WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous years figure

  1. Key figures. Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2006. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  2. Key figures. Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2005. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  3. Figures and First Years: An Analysis of Calculus Students' Use of Figures in Technical Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Antonacci

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This three-year study focused on first-year Calculus I students and their abilities to incorporate figures in technical reports. In each year, these calculus students wrote a technical report as part of the Polar Bear Module, an educational unit developed for use in partner courses in biology, computer science, mathematics, and physics as part of the Multidisciplinary Sustainability Education (MSE project at Ithaca College. In the first year of the project, students received basic technical report guidelines. In year two, the report guidelines changed to include explicit language on how to incorporate figures. In year three, a grading rubric was added to the materials provided to one of the two classes. In all three years, the students performed below expectations in their use of graphs in their reports. Reviews of the figures in the 78 technical reports written by the 106 students showed repeated deficiencies in the figures and how the students used them in the discussion sections and in evidence-based arguments. In year three the student’s quantitative literacy (QL skills were assessed using an extract from a QL assessment instrument published in Numeracy. The results indicated that the students could both read and interpret figures, suggesting that issues with QL were not the main contributor to student difficulty with written discussion about graphs. The study underscores the need that explicit instructional attention be given to developing student knowhow in the use of figures in technical reports.

  4. Figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — data for figures 1-8 in journal article "Assessment of port-related air quality impacts: geographic analysis of population", International Journal of Environment and...

  5. Thirteen years of the fight against doping in figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Millán; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús; Plata, María Del Mar; Del Coso, Juan

    2017-06-01

    Every year, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) publishes the main statistics reported by the accredited laboratories, which provide very valuable information for assessing changes in the patterns of doping in sports over time. Using the information provided since 2003 as the basis for the analysis, the evolution of doping/anti-doping figures over the last decade can be examined in reasonable detail, at least in reference to samples analyzed and categories of substances more commonly found in athletes' samples. This brief analysis of the WADA statistical reports leads us to the following outcomes: the increase in anti-doping pressure from 2003 to 2015, as evidenced by increased numbers of samples analyzed and banned substances, has not directly produced a higher frequency of adverse/atypical findings. Although this could be interpreted as steady state in the capacity to detect doping through this whole period, it also resulted in a significant increase in the absolute number of samples catalogued as doping (from 2247 in 2003 to 5912 in 2015). Anabolic agents have been the most common doping substances detected in all statistics reports while the remaining groups of substances are much less frequently found in doping control samples. Given that one might have expected the enhancement of the anti-doping programme led by WADA over this last decade to have increased the percentage of adverse/atypical findings, the fact that it did not might indicate the need to take another step in sampling strategies, such as 'more intelligent testing' based on the differences in the prevalence of doping substances among sports. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Key figures. Year 2006; Chiffres cles. Annee 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2006. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  7. Key figures. Year 2005; Chiffres cles. Annee 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2005. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  8. Aortic pseudoaneurysm detected on external jugular venous distention following a Bentall procedure 10 years previously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Naoto; Shomura, Yu; Nasu, Michihiro; Okada, Yukikatsu

    2010-11-01

    An asymptomatic 49-year-old woman was admitted for the purpose of surgery for aortic pseudoaneurysm. She had Marfan syndrome and had undergone an emergent Bentall procedure 10 years previously. About six months previously, she could palpate distended bilateral external jugular veins, which became distended only in a supine position and without any other symptoms. Enhanced computed tomography revealed an aortic pseudoaneurysm originating from a previous distal anastomosis site. During induction of general anesthesia in a supine position, bilateral external jugular venous distention was remarkable. Immediately after a successful operation, distention completely resolved. The present case emphasizes the importance of physical examination leading to a diagnosis of asymptomatic life-threatening diseases in patients with a history of previous aortic surgery.

  9. Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Previously Healthy 13-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H. Rayment

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a rare, polygenic primary immunodeficiency. In this case report, we describe a previously healthy 13-year-old boy who presented with multifocal pulmonary aspergillosis and was subsequently diagnosed with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease. CGD has a variable natural history and age of presentation and should be considered when investigating a patient with recurrent or severe infections with catalase-positive organisms.

  10. Toddler's Paralysis: An Acute Case of Leg Stiffening in a Previously Healthy 2-Year-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahne, Kimberly Renee; Tay, Ee Tein

    2018-05-14

    Vegetarian and vegan diets are gaining popularity in the United States. Although appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including vegan diets, are healthful and nutritionally adequate and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, not all families are aware of the nutritional supplements that may be required for their children. We describe a case of a 2-year-old previously healthy child consuming a vegan diet who presented to the pediatric emergency department with an acute inability to move her legs. Ionized calcium was found to be 0.89 mmol/L, and symptoms completely resolved within 2 hours of calcium gluconate infusion.

  11. Supportive or suggestive: Do human figure drawings help 5- to 7-year-old children to report touch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Deirdre A; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Lewis, Charlie; Lamb, Michael E; Orbach, Yael

    2007-02-01

    The authors examined the accuracy of information elicited from seventy-nine 5- to 7-year-old children about a staged event that included physical contact-touching. Four to six weeks later, children's recall for the event was assessed using an interview protocol analogous to those used in forensic investigations with children. Following the verbal interview, children were asked about touch when provided with human figure drawings (drawings only), following practice using the human figure drawings (drawings with instruction), or without drawings (verbal questions only). In this touch-inquiry phase of the interview, most children provided new information. Children in the drawings conditions reported more incorrect information than those in the verbal questions condition. Forensically relevant errors were infrequent and were rarely elaborated on. Although asking children to talk about innocuous touch may lead them to report unreliable information, especially when human figure drawings are used as aids, errors are reduced when open-ended prompts are used to elicit further information about reported touches. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Incidence of cancer in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients treated 25 years previously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, Ane; Hansen, Emil Jesper; Christensen, Steen Bach

    2016-01-01

    , is comparable to modern equipment. This is to our knowledge the first study to report increased rates of endometrial cancers in a cohort of AIS patients, and future attention is needed to reduce the radiation dose distributed to the AIS patients both pre-operatively and during surgery.......PURPOSE: To report the incidence of cancer in a cohort of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated 25 years previously. METHODS: 215 consecutive AIS patients treated between 1983 and 1990 were identified and requested to return for clinical and radiographic examination. The incidence....... RESULTS: From the original cohort of 215 consecutive AIS patients, radiation information was available in 211 of the patients, and medical charts were available in 209 AIS patients. 170 (83 %) of the 205 AIS patients participated in the follow-up study with questionnaires. The calculated mean total...

  13. Figure5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is an R statistics package script that allows the reproduction of Figure 5. The script includes the links to large NetCDF files that the figures access for O3,...

  14. Figure 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Two files provided. The ENS.tar file contains text data files (*.csv) used to create Figure 7 and Figure 8. The Figure7.txt is an R script that reads these files and...

  15. Tricuspid Endocarditis, in a 12 year old girl with a previously normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A 12 year old girl was referred to QECH Paediatric and Child Health Department with a two week history of dry cough, fever and chills. Three days before admission she became pale and short of breath.

  16. Figure 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Figure.tar.gz contains a directory for each WRF ensemble run. In these directories are *.csv files for each meteorology variable examined. These are comma...

  17. Figure6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — R script for the reproduction of Figure6. This script accesses archived CMAQ and WRF model output on US EPA's HPC sol computer system and plots forward trajectories...

  18. Arterial Destiffening in Previously Untreated Mild Hypertensives After 1 Year of Routine Clinical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Enrique; Millasseau, Sandrine; Costa, Jose Antonio; Pascual, Jose Maria

    2017-05-01

    Arterial stiffness, measured with pulse wave velocity (PWV), is now classified as a marker of target organ damage (TOD) alongside left ventricular hypertrophy and moderately increased albuminuria. Interventional studies on treated hypertensive patients have shown that PWV could be improved. Our aim was to assess changes in arterial stiffness after 1 year of routine clinical practice in never-treated hypertensive patients. We studied 356 never-treated patients with suspected hypertension. After standard clinical assessment during which presence of TOD was evaluated, hypertension diagnosis was confirmed in 231 subjects who subsequently received standard routine care. Both hypertensive and the 125 controls came back for a follow-up visit after 1 year. Hypertensive patients were slightly older (46 ± 12 vs. 50 ± 12 years, P < 0.001), with higher mean arterial pressure (MAP)-adjusted PWV compared to controls (8.6 ± 2.0 vs. 8.0 ± 1.7 m/s, P < 0.001) and 47% of them presented 1 or more TOD. After 1 year of treatment, MAP was similar in both groups (94.9 vs. 96.2 mm Hg; P = ns), but adjusted PWV remained significantly higher in the hypertensive patients (7.8 ± 1.4 vs. 8.3 ± 1.7 m/s, P = 0.004). The prevalence of elevated PWV was reduced from 20% to 12%. All antihypertensive drugs achieved the same blood pressure (BP) and PWV reduction with the exception of vasodilating beta-blockers which gave slightly better results probably due to heart rate reduction. BP reduction in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients improves arterial stiffness within a year of real-life clinical practice. Patients with the highest PWV and the largest reduction of BP "destiffened" the most whatever antihypertensive class was used. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in African Penguin eggs: 30 years since the previous assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Govender, Danny; Underhill, Les; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-05-01

    The African Penguin population has drastically declined over the last 100 years. Changes in food availability due to over-fishing and other oceanographic changes seem to be major causes. However, it has also been 30 years since organic pollutants as a potential factor have been assessed. We analysed penguin eggs collected in 2011 and 2012 from two breeding colonies 640 km apart: Robben Island near Cape Town on the Atlantic Ocean coast, and Bird Island near Port Elizabeth on the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa. We quantified organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Compared to 30 years ago, concentrations of ΣDDT have remained about the same or slightly lower, while ΣPCBs declined almost four-fold. The use of DDT in malaria control is unlikely to have contributed. PFCs were detected in all eggs. Indications (non-significant) of eggshell thinning associated with ΣDDT and ΣPCB was found. It seems therefore that the concentrations of measured organic pollutants the African Penguin eggs are not contributing directly to its current demise, but concerns remain about thinner shells and desiccation. Effects of combinations of compounds and newer compounds cannot be excluded, as well as more subtle effects on reproduction, development, and behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Previous Year Status for 2013 - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  1. Urinary incontinence and vaginal squeeze pressure two years post-cesarean delivery in primiparous women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Angélica Mércia Pascon; Dias, Adriano; Marini, Gabriela; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Witkin, Steven; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of urinary incontinence and associated vaginal squeeze pressure in primiparous women with and without previous gestational diabetes mellitus two years post-cesarean delivery. METHODS: Primiparous women who delivered by cesarean two years previously were interviewed about the delivery and the occurrence of incontinence. Incontinence was reported by the women and vaginal pressure evaluated by a Perina perineometer. Sixty-three women with gestational diabetes ...

  2. 26 CFR 1.960-4 - Additional foreign tax credit in year of receipt of previously taxed earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional foreign tax credit in year of... Foreign Corporations § 1.960-4 Additional foreign tax credit in year of receipt of previously taxed... inclusion either chose to claim a foreign tax credit as provided in section 901 or did not pay or accrue any...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1087 - Figuring partner's net earnings from self-employment for taxable year which ends as a result of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1087 Figuring partner's net earnings from self-employment for taxable year which ends as a result of death. (a) General. In... earnings from self-employment includes the amount of his or her distributive share of partnership ordinary...

  4. Urinary incontinence and vaginal squeeze pressure two years post-cesarean delivery in primiparous women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Mércia Pascon Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of urinary incontinence and associated vaginal squeeze pressure in primiparous women with and without previous gestational diabetes mellitus two years post-cesarean delivery. METHODS: Primiparous women who delivered by cesarean two years previously were interviewed about the delivery and the occurrence of incontinence. Incontinence was reported by the women and vaginal pressure evaluated by a Perina perineometer. Sixty-three women with gestational diabetes and 98 women without the disease were screened for incontinence and vaginal pressure. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effects of gestational diabetes. RESULTS: The prevalence of gestational incontinence was higher among women with gestational diabetes during their pregnancies (50.8% vs. 31.6% and two years after a cesarean (44.8% vs. 18.4%. Decreased vaginal pressure was also significantly higher among women with gestational diabetes (53.9% vs. 37.8%. Maternal weight gain and newborn weight were risk factors for decreased vaginal pressure. Maternal age, gestational incontinence and decreased vaginal pressure were risk factors for incontinence two years after a cesarean. In a multivariate logistic model, gestational diabetes was an independent risk factor for gestational incontinence. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of incontinence and decreased vaginal pressure two years post-cesarean were elevated among women with gestational diabetes compared to women who were normoglycemic during pregnancy. We confirmed an association between gestational diabetes mellitus and a subsequent decrease of vaginal pressure two years post-cesarean. These results may warrant more comprehensive prospective and translational studies.

  5. Body Dissatisfaction Measured with a Figure Preference Task and Self-Esteem in 8 Year Old Children—a Study within the ABIS-Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Koch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction has been related to low self-esteem and depression in adolescents. With regard to the current world wide rise in childhood obesity and common stigmatization of adults and children with obesity, easy to use and cost effective measurements of body dissatisfaction would be helpful in epidemiological research. In the current study, detailed data on body measurements with regard to perceived and ideal body size and body dissatisfaction, as measured with the figure preference task, are presented for a population based sample of 3837 children. Perceived body size correlations to weight, body mass index [BMI], and waist circumference were between 0.41 and 0.54; and to height between 0.12 and 0.21. Odds ratios for lower self-esteem increased with increase in body dissatisfaction. Gender differences in body dissatisfaction were present but not found in relation to self-esteem. It is concluded that the figure preference task yields valuable information in epidemiological studies of children as young as 7.5 years of age. It is argued, that the figure preference task is an additional measurement which theoretically relates to psychological stress in childhood.

  6. Body Dissatisfaction Measured with a Figure Preference Task and Self-Esteem in 8 Year Old Children - a Study within the ABIS-Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sepa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction has been related to low self-esteem and depression in adolescents. With regard to the current world wide rise in childhood obesity and common stigmatization of adults and children with obesity, easy to use and cost effective measurements of body dissatisfaction would be helpful in epidemiological research. In the current study, detailed data on body measurements with regard to perceived and ideal body size and body dissatisfaction, as measured with the figure preference task, are presented for a population based sample of 3837 children. Perceived body size correlations to weight, body mass index [BMI], and waist circumference were between 0.41 and 0.54; and to height between 0.12 and 0.21. Odds ratios for lower self-esteem increased with increase in body dissatisfaction. Gender differences in body dissatisfaction were present but not found in relation to self-esteem. It is concluded that the figure preference task yields valuable information in epidemiological studies of children as young as 7.5 years of age. It is argued, that the figure preference task is an additional measurement which theoretically relates to psychological stress in childhood.

  7. Elevated ozone negatively affects photosynthesis of current-year leaves but not previous-year leaves in evergreen Cyclobalanopsis glauca seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Feng, Zhaozhong; Wang, Xiaoke; Niu, Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effects of leaf age/layer on the response of photosynthesis to chronic ozone (O 3 ), Cyclobalanopsis glauca seedlings, a dominant evergreen broadleaf tree species in sub-tropical regions, were exposed to either ambient air (AA) or elevated O 3 (AA + 60 ppb O 3 , E-O 3 ) for two growing seasons in open-top chambers. Chlorophyll content, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence were investigated three times throughout the 2nd year of O 3 exposure. Results indicated that E-O 3 decreased photosynthetic parameters, particularly light-saturated photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance and effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry of current-year leaves but not previous-year leaves. Stomatal conductance of plants grown under ambient conditions partially contributed to the different response to E-O 3 between leaf layers. Light radiation or other physiological and biochemical processes closely related to photosynthesis might play important roles. All suggested that leaf ages or layers should be considered when assessing O 3 risk on evergreen woody species. -- Highlights: • Response of evergreen Cyclobalanopsis glauca to O 3 was investigated. • Elevated O 3 significantly reduced photosynthesis of current-year leaves. • Previous-year leaves showed little response to O 3 . • Stomatal conductance contributes to the response difference to O 3 among leaf ages. -- Impacts of elevated O 3 on photosynthesis of evergreen woody species depend on leaf ages

  8. Rapid Turnover and Minimal Accretion of Mineral Soil Carbon During 60-Years of Pine Forest Growth on Previously Cultivated Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D., Jr.; Mobley, M. L.; Billings, S. A.; Markewitz, D.

    2016-12-01

    At the Calhoun Long-Term Soil-Ecosystem field experiment (1957-present), reforestation of previously cultivated land over fifty years nearly doubled soil organic carbon (SOC) in surface soils (0 to 7.5-cm) but these gains were offset by significant SOC losses in subsoils (35 to 60-cm). Nearly all of the accretions in surface soils amounted to gains in light fraction SOC, whereas losses at depth were associated with silt and clay-sized particles. These changes are documented in the Calhoun Long-Term Soil-Ecosystem (LTSE) study that resampled soil from 16 plots about every five years and archived all soil samples from four soil layers within the upper 60-cm of mineral soil. We combined soil bulk density, density fractionation, stable isotopes, and radioisotopes to explore changes in SOC and soil organic nitrogen (SON) associated with five decades of the growth of a loblolly pine secondary forest. Isotopic signatures showed relatively large accumulations of contemporary forest-derived carbon in surface soils, and no accumulation of forest-derived carbon in subsoils. We interpret results to indicate that land-use change from cotton fields to secondary pine forests drove soil biogeochemical and hydrological changes that enhanced root and microbial activity and SOM decomposition in subsoils. As pine stands matured and are now transitioning to mixed pines and hardwoods, demands on soil organic matter for nutrients to support aboveground growth has eased due to pine mortality, and bulk SOM and SON and their isotopes in subsoils have stabilized. We anticipate major changes in the next fifty years as 1957 pine trees transition to hardwoods. This study emphasizes the importance of long-term experiments and deep soil measurements when characterizing SOC and SON responses to land use change. There is a remarkable paucity of E long-term soil data deeper than 30 cm.

  9. Extreme fire events are related to previous-year surface moisture conditions in permafrost-underlain larch forests of Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forkel, Matthias; Beer, Christian; Thonicke, Kirsten; Cramer, Wolfgang; Bartalev, Sergey; Schmullius, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Wildfires are a natural and important element in the functioning of boreal forests. However, in some years, fires with extreme spread and severity occur. Such severe fires can degrade the forest, affect human values, emit huge amounts of carbon and aerosols and alter the land surface albedo. Usually, wind, slope and dry air conditions have been recognized as factors determining fire spread. Here we identify surface moisture as an additional important driving factor for the evolution of extreme fire events in the Baikal region. An area of 127 000 km 2 burned in this region in 2003, a large part of it in regions underlain by permafrost. Analyses of satellite data for 2002–2009 indicate that previous-summer surface moisture is a better predictor for burned area than precipitation anomalies or fire weather indices for larch forests with continuous permafrost. Our analysis advances the understanding of complex interactions between the atmosphere, vegetation and soil, and how coupled mechanisms can lead to extreme events. These findings emphasize the importance of a mechanistic coupling of soil thermodynamics, hydrology, vegetation functioning, and fire activity in Earth system models for projecting climate change impacts over the next century. (letter)

  10. Facts and figures in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergne, R.; Meuric, L.; Scherrer, S.; Paquel, V.; Louati, S.; Thienard, H.

    2005-01-01

    This document gathers a series of articles dedicated to the situation of the energy sector in France at the end of 2004: -) the energy balance sheet, -) the trend concerning energy consumption since 1973, -) the energy bill, -) figures about electrical power, -) figures about natural gas, -) figures about solid fossil fuels, -) figures about oil, and -) figures about renewable energies. The important fact to note is that the energy bill has soared by 24.1% to reach 28.35 milliard euros which represents 1.75% of the gross national product (PIB). The evolution over the year 2004 of the factors that contribute to the level of the energy bill is: - the import-export energy quantity differential: +7.5%, - the import-export energy cost differential (in Usa dollar): +27.1%, and - the fall of the dollar: -9.1%. (A.C.)

  11. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    Energy in Sweden 2004: Facts and Figures contains the tabular data for most of the diagrams in the main publication. These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. Facts and Figures is available at www.stem.se in pdf- and excel file formats. Since the year 2001 statistics for the period 1983-1998 are revised compared to data for previous editions. With effect from the 2001 edition, statistics are of preliminary character for the two preceding years. Breakdowns into certain types of fuels vary somewhat depending on whether preliminary or final data has been used. Further information about the statistics can be found in Energy in Sweden, chapter 8 Energy Facts.

  12. How fresh is maple syrup? Sugar maple trees mobilize carbon stored several years previously during early springtime sap-ascent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhr, Jan; Messier, Christian; Delagrange, Sylvain; Trumbore, Susan; Xu, Xiaomei; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-03-01

    While trees store substantial amounts of nonstructural carbon (NSC) for later use, storage regulation and mobilization of stored NSC in long-lived organisms like trees are still not well understood. At two different sites with sugar maple (Acer saccharum), we investigated ascending sap (sugar concentration, δ(13) C, Δ(14) C) as the mobilized component of stored stem NSC during early springtime. Using the bomb-spike radiocarbon approach we were able to estimate the average time elapsed since the mobilized carbon (C) was originally fixed from the atmosphere and to infer the turnover time of stem storage. Sites differed in concentration dynamics and overall δ(13) C, indicating different growing conditions. The absence of temporal trends for δ(13) C and Δ(14) C indicated sugar mobilization from a well-mixed pool with average Δ(14) C consistent with a mean turnover time (TT) of three to five years for this pool, with only minor differences between the sites. Sugar maple trees hence appear well buffered against single or even several years of negative plant C balance from environmental stress such as drought or repeated defoliation by insects. Manipulative investigations (e.g. starvation via girdling) combined with Δ(14) C measurements of this mobilized storage pool will provide further new insights into tree storage regulation and functioning. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet in refugees previously exposed to torture: a ten-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorthe Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bøjholm, Søren

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To estimate change over 10 years concerning the prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet, among previously tortured refugees settled in Denmark, and to compare associations between methods of torture and prevalent pain at baseline and at 10-year follow-up. METHODS: 139 refugees previous...... associated with the type and bodily focus of the torture. This presents a considerable challenge to future evidence-based development of effective treatment programs....

  14. The Production of Figurative Language in Typically Developing Children and Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Lauren; Van Herwegen, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the development of figurative language production, including different types of figurative expressions, during a fictional narrative in 20 typically developing (TD) children and 20 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 7-18 years old. In contrast to previous studies, developmental trajectories showed that (1) the…

  15. Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures in a 2-year-old child: previously unreported injury with a unique mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Jain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Fall from height is a common cause of unintentional injuries in children and accounts for 6% of all trauma-related childhood deaths, usually from head injury. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with multiple fractures of the bilateral lower limbs due to this reason. A child fell from a height of around 15 feet after toppling from a alcony. He developed multiple fractures involving the right femoral shaft, right distal femoral epiphysis (Salter Harris type 2, right distal metaphysis of the tibia and fi bula, and undisplaced Salter Harris type 2 epiphyseal injury of the left distal tibia. There were no head, abdominal or spinal injuries. The patient was taken into emergency operation theatre after initial management which consisted of intravenous fl uids, blood transfusion, and splintage of both lower limbs. Fracture of the femoral shaft was treated by closed reduction and fixation using two titanium elastic nails. Distal femoral physeal injury required open eduction and fixation with K wires. Distal tibia fractures were closely reduced and managed nonoperatively in both the lower limbs. All the fractures united in four weeks. At the last follow-up, the child had no disability and was able to perform daily ctivities comfortably. We also proposed the unique mechanism of injury in this report. Key words: Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures; Fall; Child

  16. Cognitive predictors of copying and drawing from memory of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure in 7- to 10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Lucia, Natascia; Conson, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive models of drawing are mainly based on assessment of copying performance of adults, whereas only a few studies have verified these models in young children. Moreover, developmental investigations have only rarely performed a systematic examination of the contribution of perceptual and representational visuo-spatial processes to copying and drawing from memory. In this study we investigated the role of visual perception and mental representation in both copying and drawing from memory skills in a sample of 227 typically developing children (53% females) aged 7-10 years. Participants underwent a neuropsychological assessment and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF). The fit and invariance of the predictive model considering visuo-spatial abilities, working memory, and executive functions were tested by means of hierarchical regressions and path analysis. Results showed that, in a gender invariant way, visual perception abilities and spatial mental representation had a direct effect on copying performance, whereas copying performance was the only specific predictor for drawing from memory. These effects were independent from age and socioeconomic status, and showed that cognitive models of drawing built up for adults could be considered for predicting copying and drawing from memory in children.

  17. Enhanced spatial resolution on figures versus grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Lauren N; Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-07-01

    Much is known about the cues that determine figure-ground assignment, but less is known about the consequences of figure-ground assignment on later visual processing. Previous work has demonstrated that regions assigned figural status are subjectively more shape-like and salient than background regions. The increase in subjective salience of figural regions could be caused by a number of processes, one of which may be enhanced perceptual processing (e.g., an enhanced neural representation) of figures relative to grounds. We explored this hypothesis by having observers perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task in which targets appeared on either figure or ground regions. To rule out a purely attentional account of figural salience, observers discriminated targets on the basis of a region's color (red or green), which was equally likely to define the figure or the ground. The results of our experiments showed that targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those appearing in ground regions. In addition, targets appearing on figures were discriminated better than those presented in regions considered figurally neutral, but targets appearing within ground regions were discriminated more poorly than those appearing in figurally neutral regions. Taken together, our findings suggest that when two regions share a contour, regions assigned as figure are perceptually enhanced, whereas regions assigned as ground are perceptually suppressed.

  18. Enhanced spatial resolution on figures versus grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Lauren N.; Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about the cues that determine figure-ground assignment, but less is known about the consequences of figure-ground assignment on later visual processing. Previous work has demonstrated that regions assigned figural status are subjectively more shape-like and salient than background regions. The increase in subjective salience of figural regions could be caused by a number of processes, one of which may be enhanced perceptual processing (e.g., an enhanced neural representation) of figures relative to grounds. We explored this hypothesis by having observers perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task in which targets appeared either on figure or ground regions. To rule out a purely attentional account of figural salience, observers discriminated targets on the basis of a region’s color (red or green), which was equally likely to define the figure or the ground. The results of our experiments show that targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those appearing in ground regions. In addition, targets appearing on figures were discriminated better than those presented in regions considered figurally neutral, but targets appearing within ground regions were discriminated more poorly than those appearing in figurally neutral regions. Taken together, our findings suggest that when two regions share a contour, regions assigned as figure are perceptually enhanced, whereas regions assigned as grounds are perceptually suppressed. PMID:27048441

  19. Human Figure Drawings in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglieri, Jack A.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to previous article (Motta, Little, and Tobin, this issue) which reviewed data-based studies on figure drawings and found little support for their validity or use in assessing personality, behavior, emotion, or intellectual functioning. Contends that article is unacceptable for publication in present form, with main criticism being that…

  20. 30年来我国运动员媒介形象分析%Analysis on Chinese Athletes Media Figures of 30 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于德山

    2009-01-01

    作为媒介形象的一种典型,30年来我国运动员媒介形象经历了三个阶段嬗变.运动员媒介形象从一体化政治意识形态的化身,到运动天才、时尚的引导者等等,运动员媒介形象体现着社会文化观念从政治一元化到消费多元化的整合过程.运动员媒介形象作为当代一种特殊的媒介形象,成为一种重要的时代镜像,发挥着极其重要的媒介文化作用,而通过北京奥运会的成功表现,运动员媒介形象的成功塑造与传播对于当代社会认同、大众体育文化生态都意义非凡.%As a typical media figure, Chinese athletes media figures have been three stages transmutation. From embodiment of simple political ideology to sports genius and fashion leads, athletes media figures reflect the integrate process of social cultural ideas from politics to multivariate consume. As a special current media figure, athletes media figures become an important era mirror image, which show extremely vital effect of media culture, and more ever, with Beijing Olympic games successful performance, the successful production and communication of athletes media figures is significance for current social identity and mass sports cultural ecology.

  1. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: fat and fatty acid intakes from the first year of the rolling programme and comparison with previous surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Gerda K.; Prynne, Celia J.; Roberts, Caireen; Olson, Ashley; Nicholson, Sonja K.; Whitton, Clare; Teucher, Birgit; Bates, Beverley; Henderson, Helen; Pigott, Sarah; Swan, Gillian; Stephen, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    High saturated fat intake is an established risk factor for several chronic diseases. The objective of the present study is to report dietary intakes and main food sources of fat and fatty acids (FA) from the first year of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme in the UK. Dietary data were collected using 4d estimated food diaries (n896) and compared with dietary reference values (DRV) and previous NDNS results. Total fat provided 34–36% food energy (FE) across all age groups, which was similar to previous surveys for adults. Men (19–64 years) and older girls (11–18 years) had mean intakes just above the DRV, while all other groups had mean total fat intakes of <35% FE. SFA intakes were lower compared with previous surveys, ranging from 13 to 15% FE, but still above the DRV. Mean MUFA intakes were 12.5% FE for adults and children aged 4–18 years and all were below the DRV. Mean n–3 PUFA intake represented 0.7–1.1% FE. Compared with previous survey data, the direction of change for n–3 PUFA was upwards for all age groups, although the differences in absolute terms were very small. Trans-FA intakes were lower than in previous NDNS and were less than 2g/d for all age groups, representing 0.8% FE and lower than the DRV in all age groups. In conclusion, dietary intake of fat and FA is moving towards recommended levels for the UK population. However, there remains room for considerable further improvement. PMID:21767448

  2. Human Figure Drawings: Abusing the Abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardos, Achilles N.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to previous article (Motta, Little, and Tobin, this issue) which reviewed data-based studies on figure drawings and found little support for their validity or use in assessing personality, behavior, emotion, or intellectual functioning. Notes recent approaches to interpretation of human figure drawings and cites flaws in argument against…

  3. Student figures in friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gritt B.

    , students' room for participation in their own learning, influenced by demands for efficiency, flexibility and student-centred education. The thesis recasts the anthropological endeavour as one of ‘figuration work'. That is, ‘frictional events' are explored as moments when conflicting figures...

  4. Figure S1 Figure S2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    6.8. 7.0. 7.2. 7.4. 7.6. 7.8. 8.0. 8.2. 8.4. 8.6. 8.8 ppm. 0.0. 1.8. 9.7. 5.4. 6.9. 8.1. 9.0. 10.8. 3.2. 10.3. Figure S3. NMR titration of DAN-Ia acid with NDI at 30% MeOH in CDCl3. The numbers represent the mole ratios of the DAN-acid to the repeat unit.

  5. data for figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figures 1-10 and Table 1. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, S.Y., S. Arunachalam, A. Valencia, B. Naess, V. Isakov , M. Breen , T....

  6. Figure_2_data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data for Figure 2. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sarwar, G., D. Kang, K. Foley, D. Schwede, B. Gantt, and R. Mathur. Technical note:...

  7. Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saves Lives Facts & Figures My Blood, Your Blood Blood Donation Types Did you know there is more than one type of blood donation? Learn more about blood donation types here. Blood Safety and Testing The blood supply ...

  8. Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes among women with previous gestational diabetes: epidemiological and immunological aspects in a follow-up of three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves Lima, Rafael Paschoal; Cota, Luis Otávio Miranda; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Cortelli, José Roberto; Costa, Fernando Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the incidence on the development of type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes with and without periodontitis after a three-year time interval. Initial sample of this follow-up study consisted of 90 women diagnosed with gestational diabetes who underwent periodontal examination. After three years, 49 women were subjected to new periodontal examination and biological, behavioral, and social data of interest were collected. Additionally, the quantification of the C-reactive protein in blood samples was performed. Fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels were requested. Saliva samples were collected for quantification of interleukin 6 and 10, tumor necrosis factor α, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 18.4% and of periodontitis was 10.2%. There was no significant difference in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with and without periodontitis. It was observed impact of C-reactive protein in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it was not observed impact of periodontitis on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with previous gestational diabetes. It was not observed impact of periodontitis on the development of type 2 diabetes among women with previous gestational diabetes. The impact of C-reactive protein in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus highlights the importance of an inflammatory process in the diabetes pathogenesis.

  9. Adventures with Lissajous Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2018-06-01

    Lissajous Figures are produced by combining two oscillations at right angles to each other. The figures, drawn by mechanical devices called harmonographs, have scientific uses, but are also enjoyed for their own beauty. The author has been working with harmonographs since his undergraduate days, building several of them, lecturing on them and has written articles about them. This book is intended for people who enjoy physics or art or both.

  10. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 2007; Energilaeget 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-12-15

    Energy in Sweden 2007: Facts and Figures contains the tabular for most of the diagrams in the main publication. These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. 2001 statistics for the period 1983-1999 where revised compared to data for previous editions. With effect from the 2001 edition, statistics are of preliminary character for the two last published years (2005 and 2006). Breakdowns into certain types of fuels vary somewhat depending on whether preliminary or final data is used. Further information about the statistics can be found in Energy in Sweden, chapter 8 Energy Facts. Please note that the figures have been rounded up or down, therefore totals do not always comply with the sum of individual figures

  11. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty for the Treatment of Rotator Cuff Deficiency: A Concise Follow-up, at a Minimum of 10 Years, of Previous Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Derek J; Pupello, Derek R; Santoni, Brandon G; Clark, Rachel E; Frankle, Mark A

    2017-11-15

    We previously evaluated 94 patients (96 shoulders) who underwent reverse shoulder arthroplasty using a central compressive screw with 5.0-mm peripheral locking screws for baseplate fixation and a center of rotation lateral to the glenoid as treatment for end-stage rotator cuff deficiency. The purpose of this study was to report updated results at a minimum follow-up of 10 years. Forty patients (42 shoulders) were available for clinical follow-up. In the patients available for study, implant survivorship, with the end point being revision for any reason, was 90.7%. Since our 5-year report, 2 patients underwent revision surgery; 1 patient sustained a periprosthetic fracture 7 years postoperatively and 1 patient had a dislocation because of chronic shoulder instability at 8 years postoperatively. At a minimum follow-up of 10 years, the patients continued to maintain their improved outcome scores and range of motion, which were comparable with earlier follow-up evaluations. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  12. Twenty-Year Systematic Review of the Hip Pathology, Risk Factors, Treatment, and Clinical Outcomes in Artistic Athletes-Dancers, Figure Skaters, and Gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolia, Ioanna; Utsunomiya, Hajime; Locks, Renato; Briggs, Karen; Philippon, Marc J

    2018-01-01

    To identify (1) the predominant level of evidence of the clinical studies regarding the hip pathology, risk factors, treatment, and clinical outcomes in artistic athletes (dancers, figure skaters, and gymnasts) (2) the most commonly reported hip pathology, risk factors, treatments, and clinical outcomes in dancers, figure skaters, and gymnasts. To conduct this systematic review PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases were searched for relevant studies and pertinent data were collected from the eligible articles. Included were studies which reported hip injuries in artistic athletes, the risk factors, treatment, and/or the clinical outcomes. We excluded case reports or irrelevant studies. No meta-analysis was performed because of study heterogeneity. The methodical index for nonrandomized studies (MINORS) criteria were used for quality control. Thirty-eight studies were included in the analysis. The mean MINORS score was 13.6 ± 4.6 points indicating fair quality of evidence of the included articles. The predominant level of evidence was level IV. Chondrolabral pathology and muscle injuries were the most commonly reported pathologies. We found only 2 risk factor analysis studies; however, many studies reported risk correlation between artistic sports or imaging findings and hip pathology. Treatment strategies were reported in only 7 studies, clinical outcomes are significantly underreported. Chondrolabral pathology was the most commonly reported hip pathology in artistic athletes, however, prospective cohort studies are necessary to really understand these injuries and their associated risk factors. The lack of clinical outcomes is significant and future data collection is required to assess the effectiveness of the various treatments.

  13. Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes among women with previous gestational diabetes: epidemiological and immunological aspects in a follow-up of three years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Paschoal ESTEVES LIMA

    Full Text Available Abstract Periodontitis can contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Therefore, periodontitis, when associated with gestational diabetes, could increase the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes after pregnancy. Objective The aim of this study was to verify the incidence on the development of type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes with and without periodontitis after a three-year time interval. Material and Methods Initial sample of this follow-up study consisted of 90 women diagnosed with gestational diabetes who underwent periodontal examination. After three years, 49 women were subjected to new periodontal examination and biological, behavioral, and social data of interest were collected. Additionally, the quantification of the C-reactive protein in blood samples was performed. Fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels were requested. Saliva samples were collected for quantification of interleukin 6 and 10, tumor necrosis factor α, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9. Results The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 18.4% and of periodontitis was 10.2%. There was no significant difference in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with and without periodontitis. It was observed impact of C-reactive protein in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it was not observed impact of periodontitis on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with previous gestational diabetes. Conclusions It was not observed impact of periodontitis on the development of type 2 diabetes among women with previous gestational diabetes. The impact of C-reactive protein in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus highlights the importance of an inflammatory process in the diabetes pathogenesis.

  14. Late tamoxifen in patients previously operated for breast cancer without postoperative tamoxifen: 5-year results of a single institution randomised study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, Andrea; Miolo, GianMaria; Magri, Maria D; Crivellari, Diana; Scalone, Simona; Bidoli, Ettore; Lombardi, Davide

    2010-01-01

    A population of breast cancer patients exists who, for various reasons, never received adjuvant post-operative tamoxifen (TAM). This study was aimed to evaluate the role of late TAM in these patients. From 1997 to 2003, patients aged 35 to 75 years, operated more than 2 years previously for monolateral breast cancer without adjuvant TAM, with no signs of metastases and no contraindication to TAM were randomized to TAM 20 mg/day orally for 2 years or follow-up alone. Events were categorized as locoregional relapse, distant metastases, metachronous breast cancer, tumours other than breast cancer and death from any causes, whichever occurred first. The sample size (197 patients per arm, plus 10% allowance) was based on the assumption of a 30% decrease in the number of events occurring at a rate of 5% annually in the 10 years following randomization. Four hundred and thirty-three patients were randomized in the study (TAM 217, follow-up 216). Patients characteristics (TAM/follow-up) included: median age 55/55 years, median time from surgery 25/25 months (range, 25-288/25-294), in situ carcinoma 18/24, oestrogen receptor (ER) positive in 75/68, negative in 70/57, unknown in 72/91 patients. Previous adjuvant treatment included chemotherapy in 131/120 and an LHRH analogue in 11/13 patients. Thirty-six patients prematurely discontinued TAM after a median of 1 month, mostly because of subjective intolerance. Eighty-three events (TAM 39, follow-up 44) occurred: locoregional relapse in 10/8, distant metastases in 14/16, metachronous breast cancer in 4/10, other tumours in 11/10 patients. Less ER-positive secondary breast cancers occurred in the TAM treated patients than in follow-up patients (1 vs 10, p = 0.005). Event-free survival was similar in both groups of patients. This 5-year analysis revealed significantly less metachronous ER-positive breast cancers in the TAM treated patients. No other statistically significant differences have emerged thus far

  15. Comparison of Updated Weight and Height Percentiles with Previous References in 6-17-Year-Old Children in Kayseri, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zararsız, Gökmen; Çiçek, Betül; Kondolot, Meda; Mazıcıoğlu, M Mümtaz; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2017-03-01

    To compare updated weight and height percentiles of 6-17-year-old children from all socio-economic levels in Kayseri with previous local references and other national/international data. The second study "Determination of Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents study (DAMTCA II)" was conducted in Kayseri, between October 2007 and April 2008. Weight and height measurements from 4321 (1926 boys, 2395 girls) school children aged between 6 to 17 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Using these data, weight and height percentile curves were produced with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) and compared with the most recent references. Smoothed percentile curves including the 3 rd , 5 th , 10 th , 15 th , 25 th , 50 th , 75 th , 85 th , 90 th , 95 th , and 97 th percentiles were obtained for boys and girls. These results were compared with DAMTCA I study and with two national (İstanbul and Ankara) and international data from Asia and from Europe. This study provides updated weight and height references for Turkish school children aged between 6 and 17 years residing in Kayseri.

  16. Graphics of polar figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  17. Classifying previously undefined days from eleven years of aerosol-particle-size distribution data from the SMEAR II station, Hyytiälä, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Buenrostro Mazon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of secondary aerosol-particle formation depend on identifying days in which new particle formation occurs and, by comparing them to days with no signs of particle formation, identifying the conditions favourable for formation. Continuous aerosol size distribution data has been collected at the SMEAR II station in a boreal forest in Hyytiälä, Finland, since 1996, making it the longest time series of aerosol size distributions available worldwide. In previous studies, the data have been classified as particle-formation event, nonevent, and undefined days, with almost 40% of the dataset classified as undefined. In the present study, eleven years (1996–2006 of undefined days (1630 days were reanalyzed and subdivided into three new classes: failed events (37% of all previously undefined days, ultrafine-mode concentration peaks (34%, and pollution-related concentration peaks (19%. Unclassified days (10% comprised the rest of the previously undefined days. The failed events were further subdivided into tail events (21%, where a tail of a formation event presumed to be advected to Hyytiälä from elsewhere, and quasi events (16% where new particles appeared at sizes 3–10 nm, but showed unclear growth, the mode persisted for less than an hour, or both. The ultrafine concentration peaks days were further subdivided into nucleation-mode peaks (24% and Aitken-mode peaks (10%, depending on the size range where the particles occurred. The mean annual distribution of the failed events has a maximum during summer, whereas the two peak classes have maxima during winter. The summer minimum previously found in the seasonal distribution of event days partially offsets a summer maximum in failed-event days. Daily-mean relative humidity and condensation sink values are useful in discriminating the new classes from each other. Specifically, event days had low values of relative humidity and condensation sink relative to nonevent days. Failed-event days

  18. Construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adami Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Figure rating scales were developed as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women, men, and children. However, it lacks in the literature the validation of the scale for body silhouettes previously adapted. We aimed to obtain evidence for construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents. Methods The study was carried out with adolescent students attending three public schools in an urban region of the municipality of Florianopolis in the State of Santa Catarina (SC. The sample comprised 232 10-19-year-old students, 106 of whom are boys and 126 girls, from the 5th "series" (i.e. year of Primary School to the 3rd year of Secondary School. Data-gathering involved the application of an instrument containing 8 body figure drawings representing a range of children's and adolescents' body shapes, ranging from very slim (contour 1 to obese (contour 8. Weights and heights were also collected, and body mass index (BMI was calculated later. BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable, using z-scores, and as a dichotomous categorical variable, representing a diagnosis of nutritional status (normal and overweight including obesity. Results Results showed that both males and females with larger BMI z-scores chose larger body contours. Girls with higher BMI z-scores also show higher values of body image dissatisfaction. Conclusion We provided the first evidence of validity for a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents.

  19. INFLUENCE OF MUSICAL TONES, IN THE CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OF PREFERENCE OF GEOMETRICAL FIGURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILSON LÓPEZ

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This research intended to create preferences on geometric figures using a classical conditioning procedurewhere 2 specific variations of musical structure were used -mayor and dissonant tones- as unconditionedstimulus. 24 university students with an age average of 23 years were exposed to stimular conditionswhere 2 geometric figures (CS+, were matched with mayor tones (UCS+ and other 2 (CS- withdissonant (UCS-; subsequently the figures were rated on a scale (where +10 = very pleasant and -10 =very unpleasant. According with the formulated hypothesis and the previous discoveries in both basicand applied research, three of the four conditions tested showed significant values using the Wilcoxonsign ranks test.

  20. A very rare case of HPV-53-related cervical cancer, in a 79-year-old woman with a previous history of negative Pap cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, Roberta; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Viola, Patrizia; Ianieri, Manuel Maria; Gatta, Daniela Maria Pia; Rosini, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of organized cervical cancer (CC) screening programs has drastically reduced the prevalence of CC. However the incidence is still too high, especially among elderly women. All guidelines strongly recommend a regular Papanicolaou (Pap) testing for young and middle-aged patients. On the other hand, many international professional societies no longer advise screening in women who have undergone hysterectomy, and in women aged 65 years and above, who have a previous history of regular Pap smears. Here we report the case of poorly differentiated CC, involving the pelvic lymph nodes and urinary bladder, occurring in a 79-year-old woman who regularly underwent Pap tests, with no reported cytological abnormalities. In this very rare case, the CC cells, as well as cells from metastatic lymph nodes and cells from urinary specimens, molecularly showed human papilloma virus (HPV)-53. With the limitations of a single case, this report brings important information to prevent CC in elderly patients: the utility of molecular tests to increase sensitivity of Pap smears in postmenopausal women; the importance of HPV-53 as one of the four "emergent" genotypes having a possible role in oncogenesis; and the presence of HPV-53 in lymph node metastases from cervical carcinoma, which would support the role of this virus in the maintenance of malignant status.

  1. Normalization of EEG activity among previously institutionalized children placed into foster care: A 12-year follow-up of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-02-01

    Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG) or care as usual (CAUG) and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG) of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15-30 Hz), except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Five-year efficacy and safety of tenofovir-based salvage therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis B who previously failed LAM/ADV therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lucy; Thompson, Alexander; Patterson, Scott; George, Jacob; Strasser, Simone; Lee, Alice; Sievert, William; Nicoll, Amanda; Desmond, Paul; Roberts, Stuart; Marion, Kaye; Bowden, Scott; Locarnini, Stephen; Angus, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Multidrug-resistant HBV continues to be an important clinical problem. The TDF-109 study demonstrated that TDF±LAM is an effective salvage therapy through 96 weeks for LAM-resistant patients who previously failed ADV add-on or switch therapy. We evaluated the 5-year efficacy and safety outcomes in patients receiving long-term TDF±LAM in the TDF-109 study. A total of 59 patients completed the first phase of the TDF-109 study and 54/59 were rolled over into a long-term prospective open-label study of TDF±LAM 300 mg daily. Results are reported at the end of year 5 of treatment. At year 5, 75% (45/59) had achieved viral suppression by intent-to-treat analysis. Per-protocol assessment revealed 83% (45/54) were HBV DNA undetectable. Nine patients remained HBV DNA detectable, however 8/9 had very low HBV DNA levels (<264IU/mL) and did not meet virological criteria for virological breakthrough (VBT). One patient experienced VBT, but this was in the setting of documented non-compliance. The response was independent of baseline LAM therapy or mutations conferring ADV resistance. Four patients discontinued TDF, one patient was lost to follow-up and one died from hepatocellular carcinoma. Long-term TDF treatment appears to be safe and effective in patients with prior failure of LAM and a suboptimal response to ADV therapy. These findings confirm that TDF has a high genetic barrier to resistance is active against multidrug-resistant HBV, and should be the preferred oral anti-HBV agent in CHB patients who fail treatment with LAM and ADV. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Figures on petroleum 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This table taken out from the 1981 annual report 1981 contains an introductory remark on the reorganization of mineral oil statistics up to January 82. It is followed by the tables ranged as follows: refinery capacity and production, crude oil supply, GDR-coverings, import of petroleum products, petroleum consumption, export of petroleum products, transport, oil storage tanks, motor vehicle stock, taxes and tariffs, petroleum export trade, energy consumption and world petroleum numbers. In parts the tables contain comparative figures back to 1950.

  5. A very rare case of HPV-53-related cervical cancer, in a 79-year-old woman with a previous history of negative Pap cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zappacosta R

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Zappacosta,1 Giuseppe Lattanzio,2 Patrizia Viola,2 Manuel Maria Ianieri,3 Daniela Maria Pia Gatta,1 Sandra Rosini11Cytopathology Unit, Experimental and Clinical Sciences Department, Gabriele d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy; 2Surgical Pathology Unit, 3Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: The introduction of organized cervical cancer (CC screening programs has drastically reduced the prevalence of CC. However the incidence is still too high, especially among elderly women. All guidelines strongly recommend a regular Papanicolaou (Pap testing for young and middle-aged patients. On the other hand, many international professional societies no longer advise screening in women who have undergone hysterectomy, and in women aged 65 years and above, who have a previous history of regular Pap smears. Here we report the case of poorly differentiated CC, involving the pelvic lymph nodes and urinary bladder, occurring in a 79-year-old woman who regularly underwent Pap tests, with no reported cytological abnormalities. In this very rare case, the CC cells, as well as cells from metastatic lymph nodes and cells from urinary specimens, molecularly showed human papilloma virus (HPV-53. With the limitations of a single case, this report brings important information to prevent CC in elderly patients: the utility of molecular tests to increase sensitivity of Pap smears in postmenopausal women; the importance of HPV-53 as one of the four “emergent” genotypes having a possible role in oncogenesis; and the presence of HPV-53 in lymph node metastases from cervical carcinoma, which would support the role of this virus in the maintenance of malignant status.Keywords: old women, molecular tests, cervical cancer screening, HPV-DNA test, HPV genotypingA Letter to the editor has been received and published for this articleCorrigendum for this paper has been published

  6. Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year EPA releases the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures report, formerly called Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: Facts and Figures. It includes information on Municipal Solid Waste generation, recycling, an

  7. Exogenous spatial attention influences figure-ground assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, Shaun P; Flevaris, Anastasia V; Filapek, Joseph C

    2004-01-01

    In a hierarchical stage account of vision, figure-ground assignment is thought to be completed before the operation of focal spatial attention. Results of previous studies have supported this account by showing that unpredictive, exogenous spatial precues do not influence figure-ground assignment, although voluntary attention can influence figure-ground assignment. However, in these studies, attention was not summoned directly to a region in a figure-ground display. In three experiments, we addressed the relationship between figure-ground assignment and visuospatial attention. In Experiment 1, we replicated the finding that exogenous precues do not influence figure-ground assignment when they direct attention outside of a figure-ground stimulus. In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that exogenous attention can influence figure-ground assignment if it is directed to one of the regions in a figure-ground stimulus. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that exogenous attention can influence figure-ground assignment in displays that contain a Gestalt figure-ground cue; this result suggests that figure-ground processes are not entirely completed prior to the operation of focal spatial attention. Exogenous spatial attention acts as a cue for figure-ground assignment and can affect the outcome of figure-ground processes.

  8. Figuring out How to Be a Teacher in a High-Stakes Context: A Case Study of First-Year Teachers' Conceptual and Practical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher P.; Bay-Borelli, Debra E.; Scott, Jill

    2015-01-01

    High-stakes education reforms across the United States and the globe continue to alter the landscape of teaching and teacher education. One key but understudied aspect of this reform process is the experiences of first-year teachers, particularly those who participated in these high-stakes education systems as students and as a…

  9. PUBLIK FIGUR DALAM IKLAN TESTIMONIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddi Duto Hartanto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Testimonial advertising seemingly identical with famous figure such as artist%2C sportmen or others. They are all branded as "public figure" because they are well known by public. A lot of advertising creators using public figure in order to gain a high brand awareness. Is the use of public figure in testimonial advertising more profitable? Is their able quite representative for the products they represent ? Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Iklan testimonial identik dengan tokoh terkenal%2C baik itu artis%2C tokoh masyarakat%2C olahragawan%2C atau yang lainnya. Semuanya di cap sebagai "publik figur%2C" karena sudah dikenal masyarakat.Banyak kreator iklan menggunakan publik figur dengan harapan dapat mencapai brand awareness yang tinggi. Apakah penggunaan publik figur dalam iklan testimonial lebih menguntungkan ?%2C Apakah peran publik figur (sudah mewakili produk yang dibawakan?. testimonial advertising%2C public figure

  10. Figure out the Rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    Thinking in numbers, figures and systems plays a central part in our - at least scientific – understanding of musical matters. The kind of pre-order that the numbers - and also the systemic thinking - bring along seem to facilitate the access to and dealings with what we understand as fundamental...... to reflect. By means of a critical resume of an earlier analysis of rhythmical implications in Michael Jackson's "Give In To Me" this paper discusses these matters further and reflects upon arithmetic's influences and relevance for our understanding of music....

  11. Facts and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Whereas most of the data are, naturally, about oil, a few figures concern nuclear energy. There is in Part 1 a flow chart of worldwide primary energy consumption by type, from 1974 to 1986, where nuclear energy consumption can be seen in relation to oil, gas, coal and hydro. The same is also given for the regions of the South. In section 3/18 the numbers of nuclear plants in construction and operation are listed separately for developing countries, centrally planned economies and industrialized countries, for 1986. (qui)

  12. Newly diagnosed and previously known diabetes mellitus and 1-year outcomes of acute myocardial infarction: the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, David; Solomon, Scott D; Køber, Lars

    2004-01-01

    cardiovascular events associated with previously known and newly diagnosed diabetes by studying 14,703 patients with acute MI enrolled in the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial. Patients were grouped by diabetic status: previously known diabetes (insulin use or diagnosis of diabetes before...

  13. Automatic figure ranking and user interfacing for intelligent figure search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Figures are important experimental results that are typically reported in full-text bioscience articles. Bioscience researchers need to access figures to validate research facts and to formulate or to test novel research hypotheses. On the other hand, the sheer volume of bioscience literature has made it difficult to access figures. Therefore, we are developing an intelligent figure search engine (http://figuresearch.askhermes.org. Existing research in figure search treats each figure equally, but we introduce a novel concept of "figure ranking": figures appearing in a full-text biomedical article can be ranked by their contribution to the knowledge discovery.We empirically validated the hypothesis of figure ranking with over 100 bioscience researchers, and then developed unsupervised natural language processing (NLP approaches to automatically rank figures. Evaluating on a collection of 202 full-text articles in which authors have ranked the figures based on importance, our best system achieved a weighted error rate of 0.2, which is significantly better than several other baseline systems we explored. We further explored a user interfacing application in which we built novel user interfaces (UIs incorporating figure ranking, allowing bioscience researchers to efficiently access important figures. Our evaluation results show that 92% of the bioscience researchers prefer as the top two choices the user interfaces in which the most important figures are enlarged. With our automatic figure ranking NLP system, bioscience researchers preferred the UIs in which the most important figures were predicted by our NLP system than the UIs in which the most important figures were randomly assigned. In addition, our results show that there was no statistical difference in bioscience researchers' preference in the UIs generated by automatic figure ranking and UIs by human ranking annotation.The evaluation results conclude that automatic figure ranking and user

  14. Figure mining for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Iossifov, Ivan

    2009-08-15

    Figures from biomedical articles contain valuable information difficult to reach without specialized tools. Currently, there is no search engine that can retrieve specific figure types. This study describes a retrieval method that takes advantage of principles in image understanding, text mining and optical character recognition (OCR) to retrieve figure types defined conceptually. A search engine was developed to retrieve tables and figure types to aid computational and experimental research. http://iossifovlab.cshl.edu/figurome/.

  15. Making better scientific figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  16. Preliminary figures for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Neste Corporation's net sales during 1991 totalled USD 12.6 billion, an increase of 11 % over the figure for 1990. The largest growth in net sales took place in Neste Oil's trading activities and sales of in-house-produced crude oil. In the chemicals sector. particular growth was recorded in resins production. Gas, Shipping and Exploration and Production performed slightly better than during 1990. Oil's performance remained satisfactory. The performance of Chemicals, however, fell back considerably, primarily, as a result of the worldwide drop in prices in the petrochemicals and plastics industries. As a result, the Corporation's overall result was substantially below the good level recorded in 1990. The Corporation's operating margin totalled USD 650 million

  17. Cybersecurity Figure of Merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command The Cybersecurity Challenge in Acquisition Sonia Kaestner, Adjunct Professor, McDonough School of Business ...qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= tÉÇåÉëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=f= = Cybersecurity Figure of Merit CAPT Brian Erickson, USN, SPAWAR...the Acquisition Research Program of the Graduate School of Business & Public Policy at the Naval Postgraduate School. To request defense acquisition

  18. A diagnostic dilemma: Left-sided appendicitis in a 10 year old boy with previously undiagnosed intestinal malrotation. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Left sided acute appendicitis is a diagnostic dilemma, thus often leading to management delays. It is pertinent to remember that malrotation of the gut is more common than previously thought, and not just a disease of infancy. It is advisable to consider imaging studies while balancing the risk-benefit-ratio of radiation exposure, especially in paediatric cases to cinch the diagnosis.

  19. Unexpected finding of T-cell lymphoma in a previously healthy 16-year-old patient after a thorax trauma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach Okholm-Hansen, Anna; Brorson, Stig

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We describe the clinical course and emphasize the difficulties in diagnosing T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. The differential diagnostic difficulties have previously been described in regard to pneumonia, but to the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first case report to desc...... relevant to pediatricians, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and general practitioners....

  20. Prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet in refugees previously exposed to torture: a ten-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorthe Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bøjholm, Søren

    2007-01-01

    exposed to torture in their home country were interviewed at a Danish rehabilitation clinic on average 8 years after their final release from confinement and re-interviewed 10 years later. Interviews focused on history of exposure to physical and mental torture and on pain in the head, back and feet...

  1. Life-threatening MRSA sepsis with bilateral pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis of the knee in a previously healthy 13-year-old boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardgrib, Nina; Wang, Michala; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and severity of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are increasing and cause high mortality and morbidity. We describe the first pediatric case in Scandinavia with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) positive MRSA septicemia who developed bilateral pneumonia...... and antimicrobial combination therapy. The outcome was a healthy patient without sequelae, a favorable course unlike those previously described in the literature. This case underlines the necessity of a close interdisciplinary cooperation in children with severe MRSA infection encompassing pneumonia, septic...

  2. KIAI: FIGUR ELITE PESANTREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Takdir Ilahi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a pesantren (Islamic boarding school, kiai is an strategic element. Javanese kiai mainly believe that a pesantren is a small palace where he becomes the ultimate source of power and authority. Even though he lives in a rural village, he becomes a member of elite group in social, politic and economic sides in the society. Kiai who leads big pesantren has successfully enlarged their power in term of nation so kiai could be accepted in national elite. The position of kiai is higher among all pesantren elements. The degree as an Islamic scholar is exactly a sacred degree in pesantren culture and tradition. Without his figure, it is impossible for a pesantren to develop and survive. Kiai holds an ultimate position on educate the behavior and morality of the santri (students to be qualified and compatible Muslims generation. Kiai is not only a leader but he is also the man behind the leadership itself in supporting the progress of Islamic education institution for Muslims generations.

  3. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  4. A figure control sensor for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartman, R.; Dubovitsky, S.

    1988-01-01

    A sensing and control system is required to maintain high optical figure quality in a segmented reflector. Upon detecting a deviation of the segmented surface from its ideal form, the system drives segment mounted actuators to realign the individual segments and thereby return the surface to its intended figure. When the reflector is in use, a set of figure sensors will determine positions of a number of points on the back surface of each of the reflector's segments, each sensor being assigned to a single point. By measuring the positional deviations of these points from previously established nominal values, the figure sensors provide the control system with the information required to maintain the reflector's optical figure. The optical lever, multiple wavelength interferometer, and electronic capacitive sensor, the most promising technologies for the development of the figure sensor, are illustrated. It is concluded that to select a particular implementation of the figure sensors, performance requirement will be refined and relevant technologies investigated further.

  5. Purely temporal figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, F I; Fahle, M

    2001-05-01

    Visual figure-ground segregation is achieved by exploiting differences in features such as luminance, colour, motion or presentation time between a figure and its surround. Here we determine the shortest delay times required for figure-ground segregation based on purely temporal features. Previous studies usually employed stimulus onset asynchronies between figure- and ground-containing possible artefacts based on apparent motion cues or on luminance differences. Our stimuli systematically avoid these artefacts by constantly showing 20 x 20 'colons' that flip by 90 degrees around their midpoints at constant time intervals. Colons constituting the background flip in-phase whereas those constituting the target flip with a phase delay. We tested the impact of frequency modulation and phase reduction on target detection. Younger subjects performed well above chance even at temporal delays as short as 13 ms, whilst older subjects required up to three times longer delays in some conditions. Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal delays down to around 10 ms even in the absence of luminance and motion artefacts, indicating a temporal precision of cortical information processing almost an order of magnitude lower than the one required for some models of feature binding in the visual cortex [e.g. Singer, W. (1999), Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 9, 189-194]. Hence, in our experiment, observers are unable to use temporal stimulus features with the precision required for these models.

  6. Three-year follow-up of treatment-naïve and previously treated patients with CLL and SLL receiving single-agent ibrutinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, John C; Furman, Richard R; Coutre, Steven E; Burger, Jan A; Blum, Kristie A; Coleman, Morton; Wierda, William G; Jones, Jeffrey A; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A; Johnson, Amy J; Shaw, Yun; Bilotti, Elizabeth; Zhou, Cathy; James, Danelle F; O'Brien, Susan

    2015-04-16

    Ibrutinib is an orally administered inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase that antagonizes B-cell receptor, chemokine, and integrin-mediated signaling. In early-phase studies, ibrutinib demonstrated high response rates and prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The durable responses observed with ibrutinib relate in part to a modest toxicity profile that allows the majority of patients to receive continuous therapy for an extended period. We report on median 3-year follow-up of 132 patients with symptomatic treatment-naïve and relapsed/refractory CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma. Longer treatment with ibrutinib was associated with improvement in response quality over time and durable remissions. Toxicity with longer follow-up diminished with respect to occurrence of grade 3 or greater cytopenias, fatigue, and infections. Progression remains uncommon, occurring primarily in some patients with relapsed del(17)(p13.1) and/or del(11)(q22.3) disease. Treatment-related lymphocytosis remains largely asymptomatic even when persisting >1 year and does not appear to alter longer-term PFS and overall survival compared with patients with partial response or better. Collectively, these data provide evidence that ibrutinib controls CLL disease manifestations and is well tolerated for an extended period; this information can help direct potential treatment options for different subgroups to diminish the long-term risk of relapse. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  7. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Energy in Sweden. Facts and Figures 2005 contains the tabular data for most of the diagrams in the main publication. These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. Facts and Figures is available at www.stem.se in pdf- and excel file formats. With effect from the 2001 edition, statistics are of preliminary character for the two preceding years (2003 and 2004). Breakdowns into certain types of fuels vary somewhat depending on whether preliminary or final data has been used. Further information about the statistics can be found in Energy in Sweden, chapter 8 Energy Facts

  8. Figurations of the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøijer, Stine

    2015-01-01

    During the past ten years, protests timed to coincide with international summits have become a recurrent phenomenon in Europe. The present article describes the protests of left radical activists during NATO’s sixtieth anniversary summit in Strasbourg in 2009, paying attention to the particular r...

  9. Evaluation of the pole figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera B, E.; Macias B, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the present work it's shown the possibility of obtaining a pole-figure from the data generated in a conventional X-ray equipment, with a commercial goniometer and no electronic device to process the data. The way to plot the pole-figure on-line is by means of measuring the diffractogram and plot manually the stereographic projections. The atainable precision is very low in such a cumbersome process. In this paper we substitute such method by storing the data in a punched tape from a conventional teletype. The data is processed in a computer and the pole-figure is recorded by a plotter attached to the computer. (author)

  10. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data on the impact of this disease in every ... with third parties. Please read our security and privacy policy . Plan ahead Get help and support I ...

  11. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download ... about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease ...

  12. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Join the Cause alz.org >> Alzheimer's & Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download the Infographic: English Spanish Share the ...

  13. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download ... worried about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease ...

  14. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... home care. Take action. Become an advocate SPECIAL REPORT: FINANCIAL AND PERSONAL BENEFITS OF EARLY DIAGNOSIS Early ... State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data on the impact of this disease ...

  15. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report ... on the impact of this disease in every state across the nation. Click below to see the ...

  16. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 272.3900 Donate Alzheimer's & Dementia What Is Alzheimer's? Brain Tour Younger/Early Onset Risk Factors Genetics Myths ... Dementia Korsakoff Syndrome Related Conditions CTE MCI Traumatic Brain Injury Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs ...

  17. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers Eighty-three percent of the help ...

  18. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers Eighty-three percent of the help ...

  19. Retorical figures in advertising language

    OpenAIRE

    Radenković-Šošić Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Promotional activities are very often based on advertising and diverse types of public relations. In order to attract consumers' attention and achieve communication goals set by the corporate strategy, advertisers frequently use rhetorical elements in advertising discourse. The advertisers try to convey a desired message and to communicate with the recipient of the message by using various rhetorical figures. It is argued that understanding the structure and function of rhetorical figur...

  20. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  1. Femoral Component Revision with Use of Impaction Bone-Grafting and a Cemented Polished Stem: A Concise Follow-up, at Fifteen to Twenty Years, of a Previous Report*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Te Stroet, M.A.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Rijnen, W.H.C.; Slooff, T.J.J.H.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported our results for thirty-three consecutive femoral component revisions with impaction bone-grafting, performed with the X-change femoral revision system and a cemented polished Exeter stem, at a minimum of eight years of follow-up. The present updated study shows the results

  2. Forskerklummen: Figured Worlds of literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Figured worlds”, altså forestillede verdener, er et teoretisk begreb, som i øjeblikket dukker op i flere og flere forskningssammenhænge. Det bliver anvendt på mange forskellige måder både inden for uddannelsesforskning og i forskning i literacy.......”Figured worlds”, altså forestillede verdener, er et teoretisk begreb, som i øjeblikket dukker op i flere og flere forskningssammenhænge. Det bliver anvendt på mange forskellige måder både inden for uddannelsesforskning og i forskning i literacy....

  3. STRESS FRACTURE PREVALENCE IN ELITE FIGURE SKATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Dubravcic-Simunjak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Figure skating is a physically demanding sport that requires a unique combination of artistic ability, speed, agility, flexibility and power. During the last decades not only the competitive schedule has become tougher, but after introduction of the new judging system in 2003, also more emphasis is put on difficult technical elements, jumps, steps and spins (ISU Rules, 2006. More studies about possible increasing prevalence of stress fractures in figure skaters and contributing factors are lacking (Dubravcic-Simunjak et al., 2003; Moran, 2000; Pecina et al., 1990. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain data about the current stress fracture cumulative risk among elite junior and senior figure skaters, as well as possible factors that may contribute to stress fracture incidence. An anonymous questionnaire, divided into 5 sections, inquired about the prevalence of stress fracture were mailed and distributed to all 62 International Skating Union (ISU members by the ISU headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland. The guidelines of the Helsinki declaration 2004 were followed. From the 644 skaters who received the questionnaire, 412 completed ones were returned from 110 female juniors (78 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 135 female seniors (97 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers and from 79 male juniors (47 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 88 male seniors (50 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers, coming from different ISU members. The response rate was 62% in females and 67% in males. The median age for female skaters was 16 years and for males 18 years (range 12-25 years. All participants started to skate between 3 and 6 years of age and started to compete in national and international competitions when they were between 5 and 7 years old. At the time of this analysis, they had been skating between 9 and 20 years.In females 41 (16.7%, and in males 25 (13.8% figure skaters

  4. The latest figures on uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.

    2010-01-01

    According to the latest figures on uranium, soon to be published by the NEA, uranium resources, production and demand are all on the rise. Exploration efforts have increased recently in line with the expected expansion of nuclear energy in the coming years. Total identified resources have grown and are now sufficient to cover 100 years of supply at 2008 rates of consumption. Costs of production have, however, also increased. This article is based on the latest edition of the 'Red Book', Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand, which presents the results of the most recent biennial review of world uranium market fundamentals and a statistical profile of the world uranium industry as of 1 January 2009. It contains official data provided by OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) member countries on uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2035 are also provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. Despite recent declines stemming from the global financial crisis, world demand for electricity is expected to continue to grow significantly over the next several decades to meet the needs of an increasing population and economic growth. The recognition by an increasing number of governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, base-load electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, coupled with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supply, increases the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity, although the magnitude of that growth remains to be determined. Regardless of the role that nuclear energy ultimately plays in meeting rising electricity demand, the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected requirements. Meeting even high-case requirements to 2035 would consume less

  5. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  6. Retorical figures in advertising language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenković-Šošić Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Promotional activities are very often based on advertising and diverse types of public relations. In order to attract consumers' attention and achieve communication goals set by the corporate strategy, advertisers frequently use rhetorical elements in advertising discourse. The advertisers try to convey a desired message and to communicate with the recipient of the message by using various rhetorical figures. It is argued that understanding the structure and function of rhetorical figures in advertising requires a "text- and reader-aware approach". The use of rhetorical figures in advertising has been overlooked in consumer research. This paper shows that the use of rhetorical elements in the advertising discourse is very frequent, but at the same time it is questioned if the function of the rhetorical figures is just a communication with the target market (which is a base of communication models and if the consequences of linguistic influences are much more serious. The complex nature of advertising language with various rhetorical figures (thropes and schemes do not just stimulate recipients to demonstrate a desirable behavior, but indirectly it constructs a concept of desirable lifestyle and it induces them to identify themselves with the explained model. Moreover, the analyzed corpus included advertising slogans of social responsible companies as well as advertising campaigns with elements of diverse ideologies. In the time of digitization and a rapid information flow, consumer's attention is less dedicated to the advertising messages. Therefore, it should be expected that in the future advertisers will have to adjust linguistic, audio and visual techniques to the unfocused message recipients.

  7. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Church, E.L.

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Brand logo design: Examining consumer responses to figurativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, J. C.; Vacas-Carvalho, Leonor; Costa, P.; Torres, A.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous investigation, aimed at studying brand identity preferences in a merger context, researchers found the most preferred logos are figurative ones. Additionally, results suggested the aesthetic appeal of the logo significantly influences consumers’ identity choices. These results find support in logo strategy literature. The main purpose of this study is to investigate more thoroughly the influence of logo design characteristics, and particularly of figurativeness, o...

  9. Third quarter 2005 sales figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, AREVA offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. This document presents the sales figures of the group for the third quarter of 2005: sales revenues in the front end division, in the reactor and services division, in the back end division and in the transmission and distribution division

  10. Only one previous owner .

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snieckus, Darius

    1999-01-01

    In the light of the large number of offshore platforms earmarked for decommissioning in the next 30 years, a case for re-use is advanced. Henk Vreeswijk of the Netherlands believes that governments should encourage re-use; it makes sense from both an economical and an environmental perspective. Indeed, in the Netherlands, platforms are now being produced with re-use in mind. Elf has recently taken the unprecedented step of advertising a used platform and a subsea installation on the internet. (UK)

  11. Theories of figures of celestial bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Jardetzky, Wenceslas S

    2005-01-01

    Everything in the universe rotates: the meteors, the asteroids, the planets and their satellites, the sun, the stars, the clusters and nebulae, even the galaxies themselves. The problem of the shape of a rotating body is therefore universal in astronomy. Its treatment in this book, which deals with the figures of equilibrium and distortions of rotating bodies, is full and rigorous.Suitable for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text was written by a renowned researcher and educator who taught at Columbia University and served for many years as a research associate at the La

  12. Is it possible to assess visual–perceptual processes involved in writing through a tablet test?The new title is: Psychological and physiological processes in figure - tracing abilities measured using a tablet computer: a study with 7 - 9 - year - old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Giammarco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the use of a tablet computer to assess figure-tracing skills and their relationships with psychological (visual–perceptual processes, cognitive processes, handwriting skills and physiological (body mass index, isometric strength of arms parameters with school-children of second (7-8-year-olds and fourth (9-10-year-olds grades. We were also interested in gender differences. The task required tracing of geometric figures on a template, shown on a tablet screen in light grey, for the segments that make up the target figure, one at a time. This figure-tracing tablet test allows acquisition and automated analysis of four parameters: number of strokes (pen lift for each segment; oscillations of lines drawn with respect to reference lines; pressure of pen on tablet; and average speed of tracing. The results show a trade-off between speed and quality for the tablet parameters, with higher speed associated with more oscillations with respect to the reference lines, and lower number of strokes for each segment, in both male and female children. The involvement of visual–motor integration on the ability to reduce the oscillations in this tablet test was only seen for the male children, while both the male and female children showed a relationship between oscillations and more general/ abstract visual–spatial processes. These data confirm the role of visual–motor processes in this figure-tracing tablet test only for male children, while more general visual–spatial processes influence the performance in the tablet test for both sexes. We conclude that the test proposed is useful to screen for grapho-motor difficulties.

  13. Long-term safety and outcome of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and mitoxantrone (FCM) regimen in previously untreated patients with advanced follicular lymphoma: 12 years follow-up of a phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnano, Laura; Montoto, Silvia; González-Barca, Eva; Briones, Javier; Sancho, Juan Manuel; Muntañola, Ana; Salar, Antonio; Besalduch, Joan; Escoda, Lourdes; Moreno, Carol; Domingo-Domenech, Eva; Estany, Cristina; Oriol, Albert; Altés, Albert; Pedro, Carmen; Gardella, Santiago; Asensio, Antoni; Vivancos, Pilar; Fernández de Sevilla, Alberto; Ribera, Josep María; Colomer, Dolors; Campo, Elias; López-Guillermo, Armando

    2017-04-01

    Fludarabine combinations are very affective in follicular lymphoma (FL) with high rates of complete response and prolonged survival. However, late toxicities could be a concern. The aim of the present study was to analyze the long-term impact on survival, relapse and late toxicities of a trial of treatment with fludarabine, mitoxantrone and cyclophosphamide (FCM regimen) for untreated patients with advanced stage FL. One hundred and twenty patients enrolled in a phase 2 trial of treatment with FCM regimen between 2000 and 2003 were evaluated. After a median follow-up of 12 years, 52 patients eventually relapsed/progressed with 10 year progression-free survival (PFS) of 46 %. Ten patients showed histological transformation to aggressive lymphoma with a risk of transformation of 2 and 9 % at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Three patients developed therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukaemia (MDS/AML) and seven solid neoplasms with an overall risk of 3 and 8 % at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Twenty-six patients eventually died during the follow-up. Overall survival at 10 years was 83 %. In conclusion, FCM regimen allows excellent long-lasting response in previously untreated patients with FL. The incidence of late events including histological transformation and secondary neoplasia is low but not negligible.

  14. Energy in Sweden: Facts and figures 2009; Energilaeget 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-15

    Energy in Sweden 2009: Facts and figures contains the tabular for most of the diagrams in the main publication (STEM-ET--2009-30). These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. Statistics are of preliminary character for the two last published years (2007 and 2008). Breakdowns into certain types of fuels vary somewhat depending on whether preliminary or final data is used. Please note that the figures have been rounded up or down, therefore totals do not always comply with the sum of individual figures

  15. The Figure in the Idiom

    OpenAIRE

    JONES, Willie

    1996-01-01

    The argument: every metaphor and metaphoric idiom grows out of and is nourished by a seminal metonymy. Since these germinating seeds-and the mineral elements which feed them-work under cover, we tend to overlook them when we feast off harvests cropped from the fields of metaphor: and we therefore forget to take into account the radical fecundity of the metonymic germ. This essay attempts to remedy such forgetfulness. At the same time, it also claims that metonymy (a figure of rhetoric) and im...

  16. Les figures multiples du maire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lebraud

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Alors même que l’ensemble du personnel gouvernemental et parlementaire est sujet à une relative désaffection de la part des citoyens, les maires français jouissent, on le sait, d’une popularité qui fait d’eux les figures centrales de la scène politique. Au-delà de la décentralisation, qui a souvent renforcé leur image de décideurs, ils ont su tirer parti de la dimension identitaire qui caractérise l’échelon communal pour devenir les acteurs indispensables de la vie locale. ...

  17. Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Matthew C

    2010-09-20

    The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635-1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depicts human subjects and bears Hooke's name functioning as an artistic signature, both highly unusual features for his draughtsmanship. From evidence of how this drawing was collected and physically placed alongside images by leading artists in the early eighteenth century, I suggest how it can offer new insight into the reception of Hooke and his graphic work in the early Enlightenment.

  18. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  19. Empire as a Geopolitical Figure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the ingredients of empire as a pattern of order with geopolitical effects. Noting the imperial form's proclivity for expansion from a critical reading of historical sociology, the article argues that the principal manifestation of earlier geopolitics lay not in the nation...... but in empire. That in turn has been driven by a view of the world as disorderly and open to the ordering will of empires (emanating, at the time of geopolitics' inception, from Europe). One implication is that empires are likely to figure in the geopolitical ordering of the globe at all times, in particular...... after all that has happened in the late twentieth century to undermine nationalism and the national state. Empire is indeed a probable, even for some an attractive form of regime for extending order over the disorder produced by globalisation. Geopolitics articulated in imperial expansion is likely...

  20. The influence of wanting to look like media figures on adolescent physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Field, Alison E; Frazier, A Lindsay; Colditz, Graham A; Gillman, Matthew W

    2004-07-01

    To examine the association of adolescents' wanting to look like figures in the media with physical activity levels. Cross-sectional mailed survey of 11,606 boys and girls, between the ages of 9 and 16 years, participating in the Growing Up Today Study in 1997. Participants reported detailed information on physical activities over the previous year, and the degree to which they were trying to look like same-sex images in television, movies, and magazines. We performed linear regression modeling to assess the independent effects of wanting to look like figures in the media on physical activity levels. Mean total weekly physical activity levels were 12.4 hours in girls and 15.2 hours in boys. 3019 (46%) girls and 1360 (27%) boys reported making at least some effort to look like figures in the media. Adjusted for age, body mass index, sexual maturity rating, and race/ethnicity, total physical activity levels were higher by 0.7 (95% CI 0.5-0.9) and 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.6) hours per week in girls and boys, respectively, for every 1 (out of 5) category increase in wanting to look like figures in the media. Adjustment for intrapersonal and social confounders modestly attenuated the associations. Wanting to look like figures in the media was associated with higher physical activity levels among older children and adolescents, independent of other personal and social influences. These data suggest that television, movie, and magazine industries should be encouraged to cultivate and reinforce realistic and healthy norms of physical activity and body image.

  1. Figures on public utilities, 1976/77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    Qualified statistical data belong to the instruments of effective association work. Therefore the association, among other activities, carries out statistical investigations on business management among its member enterprises at intervals of two years. This volume contains the results of the business years 1976 and 1977. A main purpose of this statistics is to offer guidelines to the member enterprises, especially figures which allow to compare the evaluated average values of the business with data of the own enterprise, which may be, if necessary, an impetus to think about measures of rationalization. As in former statistics all the results are classified in seven categories that are determined by the size of the enterprise. Compared with the last questionnaire some items have been altered to facilitate the completion. Questions concerning the extent of the public utilities, the structure of the network system and investment planning have been introduced for the first time.

  2. Nivolumab Versus Docetaxel in Previously Treated Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Two-Year Outcomes From Two Randomized, Open-Label, Phase III Trials (CheckMate 017 and CheckMate 057).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Leora; Spigel, David R; Vokes, Everett E; Holgado, Esther; Ready, Neal; Steins, Martin; Poddubskaya, Elena; Borghaei, Hossein; Felip, Enriqueta; Paz-Ares, Luis; Pluzanski, Adam; Reckamp, Karen L; Burgio, Marco A; Kohlhäeufl, Martin; Waterhouse, David; Barlesi, Fabrice; Antonia, Scott; Arrieta, Oscar; Fayette, Jérôme; Crinò, Lucio; Rizvi, Naiyer; Reck, Martin; Hellmann, Matthew D; Geese, William J; Li, Ang; Blackwood-Chirchir, Anne; Healey, Diane; Brahmer, Julie; Eberhardt, Wilfried E E

    2017-12-10

    Purpose Nivolumab, a programmed death-1 inhibitor, prolonged overall survival compared with docetaxel in two independent phase III studies in previously treated patients with advanced squamous (CheckMate 017; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01642004) or nonsquamous (CheckMate 057; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01673867) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report updated results, including a pooled analysis of the two studies. Methods Patients with stage IIIB/IV squamous (N = 272) or nonsquamous (N = 582) NSCLC and disease progression during or after prior platinum-based chemotherapy were randomly assigned 1:1 to nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks) or docetaxel (75 mg/m 2 every 3 weeks). Minimum follow-up for survival was 24.2 months. Results Two-year overall survival rates with nivolumab versus docetaxel were 23% (95% CI, 16% to 30%) versus 8% (95% CI, 4% to 13%) in squamous NSCLC and 29% (95% CI, 24% to 34%) versus 16% (95% CI, 12% to 20%) in nonsquamous NSCLC; relative reductions in the risk of death with nivolumab versus docetaxel remained similar to those reported in the primary analyses. Durable responses were observed with nivolumab; 10 (37%) of 27 confirmed responders with squamous NSCLC and 19 (34%) of 56 with nonsquamous NSCLC had ongoing responses after 2 years' minimum follow-up. No patient in either docetaxel group had an ongoing response. In the pooled analysis, the relative reduction in the risk of death with nivolumab versus docetaxel was 28% (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.84), and rates of treatment-related adverse events were lower with nivolumab than with docetaxel (any grade, 68% v 88%; grade 3 to 4, 10% v 55%). Conclusion Nivolumab provides long-term clinical benefit and a favorable tolerability profile compared with docetaxel in previously treated patients with advanced NSCLC.

  3. Threshold Differences on Figure and Ground: Gelb and Granit (1923).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinateder, Max; Nelson, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    In 1923, Gelb and Granit, using a method of adjustment for a small red light, reported a lower threshold for the target when presented on a ground region than on an adjacent figural region. More recent work in perceptual organization has found precisely the opposite-a processing advantage seems to go to items presented on the figure, not the ground. Although Gelb and Granit continue to be cited for their finding, it has not previously been available as an English translation. Understanding their methodology and results is important for integrating early Gestalt theory with more recent investigations.

  4. Threshold Differences on Figure and Ground: Gelb and Granit (1923)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinateder, Max

    2017-01-01

    In 1923, Gelb and Granit, using a method of adjustment for a small red light, reported a lower threshold for the target when presented on a ground region than on an adjacent figural region. More recent work in perceptual organization has found precisely the opposite—a processing advantage seems to go to items presented on the figure, not the ground. Although Gelb and Granit continue to be cited for their finding, it has not previously been available as an English translation. Understanding their methodology and results is important for integrating early Gestalt theory with more recent investigations. PMID:28286640

  5. Are figure legends sufficient? Evaluating the contribution of associated text to biomedical figure comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Agarwal, Shashank; Johnston, Mark; Cohen, Aaron

    2009-01-06

    Biomedical scientists need to access figures to validate research facts and to formulate or to test novel research hypotheses. However, figures are difficult to comprehend without associated text (e.g., figure legend and other reference text). We are developing automated systems to extract the relevant explanatory information along with figures extracted from full text articles. Such systems could be very useful in improving figure retrieval and in reducing the workload of biomedical scientists, who otherwise have to retrieve and read the entire full-text journal article to determine which figures are relevant to their research. As a crucial step, we studied the importance of associated text in biomedical figure comprehension. Twenty subjects evaluated three figure-text combinations: figure+legend, figure+legend+title+abstract, and figure+full-text. Using a Likert scale, each subject scored each figure+text according to the extent to which the subject thought he/she understood the meaning of the figure and the confidence in providing the assigned score. Additionally, each subject entered a free text summary for each figure-text. We identified missing information using indicator words present within the text summaries. Both the Likert scores and the missing information were statistically analyzed for differences among the figure-text types. We also evaluated the quality of text summaries with the text-summarization evaluation method the ROUGE score. Our results showed statistically significant differences in figure comprehension when varying levels of text were provided. When the full-text article is not available, presenting just the figure+legend left biomedical researchers lacking 39-68% of the information about a figure as compared to having complete figure comprehension; adding the title and abstract improved the situation, but still left biomedical researchers missing 30% of the information. When the full-text article is available, figure comprehension

  6. Feedback enhances feedforward figure-ground segmentation by changing firing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supèr, Hans; Romeo, August

    2011-01-01

    In the visual cortex, feedback projections are conjectured to be crucial in figure-ground segregation. However, the precise function of feedback herein is unclear. Here we tested a hypothetical model of reentrant feedback. We used a previous developed 2-layered feedforward spiking network that is able to segregate figure from ground and included feedback connections. Our computer model data show that without feedback, neurons respond with regular low-frequency (∼9 Hz) bursting to a figure-ground stimulus. After including feedback the firing pattern changed into a regular (tonic) spiking pattern. In this state, we found an extra enhancement of figure responses and a further suppression of background responses resulting in a stronger figure-ground signal. Such push-pull effect was confirmed by comparing the figure-ground responses with the responses to a homogenous texture. We propose that feedback controls figure-ground segregation by influencing the neural firing patterns of feedforward projecting neurons.

  7. Feedback enhances feedforward figure-ground segmentation by changing firing mode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Supèr

    Full Text Available In the visual cortex, feedback projections are conjectured to be crucial in figure-ground segregation. However, the precise function of feedback herein is unclear. Here we tested a hypothetical model of reentrant feedback. We used a previous developed 2-layered feedforward spiking network that is able to segregate figure from ground and included feedback connections. Our computer model data show that without feedback, neurons respond with regular low-frequency (∼9 Hz bursting to a figure-ground stimulus. After including feedback the firing pattern changed into a regular (tonic spiking pattern. In this state, we found an extra enhancement of figure responses and a further suppression of background responses resulting in a stronger figure-ground signal. Such push-pull effect was confirmed by comparing the figure-ground responses with the responses to a homogenous texture. We propose that feedback controls figure-ground segregation by influencing the neural firing patterns of feedforward projecting neurons.

  8. The role of shape recognition in figure/ground perception in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hannah; Jubran, Rachel; Heck, Alison; Chroust, Alyson; Bhatt, Ramesh S

    2018-04-30

    In this study we sought to determine whether infants, like adults, utilize previous experience to guide figure/ground processing. After familiarization to a shape, 5-month-olds preferentially attended to the side of an ambiguous figure/ground test stimulus corresponding to that shape, suggesting that they were viewing that portion as the figure. Infants' failure to exhibit this preference in a control condition in which both sides of the test stimulus were displayed as figures indicated that the results in the experimental condition were not due to a preference between two figure shapes. These findings demonstrate for the first time that figure/ground processing in infancy is sensitive to top-down influence. Thus, a critical aspect of figure/ground processing is functional early in life.

  9. Immunogenicity and Safety of a Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Children 6 Months to 17 Years of Age, Previously Vaccinated with an AS03-Adjuvanted A(H1N1)Pdm09 Vaccine: Two Open-label, Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Berglund, Johan; Korhonen, Tiina; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Lindstrand, Ann; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Bambure, Vinod; Caplanusi, Adrian; Dieussaert, Ilse; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Vaughn, David W

    2015-07-01

    During the influenza pandemic 2009-2010, an AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine was used extensively in children 6 months of age and older, and during the 2010-2011 influenza season, the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain was included in the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) without adjuvant. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of TIV in children previously vaccinated with the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Healthy children were randomized (1:1) to receive TIV or a control vaccine. Children were aged 6 months to 9 years (n = 154) and adolescents 10-17 years (n = 77) when they received AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine at least 6 months before study enrolment. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralizing antibody responses against the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain were evaluated before (day 0) and at day 28 and month 6 after study vaccination. Reactogenicity was assessed during the 7 day postvaccination period, and safety was assessed for 6 months. At day 0, >93.9% of all children had HI titers ≥1:40 for the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain, which increased to 100% at both day 28 and month 6 in the TIV group. Between days 0 and 28, HI antibody geometric mean titers against A(H1N1)pdm09 increased by 9-fold and 4-fold in children 6 months to 9 years of age and 10-17 years of age, respectively. AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine-induced robust immune responses in children that persisted into the next season, yet were still boosted by TIV containing A(H1N1)pdm09. The reactogenicity and safety profile of TIV did not appear compromised by prior receipt of AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine.

  10. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year is associated with a significant protective effect for travellers' diarrhoea: a prospective observational cohort study in travellers to South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzli, Esther; Juergensen, David; Kling, Kerstin; Jaeger, Veronika K; DeCrom, Susan; Steffen, Robert; Widmer, Andreas F; Battegay, Manuel; Hatz, Christoph; Neumayr, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem in travellers. Depending on the region visited, up to 40% of travellers develop diarrhoea during a 2-week trip. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for TD among travellers to the Indian subcontinent. An observational prospective multicentre cohort study investigated travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Participants completed questionnaires assessing the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea and identifying potential risk factors. Covariates were assessed univariately, followed by a multivariate regression. Two-hundred and twenty-six travellers were enrolled into the study, 178 filled in both pre- and post-travel questionnaires. Overall, the attack rate of travellers' diarrhoea was 38.2%. Travel destination is a key risk factor for the occurrence of TD. Travelling to India or Nepal vs Bhutan is associated with an increased risk for TD (OR 6.68 and 6.62, respectively). A length of stay of more than 3 weeks compared to less than 2 weeks is also associated with a significantly increased risk (OR 5.45). Having stayed in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year before the current trip is associated with a significantly decreased risk (OR 0.19). No association was found between consumption of high risk food (i.e. tap water, ice cream, raw meat and hamburgers) and travellers' diarrhoea. Travellers' diarrhoea is a frequent problem in travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year appears to have a significant protective effect. Furthermore, an association between the occurrence of travellers' diarrhoea and travel destination and length of stay, respectively, was observed. Consumption of risk food did not confer a TD risk in our study. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. EEG signatures accompanying auditory figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Háden, Gábor P; Szerafin, Ágnes; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Winkler, István

    2016-11-01

    In everyday acoustic scenes, figure-ground segregation typically requires one to group together sound elements over both time and frequency. Electroencephalogram was recorded while listeners detected repeating tonal complexes composed of a random set of pure tones within stimuli consisting of randomly varying tonal elements. The repeating pattern was perceived as a figure over the randomly changing background. It was found that detection performance improved both as the number of pure tones making up each repeated complex (figure coherence) increased, and as the number of repeated complexes (duration) increased - i.e., detection was easier when either the spectral or temporal structure of the figure was enhanced. Figure detection was accompanied by the elicitation of the object related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potentials (ERPs), which have been previously shown to be evoked by the presence of two concurrent sounds. Both ERP components had generators within and outside of auditory cortex. The amplitudes of the ORN and the P400 increased with both figure coherence and figure duration. However, only the P400 amplitude correlated with detection performance. These results suggest that 1) the ORN and P400 reflect processes involved in detecting the emergence of a new auditory object in the presence of other concurrent auditory objects; 2) the ORN corresponds to the likelihood of the presence of two or more concurrent sound objects, whereas the P400 reflects the perceptual recognition of the presence of multiple auditory objects and/or preparation for reporting the detection of a target object. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. EEG signatures accompanying auditory figure-ground segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Háden, Gábor P.; Szerafin, Ágnes; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara; Winkler, István

    2017-01-01

    In everyday acoustic scenes, figure-ground segregation typically requires one to group together sound elements over both time and frequency. Electroencephalogram was recorded while listeners detected repeating tonal complexes composed of a random set of pure tones within stimuli consisting of randomly varying tonal elements. The repeating pattern was perceived as a figure over the randomly changing background. It was found that detection performance improved both as the number of pure tones making up each repeated complex (figure coherence) increased, and as the number of repeated complexes (duration) increased – i.e., detection was easier when either the spectral or temporal structure of the figure was enhanced. Figure detection was accompanied by the elicitation of the object related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potentials (ERPs), which have been previously shown to be evoked by the presence of two concurrent sounds. Both ERP components had generators within and outside of auditory cortex. The amplitudes of the ORN and the P400 increased with both figure coherence and figure duration. However, only the P400 amplitude correlated with detection performance. These results suggest that 1) the ORN and P400 reflect processes involved in detecting the emergence of a new auditory object in the presence of other concurrent auditory objects; 2) the ORN corresponds to the likelihood of the presence of two or more concurrent sound objects, whereas the P400 reflects the perceptual recognition of the presence of multiple auditory objects and/or preparation for reporting the detection of a target object. PMID:27421185

  13. Figure text extraction in biomedical literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Figures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine (http://figuresearch.askHERMES.org to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist the task of mining information from figures. Little research, however, has been conducted exploring text extraction from biomedical figures.We first evaluated an off-the-shelf Optical Character Recognition (OCR tool on its ability to extract text from figures appearing in biomedical full-text articles. We then developed a Figure Text Extraction Tool (FigTExT to improve the performance of the OCR tool for figure text extraction through the use of three innovative components: image preprocessing, character recognition, and text correction. We first developed image preprocessing to enhance image quality and to improve text localization. Then we adapted the off-the-shelf OCR tool on the improved text localization for character recognition. Finally, we developed and evaluated a novel text correction framework by taking advantage of figure-specific lexicons.The evaluation on 382 figures (9,643 figure texts in total randomly selected from PubMed Central full-text articles shows that FigTExT performed with 84% precision, 98% recall, and 90% F1-score for text localization and with 62.5% precision, 51.0% recall and 56.2% F1-score for figure text extraction. When limiting figure texts to those judged by domain experts to be important content, FigTExT performed with 87.3% precision, 68.8% recall, and 77% F1-score. FigTExT significantly improved the performance of the off-the-shelf OCR tool we used, which on its own performed with 36.6% precision, 19.3% recall, and 25.3% F1-score for

  14. FORMAÇÃO CONTINUADA DO PROFESSOR DOS ANOS INICIAIS: REVISITANDO FIGURAS PLANAS COM SOFTWARE DE GEOMETRIA DINÂMICA. CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR TEACHERS OF THE EARLY YEARS: REVISITING PLANE FIGURES WITH DYNAMIC GEOMETRY SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poloni, Marinês Yole

    2012-05-01

    Figures subject, with Cabri-Géomètre software. The theoretical framework was constructed from Schön’s concepts of reflection; Ponte & Oliveira’s notions of didactical knowledge and the connection between theory and practice from Tardif’s thought. The methodology used on this qualitative study was the Design-Based Research. Reflections on the (reconstruction of geometrical concepts and on the practice of teaching are presented. We conclude that reconstruction of geometric concepts occurred with both teachers, especially regarding the definitions and properties of triangles and quadrilaterals. Concerning the teaching practice, they became aware of the decisions taken during the planning of their classes, as well as during those classes, evaluating their teaching and pedagogical decisions later.

  15. Figure-ground assignment in pigeons: evidence for a figural benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareva, Olga E; Castro, Leyre; Vecera, Shaun P; Wasserman, Edward A

    2006-07-01

    Four pigeons discriminated whether a target spot appeared on a colored figural shape or on a differently colored background by first pecking the target and then reporting its location: on the figure or the background. We recorded three dependent variables: target detection time, choice response time, and choice accuracy. The birds were faster to detect the target, to report its location, and to learn the correct response on figure trials than on background trials. Later tests suggested that the pigeons might have attended to the figural region as a whole rather than using local properties in performing the figure-background discrimination. The location of the figural region did not affect figure-ground assignment. Finally, when 4 other pigeons had to detect and peck the target without making a choice report, no figural advantage emerged in target detection time, suggesting that the birds' attention may not have been automatically summoned to the figural region.

  16. CES_EHP_Figure_2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The increasing number of chemicals for which SHEDS probabilistic exposure assessment has been performed over the years. This dataset is associated with the following...

  17. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dementias have twice as many hospital stays per year as other older people. Medicare beneficiaries with Alzheimer's ... and provide an accurate diagnosis earlier than at any other time in history. In addition to providing ...

  18. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as many hospital stays per year as other older people. Medicare beneficiaries with Alzheimer's or other dementias are ... dementias make up a large proportion of all elderly people who receive adult day services and nursing ...

  19. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifan Liu

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1 First Author, (2 Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3 Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or

  20. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out

  1. Equilibrium figures in geodesy and geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, H.

    There is an enormous literature on geodetic equilibrium figures, but the various works have not always been interrelated, also for linguistic reasons (English, French, German, Italian, Russian). The author attempts to systematize the various approaches and to use the standard second-order theory for a study of the deviation of the actual earth and of the equipotential reference ellipsoid from an equilibrium figure.

  2. "Blessed": Musical Talent, Smartness, & Figured Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore smartness and talent as social constructs. Drawing on Holland et al.'s (1998) figured identities, this article explores the figuring of abilities by elucidating the voices of African American high school chorus students. Critical Race Theory (CRT) helps to unpack normalized language and practices that…

  3. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  4. Figuring Out Food Labels (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Figuring Out Food Labels KidsHealth / For Kids / Figuring Out Food Labels What's in this article? ...

  5. Figure-associated text summarization and evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Polepalli Ramesh

    Full Text Available Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903.

  6. Figure-associated text summarization and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903).

  7. Human figure drawings and children's recall of touching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Maggie

    2009-12-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children's poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. Copyright 2009 APA

  8. Human Figure Drawings and Children’s Recall of Touching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  9. Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berini, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    Three figures of merit are proposed as quality measures for surface plasmon waveguides. They are defined as benefit-to-cost ratios where the benefit is confinement and the cost is attenuation. Three different ways of measuring confinement are considered, leading to three figures of merit. One of the figures of merit is connected to the quality factor. The figures of merit were then used to assess and compare the wavelength response of hree popular 1-D surface plasmon waveguides: the single metal-dielectric interface, the metal slab bounded by dielectric and the dielectric slab bounded by metal. Closed form expressions are given for the figures of merit of the single metal-dielectric interface.

  10. School-age children's fears, anxiety, and human figure drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M K; Ryan-Wenger, N A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the fears of school-age children and determine the relationship between fear and anxiety. A descriptive, correlational, secondary analysis study was conducted using a convenience sample of 90 children between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Each child was instructed to complete the Revised Children's Anxiety Scale and then answer questions from a structured interview. On completion, each child was instructed to draw a human figure drawing. Frequency charts and correlational statistics were used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that the most significant fears of the boys were in the categories of animals, safety, school, and supernatural phenomena, whereas girls were more fearful of natural phenomena. High correlations existed between anxiety scores and the number of fears and emotional indicators on human figure drawings. Because human figure drawings are reliable tools for assessing anxiety and fears in children, practitioners should incorporate these drawings as part of their routine assessments of fearful children.

  11. Feedback Enhances Feedforward Figure-Ground Segmentation by Changing Firing Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supèr, Hans; Romeo, August

    2011-01-01

    In the visual cortex, feedback projections are conjectured to be crucial in figure-ground segregation. However, the precise function of feedback herein is unclear. Here we tested a hypothetical model of reentrant feedback. We used a previous developed 2-layered feedforwardspiking network that is able to segregate figure from ground and included feedback connections. Our computer model data show that without feedback, neurons respond with regular low-frequency (∼9 Hz) bursting to a figure-ground stimulus. After including feedback the firing pattern changed into a regular (tonic) spiking pattern. In this state, we found an extra enhancement of figure responses and a further suppression of background responses resulting in a stronger figure-ground signal. Such push-pull effect was confirmed by comparing the figure-ground responses withthe responses to a homogenous texture. We propose that feedback controlsfigure-ground segregation by influencing the neural firing patterns of feedforward projecting neurons. PMID:21738747

  12. Using Figure and Concept Knowledge in Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Karpuz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aim to investigate how students build interaction between concepts and figure in geometry. For this purpose we developed two type data collection tool. First one called shapely is formed eight open ended question which has concepts and figure. Second one called shapeless is formed eight open ended question which has only concepts. To prepare this data collection tools’ difficulty level we took two math teachers’ opinions. Developed data collection tools were applied 120 students at 9th grade and 11th grade in Trabzon Gazi Anatolian High School. First of all we applied shapeless questions. One month later we applied shapely questions. We investigated students’ answer and the data showed that students more succeed in shapely questions than shapeless questions. We concluded that the difficulty of solving shapeless question result from students didn’t manage to draw figure representing concept knowledge or draw wrong figure, figure drawn by students can’t fulfıl generalizability condition and students who have little knowledge of concept in geometry is under the influence of prototype figure.Key Words:    Figural concepts theory, geometrical reasoning, geometry teaching

  13. Key figures on climate France and Worldwide - 2017 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baude, Manuel; Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Ecoiffier, Mathieu; Duvernoy, Jerome; Vailles, Charlotte; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Hiblot, Guillaume

    2016-10-01

    In line with previous years, the 2017 edition of 'Key figures on climate' has been written in the context of the 22. Conference of the Parties on Climate Change (COP 22) held in Marrakech from 7 to 18 November 2016. This latest version, published as part of the new 'datalab' collection of the General commission for sustainable development was updated and expanded relative to the 2016 edition. New data sources have been used for the part on global CO_2 emissions. The part on climate policies was further developed, and notably deals with the Paris agreement adopted in December 2015 at COP 21. Moreover, the analysis of climate finance (current climate investments and climate finance needs) has been expanded. About the form, and with a goal of simplification, some data previously displayed in both a graph and a table is now presented only in a graph. Content: Part 1: What is climate change? This part summarizes the scientific basis of climate change, including indicators, causes and possible consequences of global warming. Part 2: Which amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted globally? The focus here is on the most relevant data related to global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, in particular the geographic distribution of these emissions. Part 3: How much greenhouse gas is emitted in Europe and in France? A complete overview of GHG emissions statistics in Europe and in France is presented in this part as well as estimates of the carbon footprint of French people. Part 4: What is the sectoral distribution of GHG emissions in Europe and in France? This part features the detailed evolution since 1990 of GHG emissions in the following economic sectors: energy sector, transports, industry, residential and tertiary, agriculture, forestry, land use and waste management. Part 5: Which climate policies in the world, in Europe and in France? The main climate policies are described at each level: global, European and French

  14. Epidemiology of Figure Skating Injuries: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Julie S; Geminiani, Ellen T; Micheli, Lyle J

    2018-05-01

    As the popularity and technical demands of figure skating increase, so will the number of athletes presenting with sport-related problems. Searches were performed across PubMed from 1980 to 2017. The keywords searched were skating, skaters, incidence, and injuries. The search was limited to English-language articles and human participants. Relevant articles were cross-referenced. Clinical review. Level 5. Previous studies suggest an increase in incidence of figure skating injuries from 1982 to 2003. When combining all disciplines of figure skating, there is a similar proportion of acute and overuse injuries. Within disciplines, overuse injuries appear to be more common in singles skating, while acute injuries are more common in pairs skating, ice dancing, and synchronized skating. Lower extremity injuries are more common than upper extremity injuries in all disciplines, and pairs skating accounts for the majority of upper extremity injuries. Ankle sprains are the most common skating injury, and patellar tendinitis is the most common overuse injury across all disciplines. Stress fractures are the most common overuse injury in female singles skaters. The predominance of overuse injuries in singles disciplines reflects their increasing technical difficulty, with more difficult jumps and longer training hours. Partner disciplines are more likely to involve acute injuries and upper extremity injuries due to high-risk throws and lifts. Emphasis should be placed on properly fitting skating boots, intrinsic foot and ankle strengthening, and lower extremity flexibility, which may prevent many of the common lower extremity and back injuries in figure skating.

  15. The figure has a shape, but the ground does not: evidence from a priming paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, G C; Cale, E M

    2001-06-01

    In four experiments, the authors examined the extent to which the ground interpretation of an edge may receive a shape description. These experiments used the priming effect that shapes have on perceptual judgments on a subsequent trial. A robust reduction in error rates and reaction times was seen when the figural shape was the same as that on the previous trial. This repetition priming effect may be due to activation of the shape description of the figure that remained from the previous trial. In contrast, no priming by the shape of the ground was seen even when the contrast sign of the figure reversed between trials. Priming for figural shapes occurred at a relatively abstract level because it was robust across reversals of contrast and orientation. These data suggest that the figural interpretation of a shape receives a shape description but that the ground does not.

  16. Does strategy instruction on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure task lead to transferred performance improvement on the Modified Taylor Complex Figure task? A randomized controlled trial in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Christine; Keulers, Esther; Martens, Rosa; van Heugten, Caroline; Hurks, Petra

    2018-04-05

    Providing children with organizational strategy instruction on the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) has previously been found to improve organizational and accuracy performance on this task. It is unknown whether strategy instruction on the ROCF would also transfer to performance improvement on copying and the recall of another complex figure. Participants were 98 typically developing children (aged 9.5-12.6 years, M = 10.6). Children completed the ROCF (copy and recall) as a pretest. Approximately a month later, they were randomized to complete the ROCF with strategy instruction in the form of a stepwise administration of the ROCF or again in the standard format. All children then copied and recalled the Modified Taylor Complex Figure (MTCF). All productions were assessed in terms of organization, accuracy and completion time. Organization scores for the MTCF did not differ for the two groups for the copy production, but did differ for the recall production, indicating transfer. Accuracy and completion times did not differ between groups. Performance on all measures, except copy accuracy, improved between pretest ROCF and posttest MTCF production for both groups, suggesting practice effects. Findings indicate that transfer of strategy instruction from one complex figure to another is only present for organization of recalled information. The increase in RCF-OSS scores did not lead to a higher accuracy or a faster copy or recall.

  17. Introduction: some facts and figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Women share in the income-earning and productive tasks of men more than men share in the domestic chores and child tending responsibilities of women, and the resulting lack of free time is an obstacle to women's participation in development. Women have higher morbidity rates than men because of their reproductive roles and their generally lower status in society. Despite the additional nutritional needs brought on by their reproductive role, 2/3 of all pregnant women in developing countries are estimated to suffer from anemia, and 20 million of the 21 million low-birth-weight babies born each year are in developing countries. 2/3 of the world's illiterates are women, and women are generally discriminated against in vocational education. Much work performed by women is non-paid and excluded from market and employment surveys. Women are being marginalized in agriculture in the Third World and relegated to low status, low paying jobs in urban areas. A disproportionate share of the world's poor households are headed by women. The minor role played by women in political life in most countries limits their ability to participate in decision making.

  18. Presenting Fake Figures: A Tool to Teach Effective Scientific Figure Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica A. Segarra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As trained scientists, we become adept not only at analyzing and understanding figures in the scientific literature, but also at designing figures to effectively represent our own data and findings. As educators, we strive to pass on these skills to our students, some of whom will ultimately become scientists themselves. Conveying the principles of effective figure design can be challenging, particularly when students have had little exposure to the process of reading scientific literature, much less writing a piece of scientific literature. Improvisational activities in the classroom reinforce teaching goals such as spontaneity, risk-taking, creativity, communication skills, team-building, and critical thinking (2. Indeed, improv training for scientists is becoming more common, helping scientists to communicate more spontaneously about their work and connect with their audience (1. In this article, we present an improvisational game that can aid in the teaching of effective scientific figure design. This “Present-a-Fake-Figure Exercise” is applicable to both the classroom and laboratory settings. In this learning activity, students improvise presenting fake scientific figures to an audience of their peers. These fake figures are prepared beforehand by the instructor and exemplify the do’s and don’ts of scientific figure design. Some of the learning outcomes of the activity include (1 identifying what makes a scientific figure cohesive, easy to analyze, and reader-friendly, and (2 identifying strategies that are useful in the design of a multi-panel figure to convey a scientific story.

  19. Human figure drawing distinguishes Alzheimer's patients: a cognitive screening test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzani Maserati, Michelangelo; D'Onofrio, Renato; Matacena, Corrado; Sambati, Luisa; Oppi, Federico; Poda, Roberto; De Matteis, Maddalena; Naldi, Ilaria; Liguori, Rocco; Capellari, Sabina

    2018-05-01

    To study human figure drawing in a group of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and compare it with a group of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and controls. We evaluated consecutive outpatients over a one-year period. Patients were classified as affected by AD or by MCI. All patients and controls underwent a simplified version of the human-figure drawing test and MMSE. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of all human figures was obtained. 112 AD, 100 MCI patients and 104 controls were enrolled. AD patients drew human figures poor in details and globally smaller than MCI patients and controls. Human figures drawn by MCI patients are intermediate in body height between those of the AD patients and the healthy subjects. The head-to-body ratio of human figures drawn by AD patients is greater than controls and MCI patients, while the human figure size-relative-to-page space index is significantly smaller. Body height is an independent predictor of cognitive impairment correlating with its severity and with the number of the figure's details. Human figures drawn by AD patients are different from those drawn by healthy subjects and MCI patients. Human figure drawing test is a useful tool for orienting cognitive impairment's diagnosis.

  20. Electrophysiological correlates of purely temporal figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Farid I; Fahle, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Inhomogenous displays, in contrast to homogenous ones, evoke a specific potential in the VEP (tsVEP) which appears across different classical visual stimulus dimensions defining figure-ground segregation, such as luminance, orientation, (first-order) motion, and stereoscopic depth. This negative potential has a peak latency of about 200-300 ms and a peak amplitude of about -3 to -10 microV [Doc Ophthalmol. 95 (1998) 335]. Previously, we demonstrated that human subjects reliably segregate figure from ground, even in the absence of the classical cues, leaving time of change as the only cue for segregation. The results of the present study demonstrate that also purely temporally defined checkerboards evoke a tsVEP resembling the motion-defined tsVEP regarding polarity (negative), latency (two peaks at 180 and 270 ms, respectively), amplitude of the first negativity (-5.6 microV), and overall form of its components.

  1. Air pollution by ozone in Europe in summer 2003 - Overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values during the summer season April-August 2003 and comparisons with previous years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiala, J.; Cernikovsky, L.; Leeuw, F. de; Kurfuerst, P.; Aalst, R. van (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    In the period 1995-2003 of reporting tinder the old ozone directive, there has been little or no change in the reported exceedances of ozone threshold values. This is not unexpected as reductions in the EU emissions of nitrogen oxides and nonmethane volatile organic compounds, the main ozone precursors, have so far been limited - about 30 % between 1990 and 2000. 2010 under the national emission teilings directive. While peak ozone concentrations seem to go down, ozone concentration statistics relevant to the target values set in the new ozone directive show little or no reduction in the period 1996-2000. Very few stations actually show a significant downward trend for these stabstics. The threshold for warning the population continues to be exceeded on a few occasions Bach year, while the threshold for informing the population is exceeded at riost stations in most countries (outside northern Europe and Ireland) each year, generally more so in warm summers. These exceedances are likely to retur in years with temperatures above the long-term average until there is a substantially larger decrease in precursor emissions. A further reduction of about 30 % is foreseen towards Under current legislation and with the rate of turnover of the vehicle fleet, furtber reductions will gradually occur towards 2010, and further reductions may be necessary to achieve the target values of the new ozone directive. Note that, due to the uncertainties caused by year-to-year meteorological variations and the changes in the monitoring station configuration, these conclusions are tentative. (au)

  2. Risk Factors for Wheezing, Eczema and Rhinoconjunctivitis in the Previous 12 Months among Six-Year-Old Children in Himeji City, Japan: Food Allergy, Older Siblings, Day-Care Attendance and Parental Allergy History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitake Kurosaka

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Among Japanese children, food allergy and parents' history of allergy are risk factors for WP, ES or RS. However, early day-care attendance and presence of older siblings might be protective factors against RS. Infections in early life may affect the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in six-year-old children.

  3. Figuring process of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal using ion beam figuring technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Furen; Xie, Xuhui; Tie, Guipeng; Hu, Hao; Zhou, Lin

    2017-09-01

    Currently, ion beam figuring (IBF) technology has presented many excellent performances in figuring potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals, such as it is a noncontact figuring process and it does not require polishing fluid. So, it is a very clean figuring process and does not introduce any impurities. However, the ion beam energy deposited on KDP crystal will heat the KDP crystal and may generate cracks on it. So, it is difficult directly using IBF technology to figure KDP crystal, as oblique incident IBF (OI-IBF) has lower heat deposition, higher removal rate, and smoother surface roughness compared to normal incident IBF. This paper studied the process of using OI-IBF to figure KDP crystal. Removal rates and removal functions at different incident angles were first investigated. Then heat depositions on a test work piece were obtained through experiments. To validate the figuring process, a KDP crystal with a size of 200  mm×200  mm×12  mm was figured by OI-IBF. After three iterations using the OI-IBF process, the surface error decreases from the initial values with PV 1.986λ RMS 0.438λ to PV 0.215λ RMS 0.035λ. Experimental results indicate that OI-IBF is feasible and effective to figure KDP crystals.

  4. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  5. Key figures on climate France, Europe and Worldwide. Edition 2018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baude, Manuel; Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Ecoiffier, Mathieu; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Duvernoy, Jerome; Vailles, Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    In line with previous years, the 2018 edition of 'Key figures on climate' has been written in the context of the 22. Conference of the Parties on Climate Change (COP 22) held in Bonn from 6 to 17 November 2017. This latest version was updated relative to the 2017 edition. New data sources have been used for emissions factors and the part on the carbon footprint was further developed. The part on climate policies notably deals with the Paris Agreement adopted in December 2015 at COP 21. Several data sets, displayed in graphs in this document are also available in tables on the web version. Content: 1 - What is climate change? This part summarizes the scientific basis of climate change, including indicators, causes and possible consequences of global warming. 2 - Which amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted globally? The focus here is on the most relevant data related to global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, in particular the geographic distribution of these emissions. 3 - How much greenhouse gas is emitted in Europe and in France? A complete overview of GHG emissions statistics in Europe and in France is presented in this part as well as estimates of the carbon footprint of French people. 4 - What is the sectoral distribution of GHG emissions in Europe and in France? This part features the detailed evolution since 1990 of GHG emissions in the following economic sectors: energy sector, transports, industry, residential and tertiary, agriculture, forestry, land use and waste management. 5 - Which climate policies in the world, in Europe and in France? The main climate policies are described at each level: global, European and French

  6. Research as Art: Using figures to make science approachable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, H. S.; Barth, A.; Russell, J. B.; Frischkorn, K.; Yehudai, M.

    2017-12-01

    As scientists, we spend a significant amount of time thinking about how best to express the results of our research through figures. These can range from graphs to microscope images to movies, but they all serve the purpose of communicating complicated ideas to our colleagues in the scientific community. One component of scientific data representation that is often overlooked is the aesthetic of the image. Many images produced for data communication and publication are visually engaging even to a lay audience, allowing them to serve as a point of entry to learning about scientific research for the non-specialist. To help researchers embrace this secondary goal of scientific figures, we have instituted an annual event at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) called Research as Art. For this event, scientists submit figures from their work that they see as artistic. These figures are displayed in a gallery-type exhibit for the community to appreciate. This year, the exhibit included movie and sculpture categories, allowing for attendees to interact with a broader range of scientific work. Each piece is accompanied by a brief, non-technical caption. Research as Art provides a gateway for scientists from a broad range of disciplines within the Earth Sciences to learn about work that is entirely unrelated to their own. After the event, attendees commented that they had never before thought about how a non-specialist would view their figures and that they would keep this in mind when making future figures. Thus, one of the biggest benefits of exhibits such as this is to teach scientists to view our work through a non-specialist's eyes. However, future plans for Research as Art include establishing a temporary exhibit at a local bar to expand the reach to a broader segment of the Columbia University area community. Our figures are art, and when we start to treat them that way, we open a world of possibilities for teaching the public about our

  7. Figure-ground segregation modulates apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, V S; Anstis, S

    1986-01-01

    We explored the relationship between figure-ground segmentation and apparent motion. Results suggest that: static elements in the surround can eliminate apparent motion of a cluster of dots in the centre, but only if the cluster and surround have similar "grain" or texture; outlines that define occluding surfaces are taken into account by the motion mechanism; the brain uses a hierarchy of precedence rules in attributing motion to different segments of the visual scene. Being designated as "figure" confers a high rank in this scheme of priorities.

  8. Metrics of Justice. A Sundial's Nomological Figuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines a polyhedral dial from the British Museum made by the instrument maker Ulrich Schniep, and discusses the status of multifunctional scientific instruments. It discerns a multifaceted iconic meaning considering different dimensions such as scientific functionality (astronomy), the complex allegorical figure of Justice (iconography), and the representation of the sovereign (politics), the court and the Kunstkammer of Albrecht v of Bavaria. As a numen mixtum the figure of "Justicia" touches different fields that go far beyond pure astronomical measurement and represents the power of the ruler as well as the rules of economic justice.

  9. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  10. Updated efficacy of avelumab in patients with previously treated metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma after ≥1 year of follow-up: JAVELIN Merkel 200, a phase 2 clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Howard L; Russell, Jeffery S; Hamid, Omid; Bhatia, Shailender; Terheyden, Patrick; D'Angelo, Sandra P; Shih, Kent C; Lebbé, Céleste; Milella, Michele; Brownell, Isaac; Lewis, Karl D; Lorch, Jochen H; von Heydebreck, Anja; Hennessy, Meliessa; Nghiem, Paul

    2018-01-19

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive skin cancer associated with poor survival outcomes in patients with distant metastatic disease (mMCC). In an initial analysis from JAVELIN Merkel 200, a phase 2, prospective, open-label, single-arm trial in mMCC, avelumab-a human anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibody-showed promising efficacy and a safety profile that was generally manageable and tolerable. Here, we report the efficacy of avelumab after ≥1 year of follow-up in patients with distant mMCC that had progressed following prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease. Patients received avelumab 10 mg/kg by 1-h intravenous infusion every 2 weeks until confirmed disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal. The primary endpoint was best overall response. Secondary endpoints included duration of response (DOR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Patients (N = 88) were followed for a minimum of 12 months. The confirmed objective response rate was 33.0% (95% CI, 23.3%-43.8%; complete response: 11.4%). An estimated 74% of responses lasted ≥1 year, and 72.4% of responses were ongoing at data cutoff. Responses were durable, with the median DOR not yet reached (95% CI, 18.0 months-not estimable), and PFS was prolonged; 1-year PFS and OS rates were 30% (95% CI, 21%-41%) and 52% (95% CI, 41%-62%), respectively. Median OS was 12.9 months (95% CI, 7.5-not estimable). Subgroup analyses suggested a higher probability of response in patients receiving fewer prior lines of systemic therapy, with a lower baseline disease burden, and with PD-L1-positive tumors; however, durable responses occurred irrespective of baseline factors, including tumor Merkel cell polyomavirus status. With longer follow-up, avelumab continues to show durable responses and promising survival outcomes in patients with distant mMCC whose disease had progressed after chemotherapy. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02155647.

  11. Noise destroys feedback enhanced figure-ground segmentation but not feedforward figure-ground segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, August; Arall, Marina; Supèr, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Figure-ground (FG) segmentation is the separation of visual information into background and foreground objects. In the visual cortex, FG responses are observed in the late stimulus response period, when neurons fire in tonic mode, and are accompanied by a switch in cortical state. When such a switch does not occur, FG segmentation fails. Currently, it is not known what happens in the brain on such occasions. A biologically plausible feedforward spiking neuron model was previously devised that performed FG segmentation successfully. After incorporating feedback the FG signal was enhanced, which was accompanied by a change in spiking regime. In a feedforward model neurons respond in a bursting mode whereas in the feedback model neurons fired in tonic mode. It is known that bursts can overcome noise, while tonic firing appears to be much more sensitive to noise. In the present study, we try to elucidate how the presence of noise can impair FG segmentation, and to what extent the feedforward and feedback pathways can overcome noise. We show that noise specifically destroys the feedback enhanced FG segmentation and leaves the feedforward FG segmentation largely intact. Our results predict that noise produces failure in FG perception. PMID:22934028

  12. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    This supplement contains the tabular data of most of the diagrams in the main publication (Energy in Sweden 1999, STEM-ET-82-1999). The figures are based on preliminary statistics, and there may be minor differences between similar data in different sections or tables etc. All table headings and notes are given in both Swedish and English

  13. Michelangelo, Leibniz and the Serpentine Figure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Tuinen (Sjoerd)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In his lectures from 1987, Deleuze draws an analogy between Michelangelo‟s figures and Leibnizian substances by claiming that neither are essences but rather sources of modifications or manners of being. The best way to explore this analogy, I argue, is by focusing on

  14. The Offerings of Fringe Figures and Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels-Schwarzpaul, A.-Chr.

    2015-01-01

    "The Western tradition", as passe-partout, includes fringe figures, émigrés and migrants. Rather than looking to resources at the core of the Western tradition to overcome its own blindnesses, I am more interested in its gaps and peripheries, where other thoughts and renegade knowledges take hold. It is in the contact zones with…

  15. Relational Reasoning in Word and in Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Singer, Lauren M.; Jablansky, Sophie; Hattan, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relational reasoning capabilities of older adolescents and young adults when the focal assessment was a verbal and more schooled measure than 1 that was figural and more novel in its configuration. To achieve this end, the verbal test of relational reasoning (vTORR) was constructed to parallel the test of relational…

  16. Photovoltaic power production figures in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Worldwide figures of photovoltaic power production (in Mw) along 1992 are presented. Worldwide production of modules per manufacturing technology and per manufacturing companies in Europe, USA and Japan are provided as well. The review has used the following sources: ''PV News'', ''PV insider's report'' and ''systems solars''. (Author)

  17. Fading-Figure Tracing in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Chiyoko; Inui, Toshio; Iwata, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe impairment of visuospatial abilities. Figure-drawing abilities, which are thought to reflect visuospatial abilities, have yet to be fully investigated in WS. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether drawing abilities differ between WS individuals and…

  18. Edge effect correction using ion beam figuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Furen; Zhou, Lin

    2017-11-10

    The edge effect is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for fabricating large primary mirrors, as it can greatly reduce the key performance of the optical system. Ion beam figuring (IBF) has the advantage of no edge effect, so we can use it to remove high points on the edge and improve surface accuracy. The edge local correction method (ELCM) of IBF processes only the surface edge zone, and is very different from the current full caliber figuring method (FCFM). Therefore, it is necessary to study the ELCM of IBF. In this paper, the key factors of ELCM are analyzed, such as dwell time algorithm, edge data extension methods, and the outward dimension of the starting figuring point. At the same time, the distinctions between ELCM and FCFM are compared. Finally, a 142 mm diameter fused silica mirror is fabricated to verify the validity of the theoretical of ELCM. The experimental results indicate that the figuring precision and efficiency can be obviously improved by ELCM.

  19. Investigation of experimental pole-figure errors by simulation of individual spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lychagina, T. A.; Nikolaev, D. I.

    2007-01-01

    The errors in measuring the crystallographic texture described by pole figures are studied. A set of diffraction spectra for a sample of the MA2-1 alloy (Mg + 4.5% Al + 1% Zn) are measured, simulation of individual spectra on the basis of which the pole figures were obtained is performed, and their errors are determined. The conclusion about the possibility of determining the effect of errors of the diffraction peak half-width on the pole figure errors that was drawn in our previous studies is confirmed

  20. INFORMATIONAL MODEL OF MENTAL ROTATION OF FIGURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lyakhovetskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study.The subject of research is the information structure of objects internal representations and operations over them, used by man to solve the problem of mental rotation of figures. To analyze this informational structure we considered not only classical dependencies of the correct answers on the angle of rotation, but also the other dependencies obtained recently in cognitive psychology. Method.The language of technical computing Matlab R2010b was used for developing information model of the mental rotation of figures. Such model parameters as the number of bits in the internal representation, an error probability in a single bit, discrete rotation angle, comparison threshold, and the degree of difference during rotation can be changed. Main Results.The model reproduces qualitatively such psychological dependencies as the linear increase of time of correct answers and the number of errors on the angle of rotation for identical figures, "flat" dependence of the time of correct answers and the number of errors on the angle of rotation for mirror-like figures. The simulation results suggest that mental rotation is an iterative process of finding a match between the two figures, each step of which can lead to a significant distortion of the internal representation of the stored objects. Matching is carried out within the internal representations that have no high invariance to rotation angle. Practical Significance.The results may be useful for understanding the role of learning (including the learning with a teacher in the development of effective information representation and operations on them in artificial intelligence systems.

  1. Uma metodologia de estimação da carga tributária líquida brasileira trimestral no período 1995-2009 Estimating quarterly figures for the Brazilian aggregate tax burden net of government transfers in the 1995-2009 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Hamilton M. dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma metodologia simplificada de estimação, em bases trimestrais, das transferências governamentais e da carga tributária líquida da economia brasileira no período 1995-2009. O artigo descreve, ainda, os principais fatos estilizados observados no comportamento das referidas séries (e de desagregações relevantes destas no período em questão, chamando a atenção para o fato de que o perfil distributivo das transferências de assistência e previdência do governo parece ter melhorado nos últimos anos.This paper presents a simplified methodology for estimating quarterly figures for both the Brazilian government transfers and net aggregate tax burden in the 1995-2009 years. It also describes the main stylized facts observed in the data in this period, calling attention to the fact that Brazilian government transfers apparently have become more progressive in recent years.

  2. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, M.

    2009-08-01

    Compact fluid bodies in equilibrium under its own gravitational field are abundant in the Universe and a proper treatment of them can only be carried out using the full theory of General Relativity. The problem is of enormous complexity as it involves two very different regimes, namely the interior and the exterior of the fluid, coupled through the surface of the body. This problem is very challenging both from a purely theoretical point of view, as well as regarding the obtaining of realistic models and the description of their physical properties. It is therefore an excellent piece of news that the book 'Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium' by R Meinel, M Ansorg, A Kleinwächter, G Neugebauer and D Petroff has been recently published. This book approaches the topic in depth and its contents will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working on gravitation, including theoreticians in general relativity, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists and numerical relativists. This is an advanced book that intends to present some of the present-day results on this topic. The most basic results are presented rather succinctly, and without going into the details, of their derivations. Although primarily not intended to serve as a textbook, the presentation is nevertheless self-contained and can therefore be of interest both for experts on the field as well as for anybody wishing to learn more about rotating self-gravitating compact bodies in equilibrium. It should be remarked, however, that this book makes a rather strong selection of topics and concentrates fundamentally on presenting the main results obtained by the authors during their research in this field. The book starts with a chapter where the fundamental aspects of rotating fluids in equilibrium, including its thermodynamic properties, are summarized. Of particular interest are the so-called mass-shedding limit, which is the limit where the body is rotating so fast that it is on the verge of starting

  4. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Materials and Waste Management in the United States Key Facts and Figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Each year EPA produces a report called Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures. It includes information on municipal solid waste (MSW)...

  5. Energy in Sweden: Facts and figures 2010; Energilaeget i siffror 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    Energy in Sweden: Facts and figures 2010 contains the tabular for most of the diagrams in the main publication (STEM-ET--2010-47). These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. Facts and figures is also available at www.energimyndigheten.se in pdf and excel file formats. Energy statistics is published on short term basis and yearly basis. For the year 2009 only short term statistics is available. In Energy in Sweden 2010 yearly statistics is presented up to and including 2008. For 2009 short term statistics is used. Breakdowns into certain types of energy carriers vary somewhat depending on whether short term or yearly statistics is used. Please note that the figures have been rounded up or down, therefore totals do not always comply with the sum of individual figures

  6. Energy in Sweden: Facts and figures 2010; Energilaeget i siffror 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    Energy in Sweden: Facts and figures 2010 contains the tabular for most of the diagrams in the main publication (STEM-ET--2010-47). These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. Facts and figures is also available at www.energimyndigheten.se in pdf and excel file formats. Energy statistics is published on short term basis and yearly basis. For the year 2009 only short term statistics is available. In Energy in Sweden 2010 yearly statistics is presented up to and including 2008. For 2009 short term statistics is used. Breakdowns into certain types of energy carriers vary somewhat depending on whether short term or yearly statistics is used. Please note that the figures have been rounded up or down, therefore totals do not always comply with the sum of individual figures

  7. String figures as mathematics? an anthropological approach to string figure-making in oral tradition societies

    CERN Document Server

    Vandendriessche, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the mathematical rationality contained in the making of string figures. It does so by using interdisciplinary methods borrowed from anthropology, mathematics, history and philosophy of mathematics. The practice of string figure-making has long been carried out in many societies, and particularly in those of oral tradition. It consists in applying a succession of operations to a string (knotted into a loop), mostly using the fingers and sometimes the feet, the wrists or the mouth. This succession of operations is intended to generate a final figure. The book explores differ

  8. An unusual mechanism for injury of the anterior cruciate ligament in figure skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eugene K; Lahurd, Alexandra P; Wilckens, John H

    2012-03-01

    A 20-year-old competitive figure skater presented with an acute disabling knee injury that occurred in the overhead, non-weight-bearing knee during the performance of a Biellmann spin. Examination and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. To our knowledge, no previous cases of acute injury of the ACL sustained during the execution of a Biellmann spin have been reported. The ACL injury we report is unique because it occurred without the blade contacting the ice. The mechanism of injury has some features that are similar to those of other noncontact ACL injuries, with the addition of centrifugal force as a potential contributor to the injury.

  9. Genitalia in human figure drawings: childrearing practices and child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, R A; Hartman, G

    1990-05-01

    To replicate and explore the associations of drawing genitalia on a human figure, child-rearing practices, and a history of alleged sexual abuse, we designed a cross-sectional study of 109 alleged child sexual abuse victims, ages 3 through 8 years, and a group of 109 comparison children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status but with no history of abuse. A standardized format was used to collect drawings, administer the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and gather background data on medical, developmental, and child-rearing issues. Seven alleged sexual abuse victims and one comparison child spontaneously drew genitalia (p = 0.02, one-tailed Fisher Exact Test, estimated relative risk 7.96). No differences in drawing maturity (Draw-A-Man score) were identified, although Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores were higher in comparison children (82.1 vs. 91.0, p less than 0.01). Neither drawing genitalia nor history of alleged sexual abuse were significantly associated with histories of medical problems, enuresis, encopresis, urinary tract infection, or child-rearing practices related to sleeping, nudity, bathing, sexual abuse education, or exposure to sexually explicit materials. The similar patterns of child-rearing practices in both samples should make professionals cautious in attributing allegations of abuse to specific child-rearing practices. This study confirms our previous report that the presence of genitalia spontaneously drawn on a child's drawing of a human figure is associated with alleged sexual abuse.

  10. Flame figures in linear IgA bullous dermatosis: a novel histopathologic finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, E; Jan, F; Zimarowski, M J

    2017-11-15

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease usually with a neutrophil rich inflammatory infiltrate, and characterized by linear IgA deposition at the basement membrane zone (BMZ), and neutrophil predominant dermal inflammation. We report a case of LABD with numerous eosinophils and flame figure formation, a unique histopathologic finding not previously reported. A 69-year-old woman presented with a rapidly progressive, intensely pruritic rash over forearms, breasts, axillae, hips, and thighs. Thelesions were comprised of annular vesicles and bullae with hemorrhagic crusts and erosions. The clinical differential diagnosis included bullous pemphigoid(BP), LABD, and epidermolysis bullosa aquisita (EBA). A biopsy from a bullous plaque on the wrist revealed a subepidermal blister with neutrophils and numerous eosinophils with flame figure formation.Direct immunofluorescent (DIF) microscopy revealed linear deposition of IgA at the BMZ. Although unusual, the combined findings supported a diagnosis of LABD. Increased eosinophils may be associated with drug-induced LABD and may explain the numerous eosinophils in our case. It is important to be aware of this finding as the pathology may easily be misdiagnosed as BP, or possibly bullousWells syndrome. This case emphasizes that combined clinical, pathologic, and DIF findings are essential in the diagnosis of bullous dermatoses.

  11. Nuclear phaseout: a battle over figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coloma, T.

    2012-01-01

    It is very difficult to assess the cost of abandoning nuclear energy in France because a lot of relevant figures are not published. The Court of Auditors is due to publish in 2012 a report of the costs of nuclear energy. In the case of nuclear phase out 2 costs have to be considered the dismantling cost and the cost of processing wastes and their disposal. As for the dismantling cost, official assessments in Great-Britain or Germany give a figure around 3 billions pounds per dismantled unit. In France the law imposes to EDF to put by 18 billions euros by 2016 for the future reactor dismantling. Concerning the cost of wastes, it could reach 35 billions euros for dealing with all the radioactive wastes produced till 2030. (A.C.)

  12. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman; Henry N. , Taylor; John S.

    2010-02-16

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  13. Figuration of tourist personality and tourist travels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Saša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of tourist travel is a relative category, because its success depends on the subjective perception of the personality of tourists on a tourist trip. For this reason, any tourist trip can be treated from the perspective of different types of figurative forms of tourists' personality, which also determine different quality of tourist travel, which, in turn, makes them different. Thus, any tourist trip, unto itself, has its own uniqueness, taking on the forms and content created, for the most part, by the tourists themselves, along with all other tourism stakeholders involved in this process. These forms and contents are primarily conditioned by the spiritual profile of tourists' personality and their psychological and motivational preferences, which is symbolically represented in the figurative context of a chess game. In addition to this, identification of essential characteristics of different spiritual profiles of tourist's personality, must be a starting point for the programming of overall content and especially of animation and cultural content.

  14. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  15. Ambiguous Authorities: Vertigo and the Auteur Figure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Licari-Guillaume

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines authorial performance in the context of DC’s Vertigo line. In the 1990s, Vertigo gained its reputation as an innovative and progressive imprint by promoting the work of British scriptwriters, who were hailed as true author figures, despite the inherently collaborative nature of the mainstream comics industry. In a manner reminiscent of “auteur theory”, writers such as Neil Gaiman, Warren Ellis or Grant Morrison developed attractive author personas which they consistently displayed through interviews, letter columns or social media, but also, more importantly, by inserting their avatars within the comics they scripted. Upon closer examination, however, it becomes clear that their work in fact simultaneously asserts and destabilizes writerly authority, in a manner that is consistent with Linda Hutcheon’s view of postmodernity. By multiplying author figures and playfully disseminating authority, Vertigo authors question their own authorial control over the text, asserting instead the crucial role played by the reader.

  16. Texture segregation, surface representation and figure-ground separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, S; Pessoa, L

    1998-09-01

    A widespread view is that most texture segregation can be accounted for by differences in the spatial frequency content of texture regions. Evidence from both psychophysical and physiological studies indicate, however, that beyond these early filtering stages, there are stages of 3-D boundary segmentation and surface representation that are used to segregate textures. Chromatic segregation of element-arrangement patterns--as studied by Beck and colleagues--cannot be completely explained by the filtering mechanisms previously employed to account for achromatic segregation. An element arrangement pattern is composed of two types of elements that are arranged differently in different image regions (e.g. vertically on top and diagonally on the bottom). FACADE theory mechanisms that have previously been used to explain data about 3-D vision and figure-ground separation are here used to simulate chromatic texture segregation data, including data with equiluminant elements on dark or light homogeneous backgrounds, or backgrounds composed of vertical and horizontal dark or light stripes, or horizontal notched stripes. These data include the fact that segregation of patterns composed of red and blue squares decreases with increasing luminance of the interspaces. Asymmetric segregation properties under 3-D viewing conditions with the equiluminant elements close or far are also simulated. Two key model properties are a spatial impenetrability property that inhibits boundary grouping across regions with non-collinear texture elements and a boundary-surface consistency property that uses feedback between boundary and surface representations to eliminate spurious boundary groupings and separate figures from their backgrounds.

  17. Perception of illusory contour figures: Microgenetic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2004-01-01

    Microgenetic analysis was used to investigate perception of illusory contour figures which represent whole, completed forms on the basis of segmented, incomplete stimulation. The analysis provided an experimental approach to this phenomenon which was standardly investigated phenomenologically. Experimental procedure consisted of two phases: a) priming phase and b) test phase which consisted of visual search task. Two types of visual search tasks were applied: (i) classic detection, in which s...

  18. Omnichannel Marketing. Facts & Figures. Denmark 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup Kjær, Jan; Kjær Jacobsen, Christine; Bjerre Herdel, Stine

    This NBI Omnichannel Facts and Figures report highlights the central findings from the NBI Omnichannel capability benchmarking tool, based on data collected in 2015 and 2016. The insights shared here provide an understanding of the way companies and marketing departments are working to deliver...... on - and adapt to - the challenges and opportunities related to the customer-centric, omnichannel experience. View this report as a data-freeze and analysis on the status of omnichannel in Denmark as of 2017....

  19. Energy: facts and figures in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergne, R.; Nanot, B.; Scherrer, S.; Paquel, V.; Louati, S.; Thienard, H.

    2007-01-01

    The consumption of final energy in France in 2006 increased slightly on the whole (+0.6%) and in all sectors except the industry (-0.7%). The final energy consumption is defined as the difference between the total consumption of primary energy and the consumption of the energy production sector. The evolution of the consumption of final energy is different according to the type of energy: +4.1% for coal (due to the strong demand in the iron and steel industry), +3.6% for renewable energies (due to specific development programs), +1.5% for electrical power and no change for oil and natural gas. Despite high prices, sales of car fuels rose by 0.4%, this figure hides the fact that the sales of fuels for diesel cars rose by 2.7% (because of the growing population of diesel cars) while those of grade petrol kept on plummeting (-5.9%). It is important to note that the releases of CO 2 due to energy went down by -1.4% in 2006. The energy bill increased by +18.5% to fetch 46.2*10 9 euros despite the decrease of the imported volumes. This articles details the energy figures for France in 2006 and sheds light particularly on 3 aspects: first, the annual trends in energy since 1973, secondly, the energy bill and thirdly the figures for electricity, natural gas, solid mineral fuels, hydrocarbons and renewable sources of energy. (A.C.)

  20. Figurative Language on Maya Angelou selected Poetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risma Hayani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out the kinds of figurative language in the five selected poetries of Maya Angelou, the titles are: Alone, Caged Bird, Old Folks Laugh, Phenomenal Woman, Still I Rise. The focus of this study is figurative language which involves: Metaphor, Personification, Hyperbole, Simile, Metonymy, Synecdoche, Irony, Antithesis, Symbolism, and Paradox. Qualitative approach with design of content analysis was used in this study. The researcher acted as the main instrument since she was the one who analyzed the figurative language. Moreover checklist was also used to support her data collection. The data was analyzed through three stages; 1. Data reduction, 2. Data representation, 3. Conclusion. The result of her study showed there were 40 sentences that containing figurative language in five selected poetries of Maya Angelou. They were; Metaphor (13 sentences, Personification (9 sentences, Hyperbole (1 sentence, Simile (8 sentences, Synecdoche (1 sentence, Antithesis (1 sentence, Symbolism (5 sentences, and Paradox (2 sentences. The researcher conclude, if the figurative language used by Angelou to compare, or even symbolize the sentences to bring the meaning come up with beautiful language. Mostly of her poetries told about her experience in the past that rooted to history of the discrimination of American-African.

  1. The influence of previous low back trouble, general health, and working conditions on future sick-listing because of low back trouble. A 15-year follow-up study of risk indicators for self-reported sick-listing caused by low back trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C F; Monrad, T; Biering-Sørensen, F; Darre, E; Deis, A; Kryger, P

    1999-08-01

    A 15-year follow-up study. To find risk indicators for self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble and to evaluate which variables were the most important indicators of work incapacity resulting from low back trouble during the follow-up period of 15 years. The initial data were obtained from a health survey conducted in a general population from the Municipality of Glostrup, Denmark. The follow-up data included information from the Central Person Register, the Early Retirement Pension Register, and a postal questionnaire regarding self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble. An epidemiologic study, in which logistic regression analyses were used for evaluation of the data. The model used consisted of the variable in question, age, gender, and previous experience of low back trouble, along with interactions. It was found that 22 of 37 variables were risk indicators for later self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble during the preceding year or the 7 years before the date of follow-up evaluation. In analyzing the most significant variables simultaneously, it was found that information from the initial investigation about sick-listing in general during the previous 10 years, sciatic pain, use of analgesics for low back trouble, previous sick-listing because of low back trouble, and occupation were the most important risk indicators for self-reported work incapacity resulting from low back trouble during the follow-up period of 15 years. Findings showed that the strongest prognostic indicators of later sick-listing because of low back trouble involve information from the person about previous sick-listing behavior in general and previous experience of low back trouble episodes, especially if these had been accompanied by sciatic pain, use of analgesics, or previous low back trouble sick-listing.

  2. Central Coherence in Eating Disorders: A Synthesis of Studies Using the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Lang

    Full Text Available Large variability in tests and differences in scoring systems used to study central coherence in eating disorders may lead to different interpretations, inconsistent findings and between study discrepancies. This study aimed to address inconsistencies by collating data from several studies from the same research group that used the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (Rey Figure in order to produce norms to provide benchmark data for future studies.Data was collated from 984 participants in total. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, recovered Anorexia Nervosa, unaffected family members and healthy controls were compared using the Rey Figure.Poor global processing was observed across all current eating disorder sub-groups and in unaffected relatives. There was no difference in performance between recovered AN and HC groups.This is the largest dataset reported in the literature and supports previous studies implicating poor global processing across eating disorders using the Rey Figure. It provides robust normative data useful for future studies.

  3. Ion beam figuring of silicon aspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmler, Marcel; Zeuner, Michael; Luca, Alfonz; Dunger, Thoralf; Rost, Dirk; Kiontke, Sven; Krüger, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    Silicon lenses are widely used for infrared applications. Especially for portable devices the size and weight of the optical system are very important factors. The use of aspherical silicon lenses instead of spherical silicon lenses results in a significant reduction of weight and size. The manufacture of silicon lenses is more challenging than the manufacture of standard glass lenses. Typically conventional methods like diamond turning, grinding and polishing are used. However, due to the high hardness of silicon, diamond turning is very difficult and requires a lot of experience. To achieve surfaces of a high quality a polishing step is mandatory within the manufacturing process. Nevertheless, the required surface form accuracy cannot be achieved through the use of conventional polishing methods because of the unpredictable behavior of the polishing tools, which leads to an unstable removal rate. To overcome these disadvantages a method called Ion Beam Figuring can be used to manufacture silicon lenses with high surface form accuracies. The general advantage of the Ion Beam Figuring technology is a contactless polishing process without any aging effects of the tool. Due to this an excellent stability of the removal rate without any mechanical surface damage is achieved. The related physical process - called sputtering - can be applied to any material and is therefore also applicable to materials of high hardness like Silicon (SiC, WC). The process is realized through the commercially available ion beam figuring system IonScan 3D. During the process, the substrate is moved in front of a focused broad ion beam. The local milling rate is controlled via a modulated velocity profile, which is calculated specifically for each surface topology in order to mill the material at the associated positions to the target geometry. The authors will present aspherical silicon lenses with very high surface form accuracies compared to conventionally manufactured lenses.

  4. Equilibrium figures for beta Lyrae type disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Accumulated evidence for a geometrically and optically thick disk in the β Lyrae system has now established the disk's basic external configuration. Since the disk has been constant in its main properties over the historical interval of β Lyrae observations and also seems to have a basically well-defined photosphere, it is now time to being consideration of its sturcture. Here, we compute equilibrium figures for self-gravitating disks around stars in binary systems as a start toward eventual computation of complete disk models. A key role is played by centrifugally limited rotation of the central star, which would naturally arise late in the rapid phase of mass transfer. Beta Lyrae is thus postulated to be a double-contact binary, which makes possible nonarbitrary separation of star and disk into separate structures. The computed equilibrium figures are three-dimensional, as the gravitation of the second star is included. Under the approximation that the gravitational potential of the disk is that of a thin wire and that the local disk angular velocity is proportional to u/sup n/ (u = distance from rotation axis), we comptue the total potential and locate equipotential surfaces. The centrifugal potential is written in a particularly convenient form which permits one to change the rotation law discontinuously (for example, at the star-disk coupling point) while ensuring that centrifugal potential and centrifigual force are continuous functions of position. With such a one-parameter rotation law, one can find equilibrium disk figures with dimensions very similar to those found in β Lyrae, but considerations of internal consistency demand at least a two-parameter law

  5. Noise figure of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goda, Keisuke; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-01-01

    Amplified dispersive Fourier transformation (ADFT) is a powerful tool for fast real-time spectroscopy as it overcomes the limitations of traditional optical spectrometers. ADFT maps the spectrum of an optical pulse into a temporal waveform using group-velocity dispersion and simultaneously amplifies it in the optical domain. It greatly simplifies spectroscopy by replacing the diffraction grating and detector array in the conventional spectrometer with a dispersive fiber and single-pixel photodetector, enabling ultrafast real-time spectroscopic measurements. Following our earlier work on the theory of ADFT, here we study the effect of noise on ADFT. We derive the noise figure of ADFT and discuss its dependence on various parameters.

  6. Children's Drawing of Human Figure Analisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salko Pezo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Beside speech, that helps children to express their feelings and experiences, establish relations with people, the drawing is one of the most truthful ways of its expression. In this paper the results of pleasant and unpleasant emo­tions among children through drawing of human figure are presented. The survey is conducted on 634 children, and the results indicate that there is difference in expressing negative emotions between boys and girls, while at expressing pleasant emotions the results are similar.

  7. Distinguished figures in mechanism and machine science

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book is composed of chapters that focus specifically on technological developments by distinguished figures in the history of MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science).  Biographies of well-known scientists are also included to describe their efforts and experiences, and surveys of their work and achievements, and a modern interpretation of their legacy are presented. After the first two volumes, the papers in this third volume again cover a wide range within the field of the History of Mechanical Engineering with specific focus on MMS and will be of interest and motivation to the work (historical or not) of many.

  8. Emotional indicators in children's human figure drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catte, M; Cox, M V

    1999-06-01

    The human figure drawings of a group of emotionally-disturbed boys were compared with those of a group of well-adjusted boys closely matched for chronological age and another for mental age. A comparison based on Koppitz's (1968) original emotional indicators and another, based on new UK norms, showed that the emotionally-disturbed children included significantly more indicators in their drawings than their well-adjusted peers. Although this difference was statistically significant it is actually quite small. In addition, there were no differences among the groups in the kinds of indicators they exhibited. The usefulness of the Koppitz test as a tool for clinical use is questioned.

  9. Figures in clinical trial reports: current practice & scope for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Stuart J; Travison, Thomas G; Wruck, Lisa M

    2007-11-19

    Most clinical trial publications include figures, but there is little guidance on what results should be displayed as figures and how. To evaluate the current use of figures in Trial reports, and to make constructive suggestions for future practice. We surveyed all 77 reports of randomised controlled trials in five general medical journals during November 2006 to January 2007. The numbers and types of figures were determined, and then each Figure was assessed for its style, content, clarity and suitability. As a consequence, guidelines are developed for presenting figures, both in general and for each specific common type of Figure. Most trial reports contained one to three figures, mean 2.3 per article. The four main types were flow diagram, Kaplan Meier plot, Forest plot (for subgroup analyses) and repeated measures over time: these accounted for 92% of all figures published. For each type of figure there is a considerable diversity of practice in both style and content which we illustrate with selected examples of both good and bad practice. Some pointers on what to do, and what to avoid, are derived from our critical evaluation of these articles' use of figures. There is considerable scope for authors to improve their use of figures in clinical trial reports, as regards which figures to choose, their style of presentation and labelling, and their specific content. Particular improvements are needed for the four main types of figures commonly used.

  10. Figures in clinical trial reports: current practice & scope for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travison Thomas G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinical trial publications include figures, but there is little guidance on what results should be displayed as figures and how. Purpose To evaluate the current use of figures in Trial reports, and to make constructive suggestions for future practice. Methods We surveyed all 77 reports of randomised controlled trials in five general medical journals during November 2006 to January 2007. The numbers and types of figures were determined, and then each Figure was assessed for its style, content, clarity and suitability. As a consequence, guidelines are developed for presenting figures, both in general and for each specific common type of Figure. Results Most trial reports contained one to three figures, mean 2.3 per article. The four main types were flow diagram, Kaplan Meier plot, Forest plot (for subgroup analyses and repeated measures over time: these accounted for 92% of all figures published. For each type of figure there is a considerable diversity of practice in both style and content which we illustrate with selected examples of both good and bad practice. Some pointers on what to do, and what to avoid, are derived from our critical evaluation of these articles' use of figures. Conclusion There is considerable scope for authors to improve their use of figures in clinical trial reports, as regards which figures to choose, their style of presentation and labelling, and their specific content. Particular improvements are needed for the four main types of figures commonly used.

  11. Deficit in figure-ground segmentation following closed head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, G C; Baylis, L L

    1997-08-01

    Patient CB showed a severe impairment in figure-ground segmentation following a closed head injury. Unlike normal subjects, CB was unable to parse smaller and brighter parts of stimuli as figure. Moreover, she did not show the normal effect that symmetrical regions are seen as figure, although she was able to make overt judgments of symmetry. Since she was able to attend normally to isolated objects, CB demonstrates a dissociation between figure ground segmentation and subsequent processes of attention. Despite her severe impairment in figure-ground segmentation, CB showed normal 'parallel' single feature visual search. This suggests that figure-ground segmentation is dissociable from 'preattentive' processes such as visual search.

  12. Perception of illusory contour figures: Microgenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgenetic analysis was used to investigate perception of illusory contour figures which represent whole, completed forms on the basis of segmented, incomplete stimulation. The analysis provided an experimental approach to this phenomenon which was standardly investigated phenomenologically. Experimental procedure consisted of two phases: a priming phase and b test phase which consisted of visual search task. Two types of visual search tasks were applied: (i classic detection, in which subjects were detecting presence or absence of the target stimuli and (ii two-alternative forced choice, 2AFC, in which subjects performed discrimination between two concurrent targets (target A vs. target B. Variation of exposition of prim stimuli was used as an indication of the percept formation period. Concepts like early vision, visual attention and feature binding were investigated. Four experiments were conducted. Their outcome showed that (i perception of amodal figure requires visual attention, (ii features binding precedes spatial attention and (iii time period of percept formation is dependent of task properties and varies between 50 - 150 ms. Some results obtained in this research could be explained by feature-integration theory (Treisman & Gelade, 1980; Treisman, 1986. Furthermore, percept formation period data comply with data acquired in Elliott & Müller's psychophysical research (1998.

  13. Figured grain in aspen is heritable and not affected by graft-transmissible signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youran Fan; Kendal Rupert; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Keith Woeste; Christian Lexer; Richard. Meilan

    2013-01-01

    Figure can add value to wood products, but its occurrence is unpredictable. A first step in reliably producing figured wood is determining whether it is faithfully transmitted to progeny via sexual and asexual reproduction. We describe a 26-year-old male aspen genotype, designated ‘Curly Poplar’, which was shown to be a Populus × canescens hybrid using microsatellite...

  14. Karna Particle Size Dataset for Tables and Figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains 1) table of bulk Pb-XAS LCF results, 2) table of bulk As-XAS LCF results, 3) figure data of particle size distribution, and 4) figure data for...

  15. Figure-ground mechanisms provide structure for selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fangtu T; Sugihara, Tadashi; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2007-11-01

    Attention depends on figure-ground organization: figures draw attention, whereas shapes of the ground tend to be ignored. Recent research has revealed mechanisms for figure-ground organization in the visual cortex, but how these mechanisms relate to the attention process remains unclear. Here we show that the influences of figure-ground organization and volitional (top-down) attention converge in single neurons of area V2 in Macaca mulatta. Although we found assignment of border ownership for attended and for ignored figures, attentional modulation was stronger when the attended figure was located on the neuron's preferred side of border ownership. When the border between two overlapping figures was placed in the receptive field, responses depended on the side of attention, and enhancement was generally found on the neuron's preferred side of border ownership. This correlation suggests that the neural network that creates figure-ground organization also provides the interface for the top-down selection process.

  16. Figure-ground mechanisms provide structure for selective attention

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Fangtu T.; Sugihara, Tadashi; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2007-01-01

    Attention depends on figure-ground organization: figures draw attention, while shapes of the ground tend to be ignored. Recent research has demonstrated mechanisms of figure-ground organization in the visual cortex, but how they relate to the attention process remains unclear. Here we show that the influences of figure-ground organization and volitional (top-down) attention converge in single neurons of area V2. While assignment of border ownership was found for attended as well as for ignore...

  17. FIGUR WANITA SEBAGAI PENARIK PANDANG DALAM IKLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrian D. Hagijanto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain brand awareness effectively%2C advertiser use unusual and sometimes inappropriate form of creatifity to make their ads more memorable such method includes the use of women s sexual attractions which%2C on the other hand%2C causes in fraction of ethical norms. Will this be called a deviations in ads or a compromise approach to the audience taste? Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Untuk mencapai brand awareness yang lebih tinggi%2C pengiklan harus membuat iklannya menarik%2C lewat kreativitas yang tinggi. Ketika kreativitas itu menggunakan pendekatan yang terjebak oleh pelanggaran norma-norma etis kemasyarakatan -lewat eksploatasi figur wanita dan daya tarik yang melingkupinya-. Akankah kreativitas itu disebut sebagai penyimpangan dalam iklan? Ataukah sah-sah saja sebagai suatu bentuk pendekatan yang menuruti selera pasar. advertisement%2C women s sexual attractions%2C body language

  18. Who's bigger? where historical figures really rank

    CERN Document Server

    Skiena, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Is Hitler bigger than Napoleon? Washington bigger than Lincoln? Picasso bigger than Einstein? Quantitative analysts are rapidly finding homes in social and cultural domains, from finance to politics. What about history? In this fascinating book, Steve Skiena and Charles Ward bring quantitative analysis to bear on ranking and comparing historical reputations. They evaluate each person by aggregating the traces of millions of opinions, just as Google ranks webpages. The book includes a technical discussion for readers interested in the details of the methods, but no mathematical or computational background is necessary to understand the rankings or conclusions. Along the way, the authors present the rankings of more than one thousand of history's most significant people in science, politics, entertainment, and all areas of human endeavor. Anyone interested in history or biography can see where their favorite figures place in the grand scheme of things.

  19. FigSum: automatically generating structured text summaries for figures in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shashank; Yu, Hong

    2009-11-14

    Figures are frequently used in biomedical articles to support research findings; however, they are often difficult to comprehend based on their legends alone and information from the full-text articles is required to fully understand them. Previously, we found that the information associated with a single figure is distributed throughout the full-text article the figure appears in. Here, we develop and evaluate a figure summarization system - FigSum, which aggregates this scattered information to improve figure comprehension. For each figure in an article, FigSum generates a structured text summary comprising one sentence from each of the four rhetorical categories - Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion (IMRaD). The IMRaD category of sentences is predicted by an automated machine learning classifier. Our evaluation shows that FigSum captures 53% of the sentences in the gold standard summaries annotated by biomedical scientists and achieves an average ROUGE-1 score of 0.70, which is higher than a baseline system.

  20. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  1. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  2. Figures in Space, Figuring Space: Towards a Spatialsymbolic Framework for Understanding Youth Cultures and Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Signe; Demant, Jakob Johan

    2017-01-01

    (n = 80) in four different parts of Denmark. The interviews included a photo elicitation exercise and the analysis in this article focuses on one particular picture of two young ‘hipster’ men. By using the figure of the hipster as an analytical case, the article illustrates how individual and spatial...... of paying attention to structural inequalities....

  3. Figure Structure, Figure Action, and Framing in Drawings by American and Egyptian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brent; Wilson, Marjorie

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the interaction of biological unfolding and culturally related factors on sequences of narrative figure drawings by American and Egyptian elementary students. Findings support hypotheses relating to the interaction of natural and nurtural influences on children's drawings. (Author/SJL)

  4. Figure 1. T. tor species. Figure 2. Long PCR products of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annam

    Figure 2. Long PCR products of mitochondrial DNA from the fish T. tor. Lane 1, amplified product using L-12321-Leu and S-LA-16S-H primers. Lane 2, amplified product using H-12321 –Leu and S-LA-16S-L primers. Lane M, 1-Kb DNA ladder. 8 kb ...

  5. Perceptual representation and effectiveness of local figure-ground cues in natural contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Ko; Matsuoka, Shouhei; Kurematsu, Ken; Hatori, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    A contour shape strongly influences the perceptual segregation of a figure from the ground. We investigated the contribution of local contour shape to figure-ground segregation. Although previous studies have reported local contour features that evoke figure-ground perception, they were often image features and not necessarily perceptual features. First, we examined whether contour features, specifically, convexity, closure, and symmetry, underlie the perceptual representation of natural contour shapes. We performed similarity tests between local contours, and examined the contribution of the contour features to the perceptual similarities between the contours. The local contours were sampled from natural contours so that their distribution was uniform in the space composed of the three contour features. This sampling ensured the equal appearance frequency of the factors and a wide variety of contour shapes including those comprised of contradictory factors that induce figure in the opposite directions. This sampling from natural contours is advantageous in order to randomly pickup a variety of contours that satisfy a wide range of cue combinations. Multidimensional scaling analyses showed that the combinations of convexity, closure, and symmetry contribute to perceptual similarity, thus they are perceptual quantities. Second, we examined whether the three features contribute to local figure-ground perception. We performed psychophysical experiments to judge the direction of the figure along the local contours, and examined the contribution of the features to the figure-ground judgment. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that closure was a significant factor, but that convexity and symmetry were not. These results indicate that closure is dominant in the local figure-ground perception with natural contours when the other cues coexist with equal probability including contradictory cases.

  6. Perceptual Representation and Effectiveness of Local Figure-Ground Cues in Natural Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko eSakai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A contour shape strongly influences the perceptual segregation of a figure from the ground. We investigated the contribution of local contour shape to figure-ground segregation. Although previous studies have reported local contour features that evoke figure-ground perception, they were often image features and not necessarily perceptual features. First, we examined whether contour features, specifically, convexity, closure, and symmetry, underlie the perceptual representation of natural contour shapes. We performed similarity tests between local contours, and examined the contribution of the contour features to the perceptual similarities between the contours. The local contours were sampled from natural contours so that their distribution was uniform in the space composed of the three contour features. This sampling ensured the equal appearance frequency of the factors and a wide variety of contour shapes including those comprised of contradictory factors that induce figure in the opposite directions. This sampling from natural contours is advantageous in order to randomly pickup a variety of contours that satisfy a wide range of cue combinations. Multidimensional scaling analyses showed that the combinations of convexity, closure, and symmetry contribute to perceptual similarity, thus they are perceptual quantities. Second, we examined whether the three features contribute to local figure-ground perception. We performed psychophysical experiments to judge the direction of the figure along the local contours, and examined the contribution of the features to the figure-ground judgment. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that closure was a significant factor, but that convexity and symmetry were not. These results indicate that closure is dominant in the local figure-ground perception with natural contours when the other cues coexist with equal probability including contradictory cases.

  7. Edge-Region Grouping in Figure-Ground Organization and Depth Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Brooks, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    Edge-region grouping (ERG) is proposed as a unifying and previously unrecognized class of relational information that influences figure-ground organization and perceived depth across an edge. ERG occurs when the edge between two regions is differentially grouped with one region based on classic principles of similarity grouping. The ERG hypothesis…

  8. Gender Differences in Figural Matrices: The Moderating Role of Item Design Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    There is a heated debate on whether observed gender differences in some figural matrices in adults can be attributed to gender differences in inductive reasoning/G[subscript f] or differential item functioning and/or test bias. Based on previous studies we hypothesized that three specific item design features moderate the effect size of the gender…

  9. Hierarchical neural network model of the visual system determining figure/ground relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masayuki

    2017-07-01

    One of the most important functions of the visual perception in the brain is figure/ground interpretation from input images. Figural region in 2D image corresponding to object in 3D space are distinguished from background region extended behind the object. Previously the author proposed a neural network model of figure/ground separation constructed on the standpoint that local geometric features such as curvatures and outer angles at corners are extracted and propagated along input contour in a single layer network (Kikuchi & Akashi, 2001). However, such a processing principle has the defect that signal propagation requires manyiterations despite the fact that actual visual system determines figure/ground relation within the short period (Zhou et al., 2000). In order to attain speed-up for determining figure/ground, this study incorporates hierarchical architecture into the previous model. This study confirmed the effect of the hierarchization as for the computation time by simulation. As the number of layers increased, the required computation time reduced. However, such speed-up effect was saturatedas the layers increased to some extent. This study attempted to explain this saturation effect by the notion of average distance between vertices in the area of complex network, and succeeded to mimic the saturation effect by computer simulation.

  10. Do Human-Figure Drawings of Children and Adolescents Mirror Their Cognitive Style and Self-Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Anindita; Ghosh, Paromita

    2016-01-01

    The investigation probed relationships among human-figure drawing, field-dependent-independent cognitive style and self-esteem of 10-15 year olds. It also attempted to predict human-figure drawing scores of participants based on their field-dependence-independence and self-esteem. Area, stratified and multi-stage random sampling were used to…

  11. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  12. The precision segmented reflectors: Moderate mission figure control subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevaston, G.; Redding, D.; Lau, K.; Breckenridge, W.; Levine, B.; Nerheim, N.; Sirlin, S.; Kadogawa, H.

    1991-01-01

    A system concept for a space based segmented reflector telescope figure control subsystem is described. The concept employs a two phase architecture in which figure initialization and figure maintenance are independent functions. Figure initialization is accomplished by image sharpening using natural reference targets. Figure maintenance is performed by monitoring the relative positions and alignments of the telescope components using an optical truss. Actuation is achieved using precision positioners. Computer simulation results of figure initialization by pairwise segment coalignment/cophasing and simulated annealing are presented along with figure maintenance results using a wavefront error regulation algorithm. Both functions are shown to perform at acceptable levels for the class of submillimeter telescopes that are serving as the focus of this technology development effort. Component breadboard work as well as plans for a system testbed are discussed.

  13. FIGURATIVE AND LEXICAL VARIETIES IN FACEBOOK POSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Vina Widiadnya Putri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Language is a highly elaborated signaling system. It serves various functions in communication, it is used to share ideas, convey feelings and emotions, etc. The researchers are interested to uncover more on how people use language in terms of its variety and lexical in one of the popular social media networking platforms that we all know as Facebook. Based on the aforementioned background of the study, the problem of the research can be formulated as follows: (1 what are the figurative languages used in Facebook posts by female and male Facebook users? (2 How are the emotional lexical varieties e.g. used in Facebook posts? Method of research is a procedure needed to do the research better. In this case, method of research covers data source, data collection and data analysis. The data of this research have been taken from Facebook, it is as an online social networking website where people can create profiles, share information such as photos and quotes about themselves, and respond or link to the information posted by others. The method that used in collecting data is method of library research. They are collected by reading the Facebook user’s post, by underlining and note taking as well. The data analysis is the last step in this process of writing this research. The analysis is done by descriptive method. To make the analysis clearer, all of examples are completed with explanation. Referring to the first research problem, there are some figurative languages used by the Facebook users such as, Simile (female 1 or 4.3% and male 0%, Metaphor (female 4 or 17.3% and male 0%,, Personification (female 3 or 1.3% and male 1% or 4.3%,, Hyperbole (female 4 or 17.3% and male 1 or 4.3%, and Idiom (female 3 or 13% and male 0%,. Furthermore, in regards to the second problem that is emotional lexical used by the Facebook Users, we could mention that both the Augmentatives (female 3 or 13% and male 1 or 4.3%, and Euphemisms (female 1 or 4.3% and male 1 or

  14. Evaluation of layback spin in figure skating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastšenjski Ksenija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Layback spin is considered as one of the most beautiful and elegant spins performed in figure skating. It is also one of the required spins in competitive short program in female category. Different techniques of executing layback spin with variations in changing the positions of free parts of the body, as well as the evaluation of layback spin in accordance with ISU rules and regulations, which have been used in all International Skating Federation competitions since 2004 (World and European championships, Olympic Games are presented in this paper. Due to very difficult position of the body while performing a layback spin, it is essential that the skaters who want to master it should have excellent agility (especially of the spinal column and shoulder and knee joints and balance. Layback spin performance requires significant skating knowledge, so it cannot be performed by beginners. Depending on the fl exibility and creativity, a skater can execute various positions of the head, arms, body and free leg while performing a layback spin. In some cases, these variations can increase the level of difficulty, and in others only the mark given for executing this spin.

  15. An economics figure of merit in ALPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatilla, Y.A.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most pressing issues facing the deregulated nuclear electric power industry is its economic competitiveness when compared to other sources of electrical power. Traditionally, finding the optimum loading pattern (LP) that meets all the safety and operational objective functions and at the same time produces the most attractive economical solutions is an iterative process. This is because (a) LP search tools usually lack the capability to generate equilibrium solutions and (b) economics objective functions are hard to include in the search process. In this paper, the Westinghouse Advanced Loading Pattern Search code (ALPS) has been demonstrated to successfully find LPs that meet user-defined operational and safety as well as economics objectives. This has been made possible by the development of TULIP language that allows the integration of external procedures into the search process of the main program, ALPS. In the example given, an economic figure of merit (EFM) has been defined and included via TULIP script into the fuel management optimization problem of a three-loop Westinghouse core operating an 18-month cycle. The LPs found by ALPS exhibit a clear trend of meeting and, in some cases, exceeding the EFM objective function defined for the ALPS search process a priori

  16. Running the figure to the ground: figure-ground segmentation during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Brandon C W; Seli, Paul; Cheng, Vivian O Y; Solman, Grayden J F; Smilek, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    We examined how figure-ground segmentation occurs across multiple regions of a visual array during a visual search task. Stimuli consisted of arrays of black-and-white figure-ground images in which roughly half of each image depicted a meaningful object, whereas the other half constituted a less meaningful shape. The colours of the meaningful regions of the targets and distractors were either the same (congruent) or different (incongruent). We found that incongruent targets took longer to locate than congruent targets (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and that this segmentation-congruency effect decreased when the number of search items was reduced (Experiment 2). Furthermore, an analysis of eye movements revealed that participants spent more time scrutinising the target before confirming its identity on incongruent trials than on congruent trials (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the distractor context influences target segmentation and detection during visual search. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Morbidity figures from general practice: sex differences in traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagro-Janssen, Toine; Grosicar, Janja

    2010-08-01

    Trauma prevention starts with to find out the extent of the problem and who it affects. Insight into morbidity figures is therefore necessary. To explore sex differences in traumatology and secondary medical care utilization in primary care related to age and socio-economic status (SES). Data were obtained from an academic continuous morbidity registration project in the Netherlands in the period from 1996 to 2006, in which 13,000 patients were followed in 10 successive years. Sex differences showed a male excess from childhood to 45 years and women showing almost double trauma rates in the elderly. Low SES was associated with the greatest incidence of traumas. The largest sex difference in incidence above 65 years appeared in the high SES with more traumas in women compared with men. From this age on, female morbidity in traumatology outnumbered male morbidity regardless of SES. Considering use of referrals, we found that in the age group 15-45 years men made a greater use of secondary medical care. However, the vastest gender influence in medical care utilization was noticed in the age group over 65 years, outnumbered with women. Young men and old women are the most at risk for traumatic health problems: men presenting with traumata of the skull, the tibia and ocular trauma's and women with fractures of the femur, humerus and wrist. For both men and women the greatest incidence is in the low SES. Family physicians can play a pivotal role in prevention to focus on their patients with high risks.

  18. Unheimlich. From Wax Figures to the Uncanny Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Conte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his pioneering History of Portraiture in Wax, Julius von Schlosser traced back the age-old history of a material which at that time seemed to be already antiquated, if not obsolete. Wax sculptures were rejected and ousted from art history because of their excessive similarity and adherence to models. One hundred years later, however, hyperrealism got its revenge with Maurizio Cattelan’s celebrated hanging children. Moving from that controversial artwork and focusing on the heated polemics over it, my paper will address the question of the well-known Unheimlichkeit of wax figures, investigated by Ernst Jentsch and Sigmund Freud in the early Twentieth Century and nowadays becoming increasingly topical thanks to the recent debate about the existence and nature of the so called Uncanny Valley.

  19. The Human Figure and Urban Ground: Cyborgs and the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Aaron

    2016-07-01

    Recent years have seen developments in cyborgian movements in which people play and experiment with the boundaries of human flesh and aesthetic realities. Some individuals develop novel intimate relationships with devices that, each in their own way, interfere with human subjectivity. Public dissemination of these movements often proposes notions of transcendence, therapy, post-humanism and trans-humanism, but often fails to outline the lived-experience of those who explore cyborgian identity as an alternative mode of being in the world. This paper briefly follows self-described cyborgs who delimit the body through sensory 'enhancement' in an effort to disrupt common relationships between the human figure and the urban ground. Borrowing from Lewis Mumford's concepts of biotechnics, I propose cyborgian engagement as a type of psychodynamic living. Rather than focus on post-human discourses, these cyborgs turn to the natural world for inspiration in shaping the terms of engagement between their bodies and the city.

  20. Energy predictions. [Briefs on 33 charts, figures, and graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Briefs describe 33 charts, graphs, and schematics offering some recent history and perspectives on the world and U.S. energy situation and the problems for survival facing the world. Of interest is Figure 28, showing the Club of Rome's model of the earth in terms of resource consumption, food, money, people, pollution, etc. A computer was asked to extend recent history into the future and results indicate a collapse of the industrialized system towards an agrarian culture around the year 2025. It is noted that the model did not consider technological initiative or man's willingness to change lifestyles. The final (33) schematic is a guesstimate of noticeable impact timescales, indicating when research projects on transition or ultimate energy sources at LASL might be expected to yield impact. (MCW)

  1. Figure and finish characterization of high performance metal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Church, E.L.

    1991-10-01

    Most metal mirrors currently used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beam lines to reflect soft x-rays are made of electroless nickel plate on an aluminum substrate. This material combination has allowed optical designers to incorporate exotic cylindrical aspheres into grazing incidence x-ray beam-handling systems by taking advantage of single-point diamond machining techniques. But the promise of high-quality electroless nickel surfaces has generally exceeded the performance. We will examine the evolution of electroless nickel surfaces through a study of the quality of mirrors delivered for use at the National Synchrotron Light Source over the past seven years. We have developed techniques to assess surface quality based on the measurement of surface roughness and figure errors with optical profiling instruments. It is instructive to see how the quality of the surface is related to the complexity of the machine operations required to produce it

  2. Modeling Perceptual Grouping and Figure-Ground Segregation by Means of Active Reentrant Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Olaf; Tononi, Giulio; Edelman, Gerald M.

    1991-01-01

    The segmentation of visual scenes is a fundamental process of early vision, but the underlying neural mechanisms are still largely unknown. Theoretical considerations as well as neurophysiological findings point to the importance in such processes of temporal correlations in neuronal activity. In a previous model, we showed that reentrant signaling among rhythmically active neuronal groups can correlate responses along spatially extended contours. We now have modified and extended this model to address the problems of perceptual grouping and figure-ground segregation in vision. A novel feature is that the efficacy of the connections is allowed to change on a fast time scale. This results in active reentrant connections that amplify the correlations among neuronal groups. The responses of the model are able to link the elements corresponding to a coherent figure and to segregate them from the background or from another figure in a way that is consistent with the so-called Gestalt laws.

  3. Near-equilibrium dumb-bell-shaped figures for cohesionless small bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    In a previous paper (Descamps, P. [2015]. Icarus 245, 64-79), we developed a specific method aimed to retrieve the main physical characteristics (shape, density, surface scattering properties) of highly elongated bodies from their rotational lightcurves through the use of dumb-bell-shaped equilibrium figures. The present work is a test of this method. For that purpose we introduce near-equilibrium dumb-bell-shaped figures which are base dumb-bell equilibrium shapes modulated by lognormal statistics. Such synthetic irregular models are used to generate lightcurves from which our method is successfully applied. Shape statistical parameters of such near-equilibrium dumb-bell-shaped objects are in good agreement with those calculated for example for the Asteroid (216) Kleopatra from its dog-bone radar model. It may suggest that such bilobed and elongated asteroids can be approached by equilibrium figures perturbed be the interplay with a substantial internal friction modeled by a Gaussian random sphere.

  4. Modeling perceptual grouping and figure-ground segregation by means of active reentrant connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, O; Tononi, G; Edelman, G M

    1991-01-01

    The segmentation of visual scenes is a fundamental process of early vision, but the underlying neural mechanisms are still largely unknown. Theoretical considerations as well as neurophysiological findings point to the importance in such processes of temporal correlations in neuronal activity. In a previous model, we showed that reentrant signaling among rhythmically active neuronal groups can correlate responses along spatially extended contours. We now have modified and extended this model to address the problems of perceptual grouping and figure-ground segregation in vision. A novel feature is that the efficacy of the connections is allowed to change on a fast time scale. This results in active reentrant connections that amplify the correlations among neuronal groups. The responses of the model are able to link the elements corresponding to a coherent figure and to segregate them from the background or from another figure in a way that is consistent with the so-called Gestalt laws.

  5. Italian cancer figures, report 2012: Cancer in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    . The expected number of cancer cases in children aged between 0 and 14 years of age is approximately 7,000 in the period 2016- 2020, while the corresponding figure for adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age is 4,000, with no relevant variation in comparison with the previous five-year period. The present findings update descriptive cancer epidemiology in children and adolescents in Italy based on data provided by an extensive network of general and specialized population-based cancer registries. Data obtained from cancer registries are supplemented by additional information collected by specialized clinical AIEOP centres and mortality reports collected by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT). Incidence rates reported in Italy were slightly higher in comparison to other developed Countries, but relatively consistent between different Italian areas. Our results also showed that the significant increase in cancer incidence observed until the end of Nineties has halted, with the exception solely of thyroid cancer in adolescents. Efficacy of therapeutic protocols has improved constantly since the Seventies, and recent findings confirm this trend in all age groups and, in particular, for rarer tumours and cancer types that have very poor prognosis. Findings derived from cross-analysis with AIEOP data suggest that it is possible to further improve the efficiency of our healthcare system, in particular for adolescents; migration can be reduced with a more rational use of hospitals throughout Italy.

  6. Key figures for the regional- and distribution grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikingstad, S.

    1996-02-01

    In Norway, improving the efficiency of the hydroelectric grid operation is a stated goal of the Energy Act. Several studies have identified potential profits of such improvement. This publication focuses on costs and improvement potentials. Publication of key figures may stimulate grid owners, boards and administrations to improve the operating efficiency of their grids. The publication shows key figures for the regional- and distribution grid and is based on accounting data for 1994. The key figures are divided into: (1) Cost structure: The key figures express the relative contributions of each cost component to the total income of the grid, (2) Costs and physical quantities: The key figures show the cost of delivering the transport services, (3) Physical quantities: The key figures describe the working conditions of the energy utility. It appears that the cost structure of the sector varies considerably. The same is true of the cost related to the delivery of grid services. 30 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Lighting, backlighting and watercolor illusions and the laws of figurality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam

    2006-01-01

    We report some novel 'lighting' and 'backlighting' effects in plane figures similar to those which induce the 'watercolor illusion', that is, figures made with outlines composed of juxtaposed parallel lines varying in brightness and chromatic color. These new effects show 'illumination' as an emergent percept, and show how arrangements of 'dark and light' along the boundaries of various plane figures model the volume and strengthen the illusion of depth. To account for these various effects we propose several phenomenological 'laws of figurality' to add to the Gestalt laws of organization and figure-ground segregation. We offer a set of meta-laws which are speculative but which serve to integrate and organize the phenomenological laws. These laws indicate how luminance gradient profiles across boundary contours define both the 3D appearance of figures and the properties of the light reflected from their volumetric shapes.

  8. National plan of eviction? The figure of public utility and infrastructure Sector as a means to dispossession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Castillo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The figure of public utility, which has constitutional status, it is extremely important for the realization of projects of national and strategic interest, because it is what allows the expropriation of property rights over land that are necessary to develop such projects. The current government and the previous ones are aware of this, so have long been promoting the use of this figure of light and unlimited to favor big business interests that are behind these businesses and not citizenship.

  9. Logo design: examining consumer response to figurativeness across cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Joana César; Vacas de Carvalho, Leonor; Torres, Anna; Van de Velden, Michel; Costa, Patrício

    2014-01-01

    Literature concerned with logo strategy suggests that the aesthetic appeal of brand logo significantly influences consumer reactions. The main purpose of this research is to study the influence of the different categories of figurative logo designs on consumer response. Through two studies in three countries, this research sheds light on consumer logo preferences, by investigating the psychological properties of the figurativeness of logo design. Results showed that figurativeness is an essen...

  10. Determination of the crystallite orientation distribution from direct pole figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Gomes, P.A.M. de.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described which allows to calculate the crystallite orientation distribution in polycrystalline material, from direct pole figures data of its crystallographic planes (Roe's Method). The programme was applied to (1010), (0002), (1011) and (1120) complete pole figures data for a commercial, thin sheet Zircaloy-4 tubing specimen. A semi-automatic Rigaku-Denki texture goniometer, which scans the reciprocal lattice sphere pointwise outputting the data in a punched tape, was used to obtain the pole figures. This is consistent with the results obtained through direct conclusion from the pole figures. (author)

  11. Masking interrupts figure-ground signals in V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamme, Victor A F; Zipser, Karl; Spekreijse, Henk

    2002-10-01

    In a backward masking paradigm, a target stimulus is rapidly (figure-ground segregation can be recorded. Here, we recorded from awake macaque monkeys, engaged in a task where they had to detect figures from background in a pattern backward masking paradigm. We show that the V1 figure-ground signals are selectively and fully suppressed at target-mask intervals that psychophysically result in the target being invisible. Initial response transients, signalling the features that make up the scene, are not affected. As figure-ground modulations depend on feedback from extrastriate areas, these results suggest that masking selectively interrupts the recurrent interactions between V1 and higher visual areas.

  12. Familiar shapes attract attention in figure-ground displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Rolf A; Palmer, Stephen E

    2007-04-01

    We report five experiments that explore the effect of figure-ground factors on attention. We hypothesized that figural cues, such as familiar shape, would draw attention to the figural side in an attentional cuing task using bipartite figure-ground displays. The first two experiments used faces in profile as the familiar shape and found a perceptual advantage for targets presented on the meaningful side of the central contour in detection speed (Experiment 1) and discrimination accuracy (Experiment 2). The third experiment demonstrated the figural advantage in response time (RT) with nine other familiar shapes (including a sea horse, a guitar, a fir tree, etc.), but only when targets appeared in close proximity to the contour. A fourth experiment obtained a figural advantage in a discrimination task with the larger set of familiar shapes. The final experiment ruled out eye movements as a possible confounding factor by replicating the RT advantage for targets on the figural side of face displays when all trials containing eye movements were eliminated. The results are discussed in terms of ecological influences on attention, and are cast within the framework of Yantis and Jonides's hypothesis that attention is exogenously drawn to the onset of new perceptual objects. We argue that the figural side constitutes an "object" whereas the ground side does not, and that figural cues such as shape familiarity are effective in determining which areas represent objects.

  13. Surface reconstruction, figure-ground modulation, and border-ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Self, Matthew W; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    The Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion (DISC) model aims to explain the reconstruction of visual surfaces. We find the model a valuable contribution to our understanding of figure-ground organization. We point out that, next to border-ownership, neurons in visual cortex code whether surface elements belong to a figure or the background and that this is influenced by attention. We furthermore suggest that there must be strong links between object recognition and figure-ground assignment in order to resolve the status of interior contours. Incorporation of these factors in neurocomputational models will further improve our understanding of surface reconstruction, figure-ground organization, and border-ownership.

  14. Rumsey and Walker_AMT_2016_Figure 2.xlsx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figure summarizes uncertainty (error) in hourly gradient flux measurements by individual analyte. Flux uncertainty is derived from estimates of uncertainty in...

  15. Key Figures on Climate France and Worldwide 2011 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Each year, CDC Climate Research publishes in partnership with the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing (MEDDTL) the Key Figures on Climate - France and Worldwide, in the Highlights Series. This publication aims at gathering all the relevant data relating the scientific analysis of climate change, greenhouses gas emissions, in particular CO 2 emissions linked to energy use, and the emissions reduction-targeted economic policies. Contents: Part 1 - Climate Change: The Greenhouse Effect - Humans and the Greenhouse Effect - Stocks and Flows of GHGs: The Example of CO 2 - Increase in Atmospheric GHG Levels - Concentrations and Temperatures - Global Warming - Warming Differentiated by Latitude - Consequences of Global Warming. Part 2 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Snapshot of Global GHG Emissions - European Panorama of GHGs - French Panorama of GHGs. Part 3 - Energy-related CO 2 Emissions in the World: Energy-related CO 2 emissions - CO 2 Emissions due to Electricity Production including CHP Plants - CO 2 Emission Factors. Part 4 - CO 2 Emissions by Sector in Europe and in France: Fuel Combustion: the Largest Emitter of CO 2 - CO 2 Emissions due to Energy Production and Conversion - Transportation-related CO 2 Emissions - Industry-related CO 2 Emissions - CO 2 Emissions in the Other Sectors - CO 2 Emissions excluding Fuel Combustion. Part 5 - Climate Policies: The Kyoto Protocol - The Tradable Permit Market - Project Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol - Other Initiatives to Reduce Emissions - The European Union's Commitment - The European CO 2 Market (EU ETS) - The Carbon Price in the EU ETS - States Climate Policy: The Case of France. Practical information: CO 2 Key Figures - Glossary of Terms - Useful Links

  16. Eccentric figure-eight coils for transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekino, Masaki; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Takiyama, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Keita; Matsuzaki, Taiga; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Maruo, Tomoyuki; Hosomi, Koichi; Saitoh, Youichi

    2015-01-01

    Previously we proposed an eccentric figure-eight coil that can cause threshold stimulation in the brain at lower driving currents. In this study, we performed numerical simulations and magnetic stimulations to healthy subjects for evaluating the advantages of the eccentric coil. The simulations were performed using a simplified spherical brain model and a realistic human brain model. We found that the eccentric coil required a driving current intensity of approximately 18% less than that required by the concentric coil to cause comparable eddy current densities within the brain. The eddy current localization of the eccentric coil was slightly higher than that of the concentric coil. A prototype eccentric coil was designed and fabricated. Instead of winding a wire around a bobbin, we cut eccentric-spiral slits on the insulator cases, and a wire was woven through the slits. The coils were used to deliver magnetic stimulation to healthy subjects; among our results, we found that the current slew rate corresponding to motor threshold values for the concentric and eccentric coils were 86 and 78 A/µs, respectively. The results indicate that the eccentric coil consistently requires a lower driving current to reach the motor threshold than the concentric coil. Future development of compact magnetic stimulators will enable the treatment of some intractable neurological diseases at home. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Figurative framing: Shaping public discourse through metaphor, hyperbole and irony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.F.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Framing is an important concept in communication, yet many framing studies set out to develop frames relevant to only one issue. We expand framing theory by introducing figurative framing. We posit that figurative language types like metaphor, hyperbole and irony are important in shaping public

  18. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001 ...

  19. Figure 1. Associations between pre-ART clinical and laboratory ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Figure 1. Associations between pre-ART clinical and laboratory characteristics with subsequent TB-IRIS events. Figure 1. Associations between pre-ART clinical and laboratory characteristics with subsequent TB-IRIS events.

  20. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006 ...

  1. Figurative framing : Shaping public discourse through metaphor, hyperbole and irony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Framing is an important concept in communication, yet many framing studies set out to develop frames relevant to only one issue. We expand framing theory by introducing figurative framing. We posit that figurative language types like metaphor, hyperbole and irony are important in shaping public

  2. A new principle of figure-ground segregation : The accentuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam; Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Deiana, Katia

    2018-01-01

    The problem of perceptual organization was studied by Gestalt psychologists in terms of figure-ground segregation. In this paper we explore a new principle of figure-ground segregation: accentuation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of accentuation relative to other Gestalt principles, and also

  3. Figure output program for JFT-2M experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yukitoshi; Mori, Masahiro; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Takada, Susumu.

    1991-11-01

    The software for the figure output of JFT-2M experimental data is reported. Since the configuration of a figure is determined by some easy input parameters, then any format of each experimental output is configured freely by this software. (author)

  4. Estimating the Volumes of Solid Figures with Curved Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Donald

    1991-01-01

    Several examples of solid figures that calculus students can use to exercise their skills at estimating volume are presented. Although these figures are bounded by surfaces that are portions of regular cylinders, it is interesting to note that their volumes can be expressed as rational numbers. (JJK)

  5. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED EC01JY91.056 [5...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 223—Matagorda TED EC01JY91.047 [52...

  7. The Use and Abuse of Human Figure Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Robert W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Notes widespread use of human figure drawings to describe and predict psychological functioning. Reviews data-based studies on figure drawings and concludes that there is little support for their validity or for their use as devices to assess personality, behavior, emotion, or intellectual functioning. Presents ease of administration and anecdotal…

  8. Planning Ahead: Influence of Figure Orientation on Size of Head in Children's Drawings of a Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willatts, Peter; Dougal, Shonagh

    In an investigation of causes of the disproportionate relation between head and body in children's drawings of the human figure, 160 children of 3-10 years of age produced drawings of a man viewed from the front and from the back. It was expected that if planning to include facial features increased the size of the head children drew, then heads…

  9. Boys with autism spectrum disorders show superior performance on the adult Embedded Figures Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlooz, W.A.J.M.; Hulstijn, W.

    2014-01-01

    Weak central coherence is frequently studied using the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) yielding mixed and ambiguous results. In this study, the performance of 36 boys (9–14 years) with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is compared with that of 46 typical peers using both the children's and the adult

  10. The Moving Figure: In Search of a Personal Artistic Vision through Life Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourntos, Ted

    2013-01-01

    "The Moving Figure" unit of study examines the relationship between observation, expression, and memory drawing techniques with second year college-level Illustration students. The goal of the exercises is to foster the development of a personal artistic voice in drawing by asking the students to directly place themselves in-situ within…

  11. Composition in Athenian black-figure vase-painting : The 'Chariot in profile’ type scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helle, G.

    2017-01-01

    All Athenian vases painted using the black-figure technique reflect the conventions of Athenian pictorial language. These were familiar to Athenians in the 6th century BCE, but we – after 2,500 years – can discover them only by studying and analysing the surviving images. Because large numbers

  12. Drawing a close to the use of human figure drawings as a projective measure of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imuta, Kana; Scarf, Damian; Pharo, Henry; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-01-01

    The practice of using children's human figure drawings (HFDs) to assess their intellectual ability is pervasive among psychologists and therapists in many countries. Since the first systematic scoring system for HFDs was published in 1926, their continued popularity has led to the development of several revised versions of the test. Most recently, the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for children, adolescents, and adults (DAP:IQ) was published. It is the most up-to-date form of HFD test designed to assess intellectual functioning across a wide age range. In the present study, we assessed the validity of the DAP:IQ as a screening measure of intelligence in both children and adults. In Experiment 1, 100 4- to 5-year-old children completed the DAP:IQ and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition. In Experiment 2, 100 adults completed the DAP:IQ and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. In both experiments, we found only weak to modest correlations between scores on the DAP:IQ and the Wechsler tests. Furthermore, when we compared individual's scores on the two tests, the DAP:IQ yielded high false positive and false negative rates when screening for borderline and superior intellectual functioning. Based on these findings, and based on the lack of validity of previous HFD tests, we conclude that practitioners should not rely on HFD tests as a projective measure of intelligence.

  13. Drawing a close to the use of human figure drawings as a projective measure of intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Imuta

    Full Text Available The practice of using children's human figure drawings (HFDs to assess their intellectual ability is pervasive among psychologists and therapists in many countries. Since the first systematic scoring system for HFDs was published in 1926, their continued popularity has led to the development of several revised versions of the test. Most recently, the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for children, adolescents, and adults (DAP:IQ was published. It is the most up-to-date form of HFD test designed to assess intellectual functioning across a wide age range. In the present study, we assessed the validity of the DAP:IQ as a screening measure of intelligence in both children and adults. In Experiment 1, 100 4- to 5-year-old children completed the DAP:IQ and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition. In Experiment 2, 100 adults completed the DAP:IQ and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. In both experiments, we found only weak to modest correlations between scores on the DAP:IQ and the Wechsler tests. Furthermore, when we compared individual's scores on the two tests, the DAP:IQ yielded high false positive and false negative rates when screening for borderline and superior intellectual functioning. Based on these findings, and based on the lack of validity of previous HFD tests, we conclude that practitioners should not rely on HFD tests as a projective measure of intelligence.

  14. Drawing a Close to the Use of Human Figure Drawings as a Projective Measure of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imuta, Kana; Scarf, Damian; Pharo, Henry; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-01-01

    The practice of using children's human figure drawings (HFDs) to assess their intellectual ability is pervasive among psychologists and therapists in many countries. Since the first systematic scoring system for HFDs was published in 1926, their continued popularity has led to the development of several revised versions of the test. Most recently, the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for children, adolescents, and adults (DAP:IQ) was published. It is the most up-to-date form of HFD test designed to assess intellectual functioning across a wide age range. In the present study, we assessed the validity of the DAP:IQ as a screening measure of intelligence in both children and adults. In Experiment 1, 100 4- to 5-year-old children completed the DAP:IQ and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition. In Experiment 2, 100 adults completed the DAP:IQ and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. In both experiments, we found only weak to modest correlations between scores on the DAP:IQ and the Wechsler tests. Furthermore, when we compared individual's scores on the two tests, the DAP:IQ yielded high false positive and false negative rates when screening for borderline and superior intellectual functioning. Based on these findings, and based on the lack of validity of previous HFD tests, we conclude that practitioners should not rely on HFD tests as a projective measure of intelligence. PMID:23516590

  15. Figure-Ground Processing: A Reassessment of Gelb and Granit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Rolf; Hebda, Nicholas

    2018-03-01

    In 1923, Adhemar Gelb and Ragnar Granit, two prominent researchers in early Gestalt perceptual theory, reported a lower threshold for detection of a target (a small colored dot) on the ground region of an image than on an adjacent figural region. Although their results had a wide influence on the understanding of figure-ground perception, they are at odds with more recent investigations in which figural regions appear to have a processing advantage over ground regions. The two present studies replicated Gelb and Granit's experiment using a similar figure-ground stimulus albeit with a two-alternative forced choice procedure rather than their original method of adjustment. Experiment 1 found that, contrary to Gelb and Granit's findings, a detection advantage was found for the figural over the ground region. Experiment 2 indicated that explicit contours might have played a role in detection.

  16. Lower region: a new cue for figure-ground assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, Shaun P; Vogel, Edward K; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2002-06-01

    Figure-ground assignment is an important visual process; humans recognize, attend to, and act on figures, not backgrounds. There are many visual cues for figure-ground assignment. A new cue to figure-ground assignment, called lower region, is presented: Regions in the lower portion of a stimulus array appear more figurelike than regions in the upper portion of the display. This phenomenon was explored, and it was demonstrated that the lower-region preference is not influenced by contrast, eye movements, or voluntary spatial attention. It was found that the lower region is defined relative to the stimulus display, linking the lower-region preference to pictorial depth perception cues. The results are discussed in terms of the environmental regularities that this new figure-ground cue may reflect.

  17. Human figure drawings by children with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope-Grattan, M M; Burnett, C N; Wolfe, C V

    1976-02-01

    Seventy-two human figure drawings by forty-three patients who had a diagnosis of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy were examined. The study includes a description of these human figure drawings according to eleven emotional indicators and according to directionality quadrants. When the human figure drawings were used as a projective tool, four personality traits of some of the children were identified: physical inadequacy, immaturity, body anxiety, and insecurity. Both the emotional indicators and the quadrant in which the figures appeared were examined in relation to stages of the disease process to see if the human figure drawings of the children might reflect more stress and anxiety at a particular stage of the disease. Suggestions for improvements and recommendations for future study are given.

  18. Ambiguous figures – What happens in the brain when perception changes but not the stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen eKornmeier

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During observation of ambiguous figures our perception alternates spontaneously although the visual information stays unchanged. Research on this phenomenon so far suffered from the difficulty to determine the instant of the endogenous reversals with sufficient precision. A novel experimental paradigm with discontinuous stimulus presentation improved on previous temporal estimates of the reversal event by factor 3. It revealed that disambiguation of ambiguous visual information takes roughly 50 ms or two loops of recurrent neural activity. Further, the decision about the perceptual outcome has taken place at least 340 ms before the observer is able to indicate the consciously perceived reversal manually. We provide a short review about physiological studies on multistable perception with a focus on electrophysiological data and present a new perspective on multistable perception that can easily integrate previous apparently contradicting explanatory approaches. Finally we propose possible extensions towards other research fields where ambiguous figure perception may be useful as an investigative tool.

  19. Perceptual representation and effectiveness of local figure?ground cues in natural contours

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Ko; Matsuoka, Shouhei; Kurematsu, Ken; Hatori, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    A contour shape strongly influences the perceptual segregation of a figure from the ground. We investigated the contribution of local contour shape to figure–ground segregation. Although previous studies have reported local contour features that evoke figure–ground perception, they were often image features and not necessarily perceptual features. First, we examined whether contour features, specifically, convexity, closure, and symmetry, underlie the perceptual representation of natural cont...

  20. Object integration requires attention: visual search for Kanizsa figures in parietal extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Gögler, N.; Finke, K.; Keller, I.; Muller, Hermann J.; Conci, M.

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of selective attention to object integration is a topic of debate: integration of parts into coherent wholes, such as in Kanizsa figures, is thought to arise either from pre-attentive, automatic coding processes or from higher-order processes involving selective attention. Previous studies have attempted to examine the role of selective attention in object integration either by employing visual search paradigms or by studying patients with unilateral deficits in selective att...

  1. Figure-ground segregation: A fully nonlocal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimiccoli, Mariella

    2016-09-01

    We present a computational model that computes and integrates in a nonlocal fashion several configural cues for automatic figure-ground segregation. Our working hypothesis is that the figural status of each pixel is a nonlocal function of several geometric shape properties and it can be estimated without explicitly relying on object boundaries. The methodology is grounded on two elements: multi-directional linear voting and nonlinear diffusion. A first estimation of the figural status of each pixel is obtained as a result of a voting process, in which several differently oriented line-shaped neighborhoods vote to express their belief about the figural status of the pixel. A nonlinear diffusion process is then applied to enforce the coherence of figural status estimates among perceptually homogeneous regions. Computer simulations fit human perception and match the experimental evidence that several cues cooperate in defining figure-ground segregation. The results of this work suggest that figure-ground segregation involves feedback from cells with larger receptive fields in higher visual cortical areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Figure-ground segmentation can occur without attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Peterson, Mary A

    2008-07-01

    The question of whether or not figure-ground segmentation can occur without attention is unresolved. Early theorists assumed it can, but the evidence is scant and open to alternative interpretations. Recent research indicating that attention can influence figure-ground segmentation raises the question anew. We examined this issue by asking participants to perform a demanding change-detection task on a small matrix presented on a task-irrelevant scene of alternating regions organized into figures and grounds by convexity. Independently of any change in the matrix, the figure-ground organization of the scene changed or remained the same. Changes in scene organization produced congruency effects on target-change judgments, even though, when probed with surprise questions, participants could report neither the figure-ground status of the region on which the matrix appeared nor any change in that status. When attending to the scene, participants reported figure-ground status and changes to it highly accurately. These results clearly demonstrate that figure-ground segmentation can occur without focal attention.

  3. Figure ground discrimination in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Ha Chau; Guyader, Nathalie; Guerin, Anne; Despretz, Pascal; Boucart, Muriel

    2011-03-01

    To investigate impairment in discriminating a figure from its background and to study its relation to visual acuity and lesion size in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Seventeen patients with neovascular AMD and visual acuity Figure/ground segregation is impaired in patients with AMD. A white space surrounding an object is sufficient to improve the object's detection and to facilitate figure/ground segregation. These results may have practical applications to the rehabilitation of the environment in patients with AMD.

  4. Quantifying the Ebbinghaus figure effect: Target size, context size, and target-context distance determine the presence and direction of the illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester eKnol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, visual illusions, like the Ebbinghaus figure, have become widespread to investigate functional segregation of the visual system. This segregation reveals itself, so it is claimed, in the insensitivity of movement to optical illusions. This claim, however, faces contradictory results (and interpretations in the literature. These contradictions may be due to methodological weaknesses in, and differences across studies, some of which may hide a lack of perceptual illusion effects. Indeed, despite the long history of research with the Ebbinghaus figure, standardized configurations to predict the illusion effect are missing. Here, we present a complete geometrical description of the Ebbinghaus figure with three target sizes compatible with Fitts’ task. Each trial consisted of a stimulus and an isolated probe. The probe was controlled by the participant’s response through a staircase procedure. The participant was asked whether the probe or target appeared bigger. The factors target size, context size, target-context distance, and a control condition resulted in a 3×3×3+3 factorial design. The results indicate that the illusion magnitude, the perceptual distinctiveness, and the response time depend on the context size, distance, and especially, target size. In 33% of the factor combinations there was no illusion effect. The illusion magnitude ranged from zero to (exceptionally ten percent of the target size. The small (or absent illusion effects on perception and its possible influence on motor tasks might have been overlooked or misinterpreted in previous studies. Our results provide a basis for the application of the Ebbinghaus figure in psychophysical and motor control studies.

  5. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  6. Figural properties are prioritized for search under conditions of uncertainty: Setting boundary conditions on claims that figures automatically attract attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary A; Mojica, Andrew J; Salvagio, Elizabeth; Kimchi, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Nelson and Palmer (2007) concluded that figures/figural properties automatically attract attention, after they found that participants were faster to detect/discriminate targets appearing where a portion of a familiar object was suggested in an otherwise ambiguous display. We investigated whether these effects are truly automatic and whether they generalize to another figural property-convexity. We found that Nelson and Palmer's results do generalize to convexity, but only when participants are uncertain regarding when and where the target will appear. Dependence on uncertainty regarding target location/timing was also observed for familiarity. Thus, although we could replicate and extend Nelson and Palmer's results, our experiments showed that figures do not automatically draw attention. In addition, our research went beyond Nelson and Palmer's, in that we were able to separate figural properties from perceived figures. Because figural properties are regularities that predict where objects lie in the visual field, our results join other evidence that regularities in the environment can attract attention. More generally, our results are consistent with Bayesian theories in which priors are given more weight under conditions of uncertainty.

  7. Effects of orientation on Rey complex figure performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F Richard; Grossman, Jennifer; Bren, Amy; Hoverson, Allysa

    2002-10-01

    An experiment was performed that examined the impact of stimulus orientation on performance on the Rey complex figure. A total of 48 undergraduates (24 men, 24 women) were randomly assigned to one of four Rey figure orientation groups (0 degrees, 90 degrees, 180 degrees, and 270 degrees ). Participants followed standard procedures for the Rey figure, initially copying it in whatever orientation group they were assigned to. Next, all participants performed a 15-20 min lexical decision experiment, used as a filler task. Finally, and unbeknownest to them, participants were asked to recall as much of the figure as they could. As expected, results revealed a main effect of Task (F = 83.92, p orientation was not significant, nor did orientation interact with task (Fs .57). The results are important from an applied setting, especially if testing conditions are less than optimal and a fixed stimulus position is not possible (e.g., testing at the bedside).

  8. Rumsey and Walker_AMT_2016_Figure 1.xlsx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figure summarizes diurnal profiles of uncertainty in the chemical gradient and transfer velocity measurements from which fluxes are calculated. This dataset is...

  9. R&D figures 'distorted' by defence spending

    CERN Multimedia

    Coghlan, A

    1990-01-01

    A report published by the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology, claims that government figures for R&D spending are misleading. They apparently include military projects that are more concerned with product development than original research.

  10. Figure/ground analogy for integrated sustainability & planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beyers, C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a figure ground analogy as alternative way of conceptually integrating sustainability and planning. Within this framework planners are challenged to creatively consider planning practice and thought against a background...

  11. Figuring out the Statistics of the ICC World Cup 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwalkar, Jyoti P.; Deshpande, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of cricket match results from the ICC World Cup 2011. We believe that such data provide good material for interesting classroom exercises. (Contains 7 tables and 1 figure.)

  12. Temporal dynamics of figure-ground segregation in human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Peter; Levi, Dennis M

    2007-01-01

    The segregation of figure from ground is arguably one of the most fundamental operations in human vision. Neural signals reflecting this operation appear in cortex as early as 50 ms and as late as 300 ms after presentation of a visual stimulus, but it is not known when these signals are used by the brain to construct the percepts of figure and ground. We used psychophysical reverse correlation to identify the temporal window for figure-ground signals in human perception and found it to lie within the range of 100-160 ms. Figure enhancement within this narrow temporal window was transient rather than sustained as may be expected from measurements in single neurons. These psychophysical results prompt and guide further electrophysiological studies.

  13. A search asymmetry reversed by figure-ground assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, G W; Müller, H

    2000-05-01

    We report evidence demonstrating that a search asymmetry favoring concave over convex targets can be reversed by altering the figure-ground assignment of edges in shapes. Visual search for a concave target among convex distractors is faster than search for a convex target among concave distractors (a search asymmetry). By using shapes with ambiguous local figure-ground relations, we demonstrated that search can be efficient (with search slopes around 10 ms/item) or inefficient (with search slopes around 30-40 ms/item) with the same stimuli, depending on whether edges are assigned to concave or convex "figures." This assignment process can operate in a top-down manner, according to the task set. The results suggest that attention is allocated to spatial regions following the computation of figure-ground relations in parallel across the elements present. This computation can also be modulated by top-down processes.

  14. Figures of Merit Guiding Research on Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Kaienburg, Pascal; Baran, Derya

    2018-01-01

    these criteria considering thermodynamic limits, their correlation to photocurrent and photovoltage, and effects on the fill factor. Each criterion is quantified by a figure of merit (FOM) that directly relates to device performance. To ensure a wide

  15. Figures6&7_Tables2&3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This file contains three netCDF formatted files containing simulation model results used to produce Figures 6 and 7 and tables 3 and 4. These data can be accessed...

  16. Self-Esteem and Children's Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, J. Thomas; Vale, Helen L.

    1977-01-01

    One hundred and fifteen students in Grade 5 made human figure drawings which were compared with their scores on the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and on teachers' ratings of the students' self-esteem. (Author)

  17. Figure-ground: history and practice of a planning technique

    OpenAIRE

    Hebbert, M.

    2016-01-01

    Figure-ground plans show the footprints of buildings and the pattern of unbuilt voids in urban space. Compared historically they reveal the erosion of the public realm over time and provide an analytical basis for tissue repair. The paper traces the communicative power of figure-ground technique to its roots in gestalt psychology, and follows its revival from Colin Rowe’s studio at Cornell through to controversies in post-reunification Berlin. The impact of computerisation is discussed and th...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part 223—Georgia TED EC01JY91.048 [52 FR...

  19. Attention and competition in figure-ground perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary A; Salvagio, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    What are the roles of attention and competition in determining where objects lie in the visual field, a phenomenon known as figure-ground perception? In this chapter, we review evidence that attention and other high-level factors such as familiarity affect figure-ground perception, and we discuss models that implement these effects. Next, we consider the Biased Competition Model of Attention in which attention is used to resolve the competition for neural representation between two nearby stimuli; in this model the response to the stimulus that loses the competition is suppressed. In the remainder of the chapter we discuss recent behavioral evidence that figure-ground perception entails between-object competition in which the response to the shape of the losing competitor is suppressed. We also describe two experiments testing whether more attention is drawn to resolve greater figure-ground competition, as would be expected if the Biased Competition Model of Attention extends to figure-ground perception. In these experiments we find that responses to targets on the location of a losing strong competitor are slowed, consistent with the idea that the location of the losing competitor is suppressed, but responses to targets on the winning competitor are not speeded, which is inconsistent with the hypothesis that attention is used to resolve figure-ground competition. In closing, we discuss evidence that attention can operate by suppression as well as by facilitation.

  20. Figurativeness in the Sense of Distraction (Studies by Lithuanian Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laimutė Monginaitė

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the sense of distraction and the feature of figurativeness in it are analysed with the help of phenomenological description, the concept of sense of Juozas Mureika and the conception of imagination of Kristupas Sabolius. The position is followed that the acts of sense and the being of those existing found in them cannot be known in a purely rational way. Knowing is reached with intuitive insights. The experiencing of distraction is approached as one of the norms or intentions of consciousness. The sense of distraction is acknowledged to be a basic value becoming more and more important in a modern stressful life. The article indicates that the intentional beings of the sense of distraction are expressed in really various human activities and are distinguished with mono-subjectivity and unrepeatable feeling. Figurativeness is perceived as the result of imaginary, creative activity of the imagination and aesthetical quality. The peculiarities of the formation of figurativeness are revealed through the phenomenological description of imagination by Sabolius. Four features of the act of visualisation, determining the quality of figurativeness, are emphasized: intentionality, power of transformation, relation with emotions and the symbolism of the image. The conclusion is made that figurativeness, being the result of the creative act (visualisation of imagination, appears as aesthetical quality or the ensemble of qualities. Figurativeness sharpens the sense of distraction and calls the wave of new experiences.

  1. Local figure-ground cues are valid for natural images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlkes, Charless C; Martin, David R; Malik, Jitendra

    2007-06-08

    Figure-ground organization refers to the visual perception that a contour separating two regions belongs to one of the regions. Recent studies have found neural correlates of figure-ground assignment in V2 as early as 10-25 ms after response onset, providing strong support for the role of local bottom-up processing. How much information about figure-ground assignment is available from locally computed cues? Using a large collection of natural images, in which neighboring regions were assigned a figure-ground relation by human observers, we quantified the extent to which figural regions locally tend to be smaller, more convex, and lie below ground regions. Our results suggest that these Gestalt cues are ecologically valid, and we quantify their relative power. We have also developed a simple bottom-up computational model of figure-ground assignment that takes image contours as input. Using parameters fit to natural image statistics, the model is capable of matching human-level performance when scene context limited.

  2. Learning in shifts of transient attention improves recognition of parts of ambiguous figure-ground displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Arni

    2009-04-24

    Previously demonstrated learning effects in shifts of transient attention have only been shown to result in beneficial effects upon secondary discrimination tasks and affect landing points of express saccades. Can such learning result in more direct effects upon perception than previously demonstrated? Observers performed a cued Vernier acuity discrimination task where the cue was one of a set of ambiguous figure-ground displays (with a black and white part). The critical measure was whether, if a target appeared consistently within a part of a cue of a certain brightness, this would result in learning effects and whether such learning would then affect recognition of the cue parts. Critically the target always appeared within the same part of each individual cue. Some cues were used in early parts of streaks of repetition of cue-part brightness, and others in latter parts of such streaks. All the observers showed learning in shifts of transient attention, with improved performance the more often the target appeared within the part of the cue of the same brightness. Subsequently the observers judged whether cue-parts had been parts of the cues used on the preceding discrimination task. Recognition of the figure parts, where the target had consistently appeared, improved strongly with increased length of streaks of repetition of cue-part brightness. Learning in shifts of transient attention leads not only to faster attention shifts but to direct effects upon perception, in this case recognition of parts of figure-ground ambiguous cues.

  3. Study of functional-performance deficits in athletes with previous ankle sprains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Babaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.

  4. The relationship between bilingualism and selective attention in young adults: Evidence from an ambiguous figures task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Sorge, Geoff B; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has shown that bilinguals outperform monolinguals on a variety of tasks that have been described as involving executive functioning, but the precise mechanism for those effects or a clear definition for "executive function" is unknown. This uncertainty has led to a number of studies for which no performance difference between monolingual and bilingual adults has been detected. One approach to clarifying these issues comes from research with children showing that bilinguals were more able than their monolingual peers to perceive both interpretations of an ambiguous figure, an ability that is more tied to a conception of selective attention than to specific components of executive function. The present study extends this notion to adults by assessing their ability to see the alternative image in an ambiguous figure. Bilinguals performed this task more efficiently than monolinguals by requiring fewer cues to identify the second image. This finding has implications for the role of selective attention in performance differences between monolinguals and bilinguals.

  5. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  6. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  7. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  8. Full text and figure display improves bioscience literature search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoli, Anna; Wooldridge, Michael A; Hearst, Marti A

    2010-04-14

    When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine, a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface.

  9. Full text and figure display improves bioscience literature search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Divoli

    Full Text Available When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine, a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface.

  10. Fear and anxiety previous to dental treatment in children from Acaraú-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyne Barreto Gonçalves Marques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the main causing factors of fear and anxiety of children previously to dental treatment. Methods: A descriptive and qualitative study held in the municipal district of Acaraú - CE with 10 children aged 4 to 6 years old, who did not present strong pain between August and September, 2006. At first, we applied the modified VPT (Venham Picture Test, an instrument containing a set of figures of children in different emotional states, which were presented to each child so that he pointed to what he considered to be further identified at the time. The second test, held before the consultation, consisted in asking to the children to free-hand draw the dental office, the dentist and auxiliary personnel asking to each child: what do you think about the dental office and the dentist? The drawings were submitted to idiographic analysis and categorized in units of significance for interpretation. Results: Three children on VPT and nine children on the drawings presented an increased level of anxiety. Causing factors such as the motor (high speed rotation, tooth extraction and white clothes could be found. Final considerations: By means of drawing we were able to efficiently obtain results in identifying some factors that cause fear and anxiety to the child patient. The modified VPT showed to be quick, easy to apply and acceptable to children, but sometimes was contradictory with the drawings.

  11. Inhibitory competition in figure-ground perception: context and convexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary A; Salvagio, Elizabeth

    2008-12-15

    Convexity has long been considered a potent cue as to which of two regions on opposite sides of an edge is the shaped figure. Experiment 1 shows that for a single edge, there is only a weak bias toward seeing the figure on the convex side. Experiments 1-3 show that the bias toward seeing the convex side as figure increases as the number of edges delimiting alternating convex and concave regions increases, provided that the concave regions are homogeneous in color. The results of Experiments 2 and 3 rule out a probability summation explanation for these context effects. Taken together, the results of Experiments 1-3 show that the homogeneity versus heterogeneity of the convex regions is irrelevant. Experiment 4 shows that homogeneity of alternating regions is not sufficient for context effects; a cue that favors the perception of the intervening regions as figures is necessary. Thus homogeneity alone does not alone operate as a background cue. We interpret our results within a model of figure-ground perception in which shape properties on opposite sides of an edge compete for representation and the competitive strength of weak competitors is further reduced when they are homogeneous.

  12. Reduced cost and improved figure of sapphire optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Mark; Bartlett, Kevin; Brophy, Matthew R.; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica; Medicus, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Sapphire presents many challenges to optical manufacturers due to its high hardness and anisotropic properties. Long lead times and high prices are the typical result of such challenges. The cost of even a simple 'grind and shine' process can be prohibitive. The high precision surfaces required by optical sensor applications further exacerbate the challenge of processing sapphire thereby increasing cost further. Optimax has demonstrated a production process for such windows that delivers over 50% time reduction as compared to traditional manufacturing processes for sapphire, while producing windows with less than 1/5 wave rms figure error. Optimax's sapphire production process achieves significant improvement in cost by implementation of a controlled grinding process to present the best possible surface to the polishing equipment. Following the grinding process is a polishing process taking advantage of chemical interactions between slurry and substrate to deliver excellent removal rates and surface finish. Through experiments, the mechanics of the polishing process were also optimized to produce excellent optical figure. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. Through specially developed polishing slurries, the peak-to-valley figure error of spherical sapphire parts is reduced by over 80%.

  13. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  14. [The spirometry figures of bronchoobstructive syndrome in concomitant intestinal parasitosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, K; Aliyeva, G; Gadjiyeva, N

    2010-02-01

    The aim of research is to study of the spirometry figures of bronchoobstructive syndrome in concomitant intestinal parasitosis. There are 81 patients aged from 5 to 61 years (male 43, female 38) were examined. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 group - patients treated only with bronchodilator therapy (14 patients with protozoa, 14 - with helminth, 12 - with combination of parasitosis); 2 group - patients treated with bronchodilator therapy in common with anti-parasitic therapy (14 patients with protozoa, 17 - with helminth, 10 - with combination of parasitosis). There are 22 patients with bronchoobstructive syndrome without parasites were included in control group. Functional disorders at the initial examination are not significantly distinguished between patients with protozoa, helminth, with combined parasitosis and patients without parasites. Considerable differences manifested in dynamics after treatment: only bronchodilator therapy of patients infected with parasites is not lead to sufficient increase of the indices of external respiration function, even the decreasing of the most parameters were observed in patients with helminth. The least growth of spirometric indices were observed in patients from group 1 - 2,17/ 5,09% predicted volumes (-6,81min; 10,54max), the highest growth were observed in patients from group 2 - 20,26/ 12,45% p.v. (2,77min; 43,85max). The spirographic indicators increase after treatment in the control group was more moderate in comparison with 1 and 2 groups - 5,96/ 2,97% p.v. (0,39min; 9,59max). Thus, using antiparasitic therapy in common with bronchodilator therapy in treatment of patients with intestinal parasitosis (group 2) is lead to the reliably significant positive dynamic of spirometry parameters in comparison not only to 1 group (<0,05 for many parameters) but also to control group (<0,01 for many parameters).

  15. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  16. Atypical neural substrates of Embedded Figures Task performance in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Philip S.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Henderson, Joshua G.; Kenworthy, Lauren E.; Gilotty, Lisa; Gaillard, William D.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2007-01-01

    Superior performance on the Embedded Figures Task (EFT) has been attributed to weak central coherence in perceptual processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural basis of EFT performance in 7-12 year old ASD children and age and IQ matched controls. ASD children activated only a subset of the distributed network of regions activated in controls. In frontal cortex, control children activated left dorsolateral, ...

  17. Children's drawings of significant figures for a peer or an adult audience

    OpenAIRE

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn; Murray, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed if children would present different information in their drawings of emotion eliciting stimuli when they believed that an adult or a child audience would view their drawings. Seventy-five 6-year-olds (44 boys and 31 girls) were allocated to three groups: the reference group, the child audience group and the adult audience group. All children completed a drawing session where they first drew a neutral uncharacterised figure, followed by drawings of a sad and a happy ...

  18. A method of shadow puppet figure modeling and animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-fang HUANG; Shou-qian SUN; Ke-jun ZHANG; Tian-ning XU; Jian-feng WU; Bin ZHU

    2015-01-01

    To promote the development of the intangible cultural heritage of the world, shadow play, many studies have focused on shadow puppet modeling and interaction. Most of the shadow puppet figures are still imaginary, spread by ancients, or carved and painted by shadow puppet artists, without consideration of real dimensions or the appearance of human bodies. This study proposes an algorithm to transform 3D human models to 2D puppet figures for shadow puppets, including automatic location of feature points, automatic segmentation of 3D models, automatic extraction of 2D contours, automatic clothes matching, and animation. Experiment proves that more realistic and attractive figures and animations of the shadow puppet can be generated in real time with this algorithm.

  19. Figure drawing as an expression of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, S; Sakai, D; Beardslee, B; Coopersmith, A

    1976-08-01

    Figure drawings were obtained from 97 preadolescent males who differed in self and behavioral assessments of self-esteem. These subjects had been selected from a much larger sample and represented five different types of self-esteem. The figure drawings were scored for 15 variables, dealing with formal characteristics, content, and global-interpretations of the total drawings. Five significant differences were obtained, with the content and global-interpretative categories proving more differentiating between self-esteem groups than did the formal characteristics. Behavioral expressions of self-esteem were more associated with figure drawing characteristics than were subjective evaluations. Discussion focuses on the nature of self-concept and self-esteem in children as a sensorimotor rather than symbolic expression.

  20. Brief report: human figure drawings by children with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui Keow; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-05-01

    Twenty-nine children with Asperger's syndrome and 28 typically developing children, matched on gender, chronological age and nonverbal IQ, were asked to produce a free drawing, then requested to draw a person, a house and a tree. The drawings were scored using standardized procedures for assessing accuracy, detail and complexity. There were no differences between the diagnostic groups on the tree or house drawing scores. The human figure drawing scores of children with Asperger's syndrome were significantly lower than those of the typically developing children, and there was a positive correlation between human figure drawing scores and communication sub-scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, for the Asperger's group. These results suggest that the selective deficit in generating human figure representations may derive from a relative lack of interest in the social world, and/or limited practice in drawing people.

  1. Cutting solid figures by plane - analytical solution and spreadsheet implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2012-07-01

    In some secondary mathematics curricula, there is a topic called Stereometry that deals with investigating the position and finding the intersection, angle, and distance of lines and planes defined within a prism or pyramid. Coordinate system is not used. The metric tasks are solved using Pythagoras' theorem, trigonometric functions, and sine and cosine rules. The basic problem is to find the section of the figure by a plane that is defined by three points related to the figure. In this article, a formula is derived that gives the positions of the intersection points of such a plane and the figure edges, that is, the vertices of the section polygon. Spreadsheet implementations of the formula for cuboid and right rectangular pyramids are presented. The user can check his/her graphical solution, or proceed if he/she is not able to complete the section.

  2. Novel figurative phrases and idioms: phrase characteristics over multiple presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, Wendy A; Cintron, Jennifer; Sullivan, Karin; Ilic, Emily; Ellis, Shannon; Dobrowits, Carrie; Roberts, Crystal

    2003-07-01

    In a series of three studies, characteristics of novel figurative phrases were compared with those of established idioms. Studies 1 and 2 found that certain correlations were found to be strong and in one direction for familiar idioms and comparably strong but in the opposite direction for novel figurative phrases, with the correlations for less familiar idioms usually falling partway between these extremes. Study 2 also noted that written or auditory presentation had minimal effects on characteristic ratings. In Study 3 the correlations among characteristics stayed relatively constant for familiar idioms after one, three, or six presentations, but for the novel figurative phrases, after multiple presentations the correlations changed in the direction of the established idioms.

  3. Stochastic correlative firing for figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe

    2005-03-01

    Segregation of sensory inputs into separate objects is a central aspect of perception and arises in all sensory modalities. The figure-ground segregation problem requires identifying an object of interest in a complex scene, in many cases given binaural auditory or binocular visual observations. The computations required for visual and auditory figure-ground segregation share many common features and can be cast within a unified framework. Sensory perception can be viewed as a problem of optimizing information transmission. Here we suggest a stochastic correlative firing mechanism and an associative learning rule for figure-ground segregation in several classic sensory perception tasks, including the cocktail party problem in binaural hearing, binocular fusion of stereo images, and Gestalt grouping in motion perception.

  4. Perceptual multistability in figure-ground segregation using motion stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Simone; Giora, Enrico; Pedersini, Riccardo

    2008-11-01

    In a series of experiments using ambiguous stimuli, we investigate the effects of displaying ordered, discrete series of images on the dynamics of figure-ground segregation. For low frame presentation speeds, the series were perceived as a sequence of discontinuous, static images, while for high speeds they were perceived as continuous. We conclude that using stimuli varying continuously along one parameter results in stronger hysteresis and reduces spontaneous switching compared to matched static stimuli with discontinuous parameter changes. The additional evidence that the size of the hysteresis effects depended on trial duration is consistent with the stochastic nature of the dynamics governing figure-ground segregation. The results showed that for continuously changing stimuli, alternative figure-ground organizations are resolved via low-level, dynamical competition. A second series of experiments confirmed these results with an ambiguous stimulus based on Petter's effect.

  5. Central display system of figures in fire alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shaohong; Zhu Zicheng; Zhu Liqun; Ren Yi; Yu Hongmei; Du Chengbao; Xie Guoxue

    1997-01-01

    A new type of 'central display system of figures in fire alarm' includes two parts: (1) software package of drawing picture; (2) real time processing and operate system (POS). Main function of the software package is to draw floor plane figures, fire-fighting facility signs and room numbers; and then all pictures are used in POS. Main functions of POS are to process fire alarm, faults and activation of fire fighting control facility, save and print reports, look over floor plane figures, look over concrete condition of fire fighting facilities, and to show appropriate prompt according to different case. This system realizes many functions, such as, control with mouse, operation with push-button, menu operation interface, flip windows to prompt, and chinese character. It have won acclaim for its amazing interface, its convenience to operate, its reliability and flexibility

  6. Les figures de l'usager de Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Domenget , Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    International audience; L’analyse des figures de l’usager de Twitter représente un enjeu de recherche pour comprendre la construction de ces représentations diverses. L’objectif de cet article est d’analyser la notion d’usager dans le cadre de ce dispositif et d’interroger ses relations avec les notions de public(s), d’audience(s) et de communautés. Les quatre principales figures distinguées (twitto, consommateur, abonné, expert) sont étudiées à partir de deuxcritères majeurs : les principes ...

  7. Correlates of figure-ground segregation in fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiera, G; Petersen, D; Skalej, M; Fahle, M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated which correlates of figure-ground-segregation can be detected by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Five subjects were scanned with a Siemens Vision 1.5 T system. Motion, colour, and luminance-defined checkerboards were presented with alternating control conditions containing one of the two features of the checkerboard. We find a segregation-specific activation in V1 for all subjects and all stimuli and conclude that neural mechanisms exist as early as in the primary visual cortex that are sensitive to figure-ground segregation.

  8. Exploring ELT Students’ Perception of Mobile Phone through Figurative Language

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENEL, Müfit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate, analyze and evaluate the mobile phone perceptions of ELT students by the help of figurative language. The participants of this study are Grade 3 and Grade 4 students of ELT Department at Samsun 19 Mayıs University, Faculty of Education, involving 139 students in total. In this research students were asked to use “simile” as a figurative language and complete the sentence “Mobile phone is as ……as…….”  in the target language.  According to content analys...

  9. Energy management and renewable energies. Key figures for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having recalled the different French, European and world objectives in terms of greenhouse gas emission reduction (globally or for different sectors: industry, housing and offices, transport, agriculture), and of renewable energy production and consumption, this document proposes data tables and figures describing the energy consumption evolution in France since 1970 (with respect to sectors as well as with respect to energy sources), the greenhouse gas emission evolution since 1990 and the share of each sector in these emissions. Other tables and figures give a more precise description of the housing sector, of the office buildings sector, of the transportation sector, of the manufacturing industry, and of renewable energies (production capacity, purchase tariffs)

  10. Discrimination Features of Chromatic Figures in Various Background Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y A Chudina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual recognition features of images with different figure-ground segregation have been considered in the article. The research was carried out within the framework of Sokolov and Izmaylov’s spherical model and was based on the construction of color objects discrimination models depending on the changes of background characteristics. The research has revealed the specific influence of the background on figure discrimination. The derived models reflect the mechanisms of the all-in-one perception of the visual space.

  11. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...

  12. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  13. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  14. A previous hamstring injury affects kicking mechanics in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navandar, Archit; Veiga, Santiago; Torres, Gonzalo; Chorro, David; Navarro, Enrique

    2018-01-10

    Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22.15 ± 4.50 years) performed 5 kicks each with their preferred and non-preferred limb at a target 7m away, which were recorded with a three-dimensional motion capture system. Kinematic and kinetic variables were extracted for the backswing, leg cocking, leg acceleration and follow through phases. A shorter backswing (20.20 ± 3.49% vs 25.64 ± 4.57%), and differences in knee flexion angle (58 ± 10o vs 72 ± 14o) and hip flexion velocity (8 ± 0rad/s vs 10 ± 2rad/s) were observed in previously injured, non-preferred limb kicks for females. A lower peak hip linear velocity (3.50 ± 0.84m/s vs 4.10 ± 0.45m/s) was observed in previously injured, preferred limb kicks of females. These differences occurred in the backswing and leg-cocking phases where the hamstring muscles were the most active. A variation in the functioning of the hamstring muscles and that of the gluteus maximus and iliopsoas in the case of a previous injury could account for the differences observed in the kicking pattern. Therefore, the effects of a previous hamstring injury must be considered while designing rehabilitation programs to re-educate kicking movement.

  15. Figure analysis: A teaching technique to promote visual literacy and active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Amy M

    2016-07-08

    Learning often improves when active learning techniques are used in place of traditional lectures. For many of these techniques, however, students are expected to apply concepts that they have already grasped. A challenge, therefore, is how to incorporate active learning into the classroom of courses with heavy content, such as molecular-based biology courses. An additional challenge is that visual literacy is often overlooked in undergraduate science education. To address both of these challenges, a technique called figure analysis was developed and implemented in three different levels of undergraduate biology courses. Here, students learn content while gaining practice in interpreting visual information by discussing figures with their peers. Student groups also make connections between new and previously learned concepts on their own while in class. The instructor summarizes the material for the class only after students grapple with it in small groups. Students reported a preference for learning by figure analysis over traditional lecture, and female students in particular reported increased confidence in their analytical abilities. There is not a technology requirement for this technique; therefore, it may be utilized both in classrooms and in nontraditional spaces. Additionally, the amount of preparation required is comparable to that of a traditional lecture. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):336-344, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. DOE Research and Development Accomplishments Previous Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    through his Nobel Lecture in 1961, about unraveling the secrets of photosynthesis -- the process by which . March 10, 2015 Twenty years ago, the top quark was first observed in experiments at the Tevatron proton sophisticated detectors, the top was hard to find. After a top is made from a proton-antiproton collision, a

  17. Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, M.; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, S.; Riess, K.; Martos, F.; Krause, C.; Oberwinkler, F.; Bauer, R.; Redecker, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2011), s. 1-7 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Sebacinales * endophytes * mycorrhiza Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  18. Well Construction Details, Groundwater Elevations, and Figures for the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Area at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This Sandia National Laboratories / New Mexico (SNL/NM) submittal contains groundwater information that the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has requested. The USGS will use the information to assist Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in its ongoing groundwater studies. The information in this submittal contains well-construction details and groundwater-elevation data for monitoring wells that SNL/NM has installed. Relevant well-construction data from other government agencies are also summarized. This submittal contains four data tables and three figures. Information in the tables has been used by SNL/NM to prepare groundwater compliance reports that have previously incorporated the three figures. The figures depict the potentiometric surface for the Perched Groundwater System, the potentiometric surface for the Regional Aquifer, and a Conceptual Site Model for the vicinity of Tijeras Arroyo in the northern portion of KAFB.

  19. Mathematical Modeling: Challenging the Figured Worlds of Elementary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstrom, Megan H.

    2017-01-01

    This article is a report on a teacher study group that focused on three elementary teachers' perceptions of mathematical modeling in contrast to typical mathematics instruction. Through the theoretical lens of figured worlds, I discuss how mathematics instruction was conceptualized across the classrooms in terms of artifacts, discourse, and…

  20. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter T.

    1971-01-01

    Human figures drawn by psychiatric patients were evaluated. It was hypothesized that differences in performance, particularly differences reflecting a lower level of cognitive maturity, would be associated with the sociocultural background variables, and that these differences might well be such as to be misinterpreted as psychopathologically…

  1. Gérard Genette : a escrita de Figures IV

    OpenAIRE

    Eiras, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on Genette's most recent work and his theorisation on his own work (its unity and heterogeneity) and the recent multiplication of the areas of study (from music to painting, from Stendhal to Proust). Note is also made of Genette's idiosyncrasy in Figures IV.

  2. Rumsey and Walker_AMT_2016_Figure 1.xlsx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figure summarizes diurnal profiles of uncertainty in the chemical gradient and transfer velocity measurements from which fluxes are calculated. This dataset is associated with the following publication:Rumsey, I. Application of an online ion chromatography-based instrument for gradient flux measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 9(6): 2581-2592, (2016).

  3. Higher Education in Facts & Figures: Research and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This edition of Higher education in facts and figures focusses on Research and innovation. Research and innovation are crucial to the future of the UK's competitiveness. Universities are the prime drivers for this, both through producing, and acting as a magnet for, the best knowledge and talent. The UK's research performance is exceptionally…

  4. Descriptive Analysis Of Nigerian Children Human Figure Drawings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Art is a symbolic means of communication through which man can communicate his inner needs, desires and worries. Children find art a good means of communicating what ordinarily, they may not be able to describe orally. This study was on description of Nigerian children human figure art using Lowenfeld and Brittain ...

  5. Figures of Association and Sound in some Nigerian Proverbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Figures of Speech are expressions which depart from the acceptable literary sense that are employed to give particular emphasis to an idea or a sentiment in order to beautify a literary work such as poetry and proverbs. These devices occupy an important position in proverbs and they perform functions which make the ...

  6. Arborescent vascular dilatation mimicking Lichtenberg figures from lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempark, Therdpong; Iwasaki, Julie; Shwayder, Tor

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of arborizing vascular dilatation can resemble Lichtenberg figures from lightning. Both have a feather-like or ferning pattern. We report an interesting case of pressure-induced vasodilatation (PIV) caused by temporary vascular occlusion from jeans buttons. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Monster Figures and Unhappy Endings in Inuit Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Robin

    1988-01-01

    Examines the incidence of frightening figures and unhappy endings in traditional and modern Inuit stories and identifies purpose for these elements. Monsters and unhappy endings apparently are tools to help children come to terms with Eskimo environment and values. Studies the conclusions and implications for Indian education. (TES)

  8. Education and Six-Figure Salaries. The Iconoclast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, John

    1996-01-01

    Criticizes the recent trend of six-figure-plus salaries for higher education administrators in Canada. Maintains that these salaries reflect neither market value nor individual performance but rather result from aggressive self-promotion and institutional chicanery. Argues that those individuals motivated primarily by money should work in the…

  9. The role of figure-ground segregation in change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Rogier; Spekreijse, Henk; Lamme, Victor A F

    2004-04-01

    Partial report methods have shown that a large-capacity representation exists for a few hundred milliseconds after a picture has disappeared. However, change blindness studies indicate that very limited information remains available when a changed version of the image is presented subsequently. What happens to the large-capacity representation? New input after the first image may interfere, but this is likely to depend on the characteristics of the new input. In our first experiment, we show that a display containing homogeneous image elements between changing images does not render the large-capacity representation unavailable. Interference occurs when these new elements define objects. On that basis we introduce a new method to produce change blindness: The second experiment shows that change blindness can be induced by redefining figure and background, without an interval between the displays. The local features (line segments) that defined figures and background were swapped, while the contours of the figures remained where they were. Normally, changes are easily detected when there is no interval. However, our paradigm results in massive change blindness. We propose that in a change blindness experiment, there is a large-capacity representation of the original image when it is followed by a homogeneous interval display, but that change blindness occurs whenever the changed image forces resegregation of figures from the background.

  10. Figure-ground segregation in a recurrent network architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.; Roelfsema, P.R.; Spekreijse, H.; Bosch, H.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a model of how the visual brain segregate textured scenes into figures and background. During texture segregation, locations where the properties of texture elements change abruptly are assigned to boundaries, whereas image regions that are relatively homogeneous are grouped together

  11. Figure-ground segregation in a recurrent network architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Pieter R.; Lamme, Victor A. F.; Spekreijse, Henk; Bosch, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Here we propose a model of how the visual brain segregates textured scenes into figures and background. During texture segregation, locations where the properties of texture elements change abruptly are assigned to boundaries, whereas image regions that are relatively homogeneous are grouped

  12. Forces on a magnet moving past figure-eight coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.H.; He, Jianliang; Rote, D.M.; Rossing, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    For the first time, the lift, drag, and guidance forces acting on a permanent magnet are measured as the magnet passes over different arrays of figure-eight (null-flux) coils. The experimental results are in good agreement with the predictions of dynamic circuit theory, which is used to explain more optimal coil arrays

  13. Graphics of polar figure; Graficado de figura polar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R

    1991-11-15

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  14. Ion beam figuring of CVD silicon carbide mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailly, P.; Collette, J.-P.; Fleury Frenette, K.; Jamar, C.

    2017-11-01

    Optical and structural elements made of silicon carbide are increasingly found in space instruments. Chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD-SiC) is used as a reflective coating on SiC optics in reason of its good behavior under polishing. The advantage of applying ion beam figuring (IBF) to CVD-SiC over other surface figure-improving techniques is discussed herein. The results of an IBF sequence performed at the Centre Spatial de Liège on a 100 mm CVD-SiC mirror are reported. The process allowed to reduce the mirror surface errors from 243 nm to 13 nm rms . Beside the surface figure, roughness is another critical feature to consider in order to preserve the optical quality of CVD-SiC . Thus, experiments focusing on the evolution of roughness were performed in various ion beam etching conditions. The roughness of samples etched at different depths down to 3 ≠m was determined with an optical profilometer. These measurements emphasize the importance of selecting the right combination of gas and beam energy to keep roughness at a low level. Kaufman-type ion sources are generally used to perform IBF but the performance of an end-Hall ion source in figuring CVD-SiC mirrors was also evaluated in this study. In order to do so, ion beam etching profiles obtained with the end-Hall source on CVD-SiC were measured and used as a basis for IBF simulations.

  15. Figures of Association and Sound in some Nigerian Proverbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    commending or reproving the person or thing to which it is applied, and often containing some ... association or the comparison of two things. 2. Figures of ..... to absorb the club while the peacemaker says he is as hard (difficult) as a piece of ...

  16. Figuring the Past : Period Film and the Mannerist aesthetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, Belén

    2012-01-01

    Figuring the Past geeft een nieuwe kijk op kostuumdrama's die aan het begin van deze eeuw gemaakt zijn en onderzoekt de manieren waarop de hedendaagse cinema het historische verleden herschept. De auteur verkent de relatie tussen visuele motieven en culturele representaties in een aantal belangrijke

  17. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS... Subpart A of Part 1201—Test Frame EC03OC91.005 ...

  18. Inhibitory Competition between Shape Properties in Figure-Ground Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary A.; Skow, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Theories of figure-ground perception entail inhibitory competition between either low-level units (edge or feature units) or high-level shape properties. Extant computational models instantiate the 1st type of theory. The authors investigated a prediction of the 2nd type of theory: that shape properties suggested on the ground side of an edge are…

  19. A feedback model of figure-ground assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domijan, Drazen; Setić, Mia

    2008-05-30

    A computational model is proposed in order to explain how bottom-up and top-down signals are combined into a unified perception of figure and background. The model is based on the interaction between the ventral and the dorsal stream. The dorsal stream computes saliency based on boundary signals provided by the simple and the complex cortical cells. Output from the dorsal stream is projected to the surface network which serves as a blackboard on which the surface representation is formed. The surface network is a recurrent network which segregates different surfaces by assigning different firing rates to them. The figure is labeled by the maximal firing rate. Computer simulations showed that the model correctly assigns figural status to the surface with a smaller size, a greater contrast, convexity, surroundedness, horizontal-vertical orientation and a higher spatial frequency content. The simple gradient of activity in the dorsal stream enables the simulation of the new principles of the lower region and the top-bottom polarity. The model also explains how the exogenous attention and the endogenous attention may reverse the figural assignment. Due to the local excitation in the surface network, neural activity at the cued region will spread over the whole surface representation. Therefore, the model implements the object-based attentional selection.

  20. Surface reconstruction, figure-ground modulation, and border-ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, D.; Self, M.W.; Roelfsema, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion (DISC) model aims to explain the reconstruction of visual surfaces. We find the model a valuable contribution to our understanding of figure-ground organization. We point out that, next to border-ownership, neurons in visual cortex code whether

  1. Surface reconstruction, figure-ground modulation, and border-ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Self, Matthew W.; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion (DISC) model aims to explain the reconstruction of visual surfaces. We find the model a valuable contribution to our understanding of figure-ground organization. We point out that, next to border-ownership, neurons in visual cortex code

  2. Body figure preference in South African adolescent females: A cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The current study sought to explore body figure preference in a cross cultural South African sample, given the established relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. Methods: The sample comprised a community based, multi-racial adolescent population in both urban (n=1353) and rural ...

  3. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 1999; Energilaeget i siffror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This supplement contains the tabular data of most of the diagrams in the main publication (Energy in Sweden 1999, STEM-ET-82-1999). The figures are based on preliminary statistics, and there may be minor differences between similar data in different sections or tables etc. All table headings and notes are given in both Swedish and English.

  4. Judging Anomalies at the 2010 Olympics in Men's Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the 2010 Olympic figure skating judges had trouble scoring Plushenko and the transitions program component, and if the International Skating Union's (ISU) "corridor" method flagged the same judging anomalies as the Rasch analyses. A 3-facet (skater by program component by judge) Rasch rating…

  5. The thermoelectric figure of merit of poor thermal conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations are given to show that for low thermal conductivity materials the radiation losses at even moderate temperatures preclude the use of the Harman technique for measuring the thermoelectric figure of merit. Measurements on liquid Tl 66 Se 34 , which has suitable thermoelectric properties, confirm this. (author)

  6. Figure Drawing as an Expression of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Stanley; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Results of the study show that several features of figure drawing identify the children who differ in self esteem. These differentiating features are associated with behavioral expressions of esteem rather than with self-appraisals of personal worth. (Author/DEP)

  7. Maternal and perinatal mortality figures in 249 South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the PMR for the black population is considerably hi9her than for the other ethnic groups. That said, perinatal mortality levels in South African blacks still compare favourably with figures from other African cQuntries.12. In conclusion, the MMRs and PMRs found in our survey of. 249 South African hospitals - though not truly.

  8. Assessment of the Volume and Value of Slaughter Animals Figures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on 2003 – 2005 cattle and goats slaughter figures for Rivers State was obtained from the meat inspection records of the Department of Veterinary Services, Rivers State Ministry of Agriculture, Port Harcourt. Total number of cattle and goats inspected and slaughtered at Rumueme slaughter slab, in Port Harcourt ...

  9. Executive Functioning and Figurative Language Comprehension in Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Saied; Kaplan, Shani

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the research was to examine executive functioning and figurative language comprehension among students with learning disabilities as compared to students without learning disabilities. As part of the research, we examined 20 students with learning disabilities and 21 students with no learning disabilities, both groups of students…

  10. Analysis of moire figures using interferometric lattices with Airy perfils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabal, H.J.; Garavaglia, M.

    1979-01-01

    Using a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a spectrograph, iluminated with white light, ondulatory spectra are obtained. The componentes are not equidistance among them and the intensity distribution obeys the Airy's law. It is been made preliminar experiments to determinate if the moire figures, generated by the ondulatory spectra interaction, allows to measure displacements, rotations, etc [es

  11. On the Long-Term "Hesitation Waltz" Between the Earth's Figure and Rotation Axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couhert, A.; Mercier, F.; Bizouard, C.

    2017-12-01

    The principal figure axis of the Earth refers to its axis of maximum inertia. In the absence of external torques, the latter should closely coincide with the rotation pole, when averaged over many years. However, because of tidal and non-tidal mass redistributions within the Earth system, the rotational axis executes a circular motion around the figure axis essentially at seasonal time scales. In between, it is not clear what happens at decadal time spans and how well the two axes are aligned. The long record of accurate Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) observations to Lageos makes possible to directly measure the long time displacement of the figure axis with respect to the crust, through the determination of the degree 2 order 1 geopotential coefficients for the 34-year period 1983-2017. On the other hand, the pole coordinate time series (mainly from GNSS and VLBI data) yield the motion of the rotation pole with even a greater accuracy. This study is focused on the analysis of the long-term behavior of the two time series, as well as the derivation of possible explanations for their discrepancies.

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation

  13. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: The ASD perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila eVulchanova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural language competence is intact, problems with extended language persist. If we assume that figurative and extended uses of language essentially depend on the perception and processing of more concrete core concepts and phenomena, the commonly observed failure in atypical populations to understand figurative language remains a puzzle.Various accounts have been offered to explain this issue, ranging from linking potential failure directly to overall structural language competence (Brock et al., 2008; Norbury, 2005 to right-hemispheric involvement (Gold and Faust, 2010. We argue that the dissociation between structural language and figurative language competence in autism should be sought in more general cognitive mechanisms and traits in the autistic phenotype (e.g., in terms of weak central coherence, Vulchanova et al., 2012b, as well as failure at on-line semantic integration with increased complexity and diversity of the stimuli (Coulson and van Petten, 2002. This perspective is even more compelling in light of similar problems in a number of conditions, including both acquired (e.g., Aphasia and developmental disorders (Williams Syndrome. This dissociation argues against a simple continuity view of language interpretation.

  14. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: the ASD perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulchanova, Mila; Saldaña, David; Chahboun, Sobh; Vulchanov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural language competence is intact, problems with extended language persist. If we assume that figurative and extended uses of language essentially depend on the perception and processing of more concrete core concepts and phenomena, the commonly observed failure in atypical populations to understand figurative language remains a puzzle. Various accounts have been offered to explain this issue, ranging from linking potential failure directly to overall structural language competence (Norbury, 2005; Brock et al., 2008) to right-hemispheric involvement (Gold and Faust, 2010). We argue that the dissociation between structural language and figurative language competence in autism should be sought in more general cognitive mechanisms and traits in the autistic phenotype (e.g., in terms of weak central coherence, Vulchanova et al., 2012b), as well as failure at on-line semantic integration with increased complexity and diversity of the stimuli (Coulson and Van Petten, 2002). This perspective is even more compelling in light of similar problems in a number of conditions, including both acquired (e.g., Aphasia) and developmental disorders (Williams Syndrome). This dissociation argues against a simple continuity view of language interpretation.

  15. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: the ASD perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulchanova, Mila; Saldaña, David; Chahboun, Sobh; Vulchanov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural language competence is intact, problems with extended language persist. If we assume that figurative and extended uses of language essentially depend on the perception and processing of more concrete core concepts and phenomena, the commonly observed failure in atypical populations to understand figurative language remains a puzzle. Various accounts have been offered to explain this issue, ranging from linking potential failure directly to overall structural language competence (Norbury, 2005; Brock et al., 2008) to right-hemispheric involvement (Gold and Faust, 2010). We argue that the dissociation between structural language and figurative language competence in autism should be sought in more general cognitive mechanisms and traits in the autistic phenotype (e.g., in terms of weak central coherence, Vulchanova et al., 2012b), as well as failure at on-line semantic integration with increased complexity and diversity of the stimuli (Coulson and Van Petten, 2002). This perspective is even more compelling in light of similar problems in a number of conditions, including both acquired (e.g., Aphasia) and developmental disorders (Williams Syndrome). This dissociation argues against a simple continuity view of language interpretation. PMID:25741261

  16. Generation of coordinates in PC for graphics of polar figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-10-01

    The preferential orientation, not alone it exists in metals, but also in minerals or in general in crystalline materials, notwithstanding in the metals it can be transformed by means of those processes of having mechanical worked such as laminate, wrapping, etc. To the preferable orientation of the crystals is also known as texture and since the properties of the crystalline materials lens depend on the orientation that present its glasses, it is important to know its texture. The difficulty for to represent and to describe the grade of preferential orientation in textured materials take to F. Weber to adapt the stereo graphic projection of a monocrystal to a poles figure. Later on, its appeared but methods to obtain the polar figure, among them, that of reflection of L. G. Schultz, but again a technique appears it specifies for its obtaining. In all the cases, the methodology is the following one: a) It is obtained by means of the diffraction process, the correspondent spectra in digitized form. b) it is applied process of having softened mathematician of the spectrum. c) there are determined the fi coordinates, beta and intensity for graph nts of the polar figure. d) Its are graph the points generated in c obtaining the polar figures. The objective of this work, is leaving of a softened spectra, to generate the coordinated fi, beta and corresponding intensity to proceed to their graph and generation of the polar figure. In this specific work, the methodology of Philips is used that consists in making a sweeping in hairspring form with the radiation to detect in these points the execution of the Bragg law. (Author)

  17. Configuration color vision tests: the interaction between aging and the complexity of figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, T; Pollack, R H

    1984-09-01

    A cross-sectional study comparing response time and the percentage of items correctly identified in three color vision tests (Pflügertrident, HRR-AO pseudoisochromatic plates, and AO pseudoisochromatic plates) was carried out on 72 women (12 in each decade) ranging from ages 20 to 79 years. Overall, time scores increased across the age groups. Analysis of the correctness scores indicated that the AO pseudoisochromatic plates requiring the identification of numbers was more difficult than the other tests which consisted of geometric forms or the letter E. This differential difficulty increased as a function of age. There was no indication of color defect per se which led to the conclusion that figure complexity may be the key variable determining performance. The results were similar to those obtained by Lee and Pollack (1978) in their study of the Embedded Figures Test.

  18. The human figure drawing as related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perets-Dubrovsky, Sharon; Kaveh, Michelle; Deutsh-Castel, Tsofia; Cohen, Ayala; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2010-06-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of the human figure drawing test among children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or learning disability, boys (n = 136) between the ages of 8 and 10 years, with either or both ADHD and learning disability, were included. Two drawings were used: person and house, tree and person. The drawings were analyzed using the Koppitz emotional and developmental scales. Conners teacher and parent rating scales and the Matching Familiar Figure Test were administered. High intertest reliability for the emotional scale and a significant negative correlation between the 2 scales were found. The reported anxiety and learning were significantly correlated with the cognitive score. A combination of cognitive and emotional items resulted in 67% correct classification of ADHD and learning disability. This test can be used as part of the assessment of ADHD/learning disability.

  19. Visual relations children find easy and difficult to process in figural analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Claire E; Alberto, Rosa A; van den Boom, Max A; de Boeck, Paul A L

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to learn about novel phenomena by relating it to structurally similar knowledge, develops with great variability in children. Furthermore, the development of analogical reasoning coincides with greater working memory efficiency and increasing knowledge of the entities and relations present in analogy problems. In figural matrices, a classical form of analogical reasoning assessment, some features, such as color, appear easier for children to encode and infer than others, such as orientation. Yet, few studies have structurally examined differences in the difficulty of visual relations across different age-groups. This cross-sectional study of figural analogical reasoning examined which underlying rules in figural analogies were easier or more difficult for children to correctly process. School children (N = 1422, M = 7.0 years, SD = 21 months, range 4.5-12.5 years) were assessed in analogical reasoning using classical figural matrices and memory measures. The visual relations the children had to induce and apply concerned the features: animal, color, orientation, position, quantity and size. The role of age and memory span on the children's ability to correctly process each type of relation was examined using explanatory item response theory models. The results showed that with increasing age and/or greater memory span all visual relations were processed more accurately. The "what" visual relations animal, color, quantity and size were easiest, whereas the "where" relations orientation and position were most difficult. However, the "where" visual relations became relatively easier with age and increased memory efficiency. The implications are discussed in terms of the development of visual processing in object recognition vs. position and motion encoding in the ventral ("what") and dorsal ("where") pathways respectively.

  20. Categories children find easy and difficult to process in figural analogies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E Stevenson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Analogical reasoning, the ability to learn about novel phenomena by relating it to structurally similar knowledge, develops with great variability in children. Furthermore, the development of analogical reasoning coincides with greater working memory efficiency and increasing knowledge of the objects and rules present in analogy problems. In figural matrices, a classical form of analogical reasoning assessment, some categories, such as color, appear easier for children to encode and infer than others, such as orientation. Yet, few studies have structurally examined differences in the difficulty of rule-types across different age-groups. This cross-sectional study of figural analogical reasoning examined which underlying rules in figural analogies were easier or more difficult for children to correctly process. School children (N=1422, M=7.0 years, SD=21 months, range 4.5-12.5 years were assessed in analogical reasoning using classical figural matrices and memory measures. The transformations the children had to induce and apply concerned the categories: animal, color, orientation, position, quantity and size. The role of age and memory span on the children’s ability to correctly process each type of transformation was examined using explanatory item response theory models. The results showed that with increasing age and/or greater memory span all transformations were processed more accurately. The what transformations animal, color, quantity and size were easiest, whereas the where transformations orientation and position were most difficult. However, animal, orientation and position became relatively easier with age and increased memory efficiency. The implications are discussed in terms of the development of visual processing in object recognition versus position and motion encoding, the ventral (what and dorsal (where pathways respectively.

  1. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  2. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  3. The effect of recognizability on figure-ground processing: does it affect parsing or only figure selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, David

    2011-03-01

    Though figure-ground assignment has been shown to be probably affected by recognizability, it appears sensible that object recognition must follow at least the earlier process of figure-ground segregation. To examine whether or not rudimentary object recognition could, counterintuitively, start even before the completion of the stage of parsing in which figure-ground segregation is done, participants were asked to respond, in a go/no-go fashion, whenever any out of 16 alternative connected patterns (that constituted familiar stimuli in the upright orientation) appeared. The white figure of the to-be-attended stimulus-target or foil-could be segregated from the white ambient ground only by means of a frame surrounding it. Such a frame was absent until the onset of target display. Then, to manipulate organizational quality, the greyness of the frame was either gradually increased from zero (in Experiment 1) or changed abruptly to a stationary level whose greyness was varied between trials (in Experiments 2 and 3). Stimulus recognizability was manipulated by orientation angle. In all three experiments the effect of recognizability was found to be considerably larger when organizational quality was minimal due to an extremely faint frame. This result is argued to be incompatible with any version of a serial thesis suggesting that processing aimed at object recognition starts only with a good enough level of organizational quality. The experiments rather provide some support to the claim, termed here "early interaction hypothesis", positing interaction between early recognition processing and preassignment parsing processes.

  4. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in Previously Shunted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brichtova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%. There were two serious complications (4.7%—one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.

  5. [Prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Basto-Abreu, Ana; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Zárate-Rojas, Emiliano; Villalpando, Salvador; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh

    2018-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 with previous national surveys and to describe treatment and its complications. Mexico's national surveys Ensa 2000, Ensanut 2006, 2012 and 2016 were used. For 2016, logistic regression models and measures of central tendency and dispersion were obtained. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 was 9.4%. The increase of 2.2% relative to 2012 was not significant and only observed in patients older than 60 years. While preventive measures have increased, the access to medical treatment and lifestyle has not changed. The treatment has been modified, with an increase in insulin and decrease in hypoglycaemic agents. Population aging, lack of screening actions and the increase in diabetes complications will lead to an increase on the burden of disease. Policy measures targeting primary and secondary prevention of diabetes are crucial.

  6. Figural medley: At the origins of XIXth Century anthropological portrait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Baldi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of the XIXth century, Europe, the United States and Russia witnessed a blossoming interest in the use of photography in the anthropological field, its specific use was not very clear and defined yet; as a consequence, its heuristic methodologies, technical shooting modalities, stylistic elements and figurative conventions were not clear either. We range goes from anthropometric photography to an ethnographic and folkloric portrait painting signed at the same time by anthropologists and travellers, professional photographers looking for exotic subjects, amateur photographers and soldiers who encourage a figural medley characterised by scientific, commercial and artistic veins that slowly finds its definition in some of its prevailing features, in primis those of the portrait with pictorial origins, however continuously declined and reinterpreted in several ways. In this context Anthropology seeks some links with aesthetics.

  7. Thermoelectric figure of merit of chiral carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, N.G.; Nkrumah-Buandoh, G.K.; Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Twum, A.K.

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectrical properties of chiral carbon nanotube and numerically evaluated the figure of merit. We observed that the properties are highly anisotropic and depend on the geometric chiral angle (GCA) θ h , temperature and the overlapping integrals (exchange energy) for the jumps along the tubular axis Δ z and the base helix Δ s . The thermopower α exhibited giant values with the peak occurring between 100 K and 150 K. The electron thermal conductivity showed unusually high value with the peaks shifting towards high temperature. We attribute the high peak values to electron-phonon interactions. Finally we noted that by changing the Δ s and Δ z it is possible to get a figure of merit greater than 1. (author)

  8. Border-ownership-dependent tilt aftereffect in incomplete figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Tadashi; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Sakai, Ko

    2007-01-01

    A recent physiological finding of neural coding for border ownership (BO) that defines the direction of a figure with respect to the border has provided a possible basis for figure-ground segregation. To explore the underlying neural mechanisms of BO, we investigated stimulus configurations that activate BO circuitry through psychophysical investigation of the BO-dependent tilt aftereffect (BO-TAE). Specifically, we examined robustness of the border ownership signal by determining whether the BO-TAE is observed when gestalt factors are broken. The results showed significant BO-TAEs even when a global shape was not explicitly given due to the ambiguity of the contour, suggesting a contour-independent mechanism for BO coding.

  9. Polarization preservation and control in a figure-8 ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Morozov, Vasiliy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Lin, Fanglei [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kondratenko, A. M. [GOO Zaryad, Russkaya st., 41, Novosibirsk, 630058; Kondratenko, M. A. [GOO Zaryad, Russkaya st., 41, Novosibirsk, 630058; Filatov, Yuri [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); GOO Zaryad, Russkaya st., 41, Novosibirsk, 630058

    2016-02-01

    We present a complete scheme for managing the polarization of ion beams in Jefferson Lab's proposed Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC). It provides preservation of the ion polarization during all stages of beam acceleration and polarization control in the collider's experimental straights. We discuss characteristic features of the spin motion in accelerators with Siberian snakes and in accelerators of figure-8 shape. We propose 3D spin rotators for polarization control in the MEIC ion collider ring. We provide polarization calculations in the collider with the 3D rotator for deuteron and proton beams. The main polarization control features of the figure-8 design are summarized.

  10. The Biomechanics of Cranial Forces During Figure Skating Spinning Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David H; Kostyun, Regina O; Solomito, Matthew J

    2015-03-01

    Several facets of figure skating, such as the forces associated with jumping and landing, have been evaluated, but a comprehensive biomechanical understanding of the cranial forces associated with spinning has yet to be explored. The purpose of this case study was to quantify the cranial rotational acceleration forces generated during spinning elements. This case report was an observational, biomechanical analysis of a healthy, senior-level, female figure skating athlete who is part of an on-going study. A triaxial accelerometer recorded the gravitational forces (G) during seven different spinning elements. Our results found that the layback spin generated significant cranial force and these forces were greater than any of the other spin elements recorded. These forces led to physical findings of ruptured capillaries, dizziness, and headaches in our participant.

  11. Constellation Stick Figures Convey Information about Gravity and Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Leod, David Matthew; Mc Leod, Roger David

    2008-10-01

    12/21/98, at America's Stonehenge, DMM detected, and drew, the full stick-figure equivalent of Canis Major, CM, as depicted by our Wolf Clan leaders, and many others. Profound, foundational physics is implied, since this occurred in the Watch House there, hours before the ``model rose.'' Similar configurations like Orion, Osiris of ancient Egypt, show that such figures are projected through solid parts of the Earth, as two-dimensional equivalents of the three-dimensional star constellations. Such ``sticks'' indicate that ``line equivalents'' connect the stars, and the physical mechanism projects outlines detectable by traditional cultures. We had discussed this ``flashlight'' effect, and recognized some of its implications. RDM states that the flashlight is a strong, distant neutrino source; the lines represent neutrinos longitudinally aligned in gravitational excitation, opaque, to earthbound, transient, transversely excited neutrinos. ``Sticks'' represent ``graviton'' detection. Neutrinos' longitudinal alignment accounts for the weakness of gravitational force.

  12. Local recurrence risk after previous salvage mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, M; Iwase, T; Okumura, Y; Yoshida, A; Masuda, N; Nakatsukasa, K; Shien, T; Tanaka, S; Komoike, Y; Taguchi, T; Arima, N; Nishimura, R; Inaji, H; Ishitobi, M

    2016-07-01

    Breast-conserving surgery is a standard treatment for early breast cancer. For ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving surgery, salvage mastectomy is the current standard surgical procedure. However, it is not rare for patients with IBTR who have received salvage mastectomy to develop local recurrence. In this study, we examined the risk factors of local recurrence after salvage mastectomy for IBTR. A total of 118 consecutive patients who had histologically confirmed IBTR without distant metastases and underwent salvage mastectomy without irradiation for IBTR between 1989 and 2008 were included from eight institutions in Japan. The risk factors of local recurrence were assessed. The median follow-up period from salvage mastectomy for IBTR was 4.6 years. Patients with pN2 or higher on diagnosis of the primary tumor showed significantly poorer local recurrence-free survival than those with pN0 or pN1 at primary tumor (p mastectomy for IBTR. Further research and validation studies are needed. (UMIN-CTR number UMIN000008136). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rumsey and Walker_AMT_2016_Figure 2.xlsx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figure summarizes uncertainty (error) in hourly gradient flux measurements by individual analyte. Flux uncertainty is derived from estimates of uncertainty in chemical gradients and turbulent transfer velocity.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Rumsey, I. Application of an online ion chromatography-based instrument for gradient flux measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 9(6): 2581-2592, (2016).

  14. Urban Regeneration Partnerships: A Figurational Critique of Governmentality Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lever, John

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a critique of governmentally inspired accounts of urban regeneration and partnership working. Drawing on the work of Norbert Elias and prominent figurational sociologists, it discusses the changes taking place within and through the many partnerships set up by New Labour around the notion of ‘community safety’. Although recognizing the important insights provided by accounts of urban regeneration emerging through studies of governmentality, the article argues that such a...

  15. An Overview of Human Figure Modeling for Army Aviation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    space reach and vision analyses, while others are used to examine biomechanics or strength issues, for example. Still other human figure modeling...identified that the crewstation design did not allow small pilots to reach the pedals and instrument panels. Small females were unable to view the...the ECLs; improved seat adjustment to allow access to the pedals and front instrument panels for small female aviators; and increased volume of space

  16. Die Figur des 'Wetteifers' und ihre Funktion in Kants Ethik

    OpenAIRE

    Schönwälder-Kuntze, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    Im Zentrum des Aufsatzes steht die systematische Funktion des ‚Wetteifers‛ in der praktischen Philosophie Kants. Zwar taucht der ‚Wetteifer‛ in vielfältigem Zusammenhang in Kants Anthropologischen Schriften auf, dennoch wird er in Bezug auf ethische Fragen selten in Betracht gezogen. Auch wenn es richtig ist, dass ‚Wetteifer‛ dort nicht im Sinne des marktwirtschaftlichen Wettbewerbs verwendet wird, handelt es sich doch strukturell um die gleiche interaktionsbasierte Figur – wie wir sie auch i...

  17. Figuring Futures: Early Asian American Mixed-Race Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Melissa Eriko

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines figurations of Asian mixed race during the long period of Asian exclusion and enforced anti-miscegenation in the United States, when racial mixing was legally proscribed. During this time of U.S. expansion into Asia, and of unprecedented Asian immigration into the United States, such proscription helped maintain normative white identity while rendering the Asian American mixed-race body illegible, making cultural production one of the few sites where Asian American ...

  18. Separating figure from ground with a parallel network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienker, P K; Sejnowski, T J; Hinton, G E; Schumacher, L E

    1986-01-01

    The differentiation of figure from ground plays an important role in the perceptual organization of visual stimuli. The rapidity with which we can discriminate the inside from the outside of a figure suggests that at least this step in the process may be performed in visual cortex by a large number of neurons in several different areas working together in parallel. We have attempted to simulate this collective computation by designing a network of simple processing units that receives two types of information: bottom-up input from the image containing the outlines of a figure, which may be incomplete, and a top-down attentional input that biases one part of the image to be the inside of the figure. No presegmentation of the image was assumed. Two methods for performing the computation were explored: gradient descent, which seeks locally optimal states, and simulated annealing, which attempts to find globally optimal states by introducing noise into the computation. For complete outlines, gradient descent was faster, but the range of input parameters leading to successful performance was very narrow. In contrast, simulated annealing was more robust: it worked over a wider range of attention parameters and a wider range of outlines, including incomplete ones. Our network model is too simplified to serve as a model of human performance, but it does demonstrate that one global property of outlines can be computed through local interactions in a parallel network. Some features of the model, such as the role of noise in escaping from nonglobal optima, may generalize to more realistic models.

  19. Figure-ground segmentation based on class-independent shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Yang; Liu, Guojun; Guo, Maozu

    2018-01-01

    We propose a method to generate figure-ground segmentation by incorporating shape priors into the graph-cuts algorithm. Given an image, we first obtain a linear representation of an image and then apply directional chamfer matching to generate class-independent, nonparametric shape priors, which provide shape clues for the graph-cuts algorithm. We then enforce shape priors in a graph-cuts energy function to produce object segmentation. In contrast to previous segmentation methods, the proposed method shares shape knowledge for different semantic classes and does not require class-specific model training. Therefore, the approach obtains high-quality segmentation for objects. We experimentally validate that the proposed method outperforms previous approaches using the challenging PASCAL VOC 2010/2012 and Berkeley (BSD300) segmentation datasets.

  20. Francis Bacon: The Real's Brutality. The Figure and the Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Mannucci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Getting in front of painting by Francis Bacon touches you deeply. I’m talking about aesthetics, sensations: resounding flow that strikes abruptly, making futile any search for meaning. Francis Bacon circumvents the figurative, the meaning, he aims to the figural: to feelings, not words. Beauty, in his paintings, shows itself in the peaceful union of the positive and of its contrary; if the negative wasn’t there, though, his paintings wouldn’t exude such a brutal sense of reality. This essay investigates the figure of Francis Bacon and the spectator – the Other – as he tries to confront the painting. Bacon will be analysed using a purely phenomenological approach, with references that range from Merleau-Ponty to Martin Heidegger; the meeting-collision between the spectator and the painting, instead, will be examined taking inspiration from the Winnicott’s thesis on the relationship between Bacon and mirrors in the painter’s childhood. In order to take distance from Winnicott’s psychoanalytical approach, this essay will focus on the relationship between spectator and painting from a more anthropological point of view. 

  1. Figuring out’ in science and the humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Martella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to enquire into the notion of change in figures of speech, concepts, topics, and technical instruments-models when they are “travelling” through different milieus, contexts, systems or disciplines. I conceive of this travelling as a basic exchange of energy/information, amounting to an event which can reshape a given field of experience. My argument is based on the premise that our experience happens at multiple levels and areas, and develops along different phases, which imperceptibly flow into each other and bear at times barely decipherable traces of the events that have constituted them. The processes happening at a different level from that of present perception can only be conceived of as infractions of the world tissue and of the related universe of discourse. Therefore in any field of enquiry the process of discovery can develop only through figures of discourse. My thesis is that, at the present stage of techno-science, Scriptural Figurality, which constitutes the basis of both Western epistemology and hermeneutics, is superseded and has to be replaced by a new hypermedial rhetoric, capable to cope with complexity, infraction and emergence, both in science and the humanities.

  2. Figure-ground segregation in a recurrent network architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Pieter R; Lamme, Victor A F; Spekreijse, Henk; Bosch, Holger

    2002-05-15

    Here we propose a model of how the visual brain segregates textured scenes into figures and background. During texture segregation, locations where the properties of texture elements change abruptly are assigned to boundaries, whereas image regions that are relatively homogeneous are grouped together. Boundary detection and grouping of image regions require different connection schemes, which are accommodated in a single network architecture by implementing them in different layers. As a result, all units carry signals related to boundary detection as well as grouping of image regions, in accordance with cortical physiology. Boundaries yield an early enhancement of network responses, but at a later point, an entire figural region is grouped together, because units that respond to it are labeled with enhanced activity. The model predicts which image regions are preferentially perceived as figure or as background and reproduces the spatio-temporal profile of neuronal activity in the visual cortex during texture segregation in intact animals, as well as in animals with cortical lesions.

  3. A COMPARISON OF PAIRS FIGURE SKATERS IN REPEATED JUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Sands

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trends in pairs figure skating have shown that increasingly difficult jumps have become an essential aspect of high-level performance, especially in the latter part of a competitive program. We compared a repeated jump power index in a 60 s repeated jump test to determine the relationship of repeated jump test to competitive rank and to measure 2D hip, knee, and ankle angles and angular velocities at 0, 20, 40, and 60 s. Eighteen National Team Pairs Figure Skaters performed a 60 s repeated jump test on a large switch-mat with timing of flight and ground durations and digital video recording. Each 60-s period was divided into 6, 10-s intervals, with power indexes (W/kg calculated for each 10-s interval. Power index by 10-s interval repeated measures ANOVAs (RMANOVA showed that males exceeded females at all intervals, and the highest power index interval was during 10 to 20 s for both sexes. RMANOVAs of angles and angular velocities showed main effects for time only. Power index and jumping techniques among figure skaters showed rapid and steady declines over the test duration. Power index can predict approximately 50% of competitive rank variance, and sex differences in jumping technique were rare

  4. Mitotic Figure Recognition: Agreement among Pathologists and Computerized Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Malon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prognostic importance of mitotic count as one of the components of the Bloom – Richardson grade [3], several studies ([2, 9, 10] have found that pathologists’ agreement on the mitotic grade is fairly modest. Collecting a set of more than 4,200 candidate mitotic figures, we evaluate pathologists' agreement on individual figures, and train a computerized system for mitosis detection, comparing its performance to the classifications of three pathologists. The system’s and the pathologists’ classifications are based on evaluation of digital micrographs of hematoxylin and eosin stained breast tissue. On figures where the majority of pathologists agree on a classification, we compare the performance of the trained system to that of the individual pathologists. We find that the level of agreement of the pathologists ranges from slight to moderate, with strong biases, and that the system performs competitively in rating the ground truth set. This study is a step towards automatic mitosis count to accelerate a pathologist's work and improve reproducibility.

  5. A figurative proverb test for dementia: rapid detection of disinhibition, excuse and confabulation, causing discommunication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Maki, Yohko; Yamaguchi, Tomoharu

    2011-12-01

    Communicative disability is regarded as a prominent symptom of demented patients, and many studies have been devoted to analyze deficits of lexical-semantic operations in demented patients. However, it is often observed that even patients with preserved lexical-semantic skills might fail in interactive social communication. Whereas social interaction requires pragmatic language skills, pragmatic language competencies in demented subjects have not been well understood. We propose here a brief stress-free test to detect pragmatic language deficits, focusing on non-literal understanding of figurative expression. We hypothesized that suppression of the literal interpretation was required for figurative language interpretation.  We examined 69 demented subjects, 13 subjects with mild cognitive impairment and 61 healthy controls aged 65 years or more. The subjects were asked the meaning of a familiar proverb categorized as a figurative expression. The answers were analyzed based on five factors, and scored from 0 to 5. To consider the influence of cognitive inhibition on proverb comprehension, the scores of the Stroop Colour-Word Test were compared concerning correct and incorrect answers for each factor, respectively. Furthermore, the characteristics of answers were considered in the light of excuse and confabulation qualitatively. The proverb comprehension scores gradually decreased significantly as dementia progressed. The literal interpretation of the proverb, which showed difficulties in figurative language comprehension, was related to disinhibition. The qualitative analysis showed that excuse and confabulation increased as the dementia stage progressed. Deficits in cognitive inhibition partly explains the difficulties in interactive social communication in dementia. With qualitative analysis, asking the meaning of a proverb can be a brief test applied in a clinical setting to evaluate the stage of dementia, and to illustrate disinhibition, confabulation and

  6. A Comparative Study of the Figures of Speech between Top 50 English and Persian Pop Song Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Farshid Tayari; Derakhshesh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a corpus-based comparative discourse analysis of top fifty pop English and Persian song lyrics in 2014 to investigate the production of four figures of speech including metaphor, simile, personification, and hyperbole. The English corpus was compiled from the End-Year 2014 Chart of Billboard and the Persian corpus was complied from…

  7. On-orbit figure sensing and figure correction control for 0.5 arc-second adjustable X-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul

    changed constantly at several cycles/sec (active). In our approach, the mirror figure is corrected based on ground measurements, accounting for figure errors due to mirror manufacturing, mounting induced deformations, modeled gravity release, and modeled on-orbit thermal effects. The piezoelectric strain monitoring we seek to develop in this program extends adjustable mirror technology development, as it enables efficient adjustment and correction of mirror figure on-orbit, as required. This unprecedented level of system robustness will make telescopes less expensive to build because requirements for the non-optical systems can be looser, and it will also make the system more resistant to degradation, promoting mission success. The largest drivers for changes from ground calibration to on-orbit performance are piezoelectric material aging and an unexpected thermal environment (i.e., larger gradients than modeled or other thermal control system problem). Developing the capability to accurately monitor the health of each piezoelectric cell and the local mirror surface temperature will enable the real time sensing of any of these potential issues, help determine the cause, and enable corrections via updating models of on-orbit conditions and re-optimizing the required piezoelectric cell voltages for mirror figure correction. Our 3 year research program includes the development of the strain monitoring technology, its deposition on the adjustable optics, modeling and performance simulation, accelerated lifetime testing, and optical and electrical metrology of sample adjustable optics that incorporate monitoring sensors. Development of the capability to remotely monitor piezo performance and temperature to necessary precision will vastly improve reliability of the SMART-X mission concept, or the sub-arc-second X-ray Surveyor mission described in the 2013 NASA Astrophysics Roadmap, Enduring Quests Daring Visions.

  8. How Iconic Figures Influence Thinking ? : Comparison of University and Lower Secondary Students

    OpenAIRE

    添田, 佳伸; 藤井, 良宜

    1992-01-01

    In learning geometry we often use iconic figures to give children conditions and questions in word problems. But the figure becomes an object of thinking after finishing plaing the role of giving some information. Children think the problem by using the given figure. If figures influence chidren's thinking, a rate of correct answer of each problem must be different according to being presented each figure. ### Thus we investigated the differences of rates of correct answer by using three type...

  9. NucNet's growing impact on the media - Now the official figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, Jack; Lewis, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Net's impact on the news media has had to be almost completely anecdotal. Now, thanks to a comparatively new database search facility, the NucNet Central Office team is able to track instances in which NucNet has been quoted as the source for a news story or magazine article. The database is run by Reuters, but contains information from a wide range of other news sources, such as national news agencies and major national newspapers. A search of the database, carried out on December 10th 1997, produced 42 cases of NucNet being quoted by name over the previous three years. There were five in 1995, 13 in 1996, and 24 in 1997. No fewer than 15 of the 24 cases in 1997 occurred in the preceding six months. It takes no great mathematician to see that each annual figure is roughly double that of the preceding 12-month period. We can at least see every instance of NucNet being quoted by Reuters, but this of course does not cover the other major international news agencies, such as the Associated Press, UPI and AFP. This underlines the fact that NucNet Central Office and the NucNet Board rely heavily on individual network members spontaneously reporting examples of media use. The results obtained recently, showing regular and fairly frequent use by Reuters and the print media, but the figures do not give the full picture. If the database, known as Reuters Business Briefing, acts as some sort of barometer measuring NucNet's impact on the news media, we cannot say exactly what the weather is like - but at least we can say that the barometer reading is on the increase. And for once we can give definite figures. (author)

  10. Attachment figures when death is approaching: a study applying attachment theory to adult patients' and family members' experiences during palliative home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milberg, Anna; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2017-07-01

    Attachment theory is currently receiving much attention in relation to how adults cope with severe illness. The study aims were using the experiences of patients and family members to explore attachment figures (a central concept within the theory) during palliative home care. Twelve patients and 14 family members were interviewed during ongoing palliative home care. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Four types of attachment figures were identified: (i) family and friends, (ii) health care practitioners, (iii) pets and (iv) God. Both non-physical and physical contact with the attachment figures facilitated a sense of security. In addition, the patient/family members and their attachment figures were described by some as a "we", and when one part of the "we" felt insecure, this made the other also feel insecure. The patients' unstable and progressing illnesses constituted a threat to the patients' and family members' sense of security. The availability of the attachment figures made them feel secure, and they could then divert their attention from the patients' illnesses to other things in everyday life, e.g. socialising with family and friends. Some family members also had to cope with the loss of their own attachment figure, when the patient, who had previously been a source of security for them, was no longer able to offer protection and comfort due to the progression of the illness. Important aspects of attachment figures in the end-of-life context were identified, and their clinical implications will be discussed.

  11. Figure-ground representation and its decay in primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, Lars; Lavell, Cheryl; Vilis, Tutis

    2012-04-01

    We used fMRI to study figure-ground representation and its decay in primary visual cortex (V1). Human observers viewed a motion-defined figure that gradually became camouflaged by a cluttered background after it stopped moving. V1 showed positive fMRI responses corresponding to the moving figure and negative fMRI responses corresponding to the static background. This positive-negative delineation of V1 "figure" and "background" fMRI responses defined a retinotopically organized figure-ground representation that persisted after the figure stopped moving but eventually decayed. The temporal dynamics of V1 "figure" and "background" fMRI responses differed substantially. Positive "figure" responses continued to increase for several seconds after the figure stopped moving and remained elevated after the figure had disappeared. We propose that the sustained positive V1 "figure" fMRI responses reflected both persistent figure-ground representation and sustained attention to the location of the figure after its disappearance, as did subjects' reports of persistence. The decreasing "background" fMRI responses were relatively shorter-lived and less biased by spatial attention. Our results show that the transition from a vivid figure-ground percept to its disappearance corresponds to the concurrent decay of figure enhancement and background suppression in V1, both of which play a role in form-based perceptual memory.

  12. Authoring the identity of learner before doctor in the figured world of medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbing, Evangeline; Helmich, Esther; Cleland, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    Students enter the 'figured world' of medical school with preconceptions of what it means to be a doctor. The meeting of these early preconceptions and their newly developing identities can create emotional tensions. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of how such tensions were experienced and managed. Using figured worlds as a theoretical framework we explored students' interactions of preconceptions with their newly developing professional identities in their first year at medical school. Advancing our understanding of this phenomena provided new insights into the complex process of identity formation. This was a qualitative study underpinned by a constructivist epistemology. We ran biannual focus groups with 23 first year students in one UK medical school. Data were recorded, transcribed and then template analysis used to undertake an inductive, iterative process of analysis until it was considered the template provided a detailed representation of the data. Significant preconceptions associated with the identity of a doctor were 'to help' and 'to be a leader'. These early preconceptions were in conflict with realities of the figured world of medical school creating the emotional tensions of 'being unable to help' and 'lacking power', with implications for interactions with patients. By the end of year one students' negotiated tensions and 'self-authored' their identity as a learner as opposed to an imagined 'as if' identity of a doctor. We revealed how preconceptions associated with becoming a doctor can conflict with a newly developing professional identity highlighting the importance of supporting students to embrace the formation of a 'learner' identity, a necessary part of the process of becoming a doctor.

  13. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  14. Corneal perforation after conductive keratoplasty with previous refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymionis, George D; Titze, Patrik; Markomanolakis, Marinos M; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2003-12-01

    A 56-year-old woman had conductive keratoplasty (CK) for residual hyperopia and astigmatism. Three years before the procedure, the patient had arcuate keratotomy, followed by laser in situ keratomileusis 2 years later for high astigmatism correction in both eyes. During CK, a corneal perforation occurred in the right eye; during the postoperative examination, an iris perforation and anterior subcapsule opacification were seen beneath the perforation site. The perforation was managed with a bandage contact lens and an antibiotic-steroid ointment; it had a negative Seidel sign by the third day. The surgery in the left eye was uneventful. Three months after the procedure, the uncorrected visual acuity was 20/32 and the best corrected visual acuity 20/20 in both eyes with a significant improvement in corneal topography. Care must be taken to prevent CK-treated spots from coinciding with areas in the corneal stroma that might have been altered by previous refractive procedures.

  15. [Fatal amnioinfusion with previous choriocarcinoma in a parturient woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrgović, Z; Bukovic, D; Mrcela, M; Hrgović, I; Siebzehnrübl, E; Karelovic, D

    2004-04-01

    The case of 36-year-old tercipare is described who developed choriocharcinoma in a previous pregnancy. During the first term labour the patient developed cardiac arrest, so reanimation and sectio cesarea was performed. A male new-born was delivered in good condition, but even after intensive therapy and reanimation occurred death of parturient woman with picture of disseminate intravascular coagulopathia (DIK). On autopsy and on histology there was no sign of malignant disease, so it was not possible to connect previous choricarcinoma with amniotic fluid embolism. Maybe was place of choriocarcinoma "locus minoris resistentiae" which later resulted with failure in placentation what was hard to prove. On autopsy we found embolia of lung with a microthrombosis of terminal circulation with punctiformis bleeding in mucous, what stands for DIK.

  16. Figure-ground processing during fixational saccades in V1: indication for higher-order stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Ariel; Pesoa, Yair; Ayzenshtat, Inbal; Slovin, Hamutal

    2014-02-26

    In a typical visual scene we continuously perceive a "figure" that is segregated from the surrounding "background" despite ongoing microsaccades and small saccades that are performed when attempting fixation (fixational saccades [FSs]). Previously reported neuronal correlates of figure-ground (FG) segregation in the primary visual cortex (V1) showed enhanced activity in the "figure" along with suppressed activity in the noisy "background." However, it is unknown how this FG modulation in V1 is affected by FSs. To investigate this question, we trained two monkeys to detect a contour embedded in a noisy background while simultaneously imaging V1 using voltage-sensitive dyes. During stimulus presentation, the monkeys typically performed 1-3 FSs, which displaced the contour over the retina. Using eye position and a 2D analytical model to map the stimulus onto V1, we were able to compute FG modulation before and after each FS. On the spatial cortical scale, we found that, after each FS, FG modulation follows the stimulus retinal displacement and "hops" within the V1 retinotopic map, suggesting visual instability. On the temporal scale, FG modulation is initiated in the new retinotopic position before it disappeared from the old retinotopic position. Moreover, the FG modulation developed faster after an FS, compared with after stimulus onset, which may contribute to visual stability of FG segregation, along the timeline of stimulus presentation. Therefore, despite spatial discontinuity of FG modulation in V1, the higher-order stability of FG modulation along time may enable our stable and continuous perception.

  17. Vacuum-Flex Figuring of Primary Telescope Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, E. F. M.

    2004-12-01

    In the current investigation, details on the construction and performance of a vacuum-flexed (i.e., figured) 51 cm (20-inch) mirror, with a fast f/4 focal ratio, are presented. A vacuum has the chief advantage of being able to pull with a uniform or isotropic stress across a large surface area, which will naturally form a parabolic surface. The essence of the idea is to grind and polish a spherical mirror and then warp or flex it into a near perfect paraboloid, thus avoiding tedious figuring altogether. To date, telescope makers around the globe have experimented with small flexed mirrors with considerable success. In these instances, mirrors have been flexed by exerting tension on a bolt or sponge-pad adhered to the back of the mirror. The prototype mirror consists of two 51 cm disks of plate glass -- each slumped to an f/4 focal ratio. The front-plate (19 mm in thickness) is separated from the back-plate (13 mm in thickness) back a flexible 9.5 mm air filled gasket. Although the rubber gasket makes a fairly good vacuum seal, silicon cement was placed about the outer edge in order to produce a perfectly tight seal. A vacuum of 8 kPa on the back of the mirror resulted in approximately 164 kilograms of negative pressure, which is required to flex the mirror into the required paraboloid. Ronchi test show a nice smooth paraboloid free from astigmatism while foucault zonal measurements display a figure better than 1/20 wave. Preliminary star testing show promising results as well. Vacuum-flexed mirrors may have benefits for both amateur and professional telescope makers alike. A US patent is pending on the aforementioned design.

  18. Mechanisms of time-based figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Farid I; Fahle, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal information, that is, on short temporal delays between positional changes of elements in figure and ground (Kandil, F.I. & Fahle, M. (2001) Eur. J. Neurosci., 13, 2004-2008). Here, we investigate the underlying mechanisms by measuring temporal segregation thresholds for various kinds of motion cues. Segregation can rely on monocular first-order motion (based on luminance modulation) and second-order motion cues (contrast modulation) with a high temporal resolution of approximately 20 ms. The mechanism can also use isoluminant motion with a reduced temporal resolution of 60 ms. Figure-ground segregation can be achieved even at presentation frequencies too high for human subjects to inspect successive frames individually. In contrast, when stimuli are presented dichoptically, i.e. separately to both eyes, subjects are unable to perceive any segregation, irrespective of temporal frequency. We propose that segregation in these displays is detected by a mechanism consisting of at least two stages. On the first level, standard motion or flicker detectors signal local positional changes (flips). On the second level, a segregation mechanism combines the local activities of the low-level detectors with high temporal precision. Our findings suggest that the segregation mechanism can rely on monocular detectors but not on binocular mechanisms. Moreover, the results oppose the idea that segregation in these displays is achieved by motion detectors of a higher order (motion-from-motion), but favour mechanisms sensitive to short temporal delays even without activation of higher-order motion detectors.

  19. The age-related changes in figural perceptual abilities of pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Blagoje V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a part of a broader research in the field of development of different intellectual abilities in primary schools. Using a transverse - longitudinal research strategy, the pupils from nine to fifteen years of age are observed in order to find answers to the following questions: 1 Do the important developmental changes in the figural-perceptual abilities occur in this developmental period? 2 Is the pace of changes in these abilities the same at all ages, grades? 3 Do the developmental changes in these abilities depend on the type of tests, that is, mental operations which register the applied tests? Figural-perceptual abilities are defined as the ability to identify the elements in space, to imagine and transform the elements in space, the ability for spatial reasoning, perceptual shaping flexibility, the ability of eduction of relations and correlates, the ability to identify the elements that are injected into the right material, the ability to notice the difference in the forms and dimensions of the characters, speed observations of similarities and differences between elements in the field of perception. The measurement (assessment of these abilities was performed with the help of 11 tests of intellectual abilities of the figural content. The individual progresses as baseline data were used for the data analysis. The progresses of the subjects were compared with the analysis and the results are the following: 1 The pupils from third to eighth grade showed positive changes in the figurative perceptive abilities. This is shown in all the tests that were used and progresses are statistically significant in all tests 2 There is a tendency that the pupils in the sixth grade made the best progress, and the seventh-grade pupils made the least progress. 3 However, when the progresses are compared in certain tests, then significant differences in the pace of development of these abilities are determined. Namely, the pupils in the higher

  20. Influential psychotherapy figures, authors, and books: An Internet survey of over 2,000 psychotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Joan M; Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C

    2009-03-01

    In a partial replication and extension of a survey conducted 25 years ago (Smith, 1982), over 2,400 North American psychotherapists completed a Web-based survey in which they identified prominent figures in the psychotherapy field who have most influenced their practice and the best psychotherapy books they had read in the past 3 years. There is a continued prominence to leaders of the field from 25 years ago but who are now deceased, notably the top-ranked Carl Rogers. Three books on the top-10 list represent empirically supported therapies (ESTs); two are treatment manuals for an EST, and one is a self-help book derived from an EST that has itself been shown to be efficacious bibliotherapy. Differences between psychologist and nonpsychologist therapists in the choice of influential figures, authors, and books are negligible. Implications are discussed in terms of the contemporary context into which therapeutic innovations are disseminated, as well as the conditions that may be necessary for successful dissemination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Magnetothermoelectric figure of merit of Co/Cu multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, X. K., E-mail: xiukun.hu@ptb.de; Krzysteczko, P.; Liebing, N.; Schumacher, H. W. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Serrano-Guisan, S. [International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, 4715-330 Braga (Portugal); Rott, K.; Reiss, G. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Kimling, J.; Böhnert, T.; Nielsch, K. [Institut für Angewandte Physik, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstraße 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-03-03

    The switching of the magnetic configuration of giant magnetoresistance multilayers not only changes the electrical and thermal conductivities but also the thermopower. We study the magnetotransport and the magnetothermoelectric properties of Co/Cu multilayer devices in a lateral thermal gradient. The Seebeck coefficient reaches values up to −18 μV/K at room temperature and shows a magnetic field dependence up to 28.6% upon spin reversal. In combination with thermal conductivity data of the same Co/Cu stack, we find a magnetothermoelectric figure of merit of up to 65%. Furthermore, a magneto-power factor of up to 110% is derived.

  2. The use of rhetorical figures in political marketing in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    İlgün, Ayşe

    2005-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, i -- SUMMARY, ii -- CONTENTS, vi -- LIST OF FIGURES, ix -- LIST OF T ABLES, x -- 1. INTRODUCTION, 1 -- 1.0. Overview, 1 -- 1.1. The Title of the Study, 1 -- 1.2. The Scope of the Study, 1 -- 1.3. The Purpose and Research Rationale, 1 -- 1.4. The Research Methodology, 2 -- 1.5. Sources of Data, 2 -- 1.6. Benefits Expected from the Thesis, 2 -- 1.7. Limits of the Thesis, 3 -- 1.8. Structure of the Thesis, 3 -- 2. POLITICAL MARKETING, 5 -- 2.0. Overview, 5 -- 2.1. Theoretical Ba...

  3. Reversing the attention effect in figure-ground perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liqiang; Pashler, Harold

    2009-10-01

    Human visual perception is sometimes ambiguous, switching between different perceptual structures, and shifts of attention sometimes favor one perceptual structure over another. It has been proposed that, in figure-ground segmentation, attention to certain regions tends to cause those regions to be perceived as closer to the observer. Here, we show that this attention effect can be reversed under certain conditions. To account for these phenomena, we propose an alternative principle: The visual system chooses the interpretation that maximizes simplicity of the attended regions.

  4. Criteria for eliminating items of a Test of Figural Analogies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Blum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the steps taken to eliminate two of the items in a Test of Figural Analogies (TFA. The main guidelines of psychometric analysis concerning Classical Test Theory (CTT and Item Response Theory (IRT are explained. The item elimination process was based on both the study of the CTT difficulty and discrimination index, and the unidimensionality analysis. The a, b, and c parameters of the Three Parameter Logistic Model of IRT were also considered for this purpose, as well as the assessment of each item fitting this model. The unfavourable characteristics of a group of TFA items are detailed, and decisions leading to their possible elimination are discussed.

  5. Figure del desiderio: l'amore fra distruzione e sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Franzone

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Attraverso due racconti di Cortázar, l'analisi di due figure del desiderio ci permette esplorare due estremi seguendo una verticalità. La distruzione, doppio tenebroso della nostra anima, ci rivela un erotismo legato alla morte e al desiderio morboso di possedere l'Altro; il suo contraltare è un'ascesa vertiginosa accompagnata da un godimento estetico, dall'amore sublime prossimo all'esperienza mistica che si concluderà con una discesa progressiva e nel rispetto di questo Altro. La creazione letteraria si presenta come uno sfogo alle nostre angosce, che sono anche una sorta d'espressione dell'erotismo.

  6. Figures of merit for measuring aging management program effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, R.; Sciacca, F.; Walsh, R.; Zigler, G.

    1991-01-01

    One of the requirements for nuclear plant license renewal may be the establishment and demonstration of an effective aging management program. An analysis of both qualitative and quantitative information will be required to define the contents of this aging management program. The authors propose two quantitative figures of merit, Mean Event Detection Frequency and Mean Renewal Rate, that can be used to compare the effectiveness of various inspection, surveillance, test, and monitoring (ISTM) activities for aging mitigation. An example showing the relative effectiveness of an enhanced Loose Parts Monitoring System with current ISTM activities for steam generators and reactor internals is provided. (author)

  7. The Anadyomene Movement: metamorphics of figure-ground

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Figure-ground’ is about the production of meaning based on the perception of contrasts or binary oppositions and segregations. Viewers of my paintings, and of the kind of paintings that interest me, have the impression that the ‘figure’ subsides or slips or fades into ‘ground’, or that the ‘ground’ is more powerful or dominant than the‘figure’, or that the ‘figure’ is insecurely attached, suggesting it is incapable, unwilling, too acquiescent or complicit to fully differentiate itself from t...

  8. The previous Common Agricultural Policy (2003-2013) reduced french agricultural emissions. Climate Brief no. 49

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudrier, Mathilde; Foucherot, Claudine; Bellassen, Valentin

    2015-04-01

    In September 2013, European institutions ratified the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy for 2014-2020 with new targets for combating climate change, making these an official goal for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). However the CAP's impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions did not begin in 2014, even if it was previously ancillary to measures focusing on other targets. This Climate Report assesses emissions avoided and induced by the 2003-2013 CAP based on CAP measures modified in France over the period. A list of 20 major measures was drawn up. These met the following three criteria: The measure potentially has an impact on GHG emissions; The annual budget allocated to the measure is more than euro 20 million a year; The measure was created or modified between 2003 and 2013 Their positive or negative impact on GHG emissions was then estimated at a unitary level (per hectare, animal, square metre of greenhouse, etc.), on a national scale (MtCO 2 e per year) and relative to the quantity produced (tCO 2 e per litre of milk, quintal of wheat, etc.). Almost all these measures encourage emissions reduction, whatever the metric considered: tCO 2 e per hectare or per quantity of product. In just under half of cases, however, the incentive is not considered to be effective, with the data (e.g. surface area of grasslands, quantity of animals, etc.) moving in the opposite direction from the expected effects of the measure. The effects from the other half of measures is estimated at more than 2 million tCO 2 e per year, or around 2% of emissions from the agri-supply, agriculture and agri-food (AAA) sectors in 2011. Two-thirds of these reductions can be attributed to three types of measures: incentives for sustainable use of inputs (green environment plan, energy performance plan, training, etc.), agri-environmental grassland premium and coupled support for grain legumes. The main purpose of these calculations is to spark a debate. The assumptions underlying

  9. Do Computers Improve the Drawing of a Geometrical Figure for 10 Year-Old Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Perrine; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, computer aided design (CAD) is widely used by designers. Would children learn to draw more easily and more efficiently if they were taught with computerised tools? To answer this question, we made an experiment designed to compare two methods for children to do the same drawing: the classical "pen and paper" method and a CAD…

  10. Beyond Parity in Figures: The Challenges in Reality of Municipal Women Councillors in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmé Dominguez R.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia is a country that has advanced substantially regarding women’s representation in politics. In fact, at a global level, Bolivia rivals Rwanda at both the national and local representation levels. This is particularly true at the local level where several women from all social conditions and ethnicity groups have become the majority of municipal councillors, even though women mayors are still a rarity. However, parity in figures does not mean parity in reality. Many of these women councillors face hard realities impregnated with discrimination and harassment of all sorts. Moreover, some mechanisms—like the rotation principle designed to increase participation and democracy—have been turned against many of these women councillors. Based on a field work using interviews and participant observation as well as findings of previous relevant works, this article discusses these problems and offers an analysis as to the causes of such a situation where parity in figures is not reflected in shared power and equal respect in the daily realities at the local level.

  11. Constructions of the patient in healthcare communications: six patient figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how strategic, patient-centred communication plays a part in the discursive management of expectations posed to patients and healthcare organizations. The paper provides an analysis of four documents collected as part of an ethnographic case study regarding "The Perspective of the Patient" - a Danish Hospital's patient-centred communication programme. Mapping methods inspired by Grounded Theory are used to qualify the analysis. The paper shows that strategic patient-centred communication addresses both a care-oriented approach to the patient and deploys market perceptions of patients. Market and care is seen as co-existing organizing modes that entail expectations to the patient. In the communication programme the patient is constructed in six information-seeking patient figures: affective patient; target group patient; citizen with rights; patient as a competent resource; user as active partner; and consumer. As a result, the patient-centred communication programme renders the patient as a flexible figure able to fit organizational demands of both care orientation and market concerns. This study contributes to qualitative research in organizational health communication by combining two subfields - patient-centredness and health communication - in an empirical study of how market and care are intertwined in a patient-centred communication programme. The argument goes beyond the prevalent prescriptive approaches to patient-centredness and healthcare communication, instead providing a critical analytical perspective on strategic communication and patient-centredness and showing how expectations are posed to both patient and organization.

  12. A new principle of figure-ground segregation: The accentuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam; Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Deiana, Katia

    2018-02-01

    The problem of perceptual organization was studied by Gestalt psychologists in terms of figure-ground segregation. In this paper we explore a new principle of figure-ground segregation: accentuation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of accentuation relative to other Gestalt principles, and also consider it autonomous as it can agree with or oppose them. We consider three dynamic aspects of the principle, namely: attraction, accentuation and assignment. Each creature needs to attract, fascinate, seduce, draw attention (e.g., a mate or a prey animal) or distract, refuse, dissuade, discourage, repulse (e.g., a predator). Similarly, each organism needs to accentuate, highlight, stress, underline, emphasize or distract from another. Thus, accentuation assigns meaning to a visual pattern such as a coat, a plumage or a flower. False eyes (ocelli) and dots (diematic patterns) demonstrate "deceiving camouflage by accentuation" that confuses predators/preys and hides or highlights vital body parts (butterflies/flowers). They also display the deceiving appearance and exhibition of biological fitness. The same accents may serve different or even opposite goals. We conclude that accentuation improves the adaptive fitness of organisms in multifarious ways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surreal and Canny Selves: Photographic Figures in Claude Cahun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Zachmann

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In her 1975 essay, Le Rire de la méduse , Hélène Cixous enthusiastically announced that it was high time for women to enter into discourse. A full half-century earlier, Claude Cahun (1894-1954, a powerful writer and a haunting photographer and artist, was already inscribing herself, Woman, and a woman's voice in visual and verbal self-portraits, photomontages, prose texts, poetry, and aesthetic and political treatises. Cahun's uncanny interventions in both verbal and visual discourse cannily interrogate conventions of literary and pictorial representation and the constructions of self, gender and culture that they exhibit. Insistently asking readers and spectators, "What's wrong with this picture?," her carnivalesque play with the doxa and the politics of identity, destabilizes not only gender and genre norms, but the boundaries and distinctions between visual and verbal representation. Surreal and Canny Selves explores the aesthetic frameworks of writer/artist Claude Cahun. Elucidating how Cahun's questioning of her self and Surrealist representations of woman were part of a much more expansive adventure that questioned more than femininity—the manuscript moves on to trace how and what Cahun's foregrounding of figuration and, more specifically, photographic figuration, might signify for the uncanny aesthetic practices deployed in the hybrid text Aveux non avenus .

  14. The enigmatic figure of Dr Henry Maudsley (1835-1918).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelidou, Maria; Demetriades, Andreas K

    2014-08-01

    In spite of his contribution to psychiatry in 19th century Britain, Henry Maudsley remains a mysterious figure, a man mostly known for his donation to the London County Council for the building of the Maudsley Hospital and for The Maudsley Annual Lecture created in honour of his benevolence. Besides Sir Aubrey Lewis' article in 1951 and Michael Collie's attempt in 1988 to construct a biographical study on Maudsley, there does not seem to be any current endeavour to tell the story of his life, whereas Trevor Turner's contribution to the 2004 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography gives a somewhat scathing but unattributed account of Maudsley's personality. This essay attempts to explore his contributions to the Medico-Psychological Association (MPA), the current Royal College of Psychiatrists, his editorship of the Journal of Mental Health (currently named the British Journal of Psychiatry), his literary contributions and his vision for a psychiatric hospital. This essay is an attempt to demystify his figure and to explore some of the rumours and criticisms surrounding his name and the reasons why so little has been written about him. It is also a venture to unravel his complex personality and his intricate philosophy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Climate, air and energy - Release 2015 - Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    After an indication of some remarkable key figures (general data, data about office building, housing, industries, renewable energies, wastes, transports, agriculture and forests, and households, indication of some French and European objectives for 2020 and 2030), and a table containing indications of some international official texts (Kyoto protocol and its amendment, European directives) and of their content and scope (bio-fuels in transports, energy efficiency, buildings, labelling and eco-design, transports, renewable energies, energy and climate, greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation, air quality, wastes), and national texts (laws, plans) regarding the same issues, this publication presents figures and data under the form of graphs and tables to illustrate their evolution. They are general data on energy consumptions and intensities (data per sector and per country in Europe), markets and jobs related to renewable energies, certificates of energy saving, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, regional data for France. The other chapters present large sets of graphs and tables of relevant data concerning housing buildings, office buildings, transports, industries, agriculture and forests, renewable energies and heat networks, wastes, and households. Generally, these data are presented in terms of evolution since the 1970's or the 1990's. They propose a detailed analytical point of view of the various energy and energy-related issues in these different sectors and fields

  16. The Emergence of Figural Effects in the Watercolor Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Penna, Maria Pietronilla

    The watercolor illusion is characterized by a large-scale assimilative color spreading (coloration effect) emanating from thin colored edges. The watercolor illusion enhances the figural properties of the colored areas and imparts to the surrounding area the perceptual status of background. This work explores interactions between cortical boundary and surface processes by presenting displays and psychophysical experiments that exhibit new properties of the watercolor illusion. The watercolor illusion is investigated as supporting a new principle of figure-ground organization when pitted against principles of surroundedness, relative orientation, and Prägnanz. The work demonstrated that the watercolor illusion probes a unique combination of visual processes that set it apart from earlier Gestalt principles, and can compete successfully against them. This illusion exemplifies how long-range perceptual effects may be triggered by spatially sparse information. All the main effects are explained by the FACADE model of biological vision, which clarifies how local properties control depthful filling-in of surface lightness and color.

  17. 3-Year Clinical Follow-Up of the RIBS IV Clinical Trial: A Prospective Randomized Study of Drug-Eluting Balloons Versus Everolimus-Eluting Stents in Patients With In-Stent Restenosis in Coronary Arteries Previously Treated With Drug-Eluting Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando; Pérez-Vizcayno, María José; Cuesta, Javier; García Del Blanco, Bruno; García-Touchard, Arturo; López-Mínguez, José Ramón; Masotti, Mónica; Zueco, Javier; Cequier, Angel; Velázquez, Maite; Moreno, Raúl; Mainar, Vicente; Domínguez, Antonio; Moris, Cesar; Molina, Eduardo; Rivero, Fernando; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Gonzalo, Nieves; Fernández-Pérez, Cristina

    2018-05-28

    This study sought to compare the long-term safety and efficacy of drug-eluting balloons (DEB) and everolimus-eluting stents (EES) in patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR) of drug-eluting stents (DES). Treatment of patients with DES-ISR remains a challenge. The RIBS IV (Restenosis Intra-Stent of Drug-Eluting Stents: Drug-Eluting Balloons vs Everolimus-Eluting Stents) trial is a prospective multicenter randomized clinical trial comparing DEB and EES in patients with DES-ISR. The pre-specified comparison of the 3-year clinical outcomes obtained with these interventions is the main objective of the present study. A total of 309 patients with DES-ISR were randomized to DEB (n = 154) or EES (n = 155). At angiographic follow-up, the in-segment minimal lumen diameter was larger in the EES arm (2.03 ± 0.7 mm vs. 1.80 ± 0.6 mm; p 1 year) target lesion revascularization (2.6% vs. 4%) and target vessel revascularization (4% vs. 6.6%) was similar in the 2 arms. Rates of cardiac death (3.9% vs. 3.2%), myocardial infarction (2.6% vs. 4.5%), and stent thrombosis (1.3% vs. 2.6%) at 3 years were also similar in both arms. The 3-year clinical follow-up of this randomized clinical trial demonstrates that in patients with DES-ISR, EES reduce the need for repeat interventions compared with DEB. (Restenosis Intra-Stent of Drug-Eluting Stents: Drug-Eluting Balloons vs Everolimus-Eluting Stents [RIBS IV]; NCT01239940). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  19. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  20. Effect of microemulsion component purity on the chromatographic figures of merit in chiral microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojtari, Adeline B; Foley, Joe P

    2009-04-17

    Numerous combinations of one-, two-, and three-chiral-component microemulsions have been previously prepared in our group, using N-dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV), 2-hexanol, and ethyl acetate, dibutyl tartrate, or diethyl tartrate. A few results of the various formulations investigated suggested the possible presence of minor impurities in one or more components of the microemulsion. In this study, the purity of the current lots of R- and S-surfactant were measured, as was the subsequent effect of minor impurities on the relevant chromatographic figures of merit (CFOMs) that describe a chiral separation, i.e., efficiency, enantioselectivity, retention, migration window (elution range), and resolution. Two related methods are proposed for correcting enantioselectivities measured in the presence of chiral impurities in the chiral microemulsion.

  1. Correcting Surface Figure Error in Imaging Satellites Using a Deformable Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Configuration for Collecting Influence Function Data ..................11 3. 4D Interferometer...24 3. Influence Function Using Interferometer ........................................25 4. Determining the Influence Matrix...10 Figure 12. Influence function configuration with flip mirror (from [6]). ..........................11 Figure 13. Interferometer

  2. The Figures of Speech, "Ethos," and Aristotle: Notes toward a Rhetoric of Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallendorf, Craig; Kallendorf, Carol

    1985-01-01

    Demonstrates that business writers rely far more heavily than expected on classical figures of speech. Uses Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to show that figures of speech offer a powerful tool for the persuasive function of modern business communication. (PD)

  3. The edge complex: implicit memory for figure assignment in shape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary A; Enns, James T

    2005-05-01

    Viewing a stepped edge is likely to prompt the perceptual assignment of one side of the edge as figure. This study demonstrates that even a single brief glance at a novel edge gives rise to an implicit memory regarding which side was seen as figure; this edge complex enters into the figure assignment process the next time the edge is encountered, both speeding same-different judgments when the figural side is repeated and slowing these judgments when the new figural side is identical to the former ground side (Experiments 1A and 1B). These results were obtained even when the facing direction of the repeated edge was mirror reversed (Experiment 2). This study shows that implicit measures can reveal the effects of past experience on figure assignment, following a single prior exposure to a novel shape, and supports a competitive model of figure assignment in which past experience serves as one of many figural cues.

  4. Figure/ground segregation from temporal delay is best at high spatial frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Haruyuki

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of spatial frequency in performance of a figure/ground segregation task based on temporal cues. Figure orientation was much easier to judge when figure and ground portions of the target were defined exclusively by random texture composed entirely of high spatial frequencies. When target components were defined by low spatial frequencies only, the task was nearly impossible except with long temporal delay between figure and ground. These results are incons...

  5. Teaching Geometrical Figures in Waray: The LNU-ILS Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltaire Q. Oyzon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Waray children are “unconsciously shifting from their mother language to English and/or Tagalog in their vocabulary use”. English vocabularies are more familiar to Waray educands of today than are the indigenous Waray terms, for instance, for geometrical figures, colors, numbers, etc. Still, “it is an ongoing debate of what type of language should be used in the implementation of MTBMLE.” Should educators use a Waray that borrows heavily from English and other languages or a Waray that uses exclusively its own indigenous terms and concepts? The researchers formulate a single lesson plan using an inductive method incorporating the Montessori Approach. We have two types of pupils at LNU-ILS: Waray pupils whose language at home is Waray, and Waray pupils who are exposed to English at home.

  6. Optimization principles and the figure of merit for triboelectric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Kang, Stephen Dongmin; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    2017-12-01

    Energy harvesting with triboelectric nanogenerators is a burgeoning field, with a growing portfolio of creative application schemes attracting much interest. Although power generation capabilities and its optimization are one of the most important subjects, a satisfactory elemental model that illustrates the basic principles and sets the optimization guideline remains elusive. We use a simple model to clarify how the energy generation mechanism is electrostatic induction but with a time-varying character that makes the optimal matching for power generation more restrictive. By combining multiple parameters into dimensionless variables, we pinpoint the optimum condition with only two independent parameters, leading to predictions of the maximum limit of power density, which allows us to derive the triboelectric material and device figure of merit. We reveal the importance of optimizing device capacitance, not only load resistance, and minimizing the impact of parasitic capacitance. Optimized capacitances can lead to an overall increase in power density of more than 10 times.

  7. Ethical considerations in psychiatric profiling of political figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Jerrold M

    2002-09-01

    Questions concerning such matters as the effects of health and alcoholism on Boris Yeltsin's decision making; the mind of the Unabomber; the psychology and decision making of Saddam Hussein of Iraq, who was initially characterized by the US Government as "the madman of the Middle East"; the psychology of David Koresh and the Branch Davidians, who were involved in an extended siege with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms and the Federal Bureau of Investigation that ended tragically on April 19, 1993; and, most recently, the psychology of the nineteen al-Qaeda terrorists responsible for the tragic events of September 11, 2001 in which they claimed thousands of lives while giving their own, "killing in the name of God," and of their charismatic leader Osama bin Laden have led journalists to turn to social scientists, including psychiatrists, to offer commentary on public figures.

  8. Attachment Figure's Regulation of Infant Brain and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Regina M

    2017-01-01

    Altricial infants (i.e., requiring parental care for survival), such as humans and rats, form an attachment to their caregiver and receive the nurturing and protections needed for survival. Learning has a strong role in attachment, as is illustrated by strong attachment formed to non-biological caregivers of either sex. Here we summarize and integrate results from animal and human infant attachment research that highlights the important role of social buffering (social presence) of the stress response by the attachment figure and its effect on infant processing of threat and fear through modulation of the amygdala. Indeed, this work suggests the caregiver switches off amygdala function in rodents, although recent human research suggests a similar process in humans and nonhuman primates. This cross-species analysis helps provide insight and unique understanding of attachment and its role in the neurobiology of infant behavior within attachment.

  9. Beyond the dichotomy of figurative and abstract art in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Maria Louring; Mullins, Michael Finbarr

    2017-01-01

    from two experimental case studies on 98 patients’ well-being in relation to their experience and use of visual art during hospitalization. The case studies employed a mixed-method approach, including interviews and observations informed by thermal video recording, surveys and psychophysiological......Within the evidence-based design discourse, and deriving particularly from the theory of emotional congruence, abstract art has been indicated as unsuitable for hospitals. As patients may often experience unfamiliarity, vulnerability, stress, unpredictability and uneasiness in hospitals......, these negative factors in terms of patients’ well-being are predicted to be detrimentally reinforced by abstract art, but alleviated by particular forms of figurative art. The present paper focuses particularly on this question of the suitability of abstract art in Danish hospital settings and presents findings...

  10. Renewables in figures. National and international trends in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    This publication provides information for the fields electricity / heat / fuels in detail on the expansion of renewable energies and illustrates this with tables and graphs. Basis of the data are the results of the Working Group on Renewable Energy Sources Statistics (AGEE-Stat), on behalf of the BMWi working out the balance of renewable energy in Germany. In addition you will also find information about Renewable Energy Law and to promote renewable Energy for heating purposes as well as for research and Development. In addition to the figures for Germany are also developments in the use of renewable energy in the European Union documented which also has set ambitious targets. Data for global Development are also included. [de

  11. To discuss radiation without the use of units and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, Bjoern

    1989-01-01

    The public is unreasonably concerned and anxious about ionizing radiation. This undefined, irrational, but still real fear of something you know is there even if you cannot perceive it with your five senses is one of the greatest problems the nuclear industry has to attack today. The major problem in this case may be the technical language used by experts. The man in the street has no idea of the technical terms experts use. However, it is possible to make our message clear without the use of any units or figures. A lot can be done for the understanding and confidence by making comparisons to familiar concepts and situations, by taking off our doctors' coats and stepping down to the grass-root level to talk with people in their own everyday language. (author)

  12. A Figure-of-Merit for Beta Cell Detector Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Brian W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-02

    In order to decrease the minimum detectable activities (MDAs) of beta-gamma radioxenon detectors, it is important to increase the ability to resolve the individual isotopes. One proposed method for doing this is to increase the energy resolution of the beta cell through the use of silicon detectors. While silicon detectors can improve the energy resolution, it is accompanied with a decrease in detection efficiency compared to plastic scintillator beta cells. Due to the uncertainty on the impact of the competing variables, we have developed a figure-of-merit (FOM) capable of determining the impact of detector parameters on the MDAs. By utilizing the FOM to analyze different detectors, we are able to directly compare current and future detectors and estimate their impact on the radioxenon MDAs.

  13. Positive Feedback From Male Authority Figures Boosts Women's Math Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Kondrak, Cheryl L; Ward, Deborah E; Streamer, Lindsey

    2018-03-01

    People often search for cues in the environment to determine whether or not they will be judged or treated negatively based on their social identities. Accordingly, feedback from gatekeepers-members of majority groups who hold authority and power in a field-may be an especially important cue for those at risk of experiencing social identity threat, such as women in math settings. Across a series of studies, women who received positive ("Good job!") versus objective (score only) feedback from a male (vs. female) authority figure in math reported greater confidence; belonging; self-efficacy; more favorable Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) attitudes/identification/interest; and greater implicit identification with math. Men were affected only by the type of math feedback they received, not by the source of feedback. A meta-analysis across studies confirmed results. Together, these findings suggest that positive feedback from gatekeepers is an important situational cue that can improve the outcomes of negatively stereotyped groups.

  14. The bricoleur’s figure in artistic practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Resende Côrrea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Art as process and reflection of the lived moment deals many times with issues that refers to its context and with the available materials in the current scenario. In a society marked by consumption and ephemerality, this article promotes a reflection on the use of disposed and collected products in works of visual artists. The bricoleur appears in this context as a central figure for the understanding and the analysis of some of the many artistic practices realized recently. By bricolage, artists like Joseph Cornell, Farnese de Andrade, Amanda Mei and Courtney Smith performed works with hybrid content that reflect the lived moment and issues contained in the materials available in the current scenario.

  15. Figures of merit for the evaluation of regenerative power converters

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083258; Rossini, Stefano; Le Godec, Gilles; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Carrica, Daniel; Retegui, Rogeli Garcia

    2016-01-01

    In some applications, like those for particle accelerators and transfer lines, electromagnet loads operate in cycling mode i.e. absorbing or extracting energy from or to a power source. Built-in energy storage such as electrochemical capacitors can be used whose lifetime is heavily depended on the current ripple and depth of discharge. Moreover, the sizing of this storage element is a trade-off between power taken from the grid and energy stored. Additionally, the adopted power conversion structure and control strategy impact on such decision process. In this work, a number of topologies have been evaluated for these applications and the key metrics used to compare them. The proposed figures of merit are used through examples to highlight the trade-offs related with the choice of dc-bus regulation topology and control strategy.

  16. Intersectional Analysis in Critical Mathematics Education Research: A Response to Figure Hiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Erika C.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, I use figure hiding as a metaphor representing the processes of exclusion and suppression that critical mathematics education (CME) seeks to address. Figure hiding renders identities and modes of thought in mathematics education and mathematics education research invisible. CME has a commitment to addressing figure hiding by…

  17. The Public/Private Figure Status of Corporate and Executive Libel Plaintiffs after "Gertz."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsel, Robert E.; Moon, Deborah

    Since 1974, when the Supreme Court concluded in "Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc." that public figures and private figures deserve different treatment under libel law (with private figures needing a lower standard of proof), most lower courts have had to sort out the two categories. From the results in "Gertz" and other cases, three…

  18. Immagini e Concetti in Geometria=The Figural and the Conceptual Components of Geometrical Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Maria Alessandra

    1992-01-01

    Discusses geometrical reasoning in the framework of the theory of Figural Concepts to highlight the interaction between the figural and conceptual components of geometrical concepts. Examples of students' difficulties and errors in geometrical reasoning are interpreted according to the internal tension that appears in figural concepts resulting…

  19. "We All We Got": Describing and Connecting Football and Classroom Figured Worlds and Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Lynn L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use literacies in order to build identities in a variety of figured worlds. Some identities become more powerful than others as adolescents attempt to understand and successfully utilize the valuations and literacies of the diverse figured worlds in which they participate. The goals of this study were to describe the figured worlds of…

  20. Figurative Language and Multicultural Education: Metaphors of Language Acquisition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Linguistics has long recognised that figurative language in the form of metaphorical expressions structures and communicates attitudes towards the ideas and concepts being expressed and that multilingual students also employ linguistic figures frequently in their writing. In this study, multilingual students use figurative language to both…

  1. Two critical periods in early visual cortex during figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokke, Martijn E; Sligte, Ilja G; Steven Scholte, H; Lamme, Victor A F

    2012-11-01

    The ability to distinguish a figure from its background is crucial for visual perception. To date, it remains unresolved where and how in the visual system different stages of figure-ground segregation emerge. Neural correlates of figure border detection have consistently been found in early visual cortex (V1/V2). However, areas V1/V2 have also been frequently associated with later stages of figure-ground segregation (such as border ownership or surface segregation). To causally link activity in early visual cortex to different stages of figure-ground segregation, we briefly disrupted activity in areas V1/V2 at various moments in time using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Prior to stimulation we presented stimuli that made it possible to differentiate between figure border detection and surface segregation. We concurrently recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to examine how neural correlates of figure-ground segregation were affected by TMS. Results show that disruption of V1/V2 in an early time window (96-119 msec) affected detection of figure stimuli and affected neural correlates of figure border detection, border ownership, and surface segregation. TMS applied in a relatively late time window (236-259 msec) selectively deteriorated performance associated with surface segregation. We conclude that areas V1/V2 are not only essential in an early stage of figure-ground segregation when figure borders are detected, but subsequently causally contribute to more sophisticated stages of figure-ground segregation such as surface segregation.

  2. Two critical periods in early visual cortex during figure-ground segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wokke, M.E.; Sligte, I.G.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    .The ability to distinguish a figure from its background is crucial for visual perception. To date, it remains unresolved where and how in the visual system different stages of figure-ground segregation emerge. Neural correlates of figure border detection have consistently been found in early visual

  3. Students Learn about Chinese Culture through the Folktale "Yeh-Shen": Emphasizing Figurative Language Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Barbara C.; Sun, Lingzhi; Leclere, Judith T.

    2012-01-01

    This article will analyze the figurative language that reflects Chinese traditional society and culture in "Yeh-Shen." The authors will consider both the figures of speech and the figures of thought (to include symbolism) that provide insight into an understanding of the Chinese culture through a reading of "Yeh-Shen." This analysis can be used by…

  4. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  5. Reflections on 21 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.; Mandel, H.; Teller, E.

    1977-01-01

    Personal reflections after twenty one years of nuclear power are presented by a number of those who were international figures in the nuclear energy field during that period. Lessons learnt, achievements, prospects and predictions for the future are discussed in eleven brief surveys. (U.K.)

  6. Adolescents' multiple versus single primary attachment figures, reorganization of attachment hierarchy, and adjustments: the important people interview approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tomotaka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kraus, Jakub; Horská, Eliška; Pivodová, Lenka

    2018-04-20

    Using 212 adolescents from a central-European country (mean age = 14.02, SD = 2.05, ranged from 11 to 18 years; females = 54%) and a multi-informant method to measure adolescents' behavioral and emotional adjustments, the present study explored three aspects regarding the attachment hierarchy. (1) The three types of behavioral systems of Rosenthal and Kobak's important people interview (IPI) were initially validated using an exploratory factor analysis with a US sample. Using a confirmatory factor analysis with a Czech sample, we replicated these three behavioral systems: attachment bond, support seeking, and affiliation. (2) We found that adolescents who developed attachment bond to multiple primary attachment figures were likely to score lower on both teacher-rated and parent-rated internalizing problems compared to those who had a single primary attachment figure. These multiple primary attachment figures tended to be family members (not peers). (3) Early adolescents who placed parents low in their attachment hierarchy scored higher on self-reported negative affect and lower on self-reported positive affect compared to early adolescents who placed parents high. The present study highlights multiple (vs. single) primary attachment figures as a protective factor and the premature reorganization of attachment hierarchy as a risk factor for adolescents' emotional and affective adjustments.

  7. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  8. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  9. Revisiting the Lissajous figure as a tool to study bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilnhammer, V A; Ludwig, K; Sterzer, P; Hesselmann, G

    2014-05-01

    During bistable vision perception spontaneously "switches" between two mutually exclusive percepts despite constant sensory input. The endogenous nature of these perceptual transitions has motivated extensive research aimed at the underlying mechanisms, since spontaneous perceptual transitions of bistable stimuli should in principle allow for a dissociation of processes related to sensory stimulation from those related to conscious perception. However, transitions from one conscious percept to another are often not instantaneous, and participants usually report a considerable amount of mixed or unclear percepts. This feature of bistable vision makes it difficult to isolate transition-related visual processes. Here, we revisited an ambiguous depth-from-motion stimulus which was first introduced to experimental psychology more than 80 years ago. This rotating Lissajous figure might prove useful in complementing other bistable stimuli, since its perceptual transitions only occur at critical stimulus configurations and are virtually instantaneous, thus facilitating the construction of a perceptually equivalent replay condition. We found that three parameters of the Lissajous figure - complexity, line width, and rotational speed - differentially modulated its perceptual dominance durations and transition probabilities, thus providing experimenters with a versatile tool to study the perceptual dynamics of bistable vision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Coordination of Young Figure Skaters of Different Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaert, M; Deconinck, F; Pion, J; Lenoir, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify anthropometric, physical, coordinative and ice-skating specific characteristics that discriminate young elite ice skaters from non-elite skaters and their non-skating peers. 32 skaters aged 9-12 years old (11 elites and 21 non-elites) voluntarily participated in the study. They were submitted to 5 anthropometric, 7 physical, 3 coordination and 5 ice-skating specific tests. Reference values of a representative healthy non-skating sample were taken from the Flemish Sports Compass dataset. Figure skaters appeared to be predominantly average mature (93.8%), were lighter and leaner than the reference sample, and demonstrated better physical characteristics and motor coordination. There was no difference between the elite and non-elite group regarding maturity status and anthropometric or physical parameters. Still, elite skaters scored better than non-elites on the coordination tests jumping sideways and tended to do so on the moving sideways test. Profiles of figure skaters differ clearly from a reference population, while non-sport-specific motor coordination tests allow discrimination between elite and non-elite skaters. The relevance of these findings with respect to talent detection and identification in young ice skaters are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Biased figure-ground assignment affects conscious object recognition in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Driver, Jon; Mattingley, Jason B

    2010-09-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect is a disorder of attention and spatial representation, in which early visual processes such as figure-ground segmentation have been assumed to be largely intact. There is evidence, however, that the spatial attention bias underlying neglect can bias the segmentation of a figural region from its background. Relatively few studies have explicitly examined the effect of spatial neglect on processing the figures that result from such scene segmentation. Here, we show that a neglect patient's bias in figure-ground segmentation directly influences his conscious recognition of these figures. By varying the relative salience of figural and background regions in static, two-dimensional displays, we show that competition between elements in such displays can modulate a neglect patient's ability to recognise parsed figures in a scene. The findings provide insight into the interaction between scene segmentation, explicit object recognition, and attention.

  12. Organizational Strategy Use in Children Aged 5–7: Standardization and Validity of the Rey Complex Figure Organizational Strategy Score (RCF-OSS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, R.; Hurks, P.P.M.; Jolles, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated psychometric properties (standardization and validity) of the Rey Complex Figure Organizational Strategy Score (RCF-OSS) in a sample of 217 healthy children aged 5-7 years. Our results showed that RCF-OSS performance changes significantly between 5 and 7 years of age. While

  13. Figurative Idiomatic Language: Strategies and Difficulties of Understanding English Idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Al-Khawaldeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning idioms which is considered a very essential part of learning and using language (Sridhar and Karunakaran, 2013 has recently attracted a great attention of English learning researchers particularly the assessment of how well Asian language learners acquire and use idioms in communication (Tran, 2013. Understanding and using them fluently could be viewed as a sign towards language proficiency as they could be an effective way to give students better conditions to enhance their communication skills in the daily context (Beloussova, 2015. Investigating how idiomatic expressions are dealt with and processed in a second language or foreign language is an issue worth examining further since it may give language teachers a better idea of some of the strategies language learners use in order to interpret figurative language. Despite their importance, learning and using English idioms by Arab EFL learners have not been investigated extensively, and no research has been conducted on Jordanian students’ idiomatic competency. Thus, the researcher decided to work on these un-tackled issues in the Jordanian context. Most idioms-based investigations are the difficulties Jordanians learners of English face when translating them into Arabic (Hussein, Khanji, and Makhzoumi, 2000; Bataineh and Bataineh, 2002; Alrishan and Smadi, 2015. The analysis of the test showed students’ very poor idiomatic competence; particularly a very limited awareness of the most frequently used idioms despite their overwhelming desire to learn them. Data analysis of the questionnaire revealed the strategies students use and the problems they face in understanding and learning idioms.

  14. Stereographic processing of CT figures in the hip joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomihara, Mitsuo (Kinki Univ., Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-12-01

    CT scan is widely used in orthopedic examinations. By three-dimentional display of the form of bone and joint, the change of form can be identified and the lesion can be located. CT figures were stereographically processed using a personal computer to display the images of the hip joints. The outlines of the bone seen on the CT film were directly traced with a digitizer, then the A/D converted coordinate data were obtained. The data for each slice were input to the personal computer. After conversion to normal coordinate and magnification, the data were filed on the floppy disc. These data were regained from the disk and made affin transformation to display the stereographic images of the hip joints. In a case of solitary bone cyst of the coxal bone, this method helped us to decide the appropriated surgical approach. For the congenital dysplasia of the hip, acetabular coverage was examined three-dimensionally and postoperative changes were assessed in the cases of shelf operation and intertrochanteric extension osteotomy. In the cases of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, location and size of the necrotic area were clearly visualized and the appropriate surgical procedure could be decided. Moreover, it was useful to decide the degree of rotation of the femoral head in rotational osteotomy. (author) 61 refs.

  15. The figure of the teacher in Estonian school discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Puumeister

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns itself with the figure of the teacher in Estonian society. We do not concentrate on the educational system as a whole, but on one specific and crucial element in this apparatus - the teacher. We begin by offering a brief historical overview of the conditions of pedagogues in the 20th century before moving on to describe the adoption of neo-liberal free market policies since the 1990s and the effects these policies had and still have on education. Our main concern is to understand the teacher as an actor in power relations; to achieve this understanding we have selected as our examples 1 surveillance techniques in school environment that have direct relations to the state and the market; and 2 the 2012 educational workers' strike that made it quite clear that the teachers have been fixed to a position of wage workers. The overall and more abstract aim of the paper is to think about the social role of the teacher in Estonia.

  16. Factors associated with escalation and problematic approaches toward public figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; James, David V; Mullen, Paul E; Pathé, Michele T; Farnham, Frank R; Preston, Lulu F; Darnley, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Detailed comparison of factors associated with abnormal approach to the prominent and with escalation from communication to approach has not hitherto been undertaken. This partially reflects the failure of individual studies to adopt compatible terminologies. This study involves a careful dissection of six public figure studies, three involving U.S. politicians, two Hollywood celebrities, and one the British Royal Family. Common findings were unearthed across six headings. Approachers were significantly more likely to exhibit serious mental illness, engage in multiple means of communication, involve multiple contacts/targets, and to incorporate into their communication requests for help. They were significantly less likely to use threatening or antagonistic language in their communications, except in those cases involving security breaches. These results emphasize the importance of integrating mental health findings and preventive measures into risk management. Approach should not be regarded as a single behavioral category and has multiple motivations. Future studies should adopt standard terminology, preferably taken from the general stalking research. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. A estrutura fatorial do Teste de Criatividade Figural Infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Cássia Nakano

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar evidências de validade do Teste de Criatividade Figural Infantil, instrumento que visa avaliar 12 características criativas (Fluência, Flexibilidade, Elaboração, Originalidade, Expressão de Emoção, Perspectiva Incomum, Perspectiva Interna, Fantasia, Movimento, Uso de Contexto, Extensão de Limites e Títulos Expressivos, uma análise fatorial foi realizada visando uma melhor compreensão acerca do agrupamento dessas características. Estudantes de 1a a 8a séries do Ensino Fundamental (n=1253, 599F / 654M responderam ao instrumento. A análise fatorial apontou uma estrutura composta por quatro fatores (enriquecimento de idéias, aspectos cognitivos, emotividade e preparação criativa, que foi adotado como modelo de interpretação do instrumento devido à sua consistência com a literatura científica.

  18. Re-accumulation of Asteroids to Equilibrium Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestroffer, D.; Tanga, P.; Richardson, D. C.; Berthier, J.; Cellino, A.; Durech, J.; Michel, P.

    2008-09-01

    Since their formation, asteroids since their formation have experienced little physical, geological or thermal evolution. Like comets they are thought to be among the most pristine remnants of the early solar system. One physical process, however, has played a major role since the ancient times: collisions. Dynamical families were produced by catastrophic collisions involving large enough energy to break the parent body. Other lines of evidence suggest that catastrophic collisions can also produce rubble-piles, i.e., loosely bound of post-collisional aggregates that re-accumulate to form a single body, and are kept together by gravity. The main objective of this work is to understand if—and under what conditions—Jacobi ellipsoids or other equilibrium figures can be obtained naturally by this way. This is done by performing numerical experiments simulating the re-accumulation process, and by performing high-angular resolution observations in order to better constrain the shape and density of the targets. It is shown that the outcomes of reaccumulation events tend to produce a rather narrow variety of possible shapes, and in some cases also binary systems.

  19. Documents and detachment in the figurational sociology of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy Dolan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the methodological implications of using a figurational approach to the study of Gaelic games (the Irish sports of hurling and Gaelic football and their organisation and governance from the late nineteenth century onwards. Following Norbert Elias, we argue that data generation guided by theories, and potentially modifying such theories, are essential components of research endeavours. The problem of generalisation or representativeness of historical documents can be addressed by treating documents as part of a fi guration of evidence, thereby constituting a mutually supporting network of data that serves as a scaffold or structure for theoretical and empirical findings. Based on the experience of using documents such as newspaper and referee reports of matches, and also organisational documents such as the minutes of meetings at various levels of governance, we contribute to the discussion concerning borders and boundary maintenance between history, sociology and historical sociology. While we elaborate on the Eliasian perspective on emotional detachment, and secondary involvement, when conducting research, we also note the dificulties in avoiding ‘preferred’ readings of national history given that Gaelic games have been intertwined with the narrative and project of national self-determination in Ireland. Researchers are compelled to recognise the theoretical significance of sports as a motor and symbol of emotional identifications, but must also create distance from their own national habitus in order to prioritise participation in intergenerational knowledge generation over further national myth-making.

  20. Key figures on climate France and Worldwide. 2010 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document makes a synthesis on the climate in France and in the World. Contents: 1 - Climate Change: The Greenhouse Effect, Humans and the Greenhouse Effect, Stocks and Flows of GHGs: The Example of CO 2 , Increase in Atmospheric GHG Levels, Concentrations and Temperatures, Global Warming, Warming Differentiated by Latitude, Consequences of Global Warming; 2 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Snapshot of Global GHG Emissions, European Panorama of GHGs, French Panorama of GHGs; 3 - Energy-related CO 2 Emissions in the World: 3.1 Energy-related CO 2 emissions, CO 2 Emissions due to Electricity Production including CHP Plants, CO 2 Emission Factors; 4 - CO 2 Emissions by Sector in Europe and in France: Fuel Combustion: the Largest Emitter of CO 2 , CO 2 Emissions due to Energy Production and Conversion, Transportation-related CO 2 Emissions, Industry-related CO 2 Emissions, CO 2 Emissions in the Other Sectors, CO 2 Emissions excluding Fuel Combustion; 5 - Climate Policies: The Kyoto Protocol, The Tradable Permit Market, Project Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, The European Union's Commitment, European CO 2 Market (EU ETS), Towards a Price Signal for CO 2 Emissions, States Climate Policy: The Case of France, Other Initiatives to Reduce Emissions; 6 - Practical information: CO 2 Key Figures, Glossary of Terms, Useful Links

  1. A neural model of figure-ground organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Edward; Schütze, Hartmut; Niebur, Ernst; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2007-06-01

    Psychophysical studies suggest that figure-ground organization is a largely autonomous process that guides--and thus precedes--allocation of attention and object recognition. The discovery of border-ownership representation in single neurons of early visual cortex has confirmed this view. Recent theoretical studies have demonstrated that border-ownership assignment can be modeled as a process of self-organization by lateral interactions within V2 cortex. However, the mechanism proposed relies on propagation of signals through horizontal fibers, which would result in increasing delays of the border-ownership signal with increasing size of the visual stimulus, in contradiction with experimental findings. It also remains unclear how the resulting border-ownership representation would interact with attention mechanisms to guide further processing. Here we present a model of border-ownership coding based on dedicated neural circuits for contour grouping that produce border-ownership assignment and also provide handles for mechanisms of selective attention. The results are consistent with neurophysiological and psychophysical findings. The model makes predictions about the hypothetical grouping circuits and the role of feedback between cortical areas.

  2. Theatre as a Figure and a Place of Cultural Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kapushevska-Drakulevska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultural memory is the starting point for studying culture. Theatre, on the other hand, is a multidimensional play with memory; it is an emblem of a certain culture, and of the overall blending of various discourses within it. Hence the relation between theatre and memory is rather complex and multifaceted. Theatre is a medium synthesising text and performance, speech and gesture (play, acting, as well as establishing direct, at least doubly articulated communication: among the actors on stage on the one hand, and between the actors and the audience on the other. They are all subjects of theatrical memory. Theatre not only uses memory in order to create the plot, develop the characters or establish communication with the audience, but also becomes a figure of memory itself: a culturally modelled, socially mandated (iconic, narrative, etc. memory image (Assman. Additionally, theatre may be considered a place of memory, as well. But theatre is not a simple mnemonic of repeating reality—it is not merely a simulacrum, but also a quotation of reality; it does not aim to copy or memorise reality, but to represent it and interpret it critically. This is particularly true of the contemporary rough theatre of brutality.

  3. Figures of Merit Guiding Research on Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchartz, Thomas

    2018-03-02

    While substantial progress in the efficiency of polymer-based solar cells was possible by optimizing the energy levels of the polymer and more recently also the acceptor molecule, further progress beyond 10% efficiency requires a number of criteria to be fulfilled simultaneously, namely, low energy-level offsets at the donor–acceptor heterojunction, low open-circuit voltage losses due to nonradiative recombination, and efficient charge transport and collection. In this feature article we discuss these criteria considering thermodynamic limits, their correlation to photocurrent and photovoltage, and effects on the fill factor. Each criterion is quantified by a figure of merit (FOM) that directly relates to device performance. To ensure a wide applicability, we focus on FOMs that are easily accessible from common experiments. We demonstrate the relevance of these FOMs by looking at the historic and recent achievements of organic solar cells. We hope that the presented FOMs are or will become a valuable tool to evaluate, monitor, and guide further development of new organic absorber materials for solar cells.

  4. X-ray Multilayers and Thin-Shell Substrate Surface-Figure Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, David

    We propose a comprehensive experimental research program whose two main goals are (a) to improve the performance of hard X-ray multilayer coatings and (b) to develop a high-throughput method to correct mid-frequency surface errors in thin-shell mirror substrates. Achieving these goals will enable the cost-effective construction of light- weight, highly-nested X-ray telescopes having greater observational sensitivity, wider energy coverage, and higher angular resolution than can be achieved at present. The realization of this technology will thus benefit the development of a variety of Explorer- class NASA X-ray astronomy missions now being formulated for both the soft and hard X-ray bands, and will enable the construction of future facility-class X-ray missions that will require both high sensitivity and high resolution. Building on the success of our previous APRA-funded research, we plan to investigate new thin-film growth techniques, new materials, and new aperiodic coating designs in order to develop new hard X-ray multilayers that have higher X-ray reflectance, wider energy response, lower film stress, and good stability, and that can be produced more quickly, at reduced cost. Additionally, we propose to build upon our extensive experience in sub-nm film-thickness control using velocity modulation and masked deposition techniques, and in the recent development of low-roughness, low-stress films grown by reactive sputtering, in order to develop new methods for correcting mid-frequency surface errors in thin-shell mirror substrates using both differential deposition and ion-beam figuring, either alone or in combination. These two surface-correction techniques already being used for sub-nm figuring of precision optics in a variety of disciplines, including diffraction-limited EUV lithography and synchrotron applications requiring sub-micron focusing are ideally suited for controlling mm-scale surface errors in the thin-shell substrates used for astronomical X

  5. Neural Networks for Segregation of Multiple Objects: Visual Figure-Ground Separation and Auditory Pitch Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Lonce

    An important component of perceptual object recognition is the segmentation into coherent perceptual units of the "blooming buzzing confusion" that bombards the senses. The work presented herein develops neural network models of some key processes of pre-attentive vision and audition that serve this goal. A neural network model, called an FBF (Feature -Boundary-Feature) network, is proposed for automatic parallel separation of multiple figures from each other and their backgrounds in noisy images. Figure-ground separation is accomplished by iterating operations of a Boundary Contour System (BCS) that generates a boundary segmentation of a scene, and a Feature Contour System (FCS) that compensates for variable illumination and fills-in surface properties using boundary signals. A key new feature is the use of the FBF filling-in process for the figure-ground separation of connected regions, which are subsequently more easily recognized. The new CORT-X 2 model is a feed-forward version of the BCS that is designed to detect, regularize, and complete boundaries in up to 50 percent noise. It also exploits the complementary properties of on-cells and off -cells to generate boundary segmentations and to compensate for boundary gaps during filling-in. In the realm of audition, many sounds are dominated by energy at integer multiples, or "harmonics", of a fundamental frequency. For such sounds (e.g., vowels in speech), the individual frequency components fuse, so that they are perceived as one sound source with a pitch at the fundamental frequency. Pitch is integral to separating auditory sources, as well as to speaker identification and speech understanding. A neural network model of pitch perception called SPINET (SPatial PItch NETwork) is developed and used to simulate a broader range of perceptual data than previous spectral models. The model employs a bank of narrowband filters as a simple model of basilar membrane mechanics, spectral on-center off-surround competitive

  6. Determining local and contextual features describing appearance of difficult to identify mitotic figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandomkar, Ziba; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    Mitotic count is helpful in determining the aggressiveness of breast cancer. In previous studies, it was shown that the agreement among pathologists for grading mitotic index is fairly modest, as mitoses have a large variety of appearances and they could be mistaken for other similar objects. In this study, we determined local and contextual features that differ significantly between easily identifiable mitoses and challenging ones. The images were obtained from the Mitosis-Atypia 2014 challenge. In total, the dataset contained 453 mitotic figures. Two pathologists annotated each mitotic figure. In case of disagreement, an opinion from a third pathologist was requested. The mitoses were grouped into three categories, those recognized as "a true mitosis" by both pathologists ,those labelled as "a true mitosis" by only one of the first two readers and also the third pathologist, and those annotated as "probably a mitosis" by all readers or the majority of them. After color unmixing, the mitoses were segmented from H channel. Shape-based features along with intensity-based and textural features were extracted from H-channel, blue ratio channel and five different color spaces. Holistic features describing each image were also considered. The Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to identify significantly different features. Multiple comparisons were done using the rank-based version of Tukey-Kramer test. The results indicated that there are local and global features which differ significantly among different groups. In addition, variations between mitoses in different groups were captured in the features from HSL and LCH color space more than other ones.

  7. Statistical supplement to the report of the Department of Mineral Resources New South Wales for the year ending 30th June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This annual publication of statistics relating to the New South Wales Mining Industry supplements the annual report of the Department of Mineral Resources. The document focuses on providing detailed statistics on production, value of production, employment and value added statistics for each of the energy and non-energy resource sectors for the financial year 1980 to 1981. For comparative purposes corresponding figures are provided for the previous year.

  8. Patch tests in children: a review of 13 years of experience in comparison with previous data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milingou, Maria; Tagka, Anna; Armenaka, Melina; Kimpouri, Konstantina; Kouimintzis, Dimitris; Katsarou, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The true prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children remains unknown. Our aim was to compare the results of patch tests in children with suspected ACD between two different periods of time and identify possible changes in emerging allergens. We compared contact allergens, gender, age distribution, and personal history of atopic dermatitis (AD), in correlation with the positivity of patch tests, between two equal periods of time (232 children tested during 1980-1993, period A, and 255 children during 1994-2007, period B) in the same region and in the same institution. Patch test positivity was 47.8% in period A, and 60% in period B (p = 0.083). The most common allergens in period A were: nickel sulfate (16.3%), cobalt chloride (8.6%), fragrance mix (7.3%), potassium dichromate (4.3%), and thimerosal only (1.7%). In period B, the allergen distribution was as follows: nickel sulfate (21.56%), thimerosal (18.03%), cobalt chloride (12.9%), potassium dichromate (9.4%), and fragrance mix (4.7%). Girls were more likely to have a positive patch test compared with boys, with reactions in 53% of girls and 39% of boys in period A (p = 0.003), and 61% of girls and 58% of boys in period B (p = 0.691). Twenty-nine per cent of patients with positive results had a personal history of AD in period A and 44% in period B (p = 0.015). Differences in the positivity of allergens between different time periods reflect changes in habits, of allergens exposure or preventive measures.

  9. Atypical neural substrates of Embedded Figures Task performance in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Philip S; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Henderson, Joshua G; Kenworthy, Lauren E; Gilotty, Lisa; Gaillard, William D; Vaidya, Chandan J

    2007-10-15

    Superior performance on the Embedded Figures Task (EFT) has been attributed to weak central coherence in perceptual processing in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural basis of EFT performance in 7- to 12-year-old ASD children and age- and IQ-matched controls. ASD children activated only a subset of the distributed network of regions activated in controls. In frontal cortex, control children activated left dorsolateral, medial and dorsal premotor regions whereas ASD children only activated the dorsal premotor region. In parietal and occipital cortices, activation was bilateral in control children but unilateral (left superior parietal and right occipital) in ASD children. Further, extensive bilateral ventral temporal activation was observed in control, but not ASD children. ASD children performed the EFT at the same level as controls but with reduced cortical involvement, suggesting that disembedded visual processing is accomplished parsimoniously by ASD relative to typically developing brains.

  10. Listen to them draw: screening children in primary care through the use of human figure drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielsch, Anna H; Allen, Patricia Jackson

    2005-01-01

    This literature review focuses on the Human Figure Drawing (HFD) methods put forth by Elizabeth Koppitz as a screening instrument. Children's drawings have potential as a mental health screening aide for health care practitioners in the primary care setting. This paper focuses on self-portrait drawings as a screening technique for emotional well-being, anxiety, and depression in school-aged children (6-12 years old). Using Koppitz's emotional indicators checklist for mental health, practitioners can use the child's HFD as a quick screening tool. Although the HFD is not diagnostic and can not be used as the sole indicator for anxiety or depression, two or more emotional indicators may signal to the clinician that further psychiatric assessment and referral is needed.

  11. Key Figures of the Russian Vanguard: Historical Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena G. Lapshina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In article activity of sign figures of the Russian vanguard of Vladimir Evgrafovich Tatlin, the first Soviet designer, and Efim Vladimirovich Ravdel, the first rector of the Highest state art and technical workshops is considered. The special attention is paid to the Penza period of their life. In 1905 Tatlin began the vocational education in Penza in Art school of N.D. Seliverstov upon termination of whom gained the diploma of the artist with the right of teaching drawing, drawing and calligraphy. During training he was admitted to school in Tsege's salon, participated in an exhibition of the third salon of the Golden Fleece magazine in Moscow. Then Tatlin moves to Moscow where arranges own workshop. Revolutionary events found Tatlin in St. Petersburg where he became the informal leader of «futurists». In April, 1918 he was appointed the chairman of the Moscow art board of Department FROM Narkompros. He taught in picturesque workshops of the Moscow and Petrograd Svomas. Ravdel since 1918 was the head of department of arts of Board of National education of the Penza provincial council of country and working deputies; I organized drama studio, national conservatory, the museum; I participated in exhibitions, debates, etc. In detail the reform of the Penza art school (1918-1920 which was carried out by it, attraction of pedagogical shots (D.P. Buryshkin, D.M. Iofan, etc., a set of entrants, etc. is considered; creation of an architectural workshop of the Penza free state art workshops. In 1920 Ravdel went to Moscow where held the rector's position of Highest state art and technical workshops (1920-1923.

  12. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  13. Figures of desire and repression in the Conformist by Bertolucci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Ivaldi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Il Conformista di Moravia (1951, ambientato in epoca fascista, narra la vicenda di Marcello, membro dell’OVRA ossessionato dalla necessità di sentirsi uguale agli altri. Si tratta di un romanzo a tesi che lega l’omosessualità alla repressione e al fascismo. L’operazione di riscrittura di Bertolucci (1970 potenzia la chiave freudiana: sul grande schermo, la ferrea progressione temporale e causale del romanzo è scardinata attraverso un uso spregiudicato del flashback, mentre scompare ogni accenno al fato e Marcello diventa filtro dell'intera narrazione. La psicoanalisi rappresenta la chiave di volta che regge il film, sostituendo la meccanicità progressiva del fato con la bi-logica dell’inconscio. Per tacitare la propria omosessualità – non accettata a livello sociale ma, prima di tutto, dal protagonista stesso – Marcello tenta di conformarsi in tutto e per tutto alla società e al particolare momento storico-politico. Il matrimonio e l’adesione al fascismo sono i due strumenti di questa strategia di conformismo; le figure femminili, in particolare, attraverso un gioco di duplicazioni e rispecchiamenti, ricoprono un ruolo cardine, configurandosi ora come oggetto di un desiderio reale ora invece di un desiderio mediato dalla volontà di rimozione e negazione delle pulsioni non accettabili, dei ricordi indicibili e dei sensi di colpa. Giocando con l’immagine, il montaggio e le interferenze col sonoro, Bertolucci sembra suggerire infatti significati profondi, che contrastano con la superficie del testo, e proporre una particolare declinazione della “retorica freudiana” del testo: richiamandosi all’approccio critico psicanalitico offerto da Francesco Orlando, l’intervento indaga le manifestazioni semiotico-linguistiche della formazione di compromesso fra desiderio e negazione da parte del protagonista ed analizza alcuni momenti del film che riflettono simultaneamente le due forze psichiche in contrasto.

  14. Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable agricultural ... about previously disadvantaged land users involved in communal farming systems ... of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on ...

  15. Entreprenøren som figur under neoliberalismen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langergaard, Luise Li

    2016-01-01

    as a movement of the economic into previously non-economic domains, such as the welfare state and society. Social entrepreneurship is an example of this in relation to solutions to social welfare problems. This can, on the one hand, be understood as an extension of the neoliberal understanding...

  16. Distinguished figures in descriptive geometry and its applications for mechanism science from the middle ages to the 17th century

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book consists of chapters that focus specifically on single figures that worked on Descriptive Geometry and also in Mechanisms Sciences and contain biographical notes, a survey of their work and their achievements, together with a modern interpretation of their legacy. Since Vitruvius in ancient times, and with Brunelleschi in the Renaissance, the two disciplines began to share a common direction which, over the centuries, took shape through less well-known figures until the more recent times in which Gaspard Monge worked. Over the years, a gap has been created between Descriptive Geometry and Mechanism Science, which now appear to belong to different worlds. In reality, however, there is a very close relationship between the two disciplines, with a link based on extremely solid foundations. Without the theoretical foundations of Geometry it would not be possible to draw and design mechanical parts such as gears, while in Kinematics it would be less easy to design and predict the reciprocal movements of ...

  17. Altered figure-ground perception in monkeys with an extra-striate lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supèr, Hans; Lamme, Victor A F

    2007-11-05

    The visual system binds and segments the elements of an image into coherent objects and their surroundings. Recent findings demonstrate that primary visual cortex is involved in this process of figure-ground organization. In the primary visual cortex the late part of a neural response to a stimulus correlates with figure-ground segregation and perception. Such a late onset indicates an involvement of feedback projections from higher visual areas. To investigate the possible role of feedback in figure-ground perception we removed dorsal extra-striate areas of the monkey visual cortex. The findings show that figure-ground perception is reduced when the figure is presented in the lesioned hemifield and perception is normal when the figure appeared in the intact hemifield. In conclusion, our observations show the importance for recurrent processing in visual perception.

  18. Feed-forward segmentation of figure-ground and assignment of border-ownership.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Supèr

    Full Text Available Figure-ground is the segmentation of visual information into objects and their surrounding backgrounds. Two main processes herein are boundary assignment and surface segregation, which rely on the integration of global scene information. Recurrent processing either by intrinsic horizontal connections that connect surrounding neurons or by feedback projections from higher visual areas provide such information, and are considered to be the neural substrate for figure-ground segmentation. On the contrary, a role of feedforward projections in figure-ground segmentation is unknown. To have a better understanding of a role of feedforward connections in figure-ground organization, we constructed a feedforward spiking model using a biologically plausible neuron model. By means of surround inhibition our simple 3-layered model performs figure-ground segmentation and one-sided border-ownership coding. We propose that the visual system uses feed forward suppression for figure-ground segmentation and border-ownership assignment.

  19. Feed-forward segmentation of figure-ground and assignment of border-ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supèr, Hans; Romeo, August; Keil, Matthias

    2010-05-19

    Figure-ground is the segmentation of visual information into objects and their surrounding backgrounds. Two main processes herein are boundary assignment and surface segregation, which rely on the integration of global scene information. Recurrent processing either by intrinsic horizontal connections that connect surrounding neurons or by feedback projections from higher visual areas provide such information, and are considered to be the neural substrate for figure-ground segmentation. On the contrary, a role of feedforward projections in figure-ground segmentation is unknown. To have a better understanding of a role of feedforward connections in figure-ground organization, we constructed a feedforward spiking model using a biologically plausible neuron model. By means of surround inhibition our simple 3-layered model performs figure-ground segmentation and one-sided border-ownership coding. We propose that the visual system uses feed forward suppression for figure-ground segmentation and border-ownership assignment.

  20. Shape recognition contributions to figure-ground reversal: which route counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M A; Harvey, E M; Weidenbacher, H J

    1991-11-01

    Observers viewed upright and inverted versions of figure-ground stimuli, in which Gestalt variables specified that the center was figure. In upright versions, the surround was high in denotivity, in that most viewers agreed it depicted the same shape; in inverted versions, the surround was low in denotivity. The surround was maintained as figure longer and was more likely to be obtained as figure when the stimuli were upright rather than inverted. In four experiments, these effects reflected inputs to figure-ground computations from orientation-specific shape representations only. To account for these findings, a nonratiomorphic mechanism is proposed that enables shape recognition processes before figure-ground relationships are determined.