deposits by immunohistochemistry only. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the presence of PrPSc in the heart, pancreas and urinary bladder in naturally acquired scrapie infections. In some other organs examined, in which PrPSc had been previously detected, PrPSc immunolabeling was observed to be associated with new structures within those organs. The results of the present study illustrate a wide dissemination of PrPSc in both ARQ/ARQ and VRQ/VRQ infected sheep, even when the involvement of the lymphoreticular system is scarce or absent, thus highlighting the role of the peripheral nervous system in the spread of PrPSc. PMID:24828439

  4. A critical narrative review of transfer of basic science knowledge in health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jean-Marie; Park, Yoon Soo; Harris, Ilene; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Sood, Lonika; Clark, Maureen D; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Brydges, Ryan; Norman, Geoffrey; Woods, Nicole

    2018-02-08

    'Transfer' is the application of a previously learned concept to solve a new problem in another context. Transfer is essential for basic science education because, to be valuable, basic science knowledge must be transferred to clinical problem solving. Therefore, better understanding of interventions that enhance the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning is essential. This review systematically identifies interventions described in the health professions education (HPE) literature that document the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning, and considers teaching and assessment strategies. A systematic search of the literature was conducted. Articles related to basic science teaching at the undergraduate level in HPE were analysed using a 'transfer out'/'transfer in' conceptual framework. 'Transfer out' refers to the application of knowledge developed in one learning situation to the solving of a new problem. 'Transfer in' refers to the use of previously acquired knowledge to learn from new problems or learning situations. Of 9803 articles initially identified, 627 studies were retrieved for full text evaluation; 15 were included in the literature review. A total of 93% explored 'transfer out' to clinical reasoning and 7% (one article) explored 'transfer in'. Measures of 'transfer out' fostered by basic science knowledge included diagnostic accuracy over time and in new clinical cases. Basic science knowledge supported learning - 'transfer in' - of new related content and ultimately the 'transfer out' to diagnostic reasoning. Successful teaching strategies included the making of connections between basic and clinical sciences, the use of commonsense analogies, and the study of multiple clinical problems in multiple contexts. Performance on recall tests did not reflect the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning. Transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning is an essential component of HPE that

  5. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  6. Object Knowledge Modulates Colour Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Witzel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis.

  7. Use of CD25 as an immunohistochemical marker for acquired ocular toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Miyamoto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior infectious uveitis worldwide. It is often impossible to determine its congenital or acquired nature. Interleukin-2 (IL-2 in peripheral blood has been described as a possible marker for acquired toxoplasmosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the histopathological characteristics of ocular toxoplasmosis cases using CD25 as a marker for the expression of interleukin-2. METHODS: Ten formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded enucleated globes from ten immunocompetent patients with clinical diagnosis of toxoplasmosis were evaluated. Four patients had the acquired form of ocular toxoplasmosis (positive IgM while six were IgM negative and IgG positive for toxoplasmosis. Histopathological slides were reviewed for the extension of the retinal necrosis, number of toxo cysts, the granulomatous inflammatory reaction, the presence of T and B cells within the choroid and the IL-2 expression. Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies was performed to observe the expression of CD4, CD8, CD20, CD25, and CD68. RESULTS: The histopathological evaluation disclosed no differences between acquired and the other ocular toxoplasmosis cases regarding the characteristics studied. However, CD25 showed a higher expression of IL-2 on the 4 acquired cases of ocular toxoplasmosis compared to the remainders. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the use of CD25 as a marker for interleukin-2 could differentiate acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.

  8. Transferring learned control-knowledge between planners

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Susana; Aler Mur, Ricardo; Borrajo Millán, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    As any other problem solving task that employs search, AI Planning needs heuristics to efficiently guide the problem-space exploration. Machine learning (ML) provides several techniques for automatically acquiring those heuristics. Usually, a planner solves a problem, and a ML technique generates knowledge from the search episode in terms of complete plans (macro-operators or cases), or heuristics (also named control knowledge in planning). In this paper, we present a novel way of generating ...

  9. Adolescents' knowledge of medical terminology and family health history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, J L; Phillips, S M; Vullo, K; Kang, G; Slomka, L

    1992-01-01

    Compared 309 youths ages 11 to 15 years and their parents with respect to their comprehension of terms for seven common medical disorders: heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis, ulcer, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. For two thirds of the adolescent sample, accuracy of reporting of these disorders among the parents and grandparents was assessed. Results indicated considerable variation among disorders with respect to both comprehension of terms and accuracy of family health history. Adolescents' age was a major predictor of knowledge of medical terms (r = .41). Age was not related to accuracy of family health information. Consonant with this finding, adolescents' level of accuracy regarding family health history was generally similar to that of previous adult samples, suggesting that family health information is acquired and retained at an early age. Adolescents were more accurate concerning parents' compared with grandparents' history of hypertension.

  10. Improving drivers' knowledge of road rules using digital games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Tay, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Although a proficient knowledge of the road rules is important to safe driving, many drivers do not retain the knowledge acquired after they have obtained their licenses. Hence, more innovative and appealing methods are needed to improve drivers' knowledge of the road rules. This study examines the effect of game based learning on drivers' knowledge acquisition and retention. We find that playing an entertaining game that is designed to impart knowledge of the road rules not only improves players' knowledge but also helps them retain such knowledge. Hence, learning by gaming appears to be a promising learning approach for driver education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Knowledge acquisition for nuclear power plant unit diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaodong; Xi Shuren

    2003-01-01

    The process of acquiring knowledge and building a knowledge base is critical to realize fault diagnostic system at unit level in a nuclear power plant. It directly determines whether the diagnostic system can be applied eventually in a commercial plant. A means to acquire knowledge and its procedures was presented in this paper for fault diagnostic system in a nuclear power plant. The work can be carried out step by step and it is feasible in a commercial nuclear power plant. The knowledge base of the fault diagnostic system for a nuclear power plant can be built after the staff finish the tasks according to the framework presented in this paper

  12. [Acquired ichthyosis and haematological malignancies: five cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrady, R; Baybay, H; Khammar, Z; Lahlou, M; Lamchachti, L; Gallouj, S; El Hatimi, A; Mernissi, F-Z; Bono, W

    2012-01-01

    Acquired ichthyosis is a rare condition that can reveal an unsuspected haematological malignancy, thus allowing early diagnosis and management. If ichthyosis regresses under treatment for the haematological disorder, its recurrence reflects a turning point in the course of the disease and implies worsening of the prognosis. The patients were examined at a joint dermatology/haematology consultation. The diagnosis of ichthyosis was based on clinical examination alone with no patients undergoing skin biopsy. Our series included three men and two women aged 38 to 65 years consulting for a variety of reasons including asthenia, anaemia and adenopathy. Ichthyosis occurred 2 to 9 months after the initial symptoms of the blood disease. Lesions consisted of diffuse brown scales. The disease was associated with lymphadenopathy and biological inflammatory syndrome. Two patients were presenting non-Hodgkin lymphoma, one had Hodgkin's disease, one had chronic myeloid leukaemia in progression and one had an undifferentiated lymphomatous process. Treatment was based on chemotherapy and emollients. The ichthyosis progressed in step with the underlying malignancy in all cases, with regression being complete in three cases, partial in one case and absent in one case. In rare cases, acquired ichthyosis reveals systemic disease, and may be of infectious, endocrine or drug origin; it may also be idiopathic. However, it is most often a paraneoplastic syndrome with cutaneous expression encountered during haematological malignancies. Because of the variety of causative blood dyscrasias, ichthyosis cannot be used to guide their diagnosis, although it remains a reliable monitoring tool. Acquired ichthyosis should prompt the clinician to search for a neoplastic condition, primarily a haematological disorder, guided by other associated signs, given that in our study, skin lesions generally appear to precede signs of the blood disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  14. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Jing; Zhao, Pengfei; Lv, Han; Dong, Cheng; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Zhenchang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition

  15. Functionality predictors in acquired brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Hoyas, E; Pedrero Pérez, E J; Águila Maturana, A M; García López-Alberca, S; González Alted, C

    2015-01-01

    Most individuals who have survived an acquired brain injury present consequences affecting the sensorimotor, cognitive, affective or behavioural components. These deficits affect the proper performance of daily living activities. The aim of this study is to identify functional differences between individuals with unilateral acquired brain injury using functional independence, capacity, and performance of daily activities. Descriptive cross-sectional design with a sample of 58 people, with right-sided injury (n=14 TBI; n=15 stroke) or left-sided injury (n = 14 TBI, n = 15 stroke), right handed, and with a mean age of 47 years and time since onset of 4 ± 3.65 years. The functional assessment/functional independence measure (FIM/FAM) and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) were used for the study. The data showed significant differences (P<.000), and a large size effect (dr=0.78) in the cross-sectional estimates, and point to fewer restrictions for patients with a lesion on their right side. The major differences were in the variables 'speaking' and 'receiving spoken messages' (ICF variables), and 'Expression', 'Writing' and 'intelligible speech' (FIM/FAM variables). In the linear regression analysis, the results showed that only 4 FIM/FAM variables, taken together, predict 44% of the ICF variance, which measures the ability of the individual, and up to 52% of the ICF, which measures the individual's performance. Gait alone predicts a 28% of the variance. It seems that individuals with acquired brain injury in the left hemisphere display important differences regarding functional and communication variables. The motor aspects are an important prognostic factor in functional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Anthracyclines and Acquired Long QT Syndrome. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodríguez Armada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acquired long QT syndrome results from secondary causes and can be caused by more than 100 non-antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiac arrest due to Torsades de pointes induced by drugs causing prolonged QT syndrome is a rare but potentially fatal event, even in hospitals. The case of a 47-year-old patient diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma admitted to the hematology department of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos is presented. The patient had been previously treated with anthracyclines and developed episodes of palpitations and syncope later. The treatment included monitoring the patient, avoiding other QT prolonging agents and administrating magnesium sulfate and potassium chloride with a proper maintenance of the fluid and acid-base balance. The presentation of this case aims at motivating interest in new reports on the subject and establishing a direct causal relationship through the evidence provided by new experiences.

  17. Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a dog with leptospirosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A 5 year old male neutered Cairn Terrier was evaluated for signs of polyuria and polydipsia. Initial hematology and chemistry panels were unremarkable and urinalysis showed a persistent hyposthenuria. Eleven days later, the dog became lethargic, inappetent and had developed acute renal failure. The dog was ultimately euthanized due to a poor response to treatment. Microscopic agglutination titres were consistent with a diagnosis of leptospirosis. The initial hyposthenuria in this case was consistent with acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. This is an uncommon presentation of leptospirosis that has not previously been described to progress to acute renal failure. Leptospirosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in any dog presenting with polyuria and polydipsia and these patients should be treated as a zoonotic risk. PMID:24739820

  18. Syntactic versus Lexical Therapy for Anomia in Acquired Aphasia: Differential Effects on Narrative and Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Ruth; Gregory, Emma; Best, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of therapy for acquired anomia have treated nouns in isolation. The effect on nouns in connected speech remains unclear. In a recent study in 2012, we used a novel noun syntax therapy and found an increase in the number of determiner plus noun constructions in narrative after therapy. Aims: Two aims arose from the…

  19. Role of Atypical Bacteria in Hospitalized Patients With Nursing Home-Acquired Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Junco, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) has been identified as one of the leading causes of mortality and hospitalization for long-term care residents. However, current and previous pneumonia guidelines differ on the appropriate management of NHAP in hospitalized patients, specifically in regard to the role of atypical bacteria such as Chlamydiae pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella.

  20. Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hypopigmentary disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha B Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypopigmentary disorders comprise a significant group of disorders that affect Indians and Asians. The pigment disturbance in darker skin individuals can be very distressing to the patient and the family. These disorders cover a wide array of pathologies including infections, autoimmune processes, lymphoproliferative disorders, and sclerosing diseases. Histological diagnosis is particularly important because treatments for these diseases are varied and specific. This review will focus on histopathological diagnosis based on clinicopathological correlation for commonly encountered disorders such as leprosy, vitiligo, lichen sclerosus, pityriasis alba (PA, and pityriasis versicolor (PV. Atypical or uncommon clinical presentation of classic diseases such as hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF and hypopigmented sarcoidosis are also included.

  1. Acanthamoeba endophthalmitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, K F; Eckhardt, T J; Reboli, A C; Stieritz, D

    1996-10-01

    To report the findings of Acanthamoeba endophthalmitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A 35-year-old man with AIDS and Acanthamoeba infection of the skin and lungs was treated for a granulomatous uveitis in the left eye. The left eye developed mutton-fat keratic precipitates, iris granulomas, cataract, hypotony, and choroidal infiltrates. Aqueous and vitreous specimens were positive for Acanthamoeba cysts. Topical and systemic antiamebic medications decreased the inflammation but failed to control the infection. Acanthamoeba infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of uveitis in patients with AIDS.

  2. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome manifested as disseminated cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittard, G; Seger, D

    1985-01-01

    A 32-year-old male homosexual presented to the emergency department (ED) with the clinical picture of a nonspecific illness. While in the ED, he experienced a first-time seizure. Computed tomography (CT) showed an enhancing mass lesion. Antibacterial therapy was started and continued until a second lumbar puncture (LP), 36 hours after admission, showed distinct yeast forms. Subsequent institution of appropriate therapy did not prevent the patient's death. The cause of death was disseminated cryptococcosis secondary to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

  3. Origins of species: acquired genomes and individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.

    1993-01-01

    Entire genomes with their accompanying protein synthetic systems are transferred throughout the biosphere primarily as bacteria and protists which become symbionts as they irreversibly integrate into pre-existing organisms to form more complex individuals. Individualization is stabilized by simultaneous transmission of once-separate heterologous genetic systems. The origin of new species is hypothesized to correlate with the acquisition, integration and subsequent inheritance of such acquired microbial genomes. These processes were recognized by Mereschkovsky ("Symbiogenesis" in Russian, 1909) and by Wallin ("Symbionticism", see p. 181, this issue).

  4. Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hypopigmentary disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anisha B; Kubba, Raj; Kubba, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Acquired hypopigmentary disorders comprise a significant group of disorders that affect Indians and Asians. The pigment disturbance in darker skin individuals can be very distressing to the patient and the family. These disorders cover a wide array of pathologies including infections, autoimmune processes, lymphoproliferative disorders, and sclerosing diseases. Histological diagnosis is particularly important because treatments for these diseases are varied and specific. This review will focus on histopathological diagnosis based on clinicopathological correlation for commonly encountered disorders such as leprosy, vitiligo, lichen sclerosus, pityriasis alba (PA), and pityriasis versicolor (PV). Atypical or uncommon clinical presentation of classic diseases such as hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF) and hypopigmented sarcoidosis are also included.

  5. Cerebral involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestin, G.P.; Juergens, R.; Steinbrich, W.; Diederich, N.; Koeln Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is usually due to opportunistic infections; these frequently offer a difficult differential diagnostic problem. Imaging methods play an important part in the elucidation of symptoms. CT and MR findings were analysed in 13 patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms. Some infections of the central nervous system (encephalitis of unknown aetiology, cytomegalic encephalitis, meningitis) may show cerebral atrophy or even no morphological changes. Toxoplasmosis and PML are the most common opportunistic infections typical changes on CT and MR may lead to diagnosis. MR offers advantages compared with CT in its higher sensitivity for the demonstration even of small lesions. (orig.) [de

  6. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sousa Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The face is a vital component of one′s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families.

  7. Acquired apraxia of speech: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollman-Porter, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is an acquired adult neurogenic communication disorder that often occurs following stroke. The purpose of this article is to review current research studies addressing the diagnostic and therapeutic management of AOS. Traditional definitions and characteristics are compared with current features that assist in the differential diagnosis of AOS. Prognostic indicators are reviewed in addition to how neuroplasticity may impact treatment in chronic AOS. Treatment techniques discussed include the articulatory kinematic approach (AKA), use of augmentative/alternative communication devices, intersystemic facilitation/reorganization, and constraint-induced therapy. Finally, the need to address functional communication through support groups, outside the therapeutic environment, is discussed.

  8. Prevention of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunøe, Mathilde; Overgaard-Steensen, C

    2015-01-01

    . In the hospitalised patient, non-osmotic antidiuretic hormone secretion is frequent and results in a reduced renal electrolyte-free water clearance (EFWC). This condition puts the patient at risk of hyponatraemia upon infusion of fluids that are hypotonic such as 5% glucose, Darrow-glucose, NaKglucose and 0.45% Na...... like Ringer-acetate/Ringer-lactate can increase the intracranial pressure dramatically. Consequently, 0.9 % NaCl is recommended as first-line fluid for such patients. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia may be reduced by prescribing fluids, type and amount, with the same...

  9. [Iris heterochromia in acquired Horner's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynat, J; Soichot, P; Bidot, S; Dugas, B; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Bron, A

    2007-09-01

    Horner's syndrome (HS) is related to an interruption of the oculosympathetic nerve pathway. The classic clinical findings associated with this condition are ptosis, miosis, and enophthalmos. Heterochromia is typically described in congenital HS, but it is an uncommon finding in acquired HS. We report a case of post-traumatic HS associated with heterochromia. A literature review indicates that this type of heterochromia may be related to a reduction in the number of iris melanocytes. This mechanism may be the same in the physiological iris color modifications in adulthood.

  10. Acquired CNS lesions in fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Pogledic, I.

    2013-01-01

    Acquired central nervous system (CNS) lesions are often subtle; therefore, the prenatal diagnosis of these lesions is extremely important. The fetal ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are two important imaging methods that give an insight into these types lesions. The method of choice during pregnancy is still fetal ultrasound; however, fetal MRI is important when there are certain pathologies, e.g. periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) or malformations of the vein of Galen. In this manner clinicians can plan further therapy after childbirth in advance (e.g. cerebral angiography or embolization). (orig.) [de

  11. Knowledge repositories in knowledge cities: institutions, conventions and knowledge subnetworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, P.; Choi, C.J.; Chen, Shu; Eldomiaty, T.I.; Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Suggests another dimension of research in, and application of, knowledge management. This theoretical paper adopts a conceptual, multi-disciplinary approach. First, knowledge can be stored and transmitted via institutions. Second, knowledge "subnetworks" or smaller groupings within larger

  12. Neural Basis of Acquired Amusia and Its Recovery after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Ripollés, Pablo; Leo, Vera; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, Seppo; Särkämö, Teppo

    2016-08-24

    Although acquired amusia is a relatively common disorder after stroke, its precise neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. To evaluate which brain regions form the neural substrate for acquired amusia and its recovery, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study with 77 human stroke subjects. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6 month poststroke stages. Amusia and aphasia were behaviorally assessed at acute and 3 month poststroke stages using the Scale and Rhythm subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and language tests. VLSM analyses indicated that amusia was associated with a lesion area comprising the superior temporal gyrus, Heschl's gyrus, insula, and striatum in the right hemisphere, clearly different from the lesion pattern associated with aphasia. Parametric analyses of MBEA Pitch and Rhythm scores showed extensive lesion overlap in the right striatum, as well as in the right Heschl's gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. Lesions associated with Rhythm scores extended more superiorly and posterolaterally. VBM analysis of volume changes from the acute to the 6 month stage showed a clear decrease in gray matter volume in the right superior and middle temporal gyri in nonrecovered amusic patients compared with nonamusic patients. This increased atrophy was more evident in anterior temporal areas in rhythm amusia and in posterior temporal and temporoparietal areas in pitch amusia. Overall, the results implicate right temporal and subcortical regions as the crucial neural substrate for acquired amusia and highlight the importance of different temporal lobe regions for the recovery of amusia after stroke. Lesion studies are essential in uncovering the brain regions causally linked to a given behavior or skill. For music perception ability, previous lesion studies of amusia have been methodologically limited in both spatial accuracy and time domain as well as by small sample sizes, providing

  13. Demographic and clinical data in acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoebl, P; Marco, P; Baudo, F; Collins, P; Huth-Kühne, A; Nemes, L; Pellegrini, F; Tengborn, L; Lévesque, H

    2012-04-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII and characterized by spontaneous hemorrhage in patients with no previous family or personal history of bleeding. Although data on several AHA cohorts have been collected, limited information is available on the optimal management of AHA. The European Acquired Hemophilia Registry (EACH2) was established to generate a prospective, large-scale, pan-European database on demographics, diagnosis, underlying disorders, bleeding characteristics, treatment and outcome of AHA patients. Five hundred and one (266 male, 235 female) patients from 117 centers and 13 European countries were included in the registry between 2003 and 2008. In 467 cases, hemostasis investigations and AHA diagnosis were triggered by a bleeding event. At diagnosis, patients were a median of 73.9 years. AHA was idiopathic in 51.9%; malignancy or autoimmune diseases were associated with 11.8% and 11.6% of cases. Fifty-seven per cent of the non-pregnancy-related cases were male. Four hundred and seventy-four bleeding episodes were reported at presentation, and hemostatic therapy initiated in 70.5% of patients. Delayed diagnosis significantly impacted treatment initiation in 33.5%. Four hundred and seventy-seven patients underwent immunosuppression, and 72.6% achieved complete remission. Representing the largest collection of consecutive AHA cases to date, EACH2 facilitates the analysis of a variety of open questions in AHA. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  14. Relational capital, new knowledge and innovative ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.M. Mom (Tom)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractOrganisational learning occurs when people engage in exploration activities – activities aimed at acquiring and using new knowledge, ideas and insights. Exploration, explains Tom Mom, associate professor of strategic entrepreneurship at RSM, ‘is about people and organisations

  15. Knowledge as an Asset and Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.

  16. Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young R; Houngue, Coovi; Hall, Ronald G

    2015-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the USA. Adherence to the 2007 Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society community-acquired pneumonia guidelines has been associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, choice between guideline-recommended treatments is at the discretion of the prescribing clinician. This review is intended to discuss the characteristics of these treatment options including dosing frequency, dose adjustment for renal/hepatic dysfunction, serious/common adverse events, drug interactions, lung penetration, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic target and effect of obesity to help guide antimicrobial selection. An increasing portion of patients are receiving expanded empiric coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as recommended by the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America for healthcare-associated pneumonia. However, this expanded coverage may not be achieving the desired improvements in clinical outcomes. We expect this increasingly diverse spectrum of patients with pneumonia to eventually result in the merger of these two guidelines to include all patients with pneumonia.

  17. Asian elephants acquire inaccessible food by blowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kaori; Irie, Naoko; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many animals acquire otherwise inaccessible food with the aid of sticks and occasionally water. As an exception, some reports suggest that elephants manipulate breathing through their trunks to acquire inaccessible food. Here, we report on two female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Kamine Zoo, Japan, who regularly blew to drive food within their reach. We experimentally investigated this behaviour by placing foods in inaccessible places. The elephants blew the food until it came within accessible range. Once the food was within range, the elephants were increasingly less likely to blow as the distance to the food became shorter. One subject manipulated her blowing duration based on food distance: longer when the food was distant. These results suggest that the elephants used their breath to achieve goals: that is, they used it not only to retrieve the food but also to fine-tune the food position for easy grasping. We also observed individual differences in the elephants' aptitude for this technique, which altered the efficiency of food acquisition. Thus, we added a new example of spontaneous behaviour for achieving a goal in animals. The use of breath to drive food is probably unique to elephants, with their dexterous trunks and familiarity with manipulating the act of blowing, which is commonly employed for self-comfort and acoustic communication.

  18. Active citizenship and acquired neurological communication difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Bennett, Amanda; Cairney, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    People with communication impairments may face barriers to civic participation, with resulting marginalisation of individuals who wish to be actively involved. The investigation aimed to explore the experience of civically engaged adults with acquired neurological communication difficulties. Six people with acquired neurological communication difficulties were interviewed. Discussion included the definition of active citizenship, their civic involvement, motivations, related barriers and facilitators. Qualitative analysis was undertaken, with data categorised, coded and examined for recurring themes. All participants were active in disability-related organisations and four undertook wider civic roles. Motivations included activity being out with the home and wanting to effect change for themselves and the populations they represented. Disability group meetings were more positive experiences than broader community activities, which were associated with fatigue and frustration, commonly resulting from communication difficulties and unmet support needs. All participants identified a need for professional and public educational about disability and communication and made recommendations on content, methods and priority groups. For these participants civic engagement had positive and negative dimensions. Speech and language therapists should promote reduction of the barriers that impede the active citizenship rights of people with communication support needs. Civic participation may be a relevant measure of outcome in communication impaired populations.

  19. [Acquired hemophilia A after an early abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullen, B; Mühlhöfer, A; Luz, H; Zoller, W G

    2002-05-17

    A 30-year-old woman was referred to our clinic because she had developed recurrent spontaneous hematomas of both calves within the last 2 months. 6 months earlier the patient had developed an ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome after ovarian stimulation treatment and intrauterine insemination. Shortly afterwards a missed abortion (8 (th) week) had been diagnosed. A curettage was carried out. Routine coagulation tests confirmed a prolongation of aPTT to 90 s and a lupus anticoagulant. A high-titre factor VIII inhibitor (56 Bethesda units) was identified. Given these facts an acquired post-partum hemophilia was diagnosed. The patient was treated with prednisolone and immunoglobulins. The aPTT shortened to normal values. The factor VIII inhibitor and lupus anticoagulant disappeared. There were no further hematomas. The simultaneous occurrence of antibodies in an altered immune state such as pregnancy is well known. In our case, acquired factor VIII inhibitor was found after an early abortion. Treatment with steroids and immunoglobulines led to the disappearance of factor VIII inhibitor and lupus anticoagulant.

  20. Living with acquired dysarthria: the speaker's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Margaret; Miller, Nick

    2011-01-01

    To explore the speaker's experience of living with acquired chronic dysarthria. Ten people with dysarthria and progressive neurological illness and one person with dysarthria following stroke were interviewed in depth about their experience of living with dysarthria. They covered a range of ages, time post-onset and dysarthria severity levels. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using Framework Method of Analysis. Acquired dysarthria can negatively impact on speakers' lives. Findings here suggest that the experience of living with dysarthria is highly individual. There were some common perspectives. Six key themes emerged from interviews: 'dysarthria as only part of the picture', 'communication has changed', 'people treat me differently', 'dysarthria resulting in negative emotions', 'barriers to communication' and 'life is different now. The impact of co-existing physical disability and the need to consider dysarthria in context was emphasised by all participants. Findings re-emphasise the need to consider the individual experience in clinical practice. The findings provide direction for assessment and intervention in the area.

  1. Software for Acquiring Image Data for PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Cheung, H. M.; Kressler, Brian

    2003-01-01

    PIV Acquisition (PIVACQ) is a computer program for acquisition of data for particle-image velocimetry (PIV). In the PIV system for which PIVACQ was developed, small particles entrained in a flow are illuminated with a sheet of light from a pulsed laser. The illuminated region is monitored by a charge-coupled-device camera that operates in conjunction with a data-acquisition system that includes a frame grabber and a counter-timer board, both installed in a single computer. The camera operates in "frame-straddle" mode where a pair of images can be obtained closely spaced in time (on the order of microseconds). The frame grabber acquires image data from the camera and stores the data in the computer memory. The counter/timer board triggers the camera and synchronizes the pulsing of the laser with acquisition of data from the camera. PIVPROC coordinates all of these functions and provides a graphical user interface, through which the user can control the PIV data-acquisition system. PIVACQ enables the user to acquire a sequence of single-exposure images, display the images, process the images, and then save the images to the computer hard drive. PIVACQ works in conjunction with the PIVPROC program which processes the images of particles into the velocity field in the illuminated plane.

  2. Metaphors for Knowledge in Knowledge Intensive Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    We live in a knowledge society. This fact places certain demands on education, cooperation, knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer, knowledge workers, knowledge communication and on management. However it also places demands on our perception of knowledge. Theory would suggest a number of different...... answers to what knowledge is. It could be outlined as a dichotomy between tacit and explicit knowledge, as a hierarchy from data over information to knowledge or as orders of reflection upon ones own knowledge in relation to the surrounding world. In this dissertation the focus is on knowledge...... as a metaphorical concept in groups of knowledge workers from creative start-ups. The research question of the dissertation is: How is knowledge conceptualized metaphorically in groups? This question is investigated from two methodological angles: through the analysis of metaphors in dynamic conversations...

  3. TEACHING TACIT KNOWLEDGE: CAN ARTIFICAL INTELIGENCE HELP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŠVEC, Václav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we first examine students´ ability to use tacit knowledge. We conducted the experiment to test whether the students are able to transfer and use tacit knowledge they obtained in the basic course of Strategic management. As tacit knowledge is difficult to transfer to another person we used course design with several experiential techniques to increase the students´ abilities in the field of Strategic management. For the evaluation experiment we chose to play a board game “Power Grid”, where we tested whether the students were able to use knowledge they had been taught in the basic course. As the result we found out low students´ ability to use tacit knowledge even despite the fact that in the basic course where they obtained the knowledge we used experiential techniques which force students to acquire a skill and therefore, according to Polanyi (in Schmidt, Hunter, 1993, they also acquire corresponding understanding that defies articulation, therefore tacit knowledge. According to the result of the experiment we propose the business game with the artificial intelligence as a teaching tool which can be further discussed as a tool for teaching specific tacit knowledge in the paper.

  4. Significance of anaerobes and oral bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Kei; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Noguchi, Shingo; Nagata, Shuya; Nishida, Chinatsu; Kido, Takashi; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biological modalities with better detection rates have been applied to identify the bacteria causing infectious diseases. Approximately 10-48% of bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia are not identified using conventional cultivation methods. This study evaluated the bacteriological causes of community-acquired pneumonia using a cultivation-independent clone library analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and compared the results with those of conventional cultivation methods. Patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled based on their clinical and radiological findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from pulmonary pathological lesions using bronchoscopy and evaluated by both a culture-independent molecular method and conventional cultivation methods. For the culture-independent molecular method, approximately 600 base pairs of 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers, followed by the construction of clone libraries. The nucleotide sequences of 96 clones randomly chosen for each specimen were determined, and bacterial homology was searched. Conventional cultivation methods, including anaerobic cultures, were also performed using the same specimens. In addition to known common pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia [Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.8%), Haemophilus influenzae (18.8%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (17.2%)], molecular analysis of specimens from 64 patients with community-acquired pneumonia showed relatively higher rates of anaerobes (15.6%) and oral bacteria (15.6%) than previous reports. Our findings suggest that anaerobes and oral bacteria are more frequently detected in patients with community-acquired pneumonia than previously believed. It is possible that these bacteria may play more important roles in community-acquired pneumonia.

  5. Significance of anaerobes and oral bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yamasaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular biological modalities with better detection rates have been applied to identify the bacteria causing infectious diseases. Approximately 10-48% of bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia are not identified using conventional cultivation methods. This study evaluated the bacteriological causes of community-acquired pneumonia using a cultivation-independent clone library analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and compared the results with those of conventional cultivation methods. METHODS: Patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled based on their clinical and radiological findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from pulmonary pathological lesions using bronchoscopy and evaluated by both a culture-independent molecular method and conventional cultivation methods. For the culture-independent molecular method, approximately 600 base pairs of 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers, followed by the construction of clone libraries. The nucleotide sequences of 96 clones randomly chosen for each specimen were determined, and bacterial homology was searched. Conventional cultivation methods, including anaerobic cultures, were also performed using the same specimens. RESULTS: In addition to known common pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia [Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.8%, Haemophilus influenzae (18.8%, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (17.2%], molecular analysis of specimens from 64 patients with community-acquired pneumonia showed relatively higher rates of anaerobes (15.6% and oral bacteria (15.6% than previous reports. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that anaerobes and oral bacteria are more frequently detected in patients with community-acquired pneumonia than previously believed. It is possible that these bacteria may play more important roles in community-acquired pneumonia.

  6. Tacit Knowledge of Caring and Embodied Selfhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Pia C.; Naglie, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The tacit knowledge paradigm is gaining recognition as an important source of knowledge that informs clinical decision-making. However, it is limited by an exclusive focus on knowledge acquired through clinical practice, and a consequent neglect of the primordial and socio-cultural significance of embodied selfhood, precisely what provides the foundational structure of tacit knowledge of caring and facilitates its manifestation. Drawing on findings from a qualitative study of forty-three dementia care practitioners in Ontario, Canada that utilized research-based drama and focus group methodology, we argue that embodied selfhood is fundamental to tacit knowledge of caring. Results are analyzed drawing upon the theoretical precepts of embodied selfhood that are rooted in Merleau-Ponty’s (1962) reconceptualization of perception and Bourdieu’s (1977, 1990) notion of habitus. We conclude with a call for further exploration of the body as a site of the production of tacit knowledge. PMID:19392935

  7. Tacit knowledge of caring and embodied selfhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Pia C; Naglie, Gary

    2009-07-01

    The tacit knowledge paradigm is gaining recognition as an important source of knowledge that informs clinical decision-making. It is, however, limited by an exclusive focus on knowledge acquired through clinical practice, and a consequent neglect of the primordial and socio-cultural significance of embodied selfhood, precisely what provides the foundational structure of tacit knowledge of caring and facilitates its manifestation. Drawing on findings from a qualitative study of 43 dementia care practitioners in Ontario, Canada that utilised research-based drama and focus group methodology, we argue that embodied selfhood is fundamental to tacit knowledge of caring. Results are analysed drawing upon the theoretical precepts of embodied selfhood that are rooted in Merleau-Ponty's (1962) reconceptualisation of perception and Bourdieu's (1977, 1990) notion of habitus. We conclude with a call for further exploration of the body as a site of the production of tacit knowledge.

  8. Level of Knowledge and Attitude of ICU Nurses toward Organ Donation and the Related Factors: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Najafi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nurses play a key role in the process of organ donation and transplantation, and previous studies have widely addressed the level of knowledge and attitude of intensive care unit (ICU nurses in this regard. Considering the direct correlation between the positive attitude of the healthcare team, especially nurses, and the level of consent on organ donation, knowledge and attitude of nurses are important factors that have been assessed in several studies. However, no definite conclusions have been drawn in this regard. The present study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of ICU nurses toward organ donation and the related factors.Methods: A systematic review was conducted via searching in databases such as ProQuest, Medscape, MedlinePlus, MagIran, PubMed, and ScienceDirect to identify the articles published during 1990-2015 using keywords such as knowledge, attitude, organ donation, and nurses.Result: Awareness and knowledge are the main determinants of attitude in nurses, which should be applied in order to foster positive attitudes in the process of organ donation. Furthermore, extensive clinical knowledge should be acquired on organ donation and communication skills by ICU nurses through proper training programs.Conclusion: According to the results, using standard guidelines or scheduled training programs in nursing schools could improve the level of knowledge in nurses, which in turn enhances nursing performance. In addition, our findings indicated that positive attitude and knowledge of nurses could largely infleunce the viewpoint of families toward organ donation.

  9. Community-acquired necrotizing pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin in a Chinese teenager: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Luo, Yanping; Zhang, Shu; Liang, Zhixin; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Guang; Jia, Yanhong; Chen, Liangan; She, Danyang

    2014-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has now been established as an important community-acquired pathogen. Although necrotizing pneumonia caused by community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) has been reported with increasing frequency in many countries, it has been reported in only a few children younger than 1 year of age in Mainland China. We describe a case of life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia due to PVL-positive CA-MRSA in a 15-year-old previously healthy female who presented with high fever, shivering, a dry cough, and dyspnea. Details of the clinical outcomes, microbiological data, and therapies for this patient were collected and compared with those of cases reported in the literature on CA-MRSA. Computed tomography (CT) findings showed cavitary consolidations in both lungs and bilateral pleural effusion. MRSA strains isolated from the patient's sputum and pleural fluid were susceptible to most non-β-lactam antimicrobial agents except for clindamycin and erythromycin. Both of these isolates tested positive for the mecA gene as well as PVL genes, and were identified as ST59-MRSA-SCCmec type IV-spa type t437. The patient was treated successfully with linezolid, fosfomycin, and teicoplanin. To our knowledge, this is the first report from Mainland China of necrotizing pneumonia due to PVL-positive CA-MRSA among those aged older than 1 year. CA-MRSA necrotizing pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe community-acquired pneumonia, particularly in previously healthy individuals. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The association of knowledge with concern about global warming: trusted information sources shape public thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Ariel; Krosnick, Jon A; Langer, Gary

    2009-05-01

    During the last decade, a great deal of news media attention has focused on informing the American public about scientific findings on global warming (GW). Has learning this sort of information led the American public to become more concerned about GW? Using data from two surveys of nationally representative samples of American adults, this article shows that the relation between self-reported knowledge and concern about GW is more complex than what previous research has suggested. Among people who trust scientists to provide reliable information about the environment and among Democrats and Independents, increased knowledge has been associated with increased concern. But among people who are skeptical about scientists and among Republicans more knowledge was generally not associated with greater concern. The association of knowledge with concern among Democrats and Independents who trust scientists was mediated by perceptions of consensus among scientists about GW's existence and by perceptions that humans are a principal cause of GW. Moreover, additional analyses of panel survey data produced findings consistent with the notion that more knowledge yields more concern among Democrats and Independents, but not among Republicans. Thus, when studying the relation of knowledge and concern, it is important to take into account the content of the information that different types of people acquire and choose to rely upon.

  11. Specific Previous Experience Affects Perception of Harmony and Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was…

  12. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  13. Synesthetic colors for Japanese late acquired graphemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Michiko; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Determinants of synesthetic color choice for the Japanese logographic script, Kanji, were studied. The study investigated how synesthetic colors for Kanji characters, which are usually acquired later in life than other types of graphemes in Japanese language (phonetic characters called Hiragana and Katakana, and Arabic digits), are influenced by linguistic properties such as phonology, orthography, and meaning. Of central interest was a hypothesized generalization process from synesthetic colors for graphemes, learned prior to acquisition of Kanji, to Kanji characters learned later. Results revealed that color choices for Kanji characters depend on meaning and phonological information. Some results suggested that colors are generalized from Hiragana characters and Arabic digits to Kanji characters via phonology and meaning, respectively. Little influence of orthographic information was observed. The findings and approach of this study contributes to a clarification of the mechanism underlying grapheme-color synesthesia, especially in terms of its relationship to normal language processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dendritic ion channelopathy in acquired epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolos, Nicholas P.; Johnston, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ion channel dysfunction or “channelopathy” is a proven cause of epilepsy in the relatively uncommon genetic epilepsies with Mendelian inheritance. But numerous examples of acquired channelopathy in experimental animal models of epilepsy following brain injury have also been demonstrated. Our understanding of channelopathy has grown due to advances in electrophysiology techniques that have allowed the study of ion channels in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons comprise the vast majority of neuronal surface membrane area, and thus the majority of the neuronal ion channel population. Investigation of dendritic ion channels has demonstrated remarkable plasticity in ion channel localization and biophysical properties in epilepsy, many of which produce hyperexcitability and may contribute to the development and maintenance of the epileptic state. Here we review recent advances in dendritic physiology and cell biology, and their relevance to epilepsy. PMID:23216577

  15. Monitoring Agitated Behavior After acquired Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadal, Lena; Mortensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbaek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the onset, duration, intensity, and nursing shift variation of agitated behavior in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) at a rehabilitation hospital. Design: Prospective descriptive study. Methods: A total of 11 patients with agitated behavior were included. Agitated...... behavior was registered with the Agitated Behavior Scale (ABS). The nurse or therapist allocated the individual patient assessed ABS during each shift. Intensity of agitated behavior was tested using exact test. A within-subject shift effect was analyzed with repeated-measure ANOVA. Findings: The onset...... of agitated behavior was at a median of 14 (1–28) days from admission. Seven patients remained agitated beyond 3 weeks from onset. Severe intensity of agitation was observed in 86 of 453 nursing shifts. Differences in agitated behavior between day, evening, and night shifts were found, F(2.20) = 7.90, p...

  16. Contemporary Management of Adult Acquired Buried Penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, M S; Gallegos, M A; Santucci, R A

    2018-04-06

    In 2014, The World Health Organization reported that 1.9 billion adults, 39% of the population, were overweight or obese [1]. Unlike most complications of obesity, adult acquired buried penis is an uncomfortable topic which may be overlooked. Patients are often encouraged to lose weight, but this is futile. Simple weight loss will not cure buried penis, as it is a multifactorial condition caused by a combination of: a) overhanging escutcheon from overweight, b) lichen sclerosus, which often contracts and destroys the penile shaft skin, and c) loss of normal penile shaft attachments to the penile skin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Time dysperception perspective for acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica ePiras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortions of time perception are presented by a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we survey timing abilities in clinical populations with acquired brain injuries in key cerebral areas recently implicated in human studies of timing. We purposely analyzed the complex relationship between cognitive and contextual factors involved in time estimation, as to characterize the correlation between timed and other cognitive behaviors in each group. We assume that interval timing is a solid construct to study cognitive dysfunctions following brain injury, as timing performance is a sensitive metric of information processing, while temporal cognition has the potential of influencing a wide range of cognitive processes. Moreover, temporal performance is a sensitive assay of damage to the underlying neural substrate after a brain insult. Further research in neurological and psychiatric patients will definitively answer the question of whether time distortions are manifestations of cognitive and behavioral symptoms of brain damage and definitively clarify their mechanisms.

  18. Stereotypic movement disorder after acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Cynthia M; Kennedy, Richard E; Hoye, Wayne; Yablon, Stuart A

    2002-05-01

    Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) consists of repetitive, non-functional motor behaviour that interferes with daily living or causes injury to the person. It is most often described in patients with mental retardation. However, recent evidence indicates that this condition is common among otherwise normal individuals. This case study describes a patient with new-onset SMD occurring after subdural haematoma and brain injury. SMD has rarely been reported after acquired brain injury, and none have documented successful treatment. The current psychiatric literature regarding neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, and treatment of SMD are reviewed with particular application to one patient. Treatment options include serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, opioid antagonists and dopamine antagonists. SMD has been under-appreciated in intellectually normal individuals, and may also be unrecognized after brain injury. Further investigation is needed in this area, which may benefit other individuals with SMD as well.

  19. The acquired hyperostosis syndrome. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihlmann, W.; Hering, L.; Bargon, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    In the second part of this publication, we describe some additional findings in cases of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH). These include focal hyperostosis of the spine, in the pelvis and in the extremities and psoriatric skin lesions and severe forms of acne (acne conglobata, acne fulminans). An analysis of our 13 patients and of the relevant literature indicates that the hyperostosis is due to increased bone metabolism and heterotopic ossification of fibrous tissue and that these are the pathogenic bases of the changes in the axial skeleton, the pelvis and the bones of the extremities. We have suggested a scheme which would categorise the syndrom into complete, incomplete and possibly acquired forms. (orig./GDG) [de

  20. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, H W; Hardy, A M; Morgan, W M; Darrow, W W

    1985-11-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health problem for gay men in the United States. About three fourths of all reported cases have occurred in this population, and the number is projected to double in the next year. In Manhattan and San Francisco, AIDS is now the leading cause of premature mortality in men aged 25 to 44 years who have never married. In a sample of a cohort of gay men enrolled in a San Francisco clinic, 2.7% of the men had the syndrome and 26% had related conditions in 1984. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus, type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus was found in sera from 67% of the men, including 58% of asymptomatic men. Behavioral factors associated with an increased risk of AIDS include large numbers of sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse, and "fisting." The adoption of safer lifestyles is currently the basis of attempts to control the syndrome in gay men.

  1. Hospital-acquired pneumonia in critically ill children: Incidence, risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mervat Gamal Eldin Mansour

    2012-02-21

    acquired infection in critically ill patients. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system reported that. HAP accounts for as much as 31% of all nosocomial infections acquired in medical intensive care units. (ICU).

  2. Mortality predictors in community-acquired pneumonia | Tanimowo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acquired pneumonia to themedicalwards of Ladoke Akintola University ofTeaching Hospital between Jan. 2003 andDec. 2005. The case notes of 65 patients admitted for community-acquired pneumoniawere studiedwith respect to their admission ...

  3. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannella, Hernán A; Luna, Carlos M

    2016-12-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. Poverty, socioeconomic factors, and malnutrition influence the incidence and outcome of CAP in LAC. In LAC, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microorganism responsible for CAP, (incidence: 24-78%); the incidence of atypical microorganisms is similar to other regions of the world. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing problem in the LAC region, with the Caribbean being the second most affected area worldwide after Sub-Saharan Africa. Pneumococcal pneumonia remains the most common cause of CAP in HIV-infected patients, but Pneumocystis jirovecii and tuberculosis (TB) are also common in this population. The heterogeneity of the health care systems and social inequity between different countries in LAC, and even between different settings inside the same country, is a difficult issue. TB, including multidrug-resistant TB, is several times more common in South American and Central American countries compared with North America. Furthermore, hantaviruses circulating in the Americas (new world hantaviruses) generate a severe respiratory disease called hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, with an associated mortality as high as 50%. More than 30 hantaviruses have been reported in the Western Hemisphere, with more frequent cases registered in the southern cone (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil). Respiratory viruses (particularly influenza) remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. Low rates of vaccination (against influenza as well as pneumococcus) may heighten the risk of these infections in low- and middle-income countries. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Does Acquired Hypothyroidism Affect the Hearing Functions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Arduç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It is well known that congenital hypothyroidism can cause hearing loss. However, conflicting results were found in studies investigating hearing functions in acquired hypothyroidism. Therefore, we evaluated the audiometric findings in patients with acquired hypothyroidism. Material and Method: The study included 58 patients with hypothyroidism and age- and gender-matched 34 healthy controls. Twenty eight (48.27% patients had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 30 (51.73% had obvious hypothyroidism. All subjects had a normal otoscopic examination and tympanometry. Pure tone audiometry at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hertz (Hz was performed in both groups. Blood pressure measurements and the levels of plasma electrolytes, lipids and vitamin B12 were available in all subjects. Results: Hypothyroidism group and control group were similar with respect to systolic and diastolic blood pressures and plasma glucose, lipid, vitamin B12, calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride levels. Significantly higher audiometric thresholds (dB at 250 (10 (0-45 vs. 5 (0-15, p<0.001 and 500 Hz (10 (0-40 vs. 10 (-5-15, p=0.003 were recorded in hypothyroid patients compared to that in healthy controls. Hearing thresholds at 250 and 500 Hz correlated positively with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, and negatively with free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine. Subclinical hypothyroid patients had a higher hearing threshold at 250 Hz than healthy controls (p=0.001. Discussion: Our study demonstrated that hearing ability decreases in hypothyroidism, even in subclinical hypothyroidism. The changes in TSH and thyroid hormone levels seem to be directly related to the hearing loss in this population of patients.

  5. Bedside Evaluation of Cerebral Energy Metabolism in Severe Community-Acquired Bacterial Meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom Poulsen, Frantz; Schulz, Mette; Jacobsen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mortality and morbidity have remained high in bacterial meningitis. Impairment of cerebral energy metabolism probably contributes to unfavorable outcome. Intracerebral microdialysis is routinely used to monitor cerebral energy metabolism, and recent experimental studies indicate...... that this technique may separate ischemia and non-ischemic mitochondrial dysfunction. The present study is a retrospective interpretation of biochemical data obtained in a series of patients with severe community-acquired meningitis. METHODS: Cerebral energy metabolism was monitored in 15 patients with severe...... community-acquired meningitis utilizing intracerebral microdialysis and bedside biochemical analysis. According to previous studies, cerebral ischemia was defined as lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio >30 with intracerebral pyruvate level

  6. The Misfits in Knowledge Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Harder; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2015-01-01

    The workplace is changing rapidly and knowledge work is conducted increasingly in settings that are global, digital, flat and networked. The epicenter of value-creation are the individuals and their interactions. Unified Communication and Collaboration Technology (UC&C) supports individual...... interactions, collaboration and knowledge creation. The use of this technology is growing globally. In a previous study, we found that UC&C in collocated and distributed settings, produced misfits and fits between situated enacted practice-use of UC&C and the experienced productivity. We respond to the KITA...... 2015 call with this work-in-progress paper. We apply the IT Knowledge Artefact (ITKA)-interpretive lens from Cabitza and Locoro (2014) to a case of knowledge workers struggling with appropriation of UC&C for creating and sharing practice knowledge. We evaluate the framework - and discuss the usefulness...

  7. Home Environment Service Knowledge Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang; Rossello Busquet, Ana; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    This paper makes three contributions to assist households to control their home devices in an easy way and to simplify the software installation and configuration processes across multi-vendor environments. First, a Home Environment Service Knowledge Management System is proposed, which is based...... on the knowledge implemented by ontology and uses the inference function of reasoner to find out available software services according to household requests. Second, this paper provides a concrete methodology to exploit and acquire conflict-free information from ontology knowledge by using a reasoner. At last...

  8. Immunosuppression for acquired hemophilia A : results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, Peter; Baudo, Francesco; Knoebl, Paul; Levesque, Herve; Nemes, Laszlo; Pellegrini, Fabio; Marco, Pascual; Tengborn, Lilian; Huth-Kuehne, Angela; Aspoeck, Gerold; Heistinger, Max; Knobl, Paul; Makipernaa, Anne; Andre, Helene; Aouba, A; Bellucci, Sylvia; Beurrier, Philippe; Borg, Jeanne Yvonne; Darnige, Luc; Devignes, Jean; dOiron, Roseline; Gautier, Philippe; Gay, Valerie; Girault, Stephane; Gruel, Yves; Guerin, Viviane; Hezard, Nathalie; Khellaf, Mehdi; Koenig, Martial; Levesque, Herve; Lifermann, Francois; Marlu, Raphael; Ninet, J.; Peynet, Jocelyne; Quemeneur, Thomas; Rothschild, Chantal; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Sigaud, Marianne; Trouillier, Sebastien; Voisin, Sophie; Giebl, Andreas; Holstein, Katharina; Huth-Kuhne, Angela; Loreth, Ralph M.; Steigerwald, Udo; Tiede, Andreas; Theodossiades, George; Nemes, Laszlo; Radvanyi, Gaspar; Schlammadinger, Agota; Barillari, Giovanni; Pasca, Samantha; Baudo, Francesco; Caimi, T.; Contino, L.; D'Angelo, Armando; Crippa, Luciano; Fattorini, Annalisa; Di Minno, Giovanni; Cerbone, Anna Maria; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; D'inca, Marco; Falanga, Anna; Maggioni, Anna; Lerede, Teresa; Franchini, Massimo; Gaidano, Gianluca; De Paoli, Lorenzo; Gamba, Gabriella; Ghirardi, Raffaele; Girotto, Mauro; Tasca, Delios; Grandone, Elvira; Tiscia, Giovanni; Imberti, Davide; Iorio, Alfonso; Landolfi, Raffaele; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Novarese, Linda; Mariani, Guglielmo; Lapecorella, Mario; Marietta, Marco; Pedrazzi, Paola; Mazzucconi, Maria Gabriella; Santoro, Cristina; Morfini, Massimo; Linari, Silvia; Moratelli, Stefano; Paolini, Rossella; Piseddu, Gavino; Poggio, Renzo; Pogliani, Enrico; Carpenedo, Monica; Remiddi, Chiara; Santagostino, Elena; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Santoro, Rita; Papaleo, Giuseppina; Schinco, Piercarla; Borchiellini, Alessandra; Valeri, Federica; Scortechini, Anna Rita; Siragusa, Sergio; Sottilotta, Gianluca; Squizzato, Alessandro; Tagariello, Giuseppe; Sartori, Roberto; Tagliaferri, Anna Rita; Di Perna, Caterina; Rivolta, Gianna Franca; Testa, Sophie; Paoletti, Oriana; Toschi, Vincenzo; Zanon, Ezio; Brandolin, Barbara; Hamulyak, Karly; Kamphuisen, Pieter; Laros-van Gorkom, Britta; Leebeek, Frank W.G.; Marten, Nijziel; Novakova, Irena; Schutgens, Roger; van der Linden, P.W.G; van Esser, Joost; van der Meer, J.; Ypma, Paula; Campos, Manuel; Aguilar, Carlos; Altisent, Carmen; Bermejo, Nuria; Del Campo, Raquel; Ferreiro Arguelles, M.; Gonzalez Boullosa, Rosario; Gutierrez Pimentel, Maria Jose; Jimenez-Yuste, Victor [No Value; Jose-Felix, Lucia; Marco, Pascual; Mingot, Maria Eva; Perez Garrido, Rosario; Perez Gonzale, Noelia z; Prieto Garcia, Manuel; Rodriguez-Huerta, Ana Maria; Maranon, HGUG [No Value; Sedano, Carmen; Tolosa Munoz, Alexandra; Baghaei, Fariba; Tengborn, Lilian; Boehlen, Francoise; Korte, Wolfgang; Chowdary, Pratima; Collins, Peter; Evans, Gillian; Pavord, Suzanne; Rangarajan, Savita; Wilde, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is an autoimmune disease caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. Patients are at risk of severe and fatal hemorrhage until the inhibitor is eradicated, and guidelines recommend immunosuppression as soon as the diagnosis has been made. The optimal immunosuppressive

  9. Management of bleeding in acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia (EACH2) Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudo, Francesco; Collins, Peter; Huth-Kühne, Angela; Lévesque, Hervé; Marco, Pascual; Nemes, László; Pellegrini, Fabio; Tengborn, Lilian; Knoebl, Paul; Aspoeck, Gerold; Heistinger, Max; Knöbl, Paul; Makipernaa, Anne; André, Hélène; Aouba, Achille; Bellucci, Sylvia; Beurrier, Philippe; Borg, Jeanne Yvonne; Darnige, Luc; Devignes, Jean; d'Oiron, Roseline; Gautier, Philippe; Gay, Valérie; Girault, Stéphane; Gruel, Yves; Guerin, Viviane; Hézard, Nathalie; Khellaf, Mehdi; Koenig, Martial; Lifermann, François; Marlu, Raphael; Ninet, Jacques; Peynet, Jocelyne; Quéméneur, Thomas; Rothschild, Chantal; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Sigaud, Marianne; Trouillier, Sébastien; Voisin, Sophie; Giebl, Andreas; Holstein, Katharina; Loreth, Ralph M.; Steigerwald, Udo; Tiede, Andreas; Theodossiades, George; Radvanyi, Gaspar; Schlammadinger, Agota; Barillari, Giovanni; Pasca, Samantha; Caimi, Teresa; Contino, Laura; D'Angelo Armando, Crippa Luciano; Fattorini, Annalisa; Di Minno, Giovanni; Cerbone, Anna Maria; Di Minno, Dario; D'incà, Marco; Falanga, Anna; Maggioni, Anna; Lerede, Teresa; Franchini, Massimo; Gaidano, Gianluca; de Paoli, Lorenzo; Gamba, Gabriella; Ghirardi, Raffaele; Girotto, Mauro; Tasca, Delios; Grandone, Elvira; Tiscia, Giovanni; Imberti, Davide; Iorio, Alfonso; Landolfi, Raffaele; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Novarese, Linda; Mariani, Guglielmo; Lapecorella, Mario; Marietta, Marco; Pedrazzi, Paola; Mazzucconi, Maria Gabriella; Santoro, Cristina; Morfini, Massimo; Linari, Silvia; Moratelli, Stefano; Paolini, Rossella; Piseddu, Gavino; Poggio, Renzo; Pogliani, Enrico; Carpenedo, Monica; Remiddi, Chiara; Santagostino, Elena; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Santoro, Rita; Papaleo, Giuseppina; Schinco, Piercarla; Borchiellini, Alessandra; Valeri, Federica; Scortechini, Anna Rita; Siragusa, Sergio; Sottilotta, Gianluca; Squizzato, Alessandro; Tagariello, Giuseppe; Sartori, Roberto; Tagliaferri, Anna Rita; Di Perna, Caterina; Rivolta, Gianna Franca; Testa, Sophie; Paoletti, Oriana; Toschi, Vincenzo; Zanon, Ezio; Brandolin, Barbara; Hamulyák, Karly; Kamphuisen, Pieter; Laros-van Gorkom, Britta; Leebeek, Frank W. G.; Marten, Nijziel; Novakova, Irena; Schutgens, Roger; van der Linden, P. W. G.; van Esser, Joost; van der Meer, J.; Ypma, Paula; Campos, Manuel; Aguilar, Carlos; Altisent, Carmen; Bermejo, Nuria; del Campo, Raquel; Ferreiro Argüelles, María; González Boullosa, Rosario; Gutiérrez Pimentel, María José; Jiménez-Yuste, Victor; Jose-Felix, Lucia; Mingot, Maria Eva; Perez Garrido, Rosario; Perez Gonzale, Noelia Z.; Prieto Garcia, Manuel; Rodriguez-Huerta, Ana María; Sedano, Carmen; Tolosa Munoz, Alexandra; Baghaei, Fariba; Boehlen, Françoise; Korte, Wolfgang; Chowdary, Pratima; Evans, Gillian; Pavord, Suzanne; Rangarajan, Savita; Wilde, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies to coagulation FVIII. Bleeding episodes at presentation are spontaneous and severe in most cases. Optimal hemostatic therapy is controversial, and available data are from observational and retrospective studies only. The

  10. Immunosuppression for acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, Peter; Baudo, Francesco; Knoebl, Paul; Lévesque, Hervé; Nemes, László; Pellegrini, Fabio; Marco, Pascual; Tengborn, Lilian; Huth-Kühne, Angela; Aspoeck, Gerold; Heistinger, Max; Knöbl, Paul; Makipernaa, Anne; André, Hélène; Aouba, Achille; Bellucci, Sylvia; Beurrier, Philippe; Borg, Jeanne Yvonne; Darnige, Luc; Devignes, Jean; d'Oiron, Roseline; Gautier, Philippe; Gay, Valérie; Girault, Stéphane; Gruel, Yves; Guerin, Viviane; Hézard, Nathalie; Khellaf, Mehdi; Koenig, Martial; Lifermann, François; Marlu, Raphael; Ninet, Jacques; Peynet, Jocelyne; Quéméneur, Thomas; Rothschild, Chantal; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Sigaud, Marianne; Trouillier, Sébastien; Voisin, Sophie; Giebl, Andreas; Holstein, Katharina; Loreth, Ralph M.; Steigerwald, Udo; Tiede, Andreas; Theodossiades, George; Radvanyi, Gaspar; Schlammadinger, Agota; Barillari, Giovanni; Pasca, Samantha; Caimi, Teresa; Contino, Laura; D'Angelo Armando, Crippa Luciano; Fattorini, Annalisa; Di Minno, Giovanni; Cerbone, Anna Maria; Di Minno, Dario; D'incà, Marco; Falanga, Anna; Maggioni, Anna; Lerede, Teresa; Franchini, Massimo; Gaidano, Gianluca; de Paoli, Lorenzo; Gamba, Gabriella; Ghirardi, Raffaele; Girotto, Mauro; Tasca, Delios; Grandone, Elvira; Tiscia, Giovanni; Imberti, Davide; Iorio, Alfonso; Landolfi, Raffaele; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Novarese, Linda; Mariani, Guglielmo; Lapecorella, Mario; Marietta, Marco; Pedrazzi, Paola; Mazzucconi, Maria Gabriella; Santoro, Cristina; Morfini, Massimo; Linari, Silvia; Moratelli, Stefano; Paolini, Rossella; Piseddu, Gavino; Poggio, Renzo; Pogliani, Enrico; Carpenedo, Monica; Remiddi, Chiara; Santagostino, Elena; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Santoro, Rita; Papaleo, Giuseppina; Schinco, Piercarla; Borchiellini, Alessandra; Valeri, Federica; Scortechini, Anna Rita; Siragusa, Sergio; Sottilotta, Gianluca; Squizzato, Alessandro; Tagariello, Giuseppe; Sartori, Roberto; Tagliaferri, Anna Rita; Di Perna, Caterina; Rivolta, Gianna Franca; Testa, Sophie; Paoletti, Oriana; Toschi, Vincenzo; Zanon, Ezio; Brandolin, Barbara; Hamulyák, Karly; Kamphuisen, Pieter; Laros-van Gorkom, Britta; Leebeek, Frank W. G.; Marten, Nijziel; Novakova, Irena; Schutgens, Roger; van der Linden, P. W. G.; van Esser, Joost; van der Meer, J.; Ypma, Paula; Campos, Manuel; Aguilar, Carlos; Altisent, Carmen; Bermejo, Nuria; del Campo, Raquel; Ferreiro Argüelles, María; González Boullosa, Rosario; Gutiérrez Pimentel, María José; Jiménez-Yuste, Victor; Jose-Felix, Lucia; Mingot, Maria Eva; Perez Garrido, Rosario; Perez Gonzale, Noelia Z.; Prieto Garcia, Manuel; Rodriguez-Huerta, Ana María; Sedano, Carmen; Tolosa Munoz, Alexandra; Baghaei, Fariba; Boehlen, Françoise; Korte, Wolfgang; Chowdary, Pratima; Evans, Gillian; Pavord, Suzanne; Rangarajan, Savita; Wilde, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is an autoimmune disease caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. Patients are at risk of severe and fatal hemorrhage until the inhibitor is eradicated, and guidelines recommend immunosuppression as soon as the diagnosis has been made. The optimal immunosuppressive

  11. Combining Stocks and Flows of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambos, Tina C.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    While previous research has mostly focused on either knowledge stocks or knowledge flows, our study is among the first to integrate these perspectives in order to shed light on the complementarity effects of different types of knowledge stocks and flows in the multinational corporation (MNC...... of complementarity create benefits for these units, but that the effects from intra-functional combinations of knowledge stocks and flows are significantly stronger than from cross-functional combinations....

  12. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  13. Akuisisi dan Budaya Knowledge Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuril Kusumawardhani Soeprapto Putri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Large companies which are experiencing barriers in innovation often take a radical step to acquire knowledge, namely acquisition. Though innovation is not the only reason, acquisition will result in the company wishes to achieve competitive advantage affected by the creation of ideas, creativity and innovation. The three points can be achieved more easily when the knowledge sharing within the organization / company runs well. However, the acquisition maybe impacts as a counter-attack for the knowledge sharing culture both in the acquisitor and and company which obtains the acquisition. Therefore, a key to succeed the acquisition is a sharing culture among individuals within a company that runs well or even better. Individuals from the acquisitor and those of the company that obtains the acquisition can adapt to each other and have confidence in order not to hinder them to share knowledge. This study discusses in detail the potential impacts of an acquisition upon a knowledge sharing culture in a company. 

  14. COPING WITH NATURE: ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE, ADOPTING TECHNOLOGY, ACCEPTING RISK. (R825751)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. SME Internationalization Intelligence Information and Knowledge on International Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizah Che Senik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs internationalization intelligence, referring to the process of gathering information and knowledge on international opportunities, is crucial to initiate SMEs’ internationalization. The literature has stressed organizational resources, networks and information sharing as means to acquire internationalization intelligence, suggesting that the resource-based, network and social capital perspectives can be adopted to explore this issue. However, previous literature still lacks evidence on how SMEs acquire relevant intelligence, and who or what are involved with the process. To address this lack of evidence, we interviewed 54 SME owners/key personnel in the manufacturing sector to: identify sources of internationalization intelligence; examine how those sources assist SMEs to internationalize; and develop propositions on internationalization intelligence. Analyzing the data using NVivo, four themes emerged including institutions, business associates, personal efforts, and other means. The analysis suggests internationalization intelligence occurs mainly through the networks of the SME owners/key personnel, built on their firm’s resources through their internal and external information sharing activities, indicating the need of the SMEs to position themselves in their environments. These findings are developed into propositions. The study indicates multiple perspectives in conceptualizing the process of internationalization intelligence. This study advances a conceptualization of internationalization intelligence, and offers avenues for future research.

  16. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the final... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section... develop a plan to fully protect the collateral, and the lender must dispose of the collateral without...

  17. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... combined with the duty in determining which rates are highest. (c) Gifts. An article acquired abroad by a... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty and...

  18. Carbon disulfide mediates socially-acquired nicotine self-administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengfei Wang

    Full Text Available The social environment plays a critical role in smoking initiation as well as relapse. We previously reported that rats acquired nicotine self-administration with an olfactogustatory cue only when another rat consuming the same cue was present during self-administration. Because carbon disulfide (CS2 mediates social learning of food preference in rodents, we hypothesized that socially acquired nicotine self-administration is also mediated by CS2. We tested this hypothesis by placing female adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats in operant chambers equipped with two lickometers. Licking on the active spout meeting a fixed-ratio 10 schedule triggered the concurrent delivery of an i.v. infusion (saline, or 30 µg/kg nicotine, free base and an appetitive olfactogustatory cue containing CS2 (0-500 ppm. Rats that self-administered nicotine with the olfactogustatory cue alone licked less on the active spout than on the inactive spout. Adding CS2 to the olfactogustatory cue reversed the preference for the spouts. The group that received 500 ppm CS2 and the olfactogustatory cue obtained a significantly greater number of nicotine infusions than other groups. After extinction training, the original self-administration context reinstated nicotine-seeking behavior in all nicotine groups. In addition, in rats that received the olfactogustatory cue and 500 ppm CS2 during SA, a social environment where the nicotine-associated olfactory cue is present, induced much stronger drug-seeking behavior compared to a social environment lacking the olfactogustatory cue. These data established that CS2 is a critical signal that mediates social learning of nicotine self-administration with olfactogustatory cues in rodents. Additionally, these data showed that the social context can further enhance the drug-seeking behavior induced by the drug-taking environment.

  19. Microbiology and outcomes of community acquired pneumonia in non cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polverino, Eva; Cilloniz, Catia; Menendez, Rosario; Gabarrus, Albert; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Alcaraz, Victoria; Terraneo, Silvia; Puig de la Bella Casa, Jordi; Mensa, Josep; Ferrer, Miquel; Torres, Antoni

    2015-07-01

    It is general belief that Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) is characterized by frequent community-acquired pneumonia. Nonetheless, the knowledge on clinical characteristics of CAP in NCFBE is poor and no specific recommendations are available. We aim to investigate clinical and microbiological characteristics of NCFBE patients with CAP. Prospective observational study of 3495 CAP patients (2000-2011). We found 90 (2.0%) NCFBE-CAP that in comparison with non-bronchiectatic CAP (n, 3405) showed older age (mean ± [SD], NCFBE-CAP 73 ± 14 vs. CAP 65 ± 19yrs), more vaccinations (pneumococcal: 35% vs. 14%; influenza: 60% vs. 42%), comorbidities (n ≥ 2: 43% vs. 25%), previous antibiotics (38% vs. 22%), and inhaled steroids (53% vs. 16%) (p pneumoniae was the most frequent isolate in both groups (NCFBE-CAP 44.4% vs. CAP 42.7%; p = 0.821) followed by respiratory virus, mixed infections and atypical bacteria. Considering overall frequencies of the main pathogens (including monomicrobial and mixed infections) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.5% vs. 2.9%; p pneumoniae, are also involved in NCFBE-CAP but P. aeruginosa and other Enterobacteriaceae were globally more frequent than in CAP. Therefore, a wide microbiological investigation should be recommended in all NCFBE-CAP cases as well as routine pneumococcal vaccination for prevention of pneumonia. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Libraries Driving Access to Knowledge | Adu | Ghana Library Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As service organizations, Libraries have long been crowned as knowledge institutions where individuals, organizations, and societies are provided unhindered access to knowledge. The paper indicates that libraries have the infrastructure (within its environmental context) to acquire, process and make information ...

  1. Widening the Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck for Constraint-Based Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraweera, Pramuditha; Mitrovic, Antonija; Martin, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) are effective tools for education. However, developing them is a labour-intensive and time-consuming process. A major share of the effort is devoted to acquiring the domain knowledge that underlies the system's intelligence. The goal of this research is to reduce this knowledge acquisition bottleneck and better…

  2. Transferring knowledge about sex and gender : Dutch case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sanden, J.A.T.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the transfer of knowledge about sex and gender from academic research contexts to different societal domains in an effort to acquire a better understanding of how these knowledge transfer processes take place and to gain insight in the factors that impact the integration

  3. Journalists\\' Knowledge of AIDS and Attitude to Persons Living with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study surveyed 254 journalists from the seven media organisations in Ibadan, Nigeria, to assess their knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), attitude to persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) and reports of AIDS-related issues. The journalists\\' overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 10.6 out of 14 ...

  4. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vist, Torill

    2011-01-01

    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  5. 107 Knowledge Management: The Case for Kenya Zachary Mosoti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zmosoti

    According to Wickramasinghe (2003), in its broadest application KM refers to how firms acquire, apply and store ... data; when intelligence is attached to the information, then knowledge is created (Govil,. 2007). The relationship .... Africa, it will be considered as an advanced big step to the second generation of. Knowledge ...

  6. Gross anatomy examination performances in relation to medical students' knowledge of classical latin and greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Shiby; Moxham, Bernard John

    2018-02-03

    The ability of medical students to acquire anatomical and medical terminologies could be influenced by their knowledge of classical Greek and Latin. In a previous study (Stephens and Moxham , Clin. Anat. 29:696at. ), it was reported that, while newly recruited medical students have a very favorable attitude toward the need to understand these classical languages, final year students see no benefit. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that, regardless of attitude, students in the initial stages of their medical education perform better at both summative and formative anatomy examinations if they have prior knowledge of Greek and Latin. First year medical students at Cardiff University who had been involved in the previous study concerning attitudes toward the relevance of the classical languages to medical education were evaluated in terms of their examination results in anatomy. Two hundred and twenty-seven students responded to a questionnaire (83% of the class) that categorized students into their linguistic knowledge and skills and their performances in formative and summative examinations were analyzed. For medical students with prior knowledge of classical Greek and Latin performed better in both summative and formative anatomy examinations. The results are therefore consistent with our hypothesis. Clin. Anat., 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Magnetic Oculomotor Prosthetics for Acquired Nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachev, Parashkev; Rose, Geoff E; Verity, David H; Manohar, Sanjay G; MacKenzie, Kelly; Adams, Gill; Theodorou, Maria; Pankhurst, Quentin A; Kennard, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Acquired nystagmus, a highly symptomatic consequence of damage to the substrates of oculomotor control, often is resistant to pharmacotherapy. Although heterogeneous in its neural cause, its expression is unified at the effector-the eye muscles themselves-where physical damping of the oscillation offers an alternative approach. Because direct surgical fixation would immobilize the globe, action at a distance is required to damp the oscillation at the point of fixation, allowing unhindered gaze shifts at other times. Implementing this idea magnetically, herein we describe the successful implantation of a novel magnetic oculomotor prosthesis in a patient. Case report of a pilot, experimental intervention. A 49-year-old man with longstanding, medication-resistant, upbeat nystagmus resulting from a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by stage 2A, grade I, nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's lymphoma. We designed a 2-part, titanium-encased, rare-earth magnet oculomotor prosthesis, powered to damp nystagmus without interfering with the larger forces involved in saccades. Its damping effects were confirmed when applied externally. We proceeded to implant the device in the patient, comparing visual functions and high-resolution oculography before and after implantation and monitoring the patient for more than 4 years after surgery. We recorded Snellen visual acuity before and after intervention, as well as the amplitude, drift velocity, frequency, and intensity of the nystagmus in each eye. The patient reported a clinically significant improvement of 1 line of Snellen acuity (from 6/9 bilaterally to 6/6 on the left and 6/5-2 on the right), reflecting an objectively measured reduction in the amplitude, drift velocity, frequency, and intensity of the nystagmus. These improvements were maintained throughout a follow-up of 4 years and enabled him to return to paid employment. This work opens a new field of implantable therapeutic devices-oculomotor prosthetics-designed to modify eye

  8. Community-acquired pneumonia; Ambulant erworbene Pneumonien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetter-Lang, S.; Herold, C.J. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wien (Austria)

    2017-01-15

    The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging. The radiological findings serve as proof or exclusion of pneumonia and can also be used to evaluate the extent of the disease (e.g. monolobular, multilobular, unilateral or bilateral). In cases of prolonged disease, suspicion of complications (e.g. pleural effusion or empyema, necrotizing pneumonia or abscess) or comorbid conditions (e.g. underlying pulmonary or mediastinal diseases) computed tomography is an important diagnostic tool in addition to chest radiography. Ultrasound is often used to diagnose pleural processes (e.g. parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema). (orig.) [German] Anhand der klinischen Symptome und laborchemischen Befundkonstellation alleine ist es oft nicht moeglich, die Diagnose einer ambulant erworbenen Pneumonie (''community-acquired pneumonia'', CAP) zu stellen. Bei jedem Patienten mit Verdacht auf CAP sollte eine Roentgenthoraxaufnahme in 2 Ebenen angefertigt werden. Weiter muss eine Risikostratifizierung im Sinne der Entscheidung ambulante Therapie vs. Hospitalisierung erfolgen. Anhand der Analyse radiologischer Muster sowie deren Verteilung und Ausdehnung koennen eine grobe Zuordnung zu sogenannten Erregergruppen sowie eine Differenzierung zwischen viralen und bakteriellen Infektionen gelingen. Da

  9. Music therapy for acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Magee, Wendy L; Dileo, Cheryl; Wheeler, Barbara L; McGilloway, Emer

    2010-07-07

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) can result in impairments in motor function, language, cognition, sensory processing and emotional disturbances. This may severely reduce a survivor's quality of life. Music therapy has been used in rehabilitation to stimulate brain functions involved in movement, cognition, speech, emotions and sensory perceptions. A systematic review is needed to gauge the efficacy of music therapy as a rehabilitation intervention for people with ABI. To examine the effects of music therapy with standard care versus standard care alone or standard care combined with other therapies on gait, upper extremity function, communication, mood and emotions, social skills, pain, behavioral outcomes, activities of daily living and adverse events. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (February 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2009), MEDLINE (July 2009), EMBASE (August 2009), CINAHL (March 2010), PsycINFO (July 2009), LILACS (August 2009), AMED (August 2009) and Science Citation Index (August 2009). We handsearched music therapy journals and conference proceedings, searched dissertation and specialist music databases, trials and research registers, reference lists, and contacted experts and music therapy associations. There was no language restriction. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that compared music therapy interventions and standard care with standard care alone or combined with other therapies for people older than 16 years of age who had acquired brain damage of a non-degenerative nature and were participating in treatment programs offered in hospital, outpatient or community settings. Two review authors independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data. We present results using mean differences (using post-test scores) as all outcomes were measured with the same scale. We included seven studies (184 participants). The results suggest that rhythmic

  10. Acquired ventricular septal defect due to infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi E Durden

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired intracardiac left-to-right shunts are rare occurrences. Chest trauma and myocardial infection are well-known causes of acquired ventricular septal defect (VSD. There have been several case reports describing left ventricle to right atrium shunt after infective endocarditis (IE. We present here a patient found to have an acquired VSD secondary to IE of the aortic and tricuspid valves in the setting of a known bicuspid aortic valve. This is the first case reported of acquired VSD in a pediatric patient in the setting of IE along with literature review of acquired left-to-right shunts.

  11. Potential Therapeutic Strategies to Overcome Acquired Resistance to BRAF or MEK Inhibitors in BRAF Mutant Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Ryan B.; Settleman, Jeffrey; Engelman, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent clinical trials with selective inhibitors of the BRAF and MEK kinases have shown promising results in patients with tumors harboring BRAF V600 mutations. However, as has been observed previously with similarly successful targeted therapies, acquired resistance to these agents is an emerging problem that limits their clinical benefit. Several recent studies from our laboratory and others have investigated the causes of acquired resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibitors, and multiple resistance mechanisms have been identified. Here, we review these mechanisms and suggest that they can be broadly grouped into two main classes: ERK-dependent and ERK-independent. We also propose distinct therapeutic strategies that might be employed to overcome each class of acquired resistance. PMID:21505228

  12. Posttransplantation Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis Acquired from Donor Lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Melissa B.; Hendren, Ryan; Gilligan, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    A North Carolinian developed fatal coccidioidomycosis immediately after bilateral lung transplantation. The donor had previously traveled to Mexico, and the recipient had no travel history to an area where Coccidioides immitis is endemic. Immunosuppresive therapy of the transplant recipient likely reactivated latent Coccidioides infection in the donor lungs, leading to posttransplant coccidioidomycosis.

  13. Knowledge, indigenous knowledge, peace and development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to understand the nature of knowledge, introduce the concept of indigenous knowledge, provide some idea of the status of Indigenous Knowledge (IK) in Tanzania, explore how IK is linked to peace and consider the way ahead, recognizing some of the obstacles and discussing how knowledge may be ...

  14. The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.

    1987-01-01

    Representation of knowledge in artificially intelligent systems is discussed. Types of knowledge that might need to be represented in AI systems are listed, and include knowledge about objects, events, knowledge about how to do things, and knowledge about what human beings know (meta-knowledge). The use of knowledge in AI systems is discussed in terms of acquiring and retrieving knowledge and reasoning about known facts. Different kinds of reasonings or representations are ghen described with some examples given. These include formal reasoning or logical representation, which is related to mathematical logic, production systems, which are based on the idea of condition-action pairs (production), procedural reasoning, which uses pre-formed plans to solve problems, frames, which provide a structure for representing knowledge in an organized manner, direct analogical representations, which represent knowledge in such a manner that permits some observation without deduction

  15. Free Radicals Mediate Systemic Acquired Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic acquired resistance (SAR is a form of resistance that protects plants against a broad spectrum of secondary infections. However, exploiting SAR for the protection of agriculturally important plants warrants a thorough investigation of the mutual interrelationships among the various signals that mediate SAR. Here, we show that nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS serve as inducers of SAR in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, genetic mutations that either inhibit NO/ROS production or increase NO accumulation (e.g., a mutation in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase [GSNOR] abrogate SAR. Different ROS function additively to generate the fatty-acid-derived azelaic acid (AzA, which in turn induces production of the SAR inducer glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P. Notably, this NO/ROS→AzA→G3P-induced signaling functions in parallel with salicylic acid-derived signaling. We propose that the parallel operation of NO/ROS and SA pathways facilitates coordinated regulation in order to ensure optimal induction of SAR.

  16. Drug abuse and acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Y

    1998-12-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a modern plague. The first sign of the disease was the appearance of Pneumocystis carinii and Kaposi's sarcoma among young homosexual patients. The virus transmission is from an infected individual to a susceptible host through blood-related, sexual, and perinatal routes. Exchange of body fluid occurs when sharing syringes, drugs, and drug paraphernalia. Although the largest number of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is in subSaharan Africa, the most rapid growth of HIV infection during the 1990s was seen in South-East Asia. Asia showed a steep increase from 1992. Given the experiences in Thailand, India and China, a similar spread of AIDS in other parts of Asia is possible. The risk behaviors that enable the spread of HIV are present in all Pacific Asian countries. Risk behaviors are considered to be the injection of illicit drugs, male patronage of prostitutes, high rates of sexually transmitted diseases, and low condom use.

  17. Identification of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Cosentino, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    ObjectivesIdentification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic laborato......ObjectivesIdentification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic...... laboratories and is anticipated to substitute traditional methods for resistance gene identification. Thus, the current challenge is to extract the relevant information from the large amount of generated data.MethodsWe developed a web-based method, ResFinder that uses BLAST for identification of acquired...... antimicrobial resistance genes in whole-genome data. As input, the method can use both pre-assembled, complete or partial genomes, and short sequence reads from four different sequencing platforms. The method was evaluated on 1862 GenBank files containing 1411 different resistance genes, as well as on 23 de...

  18. Peptidomic analysis of human acquired enamel pellicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Rui; Calheiros-Lobo, Maria João; Williams, Jason; Ferrer-Correia, António J; Tomer, Kenneth B; Duarte, José A; Domingues, Pedro M; Amado, Francisco M L

    2007-11-01

    Human acquired enamel pellicle is the result of a selective interaction of salivary proteins and peptides with the tooth surface. In the present work, the characterization of the peptides as well as the type of interactions established with the enamel surface was performed. Peptides from in vivo bovine enamel implants in the human oral cavity were sequentially extracted using guanidine and trifluoroacetic acid solutions and the fractions obtained were analysed by LC-MS and LC-MS/MS. Based on the LC-MS data, six phosphorylated peptides were identified in an intact form, strongly adsorbed to the enamel surface. Data from the LC-MS/MS analyses allowed us to identified 30 fragment peptides non-covalently bonded to enamel [basic proline-rich proteins, histatins (1 and 3) and acidic proline-rich protein classes]. The tandem mass spectrometry experiments showed the existence of a pattern of amide bond cleavage for the different identified peptide classes suggesting a selective proteolytic activity. For histatins, a predominance of cleavage at Arg, Lys and His residues was observed, while for basic proline-rich proteins, cleavage at Arg and Pro residues prevailed. In the case of acidic proline-rich proteins, a clearly predominance of cleavage of the Gln-Gly amide bond was evident. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Ocular Manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Shin; Sun, Hae Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kang, Kui Dong; Lee, Sung Jin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the patterns and risk factors of the ocular manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their correlation with CD4+ count in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This retrospective study examined 127 AIDS patients who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital. Data were collected from patient interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. Ophthalmologic examinations included the best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment and adnexal examination, and dilated fundus examination. Of the 127 patients with AIDS, 118 were on HAART and 9 were not. The mean CD4+ count was 266.7 ± 209.1 cells/µL. There were ocular manifestations in 61 patients (48.0%). The incidence of anterior segment manifestations was higher than posterior segment manifestations at 28.3% and 19.7%, respectively. The mean CD4+ count was significantly (p AIDS. In this study, anterior segment and external ocular manifestations occurred more frequently than posterior segment manifestations. Also, the mean CD4+ count was significantly lower in patients with posterior segment ocular manifestations versus anterior segment ocular manifestations. We found that CD4+ count and age >35 years were independent risk factors for developing ocular manifestations.

  20. Acquiring Synaesthesia: Insights from Training Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eRothen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Synaesthesia denotes a condition of remarkable individual differences in experience characterized by specific additional experiences in response to normal sensory input. Synaesthesia seems to (i run in families which suggests a genetic component, (ii is associated with marked structural and functional neural differences, and (iii is usually reported to exist from early childhood. Hence, synaesthesia is generally regarded as a congenital phenomenon. However, most synaesthetic experiences are triggered by cultural artefacts (e.g., letters, musical sounds. Evidence exists to suggest that synaesthetic experiences are triggered by the conceptual representation of their inducer stimuli. Cases were identified for which the specific synaesthetic associations are related to prior experiences and large scale studies show that grapheme-colour associations in synaesthesia are not completely random. Hence, a learning component is inherently involved in the development of specific synaesthetic associations. Researchers have hypothesized that associative learning is the critical mechanism. Recently, it has become of scientific and public interest if synaesthetic experiences may be acquired by the means of associative training procedures and whether the gains of these trainings are associated with similar cognitive benefits as genuine synaesthetic experiences. In order to shed light on these issues and inform synaesthesia researchers and the general interested public alike, we provide a comprehensive literature review on developmental aspects of synaesthesia and specific training procedures in non-synaesthetes. Under the light of a clear working definition of synaesthesia, we come to the conclusion that synaesthesia can potentially be learned by the appropriate training.

  1. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporal Convergence for Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillip Martin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Time and knowledge have tended to be conceptualised in conventional knowledge management systems as either ‘timeless’ recordings of procedures, or time-stamped records of past events and states. The concept of temporal convergence was previously developed to help apply knowledge-management theory to complex military processes such as commander’s intent, shared situation awareness, and self-synchronisation. This paper clarifies the concept and introduces several others in forming a framework to assist discussion and exploration of the types of knowledge required for complex endeavours, such as warfighting, characterised by opposition and uncertainty. The approach is grounded in a pragmatist philosophy and constructivist epistemology. Argument proceeds along mathematical lines from a basis that the types of knowledge most valuable to goal-directed agents in uncertain environments can be modelled as directed graph topologies. The framework is shown to be useful in describing and reasoning about the knowledge requirements and prerequisites for distributed decision-making through the sharing of situational knowledge and common intentions, with practical application to the planning and execution of operations. To the designers of knowledge management systems seeking to address this space, it presents a challenge that cannot be addressed merely by construction, storage, search and retrieval of documents and records pertaining to the past.

  3. CardioKnowledge: A Knowledge Management Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Montoni, Mariella A.; Galotta, Catia; Rocha, Ana Regina; Rabelo, Álvaro; Rabelo, Lisia

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management supports decision-making by capturing and analyzing key performance indicators, providing visibility into the effectiveness of the business model, and by concentrating collaborative work and employee knowledge reviews on critical business problems. CardioKnowledge is a knowledge management environment based on the business and process requirements of a health care organization in Cardiology. CardioKnowledge supports organizational processes in order to facilitate the comm...

  4. Acquired valvar disease and cardiac tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttley, M.

    1985-01-01

    Investigation must determine the severity of the valve fault or faults, the effect on cardiac function and the significance of any associated cardiac disease in order that surgical referral can be made when appropriate with knowledge of operative risk and prognosis; radiology plays an important part in this. Radiological features will depend on the valve or valves affected, the type and severity of the haemodynamic disturbance and its time scale of development and duration. They may be modified by embolism or infection and there may be specific radiological manifestations of the underlying disease

  5. When words fail us: insights into language processing from developmental and acquired disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dorothy V M; Nation, Kate; Patterson, Karalyn

    2014-01-01

    Acquired disorders of language represent loss of previously acquired skills, usually with relatively specific impairments. In children with developmental disorders of language, we may also see selective impairment in some skills; but in this case, the acquisition of language or literacy is affected from the outset. Because systems for processing spoken and written language change as they develop, we should beware of drawing too close a parallel between developmental and acquired disorders. Nevertheless, comparisons between the two may yield new insights. A key feature of connectionist models simulating acquired disorders is the interaction of components of language processing with each other and with other cognitive domains. This kind of model might help make sense of patterns of comorbidity in developmental disorders. Meanwhile, the study of developmental disorders emphasizes learning and change in underlying representations, allowing us to study how heterogeneity in cognitive profile may relate not just to neurobiology but also to experience. Children with persistent language difficulties pose challenges both to our efforts at intervention and to theories of learning of written and spoken language. Future attention to learning in individuals with developmental and acquired disorders could be of both theoretical and applied value.

  6. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  7. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  8. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  9. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  10. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  11. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  12. The Role of Leadership: The Challenge of Knowledge Management and Learning in Knowledge-Intensive Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Machuca, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge and learning are important driving forces for business success and competitiveness, especially in the knowledge-intensive organizations (KIO's) whose core business is to create and sell knowledge (e.g. education, R&D units, and consultancy organizations, among others). Previous works suggested one of the Critical Success Factor (CSF)…

  13. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  14. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  15. PROGNOSTIC IMPACT OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED AND HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED HYPONATREMIA IN PATIENTS WITH DECOMPENSATED HEART FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Shchekochikhin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare prognostic impact of community-acquired and hospital-acquired hyponatremia in hospitalized patients with decompensated heart failure Material and methods. Data of 120 patients with decompensated heart failure were analyzed. Hyponatremia was defined as serum sodium concentration of 135 mmol/l or less. Several outcomes were analyzed: mortality, transfer to intensive care unit (ICU, resistance to loop diuretics and worsening renal function.Results. 13.0% of patients had community-acquired hyponatremia, 9.6% - hospital-acquired hyponatremia. Community-acquired hyponatremia was associated with increased mortality [odds ratio (OR=7.8], admission to ICU (OR=19.1 and resistance to loop diuretics (OR=4.8. Hospital-acquired hyponatremia was associated with worsening renal function (OR=12.4.Conclusion. Both, community-acquired and hospital hyponatremia have negative impact in hospitalized patients with decompensated heart failure.

  16. PROGNOSTIC IMPACT OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED AND HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED HYPONATREMIA IN PATIENTS WITH DECOMPENSATED HEART FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Shchekochikhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare prognostic impact of community-acquired and hospital-acquired hyponatremia in hospitalized patients with decompensated heart failure Material and methods. Data of 120 patients with decompensated heart failure were analyzed. Hyponatremia was defined as serum sodium concentration of 135 mmol/l or less. Several outcomes were analyzed: mortality, transfer to intensive care unit (ICU, resistance to loop diuretics and worsening renal function.Results. 13.0% of patients had community-acquired hyponatremia, 9.6% - hospital-acquired hyponatremia. Community-acquired hyponatremia was associated with increased mortality [odds ratio (OR=7.8], admission to ICU (OR=19.1 and resistance to loop diuretics (OR=4.8. Hospital-acquired hyponatremia was associated with worsening renal function (OR=12.4.Conclusion. Both, community-acquired and hospital hyponatremia have negative impact in hospitalized patients with decompensated heart failure.

  17. Silence, an Eye of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Aghamohammadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the conspicuous features of the twentieth-century West was silence. This idea could be supported by examining reflections of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Fritz Mauthner, John Cage, Samuel Beckett, Ihab Hassan, Franz Kafka, Wassily Kandinsky, Jean-Paul Sartre, Virginia Woolf, Wolfgang Iser, Jacques Derrida, and Pierre Macherey. To me, silence is not a mere theory, but rather a phenomenon from which we can get practical benefits. I believe silence is an eye, eye of knowledge. We can broaden our knowledge of the world through silence. To convey the idea that silence is an eye, I have concocted the word slence, where  has replaced the letter i and stands for the eye. This means knowledge can enable us to see, thereby acquiring knowledge of, what used to be invisible, and accordingly unknowable. In other words, through silence, we can achieve a certain type of literacy. I substantiate this claim by exploring the Horus myth, Ojo de Dios, John Cage’s 4' 33", the nature of Expressionist paintings, Hinduism, thoughts of Hermes Trismegistus and Ibn al-Arabi, and practices of Mohammad, the prophet of Islam.

  18. Translational genomics of acquired laryngotracheal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Mursalin M; Zhao, Zhigen; Khurana, Jasvir; Krynetskiy, Evgeny; Soliman, Ahmed M S

    2014-05-01

    Acquired laryngotracheal stenosis (ALTS) results from abnormal mucosal wound healing after laryngeal and/or tracheal injury. Patients with ALTS often present late after significant reduction of the airway lumen and onset of symptoms. Motivated by the need for earlier detection of affected patients, we sought to investigate genetic markers for ALTS that would identify susceptible patients. Pilot Case-Control Study. Seventy-six patients were recruited, 40 patients with ALTS and 36 control patients with airway injury but without ALTS. DNA was isolated from whole blood and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from patients. Custom primers were designed and the TaqMan assay employing allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to interrogate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs2569190, rs1799750, and rs1800469 located in candidate genes CD14, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), respectively. A logistic regression model was used to examine the association of candidate gene polymorphisms with the presence or absence of ALTS. All 76 patients were successfully genotyped at the three loci of interest by optimizing the genotyping protocol. MMP-1 SNP rs1799750 was most significantly associated with development of ALTS (P = 0.005). Identification of SNPs associated with development of ALTS will provide new experimental targets to study wound healing in human subjects. The association found in the current study between ALTS and SNP rs1799750 is being validated in a larger population examining an expanded set of relevant SNPs. Identifying patients with genetic susceptibility to ALTS and poor wound healing in the upper airway will be useful for management of patients after upper-airway injury. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. How to acquire customers on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D L; Novak, T P

    2000-01-01

    Most retailers on the Web spend more to acquire customers than they will ever get back in revenue from them. Many think that sky-high spending on marketing is necessary to stake out their share of Internet space. But is it really? How do retailers know how much to pay? Consider CDnow, which has developed a multifaceted customer-acquisition strategy that reflects a clear understanding of the economics of an on-line business. At the heart of its strategy is affiliate marketing, a concept the company pioneered. Under its BuyWeb program, anyone can put a link to CDnow on his or her Web site, and if a customer uses that link to arrive at CDnow and make a purchase, the referring site owner gets a percentage of the sale. CDnow pays no money if no sale is made, which makes the marketing program completely efficient. But CDnow didn't stop there. Being a Web store, it had complete data on the number of visitors to its site and what they bought, which it used to work out the lifetime value of an average customer. CDnow used that figure to determine how much to wager on the expensive and risky world of traditional advertising to reach a wider audience that wasn't already on-line. CDnow's experience, still a work in progress, contradicts John Wanamaker's oft-quoted lament: "I know half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, but I can never find out which half." As the CDnow example demonstrates, there is a way to find out which half really works.

  20. Transfer of knowledge in international cooperation: the Farmanguinhos – SMM case

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Samuel Araujo Gomes; Duarte, Roberto Gonzalez; de Castro, José Márcio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence of four mechanisms of knowledge transfer (training, technical visits, expatriation, and standard operating procedures) on the different dimensions (potential and realized) of absorptive capacity in international technical cooperation. METHODS We examine the case of implementation of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos. Data have been collected using semi-structured interviews (applied to 21 professionals of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos, Farmanguinhos, FIOCRUZ, and Itamaraty) and official documents. The data of the interviews have been submitted to content analysis, using the software NVivo. RESULTS Training and technical visits directly influenced the acquisition and, partly, the assimilation of knowledge. Expatriation contributed with the transformation of this knowledge from the development and refinement of operational routines. Finally, the definition of standard operating procedures allowed the Mozambican technicians to be the actors of the transformation of the knowledge previously acquired and assimilated and, at the same time, it laid the foundations for a future exploration of the knowledge. CONCLUSIONS Training and technical visits mainly influence the potential absorptive capacity, while expatriation and standard operating procedures most directly affect the realized absorptive capacity. PMID:29166441

  1. Transfer of knowledge in international cooperation: the Farmanguinhos – SMM case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Araujo Gomes da Silva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence of four mechanisms of knowledge transfer (training, technical visits, expatriation, and standard operating procedures on the different dimensions (potential and realized of absorptive capacity in international technical cooperation. METHODS We examine the case of implementation of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos. Data have been collected using semi-structured interviews (applied to 21 professionals of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos, Farmanguinhos, FIOCRUZ, and Itamaraty and official documents. The data of the interviews have been submitted to content analysis, using the software NVivo. RESULTS Training and technical visits directly influenced the acquisition and, partly, the assimilation of knowledge. Expatriation contributed with the transformation of this knowledge from the development and refinement of operational routines. Finally, the definition of standard operating procedures allowed the Mozambican technicians to be the actors of the transformation of the knowledge previously acquired and assimilated and, at the same time, it laid the foundations for a future exploration of the knowledge. CONCLUSIONS Training and technical visits mainly influence the potential absorptive capacity, while expatriation and standard operating procedures most directly affect the realized absorptive capacity.

  2. Knowledge Sharing in Knowledge-Intensive Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Akshey; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study of the knowledge-sharing difficulties experienced by three departments in a knowledge-intensive firm. The case organization is a global consulting firm that has been on the forefront of knowledge management and has won several knowledge management related international...... acclaims. Our analysis shows that there are strong disincentives in place for departments to share knowledge. We found that the nature of the businesses of the departments was very different and so were their knowledge requirements and their preferred ways to seek knowledge. Additionally, confidentiality...... agreements with clients and lack of cross-departmental interaction inhibited knowledge sharing outside departmental boundaries. Contrary to the common belief in the organization, we found that one single IT system could not satisfy the contextspecific knowledge-sharing needs of the different departments. We...

  3. ACQUIRING SKILL IN SPORT: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Honeybourne

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The book is a user-friendly, highly accessible text for the students to understand the basic concepts of sport skills acquisition. Each chapter covers important theoretical background and shows how this theory can be applied through practical examples from the world of sport. The book also examines the ways in which skills can be most effectively and addresses issues such as: characteristics and classifications of abilities and skills in sport, information processing in sport, motor programmes and motor control, phases of learning and presentation of skills and practices. PURPOSE This textbook aims to help readers develop an understanding of the basic concepts of motor skills in sport, dealing initially with the technical terms and then on focusing on the theories related to the learning of these skills. AUDIENCE A valuable resource for students and teachers in physical education, sport studies and sports science courses as well as for coaches who want to develop their theoretical knowledge. FEATURES The book guides the readers through the science that underlies sport skills, using practical examples to explain the concepts discussed. It is composed of 9 chapters which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Characteristics and classification of skills in sport, 2. Characteristics and classification of abilities in sport, 3. Information processing in sport, 4. Motor programmes and motor control, 5. Individual differences, 6. Theories of learning, 7. Phase of learning and learning curves, 8. Presentation of skills and practices, 10. Guidance, teaching and learning styles. ASSESSMENT This is an excellent book for the students in the field. Clearly written and illustrated throughout, with questions to test knowledge and understanding, this is an ideal introductory text for students of physical education, sport, human movement science and kinesiology, as well as

  4. Maths concepts in teaching: Procedural and conceptual knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Long

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In teaching a general course on mathematics for prospective teachers, I have found the theoretical distinction between conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge (Hiebert & Lefevre, 1986 a useful focus for teaching practice. The constructs provide a scaffold for the learning of mathematics by the students and for thinking about the teaching of mathematics in the school environment. These theoretical insights uncover in part the processes for acquiring knowledge and provide a tool for addressing problematic areas of learning.

  5. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON EDUCATION AND LIFELONG LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Marta-Christina SUCIU; Alexandru GHITIU-BRATESCU; Ana-Maria NEAGU; Mina FANEA-IVANOVICI

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays knowledge and its strategic applications have become a major source of competitive advantage for organizations, regions and countries. According to the Complexity science approach KM regards to join all the capabilities (called by some authors “core competences”) such as to contribute for acquiring, creating, sharing, diffusing, utilizing, and storing knowledge among organizational members. Knowledge management seems to be one of the major factors for an organization long-run sustain...

  6. Nuclear Knowledge Innovations Assimilation: The Impact of Organizational Knowledge Frames and Triple Helix Dynamics of Knowledge Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M. D.; Sultana, T.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Previous research did not investigate the impact of the TH dynamics of knowledge innovations on the nuclear knowledge innovations adoption/assimilation in the organizational context. Hence, the recommendation of R&D policy reformulation seems too broad. These gaps are the prime motivators for the research. In the organizational context, we posit that TH dynamics of knowledge base innovation serves as complements to managers’ knowledge frames related to a technology innovation. We examine interactions between three knowledge frames—integration frame, opportunism frame, and policy knowledge frame, and two TH dynamics of knowledge innovations—bilateral TH dynamics of knowledge innovations and trilateral TH dynamics of knowledge innovations, and their relationship with the assimilation of nuclear knowledge innovations. We aim to research on the issues of the dynamics of knowledge base of innovations involving TH collaborations (university, industry and government) in Bangladesh as a new build nuclear project. As a result, we can find out the impact of TH collaborations on organizational nuclear knowledge innovations management as well as core institutional problems of the knowledge base of innovation systems in terms of R&D policy. Finally, findings identify lack in production of nuclear knowledge innovations and concrete recommendation of R&D policy reformulation. (author

  7. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  8. [Neuroendocrine disturbances after acquired brain damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitschmann-Andermahr, I; Brabant, G

    2011-04-01

    Hypopituitarism is not a rare disease and its clinical signs and symptoms deserve the attention of the clinically practising neurologist. Next to the classical cause of hypopituitarism mediated by tumours of the hypothalamo-pituitary region, a number of recent articles have highlighted the high frequency of central endocrine disturbances in patients with brain damage, i. e. not only after traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage but also as a consequence of the treatment of childhood brain tumours. This article provides an overview of the clinical symptomatology and pathophysiology of hypopituitarism as well as the current knowledge about neuroendocrine disturbances in the adult patient suffering from the above-mentioned disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. The Amelia Bedelia effect: world knowledge and the goal bias in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Barner, David

    2013-09-01

    How does world knowledge interact with syntax to constrain linguistic interpretation? We explored this question by testing children's acquisition of verbs like weed and water, which have opposite meanings despite occurring in the same syntactic frames. Whereas "weed the garden" treats "the garden" as a source, "water the garden" treats it as a goal. In five experiments, we asked how children learn these verbs. Previous theories predict that verbs which describe the transfer of an object with respect to its natural origin (e.g., "weed the garden") should receive source interpretations, whereas verbs that describe the transfer of an object with respect to something it is functionally related to (e.g., "water the garden") should receive goal interpretations. Therefore, acquiring world knowledge - about the natural origins and functional uses of objects - should be sufficient for differentiating between source and goal meanings. Experiments 1 and 2 casted doubt on this hypothesis, as 4- and 5-year-olds failed to use their world knowledge when interpreting these verbs and instead overextended goal interpretations. For example, children interpreted "weed the garden" to mean "put weeds onto a garden", even when they knew the natural origin of weeds. Experiment 3 tested children's interpretation of novel verbs and directly manipulated their access to relevant world knowledge. While younger children continued to exhibit a goal bias and failed to use world knowledge, older children generalized goal and source interpretations to novel verbs according to world knowledge. In Experiments 4 and 5, we confirmed that adults use world knowledge to guide their interpretation of novel verbs, but also showed that even adults prefer goal interpretations when they are made contextually plausible. We argue that children ultimately overcome a goal bias by learning to use their world knowledge to weigh the plausibility of events (e.g., of putting weeds into a garden). Copyright © 2013

  10. Assessment and Treatment of Cognition and Communication Skills in Adults With Acquired Brain Injury via Telepractice: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jaumeiko J; Frymark, Tobi; Franceschini, Nicole M; Theodoros, Deborah G

    2015-05-01

    This is a systematic review of assessment and treatment of cognitive and communicative abilities of individuals with acquired brain injury via telepractice versus in person. The a priori clinical questions were informed by previous research that highlights the importance of considering any functional implications of outcomes, determining disorder- and setting-specific concerns, and measuring the potential impact of diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficacy data on interpretation of findings. A literature search of multiple databases (e.g., PubMed) was conducted using key words and study inclusion criteria associated with the clinical questions. Ten group studies were accepted that addressed assessment of motor speech, language, and cognitive impairments; assessment of motor speech and language activity limitations/participation restrictions; and treatment of cognitive impairments and activity limitations/participation restrictions. In most cases, equivalence of outcomes was noted across service delivery methods. Limited findings, lack of diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficacy data, and heterogeneity of assessments and interventions precluded robust evaluation of clinical implications for telepractice equivalence and the broader area of telepractice efficacy. Future research is needed that will build upon current knowledge through replication. In addition, further evaluation at the impairment and activity limitation/participation restriction levels is needed.

  11. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  12. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  13. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  14. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  15. Acquired Von Willebrand’s Syndrome in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Taveras Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS is an uncommon, underdiagnosed, and heterogeneous disease which is increasingly recognized as a cause of bleeding diatheses. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an infrequent cause of AVWS. Herein, we report a case of AVWS diagnosed during the initial presentation of SLE in a previously healthy young man with no family history of bleeding diathesis who presented with worsening epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and anasarca. He was found to have severe anemia and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT with severely decreased levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF measurements in addition to markedly decreased factor VIII levels. Further evaluation revealed nephrotic syndrome and interstitial lung disease due to SLE. He initially received combination therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and von Willebrand factor/factor VIII concentrates without significant improvement. Treatment with steroids, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab was followed by clinical improvement evidenced by cessation of bleeding. The short follow-up did not allow us to definitely prove the therapeutic effect of immunosuppressive treatment on AVWS in SLE patients. This case adds to the literature supporting the relationship between AVWS and SLE and highlights the importance of combination therapy in the treatment of severe AVWS as well as the role of IVIG, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab in AVWS associated with SLE.

  16. Acquiring 3D indoor environments with variability and repetition

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngmin

    2012-11-01

    Large-scale acquisition of exterior urban environments is by now a well-established technology, supporting many applications in search, navigation, and commerce. The same is, however, not the case for indoor environments, where access is often restricted and the spaces are cluttered. Further, such environments typically contain a high density of repeated objects (e.g., tables, chairs, monitors, etc.) in regular or non-regular arrangements with significant pose variations and articulations. In this paper, we exploit the special structure of indoor environments to accelerate their 3D acquisition and recognition with a low-end handheld scanner. Our approach runs in two phases: (i) a learning phase wherein we acquire 3D models of frequently occurring objects and capture their variability modes from only a few scans, and (ii) a recognition phase wherein from a single scan of a new area, we identify previously seen objects but in different poses and locations at an average recognition time of 200ms/model. We evaluate the robustness and limits of the proposed recognition system using a range of synthetic and real world scans under challenging settings. © 2012 ACM.

  17. [Community acquired pneumonia in children: Outpatient treatment and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Andrés Martín, A; Tagarro García, A; Escribano Montaner, A; Figuerola Mulet, J; García García, J J; Moreno-Galdó, A; Rodrigo Gonzalo de Lliria, C; Ruiz Contreras, J; Saavedra Lozano, J

    2015-12-01

    There have been significant changes in community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children in the last decade. These changes relate to epidemiology and clinical presentation. Resistance to antibiotics is also a changing issue. These all have to be considered when treating CAP. In this document, two of the main Spanish pediatric societies involved in the treatment of CAP in children, propose a consensus concerning therapeutic approach. These societies are the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and the Spanish Society of Paediatric Chest Diseases. The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (CAV-AEP) has also been involved in the prevention of CAP. An attempt is made to provide up-to-date guidelines to all paediatricians. The first part of the statement presents the approach to ambulatory, previously healthy children. We also review the prevention with currently available vaccines. In a next second part, special situations and complicated forms will be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The Dual Reality of the Chinese Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Zhang, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on stem cell research and financial derivatives as two case studies to analyse the role of scientific knowledge and technology in the development of the Chinese knowledge economy. The findings suggest that, despite China's recent commitments in acquiring international expertise......, there is a decoupling between knowledge acquisitions and applications in the institutionalisation of knowledge within these sectors. Scientific-based knowledge and professional know-how are on the one hand perceived as prime drivers of China's development, yet they on the other hand remain subordinate to existing...

  19. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  20. Acquired agranulocytosis with granulocyte specific cytotoxic autoantibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, J; Goeken, N E; Thompson, J S; Dick, F R; Gingrich, R D

    1979-05-01

    Multiple infections and severe neutropenia were found in a previously healthy 29 year old man with no history of similar syndromes in the family, drug ingestion or exposure to environmental toxins. There was no evidence at the time of presentation of diseases previously associated with agranulocytosis (e.g., neoplasia, thyrotoxicosis, chronic infection, collagen-vascular disease or leukoagglutinating antibody). His serum contained a nonagglutinating, complement-dependent, cytotoxic antibody, however, reactive with peripheral blood granulocytes from 35 per cent of normal donors. The neutropenia was not affected by steroids but resolved promptly after splenectomy. Microscopic examination of the spleen revealed ingestion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes by splenic macrophages. Family studies indicated that the target antigen was non-HLA and that the antibody was not absorbed by lymphocytes or platelets. We conclude that the agranulocytosis was autoimmune in origin and suggest that similar myeloid-specific immune responses could influence granulocyte tranfusion and bone marrow transplantation by alloimmune "rejection" that would not be avoided by matching only for HLA specificities.

  1. Allopurinol in the treatment of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis*

    OpenAIRE

    Tilz, Hemma; Becker, Jürgen Christian; Legat, Franz; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Inzinger, Martin; Massone, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis is a perforating dermatosis usually associated with different systemic diseases, mainly diabetes mellitus and/or chronic renal insufficiency. Different therapies have been tried but treatment is not standardized yet and remains a challenge. In the last few years, allopurinol has been reported as a good therapeutic option for acquired reactive perforating collagenosis. We describe the case of a 73-year-old man affected by acquired reactive perforating...

  2. Neural basis of acquired amusia and its recovery after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Sihvonen, A.J.; Ripollés, P.; Leo, V.; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, S.; Särkämö, T.

    2016-01-01

    Although acquired amusia is a relatively common disorder after stroke, its precise neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. To evaluate which brain regions form the neural substrate for acquired amusia and its recovery, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study with 77 human stroke subjects. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6 month poststroke stages. Amusia and aphasia were behaviorally assessed at acute and 3 month poststroke stages using t...

  3. Tacit knowledge emergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, B. [McMaster Univ., Univ. Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering, Hamilton, Ontario, (Canada)], E-mail: garlandw@mcmaster.ca

    2008-07-01

    This paper outlines tacit knowledge emergence. Tacit knowledge is 'knowledge that we have without knowing we have it and that once we know we have it, it becomes harder to know how we know what we know'. We learn by doing. Knowledge is not a thing; it is a process. It cites examples of tacit knowledge transfer failures. Failure in organization could be attributed to lack of explicit scientific and engineering knowledge, lack of research or improperly implemented knowledge.

  4. Knowledge Management as Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the case of product development for insights into the potential role of knowledge management. Current literature on knowledge management entertains the notion that knowledge management is a specific set of practices - separate enough to allow specialization of responsibility....... By common standard, the proclaimed responsibility of knowledge management is shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action in an organization. The significance of the practices of knowledge management is the intention of shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action....

  5. Tacit knowledge emergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines tacit knowledge emergence. Tacit knowledge is 'knowledge that we have without knowing we have it and that once we know we have it, it becomes harder to know how we know what we know'. We learn by doing. Knowledge is not a thing; it is a process. It cites examples of tacit knowledge transfer failures. Failure in organization could be attributed to lack of explicit scientific and engineering knowledge, lack of research or improperly implemented knowledge

  6. Knowledge management: organizing nursing care knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane A; Willson, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Almost everything we do in nursing is based on our knowledge. In 1984, Benner (From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley; 1984) described nursing knowledge as the culmination of practical experience and evidence from research, which over time becomes the "know-how" of clinical experience. This "know-how" knowledge asset is dynamic and initially develops in the novice critical care nurse, expands within competent and proficient nurses, and is actualized in the expert intensive care nurse. Collectively, practical "know-how" and investigational (evidence-based) knowledge culminate into the "knowledge of caring" that defines the profession of nursing. The purpose of this article is to examine the concept of knowledge management as a framework for identifying, organizing, analyzing, and translating nursing knowledge into daily practice. Knowledge management is described in a model case and implemented in a nursing research project.

  7. Technical Knowledge Creation: Enabling Tacit Knowledge Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Chaudhuri, Atanu

    2018-01-01

    The paper investigates knowledge creation in nascent technical industries, a somewhat neglected empirical setting concerning knowledge creation. Frameworks on organizational learning and knowledge creation assume that knowledge creation depends on language creation and neglect the benefits involved...... by allowing elements of new product and process ideas to mature in a tacit form, whereas cognitive neuroscience data suggests that technical knowledge creation is largely nonlinguistic. The four case studies point to excessive reliance on group discussion, a need for more trial and error and that field tests...... and prototypes generate new learnings that save time and lowers subsequent risks. Technical knowledge creation in nascent high tech industries requires opportunities to work with and further develop knowledge in its tacit form. The paper refines frameworks on organizational learning and knowledge creation...

  8. Heroin Addicts Reporting Previous Heroin Overdoses Also Report Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradvik, Louise; Frank, Arne; Hulenvik, Per; Medvedeo, Alvaro; Berglund, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Nonfatal heroin overdoses and suicide attempts are both common among heroin addicts, but there is limited knowledge about the association between them. The sample in the present study consisted of 149 regular heroin users in Malmo, Sweden. Out of these 98 had taken an unintentional heroin overdose at some time and 51 had made at least one attempt…

  9. Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are vital farming requisites like recognition of indigenous knowledge, lack of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on sustainable resource use by disadvantaged land users. The need to form holistic approaches that entails all elements of sustainability is vital for the area development ...

  10. Corporate Knowledge Communication and Knowledge Communication Difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    H. Buluthan Cetintas; M. Nejat Ozupek

    2012-01-01

    Communication is an important factor and a prop in directing corporate activities efficiently, in ensuring the flow of knowledge which is necessary for the continuity of the institution, in creating a common language in the institution, in transferring corporate culture and ultimately in corporate success. The idea of transmitting the knowledge among the workers in a healthy manner has revived knowledge communication. Knowledge communication can be defined as the act of m...

  11. Life-threatening hemorrhage from acquired hemophilia A as a presenting manifestation of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Sheth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Acquired factor VIII deficiency (acquired hemophilia A is a rare condition characterized by the acquisition of autoantibodies that affect the clotting activity of factor VIII (fVIII. The most common manifestation in affected patients is a hemorrhagic diathesis. This disorder is associated with autoimmune diseases, pregnancy, postpartum period, drugs, and malignancy. Management of this condition begins with attempts to arrest an acute bleed based on the site and severity of bleeding and inhibitor titer. The next priority is eradication of the fVIII antibodies using immunosuppressive therapies. We report the case of a 66-year-old male who presented with spontaneous right thigh hematoma with prolonged activated partial prothrombin time and normal prothrombin time. Mixing studies confirmed the presence of an inhibitor. Further investigation for the underlying etiology of acquired hemophilia A leads to diagnosis of prostate cancer. Treatment consisted of bypassing agents including activated factor VII and activated prothrombin plasma concentrate to arrest the bleeding. Steroids and cyclophosphamide were added to suppress the fVIII inhibitors. Concomitant treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with chemotherapy confirmed the eradication of the inhibitors. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of prostate cancer diagnosed and treated simultaneously with acquired hemophilia A resulting in favorable patient outcome.

  12. Evaluation of a virtual dialogue method for acquired brain injury education: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Monika; Gillespie, Elena; Malec, James F; Zier, Marcia; Harless, William

    2013-01-01

    To assess the potential benefit of virtual dialogues with experts as a method for educating family members and caregivers of patients with an acquired brain injury (ABI). Knowledge of ABI was assessed by questionnaire for eight participants prior to and after interacting with a virtual dialogue method, called Virtual Conversations®. Participants also completed a survey regarding their perceived value of the experience. Significant improvement on the Knowledge Questionnaire was apparent from before to after participation in the virtual dialogue by the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test (Z = -1.9734; p virtual dialogue method increases knowledge of brain injury for most family caregivers. It is an effective and efficient way for family and friends of patients with ABI to learn about ABI in a short period of time at their own pace. Further evaluation of this method is indicated.

  13. Community Sites of Knowledge: Knowledge Creation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article the question is asked: What is relationship between knowledge creation and sustainable peace in Africa? The specific aim of this article is to identify specific principles of knowledge creation and sustainable peace that can serve as propositions for further research. The knowledge foundation of this discussion ...

  14. Knowledge Management, Codification and Tacit Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method: The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who…

  15. Interpreting Fuzzy Linguistic Information by Acquiring Robot's Experience Based on Internal Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, A. G. Buddhika P.; Watanabe, Keigo; Kiguchi, Kazuo; Izumi, Kiyotaka

    This paper proposes a method for interpreting fuzzy linguistic information by acquiring robot's experience on previous movements. The quantitative assessment for a fuzzy linguistic term such as “little” depends on the spatial arrangement of surrounding environment. Robot's experience on previous movements is very useful for understanding such information in a context dependant manner. Therefore, an internal rehearsal system is introduced to acquire the robot's experience on previous movements. Such acquisition enhances the robot's capability to interpret fuzzy linguistic information in fuzzy voice commands (FVCs) according to the current environmental context. The proposed system is used to evaluate the fuzzy linguistic information related to primitive movements of a robot manipulator. Those primitive movements are realized by a behavior evaluation network (BEN) with the guidance of an internal rehearsal system. The end-effector movements and the single joint movements of a robot manipulator are considered as primitive movements. They are activated by fuzzy voice motion commands (FVMCs) and fuzzy voice joint commands (FVJCs) respectively. The proposed idea is demonstrated with a PA-10 robot manipulator by navigating the robot manipulator in the user's working space. The use of the behavior evaluation network and the internal rehearsal system introduced a better way of assessing fuzzy linguistic information by acquiring the robot's experience on the corresponding environment.

  16. High prevalence of genetic variants previously associated with LQT syndrome in new exome data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Lena; Holst, Anders G; Sadjadieh, Golnaz

    2012-01-01

    Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) has provided important knowledge on this topic. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of previously LQTS-associated variants in ESP (5400 individuals), in order to identify possible false-positive LQTS variants. With this aim, we performed a search for previously...... published LQTS-associated variants in ESP. In addition, a PolyPhen-2 prediction was conducted, and the four most prevalent LQTS-associated variants with significant functional effects present in ESP were genotyped in a second control population. We identified 33 missense variants previously associated...... with LQTS in ESP. These 33 variants affected 173 alleles and this corresponded to a LQTS prevalence of 1:31 in the ESP population. PolyPhen-2 predicted 30% of the 33 variants present in ESP to be benign compared with 13% among LQTS-associated variants not present in ESP (P=0.019). Genotyping of the four...

  17. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  18. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  19. Acquired Class D β-Lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno T. Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Class D β-lactamases have emerged as a prominent resistance mechanism against β-lactam antibiotics that previously had efficacy against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria, especially by Acinetobacter baumannii and the Enterobacteriaceae. The phenotypic and structural characteristics of these enzymes correlate to activities that are classified either as a narrow spectrum, an extended spectrum, or a carbapenemase spectrum. We focus on Class D β-lactamases that are carried on plasmids and, thus, present particular clinical concern. Following a historical perspective, the susceptibility and kinetics patterns of the important plasmid-encoded Class D β-lactamases and the mechanisms for mobilization of the chromosomal Class D β-lactamases are discussed.

  20. Knowledge networks: one song, many voices

    OpenAIRE

    Santos de Vargas, Gardia Maria; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS; Fochi, Paulo Sergio; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a record built on an experience acquired at two early childhood education schools during the quest for practices that would guarantee children’s participation in their own pedagogical projects. Named as knowledge networks and based on concept mapping, the technique is permeated by ideas of listening, narrative and pedagogical documentation. This practice, carried out with children aged 0 to 6 years old, enables a dialogue between the concepts of sociology of childr...

  1. Strategies for Teaching Healthy Behavior Conceptual Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeppel, Tiffany; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2012-01-01

    By definition, conceptual knowledge is rich in relationships and understanding the kind of knowledge that may be transferred between situations. Despite the lack of importance that Conceptual Physical Education has been given in previous physical education reform efforts, research findings have shown that Conceptual Physical Education along with…

  2. Properties of the Bayesian Knowledge Tracing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Bayesian Knowledge Tracing is used very widely to model student learning. It comes in two different forms: The first form is the Bayesian Knowledge Tracing "hidden Markov model" which predicts the probability of correct application of a skill as a function of the number of previous opportunities to apply that skill and the model…

  3. Understanding Intra-Class Knowledge Inside CNN

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Donglai; Zhou, Bolei; Torrabla, Antonio; Freeman, William

    2015-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has been successful in image recognition tasks, and recent works shed lights on how CNN separates different classes with the learned inter-class knowledge through visualization. In this work, we instead visualize the intra-class knowledge inside CNN to better understand how an object class is represented in the fully-connected layers. To invert the intra-class knowledge into more interpretable images, we propose a non-parametric patch prior upon previous CNN...

  4. Construction of Intelligence Knowledge Map for Complex Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-jie LV,

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The complex product design and development is an integrated discipline. A lot of knowledge overloads and knowledge trek phenomenon appeared with the raise of product complexity and the explosion of knowledge and information. To improve the utilization efficiency of the knowledge using and shorten the time and effort spent on the Knowledge screening, avoid missing the knowledge, which is required, the paper proposes a method for the intelligence knowledge map construct model based on knowledge requirements and knowledge connection. Analyzing the context information of the user and giving the method of acquiring the knowledge requirement based on the context information and the user’s personal knowledge structure. This method can get the knowledge requirements of the users to generate the knowledge retrieval expressions to obtain the knowledge points and then construct the intelligent knowledge map through the analysis of multiple dimensions and using the knowledge related to the development of aircraft landing gear as an example to verify the feasibility of this method.

  5. Paraneoplastic addisonian pigmentation and acquired ichthyosis as presenting features of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, N.R.; Raza, N.

    2010-01-01

    Black brown hyperpigmentation of the mucosae, sun exposed skin, palmar creases and frictional sites (Addisonian pigmentation) is characteristic of Addison disease. However, it can also occur as a para neoplastic manifestation of tumours like bronchogenic carcinoma. Acquired ichthyosis starts later in life and can also be a para neoplastic presentation.We report a unique combination of para neoplastic Addisonian pigmentation and acquired ichthyosis as presenting features in a patient with undiagnosed multiple myeloma. To the best of our knowledge this combination of para neoplastic dermatosis has not been documented before in multiple myeloma. It is concluded that the presence of more than one suspicious dermatosis may be an indicator of being para neoplastic requiring necessary work-up. (author)

  6. [Efforts to achieve and effects of acquiring ISO 15189 in Tokushima University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Kazuko; Kishi, Misako; Satou, Mituyo; Nagamine, Yasunori; Doi, Tosio

    2009-12-01

    The medical laboratory of Tokushima University Hospital acquired ISO 15189, an international standard for medical laboratories, on July 6th, 2007, resulting in it achieving the 24th place in Japan and 5th place among national university hospitals. The first surveillance was just performed on October 6th, 2008. Tokushima University Hospital, in which our medical laboratory is included as one section, already succeeded in acquiring ISO 9001, PrivacyMark System, and Quality Health Care ver. 5 before accomplishing ISO 15189. To achieve ISO 15189, we prepared documents based on ISO 9001 without any consultation, resulting in a review of the difference between ISO 9001 and ISO 15189 after the preliminary survey. Although achieving ISO 15189 resulted in an improvement in the reliability of laboratory results and accuracy, leading to the development of our technical skills and awareness, and sharing of knowledge, we consider that the considerable investment of time to prepare the requirements remains to be overcome.

  7. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  8. Creativity, knowledge and school achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Slavica B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of education the knowledge is acquired which is a necessary base for creativity. The problem of relations between creativity and knowledge in school context is posed as a problem of relations between creativity and academic performance due to the influence it has on personal and professional development of an individual. The paper presents the results of survey on relations between creativity, academic performance and academic preferences. Creativity was measured by the test for creative thinking - drawing production of Urban and Jellen, academic performance by general achievement, and academic preferences by a questionnaire. The sample comprised final primary school graders. Low and statistically significant positive correlation was found between creativity and school achievement in the sub-sample of girls. However, girls have a significantly better school achievement and prefer art as a school subject and the test administered demands visual art expression. Hence, it can not be claimed for sure that the obtained results reflect realistic differences in creativity between boys and girls. It is of vital importance for work in school the data that high creativity can be possessed by students who are failures at school. It has been concluded that initial step in the acquisition of knowledge that will contribute to student creative thinking and behavior is the development of cognitive flexibility.

  9. Borrowing and Loan Words: The Lemmatizing of Newly Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    or foreign acquisition. English, for instance, is spoken in many countries on all five continents and is, therefore, able to acquire vocabulary from many lan- guages worldwide. This is coupled with the readiness and the ability of the language to acquire new terminology through borrowing, instead of following the puristic ...

  10. 33 CFR 211.27 - Method of acquiring Federal jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... jurisdiction. 211.27 Section 211.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... PROJECTS Federal Jurisdiction over Real Estate § 211.27 Method of acquiring Federal jurisdiction. Jurisdiction is acquired in accordance with the laws of the various States. ...

  11. 7 CFR 3575.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the final loss claim is not... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 3575.90 Section... protect the collateral, and the lender must dispose of the collateral without delay. (b) Re-title...

  12. Community- versus healthcare-acquired bloodstream infections at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli were predominant among healthcare-acquired pathogens (39.2% and 28.5%, respectively), while Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-positive organisms were the most common among community-acquired pathogens (39.2% and 54.3%, respectively). The majority ...

  13. Nosocomial and Community Acquired Infections in Korle Bu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Nosocomial or hospital acquired infection has been recognized as a serious public health problem in the last twenty years. In most hospitals in Africa-South of the Sahara, although the types of community acquired infections are known, neither the magnitude, nor the common types of nosocomial infections ...

  14. A rare case of acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikari, S; Philippidou, M; Samuel, M

    2017-02-01

    Acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum is a rare occurrence on the penis. We report a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with a single lesion of acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum on the penis resembling genital warts. We report the case to increase awareness of this rare condition which may mimic sexually transmitted infections such as genital warts.

  15. The motivational needs of primary health care nurses to acquire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted within the theoretical framework of McClelland's Acquired Motivation Theory which consists of three basic needs, e the need for achievement, the need for power, and the need for affiliation. One of the research questions posed was “What are the motivational needs of PHC nurses to acquire power ...

  16. The challenge of retaining customers acquired with free trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, H.; Foubert, B.; van Heerde, H.J.

    Many service firms acquire customers by offering free-trial promotions. A crucial challenge is to retain customers acquired with these free trials. To address this challenge, firms need to understand how free-trial customers differ from regular customers in terms of their decision making to retain

  17. Severe community-acquired pneumonia : what's in a name?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterheert, JJ; Bonten, MJM; Hak, E; Schneider, MME; Hoepelman, AIM

    Purpose of review Formerly, patients with community-acquired pneumonia admitted to an intensive care unit were considered as having the severe form of the disease. Recently, guidelines have distinguished severe and non-severe community-acquired pneumonia based on clinical definitions. In this

  18. Community-acquired soft-tissue pyogenic abscesses in Mulago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clinical practice, for a long time, has dwelt on study and management of pyogenic abscesses without distinction between nosocomial and community-acquired types. This study aimed at identifying the bacteria isolated from community-acquired acute subcutaneous and soft tissue pyogenic abscesses.

  19. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to acquire real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2 Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional authority...

  20. Clinical aspects of acquired aphasia and dysarthria in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. van Dongen (Hugo)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractFor the last decade, it has been a common clinical belief that the prognosis of acquired childhood aphasia is good. However, our own clinical experiences were rather conflicting on this point. As a consequence, we re-examined all the children (15) with an acquired aphasia who in a